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Sample records for active marrow absorbed

  1. Absorbed dose to active red bone marrow from diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radiation

    The bone-marrow dose arising from radiological procedures as carried out in Australia have been determined as part of a survey of population doses. This paper describes the method of calculation of the radiation doses to the active bone marrow from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy and radiotherapy. The results of the calculations are compared with the results of other models of bone-marrow dose for a number of diagnostic X-ray procedures

  2. The biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 117m}Sn DTPA with special emphasis on active marrow absorbed doses

    Stubbs, J. [Radiation Dosimetry Systems of Oak Ridge Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Atkins, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    {sup 117m}Sn(4+) DTPA is a new radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer. Recently, the Phase 2 clinical trials involving 47 patients were completed. These patients received administered activities in the range 6.7--10.6 MBq/kg of body mass. Frequent collections of urine were acquired over the first several hours postadministration and daily cumulative collections were obtained for the next 4--10 days. Anterior/posterior gamma camera images were obtained frequently over the initial 10 days. Radiation dose estimates were calculated for 8 of these patients. Each patient`s biodistribution data were mathematically simulated using a multicompartmental model. The model consisted of the following compartments: central, bone, kidney, other tissues, and cumulative urine. The measured cumulative urine data were used as references for the cumulative urine excretion compartment. The total-body compartment (sum of the bone surfaces, central, kidney, and other tissues compartments) was reference to all activity not excreted in the urine.

  3. Bone marrow and thyroid absorbed doses from mammography

    Breast dose from mammography has been estimated by various investigators, because of the established effectiveness of mammography in early screening for breast cancer and the relatively high sensitivity of the breast to radiation carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, there is no available information in the literature about absorbed doses from mammography to organs other than the breast. The absorbed doses to the red bone marrow in the sternum and to the thyroid, due to scattered radiation from mammographic examinations, have been measured using a Plexiglas upper-body phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters. Their dependence on several parameters has also been examined. It is necessary to emphasize that this work is still in progress. (author)

  4. Specific absorbed fraction in bone tissue and bone marrow resulting from photons distributed in the skeleton

    The computer code 'ALGAM: Monte Carlo Estimation of Internal Dose from Gamma -ray Sources in a Phanton Man' only provides for an average dose to bone marrow resulting from a photon source distributed in the human body. Since there is no realistic model for the separation of these doses in the present phantom, some modifications were performed in the ALGAM code in order to introduce an heterogeneous skeleton and through this new model it was possible to make the estimation of dose in bone marrow. The specific absorbed fraction resulting from running the new program for 12 monoenergetic photon sources distributed in three source organs - skeleton, red marrow and yellow marrow is presented. The results obtained show that for low photon energies, the old model overestimates the specific absorbed fraction in bone marrow up to a factor of 4; while in bone, it underestimates the specific absorbed fractions up to a factor of 1.6. (Author)

  5. Computational method for realistic estimates of the dose to active marrow

    Calculation of absorbed dose to active marrow from photon radiation is a complex problem because electronic equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interfaces. Snyder et al. recognized the intractable geometry of trabecular bone in their studies of photon transport in the body and formulated marrow dose estimates in a conservative manner. Other investigators have noted that this approach leads to overestimate by factors of 3 or more at low photon energy. In this paper the absorbed dose is formulated in terms of physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition in the marrow space. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  6. The analyses of the absorbed dose by the red marrow brain of wild hunting hoofed animals from incorporated 90Sr

    After research work has been valued the absorbed dose by the red marrow brain of wild hunting hoofed animals on the territory with different level of radioactive pollution was shown that the absorbed annual doses of incorporated Sr 90 by the red marrow brain on the territory of eviction and alienation zones formed for wild boar 19,5-28,3 mGy/year, roe deer european 8,0-24,2 mGy/year, and for elk 16,1-55,0 mGy/year. The absorber doses by the red marrow brain of wild hunting hoofed taken in the control regions fluctuated from 0,6 mGy/year roe deer european to 1,4 mGy/year wild boar. (authors)

  7. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  8. Red bone marrow doses, integral absorbed doses, and somatically effective dose equivalent from four maxillary occlusal projections

    Phantom measurements of red bone marrow (RBM) doses, integral absorbed doses, and somatically effective dose equivalent (SEDE) from four different maxillary occlusal projections are presented. For each projection, different combinations of focus-skin distances and tube potentials were compared with regard to the patient's radiation load. The axial incisal view produced the highest patient exposures, with a maximum red bone marrow dose of 122.5 microGy/exposure, integral absorbed dose of 8.6 mJ/exposure, and SEDE values of 39.6 microSv/exposure. The corresponding values from the frontal, lateral occlusal, and tuber views ranged between 4% and 44% of the axial incisal view values for the integral absorbed dose and SEDE values, and between 0.3% and 3% for the red bone marrow doses. Increasing the focus-skin distance from 17.5 cm to 27 cm is accompanied by a 24% to 30% reduction in integral absorbed dose. Increasing the tube potential from 50 kV to 65 kV likewise results in a 23% reduction in absorbed energy

  9. Red bone marrow doses, integral absorbed doses, and somatically effective dose equivalent from four maxillary occlusal projections

    Berge, T.I.; Wohni, T.

    1984-02-01

    Phantom measurements of red bone marrow (RBM) doses, integral absorbed doses, and somatically effective dose equivalent (SEDE) from four different maxillary occlusal projections are presented. For each projection, different combinations of focus-skin distances and tube potentials were compared with regard to the patient's radiation load. The axial incisal view produced the highest patient exposures, with a maximum red bone marrow dose of 122.5 microGy/exposure, integral absorbed dose of 8.6 mJ/exposure, and SEDE values of 39.6 microSv/exposure. The corresponding values from the frontal, lateral occlusal, and tuber views ranged between 4% and 44% of the axial incisal view values for the integral absorbed dose and SEDE values, and between 0.3% and 3% for the red bone marrow doses. Increasing the focus-skin distance from 17.5 cm to 27 cm is accompanied by a 24% to 30% reduction in integral absorbed dose. Increasing the tube potential from 50 kV to 65 kV likewise results in a 23% reduction in absorbed energy.

  10. A Dynamic Absorber With Active Vibration Control

    Huang, S.-J.; Lian, R.-J.

    1994-12-01

    The design and construction of a dynamic absorber incorporating active vibration control is described. The absorber is a two-degrees-of-freedom spring — lumped mass system sliding on a guide pillar, with two internal vibration disturbance sources. Both the main mass and the secondary absorber mass are acted on by DC servo motors, respectively, to suppress the vibration amplitude. The state variable technique is used to model this dynamic system and a decoupling PID control method is used. First, the discrete time state space model is identified by using the commercial software MATLAB. Then the decoupling controller of this multi-input/multi-output system is derived from the identified model. Finally the results of some experiments are presented. The experimental results show that the system is effective in suppressing vibration. Also, the performance of this control strategy for position tracking control is evaluated based on experimental data.

  11. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

  12. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimaged risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

  13. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis. PMID:18173180

  14. Novel active vibration absorber with magnetorheological fluid

    Gerlach, T.; Ehrlich, J.; Böse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Disturbing vibrations diminish the performance of technical high precision devices significantly. In search of a suitable solution for reducing these vibrations, a novel concept of active vibration reduction was developed which exploits the special properties of magnetorheological fluids. In order to evaluate the concept of such an active vibration absorber (AVA) a demonstrator was designed and manufactured. This demonstrator generates a force which counteracts the motion of the vibrating body. Since the counterforce is generated by a centrifugal exciter, the AVA provides the capability to compensate vibrations even in two dimensions. To control the strength of the force transmitted to the vibrating body, the exciter is based on a tunable MR coupling. The AVA was integrated in an appropriate testing device to investigate its performance. The recorded results show a significant reduction of the vibration amplitudes by an order of magnitude.

  15. Influence of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation in an ovine model of vertebroplasty

    Krebs, J; Ferguson, S. J.; Hoerstrup, S P; Goss, B G; Haeberli, A; Aebli, N

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative cardiovascular deterioration as a result of pulmonary embolization of bone marrow fat is a potentially serious complication during vertebroplasty. The release of fatty material and thromboplastin from the bone marrow cavity during vertebroplasty may activate the coagulation cascade resulting in thrombogenesis, and pharmacological prophylaxis may therefore prevent cardiovascular complications. Thus, the effects of bone marrow fat embolism on coagulation activation du...

  16. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Flue Gas Desulfurization From Coal Bottom Ash: Effect of Absorbent Preparation Variables

    Chang Chin Li, Lee Keat Teong, Subhash Bhatia and Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    An active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal bottom ash, calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium sulfate by hydro-thermal process. The absorbent was examined for its micro-structural properties. The experiments conducted were based on Design Of Experiments (DOE) according to 23 factorial design. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as ratio of CaO to bottom ash (A), hydration temperature (B) and hydration period (C) towards the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Tel...

  17. Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer composites

    Tianchun Zou; Naiqin Zhao; Chunsheng Shi; Jiajun Li

    2011-02-01

    Microwave absorption of composites containing activated carbon fibres (ACFs) was investigated. The results show that the absorptivity greatly depends on increasing ACF content in the absorbing layer, first increasing and then decreasing. When the content is 0.76 wt.%, the bandwidth below −10dB is 12.2 GHz. Comparing the absorption characteristics of the ACF composite with one containing unactivated fibres, it is found that carbon fibre activation increases the absorption of the composite.

  18. Online identification of active absorbers in automotive vibration control

    Buttelmann, M.; Lohmann, B.; Vinogradski, M.; Nedeljkovic, N. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik; Marienfeld, P. [ContiTech Vibration Control GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Svaricek, F. [Continental Gummi-Werke AG, Hannover (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In the past, engine-related noise and vibration in the vehicle cabin was exclusively reduced by passive absorption. Today, modern actuators and control systems make an active noise reduction possible by introducing counteracting vibration at 180 degrees phase lag. Within a cooperation of the Institute of Automation Systems and Continental AG, an approach using active absorbers at the engine mounts is investigated. As the dynamic behaviour of the active absorbers and other elements in the secondary path are time-variant (depending on temperature, age and other factors), an online identification is carried out. By this, the implemented feedforward control strategy is supported on a precise and frequently updated model of the secondary path. The chosen approaches to online and offline identification are presented together with first results achieved in online identification and with the overall control system. (orig.)

  19. An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase

    Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2007-02-14

    In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.

  20. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with 177Lu- and 90Y-BR96 mAbs

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with 90Y- and 177Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for 177Lu and 12.5 Gy for 90Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom weight, ranging from

  1. Photoelectron enhancement of the absorbed dose from X rays to human bone marrow: experimental and theoretical studies

    A technique is described by which lithium fluoride powder is introduced into the marrow cavities in specimens of human trabecular bone to determine the excess photoelectron dose to marrow, when bone is irradiated by X-rays of energies between 20 keV and 140 keV. Three specimens of trabecular bone, containing respectively 10, 15 and 25% bone by volume, were investigated and the results compared with those derived on the basis of earlier calculations for mono-energetic electrons by Whitwell. Reasonable agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical results, although there was some indications that scatter influenced the practical measurements at the higher photon energies. Theoretical calculations are then used to derive photoelectron dose enhancement for complete bones from the measured results on the bone specimens, and mean enhancements of the marrow dose for the whole human skeleton are calculated for subjects aged 44.9 and 1.7 years. (author)

  2. Postirradiation proliferative activity and morphology of human bone marrow

    Bone marrow cells distribution by cell cycle stages (S, G1/0, G2+M) were studied by flow cytometry and myelograms analyzed in 13 subjects occupationally irradiated during an emergency situation, in 19 patients administered radiotherapy, and in 26 normal subjects. Low-dose (0,2 to 0,4 Gy) exposure was associated with an increase of proliferative activity, higher doses (1 to 4 Gy) caused a reduction of the share of cells in the phase of DNA synthesis and an expressed block at the C2+M stage. The studied parameters of cellular cycle reflect the degree of radiation exposure and together with myelogram values may be regarded as diagnostic characteristics of hemopoiesis. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Flue Gas Desulfurization From Coal Bottom Ash: Effect of Absorbent Preparation Variables

    Chang Chin Li, Lee Keat Teong, Subhash Bhatia and Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal bottom ash, calcium oxide (CaO and calcium sulfate by hydro-thermal process. The absorbent was examined for its micro-structural properties. The experiments conducted were based on Design Of Experiments (DOE according to 23 factorial design. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as ratio of CaO to bottom ash (A, hydration temperature (B and hydration period (C towards the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the absorbent were studied. At a CaO to bottom ash ratio = 2, hydration temperature = 200 ?C and hydration period = 10 hrs, absorbent with a surface area of 90.1 m2/g was obtained. Based on the analysis of the factorial design, it was concluded that factor A and C as well as the interaction of factors ABC and BC are the significant factors that effect the BET surface area of the absorbent. A linear mathematical model that describes the relation between the independent variables and interaction between variables towards the BET specific surface area of the absorbent was also developed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the model was significant at 1% level.Key Words: Absorbent, Bottom Ash, Design Of Experiments, Desulfurization, Surface Area.

  4. Localized CCR2 Activation in the Bone Marrow Niche Mobilizes Monocytes by Desensitizing CXCR4.

    Hosung Jung

    Full Text Available Inflammatory (classical monocytes residing in the bone marrow must enter the bloodstream in order to combat microbe infection. These monocytes express high levels of CCR2, a chemokine receptor whose activation is required for them to exit the bone marrow. How CCR2 is locally activated in the bone marrow and how their activation promotes monocyte egress is not understood. Here, we have used double transgenic lines that can visualize CCR2 activation in vivo and show that its chemokine ligand CCL2 is acutely released by stromal cells in the bone marrow, which make direct contact with CCR2-expressing monocytes. These monocytes also express CXCR4, whose activation immobilizes cells in the bone marrow, and are in contact with stromal cells expressing CXCL12, the CXCR4 ligand. During the inflammatory response, CCL2 is released and activates the CCR2 on neighboring monocytes. We demonstrate that acutely isolated bone marrow cells co-express CCR2 and CXCR4, and CCR2 activation desensitizes CXCR4. Inhibiting CXCR4 by a specific receptor antagonist in mice causes CCR2-expressing cells to exit the bone marrow in absence of inflammatory insults. Taken together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby the local activation of CCR2 on monocytes in the bone marrow attenuates an anchoring signalling provided by CXCR4 expressed by the same cell and mobilizes the bone marrow monocyte to the blood stream. Our results also provide a generalizable model that cross-desensitization of chemokine receptors fine-tunes cell mobility by integrating multiple chemokine signals.

  5. Mean active bone marrow dose to the adult population of the United States from diagnostic radiology

    Estimates, based on an empirical model and computer program (Ellis, Healy, Shleien and Tucker, HEW publication (FDA)76-8015), have been calculated and are presented on the mean active bone marrow dose to adults from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy, and dental radiography as practiced in the United States in 1970. The annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose in 1970 to adults from the above practices is estimated to have been 103 mrad; 77 percent, 20 percent, and 3 percent from radiographic, fluoroscopic and dental examinations, respectively. Examinations of the upper and lower abdomen contribute approximately 39 percent each to the total mean active bone marrow dose for adults; those of the pelvis, 4 percent; the thorax, 12 percent; and head and neck examinations (including dental) contribute about 6 percent. The per capita mean active bone marrow dose for various age groups is discussed. Contributions to the dose within a given age group from different examinations indicate that in the 15 to 34 year age group lumbar and lumbosacral spine examinations contribute most to the mean active bone marrow dose. Thereafter upper Gi series and barium enemas are the highest contributors. Mean active bone marrow doses for children are not estimated in this presentation due to insufficient data. However, the lower rate of use of diagnostic x rays (except dental) in children would reduce the annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose for the entire population to approximately a maximum of 77 mrads. The results may be viewed relative to several surveys of radiation doses from diagnostic radiology performed in other countries which reported annual per capita mean active bone marrow doses varying from 30 to 189 mrads for their entire populations, and with natural background for which the annual per capita whole body and bone marrow dose in the United States is approximately 130 and 86 mrads, respectively

  6. Retrospective Reconstructions of Active Bone Marrow Dose-Volume Histograms

    Purpose: To present a method for calculating dose-volume histograms (DVH's) to the active bone marrow (ABM) of patients who had undergone radiation therapy (RT) and subsequently developed leukemia. Methods and Materials: The study focuses on 15 patients treated between 1961 and 1996. Whole-body RT planning computed tomographic (CT) data were not available. We therefore generated representative whole-body CTs similar to patient anatomy. In addition, we developed a method enabling us to obtain information on the density distribution of ABM all over the skeleton. Dose could then be calculated in a series of points distributed all over the skeleton in such a way that their local density reflected age-specific data for ABM distribution. Dose to particular regions and dose-volume histograms of the entire ABM were estimated for all patients. Results: Depending on patient age, the total number of dose calculation points generated ranged from 1,190,970 to 4,108,524. The average dose to ABM ranged from 0.3 to 16.4 Gy. Dose-volume histograms analysis showed that the median doses (D50%) ranged from 0.06 to 12.8 Gy. We also evaluated the inhomogeneity of individual patient ABM dose distribution according to clinical situation. It was evident that the coefficient of variation of the dose for the whole ABM ranged from 1.0 to 5.7, which means that the standard deviation could be more than 5 times higher than the mean. Conclusions: For patients with available long-term follow-up data, our method provides reconstruction of dose-volume data comparable to detailed dose calculations, which have become standard in modern CT-based 3-dimensional RT planning. Our strategy of using dose-volume histograms offers new perspectives to retrospective epidemiological studies

  7. Retrospective Reconstructions of Active Bone Marrow Dose-Volume Histograms

    Veres, Cristina; Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Llanas, Damien; Vu Bezin, Jérémi [Radiation Epidemiology Group, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR 1018, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); University Paris-Sud XI, Villejuif (France); Chavaudra, Jean; Mège, Jean Pierre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Quiniou, Eric [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale UMR 759, Orsay (France); Deutsh, Eric [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR 1030, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de [Radiation Epidemiology Group, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR 1018, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); University Paris-Sud XI, Villejuif (France); Diallo, Ibrahima, E-mail: ibrahim.diallo@gustaveroussy.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR 1018, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); University Paris-Sud XI, Villejuif (France)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To present a method for calculating dose-volume histograms (DVH's) to the active bone marrow (ABM) of patients who had undergone radiation therapy (RT) and subsequently developed leukemia. Methods and Materials: The study focuses on 15 patients treated between 1961 and 1996. Whole-body RT planning computed tomographic (CT) data were not available. We therefore generated representative whole-body CTs similar to patient anatomy. In addition, we developed a method enabling us to obtain information on the density distribution of ABM all over the skeleton. Dose could then be calculated in a series of points distributed all over the skeleton in such a way that their local density reflected age-specific data for ABM distribution. Dose to particular regions and dose-volume histograms of the entire ABM were estimated for all patients. Results: Depending on patient age, the total number of dose calculation points generated ranged from 1,190,970 to 4,108,524. The average dose to ABM ranged from 0.3 to 16.4 Gy. Dose-volume histograms analysis showed that the median doses (D{sub 50%}) ranged from 0.06 to 12.8 Gy. We also evaluated the inhomogeneity of individual patient ABM dose distribution according to clinical situation. It was evident that the coefficient of variation of the dose for the whole ABM ranged from 1.0 to 5.7, which means that the standard deviation could be more than 5 times higher than the mean. Conclusions: For patients with available long-term follow-up data, our method provides reconstruction of dose-volume data comparable to detailed dose calculations, which have become standard in modern CT-based 3-dimensional RT planning. Our strategy of using dose-volume histograms offers new perspectives to retrospective epidemiological studies.

  8. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  9. Bone marrow fibrosis with fibrocytic and immunoregulatory responses induced by β-catenin activation in osteoprogenitors.

    Yu, Jian; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Hanjun; Liu, Pei; Xu, Shuqin; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2016-03-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been reported to contribute to the development of bone fibrous dysplasia. However, it remains unclear whether fibrocytes and immune cells are involved in this β-catenin-mediated bone marrow fibrosis. In this study, we showed that constitutive activation of β-catenin by Col1a1-Cre (3.6-kb) exhibited bone marrow fibrosis, featured with expanded populations of fibrocytes, myofibroblasts and osteoprogenitors. Lineage tracing and IHC examinations showed that Col3.6-Cre display Cre recombinase activity not only in osteoprogenitors, but also in monocyte-derived fibrocytes in the endosteal niches of bones. Additionally, β-catenin stimulated the secretion of cytokines and pro-fibrotic signals in bone marrow, including GM-CSF, TGFβ1 and VEGF. Consequently, the frequency of differentiated immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells and naïve T cells was markedly increased in the mutant bone marrow. These phenotypes were quite different from those following β-catenin activation in mature osteoblasts driven by Col1a1-Cre (2.3-kb). Our findings suggested that a conserved pro-fibrotic signal cascade might underlie β-catenin-mediated bone marrow fibrosis, involving TGFβ1-enhanced fibrocyte activation and immunoregulatory responses. This study might shed new light on the understanding and development of a therapeutic strategy for bone fibrous dysplasia. PMID:26688275

  10. A bone marrow toxicity model for 223Ra alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical therapy

    Hobbs, Robert F.; Song, Hong; Watchman, Christopher J.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Ramdahl, Thomas; Flux, Glenn D.; Sgouros, George

    2012-05-01

    Ra-223, an α-particle emitting bone-seeking radionuclide, has recently been used in clinical trials for osseous metastases of prostate cancer. We investigated the relationship between absorbed fraction-based red marrow dosimetry and cell level-dosimetry using a model that accounts for the expected localization of this agent relative to marrow cavity architecture. We show that cell level-based dosimetry is essential to understanding potential marrow toxicity. The GEANT4 software package was used to create simple spheres representing marrow cavities. Ra-223 was positioned on the trabecular bone surface or in the endosteal layer and simulated for decay, along with the descendants. The interior of the sphere was divided into cell-size voxels and the energy was collected in each voxel and interpreted as dose cell histograms. The average absorbed dose values and absorbed fractions were also calculated in order to compare those results with previously published values. The absorbed dose was predominantly deposited near the trabecular surface. The dose cell histogram results were used to plot the percentage of cells that received a potentially toxic absorbed dose (2 or 4 Gy) as a function of the average absorbed dose over the marrow cavity. The results show (1) a heterogeneous distribution of cellular absorbed dose, strongly dependent on the position of the cell within the marrow cavity; and (2) that increasing the average marrow cavity absorbed dose, or equivalently, increasing the administered activity resulted in only a small increase in potential marrow toxicity (i.e. the number of cells receiving more than 4 or 2 Gy), for a range of average marrow cavity absorbed doses from 1 to 20 Gy. The results from the trabecular model differ markedly from a standard absorbed fraction method while presenting comparable average dose values. These suggest that increasing the amount of radioactivity may not substantially increase the risk of toxicity, a result unavailable to the

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial-induced neuroglial cell differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Xiaoguang Luo; Chunlin Ge; Yan Ren; Hongmei Yu; Zhe Wu; Qiushuang Wang; Chaodong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microglia are very sensitive to environmental changes, often becoming activated by pathological conditions. Activated microglia can exert a dual role in injury and repair in various diseases of the central nervous system, including cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: An immortal microglial cell line, BV2, was treated with varying concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce a pathological situation. Supernatant was harvested and incubated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and, concomitantly, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation was observed. DESIGN: A controlled observation, in vitro experiment. SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. MATERIALS: Five male 2-3-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were purchased from Animal Laboratory Center of China Medical University and included in this study. The protocol was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals. The microglial cell line BV2 was produced by Cell Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences. LPS was produced by Sigma Company, USA. METHODS: This study was performed in the Central Laboratory of China Medical University from September 2006 to March 2007. Rat femoral and tibial bone marrow was collected for separation and primary culture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell cultures were divided into 5 groups: control group, non-activated group, as well as low-, medium-, and high-dose LPS groups. In the control group, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (volume fraction 0.1). In the non-activated group, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were incubated with non-activated BV2 supernatant. In the low-, medium-, and high-dose LPS groups, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were incubated with LPS (0.01, 0.1 and 1

  12. Effect of low lead doses in vitro and in vivo on the d-ala-d activity of erythrocytes, bone marrow cells, liver and brain of the mouse

    Schlick, E.; Mengel, K.; Friedberg, K.D.

    1983-07-01

    The d-ala-d activity in erythrocytes (RBC), femur bone marrow, liver and brain of mice was determined using a modification of the method of Berlin and Schaller. In vitro incubation of lead acetate (PbAc) with these tissues resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the d-ala-d activity. The lead concentration which caused a 50% inhibition of the d-ala-d activity after 10 min incubation (ED-50sub((10min))) was 0.78 mg PbAc/femur bone marrow, 3.72 ..mu..g PbAc/ml RBC, 15.85 ..mu..g PbAc/g brain and 43.05 ..mu..g PbAc/g liver. An increase in the incubation time to 60 min reduced these ED-50 values between 44% for the erythrocytic enzyme and 67% for the brain enzyme. In vivo treatment of mice with oral lead administration (absorbed dose range: 1-100 ..mu..g PbAc/kg b.w.) for 1 or 3 months led to a dose-dependent and organ-specific inhibition of the d-ala-d activity. After 3 months of oral lead supply the maximum enzyme inhibition (54%) was found in the bone marrow. At the same time the lowest enzyme inhibition could be seen in the brain which retained 73% of its activity. The erythrocytic and liver enzyme activity was 71% and 72% resp. of the appropriate control. Within 3 weeks after completing the oral lead administration the brain enzyme activity was completely restored. The erythrocytic and liver enzyme activities were still significantly, but not very markedly inhibited, whereas the bone marrow d-ala-d remained seriously depressed. According to these experiments, the lead dose which causes a long term inhibition of the bone marrow and erythrocytic d-ala-d activities is assumed to range between 50 and 100 ..mu..g PbAc/kg b.w. and day, as an absorbed dose.

  13. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber

  14. Optimal semi-active vibration absorber for harmonic excitation based on controlled semi-active damper

    The semi-active vibration absorber (SVA) based on controlled semi-active damper is formulated to realize the behaviour of the passive undamped vibration absorber tuned to the actual harmonic disturbing frequency. It is shown that the controlled stiffness force, which is emulated by the semi-active damper to realize the precise real-time frequency tuning of the SVA, is unpreventably combined with the generation of undesirable damping in the semi-active damper whereby the SVA does not behave as targeted. The semi-active stiffness force is therefore optimized for minimum primary structure response. The results point out that the optimal semi-active stiffness force reduces the undesirable energy dissipation in the SVA at the expenses of slight imprecise frequency tuning. Based on these findings, a real-time applicable suboptimal SVA is formulated that also takes the relative motion constraint of real mass dampers into account. The results demonstrate that the performance of the suboptimal SVA is closer to that of the active solution than that of the passive mass damper. (paper)

  15. Resonant passive-active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.; Krenk, Steen

    2016-04-01

    A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control with the difference in force between the two passive elements as input. This format allows passive and active contributions to be combined arbitrarily within the hybrid unit, which results in a versatile absorber format with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This is demonstrated for resonant absorbers with inertia realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction.

  16. Resonant passive–active vibration absorber with integrated force feedback control

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Brodersen, Mark Laier; Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    A general format of a two-terminal vibration absorber is constructed by placing a passive unit in series with a hybrid unit, composed of an active actuator in parallel with a second passive element. The displacement of the active actuator is controlled by an integrated feedback control with the...... difference in force between the two passive elements as input. This format allows passive and active contributions to be combined arbitrarily within the hybrid unit, which results in a versatile absorber format with guaranteed closed-loop stability. This is demonstrated for resonant absorbers with inertia...... realized passively by a mechanical inerter or actively by the integrated force feedback. Accurate calibration formulae are presented for two particular absorber configurations and the performance is subsequently demonstrated with respect to both equal modal damping and effective response reduction....

  17. The mean active bone marrow dose to the adult population of the United States from diagnostic radiology

    Based on an empirical dosimetry model, estimates have been calculated and are presented on the mean active bone marrow dose to adults from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy, and dental radiography, as practiced in the United States in 1970. The annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose to adults in 1970 from the above practices is estimated to have been 103 mrad: 77, 20 and 3% form radiographic, fluoroscopic and dental examinations respectively. The per capita mean active bone marrow dose for various age groups is discussed. Contributions to the dose within a given age group from different examinations indicate that in the 15-34-yr age group, lumbar and lumbosacral spine examinations contribute most to the mean active bone marrow dose; thereafter, upper GI series and barium enemas are the highest contributors. Mean active bone marrow doses for children have not been estimated because of insufficient data. However, the lower rate of use of diagnostic X-rays (except dental) in children would reduce the annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose for the entire population to a maximum of approximately 77 mrad. In 1964 the annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose to adults is estimated to have been 83 mrad. A comparison of the results with surveys of radiation doses from diagnostic radiology performed in other countries and with natural radiation background is described. (author)

  18. Aspects of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton with particular emphasis on the active marrow

    Epidemiological surveys on man and results from animal experiments have shown that two tissues associated with the skeleton are of primary concern with respect to cancer induction by ionizing radiation. These are the cells on or near endosteal surfaces of bone, from which osteosarcomas are thought to arise, and hematopoietic bone marrow, which is associated with leukemia. The complex geometry of the soft tissue-bone intermixture makes calculations of absorbed dose to these target regions a difficult problem. In the case of photon or neutron radiations, charged particle equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interface. In this paper a general study of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton is presented. Dosimetric data consistent with the MIRD schema and reflecting the physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition are tabulated for the relevant target regions. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Aspects of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton with particular emphasis on the active marrow

    Epidemiological surveys on man and results from animal experiments have shown that two tissues associated with the skeleton are of primary concern with respect to cancer induction by ionizing radiation. These are the cells on or near endosteal surfaces of bone, from which osteosarcomas are thought to arise, and hematopoietic bone marrow, which is associated with leukemia. The complex geometry of the soft tissue-bone intermixture makes calculations of absorbed dose to these target regions a difficult problem. In the case of photon or neutron radiations, charged particle equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interface. In this paper a general study of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton is presented. Dosimetric data consistent with the MIRD schema and reflecting the physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition are tabulated for the relevant target regions. 27 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  20. Force Feedback Control of a Semi-Active Shock Absorber

    Svennerbrandt, Per

    2014-01-01

    Semi-active suspension systems promise to significantly reduce the necessary trade-off be-tween handling and passenger comfort present in conventional suspension systems by enabling active chassis and wheel control. Öhlins Racing AB have developed a semi-active suspension technology known as CES, Continuously controlled Electronic Suspension, based on solenoid control valves which are integrated into specially designed hydraulic dampers, and are currently developing control and estimation sys...

  1. Circulating cytokeratin 18 fragments and activation of dormant tumor cells in bone marrow of cancer patients

    Ausch, Christoph; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Olszewski, Ulrike; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    In cancer patients detection of systemic disease is of great importance to obtain prognostic information and to guide therapy. Bone marrow (BM) seems to be a common homing tissue for the early spread of tumor cells from various epithelial tumors; however, verification of the prognostic significance of BM-disseminated tumor cells (BM-DTCs), is restricted to breast cancer so far. These cells may be dormant for a long time, and signals triggering their activation leading to recurrence remain to ...

  2. Lack of telomerase activity in rabbit bone marrow stromal cells during differentiation along neural pathway

    CHEN Zhen-zhou; XU Ru-xiang; JIANG Xiao-dan; TENG Xiao-hua; LI Gui-tao; ZHOU Yü-xi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate telomerase activity in rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) during their committed differentiation in vitro along neural pathway and the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the expression of telomerase.Methods: BMSCs were acquired from rabbit marrow and divided into control group, GDNF (10 ng/ml) group.No. ZL02134314. 4) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used to induce BMSCs differentiation along neural pathway. Fluorescent immunocytochemistry was employed to identify the expressions of Nestin, neuronspecific endase (NSE), and gial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The growth curves of the cells and the status of cell cycles were analyzed, respectively. During the differentiation, telomerase activitys were detected using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TRAP-ELISA).Results: BMSCs were successfully induced to differentiate along neural pathway and expressed specific markers of fetal neural epithelium, mature neuron and glial cells. Telomerase activities were undetectable in BMSCs during differentiation along neural pathway. Similar changes of cell growth curves, cell cycle status and telomerase expression were observed in the two groups.Conclusions: Rabbit BMSCs do not display telomerase activity during differentiation along neural pathway. GDNF shows little impact on proliferation and telomerase activity of BMSCs.

  3. TU-F-12A-02: Quantitative Characterization of Normal Bone Marrow Proliferative Activity with FLT PET/CT

    Weisse, N; Jeraj, R [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: [F-18]FLT PET is a tool for assessing health of bone marrow by evaluating its proliferative activity. This study establishes a baseline quantitative characterization of healthy marrow proliferation to aid in diagnosis of hematological disease. Methods: 31 patients (20 male, 11 female, 41–76 years) being treated for solid cancers with no history of hematological disease, osseous metastatic disease, or radiation therapy received pre-treatment FLT PET/CT scans. Total bone marrow was isolated from whole body FLT PET images by manually removing organs and applying a standardize uptake value (SUV) threshold of 1.0. Because adult marrow is concentrated in the axial skeleton, quantitative total bone marrow analysis (QTBMA) was used to isolate marrow in the lumbar spine, thoracic spine, sacrum, and pelvis for analysis. SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were used to quantify bone marrow proliferation. Correlations were explored between SUV and patient characteristics including age, weight, height, and BMI using the Spearman coefficient (ρ). Results: The population-averaged whole-skeleton SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were 3.0±0.6, 18.4±5.7, and 0.6±0.1, respectively. Uptake values in the axial skeleton were similar to the whole-skeleton demonstrated by SUVmean in the thoracic spine (3.6±0.6), lumbar spine (3.3±0.5), sacrum (3.0±0.6), and pelvis regions (2.8±0.5). Whole-skeleton SUVmax correlated with patient weight (ρ=0.47, p<0.01) and BMI (ρ=0.60, p<0.01), suggesting marrow activity is related to the body's burden. SUV measures in the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, sacrum, and pelvis were negatively correlated with age (ρ:−0.41 to −0.46, p≤0.02). These negative correlations reflect the fact that active marrow in the adult skeleton is localized in the axial skeleton and decreases with age. Conclusions: Normal bone marrow characterizations were determined using FLT

  4. TU-F-12A-02: Quantitative Characterization of Normal Bone Marrow Proliferative Activity with FLT PET/CT

    Purpose: [F-18]FLT PET is a tool for assessing health of bone marrow by evaluating its proliferative activity. This study establishes a baseline quantitative characterization of healthy marrow proliferation to aid in diagnosis of hematological disease. Methods: 31 patients (20 male, 11 female, 41–76 years) being treated for solid cancers with no history of hematological disease, osseous metastatic disease, or radiation therapy received pre-treatment FLT PET/CT scans. Total bone marrow was isolated from whole body FLT PET images by manually removing organs and applying a standardize uptake value (SUV) threshold of 1.0. Because adult marrow is concentrated in the axial skeleton, quantitative total bone marrow analysis (QTBMA) was used to isolate marrow in the lumbar spine, thoracic spine, sacrum, and pelvis for analysis. SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were used to quantify bone marrow proliferation. Correlations were explored between SUV and patient characteristics including age, weight, height, and BMI using the Spearman coefficient (ρ). Results: The population-averaged whole-skeleton SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVCV were 3.0±0.6, 18.4±5.7, and 0.6±0.1, respectively. Uptake values in the axial skeleton were similar to the whole-skeleton demonstrated by SUVmean in the thoracic spine (3.6±0.6), lumbar spine (3.3±0.5), sacrum (3.0±0.6), and pelvis regions (2.8±0.5). Whole-skeleton SUVmax correlated with patient weight (ρ=0.47, p<0.01) and BMI (ρ=0.60, p<0.01), suggesting marrow activity is related to the body's burden. SUV measures in the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, sacrum, and pelvis were negatively correlated with age (ρ:−0.41 to −0.46, p≤0.02). These negative correlations reflect the fact that active marrow in the adult skeleton is localized in the axial skeleton and decreases with age. Conclusions: Normal bone marrow characterizations were determined using FLT

  5. Optical switching in bistable active cavity containing nonlinear absorber on bacteriorhodopsin

    Bazhenov, Vladimir Y.; Taranenko, Victor B.; Vasnetsov, Mikhail V.

    1993-04-01

    The transverse nonlinear dynamics of switchings in an active system (laser with nonlinear saturable absorber on bacteriorhodopsin in a self-imaging cavity) is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The soliton-like light field structure formation and continuously cycled self-switching process are investigated.

  6. Total body irradiation for installment of arylsulfatase B activity in a cat by bone marrow transplantation

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is an inherited, metabolic defect in which a deficiency of arylsulfatase B, results in accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in lysosomes. Arylsulfatase B activity was installed in an affected 2 year old siamese cat with no arylsulfatase B activity, excess urinary GAG, Alder-Reilly bodies in neutrophils, facial dysmorphia, corneal clouding, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and hind limb paresis. Following grafting of bone marrow from an immunologically nonreactive, female sibling with normal arylsulfatase B activity, increased arylsulfatase B activity and urinary excretion of hexuronic acid decreased by 19 days post transplantation. There were no metachromatic inclusions in circulating neutrophils, which were phenotypically female. The cat now has competent trilineage hematopoiesis, resolution of the facial dysmorphia, no corneal clouding, and improved movement of the head, neck, and mandible. The technique, sequence of hematologic recovery, and evidence of engraftment, are discussed. This may be a model for correction of mucopolysaccharidosis VI in man

  7. Mature adipocytes in bone marrow protect myeloma cells against chemotherapy through autophagy activation

    A major problem in patients with multiple myeloma is chemotherapy resistance, which develops in myeloma cells upon interaction with bone marrow stromal cells. However, few studies have determined the role of bone marrow adipocytes, a major component of stromal cells in the bone marrow, in myeloma ch...

  8. The mean active bone marrow dose to the adult population of the United States from diagnostic radiology

    Estimates, based on an empirical model and computer program, have been calculated and are presented on the mean active bone marrow dose to adults from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy, and dental radiography as practiced in the United States in 1970. The annual per capita mean active bone marrow dose in 1970 to adults from the above practices is estimated to be 103 mrad; 77 percent, 20 percent, and 3 percent from radiographic, fluoroscopic and dental examinations respectively. Examinations of the upper and lower abdomen contribute approximately 39 percent each to the total mean active bone marrow dose for adults; those of the pelvis 4 percent; the thorax 12 percent; and head and neck examinations (including dental) contribute about 6 percent. The per capita mean active bone marrow dose for various age groups is discussed. Contributions to the dose within a given age group from different examinations indicate that in the 15-34 year old age group Lumbar and Lumbosacral Spine examinations contribute most to the mean active bone marrow dose. Thereafter Upper G I Series and Barium Enemas are the highest contributors. Comparisons are made with results of the 1964 U.S. X-ray survey and similar surveys from other nations

  9. Experimental studies on active control of a dynamic system via a time-delayed absorber

    Xu, Jian; Sun, Yixia

    2015-04-01

    The traditional passive absorber is fully effective within a narrow and certain frequency band. To solve this problem, a time-delayed acceleration feedback is introduced to convert a passive absorber into an active one. Both the inherent and the intentional time delays are included. The former mainly comes from signal acquiring and processing, computing, and applying the actuation force, and its value is fixed. The latter is introduced in the controller, and its value is actively adjustable. Firstly, the mechanical model is established and the frequency response equations are obtained. The regions of stability are delineated in the plane of control parameters. Secondly, the design scheme of control para- meters is performed to help select the values of the feedback gain and time delay. Thirdly, the experimental studies are conducted. Effects of both negative and positive feedback control are investigated. Experimental results show that the proper choices of control parameters may broaden the effective frequency band of vibration absorption. Moreover, the time-delayed absorber greatly suppresses the resonant response of the primary system when the passive absorber totally fails. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions and numerical simulations.

  10. Bone marrow dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate

    Forrer, Flavio; Krenning, Eric P.; Kooij, Peter P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Bakker, Willem H.; Teunissen, Jaap J.M.; Jong, Marion de; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Konijnenberg, Mark [Mallinckrodt Medical BV, Research and Development, Petten (Netherlands); Lom, Kirsten van [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Haematology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, Wouter W. de [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Adequate dosimetry is mandatory for effective and safe peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Besides the kidneys, the bone marrow is a potentially dose-limiting organ. The radiation dose to the bone marrow is usually calculated according to the MIRD scheme, where the accumulated activity in the bone marrow is calculated from the accumulated radioactivity of the radiopharmaceutical in the blood. This may underestimate the absorbed dose since stem cells express somatostatin receptors. We verified the blood-based method by comparing the activity in the blood with the radioactivity in bone marrow aspirates. Also, we evaluated the absorbed cross-dose from the source organs (liver, spleen, kidneys and blood), tumours and the so-called ''remainder of the body'' to the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspirates were drawn in 15 patients after treatment with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate. Radioactivity in the bone marrow was compared with radioactivity in the blood drawn simultaneously. The nucleated cell fraction was isolated from the bone marrow aspirate and radioactivity was measured. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow was calculated. The results were correlated to the change in platelet counts 6 weeks after treatment. A strong linear correlation and high agreement between the measured radioactivities in the bone marrow aspirates and in the blood was found (r=0.914, p<0.001). No correlation between the calculated absorbed dose in the bone marrow and the change in platelets was found. There was a considerable contribution from other organs and the remainder of the body to the bone marrow absorbed dose. (1) After PRRT with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate, the radioactivity concentration in the bone marrow is identical to that in the blood; (2) There is no significant binding of the radiopharmaceutical to bone marrow precursor stem cells; (3) The contribution of the cross dose from source organs and tumours to the bone

  11. Transition from Knudsen to molecular diffusion in activity of absorbing irregular interfaces

    Andrade Jr., J. S.; da Silva, H. F.; Baquil, M.; Sapoval, B.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate through molecular dynamics the transition from Knudsen to molecular diffusion transport towards 2d absorbing interfaces with irregular geometry. Our results indicate that the length of the active zone decreases continuously with density from the Knudsen to the molecular diffusion regime. In the limit where molecular diffusion dominates, we find that this length approaches a constant value of the order of the system size, in agreement with theoretical predictions for Laplacian t...

  12. Active-to-absorbing-state phase transition in an evolving population with mutation

    Sarkar, Niladri

    2015-10-01

    We study the active to absorbing phase transition (AAPT) in a simple two-component model system for a species and its mutant. We uncover the nontrivial critical scaling behavior and weak dynamic scaling near the AAPT that shows the significance of mutation and highlights the connection of this model with the well-known directed percolation universality class. Our model should be a useful starting point to study how mutation may affect extinction or survival of a species.

  13. SU-E-J-250: A Methodology for Active Bone Marrow Protection for Cervical Cancer Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using 18F-FLT PET/CT Image

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a radiation therapy treatment planning that would spare active bone marrow and whole pelvic bone marrow using 18F FLT PET/CT image. Methods: We have developed an IMRT planning methodology to incorporate functional PET imaging using 18F FLT/CT scans. Plans were generated for two cervical cancer patients, where pelvicactive bone marrow region was incorporated as avoidance regions based on the range: SUV>2., another region was whole pelvic bone marrow. Dose objectives were set to reduce the volume of active bone marrow and whole bone marraw. The volumes of received 10 (V10) and 20 (V20) Gy for active bone marrow were evaluated. Results: Active bone marrow regions identified by 18F FLT with an SUV>2 represented an average of 48.0% of the total osseous pelvis for the two cases studied. Improved dose volume histograms for identified bone marrow SUV volumes and decreases in V10(average 18%), and V20(average 14%) were achieved without clinically significant changes to PTV or OAR doses. Conclusion: Incorporation of 18F FLT/CT PET in IMRT planning provides a methodology to reduce radiation dose to active bone marrow without compromising PTV or OAR dose objectives in cervical cancer

  14. Optimal and robust modal control of a flexible structure using an active dynamic vibration absorber

    This paper is concerned with feedback vibration control of a lightly damped flexible structure that has a large number of well-separated modes. A single active electrical dynamic absorber is used to reduce a particular single vibration mode selectively or multiple modes simultaneously. The absorber is realized electrically by feeding back the structural acceleration at one position to a collocated piezoceramic patch actuator via a controller consisting of one or several second order lowpass filters. A simple analytical method is presented to design a modal control filter that is optimal in that it maximally flattens the mobility frequency response of the target mode, as well as robust in that it works within a prescribed maximum control spillover of 2 dB at all frequencies. Experiments are conducted with a free–free beam to demonstrate its ability to control any single mode optimally and robustly. It is also shown that an active absorber with multiple such filters can effectively control multiple modes simultaneously

  15. Surface-active and Light-absorbing Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Material

    McNeill, V. F.; Sareen, N.; Schwier, A. N.; Shapiro, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    We have observed the formation of light-absorbing, high-molecular-weight, and surface-active organics from methylgyloxal interacting with ammonium salts in aqueous aerosol mimics. Mixtures of methylglyoxal and glyoxal also form light-absorbing products and exhibit surface tension depression with a Langmuir-like dependence on initial methylglyoxal concentration. We used chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a volatilization flow tube inlet (Aerosol-CIMS) to characterize the product species. The results are consistent with aldol condensation products, carbon-nitrogen species, sulfur-containing compounds, and oligomeric species up to 759 amu. These observations have potentially significant implications for our understanding of the effects of SOA on climate, since a) SOA are typically treated as non-absorbing in climate models, and b) surface tension depression in aqueous aerosols by SOA material may result in increased cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Furthermore, surface film formation could affect aerosol heterogeneous chemistry. We will also discuss aerosol flow tube O3 oxidation experiments designed to determine the atmospheric lifetimes of the observed product compounds.

  16. Experimental study on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification based on highly active absorbent

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from flue gas by the highly active absorbent prepared from fly ash, lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive was studied using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) under different experimental conditions. The effects influencing the removal effiencies were discussed. The optimal flue gas temperature, flue gas humidity, gas velocity of CFB and Ca/(S+N) molar ratio with this process were approximately 110℃, 6%, 1.8 m/s and 1.05, respectively. Removal efficiencies of 92.3% for SO2 and 60.88% for NO were obtained under the optimal experimental conditions. While the spent absorbent appeared in the form of dry powder, the mechanism of removal for SO2 and NO based on the highly active absorbent was investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis methods. The valuable references can be provided for industrial application by the process. The foreground of application will be vast in China and in the world.

  17. Absorbing aerosols facilitate transition of Indian monsoon breaks to active spells

    Manoj, M.G.; Devara, P.C.S.; Safai, P.D.; Goswami, B.N. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pashan, Pune (India)

    2011-12-15

    While some long breaks of monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISOs) are followed by active spells (BFA), some others are not (BNFA). The circulation during BFA (BNFA) cases helps (prevents) accumulation of absorbing aerosols over central India (CI) resulting in almost three times larger Aerosol Index (AI) over CI, during BFA cases compared to BNFA cases. A seminal role played by the absorbing aerosols in the transition from break to active spells is unraveled through modification of the north-south temperature gradient at lower levels. The meridional gradient of temperature at low level ({nabla}T) between aerosol-rich CI and pristine equatorial Indian Ocean is large (>6 C) and sustains for long time (>10 days) during BFA leading to significant moisture convergence to CI. The stability effect arising from surface cooling by the aerosols is overcome by the enhanced moisture convergence creating a moist static unstable atmosphere conducive for the large-scale organized convection over the CI region leading to the resurgence of active spells. The moisture convergence induced by {nabla}T was also able to overcome possible aerosol indirect effect (Twomey effect) and initiate deep convection and transition to active condition. During BNFA cases, however the maximum {nabla}T, which was weaker than the BFA cases by more than 1.5 C, could not sustain required moisture convergence and failed to lead to a sustained active spell. Using data from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) onboard Terra and several other input parameters from various satellites for the period 2000-2009, the aerosol induced radiative forcing representative of two regions - the CI to the north and the pristine ocean to the south - were estimated and support the differences in observed {nabla}T during the two cases. Our results highlight the need for proper inclusion of absorbing aerosols in dynamical models for simulation of the observed variability of MISOs and their extended range

  18. Bone marrow-derived macrophages exclusively expressed caveolin-2: The role of inflammatory activators and hypoxia.

    Maceckova, Michaela; Martiskova, Hana; Koudelka, Adolf; Kubala, Lukas; Lojek, Antonin; Pekarova, Michaela

    2015-11-01

    Caveolins are specific proteins involved in regulation of signal transduction to intracellular space. Still, their contribution to immune functions has not been completely clarified. Thus, we decided to characterize the expression of caveolins in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) under resting and inflammatory conditions. The effect of classical activators (lipopolysaccharide, LPS; interferon-gamma, IFN-γ) was further potentiated with hypoxic (5% O2) conditions. The activation of p44/42-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and expression of caveolin-1, -2, and -3, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was monitored using the Western blot technique. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) was analyzed by Griess method or ELISA, respectively. BMDMs were also transfected with siRNA against caveolin-2. Importantly, our study showed for the first time that BMDMs expressed only caveolin-2, and its level decreased after activation of macrophages with LPS, IFN-γ, and/or hypoxia. The expression of caveolin-2 negatively correlates with the iNOS and HIF-1α protein levels, as well as with the LPS/IFN-γ- and hypoxia-induced activation of ERK1/2. We concluded that caveolin-2 is most probably involved in regulation of pro-inflammatory responses of BMDMs, triggered via activation of ERK1/2. PMID:26215374

  19. Holographically patterned activation using photo-absorber induced neural-thermal stimulation

    Farah, Nairouz; Zoubi, Alaa; Matar, Suhail; Golan, Lior; Marom, Anat; Butson, Christopher R.; Brosh, Inbar; Shoham, Shy

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Patterned photo-stimulation offers a promising path towards the effective control of distributed neuronal circuits. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility and governing principles of spatiotemporally patterned microscopic photo-absorber induced neural-thermal stimulation (PAINTS) based on light absorption by exogenous extracellular photo-absorbers. Approach. We projected holographic light patterns from a green continuous-wave (CW) or an IR femtosecond laser onto exogenous photo-absorbing particles dispersed in the vicinity of cultured rat cortical cells. Experimental results are compared to predictions of a temperature-rate model (where membrane currents follow I ∝ dT/dt). Main results. The induced microscopic photo-thermal transients have sub-millisecond thermal relaxation times and stimulate adjacent cells. PAINTS activation thresholds for different laser pulse durations (0.02 to 1 ms) follow the Lapicque strength-duration formula, but with different chronaxies and minimal threshold energy levels for the two excitation lasers (an order of magnitude lower for the IR system <50 nJ). Moreover, the empirical thresholds for the CW system are found to be in good agreement with detailed simulations of the temperature-rate model, but are generally lower for the IR system, suggesting an auxiliary excitation mechanism. Significance. Holographically patterned PAINTS could potentially provide a means for minimally intrusive control over neuronal dynamics with a high level of spatial and temporal selectivity.

  20. Ground-water activation from the upcoming operation of MI40 beam absorber

    During the course of normal operation, a particle accelerator can produce radionuclides in the adjacent soil and in the beam line elements through the interactions of accelerated particles and/or secondary particles produced in the beam absorbers, targets, and sometimes elsewhere through routine beam losses. The production and concentration of these radionuclides depends on the beam parameters such as energy, intensity, particle type, and target configuration. The radionuclides produced in the soil can potentially migrate to the ground water. Soil activation and migration to the ground water depends on the details of the local hydrogeology. Generally, very few places such as the beam stops, target stations, injection and extraction sectors can have high enough radiation fields to produce radionuclides in the soil outside the enclosures. During the design, construction, or an upgrade in the intensity of existing beams, measures are taken to minimize the production of activated soil. The only leachable radionuclides known to be produced in the Fermilab soil are 3H, 7Be , 22Na, 45Ca and 54Mn and it has been determined that only 3H, and 22Na, because of their longer half lives and greater leachabilities, may significantly impact ground water resources.In the past, Fermilab has developed and used the Single Resident Well Model (SRWM) to estimate the ground water activation. Recently, the Concentration Model (CM), a more realistic method which depends on the site hydrogeology has been developed to decide the shielding requirements of the high radiation sites, and to calculate the ground water activation and its subsequent migration to the aquifer. In this report, the concentration of radionuclide released to the surface waters and the aquifer around the MI40 beam absorber are calculated. Subsequently, the ultimate limit on the primary proton beam intensity to be aborted on the Main Injector beam absorber is determined

  1. Active to absorbing state phase transition in the presence of a fluctuating environment: feedback and universality

    We construct and analyze a simple reduced model to study the effects of the interplay between a density undergoing an active-to-absorbing state phase transition (AAPT) and a fluctuating environment in the form of a broken symmetry mode coupled to the density field in any arbitrary dimension. We show, by using perturbative renormalization group calculations, that both the effects of the environment on the density and the latter’s feedback on the environment influence the ensuing universal scaling behaviour of the AAPT at its extinction transition. Phenomenological implications of our results in the context of more realistic natural examples are discussed. (paper)

  2. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  3. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway

    Guo-yong Yu; Gui-zhou Zheng; Bo Chang; Qin-xiao Hu; Fei-xiang Lin; De-zhong Liu; Chu-cheng Wu; Shi-xin Du; Xue-dong Li

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic ...

  4. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin

    Jingru Meng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4 promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis.

  5. Green Tea and Bone Marrow Transplantation: From Antioxidant Activity to Enzymatic and Multidrug-resistance Modulation.

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Vitalone, Annabella

    2016-10-25

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main flavonoid of green tea (GT), could play an active role in the prevention of oxidative-stress-related diseases, such as hematologic malignancies. Some effects of EGCG are not imputable to antioxidant activity, but involve modulation of antioxidant enzymes and uric acid (UA) levels. The latter is the major factor responsible of the plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). However, hyperuricemia is a frequent clinical feature caused by tumor lysis syndrome or cyclosporine side effects, both before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Besides this, food-drug interactions could be associated with GT consumption and could have clinical implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the redox and drug metabolizing/transporting pathways were discussed, with particular reference to the potential role of GT and EGCG in BMT. Moreover, on reviewing data on NEAC, isoprostanes, uric acid, and various enzymes from human studies on GT, its extract, or EGCG, an increase in NEAC, without effect on isoprostanes, and contrasting results on UA and enzymes were observed. Currently, few and contrasting available evidences suggest caution for GT consumption in BMT patients and more studies are needed to better understand the potential impact of EGCG on oxidative stress and metabolizing/transporting systems. PMID:26047551

  6. Apoptosis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells caused by homocysteine via activating JNK signal.

    Benzhi Cai

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are capable of homing to and repair damaged myocardial tissues. Apoptosis of BMSCs in response to various pathological stimuli leads to the attenuation of healing ability of BMSCs. Plenty of evidence has shown that elevated homocysteine level is a novel independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate whether homocysteine may induce apoptosis of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms. Here we uncovered that homocysteine significantly inhibited the cellular viability of BMSCs. Furthermore, TUNEL, AO/EB, Hoechst 333342 and Live/Death staining demonstrated the apoptotic morphological appearance of BMSCs after homocysteine treatment. A distinct increase of ROS level was also observed in homocysteine-treated BMSCs. The blockage of ROS by DMTU and NAC prevented the apoptosis of BMSCs induced by homocysteine, indicating ROS was involved in the apoptosis of BMSCs. Moreover, homocysteine also caused the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential of BMSCs. Furthermore, apoptotic appearance and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization in homocysteine-treated BMSCs was significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor but not p38 MAPK and ERK inhibitors. Western blot also confirmed that p-JNK was significantly activated after exposing BMSCs to homocysteine. Homocysteine treatment caused a significant reduction of BMSCs-secreted VEGF and IGF-1 in the culture medium. Collectively, elevated homocysteine induced the apoptosis of BMSCs via ROS-induced the activation of JNK signal, which provides more insight into the molecular mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia-related cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters; Verificacao das doses de radiacao absorvidas durante a tecnica de irradiacao de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula ossea, por meio de dosimetros termoluminescentes

    Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Cristina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Oliveira, Jose Salvador R. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: adelmogiordani@ig.com.br

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. Two-hundred CaSO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon tablets were calibrated in air and in 'phantom'. These tablets were randomly selected and divided in groups of five in the patients' body. The dosimetric readings were obtained using a Harshaw 4000A reader. Nine patients had their entire bodies irradiated in parallel and opposite laterals in a cobalt-60 Alcion II model, with a dose rate of 0.80 Gy/min at 80.5 cm, {l_brace}(10 ? 10) cm{sup 2} field. The dosimetry of this unit was performed using a Victoreen 500 dosimeter. For the determination of the mean dose at each point evaluated, the individual values of the tablets calibrated in air or 'phantom' were used, resulting in a build up of 2 mm to superficialize the dose at a distance of 300 cm. In 70% of the patients a variation of less than 5% in the dose was obtained. In 30% of the patients this variation was less than 10%, when values obtained were compared to the values calculated at each point. A mean absorption of 14% was seen in the head, and an increase of 2% of the administered dose was seen in the lungs. In patients with latero-lateral distance greater than 35 cm the variation between the calculated doses and the measured doses reached 30% of the desired dose, without the use of compensation filters. The measured values of the absorbed doses at the various anatomic points compared to the desired doses (theoretic) presented a tolerance of {+-} 10%, considering the existent anatomical differences and when using the individual calibration factors of the tablets. (author)

  8. Osteogenetic activity in composite grafts of demineralized compact bone and marrow

    The effects of a composite graft of autologous marrow and demineralized autologous compact bone on the healing of a surgically created bone defect were observed in adult rabbits. A segment of the radius was bilaterally resected, demineralized, and replaced. On one side the bone graft was supplemented with autologous marrow. The new bone formation was measured 14 and 28 days after operation by roentgenography, including planimetry with scintigraphy and autoradiography using /sup 99m/Tc-labelled MDP. The composite graft, i.e., demineralized compact bone and marrow, had a significantly higher (p less than 0.01) bone formation rate 14 days after operation compared with the graft with demineralized compact bone in the opposite radius. At 28 days, however, there were no differences between the sides. Viable autologous marrow cells and demineralized autologous compact bone graft accelerate the rate of osteogenesis, but only at the beginning of the healing process

  9. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation in corn canopies

    A portable system that would enable rapid measurement of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) would be useful in studies that include measurements of interception and absorption of PAR in crop canopies. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a portable system for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn (Zea mays L.) canopies. This study consisted of two field experiments with corn planted in north-south rows at two densities with two planting dates in each of 2 yr. The soil was a dark (10YR 4/1) Chalmers silt loam (Typic Argiaquoll). A handle, two levels, and a data logger were added to a line quantum sensor to form a portable system for rapidly measuring the ascending and descending fluxes associated with absorbed PAR (APAR). The effects of sensor orientation and surface length on measurement of transmitted PAR and the errors induced by use of intercepted PAR as an estimate of absorbed PAR were examined. Transmitted PAR (TPAR) was optimally measured with the sensor leveled and positioned perpendicular to the row direction with the length of the sensor equal to the row spacing. Intercepted PAR (IPAR), the difference in descending PAR fluxes above and below the canopy, required fewer measurements than APAR and differed from APAR by the difference between canopy and soil surface reflectances. Prior to the dent stage (R5) of grain maturity, differences between APAR and IPAR were less than 3.5% for this study. Thus IPAR was a reasonable approximation of APAR and required fewer measurements. (author)

  10. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis on Four Semi-Active Dynamic Vibration Absorbers with Time Delay

    Yongjun Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper four semi-active dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs are analytically studied, where the time delay induced by measurement and execution in control procedure is included in the system. The first-order approximate analytical solutions of the four semi-active DVAs are established by the averaging method, based on the illustrated phase difference of the motion parameters. The comparisons between the analytical and the numerical solutions are carried out, which verify the correctness and satisfactory precision of the approximate analytical solutions. Then the effects of the time delay on the dynamical responses are analyzed, and it is found that the stability conditions for the steady-state responses of the primary systems are all periodic functions of time delay, with the same period as the excitation one. At last the effects of time delay on control performance are discussed.

  11. Electroacoustic absorbers: bridging the gap between shunt loudspeakers and active sound absorption.

    Lissek, Hervé; Boulandet, Romain; Fleury, Romain

    2011-05-01

    The acoustic impedance at the diaphragm of an electroacoustic transducer can be varied using a range of basic electrical control strategies, amongst which are electrical shunt circuits. These passive shunt techniques are compared to active acoustic feedback techniques for controlling the acoustic impedance of an electroacoustic transducer. The formulation of feedback-based acoustic impedance control reveals formal analogies with shunt strategies, and highlights an original method for synthesizing electric networks ("shunts") with positive or negative components, bridging the gap between passive and active acoustic impedance control. This paper describes the theory unifying all these passive and active acoustic impedance control strategies, introducing the concept of electroacoustic absorbers. The equivalence between shunts and active control is first formalized through the introduction of a one-degree-of-freedom acoustic resonator accounting for both electric shunts and acoustic feedbacks. Conversely, electric networks mimicking the performances of active feedback techniques are introduced, identifying shunts with active impedance control. Simulated acoustic performances are presented, with an emphasis on formal analogies between the different control techniques. Examples of electric shunts are proposed for active sound absorption. Experimental assessments are then presented, and the paper concludes with a general discussion on the concept and potential improvements. PMID:21568400

  12. Immune targeting of fibroblast activation protein triggers recognition of multipotent bone marrow stromal cells and cachexia

    Chinnasamy, Dhanalakshmi; Yu, Zhiya; Morgan, Richard A.; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a candidate universal target antigen because it has been reported to be selectively expressed in nearly all solid tumors by a subset of immunosuppressive tumor stromal fibroblasts. We verified that 18/18 human tumors of various histologies contained pronounced stromal elements staining strongly for FAP, and hypothesized that targeting tumor stroma with FAP-reactive T cells would inhibit tumor growth in cancer-bearing hosts. T cells genetically engineered with FAP-reactive chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) specifically degranulated and produced effector cytokines upon stimulation with FAP or FAP-expressing cell lines. However, adoptive transfer of FAP-reactive T cells into mice bearing a variety of subcutaneous tumors mediated limited antitumor effects and induced significant cachexia and lethal bone toxicities in two mouse strains. We found that FAP was robustly expressed on PDGFR-α+, Sca-1+ multipotent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in mice, as well as on well-characterized, clinical-grade multipotent human BMSCs. Accordingly, both mouse and human multipotent BMSCs were recognized by FAP-reactive T cells. The lethal bone toxicity and cachexia observed after cell-based immunotherapy targeting FAP cautions against its use as a universal target. Moreover, the expression of FAP by multipotent BMSCs may point toward the cellular origins of tumor stromal fibroblasts. PMID:23712432

  13. MicroRNA-9 promotes the neuronal differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by activating autophagy

    Guang-yu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-9 (miR-9 has been shown to promote the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells, but the precise mechanism is unclear. Our previous study confirmed that increased autophagic activity improved the efficiency of neuronal differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Accumulating evidence reveals that miRNAs adjust the autophagic pathways. This study used miR-9-1 lentiviral vector and miR-9-1 inhibitor to modulate the expression level of miR-9. Autophagic activity and neuronal differentiation were measured by the number of light chain-3 (LC3-positive dots, the ratio of LC3-II/LC3, and the expression levels of the neuronal markers enolase and microtubule-associated protein 2. Results showed that LC3-positive dots, the ratio of LC3-II/LC3, and expression of neuron specific enolase and microtubule-associated protein 2 increased in the miR-9 + group. The above results suggest that autophagic activity increased and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were prone to differentiate into neuronal cells when miR-9 was overexpressed, demonstrating that miR-9 can promote neuronal differentiation by increasing autophagic activity.

  14. MicroRNA-9 promotes the neuronal differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by activating autophagy

    Guang-yu Zhang; Jun Wang; Yan-jie Jia; Rui Han; Ping Li; Deng-na Zhu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) has been shown to promote the differentiation of bone marrow mesen-chymal stem cells into neuronal cells, but the precise mechanism is unclear. Our previous study conifrmed that increased autophagic activity improved the efifciency of neuronal differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Accumulating evidence reveals that miRNAs adjust the autophagic pathways. This study used miR-9-1 lentiviral vector and miR-9-1 inhibitor to modulate the expression level of miR-9. Autophagic activity and neuronal differentiation were measured by the number of light chain-3 (LC3)-positive dots, the ratio of LC3-II/LC3, and the expression levels of the neuronal markers enolase and microtubule-associated protein 2. Re-sults showed that LC3-positive dots, the ratio of LC3-II/LC3, and expression of neuron speciifc enolase and microtubule-associated protein 2 increased in the miR-9+ group. The above results suggest that autophagic activity increased and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were prone to differentiate into neuronal cells when miR-9 was overexpressed, demonstrating that miR-9 can promote neuronal differentiation by increasing autophagic activity.

  15. Absorbed dose and biologically effective dose in patients with high-risk non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with high-activity myeloablative {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin registered)

    Chiesa, C.; Coliva, A.; Maccauro, M.; Seregni, E.; Bombardieri, E. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine Division, Milan (Italy); Botta, F. [University of Milan, Health Physics Postgraduate School, Milan (Italy); Devizzi, L.; Guidetti, A. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, ' ' Cristina Gandini' ' Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy); Carlo-Stella, C.; Gianni, M.A. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, ' ' Cristina Gandini' ' Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Medical Oncology, Milan (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to carry out two different dose estimation approaches in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) treated with a myeloablative amount of {sup 90}Y-labelled ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin registered) in an open-label dose escalation study. Twenty-seven patients with relapsed/refractory or de novo high-risk NHL receiving one myeloablative dose of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan followed by tandem stem cell reinfusion were evaluated for dose estimate. The injected activity was 30 MBq/kg in 12 patients and 45 MBq/kg in 15 patients. Dose estimation was performed 1 week prior to {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan by injection of {sup 111}In-ibritumomab tiuxetan (median activity: 200 MBq). The absorbed dose (D) and the biologically effective dose (BED) were calculated. The absorbed doses per unit activity (Gy/GBq) were [median (range)]: heart wall 4.6 (2.5-9.7), kidneys 5.1 (2.8-10.5), liver 6.1 (3.9-10.4), lungs 2.9 (1.5-6.8), red marrow 1.0 (0.5-1.7), spleen 7.0 (1.5-14.4) and testes 4.9 (2.9-16.7). The absorbed dose (Gy) for the 15 patients treated with 45 MBq/kg were: heart wall 17.0 (8.7-25.4), kidneys 17.1 (7.9-22.4), liver 20.8 (15.4-28.3), lungs 8.1 (5.4-11.4), red marrow 3.1 (2.0-4.0), spleen 26.2 (17.0-35.6) and testes 17.3 (9.0-28.4). At the highest activities the acute haematological toxicity was mild or moderate and of very short duration, and it was independent of the red marrow absorbed dose. No secondary malignancy or treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome was observed. No non-haematological toxicity (liver, kidney, lung) was observed during a follow-up period of 24-48 months. The use of 45 MBq/kg of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in association with stem cell autografting resulted in patients being free of toxicity in non-haematological organs. These clinical findings were in complete agreement with our dose estimations, considering both organ doses and BED values. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity in CFTR-null mice after bone marrow transplantation

    Bruscia, Emanuela M.; Price, Joanna E.; Cheng, Ee-chun; Weiner, Scott; Caputo, Christina; Ferreira, Elisa C.; Egan, Marie E.; Krause, Diane S.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells give rise to rare epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) and respiratory tracts after BM transplantation into myeloablated recipients. We investigate whether, after transplantation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-positive BM-derived cells, BM-derived GI and airway epithelial cells can provide CFTR activity in the GI tract and nasal epithelium of recipient cystic fibrosis mice. CFTR−/− mi...

  17. Intracellular glutathione status regulates mouse bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophage differentiation and phagocytic activity

    Although a redox shift can regulate the development of cells, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, the role of the glutathione (GSH) redox status in macrophage differentiation remains unclear. In order to elucidate the role of a redox shift, macrophage-like cells were differentiated from the bone marrow-derived monocytes that were treated with a macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) for 3 days. The macrophagic cells were characterized by a time-dependent increase in three major symptoms: the number of phagocytic cells, the number of adherent cells, and the mRNA expression of c-fms, a M-CSF receptor that is one of the macrophage-specific markers and mediates development signals. Upon M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation, the GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly lower on day 1 than that observed on day 0 but was constant on days 1-3. To assess the effect of the GSH-depleted and -repleted status on the differentiation and phagocytosis of the macrophages, GSH depletion by BSO, a specific inhibitor of the de novo GSH synthesis, inhibited the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells by the down-regulation of c-fms, but did not affect the phagocytic activity of the macrophages. To the contrary, GSH repletion by the addition of NAC, which is a GSH precursor, or reduced GSH in media had no effect on macrophage differentiation, and led to a decrease in the phagocytic activity. Furthermore, we observed that there is checkpoint that is capable of releasing from the inhibition of the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells according to GSH depletion by BSO. Summarizing, these results indicate that the intracellular GSH status plays an important role in the differentiation and phagocytosis of macrophages

  18. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP is essential for the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through RhoA activation.

    Kuei-Min Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs to migrate and localize specifically to injured tissues is central in developing therapeutic strategies for tissue repair and regeneration. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP is a cell surface serine protease expressed at sites of tissue remodeling during embryonic development. It is also expressed in BM-MSCs, but not in normal tissues or cells. The function of FAP in BM-MSCs is not known. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that depletion of FAP proteins significantly inhibited the migration of BM-MSCs in a transwell chemotaxis assay. Such impaired migration ability of BM-MSCs could be rescued by re-expressing FAP in these cells. We then demonstrated that depletion of FAP activated intracellular RhoA GTPase. Consistently, inhibition of RhoA activity using a RhoA inhibitor rescued its migration ability. Inhibition of FAP activity with an FAP-specific inhibitor did not affect the activation of RhoA or the migration of BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1β and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β upregulated FAP expression, which coincided with better BM-MSC migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate FAP plays an important role in the migration of BM-MSCs through modulation of RhoA GTPase activity. The peptidase activity of FAP is not essential for such migration. Cytokines IL-1β and TGF-β upregulate the expression level of FAP and thus enhance BM-MSC migration.

  19. Evaluation of (antigenotoxic activities of Phyllanthus niruri L. in rat bone marrow using the micronucleus test

    Fernando Márlisson de Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae, known as "quebra-pedra" (Portuguese for "stonebreaker", is an herb used for kidney disorders. In light of its frequent use by the population, the present study aimed to investigate the genotoxic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities of a standardized P. niruri extract in bone marrow rats. Three groups of 12 animals were treated daily by gavage over a period of 30 days, with 50, 150 or 250 mg/kg of P. niruri extract aqueous solution. The control group (n = 12 received tap water. At the end of treatment (day 31, groups were divided into two minor subgroups (n=6/group and received cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg, i.p. or saline 0.9% (i.p.. After 24 hours, we evaluated the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes for each animal (MNPCE at 1000 PCE. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with the PCE/NCE ratio (NEC = normochromatic erythrocytes. General toxicity was assessed during treatment using the parameters of body weight gain, ration and water consumption. The dry extract did not provoke changes in body weight, weight gain, ration and water intake or changes in the frequency of MNPCE or cytotoxicity in bone marrow. We propose that the P. niruri extract used here showed no genotoxic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities under the experimental conditions.Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae, conhecida como "quebra-pedra", é uma planta medicinal utilizada frequentemente pela população no tratamento de problemas renais. Foram avaliadas as atividades genotóxicas, antigenotóxicas e citotóxicas de um extrato padronizado dessa espécie em ratos. Três grupos de doze animais foram tratados durante trinta dias, por gavagem, com 50, 150 ou 250 mg/kg/dia de solução aquosa do extrato de P. niruri e um grupo controle (n=12 recebeu água destilada pela mesma via. No final do tratamento os grupos foram divididos em dois subgrupos (6 animais/grupo e receberam uma dose única de ciclofosfamida (50 mg/kg, i.p. ou de

  20. Structurally-diverse, PPARγ-activating environmental toxicants induce adipogenesis and suppress osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    Environmental obesogens are a newly recognized category of endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been implicated in contributing to the rising rates of obesity in the United States. While obesity is typically regarded as an increase in visceral fat, adipocyte accumulation in the bone has been linked to increased fracture risk, lower bone density, and osteoporosis. Exposure to environmental toxicants that activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a critical regulator of the balance of differentiation between adipogenesis and osteogenesis, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis. However, induction of adipogenesis and suppression of osteogenesis are separable activities of PPARγ, and ligands may selectively alter these activities. It currently is unknown whether suppression of osteogenesis is a common toxic endpoint of environmental PPARγ ligands. Using a primary mouse bone marrow culture model, we tested the hypothesis that environmental toxicants acting as PPARγ agonists divert the differentiation pathway of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells towards adipogenesis and away from osteogenesis. The toxicants tested included the organotins tributyltin and triphenyltin, a ubiquitous phthalate metabolite (mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, MEHP), and two brominated flame retardants (tetrabromobisphenol-a, TBBPA, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, METBP). All of the compounds activated PPARγ1 and 2. All compounds increased adipogenesis (lipid accumulation, Fabp4 expression) and suppressed osteogenesis (alkaline phosphatase activity, Osx expression) in mouse primary bone marrow cultures, but with different potencies and efficacies. Despite structural dissimilarities, there was a strong negative correlation between efficacies to induce adipogenesis and suppress osteogenesis, with the organotins being distinct in their exceptional ability to suppress osteogenesis. As human exposure to a mixture of

  1. In Vivo Chemoprotective Activity of Bovine Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells against Damage Induced by 5-Fluorouracil

    Coronado-Cerda, Erika Evangelina; Franco-Molina, Moisés Armides; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Prado-García, Heriberto; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Rodríguez-Salazar, María del Carmen; Caballero-Hernandez, Diana; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes Silvestre; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatments induce a number of side effects, such as leukopenia neutropenia, peripheral erythropenia, and thrombocytopenia, affecting the quality of life for cancer patients. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is wieldy used as myeloablative model in mice. The bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) or IMMUNEPOTENT CRP® (ICRP) is an immunomodulatory compound that has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. In order to investigate the chemoprotection effect of ICRP on bone marrow cells in 5-FU treated mice, total bone marrow (BM) cell count, bone marrow colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), cell cycle, immunophenotypification, ROS/superoxide and Nrf2 by flow cytometry, and histological and hematological analyses were performed. Our results demonstrated that ICRP increased BM cell count and CFU-GM number, arrested BM cells in G0/G1 phase, increased the percentage of leukocyte, granulocytic, and erythroid populations, reduced ROS/superoxide formation and Nrf2 activation, and also improved hematological levels and weight gain in 5-FU treated mice. These results suggest that ICRP has a chemoprotective effect against 5-FU in BM cells that can be used in cancer patients. PMID:27191003

  2. Aromatic amino acid activation of signaling pathways in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells depends on oxygen tension.

    Mona El Refaey

    Full Text Available The physiologic oxygen pressures inside the bone marrow environment are much lower than what is present in the peripheral circulation, ranging from 1-7%, compared to values as high as 10-13% in the arteries, lungs and liver. Thus, experiments done with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs using standard culture conditions may not accurately reflect the true hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment. However, since aging is associated with an increased generation of reactive oxygen species, experiments done under 21%O2 conditions may actually more closely resemble that of the aging bone marrow environment. Aromatic amino acids are known to be natural anti-oxidants. We have previously reported that aromatic amino acids are potent agonists for stimulating increases in intracellular calcium and phospho-c-Raf and in promoting BMMSC differentiation down the osteogenic pathway. Our previous experiments were performed under normoxic conditions. Thus, we next decided to compare a normoxic (21% O2 vs. a hypoxic environment (3% O2 alone or after treatment with aromatic amino acids. Reverse-phase protein arrays showed that 3% O2 itself up-regulated proliferative pathways. Aromatic amino acids had no additional effect on signaling pathways under these conditions. However, under 21%O2 conditions, aromatic amino acids could now significantly increase these proliferative pathways over this "normoxic" baseline. Pharmacologic studies are consistent with the aromatic amino acids activating the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor. The effects of aromatic amino acids on BMMSC function in the 21% O2 environment is consistent with a potential role for these amino acids in an aging environment as functional anti oxidants.

  3. Determinants of bone marrow adiposity: the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 activity as a central mechanism.

    Sadie-Van Gijsen, H; Hough, F S; Ferris, W F

    2013-10-01

    Although the presence of adipocytes in the bone marrow is a normal physiological phenomenon, the role of these cells in bone homeostasis and during pathological states has not yet been fully delineated. As osteoblasts and adipocytes originate from a common progenitor, with an inverse relationship existing between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis, bone marrow adiposity often negatively correlates with osteoblast number and bone mineral density. Bone adiposity can be affected by several physiological and pathophysiological factors, with abnormal, elevated marrow fat resulting in a pathological state. This review focuses on the regulation of bone adiposity by physiological factors, including aging, mechanical loading and growth factor expression, as well as the pathophysiological factors, including diseases such as anorexia nervosa and dyslipidemia, and pharmacological agents such as thiazolidinediones and statins. Although these factors regulate bone marrow adiposity via a plethora of different intracellular signaling pathways, these diverse pathways often converge on the modulation of the expression and/or activity of the pro-adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2, suggesting that any factor that affects PPAR-γ2 may have an impact on the fat content of bone. PMID:23800517

  4. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways participate in the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction-induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Jinghui Zheng; Jian Liang; Xin Deng; Xiaofeng Chen; Fasheng Wu; Xiaofang Zhao; Yuan Luo; Lei Fu; Zuling Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Our preliminary studies confirmed that an active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction, comprising alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycon, glucoside and volatile oil, can induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into neurons. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling was identified as one of the key pathways underlying this differentiation process. The present study shows phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and phosphorylated p38 protein expression was increased after differentiation. Cellular signaling pathway blocking agents, PD98059 and SB203580, inhibited extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways respectively. mRNA and protein expression of the neuronal marker, neuron specific enolase, and neural stem cell marker, nestin, were decreased in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after treatment with the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction. Experimental findings indicate that, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways participate in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into neuron-like cells, induced by the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction.

  5. Transforming growth factor-β inhibits CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein expression and PPARγ activity in unloaded bone marrow stromal cells

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vivo remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-β2) on transcription factors involved in adipogenic differentiation induced by hind limb suspension in rat bone marrow stromal cells in vivo. Time course real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of gene expression showed that skeletal unloading progressively increases the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α and C/EBPβ α at 5 days in bone marrow stromal cells resulting in increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ2) transcripts at 7 days. TGF-β2 administration in unloaded rats corrected the rise in C/EBPα and C/EBPβ transcripts induced by unloading in bone marrow stromal cells. This resulted in inhibition of PPARγ2 expression that was associated with increased Runx2 expression. Additionally, the inhibition of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ expression by TGF-β2 was associated with increased PPARγ serine phosphorylation in bone marrow stromal cells, a mechanism that inhibits PPARγ transactivating activity. The sequential inhibitory effect of TGF-β2 on C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and PPARγ2 resulted in reduced LPL expression and abolition of bone marrow stromal cell adipogenic differentiation, which contributed to prevent bone loss induced by skeletal unloading. We conclude that TGF-β2 inhibits the excessive adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells induced by skeletal unloading by inhibiting C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and PPARγ expression and activity, which provides a sequential mechanism by which TGF-β2 regulates adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vivo

  6. Fractional absorption of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa) and calcium carbonate measured by a dual stable-isotope method

    With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In ...

  7. Proliferative activity of vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells

    Vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cell population cultured in Fischer's medium supplemented with 12.5% fetal calf serum and 12.5% horse serum consists of two cell shapes: fusiform (type I) and polygonal (type II). Limiting-dilution cloning of the cells suggested that the two morphologically distinct cell types belong to the same cellular system even though they differ in their proliferative capabilities. The labeling index of type II cells, as measured by autoradiography, was found to be consistently lower than that of type I cells. It is probable that these two phenotypes represent different stages of differentiation, where progenitor type I gives rise to type II cells. The bone marrow-derived adherent cells were found to be cytokinetically at rest in vivo, using the thymidine suicide test, and relatively radioresistant with a D0 = 2.1 Gy and n = 2.36 at the time of explantation from the bone. Furthermore, in culture these cells are characterized by a relatively long cell cycle of 60 h, where the length of the S phase is 30 h, G2 is 12 h, M is 6 h, and G1 is 12 h. Thus, the vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells represent a cell population with a low turnover rate both in vivo and in vitro

  8. FEEDBACK FROM MASS OUTFLOWS IN NEARBY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. ULTRAVIOLET AND X-RAY ABSORBERS

    We present an investigation into the impact of feedback from outflowing UV and X-ray absorbers in nearby (z out) and kinetic luminosity (LKE) for each AGN, summed over all of its absorbers. These calculations make use of values (or limits) for the radial locations of the absorbers determined from variability, excited-state absorption, and other considerations. From a sample of 10 Seyfert 1 galaxies with detailed photoionization models for their absorbers, we find that 7 have sufficient constraints on the absorber locations to determine M-dotout and LKE. For the low-luminosity AGN NGC 4395, these values are low, although we do not have sufficient constraints on the X-ray absorbers to make definitive conclusions. At least five of the six Seyfert 1s with moderate bolometric luminosities (Lbol = 1043 – 1045 erg s–1) have mass outflow rates that are 10-1000 times the mass accretion rates needed to generate their observed luminosities, indicating that most of the mass outflow originates from outside the inner accretion disk. Three of these (NGC 4051, NGC 3516, and NGC 3783) have LKE in the range 0.5%-5% Lbol, which is the range typically required by feedback models for efficient self-regulation of black hole and galactic bulge growth. At least two of the other three (NGC 5548, NGC 4151, and NGC 7469) have LKE ∼> 0.1%Lbol, although these values may increase if radial locations can be determined for more of the absorbers. We conclude that the outflowing UV and X-ray absorbers in moderate-luminosity AGNs have the potential to deliver significant feedback to their environments.

  9. Buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting for electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Chongxiao; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Regenerative semi-active suspensions can capture the previously dissipated vibration energy and convert it to usable electrical energy for powering on-board electronic devices, while achieve both the better ride comfort and improved road handling performance at the same time when certain control is applied. To achieve this objective, the power electronics interface circuit connecting the energy harvester and the electrical loads, which can perform simultaneous vibration control and energy harvesting function is in need. This paper utilized a buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting with electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber, which utilizes a rotational generator to converter the vibration energy to electricity. It has been found that when the circuit works in discontinuous current mode (DCM), the ratio between the input voltage and current is only related to the duty cycle of the switch pulse width modulation signal. Using this property, the buck-boost converter can be used to perform semi-active vibration control by controlling the load connected between the terminals of the generator in the electromagnetic shock absorber. While performing the vibration control, the circuit always draw current from the shock absorber and the suspension remain dissipative, and the shock absorber takes no additional energy to perform the vibration control. The working principle and dynamics of the circuit has been analyzed and simulations were performed to validate the concept.

  10. A contribution to the investigation of the heat load of shock absorbers of semi-active suspensions in motor vehicles

    Miroslav D. Demić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modeling, has a significant role during the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant vehicle parameters are to be defined. Shock absorbers as executive parts of vehicle semi-active suspension systems suffer thermal loads, which may result in damage and degradation of ther characteristics. Therefore,this paper shows an attempt to analyze converting of mechanical work into heat by using the dynamic simulation method. Introduction Shock absorbers are integral elements of semi-active suspension systems for vehicles (hereinafter SASS. They directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of shock absorbers is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the road and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. The kinetic energy of vehicle vibrations transforms into mechanical work or heat in shock absorbers. In practice, in the first stage of vehicle development, the shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping vibrations of vehicles, but their thermal shock loads should be also taken into account. Motor vehicles have complex dynamic characteristics manifested by spatial movement, parameters change during operation, a number of disturbing influences, backlash, friction, hysteresis, etc. The above-mentioned dynamic phenomena, especially vibration, lead to fatigue of driver and users, reduce the life of the vehicle and its systems, etc. The main objective of the system is to reduce the reliance of the above-mentioned negative effects, improving the vehicle behavior on the road and allow the exploitation of vehicles in a wide range of service conditions. Classical systems cannot satisfiy these conditions, so there was a need to introduce new suspension systems with controlled characteristics (briefly called "semi-active", or "active" systems. Oscillatory model of vehicle The differential equations of vibratory motion of

  11. Time-dependent changes in 18F-FDG activity in the thymus and bone marrow following combination chemotherapy in paediatric patients with lymphoma

    To investigate the time-dependent changes in 18F-FDG uptake by the thymus and marrow following combination chemotherapy for lymphoma in a paediatric study population. Included in the study were 27 paediatric patients who were in complete metabolic remission after chemotherapy and who underwent off-therapy follow-up with serial whole-body PET-CT scans. A total of 142 PET-CT scans were recorded. 18F-FDG uptake by the thymus and marrow was assessed both visually and semiquantitatively. Visual uptake was scored on the three-dimensional maximum intensity projection of the whole-body PET image according to a three-point scale. For the semiquantitative assessment, standard uptake values were measured. To find a pattern in the 18F-FDG uptake by the thymus and marrow a moving average technique was applied. Our time series analysis indicated that the marrow activity was highest at cessation of chemotherapy and declined thereafter. During an off-chemotherapy period of on average 6 months, marrow activity decreased quickly. From 6 months onward, the activity declined more slowly. The posttherapy changes in 18F-FDG uptake by the thymus were quite different from the changes in uptake by the marrow. The lowest thymic FDG uptake was found at cessation of chemotherapy. Thereafter, thymic activity steadily increased, reached a peak on average 10 months after therapy, and then slowly decreased. Knowledge of the time-dependent changes in metabolic activity in the thymus and marrow is important to avoid misinterpretation of increased 18F-FDG uptake as disease in the off-therapy setting. (orig.)

  12. A Humanized Mouse Identifies the Bone Marrow as a Niche with Low Therapeutic IgG Activity

    Anja Lux

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic differences between humans and in vivo model systems, including mice and nonhuman primates, make it difficult to predict the efficacy of immunoglobulin G (IgG activity in humans and understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying that activity. To bridge this gap, we established a small-animal model system that allowed us to study human IgG effector functions in the context of an intact human immune system without the interference of murine Fcγ receptors expressed on mouse innate immune effector cells in vivo. Using a model of B cell depletion with different human IgG variants that recognize CD20, we show that this humanized mouse model can provide unique insights into the mechanism of human IgG activity in vivo. Importantly, these studies identify the bone marrow as a niche with low therapeutic IgG activity.

  13. Bone marrow stromal cells from multiple myeloma patients uniquely induce bortezomib resistant NF-κB activity in myeloma cells

    Kim KyungMann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Components of the microenvironment such as bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are well known to support multiple myeloma (MM disease progression and resistance to chemotherapy including the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. However, functional distinctions between BMSCs in MM patients and those in disease-free marrow are not completely understood. We and other investigators have recently reported that NF-κB activity in primary MM cells is largely resistant to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and that further enhancement of NF-κB by BMSCs is similarly resistant to bortezomib and may mediate resistance to this therapy. The mediating factor(s of this bortezomib-resistant NF-κB activity is induced by BMSCs is not currently understood. Results Here we report that BMSCs specifically derived from MM patients are capable of further activating bortezomib-resistant NF-κB activity in MM cells. This induced activity is mediated by soluble proteinaceous factors secreted by MM BMSCs. Among the multiple factors evaluated, interleukin-8 was secreted by BMSCs from MM patients at significantly higher levels compared to those from non-MM sources, and we found that IL-8 contributes to BMSC-induced NF-κB activity. Conclusions BMSCs from MM patients uniquely enhance constitutive NF-κB activity in MM cells via a proteinaceous secreted factor in part in conjunction with IL-8. Since NF-κB is known to potentiate MM cell survival and confer resistance to drugs including bortezomib, further identification of the NF-κB activating factors produced specifically by MM-derived BMSCs may provide a novel biomarker and/or drug target for the treatment of this commonly fatal disease.

  14. Estimation of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation net production efficiency using satellite data

    The amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by green vegetation is an important determinant of photosynthesis and growth. Methods for the estimation of fractional absorption of PAR (iffPAR) for areas greater than 1 km2 using satellite data are discussed, and are applied to sites in the Sahel that have a sparse herb layer and tree cover of less than 5%. Using harvest measurements of seasonal net production, net production efficiencies are calculated. Variation in estimates of seasonal PAR absorption (APAR) caused by the atmospheric correction method and relationship between surface reflectances and iffPAR is considered. The use of maximum value composites of satellite NDVI to reduce the effect of the atmosphere is shown to produce inaccurate APAR estimates. In this data set, however, atmospheric correction using average optical depths was found to give good approximations of the fully corrected data. A simulation of canopy radiative transfer using the SAIL model was used to derive a relationship between canopy NDVI and iffPAR. Seasonal APAR estimates assuming a 1:1 relationship between iffPAR and NDVI overestimated the SAIL modeled results by up to 260%. The use of a modified 1:1 relationship, where iffPAR was assumed to be linearly related to NDVI scaled between minimum (soil) and maximum (infinite canopy) values, underestimated the SAIL modeled results by up to 35%. Estimated net production efficiencies (ϵn, dry matter per unit APAR) fell in the range 0.12–1.61 g MJ−1 for above ground production, and in the range 0.16–1.88 g MJ−1 for total production. Sites with lower rainfall had reduced efficiencies, probably caused by physiological constraints on photosynthesis during dry conditions. (author)

  15. Predicting trace organic compound breakthrough in granular activated carbon using fluorescence and UV absorbance as surrogates.

    Anumol, Tarun; Sgroi, Massimiliano; Park, Minkyu; Roccaro, Paolo; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the applicability of bulk organic parameters like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and total fluorescence (TF) to act as surrogates in predicting trace organic compound (TOrC) removal by granular activated carbon in water reuse applications. Using rapid small-scale column testing, empirical linear correlations for thirteen TOrCs were determined with DOC, UV254, and TF in four wastewater effluents. Linear correlations (R(2) > 0.7) were obtained for eight TOrCs in each water quality in the UV254 model, while ten TOrCs had R(2) > 0.7 in the TF model. Conversely, DOC was shown to be a poor surrogate for TOrC breakthrough prediction. When the data from all four water qualities was combined, good linear correlations were still obtained with TF having higher R(2) than UV254 especially for TOrCs with log Dow>1. Excellent linear relationship (R(2) > 0.9) between log Dow and the removal of TOrC at 0% surrogate removal (y-intercept) were obtained for the five neutral TOrCs tested in this study. Positively charged TOrCs had enhanced removals due to electrostatic interactions with negatively charged GAC that caused them to deviate from removals that would be expected with their log Dow. Application of the empirical linear correlation models to full-scale samples provided good results for six of seven TOrCs (except meprobamate) tested when comparing predicted TOrC removal by UV254 and TF with actual removals for GAC in all the five samples tested. Surrogate predictions using UV254 and TF provide valuable tools for rapid or on-line monitoring of GAC performance and can result in cost savings by extended GAC run times as compared to using DOC breakthrough to trigger regeneration or replacement. PMID:25792436

  16. Effect of Super Absorbent Application on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars under Water Stress Conditions

    H. R. Tohidi-Moghadam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Drought stress significantly limits Canola (Brassica napus L. growth and crop productivity. Hence, efficient management of soil moisture and study metabolic changes which occur in response to drought is important for agricultural production of this Crop. Approach: For a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improving soil water content management strategies, an experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with factorial spilt arrangement with tree replications. Results: Irrigation strategy and super absorbent application were allotted to main plots. Irrigation strategy had two levels: 80% of evaporation as control (I1, drought stress started from flowering stage (I2 Application of super absorbent had two levels: Non-application of super absorbent as control (S1, application of super absorbent with 7% concentration. Cultivars (Rgs003 (V1, Sarigol (V2, Option500 (V3, Hyola401 (V4, Hyola330 (V5, Hyola420 (V6 were allotted to sub plots. Plants under water deficit stress and application of super absorbent showed a significant increase and decrease, respectively, in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in leaves compared with control plants. In this context, plants with higher levels of antioxidants showed higher resistance to these stress conditions and higher yield and dry matter allocation to grain filling process i.e. harvest index. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our results suggested that drought stress leads to production of oxygen radicals, which results in increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the plant. In conclusion of present study, Application of super absorbent polymer could reserve different amounts of water in itself and so increases the soil ability of water storing and preserving and at last in water deficiency, produce plant water need and approve its growth under postanthesis water deficiency.

  17. Parallels between immune driven-hematopoiesis and T cell activation: 3 signals that relay inflammatory stress to the bone marrow

    Libregts, Sten F.W.M.; Nolte, Martijn A., E-mail: m.nolte@sanquin.nl

    2014-12-10

    Quiescence, self-renewal, lineage commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) towards fully mature blood cells are a complex process that involves both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. During steady-state conditions, most hematopoietic signals are provided by various resident cells inside the bone marrow (BM), which establish the HSC micro-environment. However, upon infection, the hematopoietic process is also affected by pathogens and activated immune cells, which illustrates an effective feedback mechanism to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) via immune-mediated signals. Here, we review the impact of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), costimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines on the quiescence, proliferation and differentiation of HSCs and more committed progenitors. As modulation of HSPC function via these immune-mediated signals holds an interesting parallel with the “three-signal-model” described for the activation and differentiation of naïve T-cells, we propose a novel “three-signal” concept for immune-driven hematopoiesis. In this model, the recognition of PAMPs and DAMPs will activate HSCs and induce proliferation, while costimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines confer a second and third signal, respectively, which further regulate expansion, lineage commitment and differentiation of HSPCs. We review the impact of inflammatory stress on hematopoiesis along these three signals and we discuss whether they act independently from each other or that concurrence of these signals is important for an adequate response of HSPCs upon infection. - Highlights: • Inflammation and infection have a direct impact on hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. • We draw a striking parallel between immune-driven hematopoiesis and T cell activation. • We review how PAMPs and DAMPs, costimulation and cytokines influence HSPC function.

  18. Parallels between immune driven-hematopoiesis and T cell activation: 3 signals that relay inflammatory stress to the bone marrow

    Quiescence, self-renewal, lineage commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) towards fully mature blood cells are a complex process that involves both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. During steady-state conditions, most hematopoietic signals are provided by various resident cells inside the bone marrow (BM), which establish the HSC micro-environment. However, upon infection, the hematopoietic process is also affected by pathogens and activated immune cells, which illustrates an effective feedback mechanism to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) via immune-mediated signals. Here, we review the impact of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), costimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines on the quiescence, proliferation and differentiation of HSCs and more committed progenitors. As modulation of HSPC function via these immune-mediated signals holds an interesting parallel with the “three-signal-model” described for the activation and differentiation of naïve T-cells, we propose a novel “three-signal” concept for immune-driven hematopoiesis. In this model, the recognition of PAMPs and DAMPs will activate HSCs and induce proliferation, while costimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines confer a second and third signal, respectively, which further regulate expansion, lineage commitment and differentiation of HSPCs. We review the impact of inflammatory stress on hematopoiesis along these three signals and we discuss whether they act independently from each other or that concurrence of these signals is important for an adequate response of HSPCs upon infection. - Highlights: • Inflammation and infection have a direct impact on hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. • We draw a striking parallel between immune-driven hematopoiesis and T cell activation. • We review how PAMPs and DAMPs, costimulation and cytokines influence HSPC function

  19. Altered bone marrow activity: potential cause of flase-positive indium-111-labeled leukocyte image patterns in complicated cases of suspected osteomyelitis

    This paper determines the frequency with which altered bone marrow distribution might cause false-positive In-111-labeled white blood cell (In-111 WBC) localization patterns at suspected sits of osteomyelitis. Bone/bone marrow cultures were used in each of 74 patients to establish the presence of infection. Thirty-eight patients had nonunited fractures, 26 had painful prostheses, and 10 had prior osteomyelitis. Tc-99 m albumin colloid (Tc-99 m AC) bone marrow imaging was done in 18 patients initially considered to have osteomyelitis by In-111 WBC/Tc-99 m MDP imaging. All 18 had undergone prior internal fixation, bone grafting, or prosthesis removal. Studies were defined positive for osteomyelitis when In-111 WBC activity exceeded Tc-99 m AC activity in extent or focal intensity (discordant)

  20. Concentration activities of natural radionuclides in three fish species in Brazilian coast and their contributions to the absorbed doses

    Activity concentrations of U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Th-232 e Ra-228 were analysed in three fish species at the Brasilian Coast. The fish 'Cubera snapper' (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828), in the region of Ceara and 'Whitemouth croaker' (Micropogonias furnieri, Desmarest, 1823) and 'Lebranche mullet' (Mugil liza, Valenciennes, 1836) in the region of Rio de Janeiro. These concentrations were transformed in absorbed dose rate using a dose conversion factor in unit of gray per year (μGy y-1), per becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg-1). Only the absorbed dose due to intake of radionuclides was examined, and the contributions due to radionuclides present in water and sediment were disregarded. The radionuclides were considered to be uniformly distributed in the fish body. The limit of the dose rate used, proposed by the Department of Energy of the USA, is equal to 3.65 1003 mGy y-1. The average dose rate due to the studied radionuclides is equal to 6.09 1000 μGy y-1, a value minor than 0.1% than the limits indicated by DOE, and quite similar to that found in the literature for 'benthic' fish. The most important radionuclides were the alpha emitters Ra-226 having 61 % of absorbed dose rate. U-238 and Th-232, each contributes with approximately 20 % of the absorbed dose rate. These three radionuclides are responsible for almost 100% of the dose rate received by the studied organisms. The beta emitters Ra-228 and Pb-210 account for approximately 1 % of the absorbed dose rate. (author)

  1. X-ray outflows of active galactic nuclei warm absorbers: A 900 ks Chandra simulated spectrum

    Ramirez-Velasquez, J M

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of the statistical, X-ray absorption lines identification procedure XLINE-ID. As illustration, it is used to estimate the time averaged gas density $n_H(r)$ of a representative AGN's warm absorber ($T\\approx 10^5$~K) X-ray simulated spectrum. The method relies on three key ingredients: (1) a well established emission continuum level; (2) a robust grid of photoionisation models spanning several orders of magnitude in gas density ($n_H$), plasma column density ($N_H$), and in ionization states; (3) theoretical curves of growth for a large set of atomic lines. By comparing theoretical and observed equivalent widths of a large set of lines, spanning highly ionized charge states from O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, and the Fe L-shell and K-shell, we are able to infer the location of the X-ray warm absorber.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Contaminant Risk on Bone Marrow Aspiration Material from Iliac Bone Patients with Active Tuberculous Spondylitis

    Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim; Tri Kurniawati; Andriansjah Rukmana

    2016-01-01

    There was a concern on Mycobacterium tuberculosis spreading to the bone marrow, when it was applied on tuberculous spine infection. This research aimed to study the probability of using autologous bone marrow as a source of mesenchymal stem cell for patients with tuberculous spondylitis. As many as nine patients with tuberculous spondylitis were used as samples. During the procedure, the vertebral lesion material and iliac bone marrow aspirates were obtained for acid fast staining, bacteria c...

  3. X-ray outflows of active galactic nuclei warm absorbers: A 900 ks Chandra simulated spectrum

    Ramirez-Velasquez, J. M.; Garcia, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of the statistical, X-ray absorption lines identification procedure XLINE-ID. As illustration, it is used to estimate the time averaged gas density $n_H(r)$ of a representative AGN's warm absorber ($T\\approx 10^5$~K) X-ray simulated spectrum. The method relies on three key ingredients: (1) a well established emission continuum level; (2) a robust grid of photoionisation models spanning several orders of magnitude in gas density ($n_H$), plasma column density ($N_H...

  4. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway

    Guo-yong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling, the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1, adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway.

  5. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway.

    Yu, Guo-Yong; Zheng, Gui-Zhou; Chang, Bo; Hu, Qin-Xiao; Lin, Fei-Xiang; Liu, De-Zhong; Wu, Chu-Cheng; Du, Shi-Xin; Li, Xue-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling), the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1), adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL) increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27069482

  6. The changes of cardioelectrical activity of rat with myocardial infarction receiving sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase gene modified bone marrow stem cell transplantation by microelectrode array technology

    范平

    2012-01-01

    Objective Therapy effects and cardiac electrical activity comparison of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) gene modified BMSCs transplantation after acute myocardial infarction(AMI) in rats.Methods Rats with AMI were divided

  7. Ceacam1 separates graft-versus-host-disease from graft-versus-tumor activity after experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Sydney X Lu

    Full Text Available Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT is a potentially curative therapy for a variety of hematologic diseases, but benefits, including graft-versus-tumor (GVT activity are limited by graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD. Carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 (Ceacam1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein found on epithelium, T cells, and many tumors. It regulates a variety of physiologic and pathological processes such as tumor biology, leukocyte activation, and energy homeostasis. Previous studies suggest that Ceacam1 negatively regulates inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease models.We studied Ceacam1 as a regulator of GVHD and GVT after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT in mouse models. In vivo, Ceacam1(-/- T cells caused increased GVHD mortality and GVHD of the colon, and greater numbers of donor T cells were positive for activation markers (CD25(hi, CD62L(lo. Additionally, Ceacam1(-/- CD8 T cells had greater expression of the gut-trafficking integrin α(4β(7, though both CD4 and CD8 T cells were found increased numbers in the gut post-transplant. Ceacam1(-/- recipients also experienced increased GVHD mortality and GVHD of the colon, and alloreactive T cells displayed increased activation. Additionally, Ceacam1(-/- mice had increased mortality and decreased numbers of regenerating small intestinal crypts upon radiation exposure. Conversely, Ceacam1-overexpressing T cells caused attenuated target-organ and systemic GVHD, which correlated with decreased donor T cell numbers in target tissues, and mortality. Finally, graft-versus-tumor survival in a Ceacam1(+ lymphoma model was improved in animals receiving Ceacam1(-/- vs. control T cells.We conclude that Ceacam1 regulates T cell activation, GVHD target organ damage, and numbers of donor T cells in lymphoid organs and GVHD target tissues. In recipients of allo-BMT, Ceacam1 may also regulate tissue radiosensitivity. Because of its expression on both the

  8. Classically and alternatively activated bone marrow derived macrophages differ in cytoskeletal functions and migration towards specific CNS cell types

    Dijkstra Christine D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play an important role in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS and spinal cord injury (SCI, being involved in both damage and repair. The divergent effects of macrophages might be explained by their different activation status: classically activated (CA/M1, pro-inflammatory, macrophages and alternatively activated (AA/M2, growth promoting, macrophages. Little is known about the effect of macrophages with these phenotypes in the central nervous system (CNS and how they influence pathogenesis. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the characteristics of these phenotypically different macrophages in the context of the CNS in an in vitro setting. Results Here we show that bone marrow derived CA and AA macrophages have a distinct migratory capacity towards medium conditioned by various cell types of the CNS. AA macrophages were preferentially attracted by the low weight ( Conclusion In conclusion, since AA macrophages are more motile and are attracted by NCM, they are prone to migrate towards neurons in the CNS. CA macrophages have a lower motility and a stronger adhesion to ECM. In neuroinflammatory diseases the restricted migration and motility of CA macrophages might limit lesion size due to bystander damage.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Contaminant Risk on Bone Marrow Aspiration Material from Iliac Bone Patients with Active Tuberculous Spondylitis

    Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There was a concern on Mycobacterium tuberculosis spreading to the bone marrow, when it was applied on tuberculous spine infection. This research aimed to study the probability of using autologous bone marrow as a source of mesenchymal stem cell for patients with tuberculous spondylitis. As many as nine patients with tuberculous spondylitis were used as samples. During the procedure, the vertebral lesion material and iliac bone marrow aspirates were obtained for acid fast staining, bacteria culture, and PCR (polymerase chain reaction tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia. This research showed that there was a relationship between diagnostic confirmation of tuberculous spondylitis based on the PCR test and bacterial culture on the solid vertebral lesion material with the PCR test and bacterial culture from the bone marrow aspirates. If the diagnostic confirmation concluded positive results, then there was a higher probability that there would be a positive result for the bone marrow aspirates, so that it was not recommended to use autologous bone marrow as a source of mesenchymal stem cell for patients with tuberculous spondylitis unless the PCR and culture examination of the bone marrow showed a negative result.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Contaminant Risk on Bone Marrow Aspiration Material from Iliac Bone Patients with Active Tuberculous Spondylitis.

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Kurniawati, Tri; Rukmana, Andriansjah

    2016-01-01

    There was a concern on Mycobacterium tuberculosis spreading to the bone marrow, when it was applied on tuberculous spine infection. This research aimed to study the probability of using autologous bone marrow as a source of mesenchymal stem cell for patients with tuberculous spondylitis. As many as nine patients with tuberculous spondylitis were used as samples. During the procedure, the vertebral lesion material and iliac bone marrow aspirates were obtained for acid fast staining, bacteria culture, and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia. This research showed that there was a relationship between diagnostic confirmation of tuberculous spondylitis based on the PCR test and bacterial culture on the solid vertebral lesion material with the PCR test and bacterial culture from the bone marrow aspirates. If the diagnostic confirmation concluded positive results, then there was a higher probability that there would be a positive result for the bone marrow aspirates, so that it was not recommended to use autologous bone marrow as a source of mesenchymal stem cell for patients with tuberculous spondylitis unless the PCR and culture examination of the bone marrow showed a negative result. PMID:27294117

  11. Benzene activates caspase-4 and -12 at the transcription level, without an association with apoptosis, in mouse bone marrow cells lacking the p53 gene

    Yi, Jung-Yeon; Han, Jeong-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Il [Kangwon National University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Chuncheon, Gangwon (Korea); Hirabayashi, Yoko; Kodama, Yukio; Kanno, Jun [National Institute of Health Sciences, Division of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Center for Biological Safety and Research, Tokyo (Japan); Choi, Yang-Kyu [Konkuk University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Inoue, Tohru [National Institute of Health Sciences, Biological Safety and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    level of mRNA and proteins. These results indicated that upregulation of caspase-4 and -12 in mice lacking the p53 gene is not associated with cellular apoptosis. In conclusion, caspase-4 and -12 can be activated by benzene treatment without inducing cell apoptosis in mouse bone marrow, which are partly under the regulation of the p53 gene. (orig.)

  12. Role of erythropoietin in the angiogenic activity of bone marrow endothelial cells of MGUS and multiple myeloma patients.

    Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Ferrucci, Arianna; Ria, Roberto; Ruggieri, Simona; Racanelli, Vito; Rao, Luigia; Annese, Tiziana; Nico, Beatrice; Vacca, Angelo; Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-03-22

    Increasing evidences suggest several biological roles for erythropoietin and its receptor (Epo and EpoR), unrelated to erythropoiesis, including angiogenesis. Here, we detected the expression of EpoR in bone marrow-derived endothelial cells from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) patients (MGECs and MMECs, respectively) and assessed whether Epo plays a role in MGECs- and MMECs-mediated angiogenesis. We show that EpoR is expressed by both MGECs and MMECs even though at a higher level in the first ones. Both EC types respond to rHuEpo in terms of cell proliferation, whereas other responses, including activation of JAK2/STAT5 and PI3K/Akt pathways, cell migration and capillarogenesis are enhanced by Epo in MGECs, but not in MMECs. In addition, the conditioned media of both Epo-treated cells induce a strong angiogenic response in vivo in the chorioallantoic membrane assay, comparable to that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Overall, these data highlight the effect of Epo on MGECs- and MMECs-mediated angiogenesis: MGECs are more responsive to Epo treatment than MMECs, probably because over-angiogenic phenotype of MMECs is already activated by their autocrine/paracrine loops occurring in the "angiogenic switch" from MGUS. PMID:26919105

  13. Role of erythropoietin in the angiogenic activity of bone marrow endothelial cells of MGUS and multiple myeloma patients

    Ferrucci, Arianna; Ria, Roberto; Ruggieri, Simona; Racanelli, Vito; Rao, Luigia; Annese, Tiziana; Nico, Beatrice; Vacca, Angelo; Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences suggest several biological roles for erythropoietin and its receptor (Epo and EpoR), unrelated to erythropoiesis, including angiogenesis. Here, we detected the expression of EpoR in bone marrow-derived endothelial cells from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) patients (MGECs and MMECs, respectively) and assessed whether Epo plays a role in MGECs- and MMECs-mediated angiogenesis. We show that EpoR is expressed by both MGECs and MMECs even though at a higher level in the first ones. Both EC types respond to rHuEpo in terms of cell proliferation, whereas other responses, including activation of JAK2/STAT5 and PI3K/Akt pathways, cell migration and capillarogenesis are enhanced by Epo in MGECs, but not in MMECs. In addition, the conditioned media of both Epo-treated cells induce a strong angiogenic response in vivo in the chorioallantoic membrane assay, comparable to that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Overall, these data highlight the effect of Epo on MGECs- and MMECs-mediated angiogenesis: MGECs are more responsive to Epo treatment than MMECs, probably because over-angiogenic phenotype of MMECs is already activated by their autocrine/paracrine loops occurring in the “angiogenic switch” from MGUS. PMID:26919105

  14. Active-to-absorbing-state phase transition in the presence of fluctuating environments: weak and strong dynamic scaling.

    Sarkar, Niladri; Basu, Abhik

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of phase transitions between survival and extinction (active-to-absorbing-state phase transition, AAPT) in a model that by itself belongs to the directed percolation (DP) universality class, interacting with a spatiotemporally fluctuating environment having its own nontrivial dynamics. We model the environment by (i) a randomly stirred fluid, governed by the Navier-Stokes (NS) equation, and (ii) a fluctuating surface, described either by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) or the Edward-Wilkinson (EW) equations. We show, by using a one-loop perturbative field theoretic setup that, depending upon the spatial scaling of the variance of the external forces that drive the environment (i.e., the NS, KPZ, or EW equations), the system may show weak or strong dynamic scaling at the critical point of active-to-absorbing-state phase transitions. In the former case AAPT displays scaling belonging to the DP universality class, whereas in the latter case the universal behavior is different. PMID:23005737

  15. Negative impedance shunted electromagnetic absorber for broadband absorbing: experimental investigation

    The traditional tuned mass absorber is widely employed to control the vibration of a primary structure by transferring the vibrating energy to the absorber. However, the working band of the absorber is very narrow, which limits the application of broadband vibration control. This study presents a novel broadband electromagnetic absorber by first introducing two negative impedance shunts to improve broadband damping of the absorber. The electromagnetic absorber is modeled, and the corresponding electromagnetic coupling coefficient is tested. A cantilever beam is employed to verify the broadband vibration absorption of the negative resistance (NR) shunted electromagnetic absorber (NR absorber) and the negative inductance NR shunted electromagnetic absorber (NINR absorber). The governing equations of the beam with two absorbers are derived, and the experiments are set up. The results point out that the NR and NINR absorbers can attenuate the broadband vibration. The proposed absorbers do not need the feedback system and the real-time controller compared to the active absorber; hence, they have great application potential in aerospace and in submarine applications, as well as in civil and mechanical engineering. (paper)

  16. Soluble perlecan domain i enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-165 activity and receptor phosphorylation in human bone marrow endothelial cells

    Gomes Ronald R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immobilized recombinant perlecan domain I (PlnDI binds and modulates the activity of heparin-binding growth factors, in vitro. However, activities for PlnDI, in solution, have not been reported. In this study, we assessed the ability of soluble forms to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165 enhanced capillary tube-like formation, and VEGF receptor-2 phosphorylation of human bone marrow endothelial cells, in vitro. Results In solution, PlnDI binds VEGF165 in a heparan sulfate and pH dependent manner. Capillary tube-like formation is enhanced by exogenous PlnDI; however, PlnDI/VEGF165 mixtures combine to enhance formation beyond that stimulated by either PlnDI or VEGF165 alone. PlnDI also stimulates VEGF receptor-2 phosphorylation, and mixtures of PlnDI/VEGF165 reduce the time required for peak VEGF receptor-2 phosphorylation (Tyr-951, and increase Akt phosphorylation. PlnDI binds both immobilized neuropilin-1 and VEGF receptor-2, but has a greater affinity for neuropilin-1. PlnDI binding to neuropilin-1, but not to VEGF receptor-2 is dependent upon the heparan sulfate chains adorning PlnDI. Interestingly, the presence of VEGF165 but not VEGF121 significantly enhances PlnDI binding to Neuropilin-1 and VEGF receptor-2. Conclusions Our observations suggest soluble forms of PlnDI are biologically active. Moreover, PlnDI heparan sulfate chains alone or together with VEGF165 can enhance VEGFR-2 signaling and angiogenic events, in vitro. We propose PlnDI liberated during basement membrane or extracellular matrix turnover may have similar activities, in vivo.

  17. Bone marrow biopsy

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  18. Differences in xenobiotic detoxifying activities between bone marrow stromal cells from mice and rats: Implications for benzene-induced hematotoxicity

    Zhu, Hong; Li, Yunbo; Trush, M.A. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    benzene is a human carcinogen; exposure can result in aplastic anemia and leukemia. Data from animal models are frequently used in benzene risk assessment. In rodent studies, mice are more sensitive to benzene-induced hematotoxicity than rats. Bone marrow stromal cells from mice were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxicity induced by the benzene metabolites hydroquinone (HQ) and benzoquinone (BQ) than cells from rats. Since cellular gluthathione (GSH) and quinone reductase (QR) are known to play critical roles in modulating HQ-induced cytotoxicity, the GSH content and the QR and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in stromal cells from both species was measured. In rat cells, the GSH content and the QR specific activity were 2 and 28 times as much as those from mice, respectively. GSH and QR in both mouse and rat stromal cells were inducible by 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T). D3T pretreatment of both mouse and rat stromal cells resulted in a marked protection against HQ-induced toxicity. Pretreatment of both mouse and rat stromal cells with GSH ethyl ester also provided a dramatic protection against HQ-induced toxicity. Conversely, dicoumarol, an inhibitor of QR, enhanced the HQ-induced toxicity in stromal cells from both mice and rats, indicating an important role for QR in modulating HQ-induced stromal toxicity. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which depleted GSH significantly in both species, potentiated the HQ-induced toxicity in mouse but not in rat stromal cells. Surprisingly, incubation of stromal cells with BSO resulted in a significant induction of QR, especially in rats. Overall, this study demonstrates that the differences in stromal cellular GSH content and QR activity between mice and rats contribute to their respective susceptibility to HQ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro, and may be involved in the greater in vivo sensitivity of mice to benzene-induced hematotoxicity. 51 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Bone marrow scan evaluation of arthropathy in sickle cell disorders

    Twelve patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and arthropathy were studied, using technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scans. Eight of 12 had decreased marrow radionuclide activity adjacent to painful joints, suggesting obliteration of vessels supplying bone marrow. Four patients without marrow defects on scanning had causes other than infarction for their joint symptoms, viz, small fractures, postinfectious synovitis, degenerative arthritis, and osteochondromas. Roentgenograms never showed bony abnormalities in five patients with marrow infarctions, and, in three others, showed defects several months later than did the marrow scans. Bone marrow scans offer a sensitive and early diagnostic aid in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies with arthropathy

  20. Active absorber for damping audio-frequency noise emissions at wind power plants. Active vibration damping; Aktiver Tilger zur Unterdrueckung tonaler Schallemissionen an Windenergieanlagen. Aktive Schwingungstilgung

    Neugebauer, R.; Linke, M.; Kunze, H.; Ullrich, M. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik (IWU), Chemnitz / Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Structural vibrations of a wind turbine's drive train are one of the main reasons for noise emissions. Mechanical vibrations are transferred through the structure and emitted as noise by large surfaces, e.g. tower and nacelle. Dominant vibration excitation is caused for example by the gear mesh. If the gear mesh frequency is coinciding with the frequency of a structural resonance, the emitted noise contains noticeable single tones. German immission control law requires a ''tonal penalty'' up to 6 dB, if the emitted noise contains annoying tones. To ensure compliance with immission limits those tones must be reduced or eliminated. For wind turbines running with variable speed an active vibration absorber has been developed, whose absorber frequency and damping is adapted corresponding to the alternating vibration excitation. (orig.)

  1. Activation, Immune Polarization, and Graft-versus-Leukemia Activity of Donor T-cells are Regulated by Specific Subsets of Donor Bone Marrow Antigen-Presenting Cells in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation1

    Li, Jian-Ming; Southerland, Lauren T.; Lu, Ying; Darlak, Kataryna A.; Giver, Cynthia R.; McMillin, Douglas W.; Harris, Wayne A.C.; Jaye, David L.; Waller, Edmund K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the roles of specific subsets of donor APCs purified from bone marrow in donor T cell activation and graft-vs-leukemia (GvL) activity in murine models of hemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Lineage−CD11c+ APC precursors were separated from donor bone marrow based on expression of CD11b. Transplanting lineage−CD11c+CD11b− APC (CD11b− APC) in combination with c-kit+Sca-1+lineage− hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and congenic donor T cells led to increased donor CD4+ and CD8+ T ce...

  2. Immune targeting of fibroblast activation protein triggers recognition of multipotent bone marrow stromal cells and cachexia

    Tran, Eric; Chinnasamy, Dhanalakshmi; Yu, Zhiya; Morgan, Richard A.; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a candidate universal target antigen because it has been reported to be selectively expressed in nearly all solid tumors by a subset of immunosuppressive tumor stromal fibroblasts. We verified that 18/18 human tumors of various histologies contained pronounced stromal elements staining strongly for FAP, and hypothesized that targeting tumor stroma with FAP-reactive T cells would inhibit tumor growth in cancer-bearing hosts. T cells genetically engineered...

  3. A new approach for remote sensing of canopy absorbed photosynthetically active radiation. II. Proportion of canopy absorption

    The amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by canopy (APARCAN) is essential to the productivity of vegetation. Monitoring APARCAN from space has been achieved through the retrievals of two quantities, namely, the PAR incident at the surface (PARSFC↓) and the fraction of PAR intercepted by the canopy, FPAR. We propose a new approach that splits APARCAN into the PAR absorbed in the surface layer below the top of the canopy (APARSFC) and the ratio of APARCAN / APARSFC, RPAR. The method is introduced in two parts. Part I develops a simple parameterization that retrieves APARSFC more readily and accurately than PARSFC↓. Part II, presented in this paper, deals with the retrieval of RPAR. It is shown that RPAR can be derived as accurately and readily as FPAR. Hence, it is envisaged that the new approach offers an easier and more accurate means of estimating APARCAN than the traditional one. As an investigation tool, a one-dimensional multistream and multilayer model of canopy radiative transfer is first formulated. Extensive canopy modeling is conducted with input parameters of large ranges to represent a variety of canopies and ground conditions. For vegetated land, RPAR is found to correlate well with FPAR and thus RPAR can be estimated from FPAR. RPAR is also related with the surface vegetation indices (VIs) such as NDVI, SAVI, and DVI. The relationships between RPAR and VIs are driven by the changes in leaf area index. They are not sensitive to the solar zenith angle and the fractions of direct and diffuse radiation, but to the optical properties of the canopy. The models for inferring RPAR from various VIs are given, together with the correction models to account for the dependencies of RPAR on time and cloud cover. (author)

  4. PREPARATION OF MICROWAVE ABSORBING NICKEL-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON BY ELECTROLESS PLATING WITH PALLADIUM-FREE ACTIVATION

    Boyang Jia; Lijuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    Nickel-based activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the surface of the activated carbon was covered by a Ni-P coating, which was uniform, compact, and continuous and had an obvious metallic sheen. ...

  5. Effects of a cloned cell line with NK activity on bone marrow transplants, tumour development and metastasis in vivo

    Warner, John F.; Dennert, Gunther

    1982-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells cloned in vitro have been transferred into NK-deficient hosts. These cells have been shown to have a role in the rejection of allogeneic bone marrow grafts, resistance to both radiation-induced thymic leukaemia and challenge with melanoma tumour cells. It appears that NK cells have an important role in immune surveillance.

  6. Ionized Absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei and Very Steap Soft X-Ray Quasars

    Fiore, Fabrizio; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Steep soft X-ray (0.1-2 keV) quasars share several unusual properties: narrow Balmer lines, strong Fe II emission, large and fast X-ray variability, and a rather steep 2-10 keV spectrum. These intriguing objects have been suggested to be the analogues of Galactic black hole candidates in the high, soft state. We present here results from ASCA observations for two of these quasars: NAB 0205 + 024 and PG 1244 + 026. Both objects show similar variations (factor of approximately 2 in 10 ks), despite a factor of approximately 10 difference in the 0.5-10 keV luminosity (7.3 x 10(exp 43) erg/s for PG 1244 + 026 and 6.4 x 10(exp 44) erg/s for NAB 0205 + 024, assuming isotropic emission, H(sub 0) = 50.0 and q(sub 0) = 0.0). The X-ray continuum of the two quasars flattens by 0.5-1 going from the 0.1-2 keV band towards higher energies, strengthening recent results on another half-dozen steep soft X-ray active galactic nuclei. PG 1244 + 026 shows a significant feature in the '1-keV' region, which can be described either as a broad emission line centered at 0.95 keV (quasar frame) or as edge or line absorption at 1.17 (1.22) keV. The line emission could be a result of reflection from a highly ionized accretion disc, in line with the view that steep soft X-ray quasars are emitting close to the Eddington luminosity. Photoelectric edge absorption or resonant line absorption could be produced by gas outflowing at a large velocity (0.3-0.6 c).

  7. PREPARATION OF MICROWAVE ABSORBING NICKEL-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON BY ELECTROLESS PLATING WITH PALLADIUM-FREE ACTIVATION

    Boyang Jia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the surface of the activated carbon was covered by a Ni-P coating, which was uniform, compact, and continuous and had an obvious metallic sheen. The content of P and Ni was 2.73% and 97.27% in the coating. Compared with the untreated activated carbon, the real permeability μ′ and imaginary permeability μ″ of Ni-based activated carbon became greater, whereas the real permittivity ε′ and imaginary permittivity ε″ became smaller. Also, the plated activated carbon was magnetic, making it suitable for some special applications. In general, the method reported here might be a feasible procedure to coat activated carbon with other magnetic metals, which may find application in various areas.

  8. Effect of bone marrow stromal cell transplantation to the hippocampal CA1 region on electroencephalographic activity in epileptic rats

    Hong Xu; Guowei Xu; Zhongtang Feng; Tinghua Wang; Jia Yang; Qingying Wu; Zhicheng Xiao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal experiments have confirmed that bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation can serve as a treatment for epilepsy.OBJECTIVE: BMSCs derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were transplanted into the hippocampal CA1 region of epileptic rats. The aim of the study was to record electroencephalogram (EEG), analyze survival and migration of BMSCs, and validate the effect of BMSC transplantation for the treatment of epilepsy.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized block design experiment was performed at the Institute of Neuroscience, Kunming Medical College from March 200.5 to February 2006.MATERIALS: Homozygous C57BL/6CrSIcTgN (acr-EGFP) OsbC 14-Y01 -FM 131 mice, 8-12 weeks of age, were selected for preparation of cell suspension. Sprague Dawley rats were selected for establishing epilepsy models.METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control (n = 8), model (n = 8), normal saline (n = 24), and BMSC (n = 24). In the model, normal saline, and BMSC groups, epilepsy was established with penicillin (3×107 U/kg i.p. ×7 days). Rats in the BMSC group received a BMSC suspension derived fromgreen fluorescent protein mice into the right hippocampal CA1 region. Rats in the vehicle control group were injected with the same volume of normal saline into the hippocampal CA1 region.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The electroencephalogram was used to monitor brain activity. Survival and migration of the transplanted BMSCs was observed using fluorescence microscopy at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transplantation.RESULTS: In BMSC group, fluorescent cells were observed at the transplantation site and in the adjacent tissue, as well as in the tissue surrounding the needle tract, indicating the migration of implanted cells. Fluorescent cells were not detected in the vehicle control group. The electroencephalogram of the control animals exhibited 7-9 Hz α waves, with a wave amplitude < 50 μ V. In the model and vehicle control groups, random spike

  9. Utilization of Human Urine as Fertilizer with Magnesium Oxide (MgO, Zeolite and Activated Carbon as Absorbent

    Hijrah Purnama Putra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine is residual fluid excreted by kidneys through urinary tract to outside of the human body, to maintain homeostasis of fluid in the body. Normally urine still contains high amount of nitrogen, which is 87%, phosphor 50%, potassium 54% and low bacterial content. With these contents urine potentially becomes organic fertilizer rich with nitrogen, phosphor and potassium contents and is beneficial to plants. However, until today the utilization or urine in Indonesia is very low. The urine produced is dispose with feces in toilets. This study aimed to utilize urine as solid organic fertilizer using magnesium oxide (MgO, zeolite, and actived carbon as absorbents of ammonium and phosphor. The study started with collecting urine, time variations of urine storage were 24; 48 and 72 hours, and urine was mixed with water as an assumption that urine mixes with water when flushed in urinals. The result showed effectiveness of optimum urine absorption in urine stored for 48 hours by adding 8 gram MgO, producing ammonium and phosphor contents 56.100 ppm and 3.610 ppm, respectively. From environmental perspective, utilization of urine as organic fertilizer was applicable because it satisfied the ecological principle of sanitation to prevent soil pollution, ground and surface water pollution and its utilization as agricultural resources.

  10. Marrow uptake index (MUI): A quantitative scintigraphic study of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia

    Aplastic anaemia affects the entire bone marrow. This prospective study was undertaken to develop and standardise a new nuclear medicine technique called 'dynamic bone marrow imaging'. Eleven patients and ten controls were studied. Serial images of the pelvis were obtained in frame mode following intravenous injection of 185-370 mBq of 99mTc S. Colloid, and an index, called the bone marrow uptake index was calculated by taking into consideration the time activity curve obtained over the iliac crest. This was followed by static imaging of the entire bone marrow in all cases. It was possible to obtain excellent information regarding topographic distribution of bone marrow as well as detect early changes in bone marrow function following treatment. An attempt was also made to correlate bone marrow cellularity as obtained by bone marrow biopsy with results of dynamic bone marrow scintigraphy. On the basis of the encouraging results obtained in the present study, the authors feel that dynamic bone marrow imaging is an excellent technique for the objective evaluation of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  11. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  12. The osteogenic differentiation stimulating activity of Sea cucumber methanolic crude extraction on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Javad Baharara; Elaheh Amini; Mohammad Amin Kerachian; Mozhgan Soltani

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Sea cucumber derived bioactive compound is considered efficient in treatment of bone disorders. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of this extract on differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSc) into osteogenic lineage. Materials and Methods: Isolated rBMMSc were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. The cells were exposed to different concentration of extract. After 21 days, Alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase assay and RT-PCR were ...

  13. LPS antagonism reduces graft-versus-host disease and preserves graft-versus-leukemia activity after experimental bone marrow transplantation

    Cooke, Kenneth R.; Gerbitz, Armin; Crawford, James M.; Teshima, Takanori; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Tesolin, Amy; Rossignol, Daniel P.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and leukemic relapse remain the two major obstacles to successful outcomes after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Recent studies have demonstrated that the loss of gastrointestinal tract integrity, and specifically the translocation of LPS into the systemic circulation, is critical to the induction of cytokine dysregulation that contributes to GVHD. Using a mouse BMT model, we studied the effects of direct LPS antagonism on GVHD severity and...

  14. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow.

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic. PMID:24755526

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite as oxygen absorber for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite (FCM Substance No 1003 intended to be incorporated in monolayer or multilayer packages or in sachets for absorbing oxygen from the food environment. All starting substances of the oxygen absorber have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. From a toxicological point of view, migration of iron (incorporated and aluminium (naturally present ions from bentonite is of interest. Iron can be estimated to migrate up to 4.5 mg/kg acidic food, which is well below the SML value of 48 mg/kg food set in Regulation EU No 10/2011 based on the PMTDI of 0.8 mg/kg bw established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1983 and the SCF in 1990. The iron (II modified bentonite is intended and expected to be present in the final article as non-nanoform. However, the formation of nanoparticles due to exfoliation cannot be excluded if the substance is incorporated in unpolar polymers with compatibilisers or without such additives in polar polymers. Aluminium can be estimated to migrate up to 0.3 mg /kg acidic food. This value corresponds to 3.5 % of the TWI set in 2008 by the EFSA AFC Panel. Therefore, under the intended conditions of use, the oxygen absorber formulation was considered toxicologically acceptable. The CEF Panel concluded that the substance iron (II modified bentonite does not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as oxygen absorber incorporated without compatibilisers in polyolefin layers of food packages at levels up to 15% w/w. The substance equally does not raise a safety concern when it is used in sachets, placed in the headspace of the packaging, that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food and are not in direct contact with liquid foods, exudates, or foods with external aqueous liquid phase.

  16. Human mesenchymal stromal cells attenuate graft-versus-host disease and maintain graft-versus-leukemia activity following experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation1

    Auletta, Jeffery J.; Eid, Saada K.; Wuttisarnwattana, Patiwet; Silva, Ines; Metheny, Leland; Keller, Matthew D.; Guardia-Wolff, Rocio; Liu, Chen; Wang, Fangjing; Bowen, Theodore; Lee, Zhenghong; Solchaga, Luis A; Ganguly, Sudipto; Tyler, Megan; Wilson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to define the effects and underlying mechanisms of human, marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) activity. Irradiated B6D2F1 mice given C57BL/6 BM and splenic T-cells and treated with hMSCs had reduced systemic GvHD, donor T-cell expansion, and serum TNFα and IFNγ levels. Bioluminescence imaging demonstrated that hMSCs redistributed from lungs to abdominal organs within 72h; and target tissues harvested fr...

  17. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    ... lymphoma , and myeloma can be treated with a bone marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell ... are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. " ...

  18. Bone marrow aspiration

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  19. Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow.

    Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management. PMID:25317270

  20. Recruitment and activation of pancreatic stellate cells from the bone marrow in pancreatic cancer: a model of tumor-host interaction.

    Christopher J Scarlett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer are characterised by extensive stellate cell mediated fibrosis, and current therapeutic development includes targeting pancreatic cancer stroma and tumor-host interactions. Recent evidence has suggested that circulating bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDC contribute to solid organs. We aimed to define the role of circulating haematopoietic cells in the normal and diseased pancreas. METHODS: Whole bone marrow was harvested from male β-actin-EGFP donor mice and transplanted into irradiated female recipient C57/BL6 mice. Chronic pancreatitis was induced with repeat injections of caerulein, while carcinogenesis was induced with an intrapancreatic injection of dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA. Phenotype of engrafted donor-derived cells within the pancreas was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridisation. RESULTS: GFP positive cells were visible in the exocrine pancreatic epithelia from 3 months post transplantation. These exhibited acinar morphology and were positive for amylase and peanut agglutinin. Mice administered caerulein developed chronic pancreatitis while DMBA mice exhibited precursor lesions and pancreatic cancer. No acinar cells were identified to be donor-derived upon cessation of cerulein treatment, however rare occurrences of bone marrow-derived acinar cells were observed during pancreatic regeneration. Increased recruitment of BMDC was observed within the desmoplastic stroma, contributing to the activated pancreatic stellate cell (PaSC population in both diseases. Expression of stellate cell markers CELSR3, PBX1 and GFAP was observed in BMD cancer-associated PaSCs, however cancer-associated, but not pancreatitis-associated BMD PaSCs, expressed the cancer PaSC specific marker CELSR3. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that BMDC can incorporate into the pancreas and adopt the differentiated state of the exocrine compartment. BMDC that

  1. Properties of immature myeloid progenitors with nitric-oxide-dependent immunosuppressive activity isolated from bone marrow of tumor-free mice.

    Parvin Forghani

    Full Text Available Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice are important negative regulators of anti-cancer immune responses, but the role for immature myeloid cells (IMCs in non-tumor-bearing mice in the regulation of immune responses are poorly described. We studied the immune-suppressive activity of IMCs from the bone marrow (BM of C57Bl/6 mice and the mechanism(s by which they inhibit T-cell activation and proliferation. IMCs, isolated from BM by high-speed FACS, inhibited mitogen-induced proliferation of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cells in vitro. Cell-to-cell contact of T-cells with viable IMCs was required for suppression. Neither neutralizing antibodies to TGFβ1, nor genetic disruption of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, abrogated IMC-mediated suppressive activity. In contrast, suppression of T-cell proliferation was absent in cultures containing IMCs from interferon-γ (IFN-γ receptor KO mice or T-cells from IFN-γ KO mice (on the C57Bl/6 background. The addition of NO inhibitors to co-cultures of T-cells and IMC significantly reduced the suppressive activity of IMCs. IFN-γ signaling between T-cells and IMCs induced paracrine Nitric Oxide (NO release in culture, and the degree of inhibition of T-cell proliferation was proportional to NO levels. The suppressive activity of IMCs from the bone marrow of tumor-free mice was comparable with MDSCs from BALB/c bearing mice 4T1 mammary tumors. These results indicate that IMCs have a role in regulating T-cell activation and proliferation in the BM microenvironment.

  2. Bone marrow dosimetry via microCT imaging and stem cell spatial mapping

    Kielar, Kayla N.

    In order to make predictions of radiation dose in patients undergoing targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer, an accurate model of skeletal tissues is necessary. Concerning these tissues, the dose-limiting factor in these therapies is the toxicity of the hematopoietically active bone marrow. In addition to acute effects, one must be concerned as well with long-term stochastic effects such as radiation-induced leukemia. Particular cells of interest for both toxicity and cancer risk are the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), found within the active marrow regions of the skeleton. At present, cellular-level dosimetry models are complex, and thus we cannot model individual stem cells in an anatomic model of the patient. As a result, one reverts to looking at larger tissue regions where these cell populations may reside. To provide a more accurate marrow dose assessment, the skeletal dosimetry model must also be patient-specific. That is, it should be designed to match as closely as possible to the patient undergoing treatment. Absorbed dose estimates then can be tailored based on the skeletal size and trabecular microstructure of an individual for an accurate prediction of marrow toxicity. Thus, not only is it important to accurately model the target tissues of interest in a normal patient, it is important to do so for differing levels of marrow health. A skeletal dosimetry model for the adult female was provided for better predictions of marrow toxicity in patients undergoing radionuclide therapy. This work is the first fully established gender specific model for these applications, and supersedes previous models in scalability of the skeleton and radiation transport methods. Furthermore, the applicability of using bone marrow biopsies was deemed sufficient in prediction of bone marrow health, specifically for the hematopoietic stem cell population. The location and concentration of the HSC in bone marrow was found to follow a spatial gradient from the bone trabeculae

  3. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity

  4. Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa, obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI, with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3, the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0, 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24. The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4, was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test. The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml, as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

  5. Effect of rTsP53 on the M1/M2 activation of bone-marrow derived macrophage in vitro

    Chen, Zhibin; Li, Fan; Yang, Wen; Liang, Yanbing; Tang, Hao; Li, Zhenyu; Wu, Jingguo; Liang, Huaping; Ma, Zhongfu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated that if rTsP53 could be used to activate bone-marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) into M2 macrophage and stop M1 macrophage activation. After 72 h incubation in blank culture medium, cells with PE-CCR7 (-) and FITC-CD206 (-) was extracted and its mean proportion was 92.30 ± 0.22%. With the stimulation of 20 μg/ml IFN-γ for 72 h, cells with PE-CCR7 (+) was extracted and its mean proportion was 16.24 ± 0.82%. With the stimulation of IL-3/IL-14 (both 10 μg/ml) for 72 h, cells with F...

  6. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  7. Correlation Between Radiation Dose to 18F-FDG-PET Defined Active Bone Marrow Subregions and Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET)-defined active bone marrow (BMACT) subregions is correlated with hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The conditions of 26 women with cervical cancer who underwent 18F-FDG-PET before treatment with concurrent cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy were analyzed. BMACT was defined as the subregion of total bone marrow (BMTOT) with a standardized uptake value (SUV) equal to or above the mean for that individual. Inactive bone marrow (BMINACT) was defined as BMTOT − BMACT. Generalized linear modeling was used to test the correlation between BMACT and BMINACT dose–volume metrics and hematologic nadirs, particularly white blood cell count (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Results: Increased BMACT mean dose was significantly associated with decreased log(WBC) nadir (β = −0.04; 95% CI, −0.07to −0.01; p = 0.009), decreased log(ANC) nadir (β = −0.05; 95% CI, −0.08 to −0.02; p = 0.006), decreased hemoglobin nadir (β = −0.16; 95% CI, −0.27 to −0.05; p = 0.010), and decreased platelet nadir (β = −6.16; 95% CI, −9.37 to −2.96; p INACT mean dose and log(WBC) nadir (β = −0.01; 95% CI, −0.06 to 0.05; p = 0.84), log(ANC) nadir (β = −0.03; 95% CI, −0.10 to 0.04; p = 0.40), hemoglobin nadir (β = −0.09; 95% CI, −0.31 to 0.14; p = 0.452), or platelet nadir (β = −3.47; 95% CI, −10.44 to 3.50; p = 0.339). Conclusions: Irradiation of BM subregions with higher 18F-FDG-PET activity was associated with hematologic toxicity, supporting the hypothesis that reducing dose to BMACT subregions could mitigate hematologic toxicity. Future investigation should seek to confirm these findings and to identify optimal SUV thresholds to define BMACT.

  8. Comparative evaluation of bone marrow cells morpho-functional activity in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the first and second generation

    I. O. Zhaleyko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of using the culture techniques of research for monitoring the patient’s response to the treatment by tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the first and second generation is shown. Thus, the functional activity of bone marrow cells in patients having the optimal treatment response to inhibitors of tyrosine kinases was significantly lower compared with patients with the acquired resistance to the drug, and patients who had CML diagnosed for first time. Furthermore, for patients with the optimal response to the nilotinib therapy, numbers of colonies in semi-solid agar in vitro was lower, than in patients with the optimal response to imatinib. When the leukaemic cell clone becomes resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the prevalence of early cells of granulocyte-macrophage hematopoietic stem cells is observed in CFU culture which can be an important prognostic factor for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy.

  9. Enhancement of bone marrow allografts from nude mice into mismatched recipients by T cells void of graft-versus-host activity

    Transplantation of 8 x 10(6) C57BL/6-Nu+/Nu+ (nude) bone marrow cells into C3H/HeJ recipients after conditioning with 8 Gy of total body irradiation has resulted in a markedly higher rate of graft rejection or graft failure compared to that found in recipients of normal C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Bg+/Bg+ (beige) T-cell-depleted bone marrow. Mixing experiments using different numbers of nude bone marrow cells with or without mature thymocytes (unagglutinated by peanut agglutinin) revealed that engraftment of allogeneic T-cell-depleted bone marrow is T-cell dependent. To ensure engraftment, a large inoculum of nude bone marrow must be supplemented with a trace number of donor T cells, whereas a small bone marrow dose from nude donors requires a much larger number of T cells for engraftment. Marked enhancement of donor type chimerism was also found when F1 thymocytes were added to nude bone marrow cells, indicating that the enhancement of bone marrow engraftment by T cells is not only mediated by alloreactivity against residual host cells but may rather be generated by growth factors, the release of which may require specific interactions between T cells and stem cells or between T cells and bone marrow stroma cells

  10. Activation of the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells by a chemical carcinogen

    Liu, Chunfang; Ma, Zhan; Xu, Songtao; Hou, Jun; Hu, Yao; Yu, Yinglu; Liu, Ruilai; Chen, Zhihong; Lu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic/germ cell traits are common in malignant tumors and are thought to be involved in malignant tumor behaviors. The reasons why tumors show strong embryonic/germline traits (displaced germ cells or gametogenic programming reactivation) are controversial. Here, we show that a chemical carcinogen, 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MCA), can trigger the germ-cell potential of human bone marrow-derived cells (hBMDCs). 3-MCA promoted the generation of germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs that had undergone malignant transformation, whereas similar results were not observed in the parallel hBMDC culture at the same time point. The malignant transformed hBMDCs spontaneously and more efficiently generated into germ cell-like cells even at the single-cell level. The germ cell-like cells from induced hBMDCs were similar to natural germ cells in many aspects, including morphology, gene expression, proliferation, migration, further development, and teratocarcinoma formation. Therefore, our results demonstrate that a chemical carcinogen can reactivate the germline phenotypes of human somatic tissue-derived cells, which might provide a novel idea to tumor biology and therapy. PMID:24998261

  11. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  12. Novel daidzein analogs enhance osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stromal/stem cells through estrogen receptor dependent and independent mechanisms

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures. Studies have demonstrated the use of phytoestrogens, or plant-derived estrogens, such as genistein anddaidzein, to effectively increase osteogenic activity of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal s...

  13. Bone marrow dosimetry for monoclonal antibody therapy

    Immunoglobulins must permeate through the basement membrane of capillaries in order to enter the extracellular space (ECS) of tissue. Since the process is quite slow, the blood plasma activity in various organs contributes considerably to the radiation dose of the dose-limiting tissues. In bone marrow the basement membrane is absent and the blood circulation is functionally open. Therefore, blood plasma and marrow ECS maintain equal concentrations of labeled immunoglobulins. A combination of factors including intravenous administration, slow absorption into most tissues, slow breakdown and elimination of labeled immunoglobulin, and rapid entry into bone marrow ECS as well as known radiosensitivity of marrow led the authors to expect this tissue would prove to be the primary tissue at risk for systemic monoclonal antibody therapy. They have developed and applied in a Phase I clinical study of 131I labeled CEA antibody a procedure for estimation of radiation dose to red bone marrow. Serieal measurements of blood plasma and total body retention are carried out. Binding of labeled antibody to the cellular components of blood is verified to be very low. They have observed bone marrow depression at doses greater than 400 rad. If no special procedures are used to reconstitute marrow after radiation treatment, this level represents a much greater than generally recognized limitation to radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy. 25 references, 4 tables

  14. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  15. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  16. Bone marrow transplantation

    Peculiarities of clinico-hematologic pattern in patients with acute leukosis when ionizing radiation is used as prepration regime for hystocompatible bone marrow transplantation are listed. Chemico-radiopreparation of patients with acute leukosis is described, different techniques of bone marrow transplantation are presented, secondary signs of the disease are shown

  17. Turning Marrow into Muscle

    2000-01-01

    @@ In unexpected testimony2 to the versatility3 of the body's cells,researchers have found they can make bone marrow cells turn into muscle, causing mice with muscular dystrophy4 to produce correctly working muscle cells. The experiment suggests that a form of bone marrow transplant- - a well established surgical procedure5- - could in principle treat patients with a variety of diseases.

  18. Influence of intensity of bone marrow erythropoietic activity on radiosensitivity of mice. Part 2. Effects of carbon monoxide induced hypererythropoiesis and polycythemia on ability of bone marrow to restitute erythropoiesis in irradiated recipients

    Hypererythropoiesis was induced in mice by exposure to carbon monoxide, and they got polycythemic after transfer to normal air. Erythropoietic repopulation ability (ERA) of transplanted bone marrow decreased to one-third by day 6 of carbon monoxide hypoxia, and returned to normal level during subsequent polycythemia. These changes did not correlate with alteration of CFU-S counts. The found discrepances are ascribed to lack of unipotential erythroid progenitor cells in hypererythropoietic bone marrow. Possibility of assessment of the part of ERA due to the latter cells on the basis of parallel determinations of ERA and CFU-S counts in polycythemic and hypererythropoietic or normal mice is discussed. Complete lack of endogenous haemopoietic macrocolonies was noted in irradiated polycythemic mice. The cells constituting the cellular basis of ERA were found to be insensitive to hydroxyurea. 13 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  19. 太阳能甲烷重整反应中的催化活性吸收体%Catalytically Active Absorber in Solar Reforming of Methane

    桑丽霞; 孙彪; 李艳霞; 吴玉庭; 马重芳

    2011-01-01

    Solar reforming of methane has attracted a great attention because this reaction can realize energy storage of high-temperature heat from concentrated solar radiation and optimal utilization of resources of natural gas.Catalytically active absorber has a key role on absorption of solar energy and reforming of methane and becomes focus of solar reforming of methane research.The article introduces that the composition of catalytically active absorber and three types of catalytically active absorbers in terms of their matrix(porous alumina and SiC ceramics,metal foam,ceramic tubular array(nicknamed "porcupine")) combining the developments of reactor/receiver.Applied in directly irradiated solar reactor/receiver(volumetric reactor/receiver),the capability of catalytically active absorbers is mostly depended on the concentrated solar energy flux,matrix element,catalyst support(or washcoat) and active catalyst.According to the domestic and overseas researches,the future research directions and emphasis are analyzed and discussed.The future research should not only exploit the actual application system but also resolve the problem of uniform coating and combining between catalyst support and matrix for the high temperature reaction system.Photocatalytic enhancement of the reaction should also be taken into consideration,which will help to develop the cheap and efficient catalyst system.%太阳能甲烷重整反应可实现太阳能的高温蓄存和天然气资源的优化利用而备受关注,催化活性吸收体是进行太阳能吸收利用和甲烷催化重整的关键而成为太阳能甲烷重整反应研究的热点。本文在简述催化活性吸收体构成的基础上,结合重整反应器/接收器的发展,具体介绍了以多孔氧化铝和碳化硅陶瓷、泡沫金属及管状阵列陶瓷("porcupine")为基体的催化活性吸收体及其在太阳能甲烷重整反应中的应用,进而根据国内外的研究基础,分析

  20. Determination of human absorbed dose of cocktail of 153Sm/177Lu-EDTMP, based on biodistribution data in rats

    The aim of this work was to estimate the absorbed dose due to compositional radiopharmaceutical of 153Sm/177Lu-EDTMP in human organs based on biodistribution data of rats by using OLINDA/EXM software. The absorbed dose was determined by the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) formulation after calculating cumulated activities in each organ. The results show that the organs that received the highest absorbed dose were the bone surface and red marrow (1.51 and 7.99 mGy/ MBq for 153Sm, and 1.98 and 10.76 mGy/MBq for 177Lu, respectively). According to the results, using of cocktail of 153Sm/177Lu-EDTMP has considerable characteristics as compared to 153Sm-EDTMP and 177Lu-EDTMP alone. (author)

  1. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    ... this page Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is ... with healthy bone marrow. Tweet What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  2. Carbachol- and elevated Ca(2+)-induced translocation of functionally active protein kinase C to the brush border of rabbit ileal Na+ absorbing cells.

    Cohen, M E; Wesolek, J; McCullen, J; Rys-Sikora, K; Pandol, S; Rood, R P; Sharp, G W; Donowitz, M

    1991-01-01

    Protein kinase C is involved in mediating the effects of elevated Ca2+ in ileal villus Na+ absorbing cells to inhibit NaCl absorption. The present studies were undertaken to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. The effects of carbachol and the calcium ionophore A23187, agents which elevate intracellular Ca2+ and inhibit NaCl absorption in ileal villus cells, were studied. Carbachol treatment of villus cells caused a rapid decrease in protein kinase C activity in cytosol, with an acc...

  3. Inhibition of miR-21 restores RANKL/OPG ratio in multiple myeloma-derived bone marrow stromal cells and impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts.

    Pitari, Maria Rita; Rossi, Marco; Amodio, Nicola; Botta, Cirino; Morelli, Eugenio; Federico, Cinzia; Gullà, Annamaria; Caracciolo, Daniele; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Arbitrio, Mariamena; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2015-09-29

    miR-21 is an oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) with an emerging role as therapeutic target in human malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Here we investigated whether miR-21 is involved in MM-related bone disease (BD). We found that miR-21 expression is dramatically enhanced, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) is strongly reduced, in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) adherent to MM cells. On this basis, we validated the 3'UTR of OPG mRNA as miR-21 target. Constitutive miR-21 inhibition in lentiviral-transduced BMSCs adherent to MM cells restored OPG expression and secretion. Interestingly, miR-21 inhibition reduced RANKL production by BMSCs. Overexpression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), which is a direct and validated target of miR-21, antagonized STAT3-mediated RANKL gene activation. Finally, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of miR-21 inhibitors in BMSCs restores RANKL/OPG balance and dramatically impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-concept that miR-21 overexpression within MM-microenviroment plays a crucial role in bone resorption/apposition balance, supporting the design of innovative miR-21 inhibition-based strategies for MM-related BD. PMID:26160841

  4. Proposal of a fluid flow layout to improve the heat transfer in the active absorber surface of solar central cavity receivers

    The main objective of concentrated solar power is to increase the thermal energy of a fluid, for the fluid to be used, for example, in a power cycle to generate electricity. Such applications present the requirement of appropriately designing the receiver active absorber surface, as the incident radiation flux can be very high. Besides that, the solar image in the receiver is not uniform, so conventional boilers designs are not well suited for these purposes. That point is particularly critical in solar central receivers systems (CRS), where concentrated solar flux is usually above 500 kW/m2, causing thermal and mechanical stress in the absorber panels. This paper analyzes a new thermofluidynamic design of a solar central receiver, which optimizes the heat transfer in the absorber surface. This conceptual receiver presents the following characteristics: the fluid flow pattern is designed according to the radiation flux map symmetry, so more uniform fluid temperatures at the receiver outlet are achieved; the heat transfer irreversibilities are reduced by circulating the fluid from the lower temperature region to the higher temperature region of the absorber surface; the width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient, to get lower temperature differences between the side tubes of the same pass; and the cooling requirement is ensured by means of adjusting the fluid flow velocity per tube, taking into account the pressure drop. This conceptual scheme has been applied to the particular case of a molten salt single cavity receiver, although the configuration proposed is suitable for other receiver designs and working fluids. - Highlights: ► The solar receiver design proposed optimizes heat transfer in the absorber surface. ► The fluid flow pattern is designed according to the solar flux map symmetry at noon. ► The fluid circulates from the lower to the higher temperature regions. ► The width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient. ► The

  5. Radiation absorbed dose estimate for rubidium-82 determined from in vivo measurements in human subjects

    Radiation absorbed doses from rubidium-82 injected intravenously were determined in two young men, aged 23 and 27, using a dynamic conjugate counting technique to provide data for the net organ integrated time-activity curves in five organs: kidneys, lungs, liver, heart, and testes. This technique utilized a tungsten collimated Anger camera and the accuracy was validated in a prestwood phantom. The data for each organ were compared with conjugate count rates of a reference Ge-68/Ga-68 standard which had been calibrated against the Rb-82 injected. The effects of attenuation in the body were eliminated. The MIRD method was used to calculate the organ self absorbed doses and the total organ absorbed doses. The mean total absorbed doses were as follows (mrads/mCi injected): kidneys 30.9, heart walls 7.5, lungs 6.0, liver 3.0, testes 2.0 (one subject only), red marrow 1.3, remainder of body 1.3 and, extrapolating to women, ovaries 1.2. This absorbed dose to the kidney is significantly less than the pessimistic estimate of 59.4 mrads/mCi, made assuming instantaneous uptake and complete extraction of activity with no excretion by the kidneys, which receive 20% of the cardiac output. Further, in a 68 year old man the renal self absorbed dose was approximately 40% less than the mean renal self absorbed dose of the younger men. This decrease is probably related to the decline in renal blood flow which occurs with advancing age but other factors may also contribute to the observed difference. 14 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  6. Acoustic coherent perfect absorbers

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of achieving acoustic coherent perfect absorbers. Through numerical simulations in two dimensions, we demonstrate that the energy of coherent acoustic waves can be totally absorbed by a fluid absorber with specific complex mass density or bulk modulus. The robustness of such absorbing systems is investigated under small perturbations of the absorber parameters. We find that when the resonance order is the lowest and the size of the absorber is comparable to the wavelength in the background, the phenomenon of perfect absorption is most stable. When the wavelength inside both the background and the absorber is much larger than the size of the absorber, perfect absorption is possible when the mass density of the absorber approaches the negative value of the background mass density. Finally, we show that by using suitable dispersive acoustic metamaterials, broadband acoustic perfect absorption may be achieved. (papers)

  7. Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Porse, Bo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONBone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a lineage-specific growth factor that is responsible for the proliferation and differentiation...... of committed myeloid progenitors into cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage. Mice lacking functional M-CSF are deficient in macrophages and osteoclasts and suffer from osteopetrosis. In this protocol, bone marrow cells are grown in culture dishes in the presence of M-CSF, which is secreted by L929...... cells and is used in the form of L929-conditioned medium. Under these conditions, the bone marrow monocyte/macrophage progenitors will proliferate and differentiate into a homogenous population of mature BMMs. The efficiency of the differentiation is assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting...

  8. Enhancement of bone marrow allografts from nude mice into mismatched recipients by T cells void of graft-versus-host activity.

    Lapidot, T; Lubin, I; Terenzi, A; Faktorowich, Y; Erlich, P; Reisner, Y

    1990-01-01

    Transplantation of 8 x 10(6) C57BL/6-Nu+/Nu+ (nude) bone marrow cells into C3H/HeJ recipients after conditioning with 8 Gy of total body irradiation has resulted in a markedly higher rate of graft rejection or graft failure compared to that found in recipients of normal C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Bg+/Bg+ (beige) T-cell-depleted bone marrow. Mixing experiments using different numbers of nude bone marrow cells with or without mature thymocytes (unagglutinated by peanut agglutinin) revealed that engraft...

  9. Activity of natural radionuclides and their contribution to the absorbed dose in the fish cubera snapper (lutjanus cyanopterus, cuvier, 1828 on the coast of Ceara, Brazil

    Wagner de S. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology was developed for converting the activity concentration of radionuclides (Bq kg-1 into absorbed dose rate (Gy y-1, aiming an approach to environmental radioprotection based on the concept of standard dose limit. The model considers only the internal absorbed dose rate. This methodology was applied to the cubera snapper fish (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828 caught off the coast of Ceará. The natural radionuclides considered were uranium-238, radium-226, lead-210, thorium-232 and radium-228. The absorbed dose rates were calculated for individual radionuclides and the type of emitted radiation. The average dose rate due to these radionuclides was 5.36 µGy y-1, a value six orders of magnitude smaller than the threshold value of absorbed dose rate used in this study (3.65 10³ mGy y-1, and similar to that found in the literature for benthic fish. Ra-226 and U-238 contributed 67% and 22% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by Th-232 with 10%. Ra-228 and Pb-210, in turn, accounted for less than 1% of the absorbed dose rate. This distribution is somewhat different from that reported in the literature, where the Ra-226 accounts for 86% of the absorbed dose rate.Visando a radioproteção ambiental, baseada no conceito de limite de taxa de dose absorvida, foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de conversão da concentração de atividade de radionuclídeos (Bq kg-1 em taxa de dose absorvida (Gy a-1. O modelo considera apenas a taxa de dose absorvida interna. Essa metodologia foi aplicada ao peixe vermelho-caranho (Lutjanus cyanopterus, Cuvier, 1828 capturado na costa do Ceará e aos radionuclídeos naturais: urânio-238, rádio-226, chumbo-210, tório-232 e rádio-228. As taxas de dose absorvidas foram calculadas por radionuclídeo e por tipo de radiação emitida. A taxa de dose média devida a esses radionuclídeos foi de 5.36 µGy a-1, valor seis ordens de grandeza menor que o valor de limite de taxa de dose absorvida utilizada no presente

  10. The Bone Marrow-Mediated Protection of Myeloproliferative Neoplastic Cells to Vorinostat and Ruxolitinib Relies on the Activation of JNK and PI3K Signalling Pathways.

    Bruno A Cardoso

    Full Text Available The classical BCR-ABL-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN are a group of heterogeneous haematological diseases characterized by constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation. Targeted therapy with Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2-specific inhibitor, achieves symptomatic improvement but does not eliminate the neoplastic clone. Similar effects are seen with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi, albeit with poorer tolerance. Here, we show that bone marrow (BM stromal cells (HS-5 protected MPN-derived cell lines (SET-2; HEL and UKE-1 and MPN patient-derived BM cells from the cytotoxic effects of Ruxolitinib and the HDACi Vorinostat. This protective effect was mediated, at least in part, by the secretion of soluble factors from the BM stroma. In addition, it correlated with the activation of signalling pathways important for cellular homeostasis, such as JAK-STAT, PI3K, JNK, MEK-ERK and NF-κB. Importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of JNK and PI3K pathways completely abrogated the BM protective effect on MPN cell lines and MPN patient samples. Our findings shed light on mechanisms of tumour survival and may indicate novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MPN.

  11. Stimulation of cell proliferation by glutathione monoethyl ester in aged bone marrow stromal cells is associated with the assistance of TERT gene expression and telomerase activity.

    Aminizadeh, Najmeh; Tiraihi, Taki; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Taheri, Taher

    2016-08-01

    The proliferation and differentiation potential of aged bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are significantly reduced. In order to improve the performance of the aged BMSCs, these cells were treated with 2 mM glutathione monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE) for 24 h. Proliferation rate, telomerase activity, telomere length, and differentiation to cholinergic neuron-like cells (CNLCs) were observed to increase. Though, the expression level of telomerase reverse transcriptase gene increased, but CTC1 and TEN1 genes from Ctc1-Stn1-Ten1 complex encoding proteins with regulatory function significantly decreased. Trypan blue exclusion assay was used to analyze the proliferation and, while telomere length, its several related gene expressions, and telomerase activity were measured using the real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, respectively. CNLCs differentiation potential was evaluated by estimating the percentage of choline acetyltransferase immunereactive cells.The results suggested that GSH-MEE could improve aged rat BMSC properties and would be of potential benefit for enhancing the performance of aged people's BMSCs. PMID:27251157

  12. Dual transcriptome sequencing reveals resistance of TLR4 ligand-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages to inflammation mediated by the BET inhibitor JQ1

    Das, Amitabh; Chai, Jin Choul; Yang, Chul-su; Lee, Young Seek; Das, Nando Dulal; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Persistent macrophage activation is associated with the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, cytokines and chemokines, which may initiate or amplify inflammatory disorders. A novel synthetic BET inhibitor, JQ1, was proven to exert immunosuppressive activities in macrophages. However, a genome-wide search for JQ1 molecular targets has not been undertaken. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes that are targeted by JQ1 in LPS-stimulated primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) using global transcriptomic RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Among the annotated genes, transcriptional sequencing of BMDMs that were treated with JQ1 revealed a selective effect on LPS-induced gene expression in which the induction of cytokines/chemokines, interferon-stimulated genes, and prominent (transcription factors) TFs was suppressed. Additionally, we found that JQ1 reduced the expression of previously unidentified genes that are important in inflammation. Importantly, these inflammatory genes were not affected by JQ1 treatment alone. Furthermore, we confirmed that JQ1 reduced cytokines/chemokines in the supernatants of LPS treated BMDMs. Moreover, the biological pathways and gene ontology of the differentially expressed genes were determined in the JQ1 treatment of BMDMs. These unprecedented results suggest that the BET inhibitor JQ1 is a candidate for the prevention or therapeutic treatment of inflammatory disorders. PMID:26582142

  13. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    111In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  14. Absorbed dose estimation and prediction irradiation effects in tumor-bearing mice under radionuclide therapy

    Full text: As the sizes of mouse organ are comparable with the range of the high-energy beta particles emitted by the radionuclides commonly used in radionuclide therapy a significant amount of beta radiation emitted could be imparted to the adjacent tissues. The often assumption that beta particles are fully-absorbed at the emission site is not satisfied and cross-irradiation should be included into the dose estimation formulas. Keeping in mind that the radiation effects are correlated with the absorbed dose in the target the inclusion of cross-irradiation in the dose estimation must be evaluated. The MIRD's formulation was used to perform absorbed dose calculation in mice using absorbed fractions previously reported for 131I, 90Y and 177Lu. Two approaches were considered: a) cross irradiation when a fraction of beta particles emitted can escape from the organ source and, b) full self- irradiation when the beta particles are considered fully absorbed at the emission site. The formulation of linear-quadratic model was readapted to be used in the radionuclide therapy. Treatment with a single administration in mice was simulated and radiation effects on tumor, bone marrow and kidneys under the assumption of cross-irradiation were predicted. A biphasic repair kinetics was considered in the calculation of irradiation effects on kidneys. Typical published biokinetic data for radiopharmaceutical assayed in mice and radiobiological parameters were used in the calculations. The influence of cross irradiation condition was diverse for the tissues analyzed here. The absorbed dose values in kidneys calculated for both methods were no significantly different for low energies, but variations around to 40-50% (over or under-estimation) in absorbed dose were obtained for high energies. Approximately a 30% of the beta radiation emitted from bone will cross irradiates the bone marrow. For injected activities values higher than 10MBq (300μCi), as a single injection, the

  15. The active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells Superior effects over original formula of Buyang Huanwu decoction

    Jinghui Zheng; Yi Wan; Jianhuai Chi; Dekai Shen; Tingting Wu; Weimin Li; Pengcheng Du

    2012-01-01

    The present study induced in vitro-cultured passage 4 bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural-like cells with a mixture of alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycone, glycoside, essential oils, and effective components of Buyang Huanwu decoction (active principle region of decoction for invigorating yang for recuperation). After 28 days, nestin and neuron-specific enolase were expressed in the cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that nestin and neuron-specific enolase mRNA and protein expression was greater in the active principle region group compared with the original formula group. Results demonstrated that the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced greater differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells in vitro than the original Buyang Huanwu decoction formula.

  16. Normal Hematopoietic Stem Cells within the AML Bone Marrow Have a Distinct and Higher ALDH Activity Level than Co-Existing Leukemic Stem Cells

    Schuurhuis, Gerrit J.; Meel, Michael H.; Wouters, Floris; Min, Lisa A.; Terwijn, Monique; de Jonge, Nick A.; Kelder, Angele; Snel, Alexander N; Zweegman, Sonja; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Smit, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Persistence of leukemic stem cells (LSC) after chemotherapy is thought to be responsible for relapse and prevents the curative treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. LSC and normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) share many characteristics and co-exist in the bone marrow of AML patients. For the development of successful LSC-targeted therapy, enabling eradication of LSC while sparing HSC, the identification of differences between LSC and HSC residing within the AML bone marrow is ...

  17. Classically and alternatively activated bone marrow derived macrophages differ in cytoskeletal functions and migration towards specific CNS cell types

    Vereyken, Elly J. F.; Heijnen, Priscilla D. A. M.; Baron, Wia; de Vries, Elga H. E.; Dijkstra, Christine D.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Macrophages play an important role in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI), being involved in both damage and repair. The divergent effects of macrophages might be explained by their different activation status: classically activated (CA

  18. The ALICE absorbers

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m.

  19. Bone marrow fat.

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  20. Scanning of Bone Marrow in Haematopoietic Disorders

    Scanning can help evaluate size and distribution of the haematopoietic marrow, a difficult task by aspiration or biopsy. With the 61-hole focusing gold-tungsten Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scanner, the marrow organ has been clearly delineated by means of intravenous colloidal Au198, it being known that reticulo-endothelial function in the marrow correlates with areas of haematopoiesis. Patients with normal haematopoiesis and with a variety of blood disorders such as focal marrow lesions, acute and chronic leukaemia, polycythaemiavera, myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma have been scanned. Because of the reticulo-endothelial activity in liver and spleen, the marrow pattern is obscured in the mid-trunk. Vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, pelvis and long bones are outlined, and, in the thorax, the sternum and thoracic vertebrae. Focal lesions have also been found. Because of respiratory motion, individual ribs are not seen. In expanded marrow, the knee region can be shown, including the joint space. It has been possible to correlate these scans with aspiration biopsy and with linear scans. Because relatively large doses of Au198 are required, other isotopes are being investigated. An improved whole- body scanner is being tested for more practical scans. (author)

  1. Response Funtions for Computing Absorbed Dose to Skeletal Tissues from Photon Irradiation

    Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Bolch, W E [University of Florida, Gainesville; Zankl, M [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Reserach Center for Environ; Petoussi-Henss, N [Institute of Radiation Protection, GSF-National Reserach Center for Environ

    2007-01-01

    The calculation of absorbed dose in skeletal tissues at radiogenic risk has been a difficult problem because the relevant structures cannot be represented in conventional geometric terms nor can they be visualised in the tomographic image data used to define the computational models of the human body. The active marrow, the tissue of concern in leukaemia induction, is present within the spongiosa regions of trabecular bone, whereas the osteoprogenitor cells at risk for bone cancer induction are considered to be within the soft tissues adjacent to the mineral surfaces. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends averaging the absorbed energy over the active marrow within the spongiosa and over the soft tissues within 10 mm of the mineral surface for leukaemia and bone cancer induction, respectively. In its forthcoming recommendation, it is expected that the latter guidance will be changed to include soft tissues within 50 mm of the mineral surfaces. To address the computational problems, the skeleton of the proposed ICRP reference computational phantom has been subdivided to identify those voxels associated with cortical shell, spongiosa and the medullary cavity of the long bones. It is further proposed that the Monte Carlo calculations with these phantoms compute the energy deposition in the skeletal target tissues as the product of the particle fluence in the skeletal subdivisions and applicable fluence-to-dose response functions. This paper outlines the development of such response functions for photons.

  2. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation. PMID:26901703

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) contributes to the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine bone marrow via PACAP-specific receptor.

    Xu, Zhifang; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Jun; Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Murai, Norimitsu; Sasaki, Shun; Matsumoto, Minako; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hiraizumi, Yutaka; Numazawa, Satoshi; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, encoded by adcyap1) plays an important role in ectodermal development. However, the involvement of PACAP in the development of other germ layers is still unclear. This study assessed the expression of a PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1) gene and protein in mouse bone marrow (BM). Cells strongly expressing PAC1(+) were large in size, had oval nuclei, and merged with CD34(+) cells, suggesting that the former were hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Compared with wild-type mice, adcyap1(-/-) mice exhibited lower multiple potential progenitor cell populations and cell frequency in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Exogenous PACAP38 significantly increased the numbers of colony forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) with two peaks in semi-solid culture. PACAP also increased the expression of cyclinD1 and Ki67 mRNAs. These increases were completely and partially inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonists, PACAP6-38 and VIP6-28, respectively. Little or no adcyap1 was expressed in BM and the number of CFU-GM colonies was similar in adcyap1(-/-) and wild-type mice. However, PACAP mRNA and protein were expressed in paravertebral sympathetic ganglia, which innervate tibial BM, and in the sympathetic fibers of BM cavity. These results suggested that sympathetic nerve innervation may be responsible for PACAP-regulated hematopoiesis in BM, mainly via PAC1. PMID:26925806

  4. Human mesenchymal stromal cells attenuate graft-versus-host disease and maintain graft-versus-leukemia activity following experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Auletta, Jeffery J; Eid, Saada K; Wuttisarnwattana, Patiwet; Silva, Ines; Metheny, Leland; Keller, Matthew D; Guardia-Wolff, Rocio; Liu, Chen; Wang, Fangjing; Bowen, Theodore; Lee, Zhenghong; Solchaga, Luis A; Ganguly, Sudipto; Tyler, Megan; Wilson, David L; Cooke, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    We sought to define the effects and underlying mechanisms of human, marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) activity. Irradiated B6D2F1 mice given C57BL/6 BM and splenic T cells and treated with hMSCs had reduced systemic GvHD, donor T-cell expansion, and serum TNFα and IFNγ levels. Bioluminescence imaging demonstrated that hMSCs redistributed from lungs to abdominal organs within 72 hours, and target tissues harvested from hMSC-treated allogeneic BMT (alloBMT) mice had less GvHD than untreated controls. Cryoimaging more precisely revealed that hMSCs preferentially distributed to splenic marginal zones and regulated T-cell expansion in the white pulp. Importantly, hMSCs had no effect on in vitro cytotoxic T-cell activity and preserved potent GvL effects in vivo. Mixed leukocyte cultures containing hMSCs exhibited decreased T-cell proliferation, reduced TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-10 but increased PGE2 levels. Indomethacin and E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor antagonisms both reversed while EP2 agonism restored hMSC-mediated in vitro T-cell suppression, confirming the role for PGE2 . Furthermore, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition following alloBMT abrogated the protective effects of hMSCs. Together, our data show that hMSCs preserve GvL activity and attenuate GvHD and reveal that hMSC biodistribute to secondary lymphoid organs wherein they attenuate alloreactive T-cell proliferation likely through PGE2 induction. PMID:25336340

  5. Production and characterization of activated carbon prepared from safflower seed cake biochar and its ability to absorb reactive dyestuff

    Angın, Dilek, E-mail: angin@sakarya.edu.tr [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey); Köse, T. Ennil, E-mail: ennilb@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Meselik-Eskisehir (Turkey); Selengil, Uğur, E-mail: uselen@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Meselik-Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-09-01

    The use of activated carbon obtained from biochar for the removal of reactive dyestuff from aqueous solutions at various contact times, pHs and temperatures was investigated. The biochar was chemically modified with potassium hydroxide. The surface area and micropore volume of activated carbon was 1277 m{sup 2}/g and 0.4952 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The surface characterization of both biochar and activated carbon was undertaken using by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Dubinin–Radushkevich (DR) isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetics of reactive dyestuff obeys the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG{sup o}, ΔH{sup o} and ΔS{sup o} were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 1.12 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal reactive dyestuff from waste water.

  6. Production and characterization of activated carbon prepared from safflower seed cake biochar and its ability to absorb reactive dyestuff

    Angın, Dilek; Köse, T. Ennil; Selengil, Uğur

    2013-09-01

    The use of activated carbon obtained from biochar for the removal of reactive dyestuff from aqueous solutions at various contact times, pHs and temperatures was investigated. The biochar was chemically modified with potassium hydroxide. The surface area and micropore volume of activated carbon was 1277 m2/g and 0.4952 cm3/g, respectively. The surface characterization of both biochar and activated carbon was undertaken using by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetics of reactive dyestuff obeys the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG̊, ΔH̊ and ΔS̊ were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 1.12 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal reactive dyestuff from wastewater.

  7. A framework for consistent estimation of leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and surface albedo from MODIS time-series data

    Xiao, Zhiqiang; Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Jindi;

    2015-01-01

    model and the MODIS surface reflectance data. The estimated LAI values were then input into the ACRM to calculate the surface albedo and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). For snow-covered areas, the surface albedo was calculated as the underlying vegetation canopy...... albedo plus the weighted distance between the underlying vegetation canopy albedo and the albedo over deep snow. The LAI/FAPAR and surface albedo values estimated using this framework were compared with MODIS collection 5 eight-day 1-km LAI/FAPAR products (MOD15A2) and 500-m surface albedo product (MCD43......-surface parameter profiles from MODIS time-series reflectance data even if some of the reflectance data are contaminated by residual cloud or are missing and that the retrieved LAI, FAPAR, and surface albedo values are physically consistent. The root mean square errors of the retrieved LAI, FAPAR, and surface...

  8. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with plumbagin alleviates spinal cord injury by affecting oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotis and the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

    Yang, Wencheng; Yang, Yan; Yang, Jian-Yi; Liang, Ming; Song, Jiangtao

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect exerted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in combination with plumbagin on spinal cord injury (SCI) and explore the mechanism behind this protective effect. Firstly, BMSCs were extracted from male Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured in vitro, and identified by hematoxylin. Sprague-Dawley rats were then randomly divided into a control group, SCI model group, BMSC-treated group, a plumbagin-treated group, and a BMSC and plumbagin-treated group. After treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin, a Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test was carried out and the spinal cord water content was examined in order to analyze the effect of BMSCs combined with plumbagin on SCI. The myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also detected. Moreover, nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated (p-)Akt, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and p-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein expression levels were measured using western blot analysis. Treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin significantly improved locomotor recovery and reduced the spinal cord water content after SCI. The increased MPO, MDA, NF-κB p65 and TNF-α levels were significantly suppressed and the decreased SOD was significantly increased in SCI rats. The suppression of Nrf2, p-Akt and p-ERK, as well as the promotion of p-p38 MAPK, were reversed by treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin. These effects suggest that treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin alleviates SCI through its effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotis and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. PMID:26936518

  9. Autophagy regulates the apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxic condition via AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

    Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yabin; Wang, Le; Jin, Zhitao; Ding, Liping; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Lina; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Guojie; Yang, Junke; Lu, Bingwei; Cao, Feng; Hu, Taohong

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been demonstrated as an ideal autologous stem cells source for cell-based therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). However, poor viability of donor stem cells after transplantation limits their therapeutic efficiency, whereas the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. Autophagy, a highly conserved process of cellular degradation, is required for maintaining homeostasis and normal function. Here, we investigated the potential role of autophagy on apoptosis in BM-MSCs induced by hypoxic injury. BM-MSCs, isolated from male C57BL/6 mice, were subjected to hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD) injury for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The autophagy state was regulated by 3-methyladenine (3MA) and rapamycin administration. Furthermore, compound C was administrated to inhibit AMPK. The apoptosis induced by H/SD was determined by TUNEL assays. Meanwhile, autophagy was measured by GFP-LC3 plasmids transfection and transmission electron microscope. Moreover, protein expressions were evaluated by Western blot assay. In the present study, we found that hypoxic stress increased autophagy and apoptosis in BM-MSCs time dependently. Meanwhile, hypoxia increased the activity of AMPK/mTOR signal pathway. Moreover, increased apoptosis in BM-MSCs under hypoxia was abolished by 3-MA, whereas was aggravated by rapamycin. Furthermore, the increased autophagy and apoptosis in BM-MSCs induced by hypoxia were abolished by AMPK inhibitor compound C. These data provide evidence that hypoxia induced AMPK/mTOR signal pathway activation which regulated the apoptosis and autophagy in BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the apoptosis of BM-MSCs under hypoxic condition was regulated by autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway. PMID:27005844

  10. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the expression of osteoblastic genes and activates the WNT signal transduction pathway in bone marrow stromal stem cells.

    Zhou, Ri; Yuan, Zhi; Liu, Jierong; Liu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and alkaline phosphatase activity in bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it has remained elusive whether this effect is mediated by CGRP receptors directly or whether other signaling pathways are involved. The present study assessed the possible involvement of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway in the activation of CGRP signaling during the differentiation of BMSCs. First, the differentiation of BMSCs was induced in vitro and the expression of CGRP receptors was examined by western blot analysis. The effects of exogenous CGRP and LiCl, a stimulator of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway, on the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs were assessed; furthermore, the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway was assessed using quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. The results revealed that CGRP receptors were expressed throughout the differentiation of BMSCs, at days 7 and 14. Incubation with CGRP and LiCl led to the upregulation of the expression of osteoblastic genes associated with the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway, including the mRNA of c‑myc, cyclin D1, Lef1, Tcf7 and β‑catenin as well as β‑catenin protein. However, the upregulation of these genes and β‑catenin protein was inhibited by CGRP receptor antagonist or secreted frizzled‑related protein, an antagonist of the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway. The results of the present study therefore suggested that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in CGRP‑ and LiCl-promoted osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:27082317

  11. Dose-rate effects of protons on in vivo activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines in mouse bone marrow cells

    The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and cytokine expression in bone marrow (BM) cells of exposed mice as a function of the dose rate of protons. The cytokines included in this study are pro-inflammatory (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and IL-10). We gave male BALB/cJ mice a whole-body exposure to 0 (sham-controls) or 1.0 Gy of 100 MeV protons, delivered at 5 or 10 mGy min-1, the dose and dose rates found during solar particle events in space. As a reference radiation, groups of mice were exposed to 0 (sham-controls) or 1 Gy of 137Cs γ rays (10 mGy min-1). After irradiation, BM cells were collected at 1.5, 3, 24 h, and 1 month for analyses (five mice per treatment group per harvest time). The results indicated that the in vivo time course of effects induced by a single dose of 1 Gy of 100 MeV protons or 137Cs γ rays, delivered at 10 mGy min-1, was similar. Although statistically significant levels of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BM cells of exposed mice when compared to those in the corresponding sham controls (Student's t-test, p -1 induced significant levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results indicate dose-rate effects of protons.

  12. Absorber materials in CANDU PHWRs

    In a CANDU reactor the fuel channels are arranged on a square lattice in a calandria filled with heavy water moderator. This arrangement allows five types of tubular neutron absorber devices to be located in the relatively benign environment of low pressure, low temperature heavy water between neighbouring rows or columns of fuel channels. This paper will describe the roles of the devices and outline the design requirements of the absorber component from a reactor physics viewpoint. Nuclear heating and activation problems associated with the different absorbers will be briefly discussed. The design and manufacture of the devices will be also discussed. The control rod absorbers and shut off materials are cadmium and stainless steel. In the tubular arrangement, the cadmium is sandwiched between stainless steel tubes. This type of device has functioned well, but there is now concern over the availability and expense of cadmium which is used in two types of CANDU control devices. There are also concerns about the toxicity of cadmium during the fabrication of the absorbers. These concerns are prompting AECL to study alternatives. To minimize design changes, pure boron-10 alloyed in stainless steel is a favoured option. Work is underway to confirm the suitability of the boron-loaded steel and identify other encapsulated absorber materials for practical application. Because the reactivity devices or their guide tubes span the calandria vessel, the long slender components must be sufficiently rigid to resist operational vibration and also be seismically stable. Some of these components are made of Zircaloy to minimize neutron absorption. Slow irradiation growth and creep can reduce the spring tension, and periodic adjustments to the springs are required. Experience with the control absorber devices has generally been good. In one instance liquid zone controllers had a problem of vibration induced fretting but a redesigned back-fit resolved the problem. (author). 3 refs, 8

  13. Perfectly Reflectionless Omnidirectional Electromagnetic Absorber

    Sainath, Kamalesh

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of metamaterial blueprints describing, and fundamental limitations concerning, perfectly reflectionless omnidirectional electromagnetic absorbers (PR-OEMA). Previous attempts to define PR-OEMA blueprints have led to active (gain), rather than passive, media. We explain this fact and unveil new, distinct limitations of true PR-OEMA devices including the appearance of an "electromagnetic horizon" on physical solutions. As practical alternatives, we introduce two new OEMA blueprints. While these two blueprints do not correspond to reflectionless media, they are effective in absorbing incident waves in a manner robust to incident wave diversity.

  14. Dynamic scintigraphy of bone and bone marrow in multiple myeloma patients with bone-marrow transplants

    Purpose: To determine whether dynamic registration at bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy produces additional information compared to subsequent static registrations of bone-marrow transplants in multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 8 dynamic bone and 6 dynamic bone-marrow scintigraphies were performed in 10 patients. The dynamic scintigraphies were compared with conventional radiography, MR images, and static scintigraphies of bone and bone marrow. Results: No additional information was revealed by the dynamic registration method; on the contrary, 4 of the 8 known lesions were not discerned at dynamic registration. An incidental observation was that the time-activity curves of both radiopharmaceuticals had a specific pattern. (orig.)

  15. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    Guillen, Donna P.; Longhurst, Glen R.; Porter, Douglas L.; Parry, James R.

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  16. Burnable neutron absorber element

    A burnable thermal neutron absorber element is described comprising: a zirconium alloy elongated tubular container having an inside diameter surface; hydrogen diffusion barrier means for limiting hydrogen diffusion from within the container into the zirconium alloy; a boron-containing burnable thermal neutron absorber material sealed within the zirconium alloy elongated container, the boron-containing burnable absorber material being in a particle form, the particles of absorber material being coated with a diffusion barrier material; zirconium hydride sealed within the zirconium alloy elongated container, the zirconium hydride being in a partially hydrided condition and having a H to Zr ratio on an atomic basis in the range of about 1.0 to about 1.8; the burnable thermal neutron absorber material and the zirconium hydride distributed along the length of the zirconium alloy elongated container; and the zirconium hydride acts as a neutron moderator thereby enhancing the neutron capture efficiency of the burnable thermal neutron absorber

  17. Burnable neutron absorber element

    Ferrari, H.M.

    1988-06-14

    A burnable thermal neutron absorber element is described comprising: a zirconium alloy elongated tubular container having an inside diameter surface; hydrogen diffusion barrier means for limiting hydrogen diffusion from within the container into the zirconium alloy; a boron-containing burnable thermal neutron absorber material sealed within the zirconium alloy elongated container, the boron-containing burnable absorber material being in a particle form, the particles of absorber material being coated with a diffusion barrier material; zirconium hydride sealed within the zirconium alloy elongated container, the zirconium hydride being in a partially hydrided condition and having a H to Zr ratio on an atomic basis in the range of about 1.0 to about 1.8; the burnable thermal neutron absorber material and the zirconium hydride distributed along the length of the zirconium alloy elongated container; and the zirconium hydride acts as a neutron moderator thereby enhancing the neutron capture efficiency of the burnable thermal neutron absorber.

  18. Archival bone marrow samples

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  19. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  20. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series To use the sharing features on ... slide 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  1. Endocannabinoid System Contributes to Liver Injury and Inflammation by Activation of Bone Marrow-Derived Monocytes/Macrophages in a CB1-Dependent Manner.

    Mai, Ping; Yang, Le; Tian, Lei; Wang, Lin; Jia, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xin; Yang, Lin; Li, Liying

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic injury undergoes significant increases in endocannabinoidsand infiltrations of macrophages, yet the concrete mechanisms of changes in endocannabinoids and the functions of macrophage-expressed cannabinoid receptors (CBs) are unclear. Biosynthetic and degradative enzymes of endocannabinoids revealed a significant change in human fibrotic liver. Meanwhile, we showed dynamic changes of these enzymes and CBs (CB1 and CB2) from 1 to 56 d in carbon tetrachloride-induced murine liver injury. Biosynthetic enzymes (N-acylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine selective phospholipase D and diacylglycerol lipase-α) and CBs were markedly increased, whereas degradative enzymes (fatty acid amidohydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase) were downregulated. Moreover, these enzymes intimately correlated with the fibrosis parameter [procollagen α1(III)]. Bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMM) expressed CBs. Interestingly, CB1 but not CB2 mediated BMM migration through a Boyden chambers assay, and the effect depended on the G(α)i/o/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. ICR mice were lethally irradiated and received BM transplants from enhanced GFP transgenic mice. Four weeks later, mice of BM reconstruction were subjected to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. In the chimeric murine model, we found that blockade of CB1 by administration of a CB1 antagonist inhibited the recruitment of BMM into injured liver using immunofluorescence staining and FACS, but it did not have effects on migration of T cells and dendritic cells without CB1 expression. Furthermore, activation of CB1 enhanced cytokine expression of BMM. In vivo, inhibition of CB1 attenuated the inflammatory cytokine level through real-time RT-PCR and cytometric bead array, ameliorating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we identify inactivation of BMM-expressed CB1 as a therapeutic strategy for reducing hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26320250

  2. Boron Induces Early Matrix Mineralization via Calcium Deposition and Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Movahedi Najafabadi, Bent-al-hoda; Abnosi, Mohammad Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Boron (B) is essential for plant development and might be an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of boric acid (BA) on the cellular and molecular nature of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, BMSCs were extracted and expanded to the 3rdpassage, then cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) complemented with osteogenic media as well as 6 ng/ml and 6 µg/ml of BA. After 5, 10, 15 and 21 days the viability and the level of mineralization was determined using MTT assay and alizarin red respectively. In addition, the morphology, nuclear diameter and cytoplasmic area of the cells were studied with the help of fluorescent dye. The concentration of calcium, activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as sodium and potassium levels were also evaluated using commercial kits and a flame photometer respectively. Results Although 6 µg/ml of BA was found to be toxic, a concentration of 6 ng/ml increased the osteogenic ability of the cell significantly throughout the treatment. In addition it was observed that B treatment caused the early induction of matrix mineralization compared to controls. Conclusion Although more investigation is required, we suggest the prescription of a very low concentration of B in the form of BA or foods containing BA, in groups at high risk of osteoporosis or in the case of bone fracture. PMID:27054120

  3. Diffusely discordant In-111 WBC/Tc-99m SC bone marrow uptake: A possible chemotherapeutic effect

    Achong, D.M.; Oates, E. [New England Medical Center and Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In-111 WBC scintigraphy in a women with relapsed acute lymphoid leukemia demonstrated normal uptake of white blood cells by the liver and spleen, but virtually absent bone marrow activity. Tc-99m Sc imaging confirmed normal marrow function and distribution. A bone marrow biopsy revealed mildly hypocellular, regenerating marrow without leukemic infiltration. The effects of systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy on marrow reticuloendothelial function may have been responsible for this discordant uptake. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. A New Diagnostic of Active Galactic Nuclei: Revealing Highly-Absorbed Systems at Redshift>0.3

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Alexander, David M; Salim, Samir

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic to identify active galactic nuclei (AGN) in galaxies at intermediate redshift. In the absence of near-infrared spectroscopy, necessary to use traditional nebular line diagrams at z>0.4, we demonstrate that combining [OIII]5007/Hbeta and stellar mass successfully distinguishes between star formation and AGN emission. The MEx classification scheme relies on a novel probabilistic approach splitting galaxies into sub-categories with more confidence than alternative high-z diagnostic diagrams. It recognizes that galaxies near empirical boundaries on traditional diagrams have an uncertain classification and thus a non-zero probability of belonging to more than one category. An outcome of this work is a system of statistical weights that can be used to compute global properties of galaxy samples. We apply the MEx diagram to 2,812 galaxies at 0.3

  5. Overview of marrow transplantation

    Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references

  6. Verificação das doses de radiação absorvidas durante a técnica de irradiação de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula óssea, por meio de dosímetros termoluminescentes Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Adelmo José Giordani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a precisão das doses de radiação absorvidas na terapia de transplantes de medula óssea durante a técnica de irradiação de corpo inteiro. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 200 pastilhas de sulfato de cálcio com disprósio compactado com teflon (CaSO4 + teflon, calibradas no ar e no "phantom", selecionadas aleatoriamente e dispostas em grupos de cinco no corpo dos pacientes. As leituras dosimétricas foram efetuadas pela leitora Harshaw 4000A. Nove pacientes foram irradiados no corpo inteiro em paralelos e em opostos laterais, utilizando-se unidade de cobalto-60, modelo Alcion II, com taxa de dose de 0,80 Gy/min a 80,5 cm, {campo (10 × 10 cm²}. A dosimetria dessa unidade foi realizada com dosímetro Victoreen 500. Para a determinação da dose média em cada ponto avaliado usaram-se os fatores individuais de calibração das pastilhas no ar e no "phantom", colocando-se um "build up" de 2 mm para superficializar a dose à distância de 300 cm. RESULTADOS: Em 70% dos pacientes obteve-se variação de dose menor que 5% e em 30% dos pacientes essa variação foi inferior a 10%, quando comparados os valores medidos com aqueles calculados em cada ponto. Na cabeça ocorre absorção, em média, de 14% da dose administrada, e nos pulmões, acréscimo de 2% na dose administrada. Nos pacientes com distância látero-lateral maior que 35 cm as variações entre as doses calculadas e medidas podem chegar a 30% da dose desejada, sem o uso de filtros compensadores. CONCLUSÃO: Os valores medidos das doses absorvidas nos diversos pontos anatômicos, comparados aos valores desejados (teóricos, apresentam tolerância de ±10%, considerando-se as diferenças anatômicas existentes, quando utilizados os fatores de calibração individuais das pastilhas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred CaSO4:Dy + teflon

  7. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  8. Preparation and Microwave Absorbing Properties of an Electroless Ni-Co Coating on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Using [Ag(NH32]+ as Activator

    Qiao-ling Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Co-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs composites with different molar ratios of Ni/Co were synthesized using [Ag(NH32]+ as activator and H2PO2- as reductant, thereby replacing the conventional noble metal Pd salt activator and Sn2+ reductant. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the CNTs were deposited with a dense, uniform Ni-Co coating. The possible mechanism of the electroless method was studied, which indicates that pure Ag0 acted as a nucleation site for subsequent Ni-Co-P deposition. Network vector analyzer measurements indicated that the composite with only Ni coated had an absorbing value of −12.6 dB and the composite with a Ni/Co ratio of four had the maximum wave absorption (−15.6 dB and the widest absorption bandwidth (800 MHz, RL < −10 dB, while the saturation magnetization (Ms was 4.28 emu·g−1 and the coercive force (Hc was 31.33 Oe.

  9. UV254 absorbance as real-time monitoring and control parameter for micropollutant removal in advanced wastewater treatment with powdered activated carbon.

    Altmann, Johannes; Massa, Lukas; Sperlich, Alexander; Gnirss, Regina; Jekel, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the applicability of UV absorbance measurements at 254 nm (UVA254) to serve as a simple and reliable surrogate parameter to monitor and control the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in advanced wastewater treatment applying powdered activated carbon (PAC). Correlations between OMP removal and corresponding UVA254 reduction were determined in lab-scale adsorption batch tests and successfully applied to a pilot-scale PAC treatment stage to predict OMP removals in aggregate samples with good accuracy. Real-time UVA254 measurements were utilized to evaluate adapted PAC dosing strategies and proved to be effective for online monitoring of OMP removal. Furthermore, active PAC dosing control according to differential UVA254 measurements was implemented and tested. While precise removal predictions based on real-time measurements were not accurate for all OMPs, UVA254-controlled dynamic PAC dosing was capable of achieving stable OMP removals. UVA254 can serve as an effective surrogate parameter for OMP removal in technical PAC applications. Even though the applicability as control parameter to adjust PAC dosing to water quality changes might be limited to applications with fast response between PAC adjustment and adsorptive removal (e.g. direct filtration), UVA254 measurements can also be used to monitor the adsorption efficiency in more complex PAC applications. PMID:26963606

  10. Synthesis of eucalyptus/tea tree oil absorbed biphasic calcium phosphate-PVDF polymer nanocomposite films: a surface active antimicrobial system for biomedical application.

    Bagchi, Biswajoy; Banerjee, Somtirtha; Kool, Arpan; Thakur, Pradip; Bhandary, Suman; Hoque, Nur Amin; Das, Sukhen

    2016-06-22

    A biocompatible poly(vinylidene) difluoride (PVDF) based film has been prepared by in situ precipitation of calcium phosphate precursors. Such films were surface absorbed with two essential oils namely eucalyptus and tea tree oil. Physico-chemical characterization of the composite film revealed excellent stability of the film with 10% loading of oils in the PVDF matrix. XRD, FTIR and FESEM measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate in the PVDF matrix which showed predominantly β phase. Strong bactericidal activity was observed with very low minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values on both E. coli and S. aureus. The composite films also resisted biofilm formation as observed by FESEM. The release of essential oils from the film showed an initial burst followed by a very slow release over a period of 24 hours. Antibacterial action of the film was found to be primarily due to the action of essential oils which resulted in leakage of vital fluids from the microorganisms. Both necrotic and apoptotic morphologies were observed in bacterial cells. Biocompatibility studies with the composite films showed negligible cytotoxicity to mouse mesenchymal and myoblast cells at MBC concentration. PMID:27271864

  11. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential. PMID:26220824

  12. Effect of the Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation Estimation Error on Net Primary Production Estimation - A Study with MODIS FPAR and TOMS Ultraviolet Reflective Products

    Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), which is defined as downward solar radiation in 400-700 nm absorbed by vegetation, is one of the significant variables for Net Primary Production (NPP) estimation from satellite data. Toward the reduction of the uncertainties in the global NPP estimation, it is necessary to clarify the APAR accuracy. In this paper, first we proposed the improved PAR estimation method based on Eck and Dye's method in which the ultraviolet (UV) reflectivity data derived from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) at the top of atmosphere were used for clouds transmittance estimation. The proposed method considered the variable effects of land surface UV reflectivity on the satellite-observed UV data. Monthly mean PAR comparisons between satellite-derived and ground-based data at various meteorological stations in Japan indicated that the improved PAR estimation method reduced the bias errors in the summer season. Assuming the relative error of the fraction of PAR (FPAR) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to be 10%, we estimated APAR relative errors to be 10-15%. Annual NPP is calculated using APAR derived from MODIS/ FPAR and the improved PAR estimation method. It is shown that random and bias errors of annual NPP in a 1 km resolution pixel are less than 4% and 6% respectively. The APAR bias errors due to the PAR bias errors also affect the estimated total NPP. We estimated the most probable total annual NPP in Japan by subtracting the bias PAR errors. It amounts about 248 MtC/yr. Using the improved PAR estimation method, and Eck and Dye's method, total annual NPP is 4% and 9% difference from most probable value respectively. The previous intercomparison study among using fifteen NPP models4) showed that global NPP estimations among NPP models are 44.4-66.3 GtC/yr (coefficient of variation = 14%). Hence we conclude that the NPP estimation uncertainty due to APAR estimation error is small

  13. Bone marrow stromal/stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate osteoblast activity and differentiation in vitro and promote bone regeneration in vivo

    Yunhao Qin; Lian Wang; Zhengliang Gao; Genyin Chen; Changqing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regu...

  14. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  15. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Milan Sykora; Nina R. Weisse-Bernstein; Luk, Ting S.; Antoinette J. Taylor; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Hou-Tong Chen

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, omnidirectional absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low emissivity at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experiment...

  16. Posthumous Bone Marrow and its Significance for Transplantation

    Bone marrow obtained by aspiration from the chest and iliac crest of adults who had died suddenly, or by forcing it out of their vertebrae, has been studied at the Leningrad Research Institute for Haematology and Blood Transfusion since 1959, with morphological, functional and biochemical methods. It has been found that the vital activity of the bone-marrow cells depends on the time which has elapsed since death, the optimum period being the first six hours after death. As can be seen from a number of indices (phagocytic activity, capacity for granulopoiesis of vital dyes, luminescent microscopy and energy metabolism) posthumous bone marrow removed during this period differs little from donor bone marrow. The number of bone-marrow cells taken from corpses is several times greater than the number that can be taken from live donors. Experimental and clinical results show that the transplantation of posthumous bone marrow has a stimulating effect on haemopoiesis. On the basis-of the research that has been carried out, bone marrow obtained within six hours of death can be regarded as valuable, biologically active tissue suitable for transplantation. (author)

  17. Methods for the inclusion of shallow marrow and adipose tissue in pathlength-based skeletal dosimetry

    Distributions of linear pathlength measurements have been utilized in skeletal dosimetry of internally emitted short-range particles for over 30 years. This work reviews the methods for coupling these distributions to range-energy data. A revised methodology is presented for handling the insertion of the additional dosimetric target region (shallow marrow) and medium (adipose tissue) into the dosimetry algorithm. The methodology is shown to reduce the volume fraction of shallow marrow in the trabecular skeleton over existing methodologies. Finally, theoretical low and high-energy checkpoints are derived for use in checking the absorbed fraction and specific absorbed fraction results for a variety of source and target combinations.

  18. Research and simulation of pneumatic active suspension with dynamic vibration absorber%带动力吸振器的空气主动悬架的仿真研究

    陈开景; 潘公宇

    2012-01-01

    针对空气主动悬架在高频段的振动问题,设计一动力吸振器,建立带动力吸振器的空气主动悬架的1/4车辆动力学模型,结合最优控制相关理论,对带动力吸振器的空气主动悬架控制器进行设计.运用Matlab编程功能对动力吸振器参数进行优化并得到了最优参数.应用Matlab/Simulink软件对带动力吸振器的空气主动悬架的动力学模型进行频域和时域的仿真研究,并与不带动力吸振器的主被动空气悬架进行对比分析.结果表明带有动力吸振器的空气主动悬架在高频段的减振性能明显优于被动空气悬架和常规空气主动悬架.%Dynamic vibration absorber is designed to solve the problem of vehicle vibration during high frequence stage,and then a quarter of vehicle dynamic model is established based on the pneumatic active suspension with dynamic vibration absorber.Combining with the optimal control theories,a controller for the pneumatic active suspension with dynamic vibration absorber is designed.Meanwhile the parameters of dynamic vibration absorber is optimized and the optimal value is acquired by applying programming of the Matlab.Afterwards simulation study is carried out for dynamics models of the suspension with dynamic vibration absorber in frequency domain and time domain and compared with that without dynamic bibration absorber by Matlab/Simulink,which results show that the vibration control performance of the pneumatic active suspension with dynamic vibration absorber during high frequency stage is more superior to passive pneumatic suspension and normal pneumatic active suspension.

  19. Renal function affects absorbed dose to the kidneys and haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment

    Svensson, Johanna; Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Waengberg, Bo [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Goeteborg (Sweden); Larsson, Maria [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Bernhardt, Peter [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Bioengineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has become an important treatment option in the management of advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Long-lasting responses are reported for a majority of treated patients, with good tolerability and a favourable impact on quality of life. The treatment is usually limited by the cumulative absorbed dose to the kidneys, where the radiopharmaceutical is reabsorbed and retained, or by evident haematological toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate how renal function affects (1) absorbed dose to the kidneys, and (2) the development of haematological toxicity during PRRT treatment. The study included 51 patients with an advanced neuroendocrine tumour who received {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment during 2006 - 2011 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg. An average activity of 7.5 GBq (3.5 - 8.2 GBq) was given at intervals of 6 - 8 weeks on one to five occasions. Patient baseline characteristics according to renal and bone marrow function, tumour burden and medical history including prior treatment were recorded. Renal and bone marrow function were then monitored during treatment. Renal dosimetry was performed according to the conjugate view method, and the residence time for the radiopharmaceutical in the whole body was calculated. A significant correlation between inferior renal function before treatment and higher received renal absorbed dose per administered activity was found (p < 0.01). Patients with inferior renal function also experienced a higher grade of haematological toxicity during treatment (p = 0.01). The residence time of {sup 177}Lu in the whole body (range 0.89 - 3.0 days) was correlated with grade of haematological toxicity (p = 0.04) but not with renal absorbed dose (p = 0.53). Patients with inferior renal function were exposed to higher renal absorbed dose per administered activity and developed a higher grade of haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. The study confirms the

  20. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    Azad, A K; Sykora, M; Weisse-Bernstein, N R; Luk, T S; Taylor, A J; Dalvit, D A R; Chen, H -T

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, omnidirectional absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low emissivity at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of our metasurface absorber design in solar thermophotovoltaics by exploiting refractory plasmonic materials.

  1. An absorbed dose microcalorimeter

    A graphite microcalorimeter is described for use as a primary standard of ionising radiation absorbed dose; its place in the hierarchy of Australian ionising radiation standards is discussed. A disc shaped absorber is supported on pins within three nested graphite jackets and an insulated vacuum vessel. Calibration heating is by thermistor, the feasibility of this was verified by computer modelling. Adiabatic and heat-flow modes of operation are described, and calculations of heat transfer between the various graphite parts are summarised. Carbon and water phantoms were built for the evaluation of correction factors for the microcalorimeter, and for the calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters. The microcalorimeter will be used as a working standard for the calibration of dosemeters in terms of absorbed dose for the x-ray, gamma-ray and electron radiotherapy beams commonly used in Australia today

  2. Intensified proliferative activity of the CFU-S in vertebral bone marrow of 239Pu-treated mice as one of the factors involved in the induction of granulocytic leukemia

    Using the exocolonizing test, 59Fe utilization technique and classical cytology, 210 days after i.v. injection of 166.7 kBq of 239Pu/kg in about 30% of contaminated mice a proliferative activity was observed in vertebral bone marrow, characterized by high relative numbers of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells, significantly higher than in the seriously damaged vertebral bone marrow of other 239Pu-treated mice and even higher than in untreated controls. Also the amount of cells in the granulocytic series increased. After transplantation to the heavily irradiated syngeneic hosts the stem cells differentiated into splenic colonies with higher iron utilization than in corresponding controls. Higher numbers of mature granulocytes were also found in the peripheral blood and the spleen. It is assumed that this activity was an inadequate reparative response of the hemopoietic stem cell compartment to the damaging effect and it is considered to be the critical phase which not only preceded the induction of granulocytic leukemia but also created conditions favorable for leukemic transformation of the hemopoietic stem cells. (author)

  3. Absorbed dose due to radioiodine therapy by organs of patients with hyperthyroidism

    The dose absorbed by organs of patients with hyperthyroidism treated with 131 I was estimated by using the MIRDOSE computer program and data from ICRP-53. The calculation were performed using effective half-life and uptake average values, which were determined for 17 patients treated with 370 MBq and 555MBq of 131 I. The results shown that the dose in the thyroid, for a 370 MBq administrated activity, was of 99 Gy and 49.5 Gy for 60 g and 80 g thyroid respectively. The average dose estimated in other organs were relatively low, presenting values lower than 0.1 Gy in the kidneys, bone marrow and ovaries and 0.19 Gy in the stomach

  4. Radiobiologic risk estimation from dental radiology. Part I. Absorbed doses to critical organs

    The aim of the present study was to generate one consistent set of data for evaluating and comparing radiobiologic risks from different dental radiographic techniques. To accomplish this goal, absorbed doses were measured in fourteen anatomic sites from (1) five different panoramic machines with the use of rare-earth screens, (2) a twenty-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long round cone, (3) a twenty-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone, (4) a four-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long round cone, and (5) a four-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone. The dose to the thyroid gland, the active bone marrow, the brain, and the salivary glands was evaluated by means of exposure of a tissue-equivalent phantom, fitted with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at the relevant locations

  5. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Eric Osgood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  6. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  7. Absorbed doses from temporomandibular joint radiography

    Brooks, S.L.; Lanzetta, M.L.

    1985-06-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in a tissue-equivalent phantom to measure doses of radiation absorbed by various structures in the head when the temporomandibular joint was examined by four different radiographic techniques--the transcranial, transorbital, and sigmoid notch (Parma) projections and the lateral tomograph. The highest doses of radiation occurred at the point of entry for the x-ray beam, ranging from 112 mrad for the transorbital view to 990 mrad for the sigmoid notch view. Only the transorbital projection a radiation dose to the lens of the eye. Of the four techniques evaluated, the lateral tomograph produced the highest doses to the pituitary gland and the bone marrow, while the sigmoid notch radiograph produced the highest doses to the parotid gland.

  8. Absorbed doses from temporomandibular joint radiography

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in a tissue-equivalent phantom to measure doses of radiation absorbed by various structures in the head when the temporomandibular joint was examined by four different radiographic techniques--the transcranial, transorbital, and sigmoid notch (Parma) projections and the lateral tomograph. The highest doses of radiation occurred at the point of entry for the x-ray beam, ranging from 112 mrad for the transorbital view to 990 mrad for the sigmoid notch view. Only the transorbital projection a radiation dose to the lens of the eye. Of the four techniques evaluated, the lateral tomograph produced the highest doses to the pituitary gland and the bone marrow, while the sigmoid notch radiograph produced the highest doses to the parotid gland

  9. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan

  10. The 3D plant canopy radiative transfer analysis in an Alaskan black spruce forest: the characteristics of fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation in the heterogeneous landscape

    Kobayashi, H.; Suzuki, R.; Nagai, S.; Nakai, T.; Kim, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last couple of decades, the three dimensional plant canopy radiative transfer models have been developed, improved and used for the retrievals of biophysical variables of vegetative surface. Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) by plant canopy, a similar variable to heating rate in the atmosphere, is one of the important biophysical variables to infer the terrestrial plant canopy photosynthesis. FAPAR can be estimated by the radiative transfer model inversion or the empirical relationships between FAPAR and vegetation indices such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). To date, some global FAPAR products are publicly available. These products are estimated from the moderate resolution satellites such as MODIS and SPOT-VEGETATION. One may apply the similar FAPAR algorithms to higher spatial resolution satellites if the ecosystem structures are horizontally homogeneous, which means that the adjacent satellite pixels have a similar spectral properties. If the vegetation surface is highly heterogeneous, "domain average FAPAR", which assumes no net horizontal radiation fluxes, can be unrealistically high (more than 1). In this presentation, we analyzed the characteristics of FAPAR in a heterogeneous landscape. As a case study, we selected our study site in a sparse black spruce forest in Alaska. We conducted the field campaigns to measure forest structural and optical properties that are used in the radiative transfer simulation. We used a 3D radiative transfer, FLiES (Kobayashi, H. and H. Iwabuchi (2008), A coupled 1-D atmosphere and 3-D canopy radiative transfer model for canopy reflectance, light environment, and photosynthesis simulation in a heterogeneous landscape, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 173-185) to create a high resolution simulated spectral reflectance and FAPAR images over the course of the growing season. From the analysis, we show (1) FAPAR with no net horizontal fluxes assumption can be higher than

  11. MRI marrow observations in thalassemia: the effects of the primary disease, transfusional therapy, and chelation

    The magnetic resonance bone marrow patterns in thalassemia were evaluated to determine changes produced by transfusion and chelation therapy. Thirteen patients had T1- and T2-weighted images of the spine, pelvis and femurs. Three received no therapy (age range 2.5-3 years). Three were ''hypertransfused'' (transfused to maintain a hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dl) and not chelated because of age (age range 6 months-8 years). Seven were ''hypertransfused'' and chelated (age range 12-35 years). Signal characteristics of marrow were compared with those of surrounding muscle and fat. Fatty marrow (isointense with subcutaneous fat) was compared with red marrow (hypointense to fat and slightly hyperintense to muscle). Marrow hypointense to muscle was identified as iron deposition within red marrow. The untreated group demonstrated signal consistent with red marrow throughout the central and peripheral skeleton. Hypertransfused but not chelated patients demonstrated marked iron deposition in the central and peripheral skeleton. Hypertransfused and chelated patients demonstrated iron deposition in the central skeleton and a mixed appearance of marrow in the peripheral skeleton. The MR appearance of marrow in thalassemia is a reflection of the patient's transfusion and chelation therapy. Iron deposition occurs despite chelation therapy in sites of active red marrow. As red marrow retreats centrally with age, so does the pattern of iron deposition. The long-term biological effects of this iron deposition are unknown. (orig.). With 8 figs., 1 tab

  12. Bone marrow transplantation in the rat

    We have isolated inflammatory leukocytes from various lymphoid and parenchymal organs after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation from either an allogeneic or syngeneic strain and tested their ability to perform lytic functions in vitro. No direct lytic activity (i.e. cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CTL) to relevant strain-derived target cells in the lymphoid or parenchymal target organs was seen preceding or during acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Instead, the leukocytes of the spleen and blood and the inflammatory cells of liver and lungs were efficient effector cells against recipient-derived target cells in the presence of relevant antibody (antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, ADCC). The NK activity against YAC-1 (natural killer, NK) target cells was first high in the spleen, but when the aGHVD appeared in the allograft marrow recipients the NK activity decreased in the spleen with a concomitant increase in the liver, but not in the other parenchymal target organs. At the same time no NK acitivity was seen in the syngeneic marrow graft recipients' parenchymal organs. These observations suggest functional differences in the structure of inflammation in the different target organs of aGVHD. (author)

  13. Temperature dependence of the absorbance of alkaline solutions of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate--a potential source of error in the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity.

    Burtis, C A; Seibert, L E; Baird, M A; Sampson, E J

    1977-09-01

    The absorbance of an alkaline solution of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate is a function of temperature. Quantitative evaluation of this phenomenon indicates that it (a) depends on the concentration of the compound and is independent of source, buffer concentration, and pH above 9.0; (b) is reversible; (c) is not a result of alkaline hydrolysis or 4-nitrophenol contamination; and (d) correlates with a temperature-induced shift of its absorbance spectrum. The phenomenon may represent a potential analytical problem in methods for alkaline phosphatase in which this compound is the substrate. If thermal equilibrium is not reached and maintained during an alkaline phosphatase assay, the thermochromic response will be included in the measured rate. The magnitude of this error depends on the thermal response and control characteristics of each particular instrument and the reaction conditions under which such an analysis is performed. PMID:19164

  14. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols. PMID:27074509

  15. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  16. Universal metamaterial absorbe

    Smaali, Rafik; Moreau, Antoine; Taliercio, Thierry; Centeno, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We propose a design for an universal absorber, characterized by a resonance frequency that can be tuned from visible to microwave frequencies independently of the choice of the metal and the dielectrics involved. An almost resonant perfect absorption up to 99.8 % is demonstrated at resonance for all polarization states of light and for a very wide angular aperture. These properties originate from a magnetic Fabry-Perot mode that is confined in a dielectric spacer of $\\lambda/100$ thickness by a metamaterial layer and a mirror. An extraordinary large funneling through nano-slits explains how light can be trapped in the structure. Simple scaling laws can be used as a recipe to design ultra-thin perfect absorbers whatever the materials and the desired resonance wavelength, making our design truly universal.

  17. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  18. Universal metamaterial absorbe

    Smaali, Rafik; Omei, Fatima; Antoine MOREAU; Taliercio, Thierry; Centeno, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We propose a design for an universal absorber, characterized by a resonance frequency that can be tuned from visible to microwave frequencies independently of the choice of the metal and the dielectrics involved. An almost resonant perfect absorption up to 99.8 % is demonstrated at resonance for all polarization states of light and for a very wide angular aperture. These properties originate from a magnetic Fabry-Perot mode that is confined in a dielectric spacer of $\\lambda/100$ thickness by...

  19. Assessment of bone marrow inflammation in patients with myelofibrosis: an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT study

    Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Alchalby, Haefaa; Triviai, Ioanna; Kroeger, Nicolaus [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Clinic for Stem Cell Transplantation, Hamburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bengel, Frank M. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Myelofibrosis is a haematopoietic stem cell neoplasm characterized by bone marrow inflammation, reactive marrow fibrosis and extramedullary haematopoiesis. The aim of this study was to determine if {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can be used to noninvasively visualize and quantify the extent and activity of bone marrow involvement. In 30 patients, the biodistribution of {sup 18}F-FDG was analysed by measuring the standardized uptake value in the bone marrow compartment and spleen. Imaging findings were compared with laboratory, cytogenetic and histopathological data. Retention of {sup 18}F-FDG was observed in bone marrow and spleen. Bone marrow involvement varied, ranging from mildly increased uptake in the central skeleton to extensive uptake in most parts of the skeleton. The extent of bone marrow involvement decreased over time from initial diagnosis (r{sub s} = -0.43, p = 0.019). Metabolic activity of the bone marrow decreased as the histopathological grade of fibrosis increased (r{sub s} = -0.37, p = 0.04). There was a significant positive correlation between the metabolic activity of the bone marrow and that of the spleen (p = 0.04). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is as a promising technique for the quantitation of bone marrow inflammation in myelofibrosis. Our data indicate that the intensity of bone marrow {sup 18}F-FDG uptake decreases as bone marrow fibrosis increases. Further evaluation in prospective studies is required to determine the potential clinical impact and prognostic significance of PET. (orig.)

  20. Burnable neutron absorbers

    This patent deals with the fabrication of pellets for neutron absorber rods. Such a pellet includes a matrix of a refractory material which may be aluminum or zirconium oxide, and a burnable poison distributed throughout the matrix. The neutron absorber material may consist of one or more elements or compounds of the metals boron, gadolinium, samarium, cadmium, europium, hafnium, dysprosium and indium. The method of fabricating pellets of these materials outlined in this patent is designed to produce pores or voids in the pellets that can be used to take up the expansion of the burnable poison and to absorb the helium gas generated. In the practice of this invention a slurry of Al2O3 is produced. A hard binder is added and the slurry and binder are spray dried. This powder is mixed with dry B4C powder, forming a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is pressed into green tubes which are then sintered. During sintering the binder volatilizes leaving a ceramic with nearly spherical high-density regions of

  1. Enhancement of radiation dose to the bone marrow from backscattering of electron sources

    The absorbed fractions of continuous sources of monoenergetic electrons in marrow cavities of human bone have been previously evaluated. The difference in the scattering power of electrons in cortical bone (CB) and the red marrow (RM) was neglected. In the present work the Integrated Tiger series of radiation transport Monte Carlo codes was used to investigate the effect of the size of the marrow cavity, assumed to be spherical, on the backscatter dose to the RM. Three hundred and 500-μm radius spheres imbedded with isotropic distributions of 90Y or 131I were considered. The average dose increases for 131I and 90Y in the 500 μm radius spherical model of the marrow cavities are 5 and 4%, respectively. The average dose increases for the same nuclides in the 300-,am radius spheres are 6 and 4%, respectively

  2. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  3. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  4. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C.; Lee, Chuck K.; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  5. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  6. Characteristic focal hot spots of bone marrow scintigraphic finding in aplastic anemia

    The bone marrow scintigraphy with 99mTc sulfur colloid has been performed in 168 patients with Aplastic anemia(AA) and 100 patients with others hematological disorders. Bone marrow imaging is a useful method to demonstrate the existence of active hematopoietic foci in living body. The features and clinical significance of these focal hot spots have been discussed. The bone marrow scintigraphy is proved to be helpful in diagnosis, therapy and assessing prognosis of A.A

  7. Onset of apoprotein E secretion during differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes

    1983-01-01

    A number of macrophage functions were sequentially expressed when the bone marrow precursors of mononuclear phagocytes differentiated in culture in the presence of a specific growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1. We have defined the expression of apoprotein E (ApoE), a major secreted protein of resident peritoneal macrophages, during maturation of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes into macrophages. By 5 d the bone marrow macrophages were active secretory cells, but few...

  8. Transplantation of bone marrow in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    Bone marrow transplants were carried out in 13 patients suffering from acute irradiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. Only blood relations of the patients were used as donors. The number of bone marrow cells transplanted must be at least 2x108 per kilogram of recipient weight. The experience of the present bone marrow transplants has shown defects in clinical methods of early diagnosis (during the first 7-10 days after exposure) of acute radiation injuries to the skin, intestine and lungs which are incompatible with survival. Another problem with bone marrow transplants for patients suffering from acute radiation sickness is to determine to what extent the depression of marrow activity is irreversible. Spontaneous regeneration of myelopoiesis was observed 22-30 days after exposure in patients who had received doses of 7-9 Gy. A lapse of this order before the onset regeneration is therefore, in principle, compatible with survival under the conditions of modern support therapy. Thus, the belief that prolonged acute radiation pancytopenia which is incompatible with survival starts already at doses of 5-6 Gy is evidently incorrect, at least for the relatively low exposure dose rates experienced by this group of victims. The results of bone marrow transplants in victims of the Chernobyl accident suggest that, in future, the following rules should be observed in transplanting human bone marrow to victims of acute radiation sickness: (1) Only HLA-identical transplants should be carried out; and (2) HLA-identical bone marrow transplants should be carried out only in patients who have received whole body doses of gamma radiation of 9.0 Gy or more. (author). 1 tab

  9. Differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy

    Yu-Tao Zhan; Yu Wang; Lai Wei; Bin Liu; Hong-Song Chen; Xu Cong; Ran Fei

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells in liver after partial hepatectomy.METHODS: Bone marrow cells were collected from the tibia of rat with partial hepatectomy, the medial and left hepatic lobes were excised. The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) were enriched from the bone marrow cells by depleting red cells and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The sorted bone marrow stem cells were labeled by PKH26-GL in vitro and autotransplanted by portal vein injection. After 2wk, the transplanted bone marrow stem cells in liver were examined by the immunohistochemistry of albumin (hepatocyte-specific marker).RESULTS: The bone marrow stem cells (Thy+CD3-CD45RA- cells) accounted for 2.8% of bone marrow cells without red cells. The labeling rate of 10μM PKH26-GL on sorted bone marrow stem cells was about 95%.There were sporadic PKH26-GL-labeled cells among hepatocytes in liver tissue section, and some of the cells expressed albumin.CONCLUSION: Rat bone marrow stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in regenerative environment and may participate in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

  10. Estimation of absorbed dose using activity measured by PET for continuous inhalation of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} and {sup 15}O{sub 2}

    Hachiya, Takenori [Rehabilitation Center for Physically Disabled Persons and Medical Center for Mental Health, Kyowa, Akita (Japan); Shoji, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Nobuo; Hagami, Eiichi; Toyoshima, Hideto; Hatazawa, Jun; Kanno, Iwao; Uemura, Kazuo

    1998-06-01

    In our positron emission tomography (PET) studies, measurement is carried out during C{sup 15}O{sub 2}, {sup 15}O{sub 2} and C{sup 15}O gas inhalation. The radiation absorbed dose was estimated by the MIRD method from measured cumulative radioactivity in organs and remainder of the body. The radiation absorbed dose in 22 target organs including pharynx, larynx and trachea walls were estimated using the radioactive concentration in 7 source organs (brain, pharynx-larynx, trachea, lung, heart, liver and remainder of the body). These radioactive concentrations in organs were measured by PET scan in a normal volunteer during continuous C{sup 15}O{sub 2} and {sup 15}O{sub 2} inhalation. The effective dose equivalents for 22 minutes of inhalation were found to be 5.81 x 10{sup -4} mSv/MBq for C{sup 15}O{sub 2} at 157 MBq/min and 4.64 x 10{sup -4} mSv/MBq for {sup 15}O{sub 2} inhaled at 294 MBq/min. (author)

  11. Assessment of functional displacement of bone marrow by osteoplastic metastases from prostatic carcinoma with bone marrow scintigraphy

    The detailed examination of the skeleton in prostate cancer has become more critical since surgical treatment requires the non-evidence of bone metastases. The data of 30 patients have been evaluated. All patients had a bone scan and a bone marrow scintigraphy with [99mTc[-anti-NCA95. In this study we compared the degree of bone marrow displacement with the extent of metastatic deposits identified on the bone scan. Six patients showing the criterias of a superscan (maximal avidity of the osteotrope radiatracer) had as a correlate a complete displacement of the hematopoesis in the bone marrow scintigraphy and an increased activity in liver and spleen. The degree of the peripheral extension correlated strongly with the decrease of the haemoglobin in blood samples. The grading was based upon the number of metastatic deposits identified on the scan (0=no metastases; 1≤6 metastases; 2=multiple metastases; 3=superscan). In 28 of 30 patients (93%) we found corresponding results in both the bone scan and the bone marrow scintigraphy. The bone marrow scintigraphy is a sensitive method in the detection of metastatic disease and gives additional information about the extent of bone marrow displacement by osteoplastic metastases. (orig.)

  12. Absorbed dose in the full-mouth periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and zonography

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of substitution of the zonography for the full-mouth periapical radiography in aspect of radiation protection. Rando phantom and LiF TLD chips were used for dosimetry. The absorbed doses at brain, skin above the TMJ, parotid gland, bone marrow in the mandibular body, and thyroid gland during the full-mouth periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and zonography were measured. From the zonography, the absorbed doses to the brain, the skin over the TMJ, and the parotid gland were relatively high, but the absorbed doses to the bone marrow in the mandibular body and, especially, the thyroid gland were very low. The zonography can be an alternative to the full-mouth periapical radiography in aspect of radiation protection.

  13. Sensing with THz metamaterial absorbers

    Cong, Longqing

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterial perfect absorbers from microwaves to optical part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been intensely studied for its ability to absorb electromagnetic radiation. Perfect absorption of light by metamaterials have opened up new opportunities for application oriented functionalities such as efficient sensors and emitters. We present an absorber based sensing scheme at the terahertz frequencies and discuss optimized designs to achieve high frequency and amplitude sensitivities. The major advantage of a perfect metamaterial absorber as a sensor is the sensitive shift in the absorber resonance frequency along with the sharp change in the amplitude of the resonance due to strong interaction of the analyte with the electric and the magnetic fields at resonant perfect absorption frequency. We compare the sensing performance of the perfect metamaterial absorber with its complementary structural design and planar metasurface with identical structure. The best FoM values obtained for the absorber sensor here...

  14. 太阳能甲烷重整中催化活性吸收体的表面特性%Surface Properties of the Catalytic Active Absorber for Solar Reforming of Methane

    桑丽霞; 王国瑞; 孙彪; 吴玉庭; 马重芳

    2013-01-01

    Solar CO2 reforming of methane has attracted a great attention because it can realize energy storage of high-temperature heat from concentrated solar radiation and optimal utilization of resources of natural gas.Catalytic active absorber has a key role on absorption of solar energy and reforming of methane and becomes focus of solar reforming of methane research.Catalytic active absorber,Ru/Al2O3/AISI316,Ni/Al2O3 (MgO)/AISI316,were firstly fabricated by using AISI316 metal foam as the matrix.The surface properties of the resulting catalytic active absorber were characterized by means of XRD,H2-TPR and CO2-TPD techniques.Combination of the reactivity behavior of the as-prepared samples in a continuous flow fixed-bed reaction system with a quartz tube reactor,it can be found that the high activity and the long-term stability of Ru/Al2O3/AISI316 foam was unaffected by the components changes of in AISI316 foam matrix during the high temperature reaction.For nickel based catalytic active absorber,the activity for methane reforming of CO2 can be improved by adding the promoter MgO or increasing the Al2O3 coating.Based on the characterization of XRD and H2-TPR,AISI316 foam matrix can enhance the interaction between the Al2O3 coating and the active species Ru or Ni,particularly for Ru/Al2O3/AISI316,the formed Ru-O-Al surface species can lead to the increase of high dispersion of active species.From the peak area of adsorption and desorption behavior,the activating and absorption ability of CO2 on Ru/Al2O3/AISI316 is higher than that of Ni/Al2O3/AISI316,which ascribes to the more active sites on the surface of the catalytic active absorber.%以AISI316泡沫金属为基体为太阳能甲烷重整反应制备出系列Ru基和Ni基催化活性吸收体(Ru/Al2O3/AISI316,Ni/Al2O3 (MgO)/AISI316),着重利用XRD、TPR、TPD和CO2脉冲吸脱附等技术对所制整体式催化剂的表面特性进行了表征和分析.结果表明:以AISI316泡沫金属为基体可增加

  15. Effects of autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation on beta-adrenoceptor density and electrical activation pattern in a rabbit model of non-ischemic heart failure

    Ullmann Cris

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since only little is known on stem cell therapy in non-ischemic heart failure we wanted to know whether a long-term improvement of cardiac function in non-ischemic heart failure can be achieved by stem cell transplantation. Methods White male New Zealand rabbits were treated with doxorubicine (3 mg/kg/week; 6 weeks to induce dilative non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Thereafter, we obtained autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMSC and injected 1.5–2.0 Mio cells in 1 ml medium by infiltrating the myocardium via a left anterolateral thoracotomy in comparison to sham-operated rabbits. 4 weeks later intracardiac contractility was determined in-vivo using a Millar catheter. Thereafter, the heart was excised and processed for radioligand binding assays to detect β1- and β2-adrenoceptor density. In addition, catecholamine plasma levels were determined via HPLC. In a subgroup we investigated cardiac electrophysiology by use of 256 channel mapping. Results In doxorubicine-treated animals β-adrenoceptor density was significantly down-regulated in left ventricle and septum, but not in right ventricle, thereby indicating a typical left ventricular heart failure. Sham-operated rabbits exhibited the same down-regulation. In contrast, BMSC transplantation led to significantly less β-adrenoceptor down-regulation in septum and left ventricle. Cardiac contractility was significantly decreased in heart failure and sham-operated rabbits, but was significantly higher in BMSC-transplanted hearts. Norepinephrine and epinephrine plasma levels were enhanced in heart failure and sham-operated animals, while these were not different from normal in BMSC-transplanted animals. Electrophysiological mapping revealed unaltered electrophysiology and did not show signs of arrhythmogeneity. Conclusion BMSC transplantation improves sympathoadrenal dysregualtion in non-ischemic heart failure.

  16. Neutron Absorbing Ability Variation in Neutron Absorbing Material Caused by the Neutron Irradiation in Spent Fuel Storage Facility

    In spent fuel storage facility like high density spent fuel storage racks and dry storage casks, spent fuels are stored with neutron absorbing materials installed as a part of those facilities, and they are used for absorbing neutrons emitted from spent fuels. Usually structural material with neutron absorbing material of racks and casks are located around spent fuels, so it is irradiated by neutrons for long time. Neutron absorbing ability could be changed by the variation of nuclide composition in neutron absorbing material caused by the irradiation of neutrons. So, neutron absorbing materials are continuously faced with spent fuels with boric acid solution or inert gas environment. Major nuclides in neutron absorbing material are Al27, C12, B11, B10 and they are changed to numerous other ones as radioactive decay or neutron absorption reaction. The B10 content in neutron absorbing material dominates the neutron absorbing ability, so, the variation of nuclide composition including the decrease of B10 content is the critical factor on neutron absorbing ability. In this study, neutron flux in spent fuel, the activation of neutron absorbing material and the variation of nuclide composition are calculated. And, the minimum neutron flux causing the decrease of B10 content is calculated in spent fuel storage facility. Finally, the variation of neutron multiplication factor is identified according to the one of B10 content in neutron absorbing material. The minimum neutron flux to impact the neutron absorbing ability is 1010 order, however, usual neutron flux from spent fuel is 108 order. Therefore, even though neutron absorbing material is irradiated for over 40 years, B10 content is little decreased, so, initial neutron absorbing ability could be kept continuously

  17. Different expression of chemokines in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis bone marrow

    Kurowska, Weronika J.; Radzikowska, Anna; Massalska, Magdalena A.; Burakowski, Tomasz; Kontny, Ewa; Słowińska, Iwona; Gasik, Robert; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction. In addition to involvement of the joints, there is growing evidence that inflammatory/autoimmune processes take place in bone marrow, beginning the disease onset. Activated T and B cells accumulate in bone marrow, where also effective antigen presentation takes place. An increased number of activated T cells was observed in RA in comparison to osteoarthritis (OA) bone marrow. In the present study we analyzed the levels of chemokines that may be responsible for accumulation/retention of T-cells in the bone marrow of RA and OA patients. Material and methods Bone marrow samples were obtained from RA and OA patients during total hip replacement surgery, and bone marrow plasma was obtained by gradient centrifugation. Levels of the chemokines CX3CL1, CCL5, CCL2, CXCL12 and CXCL1 were measured in bone marrow plasma by specific ELISAs. Comparison between the groups of patients and statistical significance were analyzed by the two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. Results Increased levels of CX3CL1 (818 ±431 pg/ml vs. 502 ±131 pg/ml, p < 0.0007) and CCL5 (5967 ±1680 pg/ml vs. 4878 ±2360 pg/ml, p < 0.05) respectively in bone marrow plasma from RA in comparison with OA patients were observed. In contrast, similar levels of CCL2, CXCL12 and CXCL1 in RA and OA bone marrow suggest that these cytokines do not play a significant role in the observed T cell accumulation in RA bone marrow. Conclusions CX3CL1 and CCL5 overproduced in RA bone marrow may contribute to the accumulation of T cells observed in RA bone marrow. PMID:27407279

  18. Heterogeneous neutron absorbers development

    The use of solid burnable absorber materials in power light water reactors has increased in the last years, specially due to improvements attained in costs of generated electricity. The present work summarizes the basic studies made on an alumina-gadolinia system, where alumina is the inert matrix and gadolinia acts as burnable poison, and describes the fabrication method of pellets with that material. High density compacts were obtained in the range of concentrations used by cold pressing and sintering at 1600 deg C in inert (Ar) atmosphere. Finally, the results of the irradiation experiences made at RA-6 reactor, located at the Bariloche Atomic Center, are given where variations on negative reactivity caused by introduction of burnable poison rods were measured. The results obtained from these experiences are in good agreement with those coming from calculation codes. (Author)

  19. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow. IV. The influence of splenectomy on the bone marrow plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells

    Mouse bone marrow is barely capable of plaque-forming cell (PFC) activity during the primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). However, during the secondary response, it becomes the major center of activity containing IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC. In the present paper the influence of splenectomy was studied on primary and secondary PFC activity in the bone marrow. Differences in primary and secondary bone marrow PFC responses are probably related to the presence of B and T memory cells in situ. Therefore the effect of splenectomy on the appearance of B and T memory cells in the bone marrow was also investigated. iv.plenectomy before intravenous (iv) immunization with 4 x 108 SRBC prevented any primary PFC activity in the bone marrow. The influence of splenectomy before priming on secondary PFC activity in the bone marrow depended on the priming dose of SRBC. Splenectomy before priming with 107 SRBC iv completely prevented IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-PFC activity in the bone marrow upon subsequent boosting with 4 x 108 SRBC iv. By means of cell transfer experiments it was shown that after splenectomy no B or T memory cells appeared in the bone marrow after priming with 107 SRBC iv. Cell transfer experiments showed that splenectomy before priming with 107 SRBC iv not only interfered with the appearance of B and T memory cells in the bone marrow, but also with the appearance of B memory cells in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and blood. Immunization of spenectomized mice with 4 x 108 SRBC iv induced the appearance of B memory cells in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and blood

  20. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in 131I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results

    Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Pasquino, M.; Miranti, A.; Cutaia, C.; Brusasco, G.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher 131I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from 131I activity in the blood and the dose from 131I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher 131I activities to be

  1. Energy-absorbing effectiveness factor

    Jones, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A study is reported on the energy-absorbing effectiveness factor which was introduced recently. The factor is defined as the quotient of the total energy, which can be absorbed in a system, to the maximum energy up to failure in a normal tensile specimen, which is made from the same volume of material. This dimensionless parameter allows comparisons to be made of the effectiveness of various geometrical shapes and of energy-absorbers made from different materials. The infl...

  2. Casimir force in absorbing multilayers

    Tomas, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Casimir effect in a dispersive and absorbing multilayered system is considered adopting the (net) vacuum-field pressure point of view to the Casimir force. Using the properties of the macroscopic field operators appropriate for absorbing systems and a convenient compact form of the Green function for a multilayer, a straightforward and transparent derivation of the Casimir force in a lossless layer of an otherwise absorbing multilayer is presented. The resulting expression in terms of the...

  3. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  4. Bone Marrow Transplants: "Another Possibility at Life"

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bone Marrow Transplants “Another Possibility at Life” Past Issues / Summer ... year, and, for 16,000 of them, a bone marrow transplant is the best treatment option, notes Susan ...

  5. Transplant Outcomes (Bone Marrow and Cord Blood)

    ... reports show patient survival and transplant data of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood transplants in the transplant ... Data by Center Report —View the number of bone marrow and cord blood transplants performed at a specific ...

  6. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.)

  7. Effects of Root-Growing Space on Its Absorbing Characteristics

    SONG Hai-xing; LI Sheng-xiu

    2003-01-01

    Influences of root-growing space of maize upon root physiological characteristics, nutrient uptake and crop yields were studied under conditions with and without supply of water and N. Results showed that limitation of the root-growing space greatly affected root growth, decreased total root-absorbing area and TTC-reductive amounts. However, it obviously increased the root active-absorbing area, specific absorbing area (absorbing area per gram root weight) and specific active-absorbing area (actively absorbing area per gram root weight) in addition to promoting the TTC-reductive intensity. This clearly showed that plants were not passively tolerant to stress, but actively regulated their physiological metabolic processes, and strengthened their absorbing ability to increase water and nutrient uptake so that root injury by the environmental stress could be reduced. Supply of water and N stimulated root growth, increased root-absorbing area and activity, promoted nutrient uptake, and therefore increased crop yield and decreased the detrimental effects resulting from the limitation of roots-growing space.

  8. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  9. A stimulator of proliferation of spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) in the bone marrow of irradiated rats

    The presence and activity of a spleen colony - forming cell (CFU-S) proliferation stimulator was investigated in rat bone marrow after irradiation. The dose dependent increase in cytosine arabinoside induced cell dealth of normal mouse bone marrow. The results demonstrate the existence of a CFU-S proliferation stimulator in rat bone marrow similar to that originally found as a macrophage product in regenarating mouse bone marrow. The CFU-S proliferation stimulator activity was not associated with the presence of interleukin - 1,2, or 6 like activities in the material tested

  10. The survival of cryopreserved human bone marrow stem cells.

    Hill, R S; Mackinder, C A; Postlewaight, B F; Blacklock, H A

    1979-07-01

    Two methods for cryopreservation of bone marrow stem cells were compared using bone marrow obtained from 36 patients. Included in this group were 21 persons with the diagnosis of leukaemia including 14 either with acute myeloid or lymphoblastic leukaemia in remission following intensive remission induction chemotherapy. After freeze-preservation and reconstitution, all marrow samples were tested for nucleated cell (NC) recovery and grown on agar to assess colony forming units (CFUC) and cluster forming units in culture (CluFUc). A slow dilution reconstitution method using freezing media containing AB negative plasma resulted in recovery of 85% of the CFUc activity of fresh marrow. This result was significantly better than the 47% CFUc recovery obtained when freezing media without plasma and a rapid dilution reconstitution technique were used. NC recoveries following slow dilution (51%) and rapid dilution (44%) were not significantly different. CluFUc were disproportionately reduced compared with CFUc although yielding similar results with both methods (26% and 32%). No correlation was found for either method between CFUc and NC recovery or between CFUc and CluFUc recovery in cryopreserved bone marrow. PMID:392422

  11. Effects of OK-432 on murine bone marrow and the production of natural killer cells

    The streptococcal preparation, OK-432, which augments anti-tumor responses in humans and mice, has been shown to be a potent immunomodulator. Among its effects is a pronounced augmentation of natural killer (NK) activity. The hypothesis that OK-432 alters the rates of production and maturation of NK cells in the bone marrow was tested. Studies to determine the kinetic parameters of NK cell production in normal C57BL/6J mice using tritiated thymidine, 3H-TdR, as a DNA marker are described. We are now extending those studies to determine the effect of OK-432 on the bone marrow and on the production of NK cells in the marrow. Initial observations are reported which indicate that OK-432 has profound effects on the cellularity and mitotic activity of the bone marrow, and in particular, on cells with the characteristics of natural killer cells within the marrow. 17 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    ... The person performing the bone marrow aspiration and biopsy will know your medical history, but might ask additional questions, such as what medicines you're taking or whether you have any allergies. Be sure to ... on the aspiration and biopsy site about 30 minutes before the procedure. You ...

  13. Bone marrow reconversion – imaging of physiological changes in bone marrow

    Reconversion of bone marrow is a reverse process of natural replacement of red marrow by yellow marrow. The occurrence of reconversion can be misleading and challenging in interpretation of musculoskeletal system imaging. Changes of signal intensity in bone marrow are frequently observed in radiological routine and its diversity can cause a suspicion of pathologic findings. Therefore, the knowledge about distribution of red and yellow bone marrow depending on age, concomitant diseases and presentation of the patient are essential for MR image interpretation

  14. Structure, function and expression on blood and bone marrow cells of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, uPAR

    Plesner, T; Behrendt, N; Ploug, M

    1997-01-01

    Several important functions have been assigned to the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator, uPAR. As implied by the name, uPAR was first identified as a high affinity cellular receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). It mediates the binding of the zymogen, pro-uPA, to the...... shown that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) is expressed as a differentiation antigen on cells of the myelomonocytic lineage and as an activation antigen on monocytes and T lymphocytes. Neutrophils contain intracellular reservoirs of uPAR that are translocated to the plasma membrane upon...... activation, and neutrophils from patients with the rare blood disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) that fail to express glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins including uPAR, show a very significantly reduced transmigration over an endothelial barrier. Cell-associated plasminogen...

  15. Energy absorber for the CETA

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-05-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  16. Energy absorber for the CETA

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  17. Validation of prospective whole-body bone marrow dosimetry by SPECT/CT multimodality imaging in {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 rituximab radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Boucek, Jan A. [Fremantle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fremantle (Australia); Turner, J. Harvey [Fremantle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fremantle (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Medicine and Pharmacology (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is emerging as a promising treatment strategy. Myelosuppression is the dose-limiting toxicity and may be particularly problematic in patients heavily pretreated with chemotherapy. Reliable dosimetry is likely to minimise toxicity and improve treatment efficacy, and the aim of this study was to elucidate the complex problems of dosimetry of RIT by using an integrated SPECT/CT system. As a part of a clinical trial of {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 rituximab RIT of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, we employed a patient-specific prospective dosimetry method utilising the whole-body effective half-life of antibody and the patient's ideal weight to calculate the administered activity for RIT corresponding to a prescribed radiation absorbed dose of 0.75 Gy to the whole body. A novel technique of quantitation of bone marrow uptake with hybrid SPECT/CT imaging was developed to validate this methodology by using post-RIT extended imaging and data collection. A strong, statistically significant correlation (p=0.001) between whole-body effective half-life of antibody and effective marrow half-life was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was found that bone marrow activity concentration was proportional to administered activity per unit weight, height or body surface area (p<0.001). The results of this study show the proposed whole-body dosimetry method to be valid and clinically applicable for safe, effective RIT. (orig.)

  18. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  19. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances citric acid (E330 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, used as carbon dioxide generators, together with liquid absorbers cellulose and polyacrylic acid sodium salt crosslinked, in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids deals with the safety evaluation of the mixture of the active substances citric acid (E330, CAS No 77-92-9, FCM Substance No 139 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, CAS No 144-55-8, FCM Substance No 21, which is intended to be used as a carbon dioxide generator in liquid absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables. Depending on absorption capacity needed, pure cellulose or a mixture of cellulose and polyacrylic acid sodium salt crosslinked may be used as absorber. The Panel noted that if the active substances are used not in direct contact with food, but are placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the mixture of the active substances citric acid (E330 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, as carbon dioxide generator in liquid absorbent pads in the packaging of food such as fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables, does not raise a safety concern. The absorbent pads should be used only under conditions in which the liquid absorption capacity is not exceeded and direct contact between the substance and the food is excluded.

  1. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity: galectin-1 is involved in differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Andersen, H; Jensen, Ole N; Moiseeva, Elena P;

    2003-01-01

    , which induced hBMS cell proliferation by 3-fold. This effect was abolished by IGF-I. PC3 CM and galectin-1 in concentrations of 10 and 1000 ng/ml increased the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hBMS cells up to 175 +/- 27%, 137 +/- 8%, and 131 +/- 11%, respectively, compared with ALP activity of......Prostate cancer cells metastasize to bone causing a predominantly osteosclerotic response. It has been shown that cells from the human prostate cancer cell line PC3 secrete factors that influence the behavior of osteoblast-like cells. Some of these factors with mitogenic activity have been found to...

  2. Production, quality control, biodistribution assessment and preliminary dose evaluation of 166Ho-alendronate as a bone marrow ablative agent

    In this study, production, quality control and biodistribution studies of 166Ho-alendronate have been presented and followed by dosimetric evaluation for human based on biodistribution data in wild-type rats. 166Ho chloride was obtained by thermal neutron irradiation of natural 165Ho(NO3)3 samples. 166Ho-alendronate complex was prepared by adding the desired amount of alkaline alendronate solution (0.2 mL, 150 mg/mL) to 3-5 mCi of the 166HoCl3 solution. Radiochemical purity of the complex was monitored by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC). 166Ho-alendronate complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99%, ITLC) and specific activity of 4.4 GBq/mmol. Stability studies of the complex in the final preparation and in the presence of human serum were performed up to 48 h. The major accumulation of the radio-complex was in the bone tissues followed by absorbed dose evaluation of each human organ by RADAR software used for modelling the radiation dose delivered. The final preparation was administered to wild-type rats and biodistribution of the complex was performed 2-48 h post injection showing major accumulation of the complex in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for 166Ho-alendronate is observed in bone surface and red marrow with 2.670 and 1.880 mSv/MBq; respectively. These findings suggest that 166Ho-alendronate has considerable characteristics compared to 166Ho-DOTMP and can be a possible candidate for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma.

  3. Dual transcriptome sequencing reveals resistance of TLR4 ligand-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages to inflammation mediated by the BET inhibitor JQ1

    Amitabh Das; Jin Choul Chai; Chul-su Yang; Young Seek Lee; Nando Dulal Das; Kyoung Hwa Jung; Young Gyu Chai

    2015-01-01

    Persistent macrophage activation is associated with the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, cytokines and chemokines, which may initiate or amplify inflammatory disorders. A novel synthetic BET inhibitor, JQ1, was proven to exert immunosuppressive activities in macrophages. However, a genome-wide search for JQ1 molecular targets has not been undertaken. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes that are targeted by JQ1 in LPS-stimulate...

  4. Improved dopamine transporter binding activity after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: small animal positron emission tomography study with F-18 FP-CIT

    We evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using serial F-18 fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenylnortropane (FP-CIT) PET. Hemiparkinsonian rats were treated with intravenously injected BMSCs, and animals without stem cell therapy were used as the controls. Serial FP-CIT PET was performed after therapy. The ratio of FP-CIT uptake in the lesion side to uptake in the normal side was measured. The changes in FP-CIT uptake were also analyzed using SPM. Behavioural and histological changes were observed using the rotational test and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-reactive cells. FP-CIT uptake ratio was significantly different in the BMSCs treated group (n = 28) at each time point. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio in control rats (n = 25) at any time point. SPM analysis also revealed that dopamine transporter binding activity was enhanced in the right basal ganglia area in only the BMSC therapy group. In addition, rats that received BMSC therapy also exhibited significantly improved rotational behaviour and preservation of TH-positive neurons compared to controls. The therapeutic effect of intravenously injected BMSCs in a rat model of PD was confirmed by dopamine transporter PET imaging, rotational functional studies, and histopathological evaluation. (orig.)

  5. Improved dopamine transporter binding activity after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: small animal positron emission tomography study with F-18 FP-CIT

    Park, Bok-Nam; Lee, Kwanjae; An, Young-Sil [School of Medicine, Ajou University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Gyeonggi-do, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang-Hee; Park, So Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using serial F-18 fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenylnortropane (FP-CIT) PET. Hemiparkinsonian rats were treated with intravenously injected BMSCs, and animals without stem cell therapy were used as the controls. Serial FP-CIT PET was performed after therapy. The ratio of FP-CIT uptake in the lesion side to uptake in the normal side was measured. The changes in FP-CIT uptake were also analyzed using SPM. Behavioural and histological changes were observed using the rotational test and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-reactive cells. FP-CIT uptake ratio was significantly different in the BMSCs treated group (n = 28) at each time point. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio in control rats (n = 25) at any time point. SPM analysis also revealed that dopamine transporter binding activity was enhanced in the right basal ganglia area in only the BMSC therapy group. In addition, rats that received BMSC therapy also exhibited significantly improved rotational behaviour and preservation of TH-positive neurons compared to controls. The therapeutic effect of intravenously injected BMSCs in a rat model of PD was confirmed by dopamine transporter PET imaging, rotational functional studies, and histopathological evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Liquid metal reactor absorber technology

    This paper reports that the selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth, compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts

  7. Liquid metal reactor absorber technology

    The selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts. 3 refs., 3 figs

  8. Dosimetric results in treatments of neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumors with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine with implications for the activity to administer

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate whole-body and red marrow absorbed doses in treatments of neuroblastoma (NB) and adult neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and to propose a simple method for determining the activity to administer when dosimetric data for the individual patient are not available. Methods: Nine NB patients and six NET patients were included, giving in total 19 treatments as four patients were treated twice. Whole-body absorbed doses were determined from dose-rate measurements and planar gamma-camera imaging. For six NB and five NET treatments, red marrow absorbed doses were also determined using the blood-based method. Results: Dosimetric data from repeated administrations in the same patient were consistent. In groups of NB and NET patients, similar whole-body residence times were obtained, implying that whole-body absorbed dose per unit of administered activity could be reasonably well described as a power function of the patient mass. For NB, this functional form was found to be consistent with dosimetric data from previously published studies. The whole-body to red marrow absorbed dose ratio was similar among patients, with values of 1.4 ± 0.6–1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NB treatments and between 1.5 ± 0.6 and 1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NET treatments. Conclusions: The consistency of dosimetric results between administrations for the same patient supports prescription of the activity based on dosimetry performed in pretreatment studies, or during the first administration in a fractionated schedule. The expressions obtained for whole-body absorbed doses per unit of administered activity as a function of patient mass for NB and NET treatments are believed to be a useful tool to estimate the activity to administer at the stage when the individual patient biokinetics has not yet been measured

  9. Dosimetric results in treatments of neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumors with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine with implications for the activity to administer

    Mínguez, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.minguezgabina@osakidetza.net [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund 22185, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Gurutzeta/Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo 48903 (Spain); Flux, Glenn [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Genollá, José; Guayambuco, Sonía; Delgado, Alejandro; Fombellida, José Cruz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gurutzeta/Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo 48903 (Spain); Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate whole-body and red marrow absorbed doses in treatments of neuroblastoma (NB) and adult neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and to propose a simple method for determining the activity to administer when dosimetric data for the individual patient are not available. Methods: Nine NB patients and six NET patients were included, giving in total 19 treatments as four patients were treated twice. Whole-body absorbed doses were determined from dose-rate measurements and planar gamma-camera imaging. For six NB and five NET treatments, red marrow absorbed doses were also determined using the blood-based method. Results: Dosimetric data from repeated administrations in the same patient were consistent. In groups of NB and NET patients, similar whole-body residence times were obtained, implying that whole-body absorbed dose per unit of administered activity could be reasonably well described as a power function of the patient mass. For NB, this functional form was found to be consistent with dosimetric data from previously published studies. The whole-body to red marrow absorbed dose ratio was similar among patients, with values of 1.4 ± 0.6–1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NB treatments and between 1.5 ± 0.6 and 1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NET treatments. Conclusions: The consistency of dosimetric results between administrations for the same patient supports prescription of the activity based on dosimetry performed in pretreatment studies, or during the first administration in a fractionated schedule. The expressions obtained for whole-body absorbed doses per unit of administered activity as a function of patient mass for NB and NET treatments are believed to be a useful tool to estimate the activity to administer at the stage when the individual patient biokinetics has not yet been measured.

  10. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: A New Player in Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    Morris, Emma V.; Edwards, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow is a favored site for a number of cancers, including the hematological malignancy multiple myeloma, and metastasis of breast and prostate cancer. This specialized microenvironment is highly supportive, not only for tumor growth and survival but also for the development of an associated destructive cancer-induced bone disease. The interactions between tumor cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts are well documented. By contrast, despite occupying a significant proportion of the bone marrow, the importance of bone marrow adipose tissue is only just emerging. The ability of bone marrow adipocytes to regulate skeletal biology and hematopoiesis, combined with their metabolic activity, endocrine functions, and proximity to tumor cells means that they are ideally placed to impact both tumor growth and bone disease. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of how marrow adipose tissue contributes to bone metastasis and cancer-induced bone disease.

  11. Alveolar macrophage kinetics and function after interruption of canine marrow function

    To study the kinetics and function of alveolar macrophages after interruption of marrow function, we performed serial bronchoalveolar lavages in dogs. The studies were performed before and after 9.0 to 9.5 Grey total body irradiation and marrow infusion. Monocytes had disappeared from the bloodstream by Day 7 after the irradiation. Alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased at Day 21. At Days 14 and 21 myeloperoxidase-positive alveolar macrophages were also significantly decreased. Beyond Day 30 the number of circulating monocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive and total alveolar macrophages had returned. Sex chromatin stains of alveolar macrophages obtained from a male dog that received female marrow indicated that the repopulating macrophages were of marrow origin. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophage migration and phagocytosis demonstrated increased activities beyond Day 30. These studies suggest that in this model the alveolar macrophage is dependent on the bone marrow for support and that the alveolar macrophage depletion may impair lung defense mechanisms

  12. Colloid scintigraphy showing red bone marrow extension in patients with prostatic carcinoma

    In 25 of 30 patients with bone metastases from prostatic carcinoma, red bone marrow extension was observed by scintigraphy of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). The degree of bone marrow extension in the lower extremities increased with increasing number of bone metastases. In 8 patients, 15 peripheral metastases were detected, all located in areas with extended red bone marrow. The distal level of bone marrow extension coincided with that of the most distal metastases. This is of importance for the detection of peripheral metastases at risk for fracture. Bone marrow extension was also seen in 5 of 8 patients with prostatic carcinoma without bone metastases and was interpreted as a paramalignant activation of RES. (orig.)

  13. Preparation and Microwave Absorbing Properties of an Electroless Ni-Co Coating on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Using [Ag(NH3)2]+ as Activator

    Qiao-ling Li; Xiao-yong He; Yue-qing Zhang; Xiao-feng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Ni-Co-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites with different molar ratios of Ni/Co were synthesized using [Ag(NH3)2]+ as activator and H2PO2- as reductant, thereby replacing the conventional noble metal Pd salt activator and Sn2+ reductant. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the CNTs were deposited with a dense, uniform Ni-Co coating. The possible mechanism of the electroless method was studied, which indicate...

  14. Value of SPIO for MRI of the bone marrow before and after total body irradiation (TBI) - initial investigations in an animal model

    Evaluation of the value of superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIO; Endorem trademark) for MRI-derived quantifications of the permeability of the blood-bone marrow barrier and the phagocytic activity of reticuloendothelial system (RES) bone marrow cells before and after TBI. Methods: 12 New Zealand white rabbits underwent MRI of the lumbar spine and os sacrum using T1-weighted spinecho (SE) and T2-weighted Turbo-SE (TSE) sequences before and after injection of SPIO (Endorem trademark). Four animals each were examined without irradiation, after 4 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and after 12 Gy TBI. Changes in bone marrow signal intensities (SI) after contrast agent injection were quantified as Δ SI(%) = vertical stroke ((SIpost-SIpre)/SIpre) x 100% vertical stroke and these data were correlated with bone marrow histopathology. Results: Histopathology of the bone marrow revealed a radiation-induced decline of all hematopoetic cell lines. SPIO were phagocytosed by bone marrow RES cells and caused a significant bone marrow signal decline on postcontrast T2-weighted images (p 2-weighted images were significantly higher for the irradiated bone marrow as compared to non-irradiated controls (p 1-weighted images directly after contrast medium injection were not able to characterize the permeability of the blood-bone marrow barrier. Conclusion: Hematopoetic bone marrow can be labelled with SPIO. Irradiation does not impair the phagocytic activity of bone marrow RES cells. However, the bone marrow enhancement with SPIO is smaller as compared to previous results obtained by our group with USPIO. (orig.)

  15. Gillick, bone marrow and teenagers.

    Cherkassky, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The Human Tissue Authority can authorise a bone marrow harvest on a child of any age if a person with parental responsibility consents to the procedure. Older children have the legal capacity to consent to medical procedures under Gillick, but it is unclear if Gillick can be applied to non-therapeutic medical procedures. The relevant donation guidelines state that the High Court shall be consulted in the event of a disagreement, but what is in the best interests of the teenage donor under s.1 of the Children Act 1989? There are no legal authorities on child bone marrow harvests in the United Kingdom. This article considers the best interests of the older saviour sibling and questions whether, for the purposes of welfare, the speculative benefits could outweigh the physical burdens. PMID:25911618

  16. Immature myeloid Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells from lipopolysaccharide-immunosuppressed mice acquire inhibitory activity in the bone marrow and migrate to lymph nodes to exert their suppressive function.

    Landoni, Veronica I; Martire-Greco, Daiana; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Chiarella, Paula; Schierloh, Pablo; Isturiz, Martin A; Fernández, Gabriela C

    2016-02-01

    Secondary infections due to post-sepsis immunosuppression are a major cause of death in patients with sepsis. Repetitive inoculation of increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice mimics the immunosuppression associated with sepsis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, Gr-1(+) CD11b(+)) are considered a major component of the immunosuppressive network, interfering with T-cell responses in many pathological conditions. We used LPS-immunosuppressed (IS) mice to address whether MDSCs acquired their suppressive ability in the bone marrow (BM) and whether they could migrate to lymph nodes (LNs) to exert their suppressive function. Our results showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells of IS mice already had the potential to inhibit T-cell proliferation in the BM. Moreover, soluble factors present in the BM from IS mice were responsible for inducing this inhibitory ability in control BM cells. In addition, migration of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) to LNs in vivo was maximal when cells obtained from the BM of IS mice were inoculated into an IS context. In this regard, we found chemoattractant activity in cell-free LN extracts (LNEs) from IS mice and an increased expression of the LN-homing chemokine receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) in IS BM Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells. These results indicate that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells found in BM from IS mice acquire their suppressive activity in the same niche where they are generated, and migrate to LNs to exert their inhibitory role. A better understanding of MDSC generation and/or regulation of factors able to induce their inhibitory function may provide new and more effective tools for the treatment of sepsis-associated immunosuppression. PMID:26582821

  17. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Hindlimb Muscles of Motoneuron Degenerative Mice Reduces Neuronal Death and Improves Motor Function

    Pastor, Diego; Viso-León, Mari Carmen; Botella-López, Arancha; Jaramillo-Merchan, Jesus; Moraleda, Jose M.; Jones, Jonathan; Martínez, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow has proved to be an adequate source of stem cells for the treatment of numerous disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Bone marrow can be easily and relatively painlessly extracted from a patient or allogenic donor and then transplanted into the degenerative area. Here, the grafted cells will activate a number of mechanisms in order to protect, repair, and/or regenerate the damaged tissue. These properties make the bone marrow a feasible source for cell therapy. In this ...

  18. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Zahra Zahedifar; Javad Baharara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, ...

  19. Absorber pin development in Europe

    The neutron absorbing material chosen for the absorber elements of the European fast reactor (EFR) is boron carbide. Various pin designs are studied in Europe: (1) vented helium-bonded pins chosen for prototype fast reactor (PFR) control rods, (2) vented sodium-bonded pins chosen for the Phenix and Superphenix control rods, (3) vented shrouded sodium-bonded pins chosen for future loads of Superphenix control ros. There are three aspects to the research and development program to evaluate absorber pin performance: (1) experimental irradiation program dealing with basic studies and validation design experiments, (2) modeling of B4C physical properties, descriptive laws, and code development, (3) design optimization and innovative studies (various B4C enrichments and pellet densities, new absorber materials). The irradiation program is being performed in Phenix and PFR using either control rods or static rigs

  20. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  1. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium) and University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)]. E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be; Snoeckx, A. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium); University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-04-15

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate.

  2. Activated platelet supernatant can augment the angiogenic potential of human peripheral blood stem cells mobilized from bone marrow by G-CSF.

    Kang, Jeehoon; Hur, Jin; Kang, Jin-A; Yun, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Jae-Il; Ko, Seung Bum; Lee, Choon-Soo; Lee, Jaewon; Han, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-10-01

    Platelets not only play a role in hemostasis, but they also promote angiogenesis and tissue recovery by releasing various cytokines and making an angiogenic milieu. Here, we examined autologous 'activated platelet supernatant (APS)' as a priming agent for stem cells; thereby enhance their pro-angiogenic potential and efficacy of stem cell-based therapy for ischemic diseases. The mobilized peripheral blood stem cells ((mob)PBSCs) were isolated from healthy volunteers after subcutaneous injection of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. APS was collected separately from the platelet rich plasma after activation by thrombin. (mob)PBSCs were primed for 6h before analysis. Compared to naive platelet supernatants, APS had a higher level of various cytokines, such as IL8, IL17, PDGF and VEGF. APS-priming for 6h induced (mob)PBSCs to express key angiogenic factors, surface markers (i.e. CD34, CD31, and CXCR4) and integrins (integrins α5, β1 and β2). Also (mob)PBSCs were polarized toward CD14(++)/CD16(+) pro-angiogenic monocytes. The priming effect was reproduced by an in vitro reconstruction of APS. Through this phenotype, APS-priming increased cell-cell adhesion and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. The culture supernatant of APS-primed (mob)PBSCs contained high levels of IL8, IL10, IL17 and TNFα, and augmented proliferation and capillary network formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo transplantation of APS-primed (mob)PBSCs into athymic mice ischemic hindlimbs and Matrigel plugs elicited vessel differentiation and tissue repair. In safety analysis, platelet activity increased after mixing with (mob)PBSCs regardless of priming, which was normalized by aspirin treatment. Collectively, our data identify that APS-priming can enhance the angiogenic potential of (mob)PBSCs, which can be used as an adjunctive strategy to improve the efficacy of cell therapy for ischemic diseases. PMID:25016235

  3. Hyperuniformity of Critical Absorbing States

    Hexner, Daniel; Levine, Dov

    2015-03-01

    The properties of the absorbing states of nonequilibrium models belonging to the conserved directed percolation universality class are studied. We find that, at the critical point, the absorbing states are hyperuniform, exhibiting anomalously small density fluctuations. The exponent characterizing the fluctuations is measured numerically, a scaling relation to other known exponents is suggested, and a new correlation length relating to this ordering is proposed. These results may have relevance to photonic band-gap materials.

  4. The absorber hypothesis of electrodynamics

    De Luca, Jayme

    2008-01-01

    We test the absorber hypothesis of the action-at-a-distance electrodynamics for globally-bounded solutions of a finite-particle universe. We find that the absorber hypothesis forbids globally-bounded motions for a universe containing only two charged particles, otherwise the condition alone does not forbid globally-bounded motions. We discuss the implication of our results for the various forms of electrodynamics of point charges.

  5. Study of the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents. Part 1. Preliminary experimental work on absorber preparation and performance

    A programme of work is in progress to examine the use of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active waste streams. This report presents the results obtained so far from studies of absorption kinetics for individual actinides (Pu, Am and Np) and for mixtures of actinides and fission products over a range of experimental conditions. The preparation of various forms of titanium phosphate and polyantimonic acid is described and the exchange performance of the different forms is compared. (author)

  6. Removal of absorbable organic halides (aox) from recycled paper mill effluent using granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR)

    Paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon the type of the pulping process. Paper mill wastewaters have high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour, indicating high concentrations of recalcitrant organics. The study was conducted employing a Granular Activated Carbon - Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (GAC-SBBR), containing 3.0 L working volume, operated in aerobic condition and packed with 200 g/L of 2-3 mm granular activated carbon (coconut shells) as a medium for biofilm growth. For the first couple of month, the HRT was 36 hours and the HRT of this reactor was adjusted to 24 hours in order to evaluate the performance of the system. The treated wastewater sample for these studies came from a recycle paper factory from MNI Sdn Bhd with 4 different samples characteristics. The adsorbable organic halides (AOX) to be determined and treated were Pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,3,4,5-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,5-TeCP), 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,4-Dichlorophenol ( 2,4-DCP), 2-Chlorophenol (CP) and phenol. Results showed that, the biofilm attached onto granular activated carbon (GAC) could substantially remove these recalcitrant in the wastewater. More over, results from the studies showed that high removal was achieved by the biofilm SBR with 10-100% removal of AOX and depending on HRT. (Author)

  7. N-cadherin{sup +} HSCs in fetal liver exhibit higher long-term bone marrow reconstitution activity than N-cadherin{sup -} HSCs

    Toyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Fumio; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Ikushima, Yoshiko Matsumoto [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@z3.keio.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High N-cad expression was detected in E12.5 mouse FL LT-HSCs (EPCR{sup +} LSK cells). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immunohistochemically, N-cad{sup +} HSCs co-localized with sinusoidal ECs (Lyve-1{sup +} cells) in E12.5 FL, but these gradually detached in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad{sup +} LSK cells in E12.5 FL exhibited higher LTR activity versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells, which decreased in E15.5 and E18.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-cad expression may confer high LTR activity to HSCs by facilitating interactions with the perisinusoidal niche in FL. -- Abstract: Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a microenvironment known as the stem cell niche. The regulation of HSCs in fetal liver (FL) and their niche, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of N-cadherin (N-cad) in the maintenance of HSCs during FL hematopoiesis. By using anti-N-cad antibodies (Abs) produced by our laboratory, we detected high N-cad expression in embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) mouse FL HSCs, but not in E15.5 and E18.5 FL. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that N-cad{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} and N-cad{sup +} endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR){sup +} HSCs co-localized with Lyve-1{sup +} sinusoidal endothelial cells (ECs) in E12.5 FL and that some of these cells also expressed N-cad. However, N-cad{sup +} HSCs were also observed to detach from the perisinusoidal niche at E15.5 and E18.5, concomitant with a down-regulation of N-cad and an up-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad) in hepatic cells. Moreover, EPCR{sup +} long-term (LT)-HSCs were enriched in the N-cad{sup +}Lin{sup -}Sca-1{sup +}c-Kit{sup +} (LSK) fraction in E12.5 FL, but not in E15.5 or E18.5 FL. In a long-term reconstitution (LTR) activity assay, higher engraftment associated with N-cad{sup +} LSK cells versus N-cad{sup -} LSK cells in E12.5 FL when transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient mice. However, the

  8. Diagnosis and clinical associations of zinc depletion following bone marrow transplantation.

    A. & Papadopoulou; Nathavitharana, K; Williams, M D; Darbyshire, P J; Booth, I W

    1996-01-01

    Following the emergence of biochemical zinc deficiency after bone marrow transplantation, the clinical value of plasma alkaline phosphatase activity as an early indicator of biochemical zinc depletion was investigated in this group of patients. Serial measurements of plasma zinc and alkaline phosphatase activities in 28 consecutive children (median age 8.7 years; 16 males) undergoing bone marrow transplantation were carried out and clinical associations recorded. A significant fall in plasma ...

  9. Comparison of bone scanning and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection and monitoring of bone metastases

    The purpose of this review is to define the role of bone scanning and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection and monitoring of skeletal metastasis. The bone scan has remained the screening method of choice for many years, because of its exquisite sensitivity for lesion detection and its ability to evaluate the whole skeleton in one setting. Bone-marrow scintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibodies allows high-quality, whole-body visualization of hematopoetically active bone marrow. The importance of imaging the bone marrow is founded in the fact that, in general, bone-marrow invasion precedes skeletal involvement in the development of skeletal metastasis. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are compared, and the possible indications for using bone-marrow scintigraphy complementary to or instead of the bone scan are discussed. (orig.)

  10. MR appearances of bone marrow in children following bone marrow transplantation

    Two cases are presented of children who demonstrated complete absence of bone marrow signal on MR imaging of the spine following bone marrow transplantation. The possible causes for these appearances are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Preservation of Bone Marrow for Clinical Use

    The author describes the results of many years' research into the problems of obtaining and preserving bone marrow in the quantities required for clinical use. Particular attention is paid to the preservation and long-term storage of bone marrow at ultra- low temperatures (-196°C), its separation from the protective medium and methods of determining whether the biological functions of thawed bone marrow have been impaired. (author)

  12. Fault Detection for Automotive Shock Absorber

    Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Amezquita-Brooks, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Fault detection for automotive semi-active shock absorbers is a challenge due to the non-linear dynamics and the strong influence of the disturbances such as the road profile. First obstacle for this task, is the modeling of the fault, which has been shown to be of multiplicative nature. Many of the most widespread fault detection schemes consider additive faults. Two model-based fault algorithms for semiactive shock absorber are compared: an observer-based approach and a parameter identification approach. The performance of these schemes is validated and compared using a commercial vehicle model that was experimentally validated. Early results shows that a parameter identification approach is more accurate, whereas an observer-based approach is less sensible to parametric uncertainty.

  13. Preliminary study on the basic pattern of bone marrow scintigraphy in acute leukemia

    98 cases of acute leukemia had been studied with technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy. The basic pattern was: (1) The generalized depression of central bone marrow (CBM) is most striking and its extent and degree of the depression is closely related with clinical staging of the disease. It was also found that the activity of CBM gradually increased with prolongation of complete remission course. (2) 72.4% cases showed variable degrees of peripheral bone marrow cavity expansion. Most of the peripheral expansion foci are localized in epiphyses of the knee joint, or further extended to cavity of long bone in extremities. In conclusion, bone marrow imaging is helpful to: (1) the diagnosis and evaluation of the distribution of hemapoietic activity in acate leukemia; (2) evaluation of the effect of chemotherapy and judgement of the prognosis; (3) the activity of CBM can probably be also used as an index to judge the clinical situation of the patient

  14. Diabetes mellitus induces bone marrow microangiopathy

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P. J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis.

  15. Homing of bone marrow lymphoid cells

    DNA labeling, bone marrow fractionation, and radioautography were used to follow the fate of transfused, newly formed marrow lymphocytes in irradiated hosts. After infusing donor Hartley guinea pigs with 3H-thymidine for 3 to 5 days, high concentrations of labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells were separated from marrow by sedimentation in sucrose-serum gradients and injected into lethally x-irradiated syngeneic recipients. Most labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells rapidly left the circulation. They appeared to be mainly in the marrow and spleen, increasing in incidence from 1 to 3 days, but declining in mean grain count. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the recipient marrow; in the spleen they localized initially in the red pulp, and subsequently in peripheral areas of white pulp, often in clusters. Labeled small lymphocytes showed a delayed migration into the mesenteric lymph node, mainly in the superficial cortex and medulla; they also appeared in small numbers in Peyer's patches, but rarely in the thymus or thoracic duct lymph. It is concluded that a rapid selective homing of newly formed marrow lymphoid cells occurs in both the marrow and certain areas of the spleen of irradiated hosts, followed by a continuing proliferation of large lymphoid cells and production of small lymphocytes. The results are discussed with respect to the life history of marrow lymphocytes and the use of adoptive immune assays of marrow cells to characterize B lymphocyte maturation

  16. Study on peripheral expansion of bone marrow in hematologic patients and its clinical application

    It is found previously that the changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy resulting from hematologic disorders were various. This study focused on discussing the imaging features and regularity of expanded peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in some blood diseases as well as their clinical usefulness. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 99mTc-sulfur colloid 370∼550 MBq was performed in 130 cases with different types of blood diseases (iron-deficiency anemia 17 cases, chronic hemolytic 13 cases, aplastic 41 cases; leukemia 37 cases, marrow dyshyperplasia syndrome 22 cases) and various stages of the disease (19 cases). The aspiration in PBM comparing with central bone marrow (CBM) was made in 12 aplastic anemia and 10 leukemia patients. The expansion rate of PBM was 58.5% and the various blood diseases had different expansion regions. Repeated imaging showed that the expanded PBM tended to retract during clinical recovery. Aspiration from the expanding PBM defined more active hematopoiesis and higher count of leukemia blast cells than that from iliac crest. The results indicated the presence of 'focal residual leukemia' (FRL) in PBM of complete remission leukemia patient. The result of this study suggested that the expansion patterns of PBM in various hematologic disorders have definite features, which are helpful for the differential diagnosis, valuable for evaluation of the reserved capability of active marrow and prognosis of the patients according to the further analysis of the PBM state. The bone marrow imaging is also an indispensable technique for finding FRL

  17. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors

  18. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    Klein, Eric [Neumann Systems Group, Incorporated, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  19. DHCAL with Minimal Absorber: Measurements with Positrons

    Freund, B; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Xia, L; Dotti, A; Grefe, C; Ivantchenko, V; Antequera, J Berenguer; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M -C; Marin, J; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Verdugo, A; Brianne, E; Ebrahimi, A; Gadow, K; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Hartbrich, O; Hermberg, B; Irles, A; Krivan, F; Krüger, K; Kvasnicka, J; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Morgunov, V; Provenza, A; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Schuwalow, S; Tran, H L; Garutti, E; Laurien, S; Matysek, M; Ramilli, M; Schroeder, S; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Northacker, D; Onel, Y; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kovalcuk, M; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; van Doren, B; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Miyazaki, Y; Sudo, Y; Suehara, T; Tomita, T; Ueno, H; Yoshioka, T; Bilokin, S; Bonis, J; Cornebise, P; Pöschl, R; Richard, F; Thiebault, A; Zerwas, D; Hostachy, J -Y; Morin, L; Besson, D; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Markin, O; Popova, E; Gabriel, M; Goecke, P; Kiesling, C; van der Kolk, N; Simon, F; Szalay, M; Corriveau, F; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Francis, K; Zutshi, V; Kotera, K; Ono, H; Takeshita, T; Ieki, S; Kamiya, Y; Ootani, W; Shibata, N; Jeans, D; Komamiya, S; Nakanishi, H

    2016-01-01

    In special tests, the active layers of the CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter prototype, the DHCAL, were exposed to low energy particle beams, without being interleaved by absorber plates. The thickness of each layer corresponded approximately to 0.29 radiation lengths or 0.034 nuclear interaction lengths, defined mostly by the copper and steel skins of the detector cassettes. This paper reports on measurements performed with this device in the Fermilab test beam with positrons in the energy range of 1 to 10 GeV. The measurements are compared to simulations based on GEANT4 and a standalone program to emulate the detailed response of the active elements.

  20. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Jimi, Eijiro

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3), which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment. PMID:27298623

  1. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the proliferation of bone marrow CD34~+ cells in vitro

    王荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect on the marrow CD34+ cells by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMMSC),VarioMACS was used to sort bone marrow CD34+ cells,and then the purity of CD34+ cell was tested by FCM. Marrow mononuclear cells from abortion fetal bone marrow were isolated,and BMMSC were

  2. Absorbed dose due to radioiodine therapy by organs of patients with hyperthyroidism; Dose absorvida em orgaos de pacientes com hipertiroidismo devido a radioiodoterapia

    Lima, F.F.; Khoury, H.J.; Bertelli Neto, L. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil); Laboratorios CERPE, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bertelli Neto, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    The dose absorbed by organs of patients with hyperthyroidism treated with {sup 131} I was estimated by using the MIRDOSE computer program and data from ICRP-53. The calculation were performed using effective half-life and uptake average values, which were determined for 17 patients treated with 370 MBq and 555MBq of {sup 131} I. The results shown that the dose in the thyroid, for a 370 MBq administrated activity, was of 99 Gy and 49.5 Gy for 60 g and 80 g thyroid respectively. The average dose estimated in other organs were relatively low, presenting values lower than 0.1 Gy in the kidneys, bone marrow and ovaries and 0.19 Gy in the stomach.

  3. Waveform-dependent absorbing metasurfaces

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Rushton, Jeremiah J; Sievenpiper, Daniel F

    2014-01-01

    We present the first use of a waveform-dependent absorbing metasurface for high-power pulsed surface currents. The new type of nonlinear metasurface, composed of circuit elements including diodes, is capable of storing high power pulse energy to dissipate it between pulses, while allowing propagation of small signals. Interestingly, the absorbing performance varies for high power pulses but not for high power continuous waves (CWs), since the capacitors used are fully charged up. Thus, the waveform dependence enables us to distinguish various signal types (i.e. CW or pulse) even at the same frequency, which potentially creates new kinds of microwave technologies and applications.

  4. Study of an electroacoustic absorber

    Rodríguez de Antonio, Javier

    2008-01-01

    El problema de la atenuación del ruido de baja frecuencia todavía persiste pese a que ha sido ampliamente estudiado. Las técnicas para absorber ruido de alta frecuencia (superior a 500 Hz), como son los materiales porosos, resonadores de Helmholtz o espumas no ofrecen resultados aceptables a bajas frecuencias. Serían necesarios volúmenes impracticables de materiales porosos para intentar absorber frecuencias menores a 500 Hz, y lo mismo ocurre con los resonadores de Helmholtz. Esta ineficacia...

  5. Diffusion coefficients for absorbing materials

    A method to improve the diffusion results for systems containing strong absorbers is described. Each absorbing material is transformed into an equivalent rectangle. Transport and diffusion calculations in slab geometry are performed for both directions of the rectangle, and group-dependent diffusion coefficients are determined by matching the outgoing currents. Test problems comprise a critical slab, a compact PWR fuel element storage pool and two BWR fuel elements with a control rod and a poison cell. The multiplication factors of these systems are calculated with an accuracy of 1 to 2%. (Auth.)

  6. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated.

  7. Anomalous Diffusion with Absorbing Boundary

    Kantor, Yacov; Kardar, Mehran

    2007-01-01

    In a very long Gaussian polymer on time scales shorter that the maximal relaxation time, the mean squared distance travelled by a tagged monomer grows as ~t^{1/2}. We analyze such sub-diffusive behavior in the presence of one or two absorbing boundaries and demonstrate the differences between this process and the sub-diffusion described by the fractional Fokker-Planck equation. In particular, we show that the mean absorption time of diffuser between two absorbing boundaries is finite. Our res...

  8. Studies on 99Tcm-sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders

    Objective: To discuss the imaging features and changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) as well as its clinical significance. Methods: Bone marrow scintigraphy using 99Tcm-sulfur colloid 370-550 MBq was performed on 85 MPD patients, including 40 cases of idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), 15 of polycythemia vera (PV), 5 of essential thrombocythaemia (ET), 30 of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Also, 40 cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were observed in this study. Results: Abnormal bone marrow imaging was found in 88.2% of the 85 patients. The suppression rate of central bone marrow (CBM) and expansion rate of peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in these MPD patients were 61.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The imaging patterns was classified into three types according to the distribution and activity of bone marrow. 1) reduced imaging (31.8%); 2) increased and expanded imaging (27.1%); 3) depressed and expanded imaging (29.4%). Splenomegaly with minimal residual marrow activity was typical for late stages of MPD. Expansion of PBM was the further feature, but of no major importance for improving hematopoiesis of MPD, and it tended to retract during clinical recovery in chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL). With expanding PBM, unmatched peripheral blood decreasing was found in MDS. The expansion pattern of PBM in different MPD was of relatively definite features. Conclusions: The imaging pattern of bone marrow was correlated with blood work-up data and clinical course or stages of MPD. Bone marrow scintigraphy may be proven useful in differential diagnosis and evaluation of clinical staging and prognosis of MPD

  9. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 6, Newborn

    Specific absorbed fraction (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a newborn or 3.4-kg person. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 7, Adult male

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for an adult male (70-kg Reference Man). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 1, Methods

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. This volume outlines various methods used to compute the PHI-values and describes how the ''best'' estimates recommended by us are chosen. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with the methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 41 refs., 25 figs., 23 tabs

  12. [Study on absorbing volatile oil with mesoporous carbon].

    Yan, Hong-mei; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Yang Nan

    2014-11-01

    Clove oil and turmeric oil were absorbed by mesoporous carbon. The absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria Curing powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorietry (DSC). The effects of mesoporous carbon on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. They reached high adsorption rate when the absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was 1:1. When volatile oil was absorbed, dissolution rate of active components had a little improvement and their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was absorbed by the loss rate decreasing more than 50%. Absorbing herbal volatile oil with mesoporous carbon deserves further studying. PMID:25850263

  13. A Dosimetric Study of Radionuclide Therapy for Bone Marrow Ablation.

    Bayouth, John Ellis

    In a phase I clinical trial, six multiple myeloma patients, who were non-responsive to conventional therapy and were scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, received Holmium-166 (166Ho) labeled to a bone seeking agent, DOTMP (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane -1,4,7,10-tetramethylene-phosphonic acid), for the purpose of bone marrow ablation. The specific aims of my research within this protocol were to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of 166Ho DOTMP by quantifying the in vivo pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry, and by correlating these results to the biologic response observed. The reproducibility of pharmacokinetics from multiple injections of 166 Ho DOTMP administered to these myeloma patients was demonstrated from both blood and whole body retention. The skeletal concentration of 166 Ho DOTMP was heterogenous in all six patients: high in the ribs, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae regions, and relatively low in the femurs, arms, and head. A novel technique was developed to calculate the radiation dose to the bone marrow in each skeletal ROI, and was applied to all six 166 Ho DOTMP patients. Radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated using the standard MIRD "S" factors were compared with the average values derived from the heterogenous distribution of activity in the skeleton (i.e., the regional technique). The results from the two techniques were significantly different; the average of the dose estimates from the regional technique were typically 30% greater. Furthermore, the regional technique provided a range of radiation doses for the entire marrow volume, while the MIRD "S" factors only provided a single value. Dose volume histogram analysis of data from the regional technique indicated a range of dose estimates that varied by a factor of 10 between the high dose and low dose regions. Finally, the observed clinical response of cells and abnormal proteins measured in bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples were compared with

  14. Studies of bone marrow scintigrams with sup(99m)technetium sulfur colloid on various hematological disorders

    One hundred and eighty-five bone marrow scintigraphy on the whole body was performed on eight healthy adults and 151 patients with various hematologic diseases including 64 leukemia, 41 anemia, 23 other malignancy, etc. The positions of the investigated bone marrow were divided into the central marrow (five positions on the trunk bones) and the peripheral marrow (11 positions on the upper and 11 positions on the lower extremities) on the scintigram. The bone marrow scintigram was estimated by following three criteria. The first, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' (positive area), was the existence of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid accumulation on bone marrow (two grades; presence or absence). The second, ''Bunpu-kei'' (distribution form), was the extent of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation area of the investigated bone marrow and was divided into five grades. The last, ''Kido'' (intensity of radioactivity), was the density of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation on the area and was divided into five grades. Using this estimation, in the diseases with bone marrow hyperplasia such as Primary Thrombocythemia and Hemolytic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was enlarged, ''Bunpu-kei'' was extended, and ''Kido'' was increased comparing with those in healty adult. In contrast, in the diseases with bone marrow hypoplasia such as Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was reduced, ''Bunpu-kei'' was contracted, and ''Kido'' was decreased. However, the enlargement of ''Yuu-ryoiki'' did not always mean bone marrow hyperplasia. The author could evaluate not only the range and distribution of hemopoiesis as a whole in malignant or benign diseases but also the residual effective hemopoiesis to know the suitable time of the initiation of the therapy or to predict the prognosis of these cases. In this study it was shown that the bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid was an useful method to estimate the hemopoietic activity of the bone marrow. (J.P.N.)

  15. Absorbed Doses to Patients in Nuclear Medicine

    The work with a Swedish catalogue of radiation absorbed doses to patients undergoing nuclear medicine investigations has continued. After the previous report in 1999, biokinetic data and dose estimates (mean absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and effective dose) have been produced for a number of substances: 11C- acetate, 11C- methionine, 18F-DOPA, whole antibody labelled with either 99mTc, 111In, 123I or 131I, fragment of antibody, F(ab')2 labelled with either 99mTc, 111In, 123I or 131I and fragment of antibody, Fab' labelled with either 99mTc, 111In, 123I or 131I. The absorbed dose estimates for these substances have been made from published biokinetic information. For other substances of interest, e.g. 14C-urea (children age 3-6 years), 14C-glycocholic acid, 14C-xylose and 14C-triolein, sufficient literature data have not been available. Therefore, a large number of measurements on patients and volunteers have been carried out, in order to determine the biokinetics and dosimetry for these substances. Samples of breast milk from 50 mothers, who had been subject to nuclear medicine investigations, have been collected at various times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the mother. The activity concentration in the breast milk samples has been measured. The absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the child who ingests the milk have been determined for 17 different radiopharmaceuticals. Based on these results revised recommendations for interruption of breast-feeding after nuclear medicine investigations are suggested

  16. Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a “herald” of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted

  17. Evaluation of bone marrow by opposed phase T1-weighted images and enhanced MR imaging

    Amano, Yasuo; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Horiuchi, Junichi; Nomura, Takeo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    We investigated bone marrow in a control group, cases of aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients by examining T1-weighted (T1W1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), opposed phase T1W1 (op-T1W1) and Gd-DTPA enhanced op-T1W1 images obtained by 0.5 T MRI. Bone marrow was classified into four types based on MR findings. Normal marrow showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and STIR images without enhancement (I). Fatty marrow, which showed high intensity on T1W1 and op-T1W1 images was observed in aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients (II). Hematopoietic marrow (III) showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and enhanced, while active hematopoietic marrow (IV) revealed high intensity on both STIR and op-T1W1 images and was enhanced following Gd-DTPA infusion. Aplastic anemia of moderate grade included types II, III and IV. Enhanced MR was needed to differentiate between types I and III since both types showed low intensity on op-T1W1 images. Furthermore, type IV was considered as hyperplastic compared with type III. Enhanced MR and op-T1W1 images were useful in evaluating hematopoiesis of bone marrow. (author).

  18. Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication

    Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been taken from the area of the greatest radionuclide concentration on the scan. In patients with aplastic anemia, there was good correlation between the plasma iron clearance t1/2 and the scan grade. Less agreement was found in the comparison between the Fe-59 sacral and organ counts and the red-cell iron utilization. In patients with myelofibrosis, there was poor correlation between the surface counts over the sacrum and the red-cell iron utilization. Plasma iron clearances were abnormally short and were unrelated to the transferrin saturation levels. Eighteen patients were studied several times to evaluate their responses to steroid therapy. In all, there was good correlation between the bone-marrow imaging, the erythrocyte cellularity, ferrokinetics, and the patient's response to therapy. Indium-111 bone-marrow imaging is useful both in evaluating marrow erythroid activity and in following the response to therapy in patients with these diseases

  19. Evaluation of bone marrow by opposed phase T1-weighted images and enhanced MR imaging

    We investigated bone marrow in a control group, cases of aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients by examining T1-weighted (T1W1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), opposed phase T1W1 (op-T1W1) and Gd-DTPA enhanced op-T1W1 images obtained by 0.5 T MRI. Bone marrow was classified into four types based on MR findings. Normal marrow showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and STIR images without enhancement (I). Fatty marrow, which showed high intensity on T1W1 and op-T1W1 images was observed in aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients (II). Hematopoietic marrow (III) showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and enhanced, while active hematopoietic marrow (IV) revealed high intensity on both STIR and op-T1W1 images and was enhanced following Gd-DTPA infusion. Aplastic anemia of moderate grade included types II, III and IV. Enhanced MR was needed to differentiate between types I and III since both types showed low intensity on op-T1W1 images. Furthermore, type IV was considered as hyperplastic compared with type III. Enhanced MR and op-T1W1 images were useful in evaluating hematopoiesis of bone marrow. (author)

  20. Reconversion of bone marrow in Gaucher disease treated with enzyme therapy documented by MR

    Background. Skeletal complications are responsible for significant morbidity in Gaucher patients. Plain radiographs have been unreliable in assessing bone marrow infiltration and activity. A way to assess bone marrow improvement is needed during enzyme therapy. Objective. The purpose of this paper is to assess the usefulness of MR in following improvement of abnormal bone marrow in Gaucher patients on enzyme therapy. Materials and methods. Three patients aged 2, 7, and 24 years underwent serial MR scans of the lower extremities before and during treatment with Alglucerase (two patients) and Imiglucerase (one patient). T1-weighted, T2-weighted, STIR and FSE T2-weighted images were utilized. Two patients were imaged after 16 months of therapy, and one patient was imaged after 6 months of therapy. Results. All patients had improvement in marrow signal consistent with partial reconversion to fatty marrow during treatment. The findings were more marked after prolonged therapy. T1-weighted images demonstrated findings most clearly. Conclusion. MR consistently showed improvement in marrow signal in Gaucher patients on enzyme therapy. As smaller doses of enzyme therapy are the trend, MR can be utilized to determine if therapy is effecting a change in the bone marrow. (orig.)

  1. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy in psoriatics

    24 psoriatics as well as 24 normal healthy adults were studied by functional bone marrow scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (Tc-99m-HSA-MM). Functional bone marrow scintigraphy is an in vivo test system for the assessment of various functional properties of fixed macrophages. 58% of psoriatics who had no systemic drug treatment demonstrated peripheral extension of the bone marrow space indicating hyperplasia of bone marrow macrophages. This phenomenon could be observed only in one normal subject who was a high-performance sportsman. 83% (n=6) of psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver demonstrated bone marrow extension. The 'capacity' of bone marrow macrophages to engulf Tc-99m-HSA-MM ('uptake ratio') was diminished in 42% of non-treated as well as 66% of psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid. The phagocytic and proteolytic turnover of Tc-99m-HSA-MM in bone marrow, spleen, and liver was found to be accelerated in 66% of non-treated psoriatics, normal, accelerated or delayed in psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid as well as considerably delayed in all of the psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy proved to be an appropriate in vivo test system to reveal abnormalities of fixed macrophages in psoriatics. Furthermore, theratpeutic effects as well as influences of pre-existing disorders on different macrophage populations can be assessed. (Author)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  3. Legal issues in bone marrow transplantation.

    Holder, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses some of the more common legal issues involved in bone marrow transplantation. These include malpractice claims, testing prospective donors for AIDS, sale of bone marrow, informed consent for both donor and recipient, and questions that arise when the donor is a child.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  5. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

    The NCI IBMFS Cohort Study consists of affected individuals and their immediate families in North America who have an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS)-either one that has been specifically identified and defined, or bone marrow failure that appears to be inherited but has not yet been clearly identified as having a genetic basis.

  6. How to exhaust your bone marrow

    Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W;

    2013-01-01

    at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally...

  7. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  8. MR imaging of bone marrow disorders

    The author performed MR imaging in 89 patients with bone marrow disorders (29 with aplastic anemia, 20 with leukemia, 9 with postirradiation changes, 8 with hemosiderosis, 6 with primary bone tumors and metastases, and 17 with bone marrow disorders of other etiologies). They selected the thoracic and lumbar vertebral marrow as a target and used both T1-weighted spin-echo images and calculated T1 images. T1 was prolonged in bone marrow hyperplasia but shortened in hypoplasia. Bone marrow T1 values proved to depend on the number of fat cells (pathologic correlation). In aplastic anemia scattered islands of low signal intensity were seen within a background of high signal intensity in some typical cases. MR imaging patterns were used for staging aplastic anemia. T1 was prolonged in leukemia cells

  9. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia

    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNFα in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author)

  10. Clonal Characterization of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells and Their Application for Bone Regeneration

    Xiao, Yin; Mareddy, Shobha; Crawford, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering allows the design of functionally active cells within supportive bio-scaffolds to promote the development of new tissues such as cartilage and bone for the restoration of pathologically altered tissues. However, all bone tissue engineering applications are limited by a shortage of stem cells. The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs are of interest because they are easily isolat...

  11. Mesenchymal and haematopoietic stem cells form a unique bone marrow niche

    Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Michurina, Tatyana V.; Ferraro, Francesca; Amin R Mazloom; MacArthur, Ben D; Lira, Sergio A.; Scadden, David T.; Ma’ayan, Avi; Enikolopov, Grigori N.; Frenette, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular constituents forming the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow are unclear, with studies implicating osteoblasts, endothelial and perivascular cells. Here we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), identified using nestin expression, constitute an essential HSC niche component. Nestin+ MSCs contain all the bone-marrow colony-forming-unit fibroblastic activity and can be propagated as non-adherent ‘mesenspheres’ that can self-renew and expand in serial tr...

  12. Effect of 5-azacytidine on gene expression in marrow stromal cells.

    Andrews, D F; Nemunaitis, J; Tompkins, C; Singer, J W

    1989-01-01

    When exposed to 5-azacytidine, marrow stromal cells from active long-term marrow cultures and cell lines derived from simian virus 40-transformed stromal cells rapidly upregulated c-abl and interleukin-6 transcripts while downregulating the expression of collagen I, a major matrix protein. Similar effects occurred with interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha, although the time course was considerably prolonged.

  13. Effect of 5-azacytidine on gene expression in marrow stromal cells.

    Andrews, D F; Nemunaitis, J; Tompkins, C; Singer, J W

    1989-01-01

    When exposed to 5-azacytidine, marrow stromal cells from active long-term marrow cultures and cell lines derived from simian virus 40-transformed stromal cells rapidly upregulated c-abl and interleukin-6 transcripts while downregulating the expression of collagen I, a major matrix protein. Similar effects occurred with interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha, although the time course was considerably prolonged. Images PMID:2474760

  14. VIRAL INFECTIONS IN BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS: IS JC VIRUS INVOLVED?

    Mischitelli, Monica; Fioriti, Daniela; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Barucca, Valentina; BOLDORINI, RENZO; Miglio, Umberto; Sica, Simona; Sorà, Federica; De Matteis, Silvia; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Haemorrhagic cystitis is characterized by haematuria due to inflammation of the bladder. In bone marrow transplants, this disease is linked to the infection by human polyomavirus BK, whereas the role of the human polyomavirus JC is unclear. The transcriptional control regions of both viruses contain important cellular transcription factor binding sites that undergo rearrangement process generating suitable variants that could be more active for viral replication and for th...

  15. Cumulated blood activity measurements and modelling in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: the purpose of the radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) formulated by the EANM Therapy Committee is to provide advice to nuclear medicine clinicians on how to ablate thyroid remnant or treat inoperable advanced DTC or both employing large 131-iodine activities. The therapy of DTC with radioactive iodine is a standard procedure for the ablation of remnant thyroid tissue following surgery and for the treatment of iodine avid metastases. The level of administered activity in radionuclide therapy is often limited by hematological toxicity resulting from the absorbed dose delivered to the bone marrow. The purpose of this study is to validate models for calculation of an effective half-life (Teff) of 131I, blood and bone marrow dose in patients with DTC. Materials and method: the measurements of 131I concentration in blood samples have been used to estimate the marrow absorbed dose. The administered activity was 100-103 mCi (about 3.7 GBq). In 328 patients, the measurement of the exposure rate was performed at 4, 8, 18, 24, 30, 42, 54, 66 hours after administration of Na131I using well counter ISOMED 1010 for studying the absorbed dose (according to the MIRD schema) and Teff evaluation. To obtain cumulated activity in blood/red marrow two mathematical models of radioisotope elimination were used: mono-exponential and bi-exponential. Results: the majority of the activity is excreted by the patients in the first 24 hours after Na131I administration. The effective half-life of 131I ranged from 2 to 37 hours due to the first model. According to the administrated activity, the evaluation of the total absorbed dose by patients to red marrow ranged from 5.5*10-4 to 3.1*10-1 Gy. Bi-exponential model allows estimating an initial income of the 131I concentration, as well as later excretion. More precise model found 2 subgroups of patients: with fast (∼37%) and slow (∼63%) kinetics of the 131I in the blood

  16. 99Tcm-LL1: a potential new bone marrow imaging agent.

    Juweid, M; Dunn, R M; Sharkey, R M; Rubin, A D; Hansen, H J; Goldenberg, D M

    1997-02-01

    LL1, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to HLA Class-II-like antigen (li determinant) on the surface of B-lymphocytes, monocytes and histiocytes, was evaluated as an agent for bone marrow imaging. Six patients with diverse diseases (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, n = 2; multiple myeloma, n = 1; polycythaemia vera, n = 1; lung cancer, n = 1; breast cancer, n = 1) were given low protein doses (< 1 mg) of 99Tcm (30 mCi) labelled Fab' of LL1. 99Tcm-sulphur colloid (SC) imaging was performed in three patients for comparison. Both planar and single photon emission tomographic images were acquired using Sopha gamma cameras. As early as 2 h post-MAb injection, excellent bone marrow images were achieved in all patients, demonstrating both normal or hyperproliferative marrow, as well as 'cold' bone marrow abnormalities such as radiation defects or cancer metastases. Similar to SC, relatively high uptake of LL1 was found in the liver and spleen. However, the bone marrow-to-liver and -spleen uptake ratios were approximately 19-fold higher (0.75 vs 0.04) and 6-fold higher (1.23 vs 0.22), respectively, with LL1 than with SC. The higher bone marrow uptake allowed clearly superior visualization of the thoracic spine when compared to SC. The mean T1/2 of blood and whole-body clearance were 0.4 and 66 h, respectively. The highest radiation absorbed doses (in cGy mCi-1) were observed in the spleen (0.47 +/- 0.24), kidneys (0.25 +/- 0.09) and liver (0.14 +/- 0.04). The bone marrow dose was only 0.05 +/- 0.02 cGy mCi-1. These results indicate that bone marrow imaging with 99Tcm-LL1 is feasible, and that LL1 may be a suitable alternative to SC because of better visualization of the lower thoracic spine. Potential applications include the improved detection of bone marrow metastases of solid tumours and the assessment of haematological disorders. PMID:9076770

  17. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow. II. Evidence for a memory-dependent phenomenon

    Mouse bone marrow is barely capable of plaque-forming cell (PFC) activity in a primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while PFC activity in the secondary response to SRBC can be clearly demonstrated. This phenomenon was studied by means of cell transfer experiments. T cells, which are involved in an anti-SRBC PFC response, were shown to be very scarce in normal mouse bone marrow. This is considered to be the cause of the low PFC activity in the marrow during the primary response to SRBC. In normal mouse bone marrow precursors of IgM-PFC but not of IgG- and IgA-PFC could be found. Priming with SRBC induced the appearance of IgM-, IgG-, IgA- and T-memory cells in the marrow. These B- and T-memory cells were shown to be specific for the antigen which induced their appearance. It is thought that after a second injection of SRBC the IgM-, IgG- and IgA-memory cells can differentiate with the help of the T-memory cells within the bone marrow into IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC respectively. The sequence of appearance of the B-memory cells in the bone marrow was shown to be IgM--IgG--IgA. Six months after the intravenous injection of SRBC, the presence of B-memory cells could be demonstrated not only in spleen and bone marrow, but also in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus and blood. The increase in amount of B-memory cells was most prominent in the spleen

  18. Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation

    Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation is successful in only a part of the affected patients. The Chernobyl accident added to our knowledge: BMT can save life after whole-body irradiation with a dose exceeding 7-8 Gy. A timely decision on transplantation after a nuclear accident is difficult to make (rapid determination of homogeneity and type of radiation and the total dose. HL-A typing in lymphopenia, precise identification of radiation damage to other target organs, etc.). Further attention is to be paid to the treatment. Transplantations in case of malignities (especially hematologic ones) and other diseases will add to our knowledge and will lead to more simple procedures. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  19. Photo-excited broadband tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber

    Zhang, Jianna; Wang, Guocui; Zhang, Bo; He, Ting; He, Yanan; Shen, Jingling

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a photo-excited broadband tunable metamaterial absorber for use in the terahertz region. The metamaterial absorber consists of a hybrid metal-semiconductor square split ring and a metallic ground plane that are separated by a dielectric resonator spacer. The conductivity of the silicon used to fill the gap in the metallic resonator is tuned actively as a function of the incident pump power, which results in frequency modulation of the resonance absorption peak. Broadband tunable metamaterial absorbers are produced by suitable placement of the photoconductive silicon in different critical regions of the metallic resonator. In addition, the proposed method is applicable to a concentric rings-based metallic resonator. The proposed photo-excited broadband tunable metamaterial absorber has numerous potential applications, including uses as terahertz modulators and switches.

  20. Production, quality control, biodistribution assessment and preliminary dose evaluation of {sup 166}Ho-alendronate as a bone marrow ablative agent

    Fakhari, Ashraf [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiopharmacy; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Samani, Ali Bahrami; Akbari, Mahmoud Reza; Deha, Fariba Johari [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shafiee-Ardestani, Mahdi; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    In this study, production, quality control and biodistribution studies of {sup 166}Ho-alendronate have been presented and followed by dosimetric evaluation for human based on biodistribution data in wild-type rats. {sup 166}Ho chloride was obtained by thermal neutron irradiation of natural {sup 165}Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} samples. {sup 166}Ho-alendronate complex was prepared by adding the desired amount of alkaline alendronate solution (0.2 mL, 150 mg/mL) to 3-5 mCi of the {sup 166}HoCl{sub 3} solution. Radiochemical purity of the complex was monitored by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC). {sup 166}Ho-alendronate complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99%, ITLC) and specific activity of 4.4 GBq/mmol. Stability studies of the complex in the final preparation and in the presence of human serum were performed up to 48 h. The major accumulation of the radio-complex was in the bone tissues followed by absorbed dose evaluation of each human organ by RADAR software used for modelling the radiation dose delivered. The final preparation was administered to wild-type rats and biodistribution of the complex was performed 2-48 h post injection showing major accumulation of the complex in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for {sup 166}Ho-alendronate is observed in bone surface and red marrow with 2.670 and 1.880 mSv/MBq; respectively. These findings suggest that {sup 166}Ho-alendronate has considerable characteristics compared to {sup 166}Ho-DOTMP and can be a possible candidate for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma.

  1. Content of inorganic phosphorus in animals in the dynamics of acute radiation sickness and following transplantation of bone marrow

    Experiments carried out on three groups of rats (healthy, irradiated, and irradiated and subsequently subjected to bone-marrow transfusion) showed that irradiation with a lethal dose of X-rays causes a reduction in the inorganic phosphorus content of the liver, spleen and - in particular - the bone marrow. Nevertheless, the specific activity of inorganic phosphorus in these organs increased strongly under the influence of irradiation, the increase being especially marked in the bone marrow towards the end of the observation period. In the author's opinion this is connected with the termination of the generation time of the cells subjected to irradiation, and with very weak repair processes in the bone marrow of the irradiated animals. Bone-marrow transfusion led to the restoration of the inorganic phosphorus content in the spleen and bone marrow by the 30th day of the investigation, while in the liver the original level had not been reached by the end of the observation period. The specific activity of inorganic phosphorus was considerably lower in the animals subjected to bone-marrow transfusion than in the controls, and lay within a range approximating to normal. The data obtained attest the action of bone-marrow transfusion in normalizing phosphorus metabolism. (V.A.P.)

  2. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with bone marrow metastasis.

    Zen, H G; Jame, J M; Chang, A Y; Li, W Y; Law, C K; Chen, K Y; Lin, C Z

    1991-02-01

    Five of 23 patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were diagnosed to have bone marrow metastasis. They all had advanced local-regional disease, and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy after the initial diagnosis. Bone marrow metastasis developed 4-24 months later. The clinical features were anemia (5 of 5), leukopenia (3 of 5), thrombocytopenia (4 of 5), sepsis (3 of 5), tenderness of the sternum (3 of 5), and fever (4 of 5). Patients frequently had elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), and IgG and IgA antibody titers to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen when bone marrow involvement was diagnosed. However, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were not specific. It is important that three patients had normal bone scans. All five patients had a rapid downhill course; four patients died within 23 days, and the fifth 3 months after the diagnosis of bone marrow metastasis. We concluded that bone marrow was a common metastatic site in NPC patients. Bone marrow metastasis adversely affected patients' survival and required a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We suggested that bone marrow biopsy should be considered as a routine staging procedure in NPC patients and indicated especially when patients presented with abnormal blood counts, sepsis, bone pain, or tenderness of the sternum. It may be positive in the face of a normal bone scan. PMID:1987743

  3. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  4. Optical trapping of absorbing particles

    Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H; Friese, M E J; Heckenberg, N R

    1998-01-01

    Radiation pressure forces in a focussed laser beam can be used to trap microscopic absorbing particles against a substrate. Calculations based on momentum transfer considerations show that stable trapping occurs before the beam waist, and that trapping is more effective with doughnut beams. Such doughnut beams can transfer angular momentum leading to rotation of the trapped particles. Energy is also transferred, which can result in heating of the particles to temperatures above the boiling point of the surrounding medium.

  5. Optical trapping of absorbing particles

    Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Nieminen, T. A.; Friese, M. E. J.; Heckenberg, N R

    2003-01-01

    Radiation pressure forces in a focussed laser beam can be used to trap microscopic absorbing particles against a substrate. Calculations based on momentum transfer considerations show that stable trapping occurs before the beam waist, and that trapping is more effective with doughnut beams. Such doughnut beams can transfer angular momentum leading to rotation of the trapped particles. Energy is also transferred, which can result in heating of the particles to temperatures above the boiling po...

  6. Chronic radium intoxication: morphology of bone and marrow infarcts

    Using direct and polarized light microscopy and a variety of standard histologic stains, the morphology of two groups of bone and marrow infarcts are compared. One group is from patients whose infarcts can, with confidence, be related to ischemia, trauma, or embolization and whose histories exclude radium ingestion or exposure. The second group is from radium dial painters whose pre-terminal body burdens of 226Ra ranged from 1.67 μCi to some value equal to or below 0.0042 μCi. The individual bone or marrow infarct among the radium cases does not differ radically from those in the ischemia-injury group, although taken as a whole, the radium-related infarcts are marked by less osteogenetic activity, a less prominent blood supply, much less cellular fibrous tissue and more extensive deposits of basophilic bone debris than the ischemia-injury group

  7. Bone marrow-derived stem cells and respiratory disease.

    Jones, Carla P; Rankin, Sara M

    2011-07-01

    Adult bone marrow contains a number of discrete populations of progenitor cells, including endothelial, mesenchymal, and epithelial progenitor cells and fibrocytes. In the context of a range of diseases, endothelial progenitor cells have been reported to promote angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells are potent immunosuppressors but can also contribute directly to tissue regeneration, and fibrocytes have been shown to induce tissue fibrosis. This article provides an overview of the basic biology of these different subsets of progenitor cells, reporting their distinct phenotypes and functional activities. The differences in their secretomes are highlighted, and the relative role of cellular differentiation vs paracrine effects of progenitor cells is considered. The article reviews the literature examining the contribution of progenitor cells to the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, and discusses recent studies using bone marrow progenitor cells as stem cell therapies in the context of pulmonary hypertension, COPD, and asthma. PMID:21729891

  8. Transplanting defrozen mouse bone marrow cells

    The regeneration was studied of blood formation in the spleen and the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice 30 and 60 days after the transplantation of defrozen bone marrow. Also studied were the counts of leukocytes, thrombocytes and reticulocytes in the peripheral blood. Hematopoiesis changes were described and it was shown that after the transplantation of defrozen bone marrow, regeneration and progressive normalization of hematopoiesis took place in the lethally irradiated recipients. It was found that the freezing procedure used was tender and preserved the proliferation capacity of the stem hemopoietic cells. (author)

  9. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis. PMID:26940276

  10. Bone marrow imaging using 111In-citrate: 111In-kinetics in the pelvic region

    When bone marrow scintigraphy was performed using 111In-citrate, radioactivity was observed in the pudendal region. Subsequently, the kinetics of 111In in the pelvic region after intravenous administration of 111In-citrate for bone-marrow scanning in 14 patients was examined. On the first day, radioindium was found predominantly in the large pelvic blood vessels and in the pudendal region. In all male patients, the scrotal area was affected with both testes presumably delineated in two patients. In the female patients little radioindium was detected in the pudendal region, most probably in the vulva; distinct radioactivity was found in the pelvis although the ovaries could not be identified. In the following period the 111In uptake in the bone marrow increased considerably and reached its maximum usually 24 hr after the injection. Because a distinct radiation dose from 111In to the gonads cannot be excluded on the basis of our scintigraphic findings and the absorbed dose has not yet been estimated sufficiently, judgment should be used for the present if 111In-citrate is applied for bone marrow imaging. (U.S.)

  11. Dose to red bone marrow of infants, children and adults from radiation of natural origin

    Natural radiation sources contribute much the largest part of the radiation exposure of the average person. This paper examines doses from natural radiation to the red bone marrow, the tissue in which leukaemia is considered to originate, with particular emphasis on doses to children. The most significant contributions are from x-rays and gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhalation of isotopes of radon and their decay products. External radiation sources and radionuclides other than radon dominate marrow doses at all ages. The variation with age of the various components of marrow dose is considered, including doses received in utero and in each year up to the age of 15. Doses in utero include contributions resulting from the ingestion of radionuclides by the mother and placental transfer to the foetus. Postnatal doses include those from radionuclides in breast-milk and from radionuclides ingested in other foods. Doses are somewhat higher in the first year of life and there is a general slow decline from the second year of life onwards. The low linear energy transfer (LET) component of absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is much larger than the high LET component. However, because of the higher radiation weighting factor for the latter it contributes about 40% of the equivalent dose incurred up to the age of 15.

  12. Spontaneous hematologic recovery from bone marrow aplasia after accidental tenfold overdosage with radiophosphorus

    Gmuer, J.; Bischof, B.; Coninx, S.; Bucher, U.; Poretti, G.; Henrichs, K.; Kaul, A.; Roedler, H.D.; Buettner, K.; Frick, P.G.

    1983-04-01

    Two patients with polycythemia vera received intravenously an accidental tenfold overdosage of radiophosphorus therapy (60 and 50 mCi 32P, respectively). In both patients, the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications 3 wk after the 32P medication led to detection of the error and referral to our hospital. Upon admission they showed an agranulocytosis, severe thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow aplasia. In both cases, spontaneous recovery of the hematopoiesis was observed from day 40 posttreatment onward. In one patient, a slow but ultimately complete normalization of blood counts and marrow morphology took place, whereas in the other, a mild thrombocytopenia persists. Nearly 5 yr after the accidental overdosage, both patients are clinically well. Symptoms of polycythemia vera have not reappeared up to now. Attempts were made to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed by the bone marrow. In the first patient, the daily 32P excretion was determined from day 22 to day 60, whereas in the other patient a whole body count was performed on day 78 after administration. From these results, an approximate cumulative bone marrow dose of 10 Sv (1000 rem) could be calculated.

  13. Dose to red bone marrow of infants, children and adults from radiation of natural origin

    Kendall, G M [Childhood Cancer Research Group, University of Oxford, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6HJ (United Kingdom); Fell, T P; Harrison, J D [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, CRCE, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxon (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Gerald.Kendall@ccrg.ox.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Natural radiation sources contribute much the largest part of the radiation exposure of the average person. This paper examines doses from natural radiation to the red bone marrow, the tissue in which leukaemia is considered to originate, with particular emphasis on doses to children. The most significant contributions are from x-rays and gamma rays, radionuclides in food and inhalation of isotopes of radon and their decay products. External radiation sources and radionuclides other than radon dominate marrow doses at all ages. The variation with age of the various components of marrow dose is considered, including doses received in utero and in each year up to the age of 15. Doses in utero include contributions resulting from the ingestion of radionuclides by the mother and placental transfer to the foetus. Postnatal doses include those from radionuclides in breast-milk and from radionuclides ingested in other foods. Doses are somewhat higher in the first year of life and there is a general slow decline from the second year of life onwards. The low linear energy transfer (LET) component of absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is much larger than the high LET component. However, because of the higher radiation weighting factor for the latter it contributes about 40% of the equivalent dose incurred up to the age of 15.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation methods of determining red bone marrow dose from external radiation

    Objective: To provide evidence for a more reasonable method of determining red bone marrow dose by analyzing and comparing existing simulation methods. Methods: By utilizing Monte Carlo simulation software MCNPX, the absorbed doses of red hone marrow of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) adult female voxel phantom were calculated through 4 different methods: direct energy deposition.dose response function (DRF), King-Spiers factor method and mass-energy absorption coefficient (MEAC). The radiation sources were defined as infinite plate.sources with the energy ranging from 20 keV to 10 MeV, and 23 sources with different energies were simulated in total. The source was placed right next to the front of the RPI model to achieve a homogeneous anteroposterior radiation scenario. The results of different simulated photon energy sources through different methods were compared. Results: When the photon energy was lower than 100 key, the direct energy deposition method gave the highest result while the MEAC and King-Spiers factor methods showed more reasonable results. When the photon energy was higher than 150 keV taking into account of the higher absorption ability of red bone marrow at higher photon energy, the result of the King-Spiers factor method was larger than those of other methods. Conclusions: The King-Spiers factor method might be the most reasonable method to estimate the red bone marrow dose from external radiation. (authors)

  15. Bone-Marrow Scanning after Intravenous Injection of Colloidal Gold-198

    Colloidal Au198 is, after intravenous injection, rapidly removed from the blood by reticulo-endothelial activity. Most of the injected colloid is taken up by liver, but a small part is taken up by spleen and bone marrow. Bone-marrow uptake was studied in a large number of patients by means of total body scintigrams and total body profile counting. Three main patterns of distribution could be distinguished. (1) Normal pattern: In patients without bone-marrow disease, uptake of Au198 was limited to the central parts of bone system (thorax, spine, pelvis, skull and proximal epiphyses of femur and humerus), i.e. normal sites for active red bone marrow. With the exception of the proximal epiphyses of femur and humerus no, or only a very slight, uptake was found in the bones of arms and legs. (2) Hyperplastic pattern: This type of distribution was found in polycythaemia vera and haemolytic conditions. Bone-marrow uptake was increased and, besides the central parts of bone system, considerable uptake was often demonstrated in the long bones of arms and legs. (3) Destructive pattern: This pattern was regularly found in myelofibrosis and very often in leukaemia, bone-marrow carcinomatosis and malignant lymphoma with bone-marrow involvement. It was characterized by general reduction of bone-marrow uptake in central parts of the body, combined with increased uptake in the long bones of legs and arms due to compensatory peripheral haematopoiesis. All degrees of bone-marrow destruction and compensatory peripheral hyperplasia could in this way be visualized. By means of total body profile counting it was possible to obtain a more quantitative and reproducible expression for bone-marrow uptake. Repeated examinations were performed in cases of polycythaemia vera; in some cases it was possible to follow the changes in bone-marrow uptake which occurred when polycythaemia vera developed into a stage of myelofibrosis. In detailed scintigrams of the pelvis, it was also possible to

  16. Glueing of solar absorbers; Solarabsorber kleben

    Berner, Joachim

    2012-04-20

    Bonding technologies in absorber fabrication are evolving. After soldering, ultrasonic welding and laser welding, glueing is the latest development. The Go Innovate AG company developed a process for glueing the most varied absorber materials.

  17. Planning for a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Planning for a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) If you' ... help you find answers to financial questions: See Planning for Transplant Costs . Contact a patient services coordinator ...

  18. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of AN on accumulation of marrow fat in spine and femur using 1H-MRS and the relationship between marrow fat, BMD, and body composition in subjects with AN and normal-weight controls. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a referral center. Patients: Patients included 10 women with AN (29.8 ± 7.6 yr) and 10 normal-weight age-matched women (29.2 ± 5.2 yr). Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcomes Measure: Marrow fat content of the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur measured by 1H-MRS. BMD of spine and hip measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Subjects with AN had higher marrow fat at the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur compared with controls (P = 0.004–0.01). There was an inverse correlation between marrow fat of L4 and femur and BMD of the spine and hip (r = −0.56 to −0.71, P = 0.01–0.0002) and body mass index and sc adipose tissue of the thigh (r = −0.49 to −0.71, P = 0.03–0.0007). There was an inverse correlation between femur marrow fat and sc and total abdominal adipose tissue (r = −0.53 to −0.67, P = 0.003–0.03). Conclusion: Women with AN have greater lumbar and femoral marrow fat than controls, and marrow fat correlates inversely with BMD. This paradoxical increase in marrow fat at a time when sc and visceral fat are markedly reduced raises important questions about functional consequences of this process. PMID:19318450

  19. Time-delayed absorber for controlling friction-driven vibration

    Chatterjee, S.; Mahata, P.

    2009-04-01

    The efficacy of an active absorber based on the time-delayed displacement difference feedback in controlling friction-driven vibrations is discussed. Mainly two types of absorbers are considered: the tuned absorber having the natural frequency same as that of the primary system and the high-frequency absorber with the natural frequency higher than that of the primary system. The local stability analysis clearly demonstrates that the static equilibrium can be locally stabilized by appropriately selecting the control gain and the time-delay. The regions of stability are delineated in the plane of the control parameters. The robustness analysis is performed to help select the control parameters for the best performance. A method of optimizing the robustness of the system is presented. The influences of the absorber parameters on the degree of stability and the robustness are discussed. Numerical simulations of the system demonstrate that proper choices of the control parameters can also attain the global stability of the system. Numerical simulations reveal that apart from the globally stable static equilibrium or the coexisting locally stable static equilibrium with the stationary limit cycle vibrations, unbounded motions are also possible for some parameter values. Thus, care should be exercised in selecting the absorber parameters.

  20. Bone Marrow Transplantation for Feline Mucopolysaccharidosis I

    Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Colle, Marie-Anne; Weil, Margaret A.; Casal, Margret L.; Charles H Vite; Wiemelt, Staci; Hasson, Christopher W.; O’Malley, Thomas M.; He, Xingxuan; Prociuk, Ulana; Verot, Lucie; Melniczek, John R.; Lannon, Anne; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Knox, Van W.

    2007-01-01

    Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a fatal neuropathic lysosomal storage disorder with significant skeletal involvement. Treatment involves bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and although effective, is suboptimal, due to treatment sequelae and residual disease. Improved approaches will need to be tested in animal models and compared to BMT. Herein we report on bone marrow transplantation to treat feline mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). Five MPS I stably engrafted kittens, transpla...

  1. Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy

    Gencheva, Marieta; Hare, Ian; Kurian, Susan; Fortney, Jim; Piktel, Debbie; Wysolmerski, Robert; Gibson, Laura F.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblasts are a major component of the bone marrow microenvironment which provide support for hematopoietic cell development. Functional disruption of any element of the bone marrow niche, including osteoblasts, can potentially impair hematopoiesis. We have studied the effect of two widely used drugs with different mechanisms of action, etoposide (VP16) and melphalan, on murine osteoblasts at distinct stages of maturation. VP16 and melphalan delayed maturation of preosteoblasts and altered ...

  2. Bone Marrow Engraftment Analysis after Granulocyte Transfusion

    Swierczynski, Sharon L.; Hafez, Michael J.; Philips, Juliet; Higman, Meghan A.; Berg, Karin D.; Murphy, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old male who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as part of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient relapsed 5 months after transplantation and received additional chemotherapy. He acquired an angioinvasive fungal infection that required transfusion of granulocytes. Approximately 5 weeks after relapsing (181 days after transplant), a bone marrow specimen was taken for molecular engraftment analysis and flow cytometry to assess graft lo...

  3. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  4. Aplastic anaemia with microfilaria in marrow aspirate

    Narender Tejwnai; Seema Tyagi; Jasmita Dass

    2012-01-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti is endemic in many parts of of south east asia including india. The parasite is reported previously in many aspirate cytology smears, however its rare to find this parasite in bone marrow aspirate smear and even rare is it association with aplastic anemia. We report here a case presenting with symptoms related to bone marrow failure and incidentally detected to have microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. The case is reported because of this rare association.<...

  5. Aplastic anaemia with microfilaria in marrow aspirate

    Narender Tejwnai; Seema Tyagi; Jasmita Dass

    2012-01-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti is endemic in many parts of of south east asia including india. The parasite is reported previously in many aspirate cytology smears, however its rare to find this parasite in bone marrow aspirate smear and even rare is it association with aplastic anemia. We report here a case presenting with symptoms related to bone marrow failure and incidentally detected to have microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. The case is reported because of this rare association.

  6. Piezooptic effect of absorbing environment

    Ю. А. Рудяк

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of piezooptic effect of absorbing environment for the definition of the parameter of stress deformation state was examined. The analysis of dielectric permeability tensor of imaginary parts was done. It is shown that changes in the real part dielectric permeability tensor mainly the indicator of fracture was fixed by means of mechanics interference methods and the changes in the imaginary part (α – real rate of absorption can be measured by means of analysis of light absorption and thus stress deformation state can be determined

  7. Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111Indium chloride in patients with aplastic anemia

    Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111Indium chloride (111In-chloride) was performed in 18 patients with aplastic anemia. The scintigrams were taken 48 hours after an intravenous injection of 111In-chloride 3 mCi. The distribution patterns on scintigram were classified into 5 types: Type I (4 cases) showed no accumulation, Type II (6 cases) showed low accumulation in usual bone marrow sites. Type III (7 cases) showed island-like distribution in bone marrow sites. Type IV, although no case was included in the 18 patients, shows uneven distribution between pelvis and sternum or vertebrae. Type V (one case) showed almost normal accumulation in usual bone marrow sites. Bone marrow uptake of 111In-chloride correlated well with the cellularity of bone marrow. There was a tendency for the cases of markedly increased saturated iron-binding capacity to show increased renal activity. In type III, both the percentage of cases who had been treated and the count of reticulocytes were higher than those in the other types, which suggested that island-like distribution on scintigram showed the regeneration responded to the therapy, and related to the erythropoietic function. (author)

  8. Telomerase gene therapy rescues telomere length, bone marrow aplasia, and survival in mice with aplastic anemia.

    Bär, Christian; Povedano, Juan Manuel; Serrano, Rosa; Benitez-Buelga, Carlos; Popkes, Miriam; Formentini, Ivan; Bobadilla, Maria; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A

    2016-04-01

    Aplastic anemia is a fatal bone marrow disorder characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia. The disease can be hereditary or acquired and develops at any stage of life. A subgroup of the inherited form is caused by replicative impairment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells due to very short telomeres as a result of mutations in telomerase and other telomere components. Abnormal telomere shortening is also described in cases of acquired aplastic anemia, most likely secondary to increased turnover of bone marrow stem and progenitor cells. Here, we test the therapeutic efficacy of telomerase activation by using adeno-associated virus (AAV)9 gene therapy vectors carrying the telomeraseTertgene in 2 independent mouse models of aplastic anemia due to short telomeres (Trf1- andTert-deficient mice). We find that a high dose of AAV9-Terttargets the bone marrow compartment, including hematopoietic stem cells. AAV9-Terttreatment after telomere attrition in bone marrow cells rescues aplastic anemia and mouse survival compared with mice treated with the empty vector. Improved survival is associated with a significant increase in telomere length in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, as well as improved blood counts. These findings indicate that telomerase gene therapy represents a novel therapeutic strategy to treat aplastic anemia provoked or associated with short telomeres. PMID:26903545

  9. Bone marrow stromal cells of the vervet monkey: characterization and ability to support simian cytomegalovirus replication

    The main objective of the initial phase of experimentation was to establish the optimal conditions which would allow the reproduceable and reliable culture of vervet monkey bone marrow stromal cells. The effect of the medium compositions on the growth of monkey bone marrow. Stromal cells as well as the effect of varying initial densities on the establishment of the culture were studied. The morphology of the stromal cells was observed and studied using light microscopy and both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Two cell shapes were determined and their ability to incorporate tritiated thymidine into DNA, when cultured, was studied using autoradiagraphy. The monkey bone marrow stromal cells were characterized according to their cytochemical and growth characteristics and their ability to support the myeloid lineage. The second phase of the research had three aims. Firstly to determine whether vervet cytomegalovirus (VCMV) can replicate in monkey bone marrow stromal cells. Secondly, to determine whether the phase of the cell cycle at which the cells were infected, affected the production of virus. Thirdly, to determine whether VCMV infection of the bone marrow stromal cells interferes with their ability to produce colony stimulating activity. The radiosensitivity of bone marrow stromal cells was measured by the suppression of colony formation after irradiation of the primary cell suspension

  10. Competing reaction model with many absorbing configurations.

    de Andrade, M F; Figueiredo, W

    2010-02-01

    We study a competitive reaction model between two monomers A and B on a linear lattice. We assume that monomer A can react with a nearest-neighbor monomer A or B , but reactions between monomers of type B are prohibited. We include in our model lateral interactions between monomers as well as the effects of temperature of the catalyst. The model is considered in the adsorption controlled limit, where the reaction rate is infinitely larger than the adsorption rate of the monomers. We employ site and pair mean-field approximations as well as static Monte Carlo simulations. We determine the phase diagram of the model in the plane y_{A} versus temperature, where y_{A} is the probability that a monomer of the type A arrives at the surface. This phase diagram shows regions of active and absorbing states separated by a line of continuous phase transitions. Despite the absorbing state of the model to be strongly dependent on temperature, we show that the static critical exponents of the model belong to the same universality class of the directed percolation. PMID:20365537

  11. Haemopoiesis in murine bone marrow and spleen after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation. II

    Granulopoiesis was studied in mice repeatedly exposed to doses of 3 Gy of 60Co γ-rays at 4-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy on the basis of total bone marrow cellularity follow-up and analysis of myelograms and splenograms. Half the number of the mice received lO6 nuclear cells of syngeneic bone marrow after each fractional radiation dose. After an initial steep decrease, the number of granuloid cells in the spleen increased about 30-fold between days 12 and 16 of the experiment (total dose 9 and 12 Gy, respectively). This increase was temporary and between days 20 and 24 (total dose 15 and 18 Gy, respectively) a steep decrease again occurred. At a low level (below 10% of the control value) the granuloid cells remained in the spleens of bone marrow recipients until the end of the experiment (day 37, total dose 24 Gy). The behavior of the granuloid compartment of hemopoiesis thus contrasts with findings in the erythroid compartment (Hofer et al., 1989) when high numbers of erythroid nuclear cells remained in the spleens of bone marrow recipients until the end of the experiment. On the whole, the influence of repeated bone marrow transplantation on granulopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen is positive. Of the 22 comparisons made between bone marrow recipients and mice only irradiated, 14 differences are statistically significant, always in favor of bone marrow recipients. (author)

  12. Prognosis and bone marrow recovery indicators in bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation

    Oxidative stress and reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) were studied in 27 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Plasmatic lipo peroxide levels of those patients with unfavorable evolution were significantly increases on days 12-14 post-transplant (median 1,83 μM, range 0.78-5.82) compared with preconditioning levels (median 1.05 μM, range 0.36-1.84) (p<0.05). Patients with favorable evolution revealed significantly higher lipo peroxide levels during conditioning regime (median 1.42 μM, range 0.31-4.50) (p<0.05). Starting from the 3rd. post-transplant week a significant and continuous decrease was observed, with a median of 0.77 μM (range 0.21-1.48) (p<0.05) for the 3rd, and a median of 0.60 μM (range 0.11-1.48) for the 4th. week (p<0.01). A significant increase in total antioxidant activity was observed in the three patients who died up to the 35 days post-transplant. Recovery of bone marrow function was detected by RMI after a median time of 17 days (range 11-24) post-allogeneic transplantation. The threshold established for absolute neutrophil count was achieved after a median of 21 days (range 14-28) (p<0.001). An increase of plasma lipo peroxides on days 12-14 post transplant may be a predictive value of unfavourable evolution. RMI was the earlier indicator of engraftment in allogeneic BMT. (author)

  13. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: the relationship with total body irradiation

    Interstitial pneumonia is a frequent and often fatal complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Thirty to 40 percent of such cases are of unknown etiology and have been labelled as cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Idiopathic cases are more commonly associated with the use of total body irradiation; their occurrence appears to be independent of immunosupression or graft versus host disease. Evidence is presented from the literature suggesting that the development of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is related to the absolute absorbed dose of radiation to lung. The similarity of idiopathic pneumonia to radiation pneumonitis seen in a different clinical setting is described

  14. Differentiation of osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle-cell hemoglobinopathies using combined bone-marrow and gallium scanning

    The clinical records and scintigrams of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies in whom acute symptoms developed suggestive of possible osteomyelitis and who had undergone sequential Tc-99m bone marrow scans and gallium scintigraphy of the affected sites were reviewed. Osteomyelitis was correctly diagnosed in six of 18 cases when gallium was focally increased relative to a site of decreased or absent bone marrow activity. Of 12 episodes of infarction, both studies showed focally decreased activity in a concordant manner in 11. The remaining, false-positive study indicated slightly increased gallium in 11. The remaining, false-positive indicated slightly increased gallium concentration at a site of decreased bone marrow activity. Overall, a protocol of sequential Tc-99m bone marrow scans and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means of distinguishing osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies

  15. KINIK, Absorber Rod Calibration Kinetics

    1 - Description of program or function: KINIK is an inverse kinetic code that solves the inverse form of the point kinetic equations using the Runge-Kutta method. An optimization procedure is involved to control the time step and to reduce the running time. Up to 24 delayed neutron groups of different types (in case of heavy water as moderator or beryllium as reflector) are considered. KINIK is commonly applied to determine reactivity worths and to calibrate absorber rods. Following a rod drop, neutron flux or power is recorded as a function of time and used as input. 2 - Method of solution: The inverse point kinetic equations are numerically solved for each time step using the Runge-Kutta method. The input data resulting from measurements are first approximated by polynomials of maximum degree 10 using a least-squares approach

  16. Adeno associated viral-mediated intraosseous labeling of bone marrow derived cells for CNS tracking.

    Selenica, Maj-Linda B; Reid, Patrick; Pena, Gabriela; Alvarez, Jennifer; Hunt, Jerry B; Nash, Kevin R; Morgan, Dave; Gordon, Marcia N; Lee, Daniel C

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation, including microglial activation in the CNS, is an important hallmark in many neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial stimuli not only impact the brain microenvironment by production and release of cytokines and chemokines, but also influence the activity of bone marrow derived cells and blood born macrophage populations. In many diseases including brain disorders and spinal cord injury, researchers have tried to harbor the neuroprotective and repair properties of these subpopulations. Hematopoietic bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) are of great interest, especially during gene therapy because certain hematopoietic cell subpopulations traffic to the sites of injury and inflammation. The aim of this study was to develop a method of labeling endogenous bone marrow derived cells through intraosseous impregnation of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) or lentivirus. We utilized rAAV serotype 9 (rAAV-9) or lentivirus for gene delivery of green florescence protein (GFP) to the mouse bone marrow cells. Flow cytometry showed that both viruses were able to efficiently transduce mouse bone marrow cells in vivo. However, the rAAV9-GFP viral construct transduced BMDCs more efficiently than the lentivirus (11.2% vs. 6.8%), as indicated by cellular GFP expression. We also demonstrate that GFP labeled cells correspond to bone marrow cells of myeloid origin using CD11b as a marker. Additionally, we characterized the ability of bone marrow derived, GFP labeled cells to extravasate into the brain parenchyma upon acute and subchronic neuroinflammatory stimuli in the mouse CNS. Viral mediated over expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) or intracranial injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recruited GFP labeled BMDCs from the periphery into the brain parenchyma compared to vehicle treated mice. Altogether our findings demonstrate a useful method of labeling endogenous BMDCs via viral transduction and the ability to track subpopulations throughout the body

  17. Liquid Crystal Tunable Metamaterial Perfect Absorber

    Shrekenhamer, David; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental demonstration of electronically tunable metamaterial perfect absorbers in the terahertz regime. By incorporation of active liquid crystal into strategic locations within the metamaterial unit cell we are able to modify the absorption by 30 percent at 2.62 THz, as well as tune the resonant absorption over 4 percent in bandwidth. Numerical full-wave simulations match well to experiments and clarify the underlying mechanism, i.e. a simultaneous tuning of both the electric and magnetic response that allows for the preservation of the resonant absorption. These results show that the fundamental light interactions of surfaces can be dynamically controlled by all-electronic means and provide a path forward for realization of novel applications.

  18. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  19. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111InCl3;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111InCl3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111InCl3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  20. Effects of radiations on bone marrow

    After total body irradiation for kidney transplant, the initial decrease of circulating blood cells is more rapid, the nadir is reached sooner and the regeneration occurs earlier when the doses are higher than a few hundred rads. The LD 50 in man seems to be higher than 450 rads. The in vivo and in vitro assays of hemopoietic stem cells have greatly increasedd the understanding of acute and late effects. Multipotential stem cells are very radiosensitive, furthermore the differentiation of the surviving stem cells is accelerated after irradiation. This results in a severe depletion of the stem cell compartment. When this stem cell number falls below a critical value, the stem cell no longer differentiates till the completion of the regeneration of the stem cell compartment. Stem cell proliferation is regulated by inhibitors and stimulators. Release of stimulators by irradiated bone marrow has been demonstrated. Severe sequellae are observed after irradiation of animal and human bone marrow. They seem to be due either to the damage of the stromal cell or to the stem cell population. In patients, four compensating mechanisms are observed after a regional bone marrow irradiation: stimulation of non irradiated bone marrow, extension of hemopoietic areas, regeneration of irradiated bone marrow when the irradiated volume is large and increase in the amplification factor resulting in an increase in the output of mature cells for one stem cell input. Assay of progenitor cells provides useful information and a reduction in their number is still observed many years after a large regional irradiation

  1. Clinical Questions of Tissue Incompatibility after Allogenic Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    This paper describes the results of studies concerning tissue incompatibility in the transplantation of allogenic bone marrow into patients suffering from hypoplastic and aplastic anaemia. Factual data are presented on the extent to which the immune activity and capacity for immunological response of recipients is preserved. Attention is mainly directed to the characteristics of the spectrum showing serological activity of the anti-leucocyte antibodies, which depends on the type of sensitization. These data point to the need for differential use of haemotherapeutic agents and are also of some importance in the selection of bone-marrow donors. (author)

  2. Bone marrow declines as a site of B-cell precursor differentiation with age: relationship to thymus involution.

    Ben-Yehuda, A; Szabo, P.; Dyall, R; Weksler, M E

    1994-01-01

    The rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes in B-lymphocyte precursors requires the expression of the recombination activating genes (Rag), which leads to the generation of a highly diverse B-cell repertoire. We can use the level of Rag-1 mRNA in the bone marrow as an index of its capacity to support the maturation of B lymphocytes as all detectable bone marrow Rag-1 mRNA is expressed by B-cell precursors. In mouse bone marrow, Rag-1 mRNA increases during the first 2 months of life to reach its...

  3. Research Progress of Medicinal Herbs for Blood-activating and Stasis-dissolving Regulation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Paracrine for Promoting Revascularization%活血化瘀法调控骨髓间充质干细胞旁分泌促血管再生研究述评

    范慧慧; 许二平

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀中药调控骨髓间充质干细胞旁分泌促血管再生的作用机制.方法:总结近年来关于血管再生研究现状,从中医“生新”等理论出发,分析活血化瘀中药促进血管再生的机制.结果:根据前期的研究基础,认为活血化瘀中药可促进血管再生,并提出了研究思路和方法以及探讨其作用机制的指标.结论:活血化瘀中药通过调控骨髓间充质干细胞旁分泌可促进血管再生.%Objective:To explore the research mechanisms of medicinal herbs for blood-activating and stasis-dissolving regulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells paracrine for promoting revascularization. Methods: Research status of revascularization was summarized , and the mechanism of medical herbs for blood-activating and stasis-dissolving for promoting revascularization was analyzed from theTCM theory of "producing new blood" to start. Results:Medicinal herbs for blood-activating and stasis-dissolving were considered to promote revascularization based on research foundations in early stage, and the research thinkings, methods and indexes to study its mechanisms were proposed. Conclusion: Medicinal herbs for blood-activating and stasis-dissolving can promote revascularization through regulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells paracrine.

  4. Enhanced glutamate, IP3 and cAMP activity in the cerebral cortex of Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rats: Effect of 5-HT, GABA and bone marrow cell supplementation

    Romeo Chinthu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which leads to dopamine depletion in the striatum and indirectly to cortical dysfunction. Increased glutamatergic transmission in the basal ganglia is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and glutamate receptor mediated excitotoxicity has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of the neuronal degeneration. In the present study, the effects of serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and bone marrow cells infused intranigrally to substantia nigra individually and in combination on unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's rat model was analyzed. Scatchard analysis of total glutamate and NMDA receptor binding parameters showed a significant increase in Bmax (P

  5. 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini; Mohammad Farahmandnia; Zahra Razi; Somayeh Delavarifar; Benafsheh Shakibajahromi

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy using stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia has been reported. However, it remains controversial regarding the optimal time for cell transplantation and the transplantation route. Rat models of cerebral ischemia were established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 1, 12 hours, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after cerebral ischemia, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected via the tail vein. At 28 days after cerebral ischemia, rat neurological function was evaluated using a 6-point grading scale and the pathological change of ischemic cerebral tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under the lfuorescence microscope, the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was examined by PKH labeling. Caspase-3 activity was measured using spectrophotometry. The optimal neurological function recovery, lowest degree of ischemic cerebral damage, greatest number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrating to peri-ischemic area, and lowest caspase-3 activity in the ischemic cerebral tissue were observed in rats that underwent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation at 12 hours after cerebral ischemia. These ifndings suggest that 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for tail vein injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation against cerebral ischemia, and the strongest neuroprotective effect of this cell therapy appears at this time.

  6. Impact of parathyroid hormone on bone marrow-derived stem cell mobilization and migration

    Bruno; C; Huber; Ulrich; Grabmaier; Stefan; Brunner

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone(PTH) is well-known as the principal regulator of calcium homeostasis in the human body and controls bone metabolism via actions on the survival and activation of osteoblasts. The intermittent administration of PTH has been shown to stimulate bone production in mice and men and therefore PTH administration has been recently approved for the treatment of osteoporosis. Besides to its physiological role in bone remodelling PTH has been demonstrated to influence and expand the bone marrow stem cell niche where hematopoietic stem cells, capable of both self-renewal and differentiation, reside. Moreover, intermittent PTH treatment is capable to induce mobilization of progenitor cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. This novel function of PTH on modulating the activity of the stem cell niche in the bone marrow as well as on mobilization and regeneration of bone marrow-derived stem cells offers new therapeutic options in bone marrow and stem cell transplantation as well as in the field of ischemic disorders.

  7. Impact of parathyroid hormone on bone marrow-derived stem cell mobilization and migration.

    Huber, Bruno C; Grabmaier, Ulrich; Brunner, Stefan

    2014-11-26

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is well-known as the principal regulator of calcium homeostasis in the human body and controls bone metabolism via actions on the survival and activation of osteoblasts. The intermittent administration of PTH has been shown to stimulate bone production in mice and men and therefore PTH administration has been recently approved for the treatment of osteoporosis. Besides to its physiological role in bone remodelling PTH has been demonstrated to influence and expand the bone marrow stem cell niche where hematopoietic stem cells, capable of both self-renewal and differentiation, reside. Moreover, intermittent PTH treatment is capable to induce mobilization of progenitor cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. This novel function of PTH on modulating the activity of the stem cell niche in the bone marrow as well as on mobilization and regeneration of bone marrow-derived stem cells offers new therapeutic options in bone marrow and stem cell transplantation as well as in the field of ischemic disorders. PMID:25426261

  8. Encapsulated Whole Bone Marrow Cells Improve Survival in Wistar Rats after 90% Partial Hepatectomy

    Carolina Uribe-Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The use of bone marrow cells has been suggested as an alternative treatment for acute liver failure. In this study, we investigate the effect of encapsulated whole bone marrow cells in a liver failure model. Methods. Encapsulated cells or empty capsules were implanted in rats submitted to 90% partial hepatectomy. The survival rate was assessed. Another group was euthanized at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after hepatectomy to study expression of cytokines and growth factors. Results. Whole bone marrow group showed a higher than 10 days survival rate compared to empty capsules group. Gene expression related to early phase of liver regeneration at 6 hours after hepatectomy was decreased in encapsulated cells group, whereas genes related to regeneration were increased at 12, 24, and 48 hours. Whole bone marrow group showed lower regeneration rate at 72 hours and higher expression and activity of caspase 3. In contrast, lysosomal-β-glucuronidase activity was elevated in empty capsules group. Conclusions. The results show that encapsulated whole bone marrow cells reduce the expression of genes involved in liver regeneration and increase those responsible for ending hepatocyte division. In addition, these cells favor apoptotic cell death and decrease necrosis, thus increasing survival.

  9. Combined bone marrow and gallium imaging. Differentiation of osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle hemoglobinopathy

    The clinical records and scintigrams of patients with sickle hemoglobinopathy who underwent combined Tc-99m bone marrow imaging and Ga-67 imaging to differentiate osteomyelitis from bony infarction were reviewed. Of 18 paired examinations in 15 patients, osteomyelitis was diagnosed correctly in six cases; in all six, gallium uptake at the symptomatic site was incongruently increased relative to the bone marrow activity. Of the 12 episodes of infarction, 11 showed congruent activity on both Tc-99m and Ga-67 images. The remaining study was interpreted incorrectly as osteomyelitis due to incongruent Tc-99m and Ga-67 uptake. The use of sequential Tc-99m bone marrow and Ga-67 imaging is an effective means of distinguishing osteomyelitis from bony infarction in patients with sickle hemoglobinopathy

  10. Bone Marrow Imaging: Part I and Part II

    Bahman Rafiee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of bone marrow are commonly encountered"nin clinical practice. For an accurate interpretation, it"nis essential to have a thorough understanding of the"nnormal marrow appearance, marrow conversion (red to"nyellow from birth to adulthood, marrow reconversion"n(yellow to red, and benign and malignant marrow"nproliferative, replacement, depletion, and vascular"ndisorders."nThe purpose of this teaching presentation is to:"n1. Describe normal bone marrow anatomy and"nfunction."n2. Review methods of imaging bone marrow."n3. Review MR appearance of normal bone marrow in"ndifferent age groups"n4. Review marrow proliferative diseases - benign (e.g.,"nreconversion, malignant (e.g., leukemia."n5. Review marrow replacement processes - benign"n(e.g. osteomyelitis, malignant (e.g., metastasis."n6. Review marrow depletion disorders - benign,"nmalignant (e.g., aplastic anemia, radiation."n7. Review vascular marrow disorders (e.g. osteonecrosis"nand miscellaneous marrow abnormalities.

  11. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 3, Five-year-old

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a five-year-old or 19-kg person. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 2, One-year-old

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (targets organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a one-year old or 9.8-kg person. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission of Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 4, Ten-year-old

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for a ten-year-old or 32-kg person. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Constraining MHD Disk-Winds with X-ray Absorbers

    Fukumura, Keigo; Tombesi, F.; Shrader, C. R.; Kazanas, D.; Contopoulos, J.; Behar, E.

    2014-01-01

    From the state-of-the-art spectroscopic observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the robust features of absorption lines (e.g. most notably by H/He-like ions), called warm absorbers (WAs), have been often detected in soft X-rays (UFOs) whose physical condition is much more extreme compared with the WAs. Motivated by these recent X-ray data we show that the magnetically- driven accretion-disk wind model is a plausible scenario to explain the characteristic property of these X-ray absorbers. As a preliminary case study we demonstrate that the wind model parameters (e.g. viewing angle and wind density) can be constrained by data from PG 1211+143 at a statistically significant level with chi-squared spectral analysis. Our wind models can thus be implemented into the standard analysis package, XSPEC, as a table spectrum model for general analysis of X-ray absorbers.

  15. The immunodeficiency of bone marrow-transplanted patients. II. CD8-related suppression by patient lymphocytes of the response of donor lymphocytes to mitogens, antigens, and allogeneic cells

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Jacobsen, N;

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 21 patients sampled 1-6 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were tested for functional suppressor activity against marrow-donor lymphocytes in the lymphocyte transformation test. Suppression of donor responses to allogeneic (i.e. mixed lymphocyte reaction, MLR) and...

  16. Planar Metamaterial Absorber Based on Lumped Elements

    GU Chao; QU Shao-Bo; PEI Zhi-Bin; ZHOU Hang; XU Zhuo; BAI Peng; PENG Wei-Dong; LIN Bao-Qin

    2010-01-01

    @@ We present the design of a planar metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,which shows a wide-band polarization-insensitive and wide-angle strong absorption.This absorber consists of metal electric resonators,the dielectric substrate,the metal film and lumped elements.The simulated absorbances under two different loss conditions indicate that high absorbance in the absorption band is mainly due to lumped resistances.The simulated absorbances under three different load conditions indicate that the local resonance circuit(lumped resistance and capacitance)could boost up the resonance of the whole RLC circuit.The simulated voltage in lumped elements indicates that the transformation efficiency from electromagnetic energy to electric energy in the absorption band is high,and electric energy is subsequently consumed by lumped resistances.This absorber may have potential applications in many military fields.

  17. Impact of bone marrow on respiratory disease.

    Rankin, Sara M

    2008-06-01

    The bone marrow is not only a site of haematopoiesis but also serves as an important reservoir for mature granulocytes and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocytes. In respiratory diseases, such as asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis these cells are mobilised from the bone marrow in response to blood-borne mediators and subsequently recruited to the lungs. Although the granulocytes contribute to the inflammatory reaction, stem cells may promote tissue repair or remodelling. Understanding the factors and molecular mechanisms that regulate the mobilisation of granulocytes and stem cells from the bone marrow may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of a wide range of respiratory disorders. PMID:18372214

  18. Multiband Negative Permittivity Metamaterials and Absorbers

    Yiran Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and characteristics of multiband negative permittivity metamaterial and its absorber configuration are presented in this paper. The proposed multiband metamaterial is composed of a novel multibranch resonator which can possess four electric resonance frequencies. It is shown that, by controlling the length of the main branches of such resonator, the resonant frequencies and corresponding absorbing bands of metamaterial absorber can be shifted in a large frequency band.

  19. Tumor vaccine strategies after allogeneic T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation

    Ferrara James L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is currently restricted to hematological malignancies because of a lack of anti-tumor activity against solid cancers. We have tested a novel treatment strategy to stimulate specific anti-tumor activity against a solid tumor after transplantation by vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Using the B16 melanoma model, we found that vaccination elicited potent anti-tumor activity in recipients of syngeneic bone marrow transplantation in a time dependent fashion, and that immune reconstitution was critical for the development of anti-tumor activity. Vaccination did not stimulate anti-tumor immunity after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation because of the post-transplantation immunodeficiency associated with graft-versus-host disease. Remarkably, vaccination was effective in stimulating potent and long-lasting anti-tumor activity in recipients of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Thus T cells derived from donor stem cells were able to recognize tumor antigens even though they remained tolerant to host histocompatibility antigens. Donor leukocyte infusion from a donor immunized with the recipient-derived B16 vaccines enhanced clinical activity of tumor vaccines without exacerbating graft-versus-host disease and CD4+ T cells are essential for this enhancement. These results demonstrate that vaccination of both donors and recipients can stimulate potent anti-tumor effects without the induction of graft-versus-host disease, and this strategy has important implications for the treatment of patients with solid malignancies.

  20. Cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplantation

    Khetan Vikas; Chaudhary S; Gopal Lingam

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of cystoid macular edema in a patient who underwent bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. After having ruled out all the other causes of cystoid macular edema, we concluded that it was secondary to the bone marrow transplant. The patient had mild visual impairment and did not recover the lost vision. In this case report, we describe in detail the clinical presentation, follow-up, and course of medication that this patient had. It is an illustrated case report of cystoid...

  1. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M

    2008-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

  2. A Six-Fold Symmetric Metamaterial Absorber

    Humberto Fernández Álvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel microwave metamaterial absorber design is introduced along with its manufacturing and characterization. Significant results considering both bandwidth and angular stability are achieved. Parametric analysis and simplified equivalent circuit are provided to give an insight on the key elements influencing the absorber performance. In addition, the constitutive parameters of the effective medium model are obtained and related to the absorber resonant behavior. Moreover, a new thinner and more flexible absorber version, preserving broad bandwidth and angular insensitive performance, is simulated, and an 8 × 8 unit-cells prototype is manufactured and measured for a limited angular margin in an anechoic chamber.

  3. Absorber rod for pebble-bed reactor

    The absorber rod that can be moved into the pebble bed from the top reflector is enclosed by a cladding tube which, if it is completely moved down, ends above the pebble bed and is open at the bottom. Through the cladding tube the absorber rod is cooled with gas. The cladding tube consists of e.g. boron steel. If the absorber rod is drawn it takes along the cladding tube which is moved into the guide tube like a telescope. The rigidity of that part of the absorber rod projecting from the pebble bed is thus guaranteed. (DG)

  4. Metamaterial absorber with random dendritic cells

    Zhu, Weiren; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2010-05-01

    The metamaterial absorber composed of random dendritic cells has been investigated at microwave frequencies. It is found that the absorptivities come to be weaker and the resonant frequency get red shift as the disordered states increasing, however, the random metamaterial absorber still presents high absorptivity more than 95%. The disordered structures can help understanding of the metamaterial absorber and may be employed for practical design of infrared metamaterial absorber, which may play important roles in collection of radiative heat energy and directional transfer enhancement.

  5. Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures for perfect absorbers

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Guan, Jianguo; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material.Renewable E......We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material...

  6. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Nobuyuki

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  7. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  8. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  9. Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option

    ... Talking with Your Doctor Diseases Treatable with a Bone Marrow Transplant or Cord Blood Transplant Diseases that may be treated with a bone marrow or cord blood transplant include: Leukemias and lymphomas ...

  10. Optimum conditions for preparation of flue gas desulfurization absorbent from rice husk ash

    Keat Teong Lee; Atikah Matlina Mohtar; Nor Fatiha Zainudin; Subhash Bhatia; Abdul Rahman Mohamed [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2005-02-01

    Several previous studies have reported the preparation of absorbents from coal fly ash variations as a source of siliceous material for the preparation of absorbents for flue gas desulfurization. On the other hand, this study presents findings from an experimental investigation of the preparation of absorbents from rice husk ash as the source of the siliceous material. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as hydration period, amount of rice husk ash, amount of calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) and hydration temperature on the BET (Brunner-Emmett-Teller) specific surface area of the absorbent were investigated. Based on the Central Composite Design (CCD) of experiments, a third order mathematical model was developed to correlate the absorbent preparation variables to the surface area of the absorbent. The predicted surface area was found to agree satisfactory with the experimental values. The model indicated that lower hydration period and temperature favor the formation of absorbent with higher surface area. Sulfation activity test on the absorbent revealed that the absorbent prepared from rice husk ash does have a high capacity in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorption. 19 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Bone-marrow MR imaging before and after autologous marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients without known bone-marrow involvement

    Purpose: To study lumbar bone marrow by means of MR imaging before and after bone-marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients. Particular emphasis was paid to heterogeneity and to focal manifestations, i.e. appearances that could simulate tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who were disease-free for a minimum of 30 months after transplantation were studied in 107 MR examinations. Two radiologists visually evaluated coronal T1-weighted and short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) images. Results: T1-weighted images demonstrated a more heterogeneous marrow after transplantation than before it. Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas appeared on this sequence in 5 (23%) of the 22 patients at between 21 and 60 weeks after transplantation. The mean age of these 5 patients was 48.4 years (range 42-54 years). The difference in age between these 5 patients and the remaining 17 patients, who had a mean age of 33.4 years (range 14-51 years), was statistically significant (p<0.01, Student's t-test, 2-sided test). Conclusion: Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas may be seen on T1-weighted images of bone marrow in patients who are in complete remission after transplantation, particularly in those aged over 40-45 years. (orig.)

  12. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy -absorption capability

  13. A Survey of Bacterial Infections in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients

    Shirazi MH; R Ranjbar; A. Ghasemi; S Paktarigh; N Sadeghifard; Pourmand MR

    2007-01-01

    "nBackground: Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Bacterial infec­tion is considered as one of the common and serious complications in bone marrow transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of bacterial infections in bone marrow transplant recipients."nMethods: Fifty-two blood and 25 catheter samples were obtained from 23 patients who were hospitalized in bone marrow trans­plantation...

  14. Recruiting unrelated donors for the National Marrow Donor Program.

    Yanke, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...

  15. Variations in absorbed doses from 59Fe in different diseases

    The biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals administered in vivo may vary considerably with changes in organ functions. They studied the variations in absorbed doses from 59Fe in 207 patients with different diseases, in whom ferrokinetic investigations were performed for diagnostic purposes. Radiation doses to the bone marrow were highest in patients with deserythropoietic anemias (mean 38 nSv/Bq, range 19 - 57 nSv/Bq) and in hemolytic anemias (mean 21 nSv/Bq, range 7 - 35 nSv/Bq), whereas lower and rather constant values were found in other diseases (mean values between 9 and 13 nSv/Bq). The highest organ doses, the greatest differences with respect to diagnosis and also the largest variations within each group of patients were found for liver and spleen (e. g. in aplastic anemia; liver: 66 nSv/Bq, range 29 - 104 nSv/Bq; spleen: 57 nSv/Bq, range 34 - 98 nSv/Bq. In iron deficiency; liver: 13 nSv/Bq range 12 - 14 nSv/q; spleen: 19 nSv/Bq, range 18 - 20 nSv/Bq). Lower organ doses and smaller variations within and between the groups of patients were found for the gonads (means 3 - 7 nSv/Bq), the kidneys (means 10 - 13 nSv/Bq), the bone (means 4 - 7 nSv/Bq), the lung (means 8 - 12 nSv/Bq), and the total body (means 6 - 8 nSv/Bq). In patients with chronic bleeding absorbed doses decrease concomitantly to the extent of blood loss. The D/sub E/ is not markedly affected by the variations in organ doses but is fairly constant for different diseases. 16 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  16. Ethical issues of informed consent: mothers' experiences enrolling their children in bone marrow transplantation research.

    Stevens, Patricia E; Pletsch, Pamela K

    2002-04-01

    Twelve mothers whose children had undergone bone marrow transplantation were interviewed about their experiences giving informed consent. They were asked to describe how they were introduced to bone marrow transplantation as a course of action to treat their gravely ill children, what their understanding of the protocol was, and the process by which they gave their consent. Their stories reveal complex ethical issues that may surface in the course of informed consent for research involving children. Findings suggest that mothers perceive life-and-death circumstances when a child is offered bone marrow transplantation, altering the voluntary nature of the research enterprise. The emotional trauma of the diagnosis decreases a mother's ability to absorb and understand vital information, and the emergent nature of the children's condition and the urgency to begin treatment further compromise informed consent by constricting the time and resources mothers may need to make a decision. Once a protocol is underway, mothers often experience regrets and self-recriminations about their decision to consent. Recommendations are offered that expand upon the current cognitive/rational approach to informed consent and take into account emotional experiences and the importance of building relationships to ensure informed consent over the life of a clinical trial. PMID:11984094

  17. Mean bone marrow dose of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    The ratio of the mean bone-marrow dose to in-air tissue absorbed dose for survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been calculated with the aid of the Synder mathematical phantom, using depth dose curves in phantom. From this ratio, the mean bone-marrow dose has been estimated as a function of the distance from the hypocenter. The ratios were corrected for the angular distribution of atomic bomb radiation. The resultant ratios were tabulated as a function of incident angles on an adult and a child (3-7 years old) survivor for gamma-rays and neutrons. As an example of the resultant mean bone-marrow dose, the adult survivors who were standing straight in open field at 1000m from the Hiroshima hypocenter have been estimated to be exposed to 165 rads of initial gamma-rays, 32 rads of recoil protons, 14 rads of gamma-rays from 1H(n, γ)2D reaction and 0.9 rads of protons from the 14N(n, p)14C reaction. (auth.)

  18. Late radiation damage in bone, bone marrow and brain vasculature, with particular emphasis upon fractionation models

    X-ray induced changes in rat and human bone and bone marrow vasculature and in rat brain vasculature were measured as a function of time after irradiation and absorbed dose. The absorbed dose in the organ varied from 5 to 25 Gy for single dose irradiations and from 19 to 58 Gy for fractionated irradiations.The number of fractions varied from 3 to 10 for the rats and from 12 to 25 for the human. Blood flow changes were measured using an ''1''2''5I antipyrine or ''8''6RbCl extraction technique. The red blood cell (RBC) volume was examined by ''5''1Cr labelled red cells. Different fractionation models have been compared. Radiation induced reduction of bone and bone marrow blood flow were both time and dose dependent. Reduced blood flow 3 months after irradiation would seem to be an important factor in the subsequent atrophy of bones. With a single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow returned to the control level by 7 months after irradiation. In the irradiated bone the RBC volume was about same as that in the control side but in bone marrow the reduction was from 32 to 59%. The dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose (NSD) formula produced about the same damage to the rat femur seven months after irradiation when the extraction of ''8''6Rb chloride and the dry weight were concerned as the end points. However, the results suggest that the NSB formula underestimates the late radiation damage in bone marrow when a small number of large fractions are used. In the irradiated brains of the rats the blood flow was on average 20.4% higher compared to that in the control group. There was no significant difference in brain blood flow between different fractionation schemes. The value of 0.42 for the exponent of N corresponds to the average value for central nervous system tolerance in the literature. The model used may be sufficiently accurate for clinical work provided the treatment schemes used do not depart too radically from standard practice

  19. Cytogenetic and morphological assessment of bone marrow in therapeutic irradiation

    Morphological and cytogenetic study from the irradiated bone marrow, in 59 cases of radically irradiated carcinoma cervix was done. Regeneration of a marrow adjudged on cellular morphology was after 12 months whereas cytogenetic studies revealed it at the end of three months. It is concluded that cytogenetic study is a more sensitive parameter in assessing the recovery of bone marrow. (author)

  20. Intractable Diseases Treated with Intra-Bone Marrow-Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Ming eLi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSMCs. MSMCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. MSMCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSMCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of bone marrow-derived- MSMCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.

  1. T helper 17 and T helper 1 cells are increased but regulatory T cells are decreased in subchondral bone marrow microenvironment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Wang, Ting; Li, Shufeng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Kaining; Dong, Shixiao; Wang, Xiuhua; Liu, Xinguang; Ren, Yanjun; Zhang, Ming; Yan, Xinfeng; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study is to investigate the profiles of Th17, Th1 and Treg cells in bone marrow of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Flow cytometry was used to analyze the frequencies of Th17, Th1 and Treg cells in paired peripheral blood and bone marrow of 26 RA patients and 11 osteoarthritis (OA) patients, as well as 10 healthy controls. In addition, the disease activity was analyzed by the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28). Results: The frequencies of Th17 and Th1 cells were significantly elevated in bone marrow of RA patients. Importantly, Th17 and Th1 cells were significantly elevated in bone marrow compared with the matched peripheral blood from RA patients. However, Treg cells were significantly decreased in bone marrow of RA patients compared with the matched peripheral blood of RA patients and bone marrow of osteoarthritis patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the frequencies of tumor necrosis factor-α-producing T cells were significantly elevated in bone marrow from RA patients. Additionally, Th17 and Th1 cells in bone marrow were positively correlated with DAS28, while Treg cells were negatively correlated with DAS28. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that Th17 and Th1 cells are markedly increased in bone marrow from RA patients. By contrast, Treg cells are significantly decreased in bone marrow from RA patients. These results suggest that local abnormality of Th17, Th1 and Treg cells in bone marrow of RA patients may contribute to bone destruction in skeletal system.

  2. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Duerr, Hans-Roland [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.baur@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  3. Malignant osteopetrosis: hypercalcaemia after bone marrow transplantation.

    Rawlinson, P S; Green, R H; Coggins, A M; Boyle, I T; Gibson, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    A 3 year old girl presented with malignant osteopetrosis, which was treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Successful engraftment was complicated by prolonged hypercalcaemia, which was controlled by a combination of a bisphosphonate, phosphate infusions, vigorous resalination, and salmon calcitonin. She was alive and well 16 months after the transplant.

  4. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    Deeg, H. Joachim

    1988-01-01

    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  5. Immunologic studies of canine bone marrow chimeras

    When prospective male or female recipients from the Cooperstown colony were exposed to supralethal total body irradiation and were reconstituted with bone marrow obtained from genotypically DL-A-identical littermate or nonlittermate donors such treatment resulted, in regularly reproducible fashion, in the establishment of a long-term state of chimerism with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease in any of the recipients. The resulting chimeras have survived thus far for 882-1466 days, with donor red cell antigen and leukocyte sex marker evidence of the persistence of chimerism. Subsequent challenge of the chimeras with renal and skin allografts obtained from the specific donor of marrow resulted in the long-term survival of such transplants without any evidence of rejection for 833--1402 days. Skin allografts obtained from other dogs were, however, accorded first-set rejection times. Recent studies indicate that the state of allogeneic unresponsiveness produced by supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation also extends to other organs from the donor of marrow, including heart, liver, pancreas and duodenum, and lung

  6. Engraftment of allogeneic dog bone marrow

    Resistance to allogeneic bone-marrow grafts (AR) was found to occur in many species, including the dog. The i.v. administration of silica particles suppressed Ar in vivo in this species. Genetic studies provide suggestive evidence for the existence of a previously unrecognized system or systems in the canine major histocompatibility complex controlling AR

  7. [Absorbed doses in dental radiology].

    Bianchi, S D; Roccuzzo, M; Albrito, F; Ragona, R; Anglesio, S

    1996-01-01

    The growing use of dento-maxillo-facial radiographic examinations has been accompanied by the publication of a large number of studies on dosimetry. A thorough review of the literature is presented in this article. Most studies were carried out on tissue equivalent skull phantoms, while only a few were in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo absorbed doses during Orthopantomography (OPT). Full Mouth Periapical Examination (FMPE) and Intraoral Tube Panoramic Radiography (ITPR). Measurements were made on 30 patients, reproducing clinical conditions, in 46 anatomical sites, with 24 intra- and 22 extra-oral thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDS). The highest doses were measured, in orthopantomography, at the right mandibular angle (1899 mu Gy) in FMPE on the right naso-labial fold (5640 mu Gy and in ITPR on the palatal surface of the left second upper molar (1936 mu Gy). Intraoral doses ranged from 21 mu Gy, in orthopantomography, to 4494 mu Gy in FMPE. Standard errors ranged from 142% in ITPR to 5% in orthopantomography. The highest rate of standard errors was found in FMPE and ITPR. The data collected in this trial are in agreement with others in major literature reports. Disagreements are probably due to different exam acquisition and data collections. Such differences, presented comparison in several sites, justify lower doses in FMPE and ITPR. Advantages and disadvantages of in vivo dosimetry of the maxillary region are discussed, the former being a close resemblance to clinical conditions of examination and the latter the impossibility of collecting values in depth of tissues. Finally, both ITPR and FMPE required lower doses than expected, and can be therefore reconsidered relative to their radiation risk. PMID:8966249

  8. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of inhaled radon to calculate absorbed doses in mice, rats, and humans

    This is the first report to provide radiation doses, arising from inhalation of radon itself, in mice and rats. To quantify absorbed doses to organs and tissues in mice, rats, and humans, we computed the behavior of inhaled radon in their bodies on the basis of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. It was assumed that radon dissolved in blood entering the gas exchange compartment is transported to any tissue by the blood circulation to be instantaneously distributed according to a tissue/blood partition coefficient. The calculated concentrations of radon in the adipose tissue and red bone marrow following its inhalation were much higher than those in the others, because of the higher partition coefficients. Compared with a previous experimental data for rats and model calculation for humans, the present calculation was proved to be valid. Absorbed dose rates to organs and tissues were estimated to be within the range of 0.04-1.4 nGy (Bqm-3)-1 day-1 for all the species. Although the dose rates are not so high, it may be better to pay attention to the dose to the red bone marrow from the perspective of radiation protection. For more accurate dose assessment, it is necessary to update tissue/blood partition coefficients of radon that strongly govern the result of the PBPK modeling. (author)

  9. The measurement of gonadal and bone-marrow doses from dental radiography

    The method of calculation of the radiation doses to the gonads and to the active bone marrow arising from dental radiography is described. The bone-marrow doses have been calculated using a computer model of X-ray depth doses within the skull for typical dental radiographic examinations as performed in Australia. The ovarian and testicular doses, as a percentage of skin dose have been determined experimentally. The dependence of the gonadal doses on X-ray tube voltage, face to cone distance and direction of the X-ray beam relative to the face is detailed

  10. Transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis to bone marrow chimeras. Endothelial cells are not a restricting element

    The adoptive transfer of clinical and histopathologic signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) requires MHC compatibility between cell donor and cell recipient. The results of adoptive transfer studies using F1 to parent bone marrow chimeras as recipients of parental-derived BP-sensitive spleen cells indicate that this restriction is not expressed at the level of the endothelial cell but is confined to the cells of bone marrow derivation. Furthermore, these results indicate that the development of EAE is not dependent on the activity of MHC-restricted cytotoxic cells

  11. 基因芯片技术分析骨髓间充质干细胞神经分化中Wnt信号通路的激活%Activation of Wnt signaling pathway in the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells:a microarray analysis

    林治平; 曾荣; 林颢

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It wil provide a new insight into the future application of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels in the treatment of spinal cord injury and tissue engineering by studying the effect of activation of Wnt signaling pathway in the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels. OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression of related genes by gene chip technology during the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels. METHODS:Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels were isolated and purified, and passage 5 cels were obtained. GatewayTM technology was used to build lentiviral vectors that was used to transfect Wnt-1 into human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels. Control, non-transduction and transduction groups were set in this study. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels were then induced to differentiate into neurons. Cel morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast microscope. Gene chip was used to detect the regulation changes and the differential expression of related genes in the Wnt signaling pathway. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under the scanning electron microscope, the transfected cels were found to have the similar morphology of neuron-like cels. Analysis by the gene chip hybridization technique showed that 3 287 genes were up-regulated and 4 215 genes were down-regulated in the signal pathway. In the Wnt signaling pathway, genes related to the nervous system development and differentiation were up- or down-regulated. It is verified that the Wnt signal pathway is activated via Wnt-1 transduction, and the downstream genes appear to have genetic transcription so as to promote the neuronal differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels.%背景:通过对骨髓间充质干细胞诱导向神经元样分化的 Wnt 信号调控机制进行研究,为骨髓间充质干细胞在脊髓损伤及组织工程中的应用打下基础。  目的:应用基因芯片技术测试人骨髓间充质干细胞向神经元

  12. Structured Metal Film as Perfect Absorber

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-03-01

    With standing U-shaped resonators, fish-spear-like resonator has been designed for the first time as the building block to assemble perfect absorbers. The samples have been fabricated with two-photon polymerization process and FTIR measurement results support the effectiveness of the perfect absorber design. In such a structure the polarization-dependent resonance occurs between the tines of the spears instead of the conventional design where the resonance occurs between the metallic layers separated by a dielectric interlayer. The incident light neither transmits nor reflects back which results in unit absorbance. The power of light is trapped between the tines of spears and finally be absorbed. The whole structure is covered with a continuous metallic layer with good thermo-conductance, which provides an excellent approach to deal with heat dissipation, is enlightening in exploring metamaterial absorbers.

  13. ANL Advanced Photon Source crotch absorber design

    The ANL 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source storage ring crotch absorber will be subjected to a very high photon loading power density, approximately 750 W/mm2 at normal incidence. To accommodate this high heat load, two designs were studied: one is a V-type compound angle absorber and the other is a horizontally rotated plate absorber. For both models, thermal and structural analyses have been carried out using 3-D finite element analysis. The analysis indicates that the V-type compound angle absorber controlled the peak temperatures effectively within the given geometric constraints. Test samples made of GlidCop AL 15 (alumina dispersion strengthened copper) were evaluated with an electron beam welder. The predicted and measured temperatures were in reasonable agreement. The overall absorber design includes a perforated screen in the positron beam area of the storage ring vacuum chamber to reduce RF impedance and to provide pumping access for the high local gas load

  14. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Brohus, Malene; Kristensen, Ida B;

    2016-01-01

    and accessible for receptor activation. In MM, high IGF-receptor type 1 expression levels correlate with a poor prognosis, but the status and role of IGF and IGFBPs in the pathobiology of MM is unknown. Here we measured total IGF1, IGF2, and intact IGFBP levels in blood and bone marrow samples from MM.......6-0.5 fold) in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the...... profound change in IGFBP profile strongly suggests an increased IGF bioavailability in the bone marrow microenvironment in MGUS and MM, despite no change in growth factor concentration....

  15. 5-Azacytidine as Salvage Treatment in Relapsed Myeloid Tumors after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Smith, B. Douglas; Gore, Steven D.; McDevitt, Michael A.; Luznik, Leo; Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Jones, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Relapse after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation carries a very poor prognosis. Current strategies for management that include donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) and salvage chemotherapies are usually toxic and ineffective. Here we report the outcome of 10 patients with myeloid malignancies that received 5-azacytidine after a failed allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Of the 10 patients, 6 achieved a complete remission, 1 had stable disease, and 3 progressed after a median of 6 cycles administered. Only 1 patient has died (of disease progression), and no flares of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were observed with 5-azacytidine. As of latest follow-up, the median overall survival (OS) for the group was 422.5 days (127–1411). These results further suggest that 5-azacytidine is an active agent after failing an allogeneic bone marrow transplant, and prospective studies are warranted. PMID:20951817

  16. Biological Characteristics of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultured in Vitro

    FA Xian'en; WANG Lixia; HOU Jianfeng; ZHANG Ruicheng; WANG Haiyong; YANG Chenyuan

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Some biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in vitro were observed. hMSCs were isolated from bone marrow and purified by density gradient centrifugation method, and then cultured in vitro. The proliferation and growth characteristics of hMSCs were observed in primary and passage culture. MSCs of passage 3 were examined for the purify by positive rate of CD29 and CD44 through flow cytometry. Human bone marrow MSCs showed active proliferation capacity in vitro. The purify of MSCs separated by our method was higher than 90 %. It was concluded that hMSCs have been successfully cultured and expanded effectively. It provided a foundation for further investigation and application of MSCs.

  17. Effects of Ligustrazine on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfates in Syngeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    任天华; 刘文励; 孙汉英; 戴琪琳; 孙岚

    2003-01-01

    To explore the effects of ligustrazine on bone marrow heparan sulfates (HS) expression in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) mice, the syngeneic BMT mice were orally given 2 mg ligustrazine twice a day. On the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day after BMT, peripheral blood cells and bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were counted, and the expression levels of HS in bone marrow and on the stromal cell surfaces were detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry assay respectively. In ligustrazine-treated group, the white blood cells (WBC) and BMNC on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day and platelets (PLT) on the 7th, 10th day were all significantly more than those in control group (P<0.05). The bone marrow HS expression levels in ligustrazine-treated group were higher than those in control group (P<0. 05) on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day. However, the HS expression levels on the stromal cell surfaces showed no significant difference between the two groups on the 18th day (P>0. 05). It was concluded that ligustrazine could up-regulate HS expression in bone marrow, which might be one of the mechanisms contributing to ligustrazine promoting hematopoietic reconstitution after BMT.

  18. Treatment of myocardial infarction by bone marrow stem cells mobilized by activating blood and resolving stasis prescription%活血化瘀方药动员骨髓干细胞治疗心肌梗死31例

    张宝霞; 张金生

    2009-01-01

    骨髓干细胞(Bone marrow stem cells,BMSC)能在急性心肌梗死(acute myocardial infarction,AMI)时得到动员,并归巢到梗死部位,在特定的环境下分化为心肌细胞,从而增加有功能的心肌细胞数量而改善心功能。如何有效动员BMSC大量进入外周血,并促进其归巢到靶部位以达到再生和修复心肌的作用。是目前医学界研究的前沿课题之一。虽然西医界在BMSC动员治疗AMI已取得一定的成绩,但由于西药干细胞动员剂的并发症和副作用较明显,在临床上受到很大限制。目前,关于中医药动员BMSC的研究尚属空白。

  19. Matrix metalloproteinases in bone marrow: roles of gelatinases in physiological hematopoiesis and hematopoietic malignancies

    Yu, X.F.; Han, Z. C.

    2006-01-01

    Turnover balance of extracellular matrix (ECM) is a prerequisite for the structural and functional homeostasis of bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. The role of ECM in physiologic hematopoiesis and its pathologic change in hematopoietic malignancies are very important and under extensive investigation. Accumulating evidence suggests that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent proteinases, take an active part in the physiological and pa...

  20. Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes

    Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    . Neutrophils circulate in the blood as dormant cells. At sites of infection, endothelial cells capture bypassing neutrophils and guide them through the endothelial cell lining whereby the neutrophils are activated and tuned for the subsequent interaction with microbes. Once in tissues, neutrophils kill...... microorganisms by microbicidal agents liberated from granules or generated by metabolic activation. As a final act, neutrophils can extrude stands of DNA with bactericidal proteins attached that act as extracellular traps for microorganisms....

  1. Increase of radioresistance of hemopoietic stem cells (CFUs) of femoral bone marrow in mice after administration of dextran sulfate

    The influence of a single i.p. injection of dextran sulfate (DS) on the radiosensitivity of the hemopoietic stem cells (CFUs) of the femoral bone marrow of mice was investigated. The administration of DS induced an increase of the proliferative activity and the number of CFUs in the spleen and femoral bone marrow, and an elevation of the number of CFUs in the circulatory blood. An enhanced survival of CFUs in the femoral bone marrow and increased numbers of endogenous colonies of the hemopoietic tissue in the spleens were found after the administration of DS 24 and 72 hours before sublethal irradiation. The dose reduction factor of the substance calculated from the equieffective exposure for the decrease of CFUs in the femoral bone marrow was for both intervals of DS injection 2.2. DS increased the radioresistance of mice which is manifested by an increased survival of the animals after lethal whole-body gamma irradiation. (author)

  2. Mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated with bovine tendon extract acquire the phenotype of mature tenocytes☆

    Augusto, Lívia Maria Mendonça; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Amanda; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, in tenocytes after treatment with bovine tendon extract. Methods Bovine tendons were used for preparation of the extract and were stored at −80 °C. Mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow of three donors were used for cytotoxicity tests by means of MTT and cell differentiation by means of qPCR. Results The data showed that mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated for up to 21 days in the presence of bovine tendon extract diluted at diminishing concentrations (1:10, 1:50 and 1:250) promoted activation of biglycan, collagen type I and fibromodulin expression. Conclusion Our results show that bovine tendon extract is capable of promoting differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in tenocytes. PMID:26962503

  3. Myelopotentiating effect of curcumin in tumor-bearing host: Role of bone marrow resident macrophages

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anjani; Kumar, Ajay; Kant, Shiva [School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, U.P. (India); Bharti, Alok Chandra [Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Noida, UP (India); Singh, Sukh Mahendra, E-mail: sukhmahendrasingh@yahoo.com [School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-15

    The present investigation was undertaken to study if curcumin, which is recognized for its potential as an antineoplastic and immunopotentiating agent, can also influence the process of myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host. Administration of curcumin to tumor-bearing host augmented count of bone marrow cell (BMC) accompanied by an up-regulated BMC survival and a declined induction of apoptosis. Curcumin administration modulated expression of cell survival regulatory molecules: Bcl2, p53, caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) along with enhanced expression of genes of receptors for M-CSF and GM-CSF in BMC. The BMC harvested from curcumin-administered hosts showed an up-regulated colony forming ability with predominant differentiation into bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), responsive for activation to tumoricidal state. The number of F4/80 positive bone marrow resident macrophages (BMM), showing an augmented expression of M-CSF, was also augmented in the bone marrow of curcumin-administered host. In vitro reconstitution experiments indicated that only BMM of curcumin-administered hosts, but not in vitro curcumin-exposed BMM, augmented BMC survival. It suggests that curcumin-dependent modulation of BMM is of indirect nature. Such prosurvival action of curcumin is associated with altered T{sub H1}/T{sub H2} cytokine balance in serum. Augmented level of serum-borne IFN-γ was found to mediate modulation of BMM to produce enhanced amount of monokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α), which are suggested to augment the BMC survival. Taken together the present investigation indicates that curcumin can potentiate myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host, which may have implications in its therapeutic utility. Highlights: ► Curcumin augments myelopoiesis in tumor-bearing host. ► Bone marrow resident macrophages mediate curcumin-dependent augmented myelopoiesis. ► Serum borne cytokine are implicated in modulation of bone marrow resident

  4. Myelopotentiating effect of curcumin in tumor-bearing host: Role of bone marrow resident macrophages

    The present investigation was undertaken to study if curcumin, which is recognized for its potential as an antineoplastic and immunopotentiating agent, can also influence the process of myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host. Administration of curcumin to tumor-bearing host augmented count of bone marrow cell (BMC) accompanied by an up-regulated BMC survival and a declined induction of apoptosis. Curcumin administration modulated expression of cell survival regulatory molecules: Bcl2, p53, caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) along with enhanced expression of genes of receptors for M-CSF and GM-CSF in BMC. The BMC harvested from curcumin-administered hosts showed an up-regulated colony forming ability with predominant differentiation into bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), responsive for activation to tumoricidal state. The number of F4/80 positive bone marrow resident macrophages (BMM), showing an augmented expression of M-CSF, was also augmented in the bone marrow of curcumin-administered host. In vitro reconstitution experiments indicated that only BMM of curcumin-administered hosts, but not in vitro curcumin-exposed BMM, augmented BMC survival. It suggests that curcumin-dependent modulation of BMM is of indirect nature. Such prosurvival action of curcumin is associated with altered TH1/TH2 cytokine balance in serum. Augmented level of serum-borne IFN-γ was found to mediate modulation of BMM to produce enhanced amount of monokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α), which are suggested to augment the BMC survival. Taken together the present investigation indicates that curcumin can potentiate myelopoiesis in a tumor-bearing host, which may have implications in its therapeutic utility. Highlights: ► Curcumin augments myelopoiesis in tumor-bearing host. ► Bone marrow resident macrophages mediate curcumin-dependent augmented myelopoiesis. ► Serum borne cytokine are implicated in modulation of bone marrow resident macrophages.

  5. Method of absorbing UF6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    A method is described for recovering UF6 from gaseous mixtures by absorption in a liquid. The liquid absorbent must have a relatively low viscosity and at least one component of the absorbent is an alkamine having less than 3 carbon atoms bonded to the amino nitrogen, less than 2 of the carbon atoms other than those bonded to the amino nitrogen are free of the hydroxy radical and precipitate the absorbed uranium from the absorbent. At least one component of the absorbent is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2

  6. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions for the University of Florida paediatric hybrid computational phantoms

    whole body effective dose can also be assessed. The process for performing internal dosimetry for skeletal anatomy is not as straight forward. Since the skeletal microstructure is so small and intricate, explicit trabecular bone and marrow cavities are unable to be modeled with NURBS surfaces. Therefore, an alternate method was developed to determine the radiation dose from an external source of photons to red bone marrow and endosteum, the radiosensitive targets of the skeleton. This method is referred to as the photon ''dose response function'' (DRF). Pre-computed electron absorbed fractions (AF) were used in conjunction with photon mass interaction coefficients to calculate the absorbed dose to the radiosensitive cells of the skeleton per unit fluence of photons incident on the subsegmented spongiosa and medullary cavities. To calculate the SAF, the fluence of photons emitted from any given source organ reaching the spongiosa and medullary cavities was tallied. Then, the total energy emitted from the source organ was used to compute an SAF for red bone marrow and endosteum. The results could then be combined with results from the general organ dosimetry to produce a whole body effective dose for any nuclear medicine procedure. The objective for this project is to produce a comprehensive set of photon and electron SAFs for all 10 University of Florida pediatric hybrid computational phantoms. The SAFs are calculated for 21 photon and electron energies, more than the current standard dataset. They are calculated for a complete index of source and target organ combinations of interest. The results from these calculations are imbedded in a software program capable of producing dose estimates from user input. The user is able to specify the radionuclide of interest and the total number of transformations in each source organ. The software gives dose estimates to all target organs of interest in addition to the whole body effective dose per unit injected activity. A

  7. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-rhenium-colloid and 111In-indiumcitrate in the bone marrow scintigraphy

    Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111In-Indium-citrate and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid was compared with each other in 6 male and 3 female patients. Our results in all patients were in favour of 111In-citrate which caused a better delineation of morphological details than sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid did. In the first days after intravenous administration of 111In-citrate, radioindium accumulated markedly in the pudendal region, this finding being more distinct in male patients than in female ones. On account of these results a considerable radiation dose has to be assumed in bone marrow scintigraphy using 111In-citrate as long as the absorbed dose from 111In has not been estimated under consideration of the radioindium accumulation in the pudendal region. 111In-citrate should be applied in bone marrow scanning only exceptionally and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid be preferred in the routine diagnostics of bone marrow. (orig.)

  8. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. (orig.)

  9. Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography

    The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone ) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.

  10. Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography

    Yoo, Young Ah; Choi, Karp Shick [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpuk National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Han [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.

  11. On the definition of absorbed dose

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose

  12. Application of cytogenetic methods for estimation of absorbed dose

    Accumulated data on the practical application of cytogenetic technique to evaluate the absorbed dose for men involved in activities to eliminate the effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident were analyzed. Those data were compared with the results of cytogenetic studies conducted in other Russia regions affected by radiation impacts (Muslyumovo settle., Chelyabinsk Region, the Altay Territory settlements near the Semipalatinsk test range) and with the examination results of population of the territory of the Three Mile Island NPP (Island, Pennsylvania, USA) where in 1975 the nuclear accident took place. The cytogenetic studies were carried out using the standard analysis technique evaluating the frequency of unstable aberrations of chromosomes (UA) and using FISH-technique designed to evaluate the frequency of stable aberrations of chromosomes. It was pointed out that UA-technique could not be used efficiently for the retrospective evaluation of the absorbed doses with no clear idea correlating the nature and the rate of elimination with cell life time, especially, in case of small doses of irradiation. Analysis of the stable translocation using FISH-technique enabled to evaluate the absorbed dose within 8-9 years following the accident. The range of the absorbed doses of the examined persons varied from the background ones up to 1 Gy

  13. Determination of absorbed dose in water

    This report describes the experimental work carried out for the determination of absorbed dose in water in the energy of X-rays generated at potentials of 100 kV to 250 kV. Two small cavity ionization chambers were used for this experiment. The results of these measurements were compared with the results obtained by using NPL Secondary Standard Therapy level X-ray exposure meter. The related problems of converting an exposure quantity into absorbed dose in water an absorbed dose in water have also been discussed. (Orig./A.B.)

  14. CO2 Absorbing Capacity of MEA

    José I Huertas; Gomez, Martin D.; Nicolas Giraldo; Jessica Garzón

    2015-01-01

    We describe the use of a gas bubbler apparatus in which the gas phase is bubbled into a fixed amount of absorbent under standard conditions as a uniform procedure for determining the absorption capacity of solvents. The method was systematically applied to determine the CO2 absorbing capacity of MEA (Ac) at several aqueous MEA (β) and gas-phase CO2 concentrations. Ac approached the nominal CO2 absorbing capacity of MEA (720 g CO2/kg MEA) at very low β levels, increasing from 447.9±18.1 to 581...

  15. Graphene and Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz Absorbers

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim;

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, due to the possibility to tune its conductivity, is the promising material for a range of the terahertz (THz) applications, such as tunable reflectors, absorbers, modulators, filters and polarization converters. Subwavelength structuring of graphene in order to form metamaterials allows...... for even more control over the THz waves. In this poster presentation I will show an elegant way to describe the graphene metamaterials and the design of graphene based absorbers. I will also present our recent experimental results on the graphene absorbers characterization....

  16. Design and application of functional absorbers

    WANG Jiqing

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research at Institute of Acoustics, Tongji University, on functional absorbers and experience acquired in practical applications over the past three decades. Experiments and analysis of the absorption characteristics of three different geometrical forms of functional absorbers, i.e., panels, cubes and tubes, were conducted with different arrangements. The resulting esthetical effects are illustrated with pictures. Several non-fiber materials are used to compose functional absorbers with advantages both in acoustic properties and in architectural features. Cost effectiveness analysis is also given in order to provide design guidelines.

  17. Absorbed dose by a CMOS in radiotherapy

    Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C. Y.; Guzman G, K. A.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L. C., E-mail: candy_borja@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Absorbed dose by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit as part of a pacemaker, has been estimated using Monte Carlo calculations. For a cancer patient who is a pacemaker carrier, scattered radiation could damage pacemaker CMOS circuits affecting patient's health. Absorbed dose in CMOS circuit due to scattered photons is too small and therefore is not the cause of failures in pacemakers, but neutron calculations shown an absorbed dose that could cause damage in CMOS due to neutron-hydrogen interactions. (Author)

  18. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...... states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse...

  19. Development and study on vacuum absorber tubes

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoming [Southeast Univ., Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Liu, Deyou; An, cuicui [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new type solar vacuum absorber tube has been developed, and the tensile tests have shown the high reliability of the joint between the metal and glass of the vacuum absorber tube; the fatigue tests have indicated that the bellows of the vacuum absorber tube as well as the interface between the metal and glass can last for as long as 20 years; the weathering tests of the sample, have lasted for an entire year, which proves that the tube design is scientifically and reasonably devised. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal marrow: Basic understanding of the normal marrow pattern and its variant.

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab; Eid, Ahmed Fathi

    2015-12-28

    For now, magnetic resonance (MR) is the best noninvasive imaging modality to evaluate vertebral bone marrow thanks to its inherent soft-tissue contrast and non-ionizing nature. A daily challenging scenario for every radiologist interpreting MR of the vertebral column is discerning the diseased from normal marrow. This requires the radiologist to be acquainted with the used MR techniques to judge the spinal marrow as well as its normal MR variants. Conventional sequences used basically to image marrow include T1W, fat-suppressed T2W and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging provides gross morphological data. Interestingly, using non-routine MR sequences; such as opposed phase, diffusion weighted, MR spectroscopy and contrasted-enhanced imaging; may elucidate the nature of bone marrow heterogeneities; by inferring cellular and chemical composition; and adding new functional prospects. Recalling the normal composition of bone marrow elements and the physiologic processes of spinal marrow conversion and reconversion eases basic understanding of spinal marrow imaging. Additionally, orientation with some common variants seen during spinal marrow MR imaging as hemangiomas and bone islands is a must. Moreover, awareness of the age-associated bone marrow changes as well as changes accompanying different variations of the subject's health state is essential for radiologists to avoid overrating normal MR marrow patterns as pathologic states and metigate unnecessary further work-up. PMID:26753060

  1. New Design of Potentially Low-cost Solar Cells Using TiO2/Graphite Composite as Photon Absorber

    Rahman, Dui Yanto; Rokhmat, Mamat; Yuliza, Elfi; Sustini, Euis; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2015-01-01

    A solar cell design using the combination of titanium dioxide and graphite as active photon absorbing materials were proposed. The titanium dioxide absorbs photons of nearly ultraviolet wavelengths to produce electron hole pairs, while graphite is expected to absorb photons of longer wavelengths. Although many authors have claimed that graphite is not a semiconductor, we observed that a model of a solar cell containing titanium dioxide only as the active material behaves exactly the same as a...

  2. Experimental facts supporting a red marrow uptake due to radiometal transchelation in {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC therapy and relationship to the decrease of platelet counts

    Walrand, Stephan; Barone, Raffaella; Pauwels, Stanislas; Jamar, Francois [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether the red marrow (RM) takes up {sup 111}In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide and {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC and to assess the correlation between the RM absorbed doses and platelet count reduction as a biological dose estimate. Data from 12 patients who underwent at 24 h p.i. high statistics {sup 111}In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 86}Y positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions of the chest were analysed. Uptake was measured on >7 cm spine length and converted to total RM uptake using standard RM distribution in man. RM absorbed doses were calculated assuming specific RM uptake and using the plasma and remainder of the body models. RM doses were correlated with the platelet count reduction at 4 weeks. In vitro experiments explored the metabolism of {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide and {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC in plasma. The correlation between the uptake of both tracers was excellent (R = 0.80), indicating that RM uptake of {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC reflects a real physiological process and not reconstruction artefacts. The kinetics of {sup 86}Y-DOTATOC RM activity was different than that in blood and tumours, with no activity at 4 h p.i. indicating that the uptake is not somatostatin receptor dependent. In vitro experiments showed a transchelation of both radiometals to free transferrin that could explain the RM uptake. In patients without chemotherapy and with a normal platelet count recovery, a good correlation (R = 0.96) was found between the RM doses and the platelet count reduction at the nadir. These experimental facts support the existence of a true RM uptake likely related to transchelation of the radiometal to transferrin. RM uptake correlates well with the observed acute RM toxicity. (orig.)

  3. Modeling the effects of repeated systemic administrations of small activity amounts In radionuclide therapy with beta emitters

    Full text: Good results for radionuclide therapy treatments where repeated short time spaced systemic injection of small activity amounts are given have been reported. Bone marrow and kidneys are usually considered as dose-limiting organs in radionuclide therapy. The treatments in radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be optimized if irradiation effects in those one might be estimated. Xeno-grafted mice is the often biological model used during the evaluation of candidates for radionuclide therapy. A mathematical model of tumor cell kinetics was combined with another one reported for marrow cell kinetics which allows the calculation of marrow cell survival and proliferation in response to different irradiation schemes. Radionuclide therapy treatment with repeated administrations with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta emitters were simulated. The effects on fast-growing and slow-growing tumors were evaluated, as well as radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. For more realistic estimation of absorbed dose in mice organs the cross-irradiation due to high energy beta particles was included into the MIRD's formula. Tumor and kidneys responses to the irradiation were estimated on the linear-quadratic model framework which was adapted for a multi-exponential dose rate function describing radionuclide therapy treatments with repeated administrations. Published values for murine tumors kinetics, marrows cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivities were used during the calculations. Iso-effective schemes were also determined varying the interval between fractions and the number of administration. For a given tolerated level of thrombocytopenia and absorbed dose in kidneys an optimal regime of radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be found. The mathematical model presented here allows the prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia, the effects on kidneys and the tumor cell response to various treatment schemes

  4. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  5. Anti-bacterial immunity to Listeria monocytogenes in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice

    Protection and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) were studied in allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow chimeras. Lethally irradiated AKR (H-2k) mice were successfully reconstituted with marrow cells from C57BL/10 (B10) (H-2b), B10 H-2-recombinant strains or syngeneic mice. Irradiated AKR mice reconstituted with marrow cells from H-2-compatible B10.BR mice, [BR----AKR], as well as syngeneic marrow cells, [AKR----AKR], showed a normal level of responsiveness to the challenge stimulation with the listeria antigens when DTH was evaluated by footpad reactions. These mice also showed vigorous activities in acquired resistance to the L.m. By contrast, chimeric mice that had total or partial histoincompatibility at the H-2 determinants between donor and recipient, [B10----AKR], [B10.AQR----AKR], [B10.A(4R)----AKR], or [B10.A(5R)----AKR], were almost completely unresponsive in DTH and antibacterial immunity. However, when [B10----AKR] H-2-incompatible chimeras had been immunized with killed L.m. before challenge with live L.m., these mice manifested considerable DTH and resistance to L.m. These observations suggest that compatibility at the entire MHC between donor and recipient is required for bone marrow chimeras to be able to manifest DTH and protection against L.m. after a short-term immunization schedule. However, this requirement is overcome by a preceding or more prolonged period of immunization with L.m. antigens. These antigens, together with marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, can then stimulate and expand cell populations that are restricted to the MHC (H-2) products of the donor type

  6. Bone marrow uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in patients with multiple myeloma

    In a previous study, we showed the ability of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scan to identify active disease in patients with multiple myeloma (Eur J Nucl Med 1998; 25: 714-720). In particular, a semiquantitative score of the extension and intensity of bone marrow uptake was derived and correlated with both the clinical status of the disease and plasma cell bone marrow infiltration. In order to estimate quantitatively 99mTc-MIBI bone marrow uptake and to verify the intracellular localization of the tracer, bone marrow samples obtained from 24 multiple myeloma patients, three patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and two healthy donors were studied for in vitro uptake. After centrifugation over Ficoll-Hypaque gradient, cell suspensions were incubated with 99mTc-MIBI and the uptake was expressed as the percentage of radioactivity specifically retained within the cells. The cellular localization of the tracer was assessed by micro-autoradiography. Twenty-two out of 27 patients underwent 99mTc-MIBI scan within a week of bone marrow sampling. Whole-body images were obtained 10 min after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of the tracer; the extension and intensity of 99mTc-MIBI uptake were graded using the semiquantitative score. A statistically significant correlation was found between in vitro uptake of 99mTc-MIBI and both plasma cell infiltration (Pearson's coefficient of correlation r=0.69, P99mTc-MIBI inside the plasma cells infiltrating the bone marrow. Therefore, our findings show that the degree of tracer uptake both in vitro and in vivo is related to the percentage of infiltrating plasma cells which accumulate the tracer in their inner compartments. (orig.)

  7. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  8. Postirradiation bone marrow damage in chickens

    The frequency of bone marrow damage induced by the continuous gamma irradiation was studied. Effect of dose rate and level of cumulated doses of radiation was evaluated in clinical and hematological examinations and bone marrow damage was determined by chromosome aberrations in anaphase. The regulative ability of hematopoiesis of many cytokines are discussed. Positive regulators are inducers of cell proliferation, and negative regulators are inducers of apoptosis /programmed cell death/. Birds corresponding with similarities in thymus-T and bursal-B cells appear to be an interesting model for studying the possible participation of apoptosis in radiation disease. Our recent experimental studies continue to progress in this direction. (author) 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Bone marrow transplantation for childhood malignancies

    Toyoda, Yasunori (Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    As of June 30, 1991, 1013 pediatric patients had registrated to The Bone Marrow Transplantation Committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from HLA-matched siblings is now reasonably safe and an established method of treatment in acute leukemia. Total body irradiation, which is major part of preparative regimen for BMT, affect endocrine function, subsequent growth, gonadal function, development of secondary malignancies. We propose the indication of TBI for children and young adults as follows; those who are at high risk for leukemic relapse after BMT such as Phl-positive-All, leukemia-lymphoma syndrome, AML with monocytic component, BMT in elapse, BMT from other than HLA-matched siblings. (author).

  10. Design of a magnetorheological automotive shock absorber

    Lindler, Jason E.; Dimock, Glen A.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2000-06-01

    Double adjustable shock absorbers allow for independent adjustment of the yield force and post-yield damping in the force versus velocity response. To emulate the performance of a conventional double adjustable shock absorber, a magnetorheological (MR) automotive shock absorber was designed and fabricated at the University of Maryland. Located in the piston head, an applied magnetic field between the core and flux return increases the force required for a given piston rod velocity. Between the core and flux return, two different shaped gaps meet the controllable performance requirements of a double adjustable shock. A uniform gap between the core and the flux return primarily adjusts the yield force of the shock absorber, while a non-uniform gap allows for control of the post-yield damping. Force measurements from sinusoidal displacement cycles, recorded on a mechanical damper dynamometer, validate the performance of uniform and non- uniform gaps for adjustment of the yield force and post-yield damping, respectively.

  11. FFTF absorber-pin performance verification test

    The FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) Absorber Pin Performance Verification Test - (HA006) is an irradiation test of neutron absorber pins with integral temperature and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The pins, containing boron carbide, are representative of the FFTF Row 3 Safety, Row 5 Control and Row 7 Fixed Shim Absorber Assemblies. In the 300 full power days (FPD) this test will reside in its 2610 Position in the reactor, it will generate test data that will be used to infer the effects of irradiation on the absorber assemblies it simulates. Design and fabrication of the test vehicle began in 1976 and the forty-foot test assembly was loaded in the FFTF on February 10, 1981. The test provided data in March 1981 during a series of natural circulation tests, and again in November 1981 during the eight-day full power run establishing base-line data

  12. Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue;

    2014-01-01

    response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented...

  13. Absorbing boundary conditions for linear gravity waves

    Dgaygui, Kebir; Joly, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    In this article, we construct, analyze and implement a family of absorbing boundary conditions for linear gravity waves in dimension 2. The main difficulty consists in taking into account the dispersive nature of these waves.

  14. Mucool Hydrogen Absorber R and D

    The Mucool hydrogen absorber program will be presented. An update of current projects will be described, and the next year's plan will be reviewed, along with efforts in collaboration with the Muon International Cooling Experiment

  15. Tuned mass absorber on a flexible structure

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2014-01-01

    The classic design of a tuned mass absorber is based on a simple two-mass analogy in which the tuned mass is connected to the structural mass with a spring and a viscous damper. In a flexible multi-degree-of-freedom structure the tuned mass absorber is typically introduced to provide damping of a...... specific mode. The motion of the point of attachment of the tuned mass absorber to the structure has not only a contribution from the targeted mode, but also a background contribution from other non-resonant modes. Similarly, the force provided by the tuned mass absorber is distributed between the targeted...... mode and the background modes. It is demonstrated how this effect can be included via a non-dimensional dynamic background flexibility coefficient, extracted from a classic modal analysis for the particular frequency of the selected mode. An explicit calibration procedure is developed starting with the...

  16. Study on buffering characteristics of hydraulic absorber

    Control rod hydraulic drive mechanism (CRHDM) is a new type of in-vessel control rod drive technology. Hydraulic absorber is one of the key parts of control rod hydraulic drive line. It is used to buffer control rod when the rod scrams to prevent the cross-blades of control rod from deformation and damage. Based on the working process of the hydraulic absorber, a theoretical model of the buffering process was established. Calculation results of the theoretical model agree well with the experiment results. The trend of pressure change in absorber cylinder, the displacement and velocity of the piston and buffering force during the buffering process were obtained from the calculation results of the theoretical model. Then influence parameters about cushioning characteristics were analyzed, which laid foundation for optimal design of the hydraulic absorber. (authors)

  17. Perfectly matched layer based multilayer absorbers

    Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Stolarek, Marcin; Pastuszczak, Anna; Wróbel, Piotr; Wieciech, Bartosz; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Kotyński, Rafał

    2015-05-01

    Broadband layered absorbers are analysed theoretically and experimentally. A genetic algorithm is used to opti- mize broadband and wide-angle of incidence metal-dielectric layered absorbers. An approximate representation of the perfectly matched layer with a spatially varied absorption strength is discussed. The PML is realised as a stack of uniform and isotropic metamaterial layers with permittivieties and permeabilities given from the effective medium theory. This approximate representation of PML is based on the effective medium theory and we call it an effective medium PML (EM-PML).1 We compare the re ection properties of the layered absorbers to that of a PML material and demonstrate that after neglecting gain and magnetic properties, the absorber remains functional.

  18. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  19. Space Compatible Radar Absorbing Materials Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 1 project shall investigate novel radar absorbing materials (RAM) for use in space or simulated space environments. These materials are lightweight...

  20. Transient bone marrow oedema of the foot

    Radke, S.; Vispo-Seara, J.; Walther, M; Ettl, V; Eulert, J

    2001-01-01

    We treated ten patients who on the basis of MRI were suspected to have transient bone marrow oedema. In eight cases the talus was affected, in one the cuboid and in one the navicular bone. All patients had acute onset pain at the ankle. Four were treated with core decompression and had an immediate pain relief. Six were treated conservatively and became also pain-free but with considerable delay.