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Sample records for active living study

  1. Employees Psychology towards Corporate Social Responsibility Activities: A Live Study

    Neeraj Kumari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand the employee?s psychology towards Corporate Social Responsibility activities and ethical business. The sample size of the study is 200 comprising of the respondents from four companies. Non-probability sampling technique has been used. Industry associations and business magazines are coming up with various criteria for judging, listing and ranking companies. Perhaps, as business ethics will increasingly emerge as an important factor, determining the p...

  2. Active Travel - Healthy Lives

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    Across Ireland, there is considerable scope to replace many short car journeys with walking and cycling which would bring about a range of benefits to health as well as saving money for individuals and society.'Active travel, healthy lives' presents a summary of international evidence on the health and economic benefits of active travel and makes recommendations on how active travel can become a viable, safe and attractive alternative to car use.

  3. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  4. A Functionalized Sphingolipid Analogue for Studying Redistribution during Activation in Living T Cells.

    Collenburg, Lena; Walter, Tim; Burgert, Anne; Müller, Nora; Seibel, Jürgen; Japtok, Lukasz; Kleuser, Burkhard; Sauer, Markus; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle

    2016-05-01

    Sphingolipids are major components of the plasma membrane. In particular, ceramide serves as an essential building hub for complex sphingolipids, but also as an organizer of membrane domains segregating receptors and signalosomes. Sphingomyelin breakdown as a result of sphingomyelinase activation after ligation of a variety of receptors is the predominant source of ceramides released at the plasma membrane. This especially applies to T lymphocytes where formation of ceramide-enriched membrane microdomains modulates TCR signaling. Because ceramide release and redistribution occur very rapidly in response to receptor ligation, novel tools to further study these processes in living T cells are urgently needed. To meet this demand, we synthesized nontoxic, azido-functionalized ceramides allowing for bio-orthogonal click-reactions to fluorescently label incorporated ceramides, and thus investigate formation of ceramide-enriched domains. Azido-functionalized C6-ceramides were incorporated into and localized within plasma membrane microdomains and proximal vesicles in T cells. They segregated into clusters after TCR, and especially CD28 ligation, indicating efficient sorting into plasma membrane domains associated with T cell activation; this was abolished upon sphingomyelinase inhibition. Importantly, T cell activation was not abrogated upon incorporation of the compound, which was efficiently excluded from the immune synapse center as has previously been seen in Ab-based studies using fixed cells. Therefore, the functionalized ceramides are novel, highly potent tools to study the subcellular redistribution of ceramides in the course of T cell activation. Moreover, they will certainly also be generally applicable to studies addressing rapid stimulation-mediated ceramide release in living cells. PMID:27036914

  5. Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study

    Sánchez-Sánchez Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is today widely accepted that participation in social activities contributes towards successful ageing whilst, at the same time, maintaining independence in the activities of daily living (ADLs is the sine qua non for achieving that end. This study looks at people aged 65 and over living in an urban area in Spain who retain the ability to attend Social Centres providing recreational facilities. The aim of this paper is to quantify independence and identify the risk factors involved in its deterioration. Methods The sample size was calculated using the equation for proportions in finite populations based on a random proportional sample type, absolute error (e = 0.05, α = 0.05, β = 0.1, p = q = 0.5. Two-stage sampling was used. In the first place, the population was stratified by residence and a Social Centre was randomly chosen for each district. In the second stage, individuals were selected in a simple random sample without replacement in proportion to the number of members at each social centre. A multivariate logistical regression analysis takes functional ADL capacity as the dependent variable. The choice of predictive variables was made using a bivariate correlation matrix. Among the estimators obtained, Nagelkerke's R2 coefficient, and the Odds ratio (CI 95% were considered. Sensitivity and 1-specificity were adopted to present the results in graphic form. Results Out of this sample, 63.7% were fully capable of carrying out ADLs, while the main factors contributing to deterioration, identified on the basis of a logistic regression model, are in order of importance, poor physical health, poor mental health, age (above 75 years and gender (female. The model employed has a predictive value of 88% and 92% (depending on the age range considered with regard to the independence in ADLs. Conclusion A review of the few Spanish works using similar methodology shows that the percentage of non-institutionalised persons who are

  6. Validity of the Katz Index to assess activities of daily living by informants in neuropathological studies

    Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the evidences of construct validity of the Katz Index for the retrospective assessment of activities of daily living (ADL by informants, to assist neuropathological studies in the elderly. METHOD A cross-sectional study analyzed the functional ability of ADL measure by the Katz Index, of 650 cases randomly selected from the Brazilian Brain Bank of the Ageing Brain Study Group (BBBABSG database. Sample was divided in two subsamples for the analysis (N=325, each and then stratified according to cognitive decline assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR. Factor analyses with calculations of internal consistency and invariance were performed. RESULTS Factor analysis evidenced a unidimensional instrument with optimal internal consistency, in all subgroups. Goodness of fit indices were obtained after two treatments of covariance, indicating adequacy of the scale for assessing ADL by informants. The scale is invariant to cognitive decline meaning that it can be used for subjects with or without cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION Katz Index is valid for the retrospective assessment of basic ADL by informants, with optimal reliability.

  7. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Sarah Caporicci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  8. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    S. Caporicci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  9. Comparative Study on Living Library Activities at Home and Abroad%国内外图书馆开展Living Library服务比较研究

    王旻霞

    2011-01-01

    Living Library以“人”为书,是图书馆界一种崭新的读者服务活动.从活动举办者、活动主题和目的、活体图书等方面对国内外图书馆开展Living Library的现状进行比较分析,并对Living Library在中国的进一步开展策略进行了初步探讨.%Taking "person" as books, living library is a new service activity for reader in library. This paper compared and analyzed the current development situation of living library activities in library at home and abroad from organizers, titles, activity aims, books and so on. Moreover, some further development measures in China are explored preliminarily in this article.

  10. Estimated long lived isotope activities in ET-RR-1 reactor structural materials for decommissioning study

    The first Egyptian research reactor, ET-RR-1 is tank type with light water as a moderator, coolant and reflector. Its nominal power is 2MWt and the average thermal neutron flux is 10 13 n/cm2 sec-1. Its criticality was on the fall of 1961. The reactor went through several modifications and updating and is still utilized for experimental research. A plan for decommissioning of ET-RR-1 reactor should include estimation of radioactivity in structural materials. The inventory will help in assessing the radiological consequences of decommissioning. This paper presents a conservative calculation to estimate the activity of the long lived isotopes which can be produced by neutron activation. The materials which are presented in significant quantities in the reactor structural materials are aluminum, cast iron, graphite, ordinary and iron shot concrete. The radioactivity of each component is dependent not only upon the major elements, but also on the concentration of the trace elements. The main radioactive inventory are expected to be from 60Co and 55Fe which are presented in aluminium as trace elements and in large quantities in other construction materials. (author)

  11. Greener living environment healthier people? Exploring green space, physical activity and health in the Doetinchem Cohort Study

    Picavet, H.S.J.; Milder, Ivon; Kruize, Hanneke; Vries, de Sjerp; Hermans, Tia; Wendel-Vos, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence is emerging that more green space in the living environment is associated with better health, partly via the pathway of physical activity. Objectives: We explored the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between green space and physical activity and several health in

  12. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    Horwath Caroline; Motl Robert W; Pagano Ian S; Nigg Claudio R; Chai Weiwen; Dishman Rod K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity) with perceived quality of life (QOL) in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month int...

  13. Promoting healthy diets and active lives to hard-to-reach groups: market research study.

    White, S L; Maloney, S K

    1990-01-01

    Continued progress over the next decade in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from chronic disease will require that health communication efforts target a significant proportion of the American public that has not been influenced by the health promotion efforts of the 1980s. Focus groups conducted with members of the hard-to-reach American public showed that while being healthy seemed to be important to participants, and they were generally aware of what to do to stay healthy, they had a different operational definition of health than that used in health promotion programs. Participants seemed to believe that better health behaviors would build their resistance to acute illnesses, that is, keep them healthy, but that chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, were due to fate and heredity and beyond their individual control. The focus group results show that participants had not made the link between chronic disease prevention and the importance of diet, exercise, and weight control. Although most of them seemed to express a genuine interest in "doing better," they were not able to supply more than superficial examples of how such changes might be made. Surprisingly, there were more similarities than differences in participants' attitudes and beliefs, with the similarities cutting across boundaries of race-ethnicity, age, and sex. Interest in changing behaviors was only slightly more pronounced among female rather than male, and older rather than younger, participants. However, there was not much evidence from the participants that they were actively seeking health information or trying to reconcile conflicting knowledge and beliefs. PMID:2113679

  14. A Case Study: Analyzing City Vitality with Four Pillars of Activity-Live, Work, Shop, and Play.

    Griffin, Matt; Nordstrom, Blake W; Scholes, Jon; Joncas, Kate; Gordon, Patrick; Krivenko, Elliott; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Montague, Elizabeth; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    This case study evaluates and tracks vitality of a city (Seattle), based on a data-driven approach, using strategic, robust, and sustainable metrics. This case study was collaboratively conducted by the Downtown Seattle Association (DSA) and CDO Analytics teams. The DSA is a nonprofit organization focused on making the city of Seattle and its Downtown a healthy and vibrant place to Live, Work, Shop, and Play. DSA primarily operates through public policy advocacy, community and business development, and marketing. In 2010, the organization turned to CDO Analytics ( cdoanalytics.org ) to develop a process that can guide and strategically focus DSA efforts and resources for maximal benefit to the city of Seattle and its Downtown. CDO Analytics was asked to develop clear, easily understood, and robust metrics for a baseline evaluation of the health of the city, as well as for ongoing monitoring and comparisons of the vitality, sustainability, and growth. The DSA and CDO Analytics teams strategized on how to effectively assess and track the vitality of Seattle and its Downtown. The two teams filtered a variety of data sources, and evaluated the veracity of multiple diverse metrics. This iterative process resulted in the development of a small number of strategic, simple, reliable, and sustainable metrics across four pillars of activity: Live, Work, Shop, and Play. Data during the 5 years before 2010 were used for the development of the metrics and model and its training, and data during the 5 years from 2010 and on were used for testing and validation. This work enabled DSA to routinely track these strategic metrics, use them to monitor the vitality of Downtown Seattle, prioritize improvements, and identify new value-added programs. As a result, the four-pillar approach became an integral part of the data-driven decision-making and execution of the Seattle community's improvement activities. The approach described in this case study is actionable, robust, inexpensive

  15. Development and community-based validation of the IDEA study Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IDEA-IADL questionnaire

    Cecilia Collingwood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dementia diagnosis gap in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is large, partly due to difficulties in assessing function, an essential step in diagnosis. Objectives: As part of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA study, to develop, pilot, and validate an Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL questionnaire for use in a rural Tanzanian population to assist in the identification of people with dementia alongside cognitive screening. Design: The questionnaire was developed at a workshop for rural primary healthcare workers, based on culturally appropriate roles and usual activities of elderly people in this community. It was piloted in 52 individuals under follow-up from a dementia prevalence study. Validation subsequently took place during a community dementia-screening programme. Construct validation against gold standard clinical dementia diagnosis using DSM-IV criteria was carried out on a stratified sample of the cohort and validity assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve analysis. Results: An 11-item questionnaire (IDEA-IADL was developed after pilot testing. During formal validation on 130 community-dwelling elderly people who presented for screening, the AUROC curve was 0.896 for DSM-IV dementia when used in isolation and 0.937 when used in conjunction with the IDEA cognitive screen, previously validated in Tanzania. The internal consistency was 0.959. Performance on the IDEA-IADL was not biased with regard to age, gender or education level. Conclusions: The IDEA-IADL questionnaire appears to be a useful aid to dementia screening in this setting. Further validation in other healthcare settings in SSA is required.

  16. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action. PMID:26327514

  17. Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model in Detecting Activities of Daily Living in Wearable Videos for Studies of Dementia

    Karaman, Svebor; Dovgalecs, Vladislavs; Mégret, Rémi; Pinquier, Julien; André-Obrecht, Régine; Gaëstel, Yann; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for indexing activities of daily living in videos obtained from wearable cameras. In the context of dementia diagnosis by doctors, the videos are recorded at patients' houses and later visualized by the medical practitioners. The videos may last up to two hours, therefore a tool for an efficient navigation in terms of activities of interest is crucial for the doctors. The specific recording mode provides video data which are really difficult, being a single sequence shot where strong motion and sharp lighting changes often appear. Our work introduces an automatic motion based segmentation of the video and a video structuring approach in terms of activities by a hierarchical two-level Hidden Markov Model. We define our description space over motion and visual characteristics of video and audio channels. Experiments on real data obtained from the recording at home of several patients show the difficulty of the task and the promising results of our approach.

  18. A study on the effect of self bedside exercise program on resilience and activities of daily living for patients with hemiplegia

    Lee, Yang-Chool; Yi, Eun-Surk; Choi, Won-Ho; Lee, Byung-Mun; Cho, Sung-Bo; Kim, Ji-Youn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a repeatable universal rehabilitation program in which patients with hemiplegia can participate voluntarily, complementing physical and occupational therapies to increase voluntary exercise practice rate. Also, this study attempted to identify the relationship between psychological resilience due to the implementation of self-bedside exercise and functional recovery of activity of daily living (ADL). 12 patients with hemiplegia voluntarily participated ...

  19. Cognitive profile and activities of daily living

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) (AM) is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the alpha-mannosidase enzyme. The typical signs consist of hearing impairment, intellectual disabilities, coarse facial features and motor function disturbances. We report on the...... cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function and...... assess that this group of patients has, despite their intellectual disabilities, a potential for continuous cognitive development, especially during childhood and early teenage years. This should be included and supported in the individual educational planning....

  20. Activity driven fluctuations in living cells

    Fodor, É; Gov, N S; Visco, P; Weitz, D A; van Wijland, F

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model for the dynamics of a probe embedded in a living cell, where both thermal fluctuations and nonequilibrium activity coexist. The model is based on a confining harmonic potential describing the elastic cytoskeletal matrix, which undergoes random active hops as a result of the nonequilibrium rearrangements within the cell. We describe the probe's statistics and we bring forth quantities affected by the nonequilibrium activity. We find an excellent agreement between the predictions of our model and experimental results for tracers inside living cells. Finally, we exploit our model to arrive at quantitative predictions for the parameters characterizing nonequilibrium activity, such as the typical time scale of the activity and the amplitude of the active fluctuations.

  1. Studies on the behaviour of ancient man-made materials as analogues of materials used for the disposal of high-activity and long lived waste

    The disposal of high-activity and long lived waste (HLW) requires the study of ancient materials distinguished by their longevity in different environments in order to predict the long-term durability of the waste containers. The patina thickness of pre-Columbian and historical artefacts from Argentina was measured and their corrosion rates determined. The results can be used as an example of the durability of some man-made materials for designing HLW repositories. (author)

  2. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Asylum Seekers Ability Regarding Activities of Daily Living During Their Stay in the Asylum Center

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess change in activities of daily living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to change in ADL......-ability. The study was a combined baseline, follow-up correlational study amongst individuals from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, living in Danish asylum centers. Forty-three persons aged 20-50, were invited and participated in the baseline study. Twenty-two were still in asylum center at the follow-up and 17 of...... depression increased. Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r = 0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r = 0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers...

  4. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    Horwath Caroline

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity with perceived quality of life (QOL in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139 from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month intervals for the first year and 6-month intervals for the second year. QOL was assessed from self-reports of mental or physical health at the end of the study. Results Overall, the cohort participants appeared to maintain relatively constant levels of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and TV/video watching. Physical activity was positively related to mental health (p-values Conclusion Our study supports that physical activity is positively associated with mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption and TV/video watching may be too specific to represent an individual's overall nutritional status and physical inactivity, respectively.

  5. Healthy active living for children and youth

    2002-01-01

    Poor lifestyle habits, such as unhealthy eating and physical inactivity, are major contributors to increased adult morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Over the past decade there has been an increase in sedentary lifestyle and obesity in children and adolescents, both in North America and worldwide. Physicians need to be aware of the scope of this problem, provide anticipatory guidance to families and promote healthy active living in their practices.

  6. Disability in activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life among older medical ICU survivors: a prospective cohort study

    Pisani Margaret A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of quality of life in older ICU survivors is difficult but critical for understanding the long-term impact of our treatments. Activities of daily living (ADLs are important components of functional status and more easily measured than quality of life (QOL. We sought to determine the cross-sectional associations between disability in ADLs and QOL as measured by version one of the Short Form 12-item Health Survey (SF-12 at both one month and one year post-ICU discharge. Methods Data was prospectively collected on 309 patients over age 60 admitted to the Yale-New Haven Hospital Medical ICU between 2002 and 2004. Among survivors an assessment of ADL's and QOL was performed at one month and one-year post-ICU discharge. The SF-12 was scored using the version one norm based scoring with 1990 population norms. Multivariable regression was used to adjust the association between ADLs and QOL for important covariates. Results Our analysis of SF-12 data from 110 patients at one month post-ICU discharge showed that depression and ADL disability were associated with decreased QOL. Our model accounted for 17% of variability in SF12 physical scores (PCS and 20% of variability in SF12 mental scores (MCS. The mean PCS of 37 was significantly lower than the population mean whereas the mean MCS score of 51 was similar to the population mean. At one year mean PCS scores improved and ADL disability was no longer significantly associated with QOL. Mortality was 17% (53 patients at ICU discharge, 26% (79 patients at hospital discharge, 33% (105 patients at one month post ICU admission, and was 45% (138 patients at one year post ICU discharge. Conclusions In our population of older ICU survivors, disability in ADLs was associated with reduced QOL as measured by the SF-12 at one month but not at one year. Although better markers of QOL in ICU survivors are needed, ADLs are a readily observable outcome. In the meantime, clinicians

  7. Single-Molecule Studies in Live Cells

    Yu, Ji

    2016-05-01

    Live-cell single-molecule experiments are now widely used to study complex biological processes such as signal transduction, self-assembly, active trafficking, and gene regulation. These experiments' increased popularity results in part from rapid methodological developments that have significantly lowered the technical barriers to performing them. Another important advance is the development of novel statistical algorithms, which, by modeling the stochastic behaviors of single molecules, can be used to extract systemic parameters describing the in vivo biochemistry or super-resolution localization of biological molecules within their physiological environment. This review discusses recent advances in experimental and computational strategies for live-cell single-molecule studies, as well as a selected subset of biological studies that have utilized these new technologies.

  8. Performance of activities of daily living among hospitalized cancer patients

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify and character...

  9. Physical activity and the built environment among 11-15 yr olds living in Denmark: cross-sectional study

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    hours of PA/week. Girls living in poor areas or of low affluence had greater odds (OR = 3.13 and 2.23) of not reaching PA recommendations. Fewer parks was significantly related to greater odds of not exercising daily for boys (OR = 1.35) but not for girls. Conclusions: The odds of exercising less than 7...... in boys. Results indicate the built environment may affect PA differently for boys and girls....

  10. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  11. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2014-01-01

    questionnaire about exposure to torture and trauma. Ten months later, 17 participants were accessible for re-assessment, based on the same instruments as above. The participants took part in the usual activities in a centre during the time between baseline and follow-up. Results: At entrance, the asylum seekers...... impairment that increased during time spent in a centre, and that the increase may be associated with exposure to number of applied torture methods. Contribution to practice/evidence base of occupational therapy: The knowledge contributes to the planning and execution of preventive and rehabilitation...

  12. [Functional disability in activities of daily living and instrumental or domestic activities of daily living in the elderly living at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    Berthé, Abdramane; Berthé-Sanou, Lalla; Konaté, Blahima; Hien, Hervé; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Serge; Bayala, Éric; Drabo, Maxime; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, various studies have been conducted on severe disability in activities of daily living, instrumental or domestic activities. These studies have reported different rates without describing the social context for understanding their results. This study was conducted in Burkina Faso to fill the gaps in scientific information on disability in these areas. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in Bobo-Dioulasso among the older population, aged 60 and above. Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done with the help of Stata. A systematic random sample of 351 aging adults was interviewed. Moderate to severe functional disability or the need for supervision or assistance was present in 7% in activities of daily living and 86% in instrumental or domestic activities of daily living. This need for assistance varied according to the different activities or items in each domain. The proportions of disability found in this study are higher than those of previous studies that measured the often severe disabilities. All persons with disability claimed to have stable human resources which help them to manage their disabilities. The social context instrumental or domestic activities of daily living are divided by generation and/or by sex. That explains some results. With this division, it's inacceptable in some family that elders and/or old men do instrumental or domestic activities of daily living as prepare meals, do laundry, carry water to wash. The variation of this division from one family to another complicates the assessment of functional disability. To best manage elders disabilities, strategies must develop to: 1) retard the resignation of the family in care of its elderly in functional disability, 2) anticipate the preparation of formal social networks, public structures to support the elderly. PMID:26707555

  13. NMR Dynamic Studies in Living Systems

    闫永彬; 范明杰; 罗雪春; 张日清

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can noninvasively monitor the intracellular concentrations and kinetic properties of numerous inorganic and organic compounds. These characteristics have made NMR a useful tool for dynamic studies of living systems. Applications of NMR to living systems have successfully extended to many areas, including studies of metabolic regulation, ion transport, and intracellular reaction rates in vivo. The major purpose of this review is to summarize the results that can be obtained by modern NMR techniques in living systems. With the advances of new techniques, NMR measurements of various nuclides have been performed for specific physiological purposes. Although some technical problems still remain and there are still discrepancies between NMR and traditional biochemical results, the abundant and unique information obtained from NMR spectra suggests that NMR will be more extensively applied in future studies of living systems. The fast development of these new techniques is providing many new NMR applications in living systems, as well as in structural biology.

  14. Lives of women and men active in the social protests of the 1960s: a longitudinal study.

    Franz, C E; McClelland, D C

    1994-01-01

    This study found that 46 of 116 children from the R. R. Sears, E. E. Maccoby, and H. Levin (1957) child-rearing study classified at age 31 as participants in the protest movements of the 1960s came more often from middle-class families and attained higher educational levels than their counterparts who did not participate in the protests. In midlife, activists remained more rebellious and altruistic than their peers of equivalent education. Sixties activists did better in grade school and had positive permissive parents at age 5. Parenting style was associated with doing well in school only in girls. As adults, female activists were less involved in family life and had better jobs than their peers. Male activists did less well occupationally and were less happy than their male peers or the female activists. PMID:8126649

  15. Travel Behavior Comparisons of Active Living and Inactive Living Lifestyles

    Burbidge, Shaunna K; Goulias, Konstadinos G.; Kim, Tae-Gyu

    2006-01-01

    The past century’s radical change, innovation in transportation technology and concomitant increase in options for our travel modes moves us away from walking to an almost total extinction of modes that require physical exercise. This is accompanied by a modern American city design that requires the use of an automobile with urban sprawl creating distant destinations that alter older methods of travel and make active forms of transportation almost impossible. However, many more reasons exis...

  16. Effects of donepezil on activities of daily living: integrated analysis of patient data from studies in mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease

    Gauthier, Serge; Lopez, Oscar Lopez; Waldemar, Gunhild; Jones, Roy W; Cummings, Jeffrey; Zhang, Richard; Schindler, Rachel; Schwam, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to develop a standardization method to pool data recorded on different activities of daily living (ADL) scales in order to reduce variability of functional outcome data from Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials and to better evaluate the effect of donepezil treatment on function in p...

  17. Normal shoulder muscular activation and co-ordination during a shoulder elevation task based on activities of daily living: an electromyographic study.

    Hawkes, David H; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Roebuck, Margaret M; Frostick, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of normal shoulder function have often failed to consider the inter-relationship between different muscle groups in activities relevant to daily life. Upper limb functional status was assessed in 12 healthy male volunteers using the Functional Impairment Test-Hand, Neck, Shoulder and Arm test (FIT-HaNSA). Electromyography was then used to study the activity and coordination of 13 muscles (10 by surface electrodes, 3 by fine-wire intramuscular electrodes) around the shoulder during a dynamic movement task based on the shelf-lifting task in FIT-HaNSA. Muscles were grouped for analysis into deltoid (anterior, middle, and posterior divisions), adductors (latissimus dorsi and teres major), rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis), and elbow flexor (brachioradialis, biceps brachii) groups. There were no significant inter-session effects. Using cross-correlation analysis to investigate the whole time-course of activation, there were highly significant positive correlations (p elbow flexor groups (p = 0.031). We conclude that the deltoid, adductor, and rotator cuff muscles all contribute to the muscular component of glenohumeral joint stability. Muscular stability can be adapted as required to meet task-specific demands. PMID:21674607

  18. Assessment of the daily physical activity in free-living Japanese men : validation and application study of an accelerometer against the doubly labeled water method

    Rafamantanantsoa, Hoby Hasina

    2003-01-01

    Background - There is a general agreement that measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) is indispensable to elucidate the changes in energy balance.With the advancement and availability of the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure human energy expenditure in free-living condition since 1982, attempts have made to calculate the TEE by adding expenditures from basal metabolic rate (BMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and physical activity. However, findings on physical activity-...

  19. Developing obesity prevention interventions among minority ethnic children in schools and places of worship: The DEAL (DiEt and Active Living study

    Anderson Annie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems. Studies in the US and UK have shown that ethnicity is consistently associated with childhood obesity, with Black African origin girls in particular being more vulnerable to overweight and obesity than their White peers. Little is known, however, about what promotes or hinders engagement with prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Methods/Design This paper describes the background and design of an exploratory study conducted in London, UK. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and cultural acceptability of child- and family-based interventions to reduce risk factors for childhood and adolescent obesity among ethnic minorities. It investigated the use of a population approach (in schools and a targeted approach (in places of worship. We used a mixture of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires to explore what children, parents, grandparents, teachers and religious leaders think hinder and promote engagement with healthy eating and active living choices. We assessed the cultural appropriateness of validated measures of physical activity, dietary behaviour and self efficacy, and of potential elements of interventions informed by the data collected. We are also currently assessing the potential for wider community support (local councils, community networks, faith forums etc of the intervention. Discussion Analysis of the data is ongoing but the emergent findings suggest that while the school setting may be better for the main implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions, places of worship provide valuable opportunities for family and culturally specific support for implementation. Tackling the rise in childhood and adolescent obesity is a policy priority, as reflected in a range of government initiatives. The study will enhance such

  20. Living Lives, Studying Lives, Writing Lives: An Educational Potpourri or Pot au Feu?

    Smith, Louis M.

    This autobiographical paper describes the teaching of an adjunct faculty member at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri, and the doctoral and postdoctoral students he taught. The paper discusses the author's study of the area of biography and autobiography; the use of ethnography, history, and biography in qualitative research; the…

  1. Relationship between activity of daily living and asteatosis in the lower legs among elderly residents in long-term care institutions: a cross-sectional study.

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Kimura, Nao; Takehara, Kimie; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional observational study investigated the relationship between the level of activities of daily living (ADL) and asteatosis in the lower legs among elderly residents. We enrolled 173 residents from a long-term care health facility and two special nursing homes for elderly persons in the Tokyo metropolitan area and Oshima Island, Japan. The level of ADL was measured by the Barthel Index. The relationship between the Barthel Index total score and the presence of asteatosis in the lower legs diagnosed by a dermatologist was analysed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among the residents, 79·2% had asteatosis in their lower legs. An increase of 1 point in the Barthel Index total score was significantly associated with a decreased probability of lower leg asteatosis after adjusting for age, sex and the type of institution (adjusted odds ratio = 0·982; 95% confidence interval: 0·966-0·998). A higher level of ADL is associated with a lower probability of having asteatosis in the lower legs among residents in long-term care institutions. Nurses should pay specific attention to residents with limited ADL for initiating preventive care for asteatosis. PMID:24131671

  2. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow study with 123I-IMP in patients with dementia and in patients with poor activities of daily living

    N-isopropyl-p[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) SPECT and quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies were performed in 111 patients with cerebral disorders. Continuous arterial blood sampling method based on the microsphere model was used as a quantitative rCBF measurement. We evaluated rCBF in patients with dementia and also in patients with poor activities of daily living (ADL). Patients with dementia showed significant reduction of mean CBF in contrast to patients without dementia. Significant decrease of rCBF in the bilateral frontal cortex, parietal cortex and basal ganglia and the right temporal cortex were found in demented patients. Although patients with vascular dementia showed decreased rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia, demented patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant reduction of rCBF in any region. Patients with poor ADL showed decreased rCBF in all brain regions. And particularly frontal and basal ganglionic defects were most pronounced. Patients with poor ADL resulting from cerebral infarction showed significant decrease of rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia. However, there was no significant correlation in Parkinson's disease between ADL and rCBF. The rCBF measurement with 123I-IMP is useful for clinical evaluation of demented patients and patients with poor ADL. (author)

  3. Experiences of Older Men Living Alone: A Qualitative Study.

    Bergland, Astri Marie Glosli; Tveit, Bodil; Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen

    2016-01-01

    More and more old people live alone, and living alone is reported to be a key risk factor for experiencing loneliness and developing poor health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of living alone for older men. Systematic text condensation and hermeneutic interpretation were used in analysis of the data. Four themes emerged: lonely at times, missing and longing for a shared life, keeping active, and some kind of freedom. The findings revealed that inner and outer resources come into play and have influence on the processes of managing and solving the situation of living alone. The findings are in accordance with theoretical perspectives on loneliness, aloneness, and solitude. The findings offer nurses in any clinical context valuable information to allow them to address the core emotional and potential mental health issues old men face in coping with the situation of living alone. PMID:26864842

  4. Active living environment assessments in four rural Latino communities

    Cynthia K. Perry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities.

  5. Correlates of physical activity in school-aged children: parents' role in active living. A comparative study between Italy and Germany

    Gobbi, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge that inactivity during childhood predisposes youngsters to a variety of negative outcomes (e.g. lack of socialization, poor emotional aspects, worsening psychological well-being and cognitive abilities, health risks, etc.), in combination with research indicating that many children are not enough physically active, has stimulated interest in better understanding children's physical activity determinants. It is necessary to identify the social, psychological, biological, and deve...

  6. eWall for Active Long Living

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Independent living of senior citizens is one of the main challenges linked to the ageing population, due to the impact on: (1) the life of the elderly people, (2) the national health systems, (3) the insurance companies, (4) the relatives and (5) the care-givers. Senior citizens may suffer from...... citizens may suffer from a decline of memory function, less ability to orientate and a declined ability to cope with complex situations. This paper describes work in progress and proposes a novel architecture design for eHealth services in support of independent living and compensating for prevailing age......- or disease-related physical and cognitive impairments for a significant prolongation of the primary end-user’s functional capacity, a delay in institutionalization, increased autonomy and, prolonged participation in the society...

  7. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    Sundsli K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kari Sundsli,1,2 Geir Arild Espnes,3 Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway, 2Centre for Caring Research, Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway, 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active.Methods: Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi.Results: Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They

  8. Cement Vertebroplasty In The Elderly With Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures. A Preliminary Study On The Change In Activity Of Daily Living After Treatment

    Collin Looi Seng-Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the effect of cementvertebroplasty on the activity of daily living of elderlypatients who have sustained a vertebral osteoporoticfracture.Patients and Methods: Seven patients with clinicallysignificant and radiologically proven osteoporoticvertebral compression fractures suitable to be treatedwith percutaneous cement vertebroplasty wererecruited. Evaluation was based on pre- and postprocedureactivity by clinical documentation (includinginterview and by a self-developed questionnaire(including quality of life.Results: Following the procedure, 54% of patientsresumed their activities of daily living with minimalpain while 46% of patients were able to do so withoutany pain (p<0.05. Up to 85% of patients did notrequire any form of medication (p<0.05 and 77% ofpatients were found to have no pain. In addition to that,almost 62% of patients were able to ambulate normally.Conclusion: Percutaneous cement vertebroplastyappears to significantly improve the activities of dailyliving of elderly patients who have sustained vertebralosteoporotic fractures. It is also found to be a safeprocedure which contributes to reduced usage ofmedication, immediate pain reduction andimprovement in functional status of the patient.

  9. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of 94Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed

  10. Activity of daily living performance amongst Danish asylum seekers

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Christensen, Robin; Amris, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability impairment in newly arrived Danish asylum seekers. It was hypothesized that exposure to trauma and torture would negatively influence ADL performance and that measures of ADL ability would be...... and Process Skills (AMPS). Interviews were based on questionnaires about torture exposure, WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Major Depression Inventory and Pain Detect Questionnaire. All participants were interviewed and tested using a linguistic interpreter. RESULTS: Thirty three (77%) participants reported...

  11. Living with Chronic Pancreatitis: A qualitative study.

    CRONIN, PATRICIA; Begley, Cecily

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED OBJECTIVE: Recent literature acknowledges the impact of this progressive and debilitating disease on psychological and social well-being, but the plight of those with chronic pancreatitis remains unknown and hidden. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of what it means to live with chronic pancreatitis. DESIGN: Qualitative study based on philosophical hermeneutics using multiple unstructured interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen people with chronic...

  12. Differences in ability to perform activities of daily living among women with fibromyalgia

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; La Cour, Karen;

    2015-01-01

    capacities of the individual and are relevant targets for interventions aiming at improving activities of daily living ability. Since self-report instruments do not capture differences in activities of daily living process ability, clinicians should include observationsbased assessment of activities of daily......Objective: To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences in...... ability to perform activities of daily living. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Methods: Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence...

  13. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers.

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  14. Long lived activation products in eurofer

    Two samples of eurofer steel were irradiated in TRIGA reactor at JSI. One sample was irradiated bare and one under Cd filter which absorbed almost all neutrons with energies below 0.5 eV. The samples were exposed to the (unperturbed) total neutron fluence of 2x1019 n/cm2. After irradiation the samples were measured with gamma spectroscopy using HPGe detector. The highest contribution to the total activity is (n, gamma) reaction on 51Cr and 182Ta in both samples. The highest contribution (∼ 80 %) to the total dose rate is due to neutron capture in 181Ta. (author)

  15. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  16. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In certain countries, closed expatriate compounds have developed.  They serve to provide resident expatriates and accompanying family members with a comfortable and safe environment. Unfortunately, not much is known about compound life since associated empirical research is scarce. Through...... ethnographic field-work methodology, including interviews and participant observation during a period of three months, this exploratory study investigated 16 Danish business expatriates of a large Danish corporation and their families living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. They shared their spare time...

  17. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items

    Phillips Charles D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Methods Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. Results The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Conclusions Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information

  18. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign

  19. Vital Autofluorescence: Application to the Study of Plant Living Cells

    Roshchina, Victoria V.

    2012-01-01

    The application of various microscopy methods such as luminescence microscopy, microspectrofluorimetry and laser-scanning confocal microscopy has been considered as an approach to study the autofluorescence of plant living cells—from cell diagnostics up to modelling the cell-cell contacts and cell interactions with fluorescent biologically active substances. It bases on the direct observations of secretions released from allelopathic and medicinal species and the cell-donor interactions with ...

  20. Activities of daily living, instrumental activities for daily living and predictors of functional capacity of older men in Jamaica

    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: An extensive search of the literature found no studies that have examined functional capacity [Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities for Daily Living (I ADL] of Jamaican older men as well as factors that determine their functional capacity. Aims: The current study examines 1 ADL, 2 (I ADL, 3 self-reported health status, 4 functional capacity, and 5 factors that determine functional capacity of older men. Methods and Method: Stratified multistage probability sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 2,000 55+ year men. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, cross tabulations were used to examine non-metric variables and logistic regression provides a model of predictors of functional capacity. Result: Fifty-five percent of sample indicated good current health status. Four percent was mostly satisfied with life; 21.7% had moderate dependence; 77.1% had high dependence (i.e. independence; 1.2% had low dependence; 21.9% were ages 75 years and older; 35.6% were ages 65 to 74 years and 42.6% reported ages 55 to 64 years. Functional capacity can be determined by church attendance (β=0.245; 95% CI: 0.264, 1.291; social support (β=0.129; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.258, area of residence (β=-0.060; 95% CI: -0.427, -0.061 and lastly by age of respondents. Conclusion: Ageing in explains deterioration in their (I ADL, suggesting the challenges of ageing men’s independence. More rural men were rarely satisfied with life; but more of them had a greater functional capacity than urban men. Depression was found to negatively relate to functional capacity, and church attendees had a greater functional status than non-attendees

  1. ACTIVITY ANALYSIS WITH HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL FOR AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING

    Dietmar Bruckner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL project the activities of the user will be analyzed. The raw data is from a motion detector. Through data processing the huge amount of dynamic raw data was translated to state data. With hidden Markov model, forward algorithm to analyze these state data the daily activity model of the user was built. Thirdly by comparing the model with observed activity sequences, and finding out the similarities between them, defined the best adapt routine in the model. Furthermore an activity routine net was built and used to compare with the hidden Markov model.

  2. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    Naidu, J. R.; Greenhouse, N. A.; Knight, G.; Craighead, E. C.

    1980-07-01

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns.

  3. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns

  4. Cohort profile: the Young Lives study.

    Barnett, Inka; Ariana, Proochista; Petrou, Stavros; Penny, Mary E; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, S; Woldehanna, Tassew; Escobal, Javier A; Plugge, Emma; Boyden, Jo

    2013-06-01

    Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ≈ 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years, recruited in 2002 and sampled from 20 sentinel sites. The first survey data collection from primary caregivers and older children took place in 2002, the second in 2006-07 and the third in 2009-10. Data on the community contexts were collected to complement the household surveys. To elaborate and extend the quantitative data, longitudinal qualitative research with a subgroup of the children was carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2010-11. Topic areas covered included nutrition, health and well-being, cognitive and physical development, health behaviours and education, as well as the social, demographic and economic status of the household. Survey data from the study are archived in the International Section of the UK Public Data Archive. PMID:22617687

  5. Healthy active living: Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity is rising globally. Although the risk factors for obesity are multifactorial, many are related to lifestyle and may be amenable to intervention. These factors include sedentary time and non-exercise activity thermogenesis, as well as the frequency, intensity, amounts and types of physical activity. Front-line health care practitioners are ideally suited to monitor children, adolescents and their families’ physical activity levels, to evaluate lifestyle choice...

  6. People can live longer by being physically more activity

    Li; Li

    2012-01-01

    <正>We all know being physically active is good for you.But do we know how good? People can live up to 3 years longer,even with as little as 15 min of physical activity a day,according to last October’s report by Wen and his colleagues at the China Medical University in Taiwan,China. Many researchers in the field of sport and health sciences know being physically active can bring many benefits to one’s life.But this message has sometimes been disseminated using a negative tone.So much so,Bortz of California,USA,has

  7. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Los Angeles, CA

    2013-03-05

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about active living and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like teaching fun dances and yoga classes.  Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  8. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deteriorati...

  9. Estimates of adherence and error analysis of physical activity data collected via accelerometry in a large study of free-living adults

    Baer David J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activity monitors (AM are small, electronic devices used to quantify the amount and intensity of physical activity (PA. Unfortunately, it has been demonstrated that data loss that occurs when AMs are not worn by subjects (removals during sleeping and waking hours tend to result in biased estimates of PA and total energy expenditure (TEE. No study has reported the degree of data loss in a large study of adults, and/or the degree to which the estimates of PA and TEE are affected. Also, no study in adults has proposed a methodology to minimize the effects of AM removals. Methods Adherence estimates were generated from a pool of 524 women and men that wore AMs for 13 – 15 consecutive days. To simulate the effect of data loss due to AM removal, a reference dataset was first compiled from a subset consisting of 35 highly adherent subjects (24 HR; minimum of 20 hrs/day for seven consecutive days. AM removals were then simulated during sleep and between one and ten waking hours using this 24 HR dataset. Differences in the mean values for PA and TEE between the 24 HR reference dataset and the different simulations were compared using paired t-tests and/or coefficients of variation. Results The estimated average adherence of the pool of 524 subjects was 15.8 ± 3.4 hrs/day for approximately 11.7 ± 2.0 days. Simulated data loss due to AM removals during sleeping hours in the 24 HR database (n = 35, resulted in biased estimates of PA (p Conclusion Although estimated adherence was good, measurements of PA can be improved by relatively simple imputation of missing AM data.

  10. Antiretroviral effect of lovastatin on HIV-1-infected individuals without highly active antiretroviral therapy (The LIVE study: a phase-II randomized clinical trial

    Montoya Carlos J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy produces a significant decrease in HIV-1 replication and allows an increase in the CD4 T-cell count, leading to a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and mortality. However, the cost, side effects and complexity of antiretroviral regimens have underscored the immediate need for additional therapeutic approaches. Statins exert pleiotropic effects through a variety of mechanisms, among which there are several immunoregulatory effects, related and unrelated to their cholesterol-lowering activity that can be useful to control HIV-1 infection. Methods/design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, single-center, phase-II clinical trial. One hundred and ten chronically HIV-1-infected patients, older than 18 years and naïve for antirretroviral therapy (i.e., without prior or current management with antiretroviral drugs will be enrolled at the outpatient services from the most important centres for health insurance care in Medellin-Colombia. The interventions will be lovastatin (40 mg/day, orally, for 12 months; 55 patients or placebo (55 patients. Our primary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on viral replication. The secondary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on CD4+ T-cell count in peripheral blood. As tertiary aims we will explore differences in CD8+ T-cell count, expression of activation markers (CD38 and HLA-DR on CD4 and CD8 T cells, cholesterol metabolism, LFA-1/ICAM-1 function, Rho GTPases function and clinical evolution between treated and not treated HIV-1-infected individuals. Discussion Preliminary descriptive studies have suggested that statins (lovastatin may have anti HIV-1 activity and that their administration is safe, with the potential effect of controlling HIV-1 replication in chronically infected individuals who had not received antiretroviral medications. Considering that there is limited clinical data available on

  11. Active Cellular Mechanics and Information Processing in the Living Cell

    Rao, M.

    2014-07-01

    I will present our recent work on the organization of signaling molecules on the surface of living cells. Using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we have found that many cell surface receptors are organized as dynamic clusters driven by active currents and stresses generated by the cortical cytoskeleton adjoining the cell surface. We have shown that this organization is optimal for both information processing and computation. In connecting active mechanics in the cell with information processing and computation, we bring together two of the seminal works of Alan Turing.

  12. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs. PMID:25896955

  13. Long-Lived Fission Product Transmutation Studies

    A systematic study on long-lived fission products (LLFPs) transmutation has been performed with the aim of devising an optimal strategy for their transmutation in critical or subcritical reactor systems and evaluating impacts on the geologic repository. First, 99Tc and 129I were confirmed to have highest transmutation priorities in terms of transmutability and long-term radiological risk reduction. Then, the transmutation potentials of thermal and fast systems for 99Tc and 129I were evaluated by considering a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) core and a sodium-cooled accelerator transmutation of waste system. To determine the best transmutation capabilities, various target design and loading optimization studies were performed. It was found that both 99Tc and 129I can be stabilized (i.e., zero net production) in the same PWR core under current design constraints by mixing 99Tc with fuel and by loading CaI2 target pins mixed with ZrH2 in guide tubes, but the PWR option appears to have a limited applicability as a burner of legacy LLFP. In fast systems, loading of moderated LLFP target assemblies in the core periphery (reflector region) was found to be preferable from the viewpoint of neutron economy and safety. By a simultaneous loading of 99Tc and 129I target assemblies in the reflector region, the self-generated 99Tc and 129I as well as the amount produced by several PWR cores could be consumed at a cost of ∼10% increased fuel inventory. Discharge burnups of ∼29 and ∼37% are achieved for 99Tc and 129I target assemblies with an ∼5-yr irradiation period.Based on these results, the impacts of 99Tc and 129I transmutation on the Yucca mountain repository were assessed in terms of the dose rate. The current Yucca Mountain release evaluations do not indicate a compelling need to transmute 99Tc and 129I because the resulting dose rates fall well below current regulatory limits. However, elimination of the LLFP inventory could allow significant relaxation of

  14. [Measurement of activities of daily living in patients with dementia living at home: development of a questionnaire].

    Teunisse, S; Derix, M M

    1991-04-01

    In clinical practice and for scientific research a method is needed for the assessment of changes in functioning in daily life of dementia patients living at home. As existing methods have their limitations, a questionnaire was developed (the Interview for Deterioration in Daily life in Dementia: IDDD), to be answered by caregivers. The questionnaire concerns self-care and complex activities, that are usually performed by men as well as women. Attention is paid to the difference between lack of initiative and impaired performance itself. Caregivers are interviewed in a structured interview. A study among 30 caregivers of dementia patients living at home, showed the relevance and usefulness of the questions. The questionnaire shows high internal consistency, which may be the result of our structured interview technique. PMID:2042235

  15. Light-Up Probes Based on Fluorogens with Aggregation-Induced Emission Characteristics for Monoamine Oxidase-A Activity Study in Solution and in Living Cells.

    Shen, Wei; Yu, Jiajun; Ge, Jingyan; Zhang, Ruoyu; Cheng, Feng; Li, Xuefeng; Fan, Yong; Yu, Shian; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Qing

    2016-01-13

    Fluorogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIEgens) have emerged as a powerful and versatile platform for the development of novel biosensors. In this study, a series of water-soluble fluorescent probes based on tetraphenylethylene (TPE) were designed and synthesized for the detection of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) based on specific interactions between the probes and the proteins. Among the six probes developed, t-TPEM displays a significant fluorescence increase upon introduction of MAOs. Of particular significance is that the fluorescence of t-TPEM in the presence of MAO-A is 21-fold higher than other proteins including MAO-B. Lineweaver-Burk plots reveal that t-TPEM acts as an uncompetitive inhibitor of MAO-A with Ki = 17.1 μM, which confirms its good binding affinity toward MAO-A. Furthermore, a cell imaging experiment reveals that t-TPEM is able to selectively monitor the activity of MAO-A which is localized in mitochondria of MCF-7 cells. PMID:26666866

  16. Studies on the bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in mussels in north-west Spain. Part of a coordinated programme on behaviour of long-lived radionuclides released from deep-ocean dumping activities

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis), seawater and sediment, were analysed for Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240 from six locations. For mussels, activity levels were about 4-8 pCi/kg (wet weight) for Cs-137, about 0.04-1.5 pCi/kg for Pu-239,240 and less than 0.5 pCi/kg for Pu-238; for seawater Sr-90 was about 0.09-0.34 pCi/l, Cs-137 0.14-0.53 pCi/l Co-60 0.14-0.19 pCi/l, Pu-239,240, 0.002 pCi/l, Pu-238 less than 0.002 pCi/l and for sediments (dry weight basis) Cs-137 was 13-450 pCi/kg, and Pu-239,240 was 2-110 pCi/kg. The results were comparable with others in the literature

  17. A STUDY ON DISABILITIES AMONGST THE ELDERLY IN THE URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN THE KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAM BASED ON THE ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING (ADL AND FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS

    Jhankar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health problems are a major concern for the elderly and they are prone to diseases and disabilities more than the younger age groups which can make them physically and economically dependent. The increasing number of elderly in the country means that they are going to make contributions to the economy. Elderly persons, being one of the most vulnerable groups of the society have more chances of chronic disease, infections, as well as disabilities. Disability has been defined as a restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.[1] It reflects how well an individual is able to function in general areas of life. Disability in elderly can be grouped in three large groups. First - who can manage in their daily activities with the help of mechanical devices. Second - who have multiple health problems and severe limitations in mental and/or physical functioning who require very intensive levels of care. Third-in between above two groups, they are functionally disabled in one or two ADLs, or have mild cognitive impairments.[2] OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: 1. To assess disability related to Activities of Daily Living(ADL amongst the elderly in the urban and rural area. 2. To determine the use of physical aids by the elderly in both the urban and rural areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 60 years and above, in urban and rural areas in the Kamrup district, Assam. In the study, 400 no.s of elderly are under study of which 200 are from the urban area and 200 from the rural areas. The urban area is from the Guwahati city which consists of 60 municipalty blocks. Out of the sixty municipalty blocks, 10 no.s of blocks are randomly selected and 20 elderly are chosen from each block totaling a mark of 200.The kamrup rural area of Rani Community Development block is choosen from where 20 no.s of villages are

  18. Intention to consent to living organ donation: an exploratory study

    Browne, Christina; Desmond, Deirdre M.

    2008-01-01

    Living organ donation, i.e. the removal and transplantation of whole organs or segments of organs that a volunteering donor can live without, has been proposed as an effective and sustainable source of transplantable organs to mitigate the deficit in supply from the traditional cadaveric donor pool. In 2006 the Irish government deemed the development of a national Living Transplant Programme a service priority. The current study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behav...

  19. Relationship between cognitive status and activities of daily living among the elderly of nursing homes

    Heiman Nazari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increased life expectancy has caused the emergence of aging phenomenon in Iran. This study was conducted on 79 elderly in nursing homes. Data were collected by the demographic questionnaire, Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTs and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL Index. The mean score of AMT was 4.06 (SD: 3.05 and the mean of Barthel Index was 66.15 (SD: 33.27. Results indicated a significantly positive correlation between cognitive status and activities of daily living (P=0.001, r=0.354. Accordingly, cognitive status can be a good predictor of functional independence in activities of daily living for the elderly.

  20. A study on the development and application of models for the activities of long-lived fission products at operating PWR

    It requires estimating difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides, especially PDTM (particularly DTM) radionuclides such as 129I and 99Tc, in the waste package generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs) prior to shipment to disposal facility. These radionuclides are critical nuclides for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste because they dominate radiation dose through ground water. Therefore, their activities in each waste package should be accurately identified prior to disposal. However, their activities cannot be analyzed by routine measurement techniques used in NPPs because these PDTM radionuclides are non-gamma emitters. Therefore, instead of direct measurement, scaling factor method is typically used to estimate the quantity of the PDTM radionuclides in the waste package. The scaling factor is empirically derived ratio or correlation between a reference gamma emitting radionuclide, which can be easily measured at NPPs, and the non-gamma emitting radionuclide. The scaling factor is typically derived from a set of waste samples analyzed at commercial laboratories for both gamma and DTM radionuclides. However, in general, the concentrations of PDTM radionuclides in low-level waste are too low to be detected by the conventional measurement techniques i.e., photon counting method. When the lower limit of detection rather than the actually analyzed concentration is used for scaling factor, the determination of the scaling factor value is difficult but also the value generally involves a large uncertainty. In addition, the activity of radionuclide in radioactive wastes can be highly overestimated. Therefore, theoretical approaches have been proposed as a means of estimating activity or scaling factor for PDTM radionuclides, especially 129I. Also, evaluations of the 129I inventory are generally based on the release of related fission products from the source term such as defective fuel and tramp uranium. However, in these approaches, the ratio of the

  1. Falls in nonagenarians living in their own homes; the Nonasantfeliu study

    Formiga Pérez, Francesc; Ferrer, A.(Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), University of Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain); Duaso, E.; Olmedo, C.; Pujol Farriols, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of falls and their circumstances in non-institutionalized people older than 89 years and living in an urban community. Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: 137 nonagenarians living at home. Measurements: We evaluated sociodemographic data, capacity to perform basic activities according to the Barthel Index (BI) and instrumental activities on the Lawton-Brody Index (LI), cognition with the Spanish version of ...

  2. Disability, Activities of Daily Living and Self Efficacy in Dialysis Patients

    Mukadder Mollaoglu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD and continuos ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, to examine the relationship between them. Material and Methods: This study was carried with 152 patients as sample group. In this study, three instruments were used: Personal Information Form, Brief Disability Questionnaire, Katz\\'s Activity\\'s of Daily Living Index and Lawton and Brody\\'s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Index and Self-efficacy Assessment Form. Data collected from the study was analyzed using percent, mean, Tukey test, significance test of two means, One-way variant analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The study results demonstrate that while there is a correlation between self-care ability and age, education level, marital status and additional health problems, factors such as age, gender, education level, work status, income level, social insurance status and frequency of hemodialysis application determine self-efficacy. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between patients’ disability and activities of daily living , self-efficacy. It was determined that as the level of disability increases self-efficiacy level decreases. Conclusions: Dialysis application affects patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy levels. In view of this study’s results, it is recommended to organize education programs to increase self-efficacy levels of dialysis patients and prepare comprehensive plans including patients’ families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 181-186

  3. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Conradsson, Mia; Littbrand, Håkan; Boström, Gustaf; Lindelöf, Nina; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospec...

  4. Strategies of Daily Living Rehabilitative Activities for Post Stroke Patients at Minia University Hospital

    Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…

  5. Early Prediction of Outcome of Activities of Daily Living After Stroke A Systematic Review

    Veerbeek, Janne M.; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables t

  6. Development of the k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis for short-lived radionuclides

    Dung, H.M.; Blaauw, M.; Beasley, D.; Freitas, M.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    The k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis (k0-CNAA) technique has been studied to explore the applicability at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI). In particular, for the determination of elements which form short-lived radionuclides, particularly fluorine (20F, 11.16 s half-life) and seleni

  7. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells.

    Kim, Neil H; Lee, Gloria; Sherer, Nicholas A; Martini, K Michael; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Kuhlman, Thomas E

    2016-06-28

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE's orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  8. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells

    Lee, Gloria; Martini, K. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE’s orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  9. Daily activities and living at a Therapeutic Residential Care Center

    Luciane Prado Kantorki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and analyzes day-to-day issues in a Therapeutic Residential Care Center and the daily life characteristics of its residents. This case study was conducted in Caxias do Sul, based on an evaluation of the fourth generation together with a Methodology for Analyzing Everyday Life Networks. The following categories emerged: possibilities in the territory, participation and flexibility in household tasks, situations that mark living, employees who are mediators in conflict resolution, staff committed to the resident, freedom as a therapeutic tool, difficulties in daily life, and building of alliances. This study helped to get to know the structure of everyday life experienced by the residents, identifying some difficulties they face and the mechanisms used to overcome them, in addition to noticing that the professionals can be instrumental in strengthening a daily living that can be pluralized, busy, and enriched, while still respecting the uniqueness of each resident. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i4.22923.

  10. 2002 summary of the report on studies and activities. Research on the Disposal of High-level Long-lived Radioactive Wastes

    This synthesis presents the studies underway and the major results obtained in the framework of the second research area prescribed by the Law of 1991 (the feasibility study of a deep geological repository). It also clarifies the French and international contexts of that research, namely with regard to the development of scientific partnerships. Content: 1 - scientific knowledge gained in 2002: packages, materials evolution, works about the clayey environment, works about the granitic environment, modeling approach; 2 - the 2002 granite dossier: context and goals, content; 3 - the 2002 concept choices for the clayey environment: overall architecture, packages and storage cells for B-type wastes, packages and storage cells for C-type vitrified wastes, packages and storage cells for spent fuels; 4 - international context: IAEA, OECD/NEA, integrated group for the safety case (IGSC), forum for stakeholders confidence (FSC), working party on decommissioning and dismantling (WPDD), general direction of energy transport, general direction of research, status of partnerships and bilateral agreements, advance of research cooperations, European Union; 5 - ANDRA's participations to international meetings; 6 - scientific partnerships: Ecole des Mines, BRGM, GdR FORPRO, MoMas, CEA, IFP, PRACTIS, PARIS, 7 - information and evaluation: national commission of evaluation (CNE), scientific committee, permanent group, orientation and follow-up committee; 8 - ANDRA's theses; 9 - ANDRA's publications. (J.S.)

  11. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING: THE INTERNSHIP AND LIVE-CASE STUDY RELATIONSHIP

    Green, Robert D.; Farideh A. Farazmand

    2012-01-01

    Educators are increasingly using experiential learning pedagogy to improve learning (knowledge and skills). Two highly effective experiential methods are live-case study projects and internships. This study examines the learning outcomes of courses with live-case study projects for students who have had a prior internship experience and those who have not as well as correlation analysis for each group. The results find that prior internship experience does improve applied project learning out...

  12. Activities of daily living and lesion position among multiple sclerosis patients by Bayes network

    Zhifang Pan; Hongtao Lu; Qi Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive approach for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and T2-weighted images can reveal lesions in the cerebral white matter, gray matter, and spinal cord. However, the lesions have a poor correlation with measurable clinical disability. In this study, we performed a large-scale epidemiological survey of 238 patients with multiple sclerosis in eleven districts by network member hospitals in Shanghai, China within 1 year. The involved patients were scanned for position and size of lesions by MRI. Results showed that lesions in the cerebrum, spinal cord, or supratentorial position had an impact on the activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis patients, as assessed by the Bayes network. On the other hand, brainstem lesions were very unlikely to influence the activities of daily living, and were not associated with the position of lesion, patient's gender, and patient's living place.

  13. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  14. User Modeling for Activity Recognition and Support in Ambient Assisted Living

    Hossain, Shabbir; Valente, Pedro Ricardo da Nova; Hallenborg, Kasper;

    Current research work shows that progress on AI and wireless sensor networks, made it possible to improve the quality of life of the people with disabilities using recent technologies [1]. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is one of the well-known research areas that has a goal to use ambient...... intelligent technologies to support people with special demands to live longer periods in their proffered environment [2]. The prime challenges of the AAL are recognition of the assisted person’s current activity and providing appropriate support to the person [3]. But these systems need extensive studies on...

  15. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    Tiago da Silva Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80. After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84, demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events

  16. Identification and super-resolution imaging of ligand-activated receptor dimers in live cells

    Winckler, Pascale; Giannone, Gregory; De Giorgi, Francesca; Ichas, François; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions are key to many chemical and biological processes like protein function. In many signaling processes they occur in sub-cellular areas displaying nanoscale organizations and involving molecular assemblies. The nanometric dimensions and the dynamic nature of the interactions make their investigations complex in live cells. While super-resolution fluorescence microscopies offer live-cell molecular imaging with sub-wavelength resolutions, they lack specificity for distinguishing interacting molecule populations. Here we combine super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule F\\"orster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to identify dimers of receptors induced by ligand binding and provide super-resolved images of their membrane distribution in live cells. By developing a two-color universal-Point-Accumulation-In-the-Nanoscale-Topography (uPAINT) method, dimers of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) activated by EGF are studied at ultra-high densities, revealing preferential cell-edge sub-...

  17. Development, validity, and reliability of the General Activities of Daily Living Scale: a multidimensional measure of activities of daily living for older people

    Jonas J. de Paula

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose and evaluate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional measure of activities of daily living (ADLs based on the Katz and Lawton indices for Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: In this study, 85 patients with MCI and 93 with AD, stratified by age (≤ 74 years, > 74 years, completed the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale, and their caregivers completed scales for ADLs. Construct validity (factor analysis, reliability (internal consistency, and criterion-related validity (receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were assessed. Results: Three factors of ADL (self-care, domestic activities, and complex activities were identified and used for item reorganization and for the creation of a new inventory, called the General Activities of Daily Living Scale (GADL. The components showed good internal consistency (> 0.800 and moderate (younger participants or high (older participants accuracy for the distinction between MCI and AD. An additive effect was found between the GADL complex ADLs and global ADLs with the MMSE for the correct classification of younger patients. Conclusion: The GADL showed evidence of validity and reliability for the Brazilian elderly population. It may also play an important role in the differential diagnosis of MCI and AD.

  18. Testing and Analysis of Activities of Daily Living Data with Machine Learning Algorithms

    Ayse Cufoglu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 28% of European Union’s population will be aged 65 or older by 2060. Europe is getting older and this has a high impact on the estimated cost to be spent for older people. This is because, compared to the younger generation, older people are more at risk to have/face cognitive impairment, frailty and social exclusion, which could have negative effects on their lives as well as the economy of the European Union. The ‘active and independent ageing’ concept aims to support older people to live active and independent life in their preferred location and this goal can be fully achieved by understanding the older people (i.e their needs, abilities, preferences, difficulties they are facing during the day. One of the most reliable resources for such information is the Activities of Daily Living (ADL, which gives essential information about people’s lives. Understanding this kind of information is an important step towards providing the right support, facilities and care for the older population. In the literature, there is a lack of study that evaluates the performance of Machine Learning algorithms towards understanding the ADL data. This work aims to test and analyze the performance of the well known Machine Learning algorithms with ADL data.

  19. Influence of peripheral arterial disease on daily living activities in elderly women.

    Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; de Mattos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Wolosker, Nelson; Nasri, Fábio; Costa, Maria Luiza Monteiro; de Carvalho, José Antônio Maluf

    2016-06-01

    Aging has been associated with decreases in physical and cognitive functions. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been associated with further impairments in these functions, especially in women. However, no detailed information is available indicating whether PAD leads to further impairment in these functions in elderly women. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to compare the capacity to perform daily living activities between elderly women with and without PAD and 2) to identify the factors related with the performance in daily activities. Twenty-seven elderly women with PAD and 22 elderly non-PAD women were surveyed in a geriatric hospital. Women aged ≥65 years and with no signal of dementia were included. PAD was identified by the ankle-brachial index ≤0.90, whereas elderly non-PAD women presented ankle-brachial index >1.0. Patients were interviewed to obtain information regarding basic (Katz questionnaire) and instrumental daily living activities (Lawton-Brody scale) and performed the mini-mental state examination, handgrip strength test, and timed up and go tests. PAD and non-PAD women had similar age, clinical characteristics, handgrip strength test, and cognitive function (P > 0.05). The capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily living activities was similar between PAD and non-PAD women (P > 0.05). In PAD and non-PAD, the instrumental daily living activities were significantly correlated with cognitive function (r = 0.44, P < 0.05 and r = 0.74 and P < 0.05, respectively). PAD elderly women present similar capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily activities than non-PAD women. In addition, in both groups, the capacity to perform instrumental daily activities was related with cognitive function. PMID:27210449

  20. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement...

  1. Predicting functional outcome after stroke: the influence of neglect on basic activities in daily living

    Tanja Nijboer; Ingrid Van de Port

    2013-01-01

    One prominent deficit resulting from stroke is visuo-spatial neglect, which has been associated with slower and more attenuated recovery patterns of sensory-motor impairment as well as limitations in activities of daily living. The aim of the current study was to further specify the relationship between neglect and recovery of different domains of ADL. 184 Patients were assessed with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) in the first week of inpatient rehabilitation, and again at 6, 12, a...

  2. Effect of structured physical exercise program on older adult's daily living activities and cognitive functions

    Manal Abo El Magd; Sahar Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older adults experience marked physiological and cognitive changes. Literature states that, daily exercising positively effects older adults' both physical and cognitive functioning. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the developed Structured Physical Exercise Program (SPEP) on both older adult's activities of daily living and cognitive functions. Subjects and methods: A quasi experimental design (pre/ post- tests) was utilized for the current study where the older adults' sample serv...

  3. Effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and activities of living in stroke patients

    Yoo, Chanuk; Yong, Mi-hyun; Chung, Jaeyeop; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation using a computer on cognitive function and activities of daily living in stroke patients presenting impairment of cognitive function. [Subjects] Forty-six stroke patients were divided into two groups (a training group and control group) through random assignment. [Methods] The training group received rehabilitation therapy and an additional computerized cognitive rehabilitation program using The RehaCo...

  4. Evaluation of a complex intervention to improve activities of daily living of disabled cancer patients

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line Elisabeth; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; la Cour, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many cancer patients have problems performing activities of daily living (ADL). A randomised controlled trial was designed to examine the effects of an ADL intervention in addition to standard treatment and care in a hospital setting. The objective of this article was to present the s......-up period were mostly due to death among participants. Very few participants declined to complete questionnaires during follow-up. Keywords: Cancer rehabilitation, Occupational therapy, Activities of daily living, Intervention studies, Feasibility studies...... study and to analyse the feasibility of the recruitment process and the intervention. Methods: Adult disabled cancer patients at Næstved Hospital in Denmark were enrolled between 1 March 2010 and 30 June 2011 and randomised into an ADL intervention or to a control group. The intervention was performed......Background: Many cancer patients have problems performing activities of daily living (ADL). A randomised controlled trial was designed to examine the effects of an ADL intervention in addition to standard treatment and care in a hospital setting. The objective of this article was to present the...

  5. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  6. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID. PMID:26079525

  7. Determining the relationship between nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages and their health and body compositions

    Hüseyin GÜMÜŞ; Bulduk, Sıdıka; Akdevelioğlu, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls) within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were c...

  8. Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study

    Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2006-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…

  9. Marker placement to describe the wrist movements during activities of daily living in cyclical tasks

    Murgia, A; Kyberd, PJ; Chappell, PH; Light, CM

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To describe the wrist kinematics during movement through free range of motion and activities of daily living using a cyclical task. Design. The wrist angles were initially calculated in a calibration trial and then in two selected activities of daily living (jar opening and carton pouring

  10. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  11. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; King, Abby C; Crawford, David

    2010-06-01

    Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains

  12. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001)…

  13. Radon decay products in realistic living rooms and their activity distributions in human respiratory system

    In this study, the individual activity concentrations of attached short-lived radon decay products (218Po, 214Pb and 214Po) in aerosol particles were measured in ten poorly ventilated realistic living rooms. Using standard methodologies, the samples were collected using a filter holder technique connected with alpha-spectrometric. The mean value of air activity concentration of these radionuclides was found to be 5.3±0.8, 4.5±0.5 and 3.9±0.4 Bq m-3, respectively. Based on the physical properties of the attached decay products and physiological parameters of light work activity for an adult human male recommended by ICRP 66 and considering the parameters of activity size distribution (AMD = 0.25 μm and σg = 2.5) given by NRC, the total and regional deposition fractions in each airway generation could be evaluated. Moreover, the total and regional equivalent doses in the human respiratory tract could be estimated. In addition, the surface activity distribution per generation is calculated for the bronchial region (BB) and the bronchiolar region (bb) of the respiratory system. The maximum values of these activities were found in the upper bronchial airway generations. (authors)

  14. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  15. A novel live cell assay to measure diacylglycerol lipase α activity.

    Singh, Praveen K; Markwick, Rachel; Howell, Fiona V; Williams, Gareth; Doherty, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) hydrolyses DAG to generate the principal endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα dependent cannabinoid (CB) signalling has been implicated in numerous processes including axonal growth and guidance, adult neurogenesis and retrograde signalling at the synapse. Recent studies have implicated DAGLα as an emerging drug target for several conditions including pain and obesity. Activity assays are critical to the drug discovery process; however, measurement of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity using its native substrate generally involves low-throughput MS techniques. Some relatively high-throughput membrane based assays utilizing surrogate substrates have been reported, but these do not take into account the rate-limiting effects often associated with the ability of a drug to cross the cell membrane. In the present study, we report the development of a live cell assay to measure DAGLα activity. Two previously reported DAGLα surrogate substrates, p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl octanoate (DiFMUO), were evaluated for their ability to detect DAGLα activity in live cell assays using a human cell line stably expressing the human DAGLα transgene. Following optimization, the small molecule chromogenic substrate PNPB proved to be superior by providing lower background activity along with a larger signal window between transfected and parental cells when compared with the fluorogenic substrate DiFMUO. The assay was further validated using established DAGL inhibitors. In summary, the live cell DAGLα assay reported here offers an economical and convenient format to screen for novel inhibitors as part of drug discovery programmes and compliments previously reported high-throughput membrane based DAGL assays. PMID:27013337

  16. Active mechanics reveal molecular-scale force kinetics in living oocytes

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Almonacid, Maria; Bussonnier, Matthias; Verlhac, Marie-Helene; Gov, Nir S; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frederic; Betz, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Unlike traditional materials, living cells actively generate forces at the molecular scale that change their structure and mechanical properties. This nonequilibrium activity is essential for cellular function, and drives processes such as cell division. Single molecule studies have uncovered the detailed force kinetics of isolated motor proteins in-vitro, however their behavior in-vivo has been elusive due to the complex environment inside the cell. Here, we quantify active force generation in living oocytes using in-vivo optical trapping and laser interferometry of endogenous vesicles. We integrate an experimental and theoretical framework to connect mesoscopic measurements of nonequilibrium properties to the underlying molecular-scale force kinetics. Our results show that force generation by myosin-V drives the cytoplasmic-skeleton out-of-equilibrium (at frequencies below 300 Hz) and actively softens the environment. In vivo myosin-V activity generates a force of $F \\sim 0.4$ pN, with a power-stroke of len...

  17. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (˜20 cells), medium (˜100 cells), and large (˜400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  18. The lived experience of physically active older prostate cancer survivors on androgen deprivation therapy.

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Malcolm, Wanda; Keogh, Justin W L

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to explore the lived experiences of physically active prostate cancer survivors on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), who exercise individually. Three older men (74-88 years old) with prostate cancer, using ADT continuously for at least 12 months and regularly exercising for at least 6 months, participated in this qualitative pilot study, informed by interpretive phenomenology. Data were gathered using individual semi-structured interviews, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Coherent stories were drawn from each transcript and analyzed using iterative and interpretive methods. van Manen's lifeworld existentials provided a framework for interpreting across the research text. Three notions emerged: Getting started, Having a routine and Being with music. Together they reveal what drew the participants to exercising regularly despite the challenges associated with their cancer and treatments. This study provides insights into the benefits of, and what it means for, older men with prostate cancer to regularly exercise individually. These findings may assist cancer clinicians and other allied health professionals to be more attuned to prostate cancer survivors' lived experiences when undergoing ADT, allowing clinicians to better promote regular exercise to their patients as a foundational component of living well. PMID:23862577

  19. A Comparison of Two Motion Sensors for the Assessment of Free-Living Physical Activity of Adolescents

    Roman Cuberek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the daily step counts recorded by two different motion sensors in order to estimate the free-living physical activity of 135 adolescent girls. Each girl concurrently wore a Yamax pedometer and an ActiGraph accelerometer (criterion measure every day for seven consecutive days. The convergent validity of the pedometer can be considered intermediate when used to measure the step counts in free-living physical activity; but should be considered with caution when used to classify participants’ step counts into corresponding physical activity categories because of a likelihood of ‘erroneous’ classification in comparison with the accelerometer.

  20. High-Efficiency Capture of Drug Resistant-Influenza Virus by Live Imaging of Sialidase Activity

    Tamoto, Chihiro; Sahara, Keiji; Otsubo, Tadamune; Yokozawa, Tatsuya; Shibahara, Nona; Wada, Hirohisa; Minami, Akira; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses possess a neuraminidase protein that shows sialidase activity. Influenza virus-specific neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are commonly used for clinical treatment of influenza. However, some influenza A and B viruses that are resistant to NAIs have emerged in nature. NAI-resistant viruses have been monitored in public hygiene surveys and the mechanism underlying the resistance has been studied. Here, we describe a new assay for selective detection and isolation of an NAI-resistant virus in a speedy and easy manner by live fluorescence imaging of viral sialidase activity, which we previously developed, in order to achieve high-efficiency capture of an NAI-resistant virus. An NAI-resistant virus maintains sialidase activity even at a concentration of NAI that leads to complete deactivation of the virus. Infected cells and focuses (infected cell populations) of an oseltamivir-resistant virus were selectively visualized by live fluorescence sialidase imaging in the presence of oseltamivir, resulting in high-efficiency isolation of the resistant viruses. The use of a combination of other NAIs (zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir) in the imaging showed that the oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in 2008 was sensitive to zanamivir and laninamivir but resistant to peramivir. Fluorescence imaging in the presence of zanamivir also succeeded in selective live-cell visualization of cells that expressed zanamivir-resistant NA. Fluorescence imaging of NAI-resistant sialidase activity will be a powerful method for study of the NAI resistance mechanism, for public monitoring of NAI-resistant viruses, and for development of a new NAI that shows an effect on various NAI-resistant mutations. PMID:27232333

  1. The Influence of Climacteric Symptoms on Women’s Lives and Activities

    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we performed an analysis of the influence of climacteric symptoms on women’s lives and activities, i.e. their quality of life (QoL. The study was performed between October 2011 and February 2012. It included 148 women aged 44–62. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instrument was the Blatt-Kupperman index. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, quality of life, and the influence of climacteric symptoms on life and its various aspects. The respondents experiencing moderate or severe climacteric symptoms also had stronger feelings of failure (p = 0.005, feeling that opportunities are still available (p = 0.002, of losing their youth and beauty (p < 0.0001, compared to those who had slight or no symptoms. The intensity of climacteric symptoms significantly affects women’s lives and activities, i.e., their QoL. The reported intensity of climacteric symptoms is influenced by the respondents’ education, residence, marital status and professional activity. The more severe the climacteric symptoms, the lower the women’s quality of life, as evidenced for example by the feeling of failure and of losing one’s youth, beauty and opportunities.

  2. Measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in living brain by positron emission tomography (PET)

    Central cholinergic neuronal system has been known to be related to learning and memory, and its deficit is found in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other degenerative disorders. Postmortem studies have shown that acetylcholinesterase (AChE), one of biochemical markers of central cholinergic nerve system, is consistently reduced in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Non-invasive mapping and/or measuring AChE activity in the living brain by positron emission tomography (PET) would be a useful tool for assessment of cholinergic dysfunction in AD and other disorders, and provide a direct method for validation of therapeutic efficacy of drugs, AChE inhibitors. We have challenged to measure AChE activity using tracers of substrate type, radiolabelled acetylcholine analogs, which are lipophilic enough to go across blood brain barrier and are metabolically trapped by AChE in the brain. The analogs designed, N-methylpiperidyl esters, were evaluated in terms of their metabolic rate and specificity against AChE. Studies examining the response to AChE activity showed metabolic accumulation of some analogs responded well to changes in cortical AChE activity in an animal model of AD. The study was further applied to living human by PET using [11C]N-methylpiperidyl-4-acetate (MP4A), which was chosen on the basis of its reactivity and specificity suitable for the human cortical AChE. Regional cerebral metabolic rate of MP4A reflecting AChE activity was quantitatively determined using three compartment model analysis of dynamic PET data and the arterial input function obtained by TLC-radioluminography or plasma samples. The kinetic analyses showed that AChE activities estimated were well agree with those of postmortem examination in cerebral cortices and thalamus in healthy subjects, and that there was significant reduction of cortical AChE activity in patients with AD. The results suggest feasibility of the present method for assessing ACh

  3. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

  4. O desempenho de idosos institucionalizados com alterações cognitivas em atividades de vida diária e mobilidade: estudo piloto Performance in daily living activities and mobility among institutionalized elderly people with cognitive impairments: pilot study

    DLC Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    and Go" (TUG test, and daily living activities (DLA via the Katz Index. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between mobility assessed by TUG and performance in the MMSE (Pearson's r = 0.234; p = 0.232. A positive association was detected between the elderly people's performance in the TUG test and their achievement in bathing, dressing and transferal tasks measured by the Katz Index (p = 0.039; p = 0.000; p = 0.001, respectively; ANOVA. There was no significant association between cognitive impairment detected by MMSE and the elderly people's performance in the five activities of the Katz Index (bathing: p= 0.774; dressing: p = 0.567; hygiene: p = 0.857; transferal: p = 0.824; continence: p= 0.947; ANOVA. Increasing age did not demonstrate any significant correlation with performance in any of the tests (TUG: p = 0.466, r = 0.144; MMSE: p = 0.841, Pearson's r = 0.040. Conclusion: The cognitive impairment of these elderly people, detected via the MMSE, did not have any association with their performance in the mobility and DLA tests. However, there was a significant association between their performance in the mobility test and their achievement in bathing, dressing and transferal activities.

  5. Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population

    Pulkki-Råback Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association. Methods The participants were a nationally representative sample of working-age Finns from the Health 2000 Study, totaling 1695 men and 1776 women with a mean age of 44.6 years. In the baseline survey in 2000, living arrangements (living alone vs. not and potential explanatory factors, including psychosocial factors (social support, work climate, hostility, sociodemographic factors (occupational grade, education, income, unemployment, urbanicity, rental living, housing conditions, and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, were measured. Antidepressant medication use was followed up from 2000 to 2008 through linkage to national prescription registers. Results Participants living alone had a 1.81-fold (CI = 1.46-2.23 higher purchase rate of antidepressants during the follow-up period than those who did not live alone. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors attenuated this association by 21% (adjusted OR = 1.64, CI = 1.32-2.05. The corresponding attenuation was 12% after adjustment for psychosocial factors (adjusted OR = 1.71, CI = 1.38-2.11 and 9% after adjustment for health behaviors (adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.41-2.14. Gender-stratified analyses showed that in women the greatest attenuation was related to sociodemographic factors and in men to psychosocial factors. Conclusions These data suggest that people living alone may be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The public health value is in recognizing that people who live alone are more likely to have material and psychosocial problems that may contribute to excess mental health problems in this population group.

  6. The Theory of Dynamics of Living Systems Activity in Interpersonal Interaction

    Sergei V. Kharitonov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the study of the dynamics of the interaction between people. The theoretical basis of the research is the model of the dynamics of living systems activity, stating the existence of three phases of systems dynamics: termnet, affinity and involvement. The equivalents of these phrases in interpersonal communication are the following: prudence during interaction (equivalent to termnet phase, readiness to avow one’s goals (equivalent to affinity phase, readiness to plan united actions (equivalent to involvement phase. The goal of the research is to study the process of interaction between two persons from the perspective of the theory of dynamics of living systems activity. The participants were offered to enter into agreement during an hour. The time limit of their dialogue had three 20-minute periods. The level of prudence, readiness to discuss goals and plan united actions were estimated every three time segments, using visual-analogue scale. The research was conducted in the group, involving 42 people. The obtained results showed that the communication structure, projected by the theory of dynamics activity seems to be convincing and can be used to describe communicative interactions.

  7. Identity formation of Italian emerging adults living with parents: a narrative study.

    Sestito, Laura Aleni; Sica, Luigia S

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the links between family and identity processes of Italian emerging adults living with their parents. Examining the impact of family is important in the countries of Mediterranean area where also emerging adults live with parents for a prolonged time. In Italy living with parents is associated with a specific "delay syndrome" in the transition to adulthood. Participants consisted of 20 Italian emerging adults attending second and last years of university, in a large Italian city (Naples). All participants were subjected to an open interview, based on the thematic life story. Our findings indicate that parents are perceived as active agents of identity, responsive and supportive of autonomy; they encourage the active involvement of young people in the work of identity formation. Despite this, parental impact produces different configurations that could shed light on the pathways of Italian emerging adults' transition to adulthood. The above configurations are discussed using exemplars. PMID:24703589

  8. Variability in measuring (instrumental) activities of daily living functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients: a systematic review.

    Buurman, B.M.; Munster, B.C. van; Korevaar, J.C.; Haan, R.J. de; Rooij, S.E. de

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study instruments used and definitions applied in order to measure (instrumental) activities of daily living (I [ADL]) functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Syste

  9. Personalizing energy expenditure estimation using physiological signals normalization during activities of daily living

    In this paper we propose a generic approach to reduce inter-individual variability of different physiological signals (HR, GSR and respiration) by automatically estimating normalization parameters (e.g. baseline and range). The proposed normalization procedure does not require a dedicated personal calibration during system setup. On the other hand, normalization parameters are estimated at system runtime from sedentary and low intensity activities of daily living (ADLs), such as lying and walking. When combined with activity-specific energy expenditure (EE) models, our normalization procedure improved EE estimation by 15 to 33% in a study group of 18 participants, compared to state of the art activity-specific EE models combining accelerometer and non-normalized physiological signals. (paper)

  10. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  11. Wear testing of moderate activities of daily living using in vivo measured knee joint loading.

    Jörn Reinders

    Full Text Available Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities.

  12. Stigma, activism, and well-being among people living with HIV.

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lang, Shawn M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence demonstrates that HIV stigma undermines the psychological and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). Yet, PLWH describe engaging in HIV activism to challenge stigma, and research suggests that individuals may benefit from activism. We examine associations between experiences of HIV stigma and HIV activism, and test whether HIV activists benefit from greater well-being than non-activists. Participants include 93 PLWH recruited from drop-in centers, housing programs, and other organizations providing services to PLWH in the Northeastern USA between 2012 and 2013 (mean age = 50 years; 56% Black, 20% White, 18% Other; 61% non-Latino(a), 39% Latino(a); 59% male, 38% female, 3% transgender; 82% heterosexual, 15% sexual minority). Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Results of regression analyses suggest that PLWH who experienced greater enacted stigma engaged in greater HIV activism. Anticipated, internalized, and perceived public stigma, however, were unrelated to HIV activism. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance suggest that HIV activists reported greater social network integration, greater social well-being, greater engagement in active coping with discrimination, and greater meaning in life than non-activists. Yet, HIV activists also reported somewhat greater depressive symptoms than non-activists, suggesting that the association between HIV activism and well-being is complex. By differentiating between HIV stigma mechanisms, the current study provides a more nuanced understanding of which experiences of HIV stigma may be associated with HIV activism. It further suggests that engagement in activism may offer benefits to PLWH, while raising the possibility that activists could experience greater depressive symptoms than non-activists. Given the preliminary nature of this study, future research should continue to examine these complex associations between HIV stigma, activism, and well-being among PLWH

  13. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    Nourian, Manijeh; Shahbolaghi, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Tabrizi, Kian Nourozi; Rassouli, Maryam; Biglarrian, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care.Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities.Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method...

  14. The half-lives of biological activity of some pesticides in water

    Kyaw Myint Oo,

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of analytical methods, the half-lives of biological activity of pesticides can be estimated by bioassays. To determine the half-lives of biological acivity of pesticides to fish, static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with ten different formulations of pesticides using Labeo rohita as a bio-indicator. The half-lives of biological activity for ten different pesticides in soft water at pH 7.5 and 27░C, ranged from 4.6 days to 11.8 days. The half-life of biological acti...

  15. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract; Plan de developpement. Projet HAVL. Resume

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  16. Study on the relationship between individual activities of daily living and self-rated health among elderly people in Beijing%老年人生活自理能力与健康自评的相关性研究

    李蕾; 孙菲; 汤哲; 刁丽军

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解北京市老年人生活自理能力状况及其与健康自评之间的相关关系。方法采取分层整群抽样方法,抽取来自北京市城区和农村的2411名60岁及以上的老年人进行问卷调查。问卷包括人口学资料、家庭与经济状况、卫生行为、躯体健康及生活活动能力等多个维度的内容。结果在接受健康自评调查的2335名老年人中,分别有6.38%和40.21%的人认为自己的健康状况为“很好”或“好”,17.26%和2.01%的老年人认为自己的健康状况为“差”或“很差”。农村老年人在日常活动中的非完全自理比例均明显高于城区老年人。女性老年人“洗澡”、“自己乘车”、“上街购物”、“走半里路”、“剪脚趾甲”和“上下一层楼”等项目的非完全自理比例明显高于男性老年人。 Logistic回归分析结果显示老年人的生活自理能力与健康状态之间存在明显的相关关系,生活非完全自理的老年人的健康自评结果明显较自理老年人差。在各因素中,进食( OR=7.51,95%CI:3.55~15.89)和室内活动(OR=7.36,95%CI:4.29~12.64)是与健康自评有关的、主要的、独立的影响因素。结论生活自理能力是老年人的自评健康状态的重要影响因素。%Objective To investigate both the prevalence of functional disability in each activity of basic activities of daily living ( ADL) item and instrumental activities of daily living ( IADL) item scales, then the association between each ADL and IADL item and the self-rated health was also explored among the elderly in Beijing. Methods The sample population consisted of 2 411 elderly people over 60, which were taken samples from urban and rural district in Beijing by stratified cluster sampling method. The investigations were completed by trained staff using questionnaires concerning demographic characteristics, living conditions and health status, and activities of

  17. Validity of physical activity monitors in adults participating in free-living activities

    Berntsen, S; Hageberg, R; Aandstad, A;

    2010-01-01

    Background For a given subject, time in moderate to very vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) varies substantially among physical activity monitors. Objective In the present study, the primary objective, whether time in MVPA recorded with SenseWear Pro(2) Armband (Armband; Body......Reg, respectively. ActiReg (p = 0.004) and ActiGraph (p = 0.007) underestimated energy expenditure in MVPA, and all monitors underestimated total energy expenditure (by 5% to 21%). Conclusions Recorded time in MVPA and energy expenditure varies substantially among physical activity monitors. Thus, when comparing...... physical activity level among studies, it is essential to know the type of physical activity monitor being used....

  18. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA PSA (:60)

    2013-06-07

    Making communities bike-friendly can help reduce traffic congestion and increase the physical activity of residents. Learn how one Philadelphia resident worked with his community to make Philadelphia a more bike-friendly city.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  19. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Austin, TX PSA (:60)

    2013-06-07

    A local Austin, Texas, woman started a walking group to make physical activity fun for herself and community.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  20. Ventilatory and muscular assessment in healthy subjects during an activity of daily living with unsupported arm elevation

    Giselle F. L. Panka; Marina M. Oliveira; Danielle C. França; Parreira, Verônica F; Raquel R. Britto; Marcelo Velloso

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) report dyspnea when performing activities of daily living (ADLs) with elevated upper limbs. To elucidate the determinants of dyspnea, it is important to study the changes in the respiratory pattern of these patients and the electromyographic activity of their accessory muscles of respiration during ADLs. In the literature, there are no reports of a normative parameter, therefore it is necessary to study how these variabl...

  1. EFFECTS OF BURN ON THE MOBILITY OF UPPER LIMB/S, FUNCTIONS OF HAND /S & ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING

    Perera M M N; Nanayakkarawasam P P; Katulanda P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burn is an injury cause destruction of skin and underling tissue. Post burns complications are severe. Objective of this study is to identify the effects on the Active Range of Motion (AROM) of upper limb/s, hand functions and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) who attend the physical therapy department of burns unit. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at out-patient physical therapy department of burns unit of National Hospital of SriLanka (NHS...

  2. Minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery: A grounded theory on living with fibromyalgia

    Lillemor R.-M. Hallberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992. Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category. This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the “pain gaps” are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to “pain gaps”. This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of

  3. Validity of the Acti4 method for detection of physical activity types in free-living settings

    Stemland, Ingunn; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Christiansen, Caroline S; Jensen, Bente Rona; Hanisch, Christiana; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the ability of the Acti4 software for identifying physical activity types from accelerometers during free-living with different levels of movement complexity compared with video observations. Nineteen aircraft cabin cleaners with ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer at the thigh and ...

  4. Activities of Daily Living in patients with Hunter syndrome: Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Tanjuakio, Julian; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Patel, Pravin; Yasuda, Eriko; Kubaski, Francyne; Tanaka, Akemi; Yabe, Hiromasa; Mason, Robert W.; Montaño, Adriana M.; Orii, Kenji E.; Orii, Koji O.; FUKAO, TOSHIYUKI; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in patients with Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II; MPS II) using a newly designed ADL questionnaire. We applied the questionnaire to evaluate clinical phenotypes and therapeutic efficacies of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We also explored early signs and symptoms to make early diagnosis feasible.

  5. What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

  6. Incubating knowledge: A critical exploration with teachers studying live chickens

    Rauchwerk, Susan I.

    This thesis documents a professional development workshop conducted with eight teachers who worked at Drumlin Farm, an outdoor education center, organic farm and wildlife sanctuary (Appendix C). The participants studied live chickens for eight consecutive workshop sessions. Seven years later the same group met for two follow-up sessions to discuss the effects of the workshop on their teaching practice. The workshop and follow-up sessions were conducted using a teaching-research method developed by Eleanor Duckworth called critical exploration (Duckworth, in press). In this thesis, findings from the eight-week workshop and the two followup sessions are documented in a narrative format showing how and what individuals and the group as a whole, came to understand from studying live chickens, as well as the process and application of the critical exploration method. Over the course of the workshop and the follow-up sessions, group explorations focused on the biological concept of broodiness (the desire to sit, tend, and hatch eggs) in domestic laying hens. In the process of developing and investigating their questions about broodiness, the participants developed and used a scientific process. Their experiences as learners in critical exploration with chickens as the subject matter, resulted in participants both thinking about, and modifying, their ideas about teaching and learning.

  7. Using Citizen Scientists to Gather, Analyze, and Disseminate Information About Neighborhood Features That Affect Active Living.

    Winter, Sandra J; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Padilla Romero, Priscilla; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Baker, Cathleen; King, Abby C

    2016-10-01

    Many Latinos are insufficiently active, partly due to neighborhoods with little environmental support for physical activity. Multi-level approaches are needed to create health-promoting neighborhoods in disadvantaged communities. Participant "citizen scientists" were adolescent (n = 10, mean age = 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and older adult (n = 10, mean age = 71.3 ± 6.5 years), low income Latinos in North Fair Oaks, California. Citizen scientists conducted environmental assessments to document perceived barriers to active living using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool, which records GPS-tracked walking routes, photographs, audio narratives, and survey responses. Using a community-engaged approach, citizen scientists subsequently attended a community meeting to engage in advocacy training, review assessment data, prioritize issues to address and brainstorm potential solutions and partners. Citizen scientists each conducted a neighborhood environmental assessment and recorded 366 photographs and audio narratives. Adolescents (n = 4), older adults (n = 7) and community members (n = 4) collectively identified reducing trash and improving personal safety and sidewalk quality as the priority issues to address. Three adolescent and four older adult citizen scientists volunteered to present study findings to key stakeholders. This study demonstrated that with minimal training, low-income, Latino adolescent and older adult citizen scientists can: (1) use innovative technology to gather information about features of their neighborhood environment that influence active living, (2) analyze their information and identify potential solutions, and (3) engage with stakeholders to advocate for the development of healthier neighborhoods. PMID:26184398

  8. Studies on short-lived fission products at the Mainz TRIGA reactor

    Neutron-rich nuclei of medium mass number are produced by thermal-neutron-induced fission of heavy elements, e.g., 235U, 239Pu, and 249Cf. Pulse irradiations lead to an enhancement of the ratio of short-lived activities to the accompanying longer-lived components. One approach for investigating the properties of short-lived nuclei consists in a combination of rapid chemical separations with higher-resolution gamma spectroscopy. This is demonstrated by the isolation of neutron-rich isotopes of niobium by sorption on glass and of ruthenium by solvent extraction. Other rapid separation procedures from aqueous solutions are briefly summarized and a few examples for their application in nuclear fission- and delayed neutron studies are given. Some experiments with an on-line mass separator of the ISOLDE-type, using chemical targets, are described. (U.S.)

  9. The lived experiences of being physically active when morbidly obese

    Toft, Bente Skovsby; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to identify facilitators and barriers for physical activity (PA) experienced by morbidly obese adults in the Western world. Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle have become a major challenge for health and well-being, particularly among persons with morbid obesity. Lifestyle changes may...... into a meta-synthesis. Eight papers were included for the systematic review, representing the experiences of PA among 212 participants. One main theme developed from the meta-data analysis: “Identity” with the three subthemes: “considering weight,” “being able to,” and “belonging with others.” The...... theme and subthemes were merged into a meta-synthesis: “Homecoming: a change in identity.” The experiences of either suffering or well-being during PA affected the identity of adults with morbid obesity either by challenging or motivating them. A change in identity may be needed to feel a sense of...

  10. α-decay half-lives study of superheavy nuclei

    Now a days, the synthesis of superheavy nuclei (SHN) has become an outstanding research topic in nuclear physics. Since the predictions of the existence of superheavy island in 1960s. In recent years, much experimental progress has been made in synthesizing SHN with atomic number Z=114-118 by hot fusion reactions. α-decay is the most powerful tool in studying exotic nuclei in the superheavy region as it can provide some reliable knowledge on the nuclear structure and is used to identify new isotopes when an unknown parent nucleus decays to a known daughter nucleus. In this paper, we calculate the α-decay half-lives of some SHN by considering the unstable parent nucleus as a quantum two-body system of the ejected α particle and the daughter nucleus exhibiting resonance scattering phenomena under the combined effect of nuclear, coulomb and centrifugal forces. Finally, predictions within the same frame work are given for the α-decay half-lives of nuclei having Z=120-126 are made for future experiments

  11. The Graduate Experience: Living and Studying Abroad (A Case Study

    Rosario Hernández Castañeda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative case study describing the experience of Angélica an international graduate student from Latin America, who received her doctorate at the University of New Mexico in the United States. Her case demonstrated how administrators and faculty learn about the experience and struggles endured by international students, especially those who learned English a short time before admission to graduate studies. While a single case is understandably idiographic in nature and inevitably requires a larger sample, from the analysis of Angélica’s case and the analysis of the relevant literature common topics emerged persuading me to conclude that the issues that commonly impact the life of international students have to do with: 1 second language problems; 2 the quality of academic advisement received; 3 the availability of financial support; 4 the level of integration into their academic program; and 5 the level of cultural adjustment in their host country.

  12. Effect of structured physical exercise program on older adult's daily living activities and cognitive functions

    Manal Abo El Magd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older adults experience marked physiological and cognitive changes. Literature states that, daily exercising positively effects older adults' both physical and cognitive functioning. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the developed Structured Physical Exercise Program (SPEP on both older adult's activities of daily living and cognitive functions. Subjects and methods: A quasi experimental design (pre/ post- tests was utilized for the current study where the older adults' sample served as their own control. The study was conducted at a charity geriatric home (Female section in Giza Governorate on a convenient sample of 45 older adult females. Data were collected through using three tools; Personal and clinical data assessment sheet, and the two pre-post scales (i.e. Activity of Daily Living scale "ADL" and Nurses’ Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities "NOSCA"; both scales were already developed and tested before. Results: Data revealed that, after implementation of SPEP, statistically significant differences, indicating improvement, were found between the older adult's ADL and both their age, presence of support network, the number of offspring and medical history. Also Statistically significant difference, indicating improvement, was found between ADL and NOSCA scales among the study sample before and after implementing the SPEP. Conclusion: Both ADL level and cognitive functions of study sample were significantly improved after implementing the SPEP. Regular physical exercising is likely to have positive effect on both older adults' physical and cognitive functioning resulting in higher level of independency. Recommendation: This study recommends wide range application of the developed SPEP on older adults in Egypt.

  13. Novel Bioluminescent Activatable Reporter for Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Living Mice.

    Leng, Weibing; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Chen, Baoqin; Gong, Qiyong; Gao, Fabao; Bi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Src kinase is implicated in the development of a variety of human malignancies. However, it is almost impossible to monitor Src activity in an in vivo setting with current biochemical techniques. To facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the activity of Src kinase both in vitro and in vivo, we developed a genetically engineered, activatable bioluminescent reporter using split-luciferase complementation. The bioluminescence of this reporter can be used as a surrogate for Src activity in real time. This hybrid luciferase reporter was constructed by sandwiching a Src-dependent conformationally responsive unit (SH2 domain-Srcpep) between the split luciferase fragments. The complementation bioluminescence of this reporter was dependent on the Src activity status. In our study, Src kinase activity in cultured cells and tumor xenografts was monitored quantitatively and dynamically in response to clinical small-molecular kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib. This system was also applied for high-throughput screening of Src inhibitors against a kinase inhibitor library in living cells. These results provide unique insights into drug development and pharmacokinetics/phoarmocodynamics of therapeutic drugs targeting Src signaling pathway enabling the optimization of drug administration schedules for maximum benefit. Using both Firefly and Renilla luciferase imaging, we have successfully monitored Src tyrosine kinase activity and Akt serine/threonine kinase activity concurrently in one tumor xenograft. This dual luciferase reporter imaging system will be helpful in exploring the complex signaling networks in vivo. The strategies reported here can also be extended to study and image other important kinases and the cross-talks among them. PMID:26941850

  14. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required. PMID:25969424

  15. Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils.

    Orr, Caroline H; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M; Cummings, Stephen P

    2011-02-01

    Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ≤ 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms. PMID:21131514

  16. Determinants of environmental domain of quality of life in economically active population living in Silesian agglomeration, Poland

    Małgorzata Kowalska; Felix Danso; Maria Humeniuk; Elżbieta Kułak; Hubert Arasiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that determine the environmental domain of quality of life in economically active adults living in the industrial agglomeration in Poland. Materials and Methods: During the crosssectional epidemiological study conducted among the economically active population aged 45–60, we used a short version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Respondents were recruited randomly from selected factories located in the Silesian Agglomeration. The st...

  17. Continuous monitoring α-activity on aerosol filters by the pseudo-coincidence-technique. Explicitly taking into account the short lived Po-218 activity

    Pseudo-coincidence-technique is applied to continuous monitoring of α-activity on aerosolfilters by proportional counters. Filter activity can markedly increase or decrease by changing air conditions especially by the amount of short lived Po-218 activity. Conditions of constant proportions of activity concentrations for the short lived species for operating this technique are seldom fulfilled. The dynamic behavior of artificial (long lived) and natural (short lived) activity is mathematically modelled and the measured moving count rates are analyzed under this model by a multivariate regression analysis for activity concentrations of artificial resp. short lived activity. Results are compared to standard recommendations of DIN ISO 11929.

  18. Assessment of executive dysfunction during activities of daily living in schizophrenia.

    Semkovska, Maria; Bédard, Marc-André; Godbout, Lucie; Limoge, Frédérique; Stip, Emmanuel

    2004-08-01

    Many neuropsychological studies have described deficits of memory and executive functions in patients with schizophrenia, and the severity of these deficits seems to be determinant in predicting the community outcome of these patients [Schizophr. Bull. 26 (2000) 119]. However, neuropsychological evaluation does not provide valuable information about how the cognitive deficits directly affect daily living, that is, which cognitive deficit affects which behavior. The present study aimed at determining whether executive dysfunction in schizophrenia could be directly measured by analyzing three activities of daily living (ADL), in addition to assessing the ecological validity of commonly used neuropsychological tests. Within specific ADL (choosing a menu, shopping the ingredients, cooking a meal), the sequences of behaviors that have been performed by 27 control subjects and 27 patients with schizophrenia were both analyzed by using a preset optimal sequence of behavior. When compared with control subjects, patients with schizophrenia showed more omissions when choosing the menu, more sequencing and repetitions errors during the shopping task, and more planning, sequencing, repetition and omission errors during the cooking task. These behavioral errors correlated significantly with negative, but not with positive symptoms of the patients. Furthermore, they also correlated with the poor performances on executive neuropsychological tests, especially those sensitive to shifting and sequencing abilities, but not with memory tests. These results suggest that executive deficits in schizophrenia may specifically affect ADL and that such deficits can be quantitatively assessed with a behavioral scale of action sequences. PMID:15469200

  19. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients.

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  20. Performance Study of Live Virtual Machine Migration using KVM Hypervisor

    Deepti Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a cloud computing environment, migrating operating system instances across distinct physical hosts is a useful tool for administrators of data centers and clusters: It allows a clean separation between hardware and software, and facilitates fault management, load balancing, and low-level system maintenance. Live migration allows moving a continuously running VM from one physical host to another. It provides special benefit for data centers in a variety of scenarios including load balancing, maintenance and power management. Live migration is of two types: (1 Pre-copy live migration and (2 Post-Copy live migration each having its own advantages and disadvantages. In this report performance evaluation of post-copy live migration is presented along with proper mathematical modeling. This model can be used to estimate the Downtime, Resume Time and Total Migration Time of a VM being transferred using post-copy live migration

  1. Are Immigrant Enclaves Healthy Places to Live? The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Hadley, Craig; Kandula, Namratha

    2009-01-01

    The growing size and changing composition of the foreign born population in the USA highlights the importance of examining the health consequences of living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants. Using data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in four US cities, we examined whether neighborhood immigrant composition was associated with health behaviors (diet, physical activity) among Hispanic and Chinese Americans (n=1902). Secondarily we tested whether neighborhoods...

  2. Effects of the six-minute walking test on dyspnea and activities of daily living in pneumoconiosis patients

    Kim, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hye-Soon; Lee, Myung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of walking exercise through a 6-min walking test on subjective dyspnea, pulmonary function test, arterial blood gas analysis, and activities of daily living to provide base data for the nursing intervention of pneumoconiosis patients. The subjects were pneumoconiosis patients men aged over 60. This quasi-experimental study was designed with a non-equivalent control group pre- and post-test design, and the study period was September to Decem...

  3. Systematic study of α half-lives of superheavy nuclei

    Two different descriptions of the α-decay process, namely, the shell model rate theory and phenomenological description are emphasized to investigate the α-decay properties of superheavy nuclei (SHN). These descriptions are shortly presented and illustrated by their results. Special attention is given to the shell structure and resonance scattering effects due to which they exist and decay. A first systematics of α-decay properties of SHN was per- formed by studying the half-life vs. energy correlations in terms of atomic number and mass number. Such a systematics shows that the transitions between even-even nuclei are favored, while all other transitions with odd nucleons are prohibited. The accuracy of experimental and calculated α-half-lives is illustrated by the systematics of these results. (authors)

  4. Depression Training in an Assisted Living Facility: A Pilot Study.

    Beuscher, Linda; Dietrich, Mary

    2016-05-01

    Depression in older adults residing in assisted living facilities (ALFs) is often not recognized. ALF staff who work with residents on a daily basis are the most likely individuals to recognize residents' depressive symptoms. The purpose of the current pilot study was to determine feasibility of a 4-week training program for 15 direct care staff to recognize any depression symptoms of 32 residents. Although training significantly improved knowledge, it did not improve staff recognition of residents with positive depressive symptoms. Staff reported the training provided them a better understanding about depression and rated the training as very helpful to be able to recognize depression symptoms. Staff requested more information on ways to respond to someone who is depressed. Additional training should emphasize staff-resident communication skills for staff. Challenges included resident attrition and dwindling staff participation. Strategies to address these challenges are presented. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 25-31.]. PMID:26848806

  5. We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems

    Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,

    2013-08-01

    Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates

  6. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Conradsson M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Conradsson,1 Håkan Littbrand,1,2 Gustaf Boström,1 Nina Lindelöf,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Erik Rosendahl1,2 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56% of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores. Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized β for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31, BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14, Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06, and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86. There were no interaction effects for dementia. Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care

  7. Recreating communities to support active living: a new role for social marketing.

    Maibach, Edward W

    2003-01-01

    The lack of routine physical activity has become an all too pervasive health threat in the United States. Social marketing can be used directly to promote increased physical activity among people who have access to active living options (e.g., safe and convenient sidewalks or bike paths). A second, albeit indirect, use of social marketing to promote physical activity--and the focus of this article--involves promoting behaviors that influence the built environment for the purpose of increasing people's access to active living options. This use of social marketing involves changing the behavior of consumers, developers, distribution channels (e.g., real estate agents) and policy makers. The approach offers public health and other organizations a disciplined, consumer-focused means of mobilizing their available resources in a manner that maximizes the odds of creating active living communities. These means include understanding the competition, understanding target markets, creating mutually beneficial exchanges, segmenting markets and targeting them based on anticipated return. This article identifies specific opportunities for applying the social marketing approach to create active living communities, and identifies opportunities at the state and national level that will enhance the effectiveness of local efforts. PMID:13677970

  8. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deterioration, unilateral spatial neglect or apathy. [Methods] According to abdominal strength, the 24 patients were divided into a nonweakness group and a weakness group. For the assessment, we used the stroke impairment assessment set, the Berg balance scale, a simple test for evaluating hand function, grip strength, and functional independence measure scale scores and the results were compared between the groups. [Results] The Berg balance scale score and scores for dressing, toilet use, transfer to bed, and walk items of the functional independence measure were significantly lower in the weakness group than in the nonweakness group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that weakness of the abdominal muscles adversely impacts the balance of patients with mild stroke as well as their ability to dress, use a toilet, transfer, and walk. Trunk training, including abdominal muscle exercises, can effectively improve the performance of these activities of daily living items. PMID:25931737

  9. Activities of Daily Living Indexing by Hierarchical HMM for Dementia Diagnostics

    Karaman, Svebor; Dartigues, Jean-François; Gaëstel, Yann; Mégret, Rémi; Pinquier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for indexing human ac- tivities in videos captured from a wearable camera being worn by patients, for studies of progression of the dementia diseases. Our method aims to produce indexes to facilitate the navigation throughout the individual video recordings, which could help doctors search for early signs of the dis- ease in the activities of daily living. The recorded videos have strong motion and sharp lighting changes, inducing noise for the analysis. The proposed approach is based on a two steps analysis. First, we propose a new approach to segment this type of video, based on apparent motion. Each segment is characterized by two original motion de- scriptors, as well as color, and audio descriptors. Second, a Hidden-Markov Model formulation is used to merge the multimodal audio and video features, and classify the test segments. Experiments show the good properties of the ap- proach on real data.

  10. [Dependency for activities of daily living in the elderly in Catalonia, Spain].

    Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Puig-Oriol, Xavier; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Séculi-Sánchez, Elisa; Salvà-Casanovas, Antoni

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this article is to estimate the disabilty prevalence for the activities of daily living (ADL), the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the use of health services, distinguishing between the population receiving assistance for ADL and not. Cross-sectional study (Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña [ESCA] 2006). We have analyzed 17 ADL. Differences among proportions are estimated with a 95% confidence interval to characterize the analysis groups. Logistic regression describes the explanatory variables about getting help or not. Disabilty prevalence for the ADL: 26.6% men and 48.2% in women. Of these, 79.6% is getting help. There is a socioeconomic gradient in prevalence, not being observed in relation to assistance or not. We must deepen our understanding of the phenomenon and its evolution to which the ESCA is an essential tool. PMID:22310361

  11. Living with an unfixable heart: a qualitative study exploring the experience of living with advanced heart failure.

    Ryan, Marie

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses working with patients with advanced heart failure need knowledge that will help us to help patients cope with their situations of chronic illness. However, our knowledge bank is deficient due to the scarcity of inquiry that takes the affected person\\'s point of view as its central focus. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe patients\\' experiences of living with advanced heart failure. METHODS: The study sample (N=9) consisted of male (N=6) and female (N=3) patients with advanced (NYHA classes III-IV) heart failure. The design was qualitative and open unstructured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim during 2006. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: Living in the Shadow of Fear; Running on Empty; Living a Restricted life; and Battling the System. The experience of living with advanced heart failure was described as a fearful and tired sort of living characterised by escalating impotence and dependence. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there may be an illogical but enduring ethos of \\'cure\\' pervading health care worker\\'s attitudes to advanced heart failure care. This mindset might be working to hinder the application of additional or alternative therapies, which might better palliate the physical and psychosocial distress of patients.

  12. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  13. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure....

  14. Log live high activity radioactive wastes / Researches and results law of the 30 December 1991. Separation and transmutation of long lived radionuclides

    The law of the 30 December 1991 on the high activity long lived radioactive wastes reached the end. This synthesis final document presents the scientific and technological results, obtained still the end of 2005, on the separation and the transmutation of long lived radionuclides of high activity long lived radioactive wastes. It is organized in five chapters: a presentation of the context and the historical aspects, the researches, the objectives and the strategy of the axis 1, the researches results on the advanced separation, the researches results on the transmutation, the scenario of separation-transmutation and their environmental, technical and economical impacts. (A.L.B.)

  15. Variability in measuring (instrumental) activities of daily living functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients: a systematic review.

    Buurman, B.M.; Munster, B.C.; Korevaar, J.C.; Haan, R.J. de; Rooij, S.E. de

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study instruments used and definitions applied in order to measure (instrumental) activities of daily living (I [ADL]) functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 to January 2010. Articles were included if they (1) focused on acute hospitalization for medical illness in older patients; (2) described the instrument used to measure func...

  16. Effectiveness of Pain, Disease Severity and Radiological Grading on Disability of Daily Living Activities in Knee Osteoarthritis

    Deniz Evcik; Saime Ay

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this study we planned to investigate the effects of pain, disease severity, and radiological grading on the disability of daily living activities in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and to find out the determinative factors. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 knee OA patients who were admitted to the outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic were included this study. The diagnosis was based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Pati...

  17. Self-Study and Evaluation Guide/1979 Edition. Section D-23: Program for Independent Living.

    National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped, New York, NY.

    Standards regarding independent living programs for blind and visually handicapped students are presented in the self study and evaluation guide. Five areas are addressed: planning and organization, personnel, concept development and travel skills, living skills, and program evaluation. (CL)

  18. Total activation analysis of large samples using short- and medium-lived nuclides

    The trace- and minor-element content of various samples, especially of organic material, is not always investigated sufficiently. TRIGA and small research reactors with a neutron flux of approximately 1012/ s cm2 offer the opportunity to study this field effectively. The sensitivity of determination by NAA depends mainly on the activities induced. This activity is proportional to neutron flux and sample weight. A lower flux was therefore compensated by irradiation of larger samples (up to 250 times the weight of the usual 100 mg samples) with the distinct advantage of a better sample representation and a much lower radiation degradation compared to the irradiation of a small sample in a high-flux reactor. As shown in the previous papers, Total Activation Analysis (TAA) is especially useful for AA with short-lived nuclides. TAA, the continuous registration of up to several hundred LFC- and pileup corrected and uncorrected γ-spectra, enables the selection of the optimal time interval for spectra-summing so that each element can be evaluated under optimal conditions. Quality assurance is possible by decay plots. Starting TAA with the expelling signal, the irradiation time is registered by the incoming rise of activity. TAA of the well-known standards Bowen's Kale, NBS-SRM-1572 Citrus Leaves, and samples of yellow peas and oats allows the determination of many short and medium lived elements. With 15 s activation of roughly 25 g samples the oxygen content of yellow peas and oats can be determined by the O-19 and N-16 activities together with Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Cu and their detection limits. Even the sulphur content can roughly be estimated in the same run. The measurements were performed using the General Atomic rabbit system together with the new inexpensive measurement system: an n-type HP-Ge detector with resetting pre-amplifier, digital-preloaded filter amplifier and a software based PC-MCA with real time correction of dead-time and pile-up losses. The

  19. HIV patients with latent tuberculosis living in a low-endemic country do not develop active disease during a 2 year follow-up; a Norwegian prospective multicenter study

    Pullar, Nadine D; Steinum, Harald; Bruun, Johan N; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Background Interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) serve as immunodiagnostics of tuberculosis (TB) infection to identify individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) eligible for preventive anti-TB therapy. In this longitudinal study of HIV-infected LTBI patients we have observed for possible progression to active TB as well as evaluated repeated IGRA testing in a TB low-endemic setting. Methods QuantiFERON...

  20. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  1. The Lived Experiences of Participating in Physical Activity among Young People with Mental Health Problems. A Recovery-Oriented Perspective

    Staal Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing understanding that psychiatric treatment is more than psychotherapy and medication, and that people themselves can be active in preventing and handling mental health problems. This brings non-medical solutions into play. Physical activity (in terms of exercise, sport, and fitness becomes an important contribution in this particular context. The perceived mental and physical benefits of physical activity (both preventative and therapeutic for people experiencing mental health problems are well documented. Typically, this kind of research focuses narrowly on “size of effect” or “most successful type of intervention” or “exercise versus other treatment.” Less research has explored the lived experience of physical activity and the meaning and relevance it has for individuals in their everyday lives. This article suggests that sport and exercise can play a valuable role in and contribute to the recovery process for young people with mental health problems. Results from an evaluation study of a developmental project in Denmark shows how physical activity affects a person‟s lived experiences, relationships, and pursuits. The findings is discussed in relation to the concept of recovery, especially focusing on exercise as a form of self-care strategy, as an opportunity to create social relationships, and as a way to become part of a meaningful social activity.

  2. Immobilizing live Escherichia coli for AFM studies of surface dynamics

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-L-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-L-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg2+ and Ca2+ was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane stabilization while

  3. Immobilizing live Escherichia coli for AFM studies of surface dynamics

    Lonergan, N.E.; Britt, L.D.; Sullivan, C.J., E-mail: sullivcj@evms.edu

    2014-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-L-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-L-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane

  4. Cancer Screening among Immigrants Living in Urban and Regional Australia: Results from the 45 and Up Study

    Weber, Marianne F.; May Chiew; Eleonora Feletto; Clare Kahn; Freddy Sitas; Lucy Webster

    2014-01-01

    Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%), live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT), and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian...

  5. Ready, Steady, Action: What Enables Young People to Perceive Themselves as Active Agents in Their Lives?

    Sharp, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having…

  6. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of Live Versus Dead Bacterial Cells and Spores

    Bernardini, James N.; LaDuc, Myron T.; Diamond, Rochelle; Verceles, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a coupled fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescent staining technology for purifying (removing cells from sampling matrices), separating (based on size, density, morphology, and live versus dead), and concentrating cells (spores, prokaryotic, eukaryotic) from an environmental sample.

  7. Subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living in patients with mild stroke

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Post, A; Poulsen, T.E.;

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with mild stroke. Methodology: Data was generated from January – December 2011 and consisted of 41 individual ADL-I interviews with patients in hospital and another 41...

  8. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II-IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study.

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Crane, Tracy E; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  9. Activation of protein kinase A alters subnuclear distribution pattern of human steroidogenic factor 1 in living cells

    LIU Wei刘伟; FAN Wu-qiang范吴强; Toshihiko Yanase; Masayuki Saitoh; WU Yin吴茵

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify the subnuclear distribution pattern of human orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in living cells with and without the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signal pathway, and thus try to explain the unknown mechanism by which PKA potentiates SF-1 transactivation. Methods Full-length cDNAs of wild type and a naturally occurring mutant (G35E) human SF-1 were cloned and fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Subcellular distribution pattern of human SF-1 in living cells, whose PKA signaling was either activated or not, was studied by laser confocal microscopy after the validity of the gene sequence was confirmed.Results The transactivation ability of the GFP-SF-1 chimeric protein was highly conserved. Wild type human SF-1 diffused homogeneously within the nuclei of cells when PKA was not active, and converged to clear foci when PKA was activated. Mutant SF-1 diffused within the nuclei even in the presence of PKA activation, surprisingly aggregating as fluorescent dots inside the nucleoli, a phenomenon not altered by PKA.Conclusions Activation of PKA causes wild type, but not mutant SF-1 to alter its subnuclear distribution pattern to a transactivationally active form (foci formation). This finding may throw new light on the mechanism by which PKA activates the orphan nuclear receptor.

  10. Impact of Sativex(®) on quality of life and activities of daily living in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity.

    Arroyo, Rafael; Vila, Carlos; Dechant, Kerry L

    2014-07-01

    In individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity, associated symptoms such as spasms, pain, mobility restrictions and sleep disturbances can interfere with the ability to perform activities of daily living and reduce quality of life (QoL). Recent cross-sectional studies from Europe have confirmed that advancing severity of MS spasticity correlates directly with worsening QoL. The treatment effect of Sativex(®) (GW Pharmaceuticals PLC, Porton Down, UK; Laboratorios Almirall, SA, Barcelona, Spain) on QoL has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials, observational studies conducted under everyday clinical practice conditions and a survey in long-term users. Symptomatic relief of MS spasticity in responders to Sativex was associated with quantifiable improvements in QoL and activities of daily living that were maintained over time. Benefits were perceived by both patients and caregivers. PMID:25275238

  11. Gender Differences in Health Related Quality of Life among People Living with HIV on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome measure for highly active antiretroviral treatment program. In Ethiopia, studies revealed that there are improved qualities of life among adults living with the viruses taking antiretroviral therapy but there is no explicit data showing gender differences in health related quality of life. Aim. To assess gender differences in HRQOL and its associated factors among people living with HIV and on highly active antiretrovi...

  12. Live in vivo imaging of Egr-1 promoter activity during neonatal development, liver regeneration and wound healing

    Schaper Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 (Early growth response 1 is central to several growth factors and represents an important activator of target genes not only involved in physiological processes like embryogenesis and neonatal development, but also in a variety of pathophysiological processes, for example atherosclerosis or cancer. Current options to investigate its transcription and activation in vivo are end-point measurements that do not provide insights into dynamic changes in the living organism. Results We developed a transgenic mouse (Egr-1-luc in which the luciferase reporter gene is under the control of the murine Egr-1 promoter providing a versatile tool to study the time course of Egr-1 activation in vivo. In neonatal mice, bioluminescence imaging revealed a high Egr-1 promoter activity reaching basal levels three weeks after birth with activity at snout, ears and paws. Using a model of partial hepatectomy we could show that Egr-1 promoter activity and Egr-1 mRNA levels were increased in the regenerating liver. In a model of wound healing, we demonstrated that Egr-1 promoter activity was upregulated at the site of injury. Conclusion Taken together, we have developed a transgenic mouse model that allows real time in vivo imaging of the Egr-1 promoter activity. The ability to monitor and quantify Egr-1 activity in the living organism may facilitate a better understanding of Egr-1 function in vivo.

  13. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Wagner O. de Morais; Jens Lundström; Nicholas Wickström

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. D...

  14. The effect of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    Park, Jin-Young; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects were each assigned to a mirror therapy group and a sham therapy group. The Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment and the Box and Block Test were performed to compare paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities. The functional independence measurement was conducted to compare abi...

  15. Effects of mild and severe knee joint pain on various activities of daily living in the female elderly

    Sugiura, Hiroki; Demura, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the differences in the ability to perform various activities of daily living (ADLs) among groups with various knee problems. The participants consisted of 328 elderly females (age 60-94; mean age 76.1 years; standard deviation 6.2). The subjects were classified into three groups: those without knee pain, those with mild knee pain, and those with severe knee pain. ADLs with markedly higher (>97%) and lower (

  16. Effects of Mild and Severe Knee Joint Pain on Various Activities of Daily Living in the Female Elderly

    Hiroki Sugiura; Shinichi Demura

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the differences in the ability to perform various activities of daily living (ADLs) among groups with various knee problems. The participants consisted of 328 elderly females (age 60–94; mean age 76.1 years; standard deviation 6.2). The subjects were classified into three groups: those without knee pain, those with mild knee pain, and those with severe knee pain. ADLs with markedly higher (>97%) and lower (

  17. Longitudinal changes in heart rate after participating in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    Jong, Johan de; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of 18 months. Multi-level analyses were conducted; growth and final models were developed. Significant...

  18. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    Jong, Johan de; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of 18 months. Multi-level analyses were conducted; growth and final models were developed. Significant...

  19. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals

    Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to ...

  20. Determination of blood Cd in subjects living near dismessed mines and active industrial sites

    Madeddu, Roberto Beniamino; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    The environmental exposure to Cd in 265 subjects living in a South-Western area of Sardinia (Sulcis-Iglesiente) with a great history of mining activities and large industrial settings was assessed. Individuals living near the industrial plants had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (0.47 μg/l) and than residents of the mining sites (0.54 μg/l). Demographic and lifestyle variables were also investigated and data show...

  1. We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems

    Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,

    2013-08-01

    Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates

  2. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine Improves Activities of Daily Living in Parkinson's Disease

    Weidong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, named Zeng-xiao An-shen Zhi-chan 2 (ZAZ2, on patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Among 115 patients with idiopathic PD enrolled (mean age, 64.7 ± 10.2 years old, 110 patients (M = 65, F = 45; mean age, 64.9 ± 10.7 years old completed the study. Patients took either ZAZ2 (=59 or placebo granule (=56 in a blind manner for 13 weeks while maintaining other anti-Parkinson medications unchanged. All participants wore a motion logger, and we analyzed the power-law temporal autocorrelation of the motion logger records taken on 3 occasions (before, one week, and 13 weeks after the drug administration. Drug efficacy was evaluated with the conventional Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, as well as the power-law exponent α, which corresponds to the level of physical activity of the patients. ZAZ2 but not placebo granule improved the awake-sleep rhythm, the UPDRS Part II, Part II + III, and Part IV scores, and the α values. The results indicate that ZAZ2 improved activities of daily living (ADL of parkinsonism and, thus, is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.

  4. Intellectual function, activities of daily living and computerized tomography of the brain in geriatric demented patients

    Thirty eight patients of geriatric dementia (mean age 74.9 years) were examined by computerized tomography (CT) and their intellectual functions and activities of daily living (ADL) were evaluated. CT was evaluated by both visual assessment method and direct measuring method. Intellectual function was evaluated by Jikei University dementia rating scale. ADL was evaluated by both Hasegawa's rating scale and Sengoku's rating scale. Results were as follows: significant influence by age was observed in intellectual functions and ADL of subjects above 75 years old. There were good correlations between the higher intellectual function, the better grooming and hygiene, and less needs of nursing care. The severe brain atrophy evaluated by the visual assessment method was correlated with the depressed level of intellectual function. When brain atrophy is mild despite high degree of dementia, reexamination should be made to explore somatic diseases inducing depression of mental activity. It also should be noted that sex and age difference is important in studying geriatric patients. (author)

  5. A Study of Daily Living Dependency Status among Elderly in an Urban Slum area of Dehradun

    Puneet Ohri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method:  A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.

  6. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    Manijeh Nourian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results: The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion: Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.

  7. More Older Women Now Living with 'Moderate' Disability, Study Shows

    ... disability-free life: In 1982, a 65-year-old man could expect to live, on average, another 14 years; by 2011, that had increased to 19 years -- with almost all of that extra time disability-free. For the typical 65-year-old woman, life expectancy rose by only two years, ...

  8. What makes primary care effective for people in poverty living with multiple chronic conditions?: study protocol

    Barbeau David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inverse care law persists: people living in poverty have the greatest needs and face considerable challenges in getting the care they need. Evidence reveals that GPs encounter difficulties in delivering care to poor patients, while many of those patients feel stigmatized by healthcare professionals. Patients living in poverty report negative healthcare experiences and unmet healthcare needs. Indeed, there is a growing recognition in primary care research of the importance of addressing the capabilities and social conditions of the poor when delivering care. Few studies have looked at the factors contributing to effective and "socially responsive" care for people living in poverty. Methods/Design Our study adopts a qualitative ethnographic approach in four healthcare organizations in deprived areas of metropolitan Montreal (Québec, Canada, using patient shadowing techniques and interviews. Data will be collected through fieldwork observations and informal interviews with patients before and after consultations. We will observe medical consultations, care organization activities, and waiting areas and reception of patients. We will conduct a total of 36 individual interviews with 12 GPs and 24 patients. The interviews will be audio-recorded and transcribed for purposes of analysis. The analysis consists of debriefing sessions, coding and interpretive analysis. Discussion This study aims to investigate how positive healthcare interactions between physicians and patients can improve the management of chronic conditions. We hypothesize that factors related to care organization, to healthcare professionals' experience and to patients may enhance the quality of healthcare interactions, which may have positive impacts for preventing and managing chronic conditions. Our study will provide a unique set of data grounded in the perspectives of healthcare professionals and of patients living in poverty.

  9. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    Alaine Souza Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.

  10. Forensic pediatric radiology: studies in living and deceased children

    Hoogendoorn, T.

    2014-01-01

    Radiology is an important tool in establishing the diagnosis of physical abuse, as one can objectively depict fractures or internal injuries. In this thesis we have tried to provide some insight into the possibilities and impossibilities of (forensic) pediatric radiology in establishing a diagnosis of physical child abuse, in both living (part 1) and deceased (part 2) children. In the first part we have given an overview of imaging techniques in child abuse, risk factors for and radiological ...

  11. Chemoselective tarantula toxins report voltage activation of wild-type ion channels in live cells.

    Tilley, Drew C; Eum, Kenneth S; Fletcher-Taylor, Sebastian; Austin, Daniel C; Dupré, Christophe; Patrón, Lilian A; Garcia, Rita L; Lam, Kit; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Cohen, Bruce E; Sack, Jon T

    2014-11-01

    Electrically excitable cells, such as neurons, exhibit tremendous diversity in their firing patterns, a consequence of the complex collection of ion channels present in any specific cell. Although numerous methods are capable of measuring cellular electrical signals, understanding which types of ion channels give rise to these signals remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe exogenous probes which use a novel mechanism to report activity of voltage-gated channels. We have synthesized chemoselective derivatives of the tarantula toxin guangxitoxin-1E (GxTX), an inhibitory cystine knot peptide that binds selectively to Kv2-type voltage gated potassium channels. We find that voltage activation of Kv2.1 channels triggers GxTX dissociation, and thus GxTX binding dynamically marks Kv2 activation. We identify GxTX residues that can be replaced by thiol- or alkyne-bearing amino acids, without disrupting toxin folding or activity, and chemoselectively ligate fluorophores or affinity probes to these sites. We find that GxTX-fluorophore conjugates colocalize with Kv2.1 clusters in live cells and are released from channels activated by voltage stimuli. Kv2.1 activation can be detected with concentrations of probe that have a trivial impact on cellular currents. Chemoselective GxTX mutants conjugated to dendrimeric beads likewise bind live cells expressing Kv2.1, and the beads are released by channel activation. These optical sensors of conformational change are prototype probes that can indicate when ion channels contribute to electrical signaling. PMID:25331865

  12. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  13. THE IMPACT OF PENSIONS SAVING AND EDUCATION DEFICIT ON THE LIVING STANDARDS IN ROMANIA, IN THE POST-ACTIVITY PERIOD

    SANDRA TEODORESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts with the study on the annual pension deficit in the EU member states, elaborated by AVIVA and DELOITTE companies in 2010. The paper analyzes the impact of pensions saving and education deficit on the living standards in Romania, in the post-activity period. It comprises the following sections: an introduction to the analysis, several definitions and the calculation method employed in the above-mentioned study, comparisons between Romania and other EU members states, focusing on the pension deficit, as well as a brief overview on the pension systems in Romania. In the end of the paper, we propose a debate on good financial planning that can make the difference between poverty and a decent standard of living at the time of retirement.

  14. SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING STRATEGY : Case: LiveActive by Studio Moderna d.o.o.

    Helin, Mia

    2013-01-01

    In the technology driven world of today, digital marketing, particularly social media marketing has revolutionized the way companies market and communicate with their customers. The purpose of this thesis is to further delve into the world of social media marketing and to focus on how important it is for the businesses to build and strengthen their social media marketing efforts. This thesis will focus on a Slovenian health & fitness brand called LiveActive. The main objectives are to ide...

  15. Relationship Between Grip and Pinch Strength and Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu; Shin, Hyun Iee; Shin, Hye Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between grip and pinch strength and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. Methods Medical records of 577 stroke patients from January 2010 to February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' grip and pinch strength of both hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic hands and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score were collected. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (onset duration: ≤3 month...

  16. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of living cells: Different redox activities of nonmetastatic and metastatic human breast cells

    Liu, Biao; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Mirkin, Michael V.

    2000-01-01

    Electrochemical methods have been widely used to monitor physiologically important molecules in biological systems. This report describes the first application of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to probe the redox activity of individual living cells. The possibilities of measuring the rate and investigating the pathway of transmembrane charge transfer are demonstrated. By this approach, significant differences are detected in the redox responses given by nonmotile, nontransform...

  17. Validation of an electrogoniometry system as a measure of knee kinematics during activities of daily living

    Urwin, Samuel; Kader, Deiary; Caplan, Nick; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Stewart, Su

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing use of electrogoniometry (ELG) in clinical research requires the validation of different instrumentation. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the concurrent validity of an ELG system during activities of daily living. Methods: Ten asymptomatic participants gave informed consent to participate. A Biometrics SG150 electrogoniometer was directly compared to a 12 camera three dimensional motion analysis system during walking, stair ascent, stair descent, s...

  18. Correlation Between Instrumental Hand Function and Activities of Daily Living in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Gupta AK; Yadav SL; Singh U; Wadhwa S; Kumar A; Borah D; Pandey RM

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find the correlation of instrumental handfunction (grip strength, muscle power and range ofmotion) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) inrheumatoid arthritis patients.Methods: 50 patients of either sex were included in thestudy. Objective evaluation of hand function was doneusing Hand dynamometer and Electrogoniometer(Tracker system-version 4®). The patients were assessedfor their functional limitations using Indian version ofHAQ-DI. Spearman rank collision was performed to fin...

  19. Automatic Task Assistance for Persons with Cognitive Disabilities in Basic Activities of Daily Living

    Peters, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Persons with cognitive disabilities such as Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities tend to have problems in sequencing and coordinating steps in the execution of basic Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) due to limited capabilities in cognitive functioning. In order to successfully perform basic ADLs, these persons are highly reliant on the assistance of a human caregiver. This leads to a decrease or even a loss of independence for care recipients and imposes a high bur...

  20. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Cederbom S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  1. Activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Blake J Lawrence

    Full Text Available This study examined whether activities of daily living (ADL mediate the relationship between depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL in people with Parkinson's disease (PD. A cross-sectional, correlational research design examined data from 174 participants who completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-section 2 (UPDRS-section 2 [ADL]. Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA was used to examine the mediator model. Depression and ADL significantly (p<.001 predicted HR-QOL, and depression significantly (p<.001 predicted ADL. Whilst ADL did not impact on the relationship between depression and HR-QOL, there was a significant (p<.001 indirect effect of depression on HR-QOL via ADL, suggesting both direct and indirect (via ADL effects of depression on HR-QOL. The magnitude of this effect was moderate (R2 = .13. People with PD who report depression also experience greater difficulty completing ADL, which impacts upon their HR-QOL. It is recommended that clinicians adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care by combining pharmacological treatments with psycho/occupational therapy, thereby alleviating the heterogeneous impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on HR-QOL in people with PD.

  2. Experiences of women living with fibromyalgia: an exploratory study of their information needs and preferences

    Lubna Daraz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women living with fibromyalgia consistently report experiencing a change in their lives in terms of stigma, inability to work, isolation from society and difficulty in managing their illness. Lack of understanding and knowledge about their disease has been linked to compromised health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of information use of women living with fibromyalgia. A descriptive phenomenology was used for this study. Participants were identified through gatekeepers for women living with fibromyalgia across Canada. Data was collected via taperecorded interviews. The study was conducted in Canada between 2009-2010. Ten women (18 or older participated in the research. Three essential themes emerged from the analysis that were vital to understand the unique experiences of women: i understanding the need for information required to live with fibromyalgia, ii struggling to meet vital and fundamental information needs and iii transforming themselves to improve health and quality of life. Women living with fibromyalgia have vital and specific information needs and struggle to find and access appropriate information. They use diverse strategies in overcoming some of the challenges in accessing information. Most significantly, women draw on the information to make changes and to begin to coordinate their lives to live with fibromyalgia. For women living with fibromyalgia, the phenomenon of information use has a significant effect on their lives. Healthcare providers are perceived as an important source of information and need to be better informed, more prepared and dedicated to assisting women with their information needs.

  3. Children of the "Sug": A Study of the Daily Lives of Street Children in Khartoum, Sudan, with Intervention Recommendations

    Kudrati, Mustafa; Plummer, Mary L.; Yousif, Nassrin Dafaalla El Hag

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study examines street children's daily lives in Khartoum, Sudan to recommend ways to improve their conditions and to successfully assist them off the streets. Methods: In 2000-2001, eight researchers conducted participant observation for 7 weeks; 20 groups of children engaged in role-plays and drawing activities; over 500 children…

  4. Recent developments in short-lived nuclide activation analysis and analytical efficiency

    In various applications of neutron activation analysis, wide element concentration and nuclide half-life ranges, overlapping peaks and other interferences in the gamma-spectrum and the request for isotope abundance determination as well as other special problems are encountered which led to the development of a flexible analytical system for the optimization and differentiation of the experimental conditions in order to solve properly these multiparameter problems. The new features were introduced mainly in the analysis of short-lived nuclides with high throughput capability, enhancing also the analytical efficiency and broadening the application range of neutron activation analysis. (author) 4 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Physical Activity of Male and Female Adolescents Living in a Town and a City in the Context of Public Health Recommendations

    Mynarski, Wladyslaw; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Rozpara, Michal; Garbaciak, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the physical activity of male and female adolescents from Poland living in a town (Czechowice-Dziedzice) and in a city (Katowice). Material and methods: The research involved 431 high school students aged 16-18 years (249 from Czechowice-Dziedzice and 182 from Katowice). Physical activity was measured by the short form of the…

  6. Perioperative Complications After Living Kidney Donation: A National Study.

    Lentine, K L; Lam, N N; Axelrod, D; Schnitzler, M A; Garg, A X; Xiao, H; Dzebisashvili, N; Schold, J D; Brennan, D C; Randall, H; King, E A; Segev, D L

    2016-06-01

    We integrated the US transplant registry with administrative records from an academic hospital consortium (97 centers, 2008-2012) to identify predonation comorbidity and perioperative complications captured in diagnostic, procedure, and registry sources. Correlates (adjusted odds ratio, aOR) of perioperative complications were examined with multivariate logistic regression. Among 14 964 living kidney donors, 11.6% were African American. Nephrectomies were predominantly laparoscopic (93.8%); 2.4% were robotic and 3.7% were planned open procedures. Overall, 16.8% of donors experienced a perioperative complication, most commonly gastrointestinal (4.4%), bleeding (3.0%), respiratory (2.5%), surgical/anesthesia-related injuries (2.4%), and "other" complications (6.6%). Major Clavien Classification of Surgical Complications grade IV or higher affected 2.5% of donors. After adjustment for demographic, clinical (including comorbidities), procedure, and center factors, African Americans had increased risk of any complication (aOR 1.26, p = 0.001) and of Clavien grade II or higher (aOR 1.39, p = 0.0002), grade III or higher (aOR 1.56, p 50 (aOR 0.55, p < 0.0001) was associated with lower risk. Complications after live donor nephrectomy vary with baseline demographic, clinical, procedure, and center factors, but the most serious complications are infrequent. Future work should examine underlying mechanisms and approaches to minimizing the risk of perioperative complications in all donors. PMID:26700551

  7. Probabilistic learning from incomplete data for recognition of activities of daily living in smart homes.

    Zhang, Shuai; McClean, Sally I; Scotney, Bryan W

    2012-05-01

    Learning behavioral patterns for activities of daily living in a smart home environment can be challenged by the limited number of training data that may be available. This may be due to the infrequent repetition of routine activities (e.g., once daily), the expense of using observers to label activities, and the intrusion that would be caused by the presence of observers over long time periods. It is important, therefore, to make as much use of any labeled data that are collected, however, incomplete these data may be. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for learning behavioral patterns for multi-inhabitants living in a single smart home environment, by making full use of all limited labeled activities, including incomplete data resulting from unreliable low-level sensors in this environment. Through maximum-likelihood estimation, using Expectation-Maximization, we build a model that captures both environmental uncertainties from sensor readings and user uncertainties, including variations in how individuals carry out activities. Our algorithm outperforms models that cannot handle data incompleteness, with increasing performance gains as incompleteness increases. The approach also enables the impact of particular sensors to be assessed and can thus inform sensor maintenance and deployment. PMID:22411044

  8. Studies of Powder Mixing with Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    Many industrial processes involve the mixing of powders to form homogenous products. If the mixing conditions are not well established the mixing units will not be used to their best advantage. Many mixing problems can be studied by means of chemical analysis, but a series of such analyses is expensive in comparison with the fast and cheap measurement of radioactivity. For this reason radioisotopes are often used in determining optimum mixing conditions. The statistical nature of radioactive decay also simplifies the treatment of the data obtained. The theory and application of some useful statistical methods are described. As an example, the mixing of light concrete from cement powder, aluminium powder, sand and water is described. This is a severe mixing problem as mixing must occur before the reaction between water and aluminium, which gives the typical light-concrete structure, takes place to any considerable extent. Samples of aluminium powder and cement powder are activated in a reactor and are then used as radioactive tracers for the 5 m3 batches of mixture. The behaviour of the aluminium powder is studied using the nuclide Mn56 which is produced from manganese impurities in the aluminium. If certain precautions are taken it is possible to use this nuclide in spite of its short half-life (2.6 h). In the case of cement powder, use is made of the nuclides Na24 and K42 which are formed in this material. (author)

  9. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review

    Thi-Hoa-Cuc Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory.

  10. Preliminary cognitive scale of basic and instrumental activities of daily living for dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Rodríguez-Bailón, María; Montoro-Membila, Nuria; Garcia-Morán, Tamara; Arnedo-Montoro, María Luisa; Funes Molina, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we explored cognitive and functional deficits in patients with multidomain mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with dementia, and healthy age-matched control participants using the Cognitive Scale for Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, a new preliminary informant-based assessment tool. This tool allowed us to evaluate four key cognitive abilities-task memory schema, error detection, problem solving, and task self-initiation-in a range of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL, respectively). The first part of the present study was devoted to testing the psychometric adequateness of this new informant-based tool and its convergent validity with other global functioning and neuropsychological measures. The second part of the study was aimed at finding the patterns of everyday cognitive factors that best discriminate between the three groups. We found that patients with dementia exhibited impairment in all cognitive abilities in both basic and instrumental activities. By contrast, patients with MCI were found to have preserved task memory schema in both types of ADL; however, such patients exhibited deficits in error detection and task self-initiation but only in IADL. Finally, patients with MCI also showed a generalized problem solving deficit that affected even BADL. Studying various cognitive processes instantiated in specific ADL differing in complexity seems a promising strategy to further understand the specific relationships between cognition and function in these and other cognitively impaired populations. PMID:25805061

  11. Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Improving Cognitive Function and Activities of Daily Living among Elderly Patients with Stroke at Assiut University Hospital

    Abd-Elaziz, Saieda Abd-Elhameed; Khedr, Eman M.; Ahmed, Hanaa Abd Elhakiem; Ibrahim, Hoda Diab Fahmy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. The study aimed to measure the effect of cognitive rehabilitation of elderly patients with stroke on their cognitive function and activities of daily living. Quasi experimental research design were used in this study. This study was conducted at neuropsychiatric, physical medicine and…

  12. A multicenter, non-interventional study to evaluate patient-reported experiences of living with psoriasis

    Pariser, David; Schenkel, Brad; Carter, Chureen; Farahi, Kamyar; Brown, T Michelle; Charles N. Ellis; ,

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (with or without psoriatic arthritis) places significant burden on patients’ lives. Objective: Explore and document patients’ experiences of living with psoriasis, including symptoms, treatments, impact on daily lives and patient-reported functioning. Methods: In a US-based, non-interventional study, narrative interviews were conducted at baseline and again within 16 weeks. In interviews, patients with moderate to severe psoriasis indic...

  13. 長寿者の居住地の特性と日常生活動作能力 (Activities of Daily Living : ADL)

    荒木, 英俊

    1997-01-01

    A study on relationship between the living environment and activities of daily living (ADL) was conducted to all eldery persons of more than 100 years old in 1993. The response was received from 840 males (73.6%) of 100-107 years of ages. Living environment was devided into three areas according to the geographical areas (Hokkaido-Tohoku-Hokuriku-Sanin, Kanto-Tokai-Kinki, and Sanyo-Shikoku-Kyushu), two community types according to an urban or an agricultural or fishing village, and four commu...

  14. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 1012n.cm-2.s-1, then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  15. Leisure-time physical activity in Canadians living with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis: population-based estimates.

    Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Gilmore, Jennica C; Gunnell, Katie E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide population-based estimates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in Canadians diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Data were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 3.1 (2005). Those diagnosed with CD (n = 474; 61.60% female) or UC (n = 637; 65.10% female) were compared with those not reporting CD/UC (n = 113,685; 53.60% female). The most prevalent forms of LTPA reported were walking and gardening/yard work. Individuals with CD were more likely to be classified as "inactive" (OR = 1.34; 95% CI [1.12, 1.61]) and less likely to be "active" (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55, 0.87]) than those not reporting CD/UC. These trends were mirrored for those living with UC, although statistical significance was not attained. Despite claims advocating the benefits of LTPA for ameliorating complications associated with CD/UC, prevalence estimates from a population-based sample of Canadians living with CD/UC suggest that the majority do not meet current public health guidelines. Results offer benchmarks for prevalence of LTPA in those diagnosed with CD/UC. Findings suggest that many living with this condition will not benefit from the protective role of LTPA on complications associated with CD/UC. PMID:21814062

  16. 3D-LIVE: D5.3 Dissemination and exploitation activity report – M30 Issue

    Conte, M; Posio, E.; Jylkka, S.; Crowle, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the dissemination activities related to the 3D LIVE project over the 2nd reporting period of the project, starting on September 1st, 2013 and ending on February 28, 2015. The report first describes the brief summary of main results of the 3D LIVE project. Then it gives an overview of the dissemination strategy. Then, the report describes the dissemination towards external communities and gives details of the 3D LIVE specific events. The report also describes infrastructu...

  17. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

    Donald Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.

  18. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  19. Versão brasileira da Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL Brazilian version of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL

    Mayra Cristina Aratani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL avalia o impacto da tontura e desequilíbrio corporal nas atividades cotidianas de indivíduos vestibulopatas. A escala contempla 28 atividades divididas em três dimensões (funcional, locomoção e instrumental. OBJETIVO: Traduzir, adaptar transculturamente e verificar a confiabilidade da VADL para o português do Brasil. MÉTODO: Pesquisa metodológica de tradução de questionário. Foram recrutados 80 idosos (> 65 anos com tontura crônica de origem vestibular, dos quais 40 participaram do pré-teste e 40 da análise de confiabilidade. A confiabilidade foi testada pelo Coeficiente de Correlação de Concordância (CCC e a consistência interna pelo Alfa de Cronbach (α. RESULTADOS: No pré-teste, houve 15% de incompreensão em duas atividades da versão brasileira da VADL, sendo necessária adaptação desses itens. A VADL-Brasil apresentou valor semelhante de confiabilidade intra e inter-examinadores para o escore total com concordância substancial (CCC = 0,79. A consistência interna apresentou valor excelente para o escore total (α = 0,92, bom para as dimensões funcional (α = 0,89 e locomoção (α = 0,86, e fraco para a instrumental (α = 0,56. CONCLUSÃO: A versão brasileira da VADL mostrou-se adequada, com boa confiabilidade e consistência interna, sendo, assim, uma alternativa para avaliar a capacidade funcional de vestibulopatas.The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL assesses the impact of dizziness and body imbalance on the everyday activities of patients with vestibulopathy. The scale encompasses 28 activities divided into three sub-scales (functional, ambulation and instrumental. OBJECTIVE: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the VADL to the Brazilian Portuguese language and verify its reliability. METHOD: Questionnaire translation methodological research. Eighty elderly subjects (age > 65 years with chronic dizziness arising from

  20. Single live cell topography and activity imaging with the shear-force-based constant-distance scanning electrochemical microscope.

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) has become an important tool in topography and activity studies on single live cells. The used analytical probes ("SECM tips") are voltammetric micro- or nanoelectrodes. The tips may be tracked across a live cell in constant-height or constant-distance mode, while kept at potentials that enable tracing of the spatiotemporal dynamics of functional chemical species in the immediate environment. Depending on the type of single live cells studied, cellular processes addressable by SECM range from the membrane transport of metabolites to the stimulated release of hormones and neurotransmitters and processes such as cell respiration or cell death and differentiation. In this chapter, we provide the key practical details of the constant-distance mode of SECM, explaining the establishment, and operation of the tailored distance control unit that maintains a stable tip-to-cell separation during scanning. The continuously maintained tip positioning of the system takes advantage of the decreasing impact of very short-range hydrodynamic tip-to-surface shear-forces on the vibrational amplitude of an oscillating SECM tip, as the input for a computer-controlled feedback loop regulation. Suitable microelectrode probes that are nondestructive to soft cells are a prerequisite for the success of this methodology and their fabrication and successful application are the other topics covered. PMID:22264538

  1. ''Sleeping reactor'' irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux (φ) of ∼ 4 x 1014 n/cm2 · s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of ∼ 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about ± 0.5 s) make irradiations of 9Be(γ,n)8Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to ∼ 1 x 1010 n/cm2 · s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to ∼ 6 x 108. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant

  2. A Phenomenological Study: The Experience of Live Supervision during a Pre-Practicum Counseling Techniques Course

    Koltz, Rebecca L.; Feit, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of live supervision for three, master's level, pre-practicum counseling students were explored using a phenomenological methodology. Using semi-structured interviews, this study resulted in a thick description of the experience of live supervision capturing participants' thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Data revealed that live…

  3. An Empirical Typology of Residential Care/Assisted Living Based on a Four-State Study

    Park, Nan Sook; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Eckert, J. Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Residential care/assisted living describes diverse facilities providing non-nursing home care to a heterogeneous group of primarily elderly residents. This article derives typologies of assisted living based on theoretically and practically grounded evidence. Design and Methods: We obtained data from the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term…

  4. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    David Maunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions.

  5. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four ...

  6. The psychometric properties of ADCS - activities of daily living inventory and comparison of different ADL scores

    Rózsa, S.; Brandtmüller, A.; Nagy, B.; Brennan, A.(School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia); Akehurst, R

    2009-01-01

    Several multi-item activities of daily living (ADL) scales have been developed for assessment of functional status of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in the last few decades. A disadvantage of the large number of scales is that scores of different ADL scales cannot be compared directly with each other. ADL scales which are used by McNamee’s (Townsend's disability scale) and Hill’s (Medicare Beneficiary definitions and Katz index of ADL) provide suitable tools for modelling the cost-eff...

  7. Activity size distributions for long-lived radon decay products in aerosols collected in Barcelona (Spain)

    The activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of long-lived radon decay product (210Pb, 210Po) in aerosols collected in the Barcelona area (Northeast Spain) during the period from April 2006 to February 2008 are presented. The 210Po mean AMAD was 420 nm, while the 210Pb mean AMAD was 500 nm. The temporal evolution of 210Pb and 210Po AMADs shows maxima in autumn and winter and minima in spring and summer. 210Pb AMAD are being used to estimate the mean-residence time of atmospheric aerosols.

  8. Nutritional status, body composition and physical activity among older people living in residential care facilities

    Carlsson, Maine

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to study, whether drinkable yoghurt enriched with probiotic bacteria could have any effect on constipation and body weight (BW) among older people with dementia. Further, it concerns poor nutritional status among older people with physical and cognitive impairments and its relationship with factors commonly occur in older people living in residential care facilities. It also discusses how body composition changes with ageing and the associations between cha...

  9. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  10. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their application as SERS-active tags inside living cells

    Boca, Sanda; Astilean, Simion [Nanobiophotonics Center, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Nanobioscience, Babes-Bolyai University, Treboniu Laurian 42, 400271 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rugina, Dumitrita; Pintea, Adela [Department of Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Manastur 3-5, 400372, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian, E-mail: sanda.boca@phys.ubbcluj.ro, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Electron Microscopy Center, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babes-Bolyai University, Clinicilor 5-7, 400006, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-02-04

    The detection of Raman signals inside living cells is a topic of great interest in the study of cell biology mechanisms and for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of flower-shaped gold nanoparticles and demonstrates their applicability as SERS-active tags for cellular spectral detection. The particles were synthesized by a facile, rapid new route that uses ascorbic acid as a reducing agent of gold salt. Two triarylmethane dyes which are widely used as biological stains, namely malachite green oxalate and basic fuchsin, were used as Raman-active molecules and the polymer mPEG-SH as capping material. The as-prepared SERS-active nanoparticles were tested on a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line and found to present a low level of cytotoxicity and high chemical stability together with SERS sensitivity down to picomolar particle concentrations.

  11. An Analytical Study of the Legal, Ethical and Moral Aspects of the Living Phenomenon of Euthanasia.

    Ost, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    This work provides a close examination of the definitional issues surrounding euthanasia, and analyses euthanasia as a �living phenomenon� which can be best understood by reflecting upon subjective understandings of the subject and individuals� lived experiences of their medical conditions and treatment. The work addresses not only the law surrounding voluntary active euthanasia, but also the withdrawal of treatment from incapacitated patients, the refusal of treatment by competent pati...

  12. Determining the relationship between body compositions and nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages

    Hüseyin Gümüş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data’s were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as “bad” for 80.9% (n=86 as “medium” and for 3.5% (n=6 as “good”. It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in orphanages.

  13. Living together flash-floods: the Versilia (Italy) case study

    Caporali, Enrica; Pileggi, Tiziana; Gruntfest, Eve; Ruin, Isabelle; Federici, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    The phenomena involved in extreme flash-flood events are complex and their prediction is affected by a given degree of uncertainty that makes the warning communication very difficult to achieve. The promotion of the natural hazards perception and the improvement in warning communication, aimed at human life losses reduction, became extremely important to accomplish. As a case study the Versilia river basin, in North - West Tuscany, Central Italy, prone to frequent flash-flood events, is considered. In the area, as stated from Santini (a local historian of XIX century), since 1386 existed special statutes, imposing rivers maintenance for protection against floods. Historical data testify also that the biggest flood events have occurred in the years 1774, 1885, 1902 and 1996. The last event is the one deeply analyzed and better documented. It was exceptional, the consequences on the population were dramatic, and the effects on building and infrastructures were catastrophic. With reference to the Versilia region, a geographic database for flood risk assessment, integrating diachronic data with the results of hydrological and sedimentological modeling, and integrating different competencies, is implemented. The purpose is to provide valuable aid to flash-floods prediction, risk assessment, structural and non-structural mitigation measures. As a first attempt, the combination of all the information available on the history of floods of Versilia region and model results, together with human exposure to flash-flood risk, is also explored. The aim is to investigate the detailed hydrometeorological circumstances that lead to accidental casualties and to better understand the predominant physical factors of risk. In the framework of enhancing natural hazards perception, a very particular educational experience, dedicated to the personnel that work on the territory with different roles and in different fields (i.e. municipal and provincial police, national forest body

  14. Managing and resisting stigma: a qualitative study among people living with HIV in South Africa

    Naeemah Abrahams

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Living with HIV is of daily concern for many South Africans and poses challenges including adapting to a chronic illness and continuing to achieve and meet social expectations. This study explored experiences of being HIV-positive and how people manage stigma in their daily social interactions. Methods: Using qualitative methods we did repeat interviewed with 42 HIV-positive men and women in Cape Town and Mthatha resulting in 71 interviews. Results: HIV was ubiquitous in our informants’ lives, and almost all participants reported fear of stigma (perceived stigma, but this fear did not disrupt them completely. The most common stigma experiences were gossips and insults where HIV status was used as a tool, but these were often resisted. Many feared the possibility of stigma, but very few had experiences that resulted in discrimination or loss of social status. Stigma experiences were intertwined with other daily conflicts and together created tensions, particularly in gender relations, which interfered with attempts to regain normality. Evidence of support and resistance to stigma was common, and most encouraging was the evidence of how structural interventions such as de-stigmatizing policies impacted on experiences and transference into active resistance. Conclusions: The study showed the complex and shifting nature of stigma experiences. These differences must be considered when we intensify stigma reduction with context- and gender-specific strategies focussing on those not yet on ARV programmes.

  15. Social aspects of living with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative descriptive study in Soweto, South Africa – a low resource context

    Manabile Esther

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic illness with important functional, social and employment consequences. We therefore undertook a cross-sectional study, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework, to investigate the personal and social consequences of RA in women, living under largely impoverished conditions. Methods A qualitative case study design was used with a convenience sample of 60 women with RA living in Soweto, South Africa. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted to cover a range of experiences including onset of disease, treatment, environmental barriers and facilitators, employment, and social inclusion in family and community life. The outcomes are described according the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability framework at the body, person and societal levels and looking at both personal and environmental factors. Results The main features of living with RA were pain, muscle stiffness at the body level, difficulties in doing various activities such as mobility, washing, dressing, domestic activities, using transport and obtaining and maintaining employment at the person level. At the societal level the participants described difficulties moving around, interacting socially and taking part in community activities, fulfilling social roles and earning a living. Environmental facilitators such as assistive devices and health care services improved functioning. Barriers such as physical environments, lack of transport and basic services, such as electricity, and attitudes of others lead to social exclusion, loss of a sense of self and independence. Low income, lack of sufficient public transport, and sparse basic services were poverty features that exacerbated negative experiences. Conclusion The experiences of living with RA in a low resource context are similar to those in mid- and high resource contexts, but are exacerbated by

  16. Free-living cross-comparison of two wearable monitors for sleep and physical activity in healthy young adults.

    Cellini, Nicola; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Mednick, Sara C; Buman, Matthew P

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need for free-living monitoring of the full 24h spectrum of behaviors with a single or integrated set of sensors. The validity of field standard wearable monitors in sleep and physical activity have yet to be assessed for the complementary behavior in the context of 24h continuous monitoring. We conducted a free-living comparison study of the Actigraph GT3X+ (GT3X+) to assess sleep parameters as compared with the Actiwatch-64 (AW-64) and concurrently, the AW-64 to assess sedentary and physical activity behaviors as compared with the GT3X+. Thirty young adults (15 female, 19.2±0.86years) wore both monitors for 3 consecutive days and 2 consecutive nights. Agreement of sleep, sedentary, and physical activity metrics were evaluated using analyses of variance, intraclass correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots with associated confidence limits, mean absolute percentage of errors and equivalence tests. For sleep, the GT3X+ showed high agreement for total sleep time and sleep efficiency, but underestimated wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep onset latency relative to the AW-64. For sedentary behavior and physical activity, the AW-64 showed a moderate agreement for activity energy expenditure, but not for sedentary, light or moderate-vigorous physical activities relative to the GT3X+. Overall our results showed good agreement of the GT3X+ with AW-64 for assessing sleep but a lack of agreement between AW-64 and GT3X+ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. These results are likely due to the monitor placement (wrist vs hip), as well as the algorithm employed to score the data. Future validation work of existing and emerging technologies that may hold promise for 24h continuous monitoring is needed. PMID:26821185

  17. Achieving Marketing Curriculum Integration: A Live Case Study Approach

    Elam, Elizabeth L. R.

    2004-01-01

    Movement toward more active, experiential learning pedagogies is a trend that has found increasing interest in the last decade. The reasons for this interest include creating a more involving and interesting experience for the student, creating a more memorable experience, and facilitating more effective and durable learning. This article…

  18. Enhancing activities of daily living of chronic stroke patients in primary health care by modified constraint-induced movement therapy (HOMECIMT): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Barzel, Anne; Ketels, Gesche; Tetzlaff, Britta; Krüger, Heike; Haevernick, Kerstin; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke leads to constant rehabilitation needs even at the chronic stage. However, although many stroke patients receive physical or occupational therapy in primary health care, treatment prescriptions do not generally specify therapeutic goals; in particular, participation is not established as an explicit therapeutic goal in the ambulatory setting. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a therapy regimen for chronic stroke patients (modified ‘constraint-induc...

  19. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  20. Social and reproductive lives of women with bipolar disorder: A descriptive study from Turkey

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Bez, Yasin; İnanlı, Ikbal; Şahingöz, Mine; Ateş, Nazlı; Alpak, Gökay

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Bipolar disorder (BD) shows some differences across genders. Pregnancy, delivery, and lactation periods of women with BD may sometimes interfere with their treatment. In terms of social and reproductive lives, the characteristics of women with bipolar disorder living in our country have not been thoroughly studied yet. The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics of marital life, fertility, and social life of the women with BD. Methods: The study was conducted in 5 ...

  1. Live and Non-Live Pregnancy Outcomes among Women with Depression and Anxiety: A Population-Based Study

    Ban, Lu; Tata, Laila J.; West, Joe; Fiaschi, Linda; Gibson, Jack E

    2012-01-01

    Background Women taking antidepressant or anti-anxiety medications during early pregnancy have high risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes, although the contribution of the underlying illnesses to these risks remains unclear. We examined the impacts of antenatal depression and anxiety and of commonly prescribed treatments on the risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes. Methods We identified all pregnancies and their outcome (live birth, perinatal death, miscarriage or termination) among women aged...

  2. Active living and biking: tracing the evolution of a biking system in Arlington, Virginia.

    Hanson, Royce; Young, Garry

    2008-06-01

    In Arlington, Virginia, a steady evolutionary change in biking policy during the last three decades has yielded some of the nation's best biking assets. It has a comprehensive, well-connected, highly integrated, well-mapped, and well-signed system of shared-use paved trails, bike lanes, bike routes, and other biking assets, such as workplace showers. Understanding the conditions that led to Arlington's current biking system can provide lessons in the strategy and tactics of active-living politics. One potentially effective political strategy that was successful in Arlington is for activists to pressure elected officials to select professional managers who see bike-ways as crucial to the overall transportation system. Then it is important to formalize the government-citizen relationship through an advisory panel. Also, in Arlington, the incremental creation of biking assets helped create demand for more and better facilities. In turn, this created political support for expanding and upgrading. Finally, Arlington used potentially negative circumstances (e.g., the building of highway corridors, the introduction of the Metro) as opportunities to change the built environment in ways that have encouraged more active living. PMID:18469167

  3. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  4. Neither single, nor in a couple. A study of living apart together in France

    Arnaud Regnier-Loilier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Among living arrangements, living apart together relationships arouse curiosity on the part of sociologists, demographers and even the media. From a scientific point of view, how have noncohabiting relationships evolved in recent decades? How can we recognise these relationships, and who are the populations concerned? The present study provides an overall view into noncohabiting relationships in France, shedding light on the characteristics of both the individuals concerned and their relationships. There has been no recent increase in the prevalence of this living arrangement. It competes with cohabiting relationships both among students and among people with cohabiting children. Four main groups of living apart relationships are described: "Young adults", "Out of a family", "Seniors." The reasons for living apart as well as future intentions vary considerably across these groups.

  5. An Active Lifestyle is Associated with Better Neurocognitive Functioning in Adults Living with HIV-infection

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Heaton, Robert K.; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Rosario, Debra; Moore, Raeanne C.; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of healthy adults show that engagement in physical, social, and mental activities is associated with better cognitive outcomes, suggesting these activities may increase cognitive reserve. Given the prevalence and real-world impact of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the present study examined the association between neurocognitive outcomes and self-reported proxies for physical exercise, social activity, and mental activity (employment was used as a proxy for mental act...

  6. Association of BODE index to daily living activities and upper limb strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Renukadevi Mahadevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive disease that reduces the functional capacity and the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL. Aims: To determine the correlation between the BODE index (B - body mass index; O - airflow obstruction; D - dyspnea; and E - exercise capacity with ADL and grip strength in COPD patients. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at JSS Hospital, Mysore. It was a correlational study. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-six COPD subjects were recruited by convenience sampling. Forced expiratory volume, body mass index, Six-Minute Walk Test, and Medical Research Council scale were assessed. The BODE index was calculated. The total score of London Chest Activities of Daily Living (LCADL and grip strength were compared between the patients of the four quartiles of the BODE index. The association between LCADL and grip Strength with BODE index was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Eta coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the analysis of variance were used. Results: The Eta coefficients showed the strength or the measure of associations of BODE index with age, grip strength, and LCADL. Spearman's correlation coefficient shows that there is an inverse association with grip strength and LCADL, and it was statistically significant as theP<0.05. Conclusions: ADL limitation and hand grip strength test have a strong association with the BODE index in patients with moderate to severe COPD.

  7. Preliminary studies on the holding of live mussels after harvest

    Yap, W.G.; Orano, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Green mussel (Perna viridis) were harvested to study the applicability of chilling to keep the mussels alive for a longer period of time and to review existing methods of packaging and transport. Data obtained from preliminary studies indicated the effectiveness of keeping mussels alive as long as 4 days with minimal mortality rates.

  8. Motor function and activities of daily living capacity of patients with fractures sustained during the Wenchuan earthquake

    ZHANG Jin-long; HE Hong-chen; LIN Hai-dan; LUO Qing-lu; XIA Lu; LI Sha-sha; HE Cheng-qi

    2011-01-01

    Background On the afternoon of May 12, 2008, a 8.0-magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province, a mountainous region in Western China, killing about 70 000 people and leaving over 18 000 missing. What about the survivors motor functions and activities of daily living (ADL) capacity, especially for fractures? We need the data to guide the rehabilitation for the seismic wounded and it' s important to collect the data for the future. We study the survivors to understand the motor functions and ADL capacity of patients with fractures sustained in the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide a basis for rehabilitation and treatment.Methods We used the Manual Muscle Testing method to evaluate muscle strength, the joint angle scale to measure joint range of motion (ROM), and the Barthel index to evaluate the activities of daily living status. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data and the results were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).Results The number of seismic wounded amounted to 487; 81.1% of patients had fractures. Most of the injured had fractures in multiple regions (53.9% of all fracture patients), followed by fractures of the upper limb (34.0% of patients);cranial fractures were rare (2.3%). Totally 82.0% had restricted range of motion, 23.5% had decreased muscle force, and 72.2% of the patients had restricted activities of daily living capacities. With time the activities of daily living capacity of female increased (P <0.05), compared with the male fracture patients who did not show any relative improvement (P >0.05). The difference between the patients' ages and ADL capacities did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05), nor was there a significant difference between their ages and the numbers of days in hospital (P >0.05).Conclusions Fractures were the main issue in the seismic wounded, many of them had reductions in the ROM, muscle force and ADL capacities. The physicians involved in rehabilitation should pay greater attention to

  9. Rapid activation of Rac GTPase in living cells by force is independent of Src.

    Yeh-Chuin Poh

    Full Text Available It is well known that mechanical forces are crucial in regulating functions of every tissue and organ in a human body. However, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical activities and biological responses at the cellular and molecular level. Using the magnetic twisting cytometry technique, we applied local mechanical stresses to living human airway smooth muscle cells with a magnetic bead bound to the cell surface via transmembrane adhesion molecule integrins. The temporal and spatial activation of Rac, a small guanosine triphosphatase, was quantified using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET method that measures changes in Rac activity in response to mechanical stresses by quantifying intensity ratios of ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein as a donor and YPet (a variant yellow fluorescent protein as an acceptor of the Rac biosensor. The applied stress induced rapid activation (less than 300 ms of Rac at the cell periphery. In contrast, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF induced Rac activation at a much later time (>30 sec. There was no stress-induced Rac activation when a mutant form of the Rac biosensor (RacN17 was transfected or when the magnetic bead was coated with transferrin or with poly-L-lysine. It is known that PDGF-induced Rac activation depends on Src activity. Surprisingly, pre-treatment of the cells with specific Src inhibitor PP1 or knocking-out Src gene had no effects on stress-induced Rac activation. In addition, eliminating lipid rafts through extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane did not prevent stress-induced Rac activation, suggesting a raft-independent mechanism in governing the Rac activation upon mechanical stimulation. Further evidence indicates that Rac activation by stress depends on the magnitudes of the applied stress and cytoskeletal integrity. Our results suggest that Rac activation by mechanical forces is rapid, direct and does not depend on Src

  10. EFFECTS OF BURN ON THE MOBILITY OF UPPER LIMB/S, FUNCTIONS OF HAND /S & ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING

    Perera M M N

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn is an injury cause destruction of skin and underling tissue. Post burns complications are severe. Objective of this study is to identify the effects on the Active Range of Motion (AROM of upper limb/s, hand functions and Activities of Daily Living (ADL who attend the physical therapy department of burns unit. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at out-patient physical therapy department of burns unit of National Hospital of SriLanka (NHSL. Fifty subjects recruited into the study. Interviewer assisted self administered questionnaire Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder,Hand Questionnaire (DASH, AROM of nine movements of shoulder and elbow joints and hand function assessment Signals of Functional, Impairements of hand (SOFI was used to collect data. Results: Study results showed that Flame burns were the most common burn type and majority of the victims were females. Study population had affected AROM in almost all the movements at the joint, which had affected to the ADL significantly. “Keeping an object shelf above head” and “engaging in heavy work”, showed significant correlation with movements of shoulder. SOFI score for the right hand showed significant correlation with selected Activities of Daily Living (ADL (“writing”,” using knife to cut food” opening a jar” etc ;. Conclusion: patient with burn injury including upper limb joints may encounter disabilities. Even though it is mild AROM restrictions at a joint, This restriction affects to persons’ independency in ADL s. This emphasizes the need of intensive medical care as well as long term physical therapy rehabilitation programme for burns patients. Limitations: Each subject’s AROM was not measured at their discharge which was already stated to be a limitation.

  11. Measurement of separase proteolytic activity in single living cells by a fluorogenic flow cytometry assay.

    Wiltrud Haaß

    Full Text Available ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110 as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90-180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic

  12. Intravital microscopy: a novel tool to study cell biology in living animals

    Weigert, Roberto; Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Masedunskas, Andrius

    2010-01-01

    Intravital microscopy encompasses various optical microscopy techniques aimed at visualizing biological processes in live animals. In the last decade, the development of non-linear optical microscopy resulted in an enormous increase of in vivo studies, which have addressed key biological questions in fields such as neurobiology, immunology and tumor biology. Recently, few studies have shown that subcellular processes can be imaged dynamically in the live animal at a resolution comparable to t...

  13. Biogeochemical studies of long-lived radionuclides in marine environments

    Research results from several studies relevant to seabed dispoal of radioactive wastes are briefly discussed. The studies include: (1) mobilization of plutonium from Enewetak and Bikini lagoon sediments to seawater; (2) concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, /sup 239+240/Pu, 241Am, 207Bi and 210Pb-210Bi-210Po in fish from the Marshall Islands; and (3) plutonium in northeast Atlantic sediments

  14. The study of long-lived tritium-luminescence

    Tritium is a common nuclear material. The gaseous tritium is pure beta ray source. This paper presents the β-ray source of tritium, by which activating the phosphors to shine. Compared by experiment to determine the common phosphors, red light phosphor is Y2O2S: Eu; green light phosphor is ZnS: Cu, Al; blue light phosphor is ZnS: Ag. Developing the long life phosphors, which inhaling the tritium in the condition of microvacuum and high temperature. Developing the tritium light source with glass tube that whirl smeared the phosphors and filled with tritium. At last the vacuum system be sealed off after the tritium is filled. The tritium light source have two main advantages : its useful life over ten years and could incandescence without extra external power-driven, so it can be used for indication and security. (authors)

  15. Living with a Gastric Band: A Qualitative Study

    Michael Pfeil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric banding is an established and effective form of weightloss surgery. Semi-structured interviews explored the experiences of gastric banding of twenty purposively recruited patients one year after surgery. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Three themes emerged. They included ‘Exercising choice’ (restriction by the band was counterbalanced by new food-related choices.; ‘Rediscovering life’ (improved health, physical ability and energy enabled the patients to re-discover life. and ‘Goals achieved with no regrets’ (patients had nearly achieved their self-set goals. Conclusion: Beyond achieving weight loss and improved health, the participants had improved quality of life as defined by patients. Knowledge about this active process informs the care of these patients.

  16. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Gorely Trish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise.

  17. Frail Institutionalized Older Persons A Comprehensive Review on Physical Exercise, Physical Fitness, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality-of-Life

    Weening-Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2011-01-01

    Weening-Dijksterhuis E, de Greef MHG, Scherder EJA, Slaets JPJ, van der Schans CP: Frail institutionalized older persons: A comprehensive review on physical exercise, physical fitness, activities of daily living, and quality-of-life. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:156Y168. The objective of this study

  18. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: A longitudinal comparison study protocol

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel; Kimenai, F.F.P.; Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods: The "LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation" (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmu...

  19. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: a longitudinal comparison study protocol

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel W. J.; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K.; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods The “LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation” (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmus University M...

  20. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: a longitudinal comparison study protocol

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel W. J.; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K.; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods: The “LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation” (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmus University...

  1. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions-a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY(505/515), and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  2. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Wagner O. de Morais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  3. Active and long-lived permanent forearc deformation driven by the subduction seismic cycle

    Aron Melo, Felipe Alejandro

    I have used geological, geophysical and engineering methods to explore mechanisms of upper plate, brittle deformation at active forearc regions. My dissertation particularly addresses the permanent deformation style experienced by the forearc following great subduction ruptures, such as the 2010 M w8.8 Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquakes. These events triggered large, shallow seismicity on upper plate normal faults above the rupture reaching Mw7.0. First I present new structural data from the Chilean Coastal Cordillera over the rupture zone of the Maule earthquake. The study area contains the Pichilemu normal fault, which produced the large crustal aftershocks of the megathrust event. Normal faults are the major neotectonic structural elements but reverse faults also exist. Crustal seismicity and GPS surface displacements show that the forearc experiences pulses of rapid coseismic extension, parallel to the heave of the megathrust, and slow interseismic, convergence-parallel shortening. These cycles, over geologic time, build the forearc structural grain, reactivating structures properly-oriented respect to the deformation field of each stage of the interplate cycle. Great subduction events may play a fundamental role in constructing the crustal architecture of extensional forearc regions. Static mechanical models of coseismic and interseismic upper plate deformation are used to explore for distinct features that could result from brittle fracturing over the two stages of the interplate cycle. I show that the semi-elliptical outline of the first-order normal faults along the Coastal Cordillera may define the location of a characteristic, long-lived megathrust segment. Finally, using data from the Global CMT catalog I analyzed the seismic behavior through time of forearc regions that have experienced great subduction ruptures >Mw7.7 worldwide. Between 61% and 83% of the cases where upper plate earthquakes exhibited periods of increased seismicity

  4. Factors affecting mobility milestones and activities of daily living after stroke

    Mobility milestones are elementary movements related to activities of daily living (ADL) and have a significant influence on functional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting mobility milestones and to clarify the relationships between mobility milestones and ADL. Participants were in the acute phase after first-ever strokes (ischemic, n=77; hemorrhagic, n=84). Clinical and radiological factors within the first week were determined and their effects on mobility milestones after 4 weeks were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. After 4 weeks the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of sitting balance, standing balance, and walking ability. Then total ADL score was calculated using the Barthel index (BI), and percentage of independent patients in each 10 items of BI was transition rate of ADL for each of the four groups. Patients with ischemic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion on computed tomography (CT) (R2=0.86); standing balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and consciousness level (R2=0.72); and walking ability was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis (R2=0.64). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis, intraventricular hemorrhage on CT, blood pressure instability, and fever (R2=0.75); standing balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R2=0.58); and walking ability was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R2=0.70). In both types of stroke, sitting and standing balance and walking ability were directly associated with total ADL score, and sitting and standing balance became independent earlier than ADL. Severity of lower limb

  5. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  6. Assisted Living

    ... may also be higher than in other supported-living environments. Adult Foster Care Foster care homes generally provide ... board, and some help with activities of daily living. This is provided by ... more home-like environment. Regulations for foster care vary by state, and ...

  7. Evaluation of effects of shoulder girdle training on strength and performance of activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Velloso M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Velloso, Nilce Helena do Nascimento, Mariana R Gazzotti, José R Jardim Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo/Associação de Assistência à Criança Deficiente (Unifesp/AACD, Brazil Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have some limitations during activities of daily living that involve the arms. There is little information on the benefits of shoulder girdle training and its repercussions for activities of daily living in patients with COPD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether shoulder girdle training with diagonal movements increases upper limb muscle strength and improves performance of activities of daily living in patients with COPD. Methods: Thirty-five patients with moderate to severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second 1.22 ± 0.49 L and aged 36–80 years were recruited. Endurance time, maximal sustained weight, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, dyspnea, and arm fatigue were evaluated during an incremental upper limb test and eight simulated activities of daily living before and after an 8-week exercise training program. Results: A significant gain was observed for upper limb strength (P < 0.05. At the peak of the upper limb incremental test, the respiratory rate dropped from 33 to 27 breaths per minute, the Borg dyspnea score decreased from 2 to 0.5, and the upper limb fatigue score decreased from 3 to 2 (P < 0.05. No change was seen in any of these parameters during performance of activities of daily living. Conclusion: Although shoulder girdle training increased upper limb strength, no improvement was detected in performance of activities of daily living. Keywords: pulmonary disease, rehabilitation, upper limb training

  8. Living with myotonic dystrophy; what can be learned from couples? a qualitative study

    van der Wilt Gert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular diseases, yet very little is known about how MD1 affects the lives of couples and how they themselves manage individually and together. To better match health care to their problems, concerns and needs, it is important to understand their perspective of living with this hereditary, systemic disease. Methods A qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of five middle-aged couples, including three men and two women with MD1 and their partners. Fifteen in-depth interviews with persons with MD1, with their partners and with both of them as a couple took place in the homes of the couples in two cities and three villages in the Netherlands in 2009. Results People with MD1 associate this progressive, neuromuscular condition with decreasing abilities, describing physical, cognitive and psychosocial barriers to everyday activities and social participation. Partners highlighted the increasing care giving burden, giving directions and using reminders to compensate for the lack of initiative and avoidant behaviour due to MD1. Couples portrayed the dilemmas and frustrations of renegotiating roles and responsibilities; stressing the importance of achieving a balance between individual and shared activities. All participants experienced a lack of understanding from relatives, friends, and society, including health care, leading to withdrawal and isolation. Health care was perceived as fragmentary, with specialists focusing on specific aspects of the disease rather than seeking to understand the implications of the systemic disorder on daily life. Conclusions Learning from these couples has resulted in recommendations that challenge the tendency to treat MD1 as a condition with primarily physical impairments. It is vital to listen to couples, to elicit the impact of MD1, as a multisystem disorder that influences every aspect of their life together

  9. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY RESIDING IN URBAN AREAS, KATHMANDU: PILOT STUDY

    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  10. Tympanic membrane temperature in adopted children associated with sleep problems and pre-adoption living arrangements: an exploratory study

    Damsteegt, Rani C; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Out, Dorothée; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tympanic membrane temperature (TMT) has been proposed as an indicator of cerebral activation and TMT asymmetry may indicate lateralization, which has been associated with specific (problem) behaviors in children and adults. The current study explored the relations between pre-adoption living arrangements, TMT, and behavior and sleep problems in a sample of adopted toddlers. Methods Ninety-two families who had adopted a Chinese girl who had previously been placed in an institution o...

  11. Study on the Curcumin dynamics and distribution through living biofilms

    Carvalho, Mariana T.; Dovigo, Lívia N.; Rastelli, Alessandra N. S.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2013-03-01

    Human oral cavity is colonized by a wide range of microorganisms, often organized in biofilms. These biofilms are responsible for the pathogenesis of caries and most periodontal diseases. A possible alternative to reduce biofilms is the photodynamic inactivation (PDI). The success of the PDI depends on different factors. The time required by the PS to remain in contact with the target cells prior to illumination is determinant for the technique's efficacy. This study aimed to assess the interaction between the PS and the biofilm prior to the PDI. We used confocal microscopy and FLIM to evaluate the interaction between the PS and the biofilm's microorganism during the pre-irradiation time (PIT). The study of this dynamics can lead to the understanding of why only some PSs are effective and why is necessary a long PIT for some microorganisms. Our results showed that are differences for each PIT. These differences can be the determinate for the efficacy of the PDI. We observed that the microorganism needs time to concentrate and/or transport the PS within the biofilm. We presented preliminary results for biofilms of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in the presence of Curcumin and compared it with the literature. We observed that the effectiveness of the PDI might be directly correlated to the position of the PS with the biofilm. Further analyses will be conducted in order to confirm the potential of FLIM to assess the PS dynamics within the biofilms.

  12. The lived experience with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a qualitative study.

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Kaldan, Gudrun; Marsaa, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Thyge Lynghøj; Shaker, Saher Burhan; Egerod, Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    The disease course in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is variable, but patients experience a progressive decline in lung function and increased symptom burden leading to death. Little is known about the patients' experience and their needs during the disease course or about the burden on family caregivers. Both patients and family caregivers face an altered life as the disease progresses. The aim of our study was to increase knowledge of life with IPF for patients and family caregivers.This study had a qualitative descriptive design using in-depth dyadic interviews with IPF patients (n=25) and family caregivers (n=24). We used the five-step analysis from the framework method and analysed the data on three levels: the patient, the family caregivers and couple level.The following six themes emerged as the main results: information and disclosure, reactional dyssynchrony, perpetual vigilance, emotional ambivalence, gradual and tacit role shift, and adapted coping strategies.Our findings suggest that IPF patients need information at the time of diagnosis, but some issues should be paced as the disease progresses. A palliation plan was demanded by patients and their caregivers. Further efforts are required to provide palliative care to IPF patients starting at the time of diagnosis. PMID:26846831

  13. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. Further, simple and partial correlation analyses were conducted between each motor function and activities of daily living parameter. [Results] Simple correlation analysis identified significant positive correlations for each pair. In contrast, partial correlation analysis only identified significant positive correlations between the affected lower limb or unaffected side functions and the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. This discrepancy between the two tests was explained by the significant interaction between the affected upper and lower limb functions and between the trunk and unaffected side functions. [Conclusion] The present study identified the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as the major determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients. These findings suggest that rehabilitation programs can be improved by targeting these areas. PMID:26311957

  14. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of living cells: different redox activities of nonmetastatic and metastatic human breast cells.

    Liu, B; Rotenberg, S A; Mirkin, M V

    2000-08-29

    Electrochemical methods have been widely used to monitor physiologically important molecules in biological systems. This report describes the first application of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to probe the redox activity of individual living cells. The possibilities of measuring the rate and investigating the pathway of transmembrane charge transfer are demonstrated. By this approach, significant differences are detected in the redox responses given by nonmotile, nontransformed human breast epithelial cells, breast cells with a high level of motility (engendered by overexpression of protein kinase Calpha), and highly metastatic breast cancer cells. SECM analysis of the three cell lines reveals reproducible differences with respect to the kinetics of charge transfer by several redox mediators. PMID:10963658

  15. Optimization of irradiation decay and counting times in nuclear activation analysis using short-lived nuclides

    This work describes a method and outlines a procedure for optim- ization of an activation analysis with respect to the experimental times, irradiation time, t(subi), decay time and counting time. The method is based on the 'minimum relative standard deviation criterion', and specially designed for the use on short-lived nuclides. A computer program, COMB1, is written in the BASIC language in order to make the calculations easier and faster. It is intended to be understandable, and easily applicable on a computer of modest size. Time and cost are important factors, especially for routine analysis on a service basis. In such cases one can often allow a controlled reduction in the analysis quality (through a higher relative standard deviation). The procedure outlined can therefore help find acceptable conditions by calculation of the 'best practical' (or reasonable) experimental time values, and the minimum number of accumulation cycles necessary to fulfil the requirements given. (Auth.)

  16. Fast-Neutron Activation of Long-Lived Nuclides in Natural Pb

    Guiseppe, V E; Fields, N E; Hixon, D

    2012-01-01

    We measured the production of the long-lived nuclides Bi-207, Pb-202, and Hg-194 in a sample of natural Pb due to high-energy neutron interactions using a neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The activated sample was counted by a HPGe detector to measure the amount of radioactive nuclides present. These nuclides are critical in understanding potential backgrounds in low background experiments utilizing large amounts of Pb shielding due to cosmogenic neutron interactions in the Pb while residing on the Earth's surface. By scaling the LANSCE neutron flux to a cosmic neutron flux, we measure the sea level cosmic ray production rates of 8.0 +/- 1.3 atoms/kg/day of Hg-194, 120 +/- 25 atoms/kg/day Pb-202, and 0.17 +/- 0.04 atoms/kg/day Bi-207.

  17. Revealing lives: a qualitative study with children and young people affected by parental alcohol problems

    Hill, Louise Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been recognition that children and young people have considerable knowledge about their own lives that merits academic attention. The overall aim of this study is to reflexively engage with children and young people who have been affected by parental (or significant carer) alcohol problems and to explore, from their perspectives, the perceived impact on their lives and their experiences of support. Given the common secrecy and potential stigma of pr...

  18. Perceived benefits and negative consequences of alcohol consumption in women living with HIV: a qualitative study

    Cook, Robert L.; Cook, Christa L.; Karki, Manju; Weber, Kathleen M.; Thoma, Kathleen A.; Loy, Chelsea M.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett

    2016-01-01

    Background Women living with HIV have increased prevalence of medical and psychological comorbidities that could be adversely affected by alcohol consumption. Little is known about their unique motivations for drinking or perceptions of HIV-related consequences. In preparation for an alcohol intervention study, we sought to better understand reasons for drinking and perceived consequences of alcohol consumption among a sample of women living with HIV. Methods Four focus groups, with a total o...

  19. Comparative Study on Presentation of Biliary Ascariasis with Dead and Living Worms

    Alam, Shahinul; Mustafa, Golam; Rahman, Salimur; Kabir, Shamsul A.; Rashid, Harun O.; Khan, Mobin

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA). The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparis...

  20. Juvenile Delinquency in Ghana: A Qualitative Study of the Lived Experiences of Young Offenders in Accra

    Boakye, Augustine Osei

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I explored the perceived circumstances which make adolescents become involved in juvenile delinquency. The meanings which they make out of their delinquent behaviours were also of great interest. Using a semi-structured interview guide, the lived experiences of six (6) young offenders were collected. Following a Narrative Analysis of the young offenders lived experiences, six (6) main themes emerged as the circumstances which made them become involved in delinquency: religiosit...

  1. Physical activity levels and perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity in HIV-infected women living in the deep south of the United States.

    Rehm, Kristina E; Konkle-Parker, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity (PA) is important in maintaining health and increasing the overall quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH). The deep south of the USA is known for its high rate of sedentary behavior although data on the activity levels and perceptions of the benefits and barriers to exercise in women living with HIV in the deep south are lacking. Understanding the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise can guide the development of PA interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the PA levels and perceived benefits and barriers to exercise associated with both age and depression level in a group of HIV+ women living in the deep south. We recruited a total of 50 participants from a cohort site for the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and benefits/barriers to exercise were measured using the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). We measured PA both subjectively and objectively using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and a Fitbit PA monitor, respectively. Our sample was predominantly African-American (96%) and the mean ±SD age, body mass index, and CES-D score were 42 ± 8.8 years, 36.6 ± 11.5 kg/m(2), and 15.6 ± 11.4, respectively. Both subjective and objective measures of PA indicated that our participants were sedentary. The greatest perceived benefit to exercise was physical performance and the greatest barrier to exercise was physical exertion. Higher overall perceived benefits were reported by women ≥43 years and women reporting higher levels of depression. There was no difference in overall barriers associated with age and depression level, but women with depression felt more fatigued by exercise. The results of this study can be helpful when designing and implementing PA interventions in women living with HIV in the deep south. PMID:27023306

  2. Live imaging of cysteine-cathepsin activity reveals dynamics of focal inflammation, angiogenesis, and polyp growth.

    Elias Gounaris

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that up to 30% of detectable polyps in patients regress spontaneously. One major challenge in the evaluation of effective therapy of cancer is the readout for tumor regression and favorable biological response to therapy. Inducible near infra-red (NIR fluorescent probes were utilized to visualize intestinal polyps of mice hemizygous for a novel truncation of the Adenomatous Polyposis coli (APC gene. Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy in live mice allowed visualization of cathepsin activity in richly vascularized benign dysplastic lesions. Using biotinylated suicide inhibitors we quantified increased activities of the Cathepsin B & Z in the polyps. More than (3/4 of the probe signal was localized in CD11b(+Gr1(+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC and CD11b(+F4/80(+ macrophages infiltrating the lesions. Polyposis was attenuated through genetic ablation of cathepsin B, and suppressed by neutralization of TNFalpha in mice. In both cases, diminished probe signal was accounted for by loss of MDSC. Thus, in vivo NIR imaging of focal cathepsin activity reveals inflammatory reactions etiologically linked with cancer progression and is a suitable approach for monitoring response to therapy.

  3. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1–3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. - Highlights: • The data on biological half-lives from Russian language literature were reviewed. • Radionuclides with the shortest half-lives in animals are those which accumulate in soft tissues. • Short term behaviour is affected by the form in which radionuclides are administered. • There is a tendency for more rapid radionuclide turnover in younger animals

  4. Dietary probiotic live yeast modulates antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae

    Tovar-ramirez, D.; Mazurais, David; Gatesoupe, J. F.; Quazuguel, Patrick; Cahu, Chantal; Zambonino-infante, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to determine the effect of dietary live yeast Debaryomyces hansenii on the enzymatic antioxidative status of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax larvae. Growth, activity and expression of the main antioxidative enzymes: catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and heat shock protein (HSP70) were measured in sea bass larvae at 23 and 48 days after hatching. Larvae were fed on two microdiets: group one, fed microdiet containing live y...

  5. Promoting a healthy diet and physical activity in adults with intellectual disabilities living in community residences: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomized intervention

    Wihlman Ulla; Hagberg Jan; Bergström Helena; Elinder Liselotte; Hagströmer Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many adults with intellectual disabilities have poor dietary habits, low physical activity and weight disturbances. This study protocol describes the design and evaluation of a health intervention aiming to improve diet and physical activity in this target group. In Sweden, adults with intellectual disabilities often live in community residences where the staff has insufficient education regarding the special health needs of residents. No published lifestyle interventions ...

  6. A 3-year follow-up of stroke patients: relationships between activities of daily living and personality characteristics.

    Elmståhl, S; Sommer, M; Hagberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The importance of some personality characteristics for improvement of activities of daily life (ADL) was studied in sixty-six stroke patients, initially admitted to geriatric rehabilitation (n=37) or the department of medicine (n=29), 3 years after stroke. Outcome measurements were activities of daily life and motor and mental functions assessed using the Activity Index (AI) by Hamrin and Wohlin (1982). Neuroticism and extroversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory Scale. Preferred coping strategies were assessed from interviews on how the patients handle difficult events. Major improvements of ADL and motor functions were seen the first year after stroke. There was no major differences between patients admitted, either to geriatric rehabilitation or traditional medical wards regarding the outcome measurements except for better eating ability in the former group 3 years later. Subjects living alone showed deteriorated ADL functions after 3 years. Extrovert personality and active coping strategy predicted improved ADL functions. Multiple regression analyses with AI as the dependent variable proved active coping to predict functional outcome. In conclusion; increased knowledge about personality characteristics can improve possibilities for a more individual rehabilitation program. PMID:15374173

  7. Effects of training using video games on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of chronic stroke patients.

    Lee, Gyuchang

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Fourteen stroke patients were recruited. They were randomly allocated into two groups; the experimental group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). [Methods] The experimental group performed training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect together with conventional occupational therapy for 6 weeks (1 hour/day, 3 days/week), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy only for 6 weeks (30 min/day, 3 days/week). Before and after the intervention, the participants were measured for muscle strength, muscle tone, and performance of activities of daily living. [Results] There were significant differences pre- and post-test in muscle strength of the upper extremities, except the wrist, and performance of activities of daily living in the experimental group. There were no significant differences between the two groups at post-test. [Conclusion] The training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect had a positive effect on the motor function and performance of activities of daily living. This study showed that training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect may be an effective intervention for the rehabilitation of stroke patients. PMID:24259810

  8. Study on activation analysis

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  9. A performance study of live VM migration technologies: VMotion vs XenMotion

    Feng, Xiujie; Tang, Jianxiong; Luo, Xuan; Jin, Yaohui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the growing demand of flexible resource management for cloud computing services, researches on live virtual machine migration have attained more and more attention. Live migration of virtual machine across different hosts has been a powerful tool to facilitate system maintenance, load balancing, fault tolerance and so on. In this paper, we use a measurement-based approach to compare the performance of two major live migration technologies under certain network conditions, i.e., VMotion and XenMotion. The results show that VMotion generates much less data transferred than XenMotion when migrating identical VMs. However, in network with moderate packet loss and delay, which are typical in a VPN (virtual private network) scenario used to connect the data centers, XenMotion outperforms VMotion in total migration time. We hope that this study can be helpful in choosing suitable virtualization environments for data center administrators and optimizing existing live migration mechanisms.

  10. Determining the relationship between nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages and their health and body compositions

    Hüseyin Gümüş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found in the study that 13.9% of boys and 31.3% of girls had health problems. It was also found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI (Healthy eating index score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as "bad" for 80.9% (n=86 as "medium" and for 3.5% (n=6 as "good". It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in

  11. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Conradsson M; Littbr; H.; Boström G; Lindelöf N; Gustafson Y; Rosendahl E

    2013-01-01

    Mia Conradsson,1 Håkan Littbrand,1,2 Gustaf Boström,1 Nina Lindelöf,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Erik Rosendahl1,2 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) could be important mediators for an association between physical exerci...

  12. The Lived Experience of Nursing Students Who Study Abroad: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Edmonds, Michelle Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Nurse Researchers need to explore study abroad programs and identify their impact on the development of cultural competence and global perspectives in nursing students. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of nursing students who study abroad and to identify benefits and impediments that may be used to spawn future…

  13. Cancer Screening among Immigrants Living in Urban and Regional Australia: Results from the 45 and Up Study

    Marianne F. Weber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%, live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT, and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian-born participants aged 50 years or older in the 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia 2006–2010. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks of test use, adjusting for key socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, immigrants from Asia and Europe were less likely to have had any of the tests in the previous two years than Australian-born participants. Regional Australian-born participants were more likely to have had any of the tests than those living in urban areas. Regional immigrant participants were more likely to have had an FOBT or PSA test than those living in urban areas, but there were no differences in mammograms. This report identifies key immigrant groups in urban and regional areas that policymakers and healthcare providers should target with culturally appropriate information to promote cancer screening.

  14. Cancer Screening among immigrants living in urban and regional Australia: results from the 45 and up study.

    Weber, Marianne F; Chiew, May; Feletto, Eleonora; Kahn, Clare; Sitas, Freddy; Webster, Lucy

    2014-08-01

    Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%), live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT), and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian-born participants aged 50 years or older in the 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia 2006-2010). Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks of test use, adjusting for key socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, immigrants from Asia and Europe were less likely to have had any of the tests in the previous two years than Australian-born participants. Regional Australian-born participants were more likely to have had any of the tests than those living in urban areas. Regional immigrant participants were more likely to have had an FOBT or PSA test than those living in urban areas, but there were no differences in mammograms. This report identifies key immigrant groups in urban and regional areas that policymakers and healthcare providers should target with culturally appropriate information to promote cancer screening. PMID:25153460

  15. Trends in instrumentation for activation analysis of short-lived nuclides

    This paper reports on the last year's two major activities of the authors' nuclear instrumentation group in the field of high rate and high resolution gamma spectrometry mainly devoted to the needs of activation analysis of short-lived nuclides. The first of the projects was the completion of a state-of-the-art spectrometry system for very high counting rates. Based on a laboratory-designed gated integrator pulse processing system and equipped with an Ortec Gamma-X detector of 20% relative efficiency it exhibits a basic resolution of 2.3 keV at 1332 keV, which at a counting rate of 1.1 million cps of 60Co degrades to 3.4 keV. The second project included the successful implementation of the novel Preloaded Filter Technique, a new method for high resolution and high throughput processing of nuclear detector signals. An experimental implementation of the Preloaded Filter combined with an Ortec Gamma-X detector of 15% relative efficiency resulted in a basic resolution of 1.9 keV at 1332 keV at a counting rate of 5000 cps slowly degrading to 3.2 keV at a counting rate of 650 000 cps of 60Co. (author)

  16. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:25048352

  17. Level of asthma control and its impact on activities of daily living in asthma patients in Brazil

    Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma on activities of daily living and on health status in patients with controlled, partially controlled, or uncontrolled asthma in Brazil. METHODS: We used data related to 400 patients in four Brazilian cities (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Curitiba, obtained in a survey conducted throughout Latin America in 2011. All study subjects were > 12 years of age and completed a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. The questions addressed asthma control, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. The level of asthma control was determined in accordance with the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. RESULTS: Among the 400 respondents, asthma was controlled in 37 (9.3%, partially controlled in 226 (56.5%, and uncontrolled in 137 (34.2%. The numbers of patients with uncontrolled or partially controlled asthma who visited the emergency room, who were hospitalized, and who missed school/work were higher than were those of patients with controlled asthma (p = 0.001, p = 0.05, and p = 0.01, respectively. Among those with uncontrolled asthma, the impact of the disease on activities of daily living, sleep, social activities, and normal physical exertion was greater than it was among those with controlled or partially controlled asthma (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, asthma treatment should be monitored more closely in order to increase treatment adherence and, consequently, the level of asthma control, which can improve patient quality of life and minimize the negative impact of the disease.

  18. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  19. A Study on Anxiety Levels of Children Having Fatherless and Living With Mother and Father

    Funda ÖZDAL

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned with the aim of determining the anxiety level of children who live with their parents and children who live with only their mother and of analysing whether or not some variables make difference on the anxiety level. Participants of the study were primary school students (age level is ten-eleven years. The sampleincludes 300 children in order to represent different socioeconomical conditions. Two questionnaires were administered to the participants: “General Information Form” and “Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory” which is developed by Spielberger et.al. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The findings of the study show that those children without father have higher levels of stait and trait anxiety in contrast to those living with parents. Furthermore, it is found that age leads to significannt differences on the stait anxiety scores and that lack of father leads to significant differences on the trait anxiety scores.

  20. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi. PMID:21148871

  1. A new integrative methodology for desertification studies based on magnetic and short-lived radioisotope measurements

    The use of mineral magnetic measurements and short-lived radioisotope studies with 210Pb and 137Cs is discussed within the ecosystem watershed conceptual framework. Used in conjunction with geomorphological, sedimentological, palaeoecological and geochemical techniques, these methods can form the core of an integrated multidisciplinary study of desertification and erosion processes on all relevant temporal and spatial scales. 30 refs.; 4 figs

  2. Using biophotonics to study signaling mechanisms in a single living cell

    Chang, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    To illustrate the power of the biophysical approach in solving important problems in life science, I present here one of our current research projects as an example. We have developed special biophotonic techniques to study the dynamic properties of signaling proteins in a single living cell. Such a study allowed us to gain new insight into the signaling mechanism that regulates programmed cell death.

  3. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY OF POPULATION LIVING AROUND THE SEMIPALATINSK NUCLEAR TEST SITE

    ZHUNUSSOVA T.; Grosche, B; Apsalikov, K.; BELIKHINA T.; Pivina, L.; Muldagaliev, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper we have presented the possibilities of prospective cohort study of health status in the radiation exposed population living around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. It was substantiated the necessity of international cooperation of scientists from Kazakhstan, Europe, Japan and the United States for long-term study of radiation effects for the people and the environment.

  4. Live and non-live pregnancy outcomes among women with depression and anxiety: a population-based study.

    Lu Ban

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women taking antidepressant or anti-anxiety medications during early pregnancy have high risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes, although the contribution of the underlying illnesses to these risks remains unclear. We examined the impacts of antenatal depression and anxiety and of commonly prescribed treatments on the risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We identified all pregnancies and their outcome (live birth, perinatal death, miscarriage or termination among women aged 15-45 years between 1990 and 2009 from a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. Women were grouped according to whether they had no history of depression and anxiety, a diagnosis of such illness prior to pregnancy, illness during pregnancy and illness during pregnancy with use of medication (stratified by medication type. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to compare risks of non-live outcomes among these groups, adjusting for major socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Among 512,574 pregnancies in 331,414 women, those with antenatal drug exposure showed the greatest increased risks for all non-live pregnancy outcomes, relative to those with no history of depression or anxiety, although women with prior (but not currently medicated illness also showed modest increased risks. Compared with un-medicated antenatal morbidity, there was weak evidence of an excess risk in women taking tricyclic antidepressants, and stronger evidence for other medications. CONCLUSIONS: Women with depression or anxiety have higher risks of miscarriage, perinatal death and decisions to terminate a pregnancy if prescribed psychotropic medication during early pregnancy than if not. Although underlying disease severity could also play a role, avoiding or reducing use of these drugs during early pregnancy may be advisable.

  5. Impact of estradiol-valerate dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    Wasiak R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radoslaw Wasiak,1 Anna Filonenko,2 David J Vanness,3 Kim U Wittrup-Jensen,2 Donald E Stull,1 Steven Siak,1 Ian Fraser41Centre for Health Economics and Science Policy, United BioSource Corporation, London, United Kingdom; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 3University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol valerate-dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira®/Natazia® on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding.Methods: Women aged 18–54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E2V/DNG (n = 149 or placebo (n = 82 for seven treatment cycles (196 days. The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196. The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated.Results: Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E2V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1% and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%. In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement were estimated to be between US$22–62 and US$18–56 per month (in purchasing power

  6. Bioreduction of hexavalent chromium by live and active phanerochaete chrysosporium: kinetics and modeling

    In this work the potential of live and active Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a white rot fungi, to remove lower Cr(VI) concentration from aqueous solutions was reported for the first time. A medium pH had significant effect on the growth of the fungus and bioremoval of Cr(VI). Substrate inhibition on the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was evident beyond 20 g L-1 of dextrose concentration. A maximum biomass concentration of 15.64 g L-1 was obtained for an initial dextrose concentration of 20 g L-1 in metal free medium at pH 6.0. An increase in Cr(VI) concentration beyond 10 mg L-1 inhibited the growth of the fungi, thereby, reducing the chromium bioremoval efficiency. A maximum reduction efficiency of 98.92% was reported for an initial metal concentration of 10 mg L-1. A mathematical expression for the bioreduction of Cr(VI) considering the organic compounds in the cells was proposed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Bioreduction of hexavalent chromium by live and active phanerochaete chrysosporium: kinetics and modeling

    Murugavelh, Somasundaram; Mohanty, Kaustubha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2012-07-15

    In this work the potential of live and active Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a white rot fungi, to remove lower Cr(VI) concentration from aqueous solutions was reported for the first time. A medium pH had significant effect on the growth of the fungus and bioremoval of Cr(VI). Substrate inhibition on the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was evident beyond 20 g L{sup -1} of dextrose concentration. A maximum biomass concentration of 15.64 g L{sup -1} was obtained for an initial dextrose concentration of 20 g L{sup -1} in metal free medium at pH 6.0. An increase in Cr(VI) concentration beyond 10 mg L{sup -1} inhibited the growth of the fungi, thereby, reducing the chromium bioremoval efficiency. A maximum reduction efficiency of 98.92% was reported for an initial metal concentration of 10 mg L{sup -1}. A mathematical expression for the bioreduction of Cr(VI) considering the organic compounds in the cells was proposed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Recognition-mediated activation of therapeutic gold nanoparticles inside living cells

    Kim, Chaekyu; Agasti, Sarit S.; Zhu, Zhengjiang; Isaacs, Lyle; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2010-11-01

    Supramolecular chemistry provides a versatile tool for the organization of molecular systems into functional structures and the actuation of these assemblies for applications through the reversible association between complementary components. Use of this methodology in living systems, however, represents a significant challenge owing to the chemical complexity of cellular environments and lack of selectivity of conventional supramolecular interactions. Herein, we present a host-guest system featuring diaminohexane-terminated gold nanoparticles (AuNP-NH2) and complementary cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). In this system, threading of CB[7] on the particle surface reduces the cytotoxicity of AuNP-NH2 through sequestration of the particle in endosomes. Intracellular triggering of the therapeutic effect of AuNP-NH2 was then achieved through the administration of 1-adamantylamine (ADA), removing CB[7] from the nanoparticle surface, causing the endosomal release and concomitant in situ cytotoxicity of AuNP-NH2. This supramolecular strategy for intracellular activation provides a new tool for potential therapeutic applications.

  9. Children’s drawing activities and narratives from their everyday lives

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    include the children’s perspective: one project studied learning and communication in preschool and the other studied learning opportunities and intergenerational social inequality in school (third grade). In both projects interviews and drawing activities were part of the qualitative methods. The results...

  10. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level

    Andresen, Mette; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nursing home residents are extremely inactive and deterioration in health and an increasing dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) are common. Physical activity and exercise play a major role in the preservation of physical function and quality of life late in life. However......, evidence for the benefit of rehabilitation in nursing home residents is conflicting and inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the effect of an individually tailored intervention program of 3 months, for nursing home residents, on ADL, balance, physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. Methods......: In this single-blind randomized clinical trial with parallel groups, nursing home residents 1 64 years of age from three Nordic countries were included. The intervention group (IG) was assigned to individually tailored physical and daily activities, while the control group (CG) received ordinary care...

  11. Shoulder Electromyography Measurements During Activities of Daily Living and Routine Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Gurney, A Burke; Mermier, Christine; LaPlante, Michael; Majumdar, Aditi; O'Neill, Kathleen; Shewman, Todd; Gurney, James G

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background The activity of the rotator cuff muscles has not previously been measured with indwelling electromyography (EMG) comparing ambulation and other movements. Knowledge of the relative contribution of these muscles during various tasks may help to guide rehabilitation progression. Objective To measure activity of the rotator cuff muscles and other shoulder muscles during normal ambulation, shirt and sling donning and doffing, and rehabilitation tasks commonly performed after rotator cuff surgery. Methods In 28 volunteers (15 men, 13 women; mean age, 32.2 years), indwelling EMG activity was measured in the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles during various tasks; and surface EMG activity was measured in the middle deltoid, biceps, and upper trapezius muscles. Results Using median EMG activity, in general, donning and doffing a shirt or sling recruited the rotator cuff muscles more than the other 7 tasks tested. Self-ranging motion using pulleys, especially in the scapular plane, was also consistently associated with greater recruitment of the shoulder muscles. Pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel recruited the shoulder muscles to a lesser extent. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rehabilitation tasks such as pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel show low EMG activity, whereas pulleys in the sagittal plane and scapular plane show greater activity. Scapular plane activity was consistently higher than sagittal plane activity. Of all the tasks assessed, ambulation without a sling and donning and doffing a sling and a shirt consistently showed the highest activity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):375-383. Epub 6 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6090. PMID:27049599

  12. Diversity and methane oxidation of active epibiotic methanotrophs on live Shinkaia crosnieri

    Watsuji, Tomo-o; Yamamoto, Asami; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Kenji; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Shinkaia crosnieri is a galatheid crab that predominantly dwells in deep-sea hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. In this study, the phylogenetic diversity of active methanotrophs in the epibiotic microbial community on the setae of S. crosnieri was characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a functional gene (pmoA) encoding a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. Phylogenetic analysis of pmoA transcript sequences revealed that the activ...

  13. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities

    Rebecca Seguin; Leah Connor; Miriam Nelson; Andrea LaCroix; Galen Eldridge

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD) = 61 ...

  14. Effects of living room, Snoezelen room, and outdoor activities on stereotypic behavior and engagement by adults with profound mental retardation.

    Cuvo, A J; May, M E; Post, T M

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of a room with sensory equipment, or Snoezelen room, on the stereotypic behavior and engagement of adults with profound mental retardation. In Experiment 1, participants were observed in their living room before and after attending the Snoezelen room. Results showed that there tended to be a reduction in stereotypy and increase in engagement when participants went from their living room to the Snoezelen room, and a return of these behaviors to pre-Snoezelen levels in the living room. Positive effects in the Snoezelen room did not carryover to the living room. In Experiment 2, the living and Snoezelen rooms were compared to an outdoor activity condition with the same participants and target behaviors. Results showed that the outdoor condition was superior, the Snoezelen condition intermediate, and the living room least effective in their impact on stereotypic behavior and engagement. Conceptualizations regarding factors that maintain stereotypic behavior and engagement were discussed in the context of the three experimental conditions. PMID:11380058

  15. “I Live Quite a Good Balanced Life”: A Pilot Study on the Life Experiences of Ageing Individuals Living with HIV

    Nuno Ribeiro Nobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An ageing population is accompanied by an increased number of older adults living with HIV. So far, our knowledge regarding the life experiences of older adults living with HIV is still poor and under researched. The purpose of this study is to present new knowledge by interviewing nine Finnish HIV-positive individuals of 50 years of age and older. The data were analysed by inductive content analysis. Living with HIV is shaped by unique personal life experiences. These experiences played an important role on how the interviewees assessed their lives and their future as HIV positive individuals. Most of the participants reacted negatively to their HIV-positive diagnosis. However, throughout time they had found meaning in their lives and had developed a degree of positive attitude towards life and future which was articulated in terms of a good overall balanced life. Since caring is the tenor of the nursing profession, nurses should be able to identify and implement methods for assessing how successfully older adults living with HIV age and intervene in an informed way whenever needed.

  16. Living the Volcano: A First-Year Study Abroad Experience to Santorini, Greece

    Skinner, L. A.; Miller, M.; Scarnati, B.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, enrollment in Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Geologic Disasters (GLG112) class has grown to its current 840 students in 7 sections per semester (4% of NAU enrollment). Given this large audience composed of >50% freshmen, the course curriculum was re-designed in 2012 using standards set by NAU's First Year Learning Initiative (FYLI), which seeks to increase academic success early in college. FYLI pedagogical principles include active-learning, frequent feedback, low-stakes assessments, and increased guidance from professors & peer teaching assistants (PTAs). As a result of the successes measured in FYLI courses, we launched a FYLI study abroad experience in 2014. We posed the question, "How can an early-career study abroad experience further develop the attitudes, skills, & behaviors necessary for success?" The pioneering program was NAU in Greece: The Cataclysmic Eruption of Santorini Volcano. Enrollment was limited to freshman & sophomore students who have taken GLG112 (or equivalent). The 3-week program took 9 students, 1 PTA, & 1 faculty member to Santorini (via Athens, 2 days). A detailed itinerary addressed a set of disciplinary & non-disciplinary learning outcomes. Student learning about Santorini volcano and the tectonic setting & hazards of the Aegean Sea occurred on the go - on ferries & private boat trips and during hiking, snorkeling, and swimming. Classroom time was limited to 1 hr/day and frequent assessments were employed. Student products included a geologic field notebook, travel journal, and 3 blog posts pertaining to geologic hazards & life on Santorini. Geologic disasters are ideal topics for early career study abroad experiences because the curriculum is place-based. Student learning benefits immensely from interacting with the land & local populations, whose lives are affected daily by the dangers of living in such geologically hazardous environments. The needs of early career students are unique, however, and must be

  17. Study of alpha-decay half-lives with deformed, oriented daughter nuclei

    In this paper, Coulomb and proximity potential model has been applied to calculate the half-lives of alpha-decay for isotopes around N = Z = 50. Using this model, we investigated the influence of deformation and orientation of daughter nucleus on alpha-decay half-lives. Two orientations (90° and 180°) with quadrupole deformation are applied to study the role of daughter orientation in alpha-decay process. It is found that the deformation and orientation of daughter nucleus affects the alpha-decay half-life and changes the slope and intercept of linear relation between log10(T1/2) and Q-1/2. (author)

  18. "Live high-train low" using normobaric hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Jacobs, Robert A;

    2012-01-01

    The combination of living at altitude and training near sea level [live high-train low (LHTL)] may improve performance of endurance athletes. However, to date, no study can rule out a potential placebo effect as at least part of the explanation, especially for performance measures. With the use of...... a placebo-controlled, double-blinded design, we tested the hypothesis that LHTL-related improvements in endurance performance are mediated through physiological mechanisms and not through a placebo effect. Sixteen endurance cyclists trained for 8 wk at low altitude (...

  19. Young carers in Germany: to live on as normal as possible – a grounded theory study

    Schnepp Wilfried

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to a growing body of research on the situation of adult family care givers, in Germany hardly anything is known about the situation of children and teenagers who are involved in the care of their relatives. Methods In this Grounded Theory study 81 semi structured interviews have been carried out with children and their parents in 34 families, in which one member is chronically ill. 41 children and 41 parents participated and the sample is heterogeneous and diverse. Results On the one hand, there is the phenomenon 'keeping the family together", which describes how families themselves cope with the chronic illness and also, which tasks to what extent are being shifted and redistributed within the family in order to manage daily life. Influencing factors, the children's motives as well as the impact on the children also belong to this phenomenon. The second phenomenon 'to live a normal course of life' describes concrete wishes and expectations of support for the family to manage the hindered daily life. These two phenomena linked together constitute the 'model of experience and construction of familial care, in which children take over an active role'. Conclusion It will be discussed, that the more families are in dire need of support, the more their distress becomes invisible, furthermore, that management of chronic illness is a process, in which the entire family is involved, and thus needs to be considered, and finally, that young carer's relief is not possible without relief of their parents.

  20. Examining Success of Communication Strategies Used by Formal Caregivers Assisting Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease during an Activity of Daily Living

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…

  1. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 4: Living in Groups in Differing Environments.

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah elementary school teachers to help their level 4 students meet the state's instructional objectives in the social studies. This particular student level emphasizes living in groups in differing environments. The following disciplines are covered in the resource file: psychology, anthropology,…

  2. Across-sectional study of prescribing patterns in chronic psychiatric patients living in sheltered housing facilities

    Schorr, S.G.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Taxis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze prescribing patterns of chronic psychiatric patients living in sheltered housing facilities, to identify the extent of polypharmacy and to estimate associated risks in this patient group. Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study the prescription data of 323 chronic psy

  3. A Study of Stairs in the Housing of Independently-Living Elderly People.

    Smith, David W. E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examines elderly (60+ years) residents of a community dominated by multistory homes and apartments with stairs. Although stairs presented problems for a substantial minority of residents, most occupants expressed satisfaction with their homes. However, a majority of residents, when questioned further, desired stair-free living in a next…

  4. A comparative study of live attenuated F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  5. Dietary Adherence Monitoring Tool for Free-living, Controlled Feeding Studies

    Objective: To devise a dietary adherence monitoring tool for use in controlled human feeding trials involving free-living study participants. Methods: A scoring tool was devised to measure and track dietary adherence for an 8-wk randomized trial evaluating the effects of two different dietary patter...

  6. A Study on the Improvement of the Living Environment in Depopulated Area −A Case Study in Ikeda−town, Fukui−

    LEE, Taiyoung; ONO, Megumi; KAWAMOTO, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to improve a living environment base on the resident consciousness in a depopulated area. Firstly, we clear the evaluation to the living environment, the settlement intension and the importance of the living environment improvement by the consciousness survey. And then, we analyze the relativity both the evaluation to the living environment and the measures for the improvement to the living environment as public traffic, shopping and welfare, which to enhance the settlement ...

  7. Study of populations living near nuclear facilities. Etude des populations habitant pres des installations nucleaires

    Hubert, D. (Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Comite de Radioprotection); Hill, C. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France))

    1994-01-01

    After the observation in 1983 of a leukaemia cluster among children living near the Sellafield nuclear waste reprocessing plant (United Kingdom), numerous epidemiologic studies have been conducted on the risk of cancer or leukaemia in populations in the vicinity of nuclear installations. The methodology of these cohort and case-control studies of mortality or of incidence is reviewed. Some cohort studies have shown an excess of childhood leukaemia, but only in the UK; French, US, Canadian and German studies were negative. In 1990, a first case-control study found a relationship between the risk of leukaemia in children living around Sellafield and the professional exposure of their father to ionizing radiation before conception, but all further studies were negative. A viral infection, facilitated by large influxes of people into isolated areas, has also been suggested as a possible cause of the excess leukaemias. (authors). 26 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Sustainable development of living sources, case-study of Karkheh's Dam basin

    The watershed basins with a plain system has been recognized as the factors which has direct effect on environment and human life. The beginning source of disturbing natural basins is where the unnecessary demands appears. Because of increasing demand for food in future, there fore, with increasing destruction on environment in world wide activity, on the other hand, it force use improving new technique and systems to over-come our demands. This reason seems to be enough for use to grow our activity through sustainable development of living sources. The present paper try to define and Explain the sustainable development and permanent stability base on general characteristics of Karkheh's watershed basin

  9. The Rationale, Design, and Initial Efficacy of SystemCHANGE™ -HIV: A Systems-Based Intervention to Improve Physical Activity in People Living with HIV

    Webel, Allison R; Moore, Shirley M.; Hanson, Jan E.; Salata, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe SystemCHANGE™-HIV, a novel self-management intervention for people living with HIV (PLWH) and provide evidence of its initial efficacy to improve physical activity. The rationale and design of the SystemCHANGE™-HIV intervention were reviewed. Intervention detail, including its historical use, learning exercises and content, were provided. Forty PLWH participated in this pilot study, using a randomized clinical trial design. Intervention participants i...

  10. Airflow limitation or static hyperinflation: which is more closely related to dyspnea with activities of daily living in patients with COPD?

    Nishimura Takashi; Yasui Maya; Nishimura Koichi; Oga Toru

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dyspnea while performing the activities of daily living has been suggested to be a better measurement than peak dyspnea during exercise. Furthermore, the inspiratory capacity (IC) has been shown to be more closely related to exercise tolerance and dyspnea than the FEV1, because dynamic hyperinflation is the main cause of shortness of breath in patients with COPD. However, breathlessness during exercise is measured in most studies to evaluate this relationship. Purpose To e...

  11. Effects of Training Using Video Games on the Muscle Strength, Muscle Tone, and Activities of Daily Living of Chronic Stroke Patients

    Lee, GyuChang

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Fourteen stroke patients were recruited. They were randomly allocated into two groups; the experimental group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). [Methods] The experimental group performed training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect together with conventional oc...

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SARCOPENIA,UNDERNUTRITION, PHYSICAL MOBILITY AND BASIC ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING IN A GROUP OF ELDERLY WOMEN OF MEXICO CITY

    María del Consuelo Velázquez Alva; María Esther Irigoyen Camacho; Jaime Delgadillo Velázquez; Irina Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome, which affects the functional status and mobility of individuals. Objective: To identify the prevalence of sarcopenia and undernutrition, and to assess the association between sarcopenia and mobility, and sarcopenia and basic activities of daily living (ADL) in a group of elderly women. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in patients attending a geriatric service at a government hospital in Mexico City. Sarcopenia was iden...

  13. Exploring Patterns of Activities of Daily Living in the Home Environment

    Thijs M. Tönis; Akker, op den, H.J.A.; Boerema, Simone T.; Polen, van, Freek; Hermens, Hermie J; Dimitrova, Desislava; Blom, Koen; Meratnia, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Senior citizens tend to live longer and longer independently. Judging whether a senior person is still capable of living on his own is often based on the occurrence of incidents, with all consequences thereof. In the specific case of early dementia, the symptoms are not immediately apparent and the occurrence and severity of incidents progress gradually over time. In this case, the children or grandchildren are burdened by the question whether or not the elderly adult can still li...

  14. Metabolic disruptions induced by reduced ambulatory activity in free-living humans

    Thyfault, John P; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity likely plays a role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity; however, direct evidence is minimal and mechanisms of action remain unknown. Studying metabolic outcomes that occur after transitioning from higher to lower levels of physical activity is the best tool t...

  15. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms Related With Activities of Daily Living and Contributing Factors in Korean Adults

    Choi, Kyusik; Park, Jae-Hyun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and factors related to daily activities in a representative Korean population. Methods This study was based on the questions about musculoskeletal symptoms in the Korean General Social Survey 2010. The questionnaire about musculoskeletal symptoms was adopted from Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency guide, and it includes general characteristics, characteristics of pain, work type, work intensity and ...

  16. Impact of the S.W.E.A.T.™ Water-Exercise Method on Activities of Daily Living for Older Women

    Sanders, Mary E.; Nobuo Takeshima; Michael E. Rogers; Colado, Juan C.; Sebastien Borreani

    2013-01-01

    Older women may have chronic or age-related conditions that increase the risk of falls or that limit their ability to remain active. It is unclear if a water-based exercise program provides a safe and effective alternative to land-based exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a water-based exercise program method on land-based functional activities of daily living (ADL) for women 60 years and older. This study used a quasi- experimental, nonequivalent control group d...

  17. Improved molecular toolkit for cAMP studies in live cells

    Nicol Xavier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background cAMP is a ubiquitous second messenger involved in a wide spectrum of cellular processes including gene transcription, cell proliferation, and axonal pathfinding. Precise spatiotemporal manipulation and monitoring in live cells are crucial for investigation of cAMP-dependent pathways, but existing tools have several limitations. Findings We have improved the suitability of cAMP manipulating and monitoring tools for live cell imaging. We attached a red fluorescent tag to photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PACα that enables reliable visualization of this optogenetic tool for cAMP manipulation in target cells independently of its photoactivation. We show that replacement of CFP/YFP FRET pair with GFP/mCherry in the Epac2-camps FRET probe reduces photobleaching and stabilizes the noise level during imaging experiments. Conclusions The modifications of PACα and Epac2-camps enhance these tools for in vitro cAMP studies in cultured living cells and in vivo studies in live animals in a wide range of experiments, and particularly for long term time-lapse imaging.

  18. Impact of contamination with long-lived radionuclides on PET kinetics modelling in multitracer studies

    Jødal, Lars; Hansen, Søren B; Jensen, Svend B

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An important issue in multitracer studies is the separation of signals from the different radiotracers. This is especially the case when an early tracer has a long physical half-life and kinetic modelling has to be performed, because the early tracer can confer a long-lived contamin......INTRODUCTION: An important issue in multitracer studies is the separation of signals from the different radiotracers. This is especially the case when an early tracer has a long physical half-life and kinetic modelling has to be performed, because the early tracer can confer a long-lived...... contaminating background not only to images but also to a measured input function derived from blood samples. In this study, we examined data from a sequential multitracer infection study involving In (t1/2=2.8 days), investigating the influence on gamma counting of blood samples and on the kinetic modelling of...

  19. MEDICATION ADHERENCE IN ELDERLY WITH POLYPHARMACY LIVING AT HOME: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF EXISTING STUDIES

    Zelko, Erika; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Tusek-Bunc, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Background: We wanted to systematically review the available evidence to evaluate the drug adherence in elderly with polypharmacy living at home. Methods: We performed a literature search using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Springer Link, Sage Journals and CINAHL. We used the following terms: Medication Adherence, Medication Compliance, Polypharmacy, and Elderly. The search was limited to English-language articles. We included only clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and cross-sectional studies. Results: A total of seven articles were included in this systematic review after applying the search strategy. Six studies dealt with the prevalence of medication adherence and its correlates in patients aged 65 years or more with polypharmacy. Two studies dealt with the effect of various interventions on medication adherence in patients aged 65 years or more with polypharmacy. Conclusion: The available literature on the polypharmacy and drug adherence in elderly living at home is scarce and further studies are needed.

  20. Congenital malformations among live births at arvand hospital, ahwaz, iran - a prospective study

    The aim of the study was to determine the profile of congenital malformations (CM) among live births at Arvand hospital, in Ahwaz city. In this prospective study all of the neonates born at Arvand hospital in Ahwaz from 2004 to 2006 were registered. Stillbirths and those who died in a few hours after birth were excluded and finally 4660 newborns were enrolled. Of the 4660 live births 94 (20.2/1000) had at least a CM. The predominant systems involved were musculoskeletal (7.9/1000), followed by genitourinary (7.1/1000), central nervous (2.4 /1000), digestive (1.1/1000) and chromosomal anomalies (0.9/1000). Although the frequency of malformations in the study was approximately similar to other investigations, if we include abortions, stillbirths and if we used screening tests and genetic studies, this rate was more than 20.1/1000. (author)

  1. Comparison of two systems for long-term heart rate variability monitoring in free-living conditions - a pilot study

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Korshoj, Mette; Skotte, Jorgen H;

    2011-01-01

    clinical measurements such as Holter recordings. The objective of this study was to validate HRV obtained using a commonly used system, Actiheart, during occupational and leisure-time activities. METHOD: Full-day ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) signals were recorded from 8 females simultaneously using......ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: A number of small portable systems that can measure HRV are available to address questions related to autonomic regulation in free-living subjects. However, ambulatory HRV measurements obtained through use of these systems have not previously been validated against standard...

  2. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  3. Children with learning disabilities: A phenomenological study of the lived experiences of Iranian mothers

    Kermanshahi, S. M.; Z. Vanaki; Ahmadi, F.; A KAZEMNEJAD; Azadfalah, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nursing as a family-oriented profession involves supporting mothers of children with learning disabilities to gain an awareness of their role. However, few studies have explored the whole experience of such mothers. This study embarks on an understanding of lived experiences of Iranian mothers who have children with learning disabilities. A qualitative approach was adopted using the phenomenology of semi-structured interviews carried out with six Iranian mothers whose children attended a spec...

  4. A Beta-Herpesvirus with Fluorescent Capsids to Study Transport in Living Cells

    Jens B Bosse; Rudolf Bauerfeind; Leonhard Popilka; Lisa Marcinowski; Martina Taeglich; Christophe Jung; Hannah Striebinger; Jens von Einem; Ulrike Gaul; Paul Walther; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.; Zsolt Ruzsics

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent tagging of viral particles by genetic means enables the study of virus dynamics in living cells. However, the study of beta-herpesvirus entry and morphogenesis by this method is currently limited. This is due to the lack of replication competent, capsid-tagged fluorescent viruses. Here, we report on viable recombinant MCMVs carrying ectopic insertions of the small capsid protein (SCP) fused to fluorescent proteins (FPs). The FPs were inserted into an internal position which allowe...

  5. Relationships of Community and Individual Level Social Capital with Activities of Daily Living and Death by Gender.

    Imamura, Haruhiko; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Michikawa, Takehiro; Takeda-Imai, Fujimi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takebayashi, Toru; Nishiwaki, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    This study determined whether there is an association between social capital and a composite outcome of decline in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and death by gender. A prospective 3.5 year cohort study was conducted in a rural town in Japan. The study participants were 984 individuals aged 65 years and older with not impaired on ADL at 2010 baseline survey. Social participation and generalized trust were measured as social capital. The individual level responses were dichotomized and aggregated into the community level (eight areas). Multilevel logistic regression adjusting for covariates revealed that social participation at the individual level was significantly associated with higher odds of composite outcome (OR of "not participate" = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38-2.81). Regarding generalized trust, only in men, there was an inverse association at the community level (OR of "low" = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), and a positive association at the individual level (OR of "tend to be careful" = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.27-3.90). These results suggest that social capital were associated with a decline in ADL and death and that the association may differ by gender. PMID:27589773

  6. Living language

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  7. Some Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes in the Study of Metals

    Some typical applications of short-lived radioisotopes in various metallurgical investigations are described. A simple method of activation analysis has been designed for determining the amount of lanthanum in steels, to which mischmetall had been added during melting. A study was carried out to determine the behaviour of arsenic, present in small amounts, during the oxidation of iron. The enrichment of arsenic at the metal-oxide interface was first shown by autoradiography. A quantitative study of the phenomenon was then made on oxidized samples irradiated in a nuclear reactor, by dissolving successive layers several microns thick. By this means it was possible to see that the arsenic concentrates itself at the surface of the metal where its content may be as high as 30 or 40 times the initial concentration in the alloy. Research on the growth of metallic crystals was carried out by autoradiography. This was possible because the content of an alloying element in the crystals is lower than its content in the melt from which the crystals are growing. Samples of 2% copper-aluminium alloys were melted, slowly cooled, then quenched during the course of solidification. It was thus possible to show the shape of the crystals at various stages of their growth and to relate this to the temperature of the alloy as measured by a thermocouple. An examination was made of convection currents inside large forge ingots. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm the existence of important convection currents inside large steel ingots for forgings, as they solidify. The tests were carried out by introducing a small amount of gold-198 at various times after pouring, in ingots of 4 t and of 30 to 60 t. It was possible to see that in large ingots the convection currents were sufficiently strong one hour after pouring to mix the gold through a large volume of the ingot. (author)

  8. Association between exploratory activity and social individuality in genetically identical mice living in the same enriched environment.

    Freund, J; Brandmaier, A M; Lewejohann, L; Kirste, I; Kritzler, M; Krüger, A; Sachser, N; Lindenberger, U; Kempermann, G

    2015-11-19

    We previously reported that inbred, genetically identical mice living in one enriched environment develop individual behavioral trajectories, indicating increasingly different levels of spatial exploratory behavior as quantified by roaming entropy. Cumulative roaming entropy (cRE) correlated positively with adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a type of plasticity involved in the flexible integration of new information into existing contexts (Freund et al., 2013). The study on which we report here was done in parallel to that first experiment, but here we acquired detailed observational data on the behavior of individual mice. Roaming entropy (RE) was again assessed in real-time with an antenna-based system over the entire experimental period of 3months. Compared to the least active mice in the enclosure (low number of antenna contacts), the most active animals showed tendencies of increased socially interactive behavior in the final observation block whereas least active mice displayed more self-related behavior (non-social local exploration and play). When looking at roaming behavior, we discovered that RE correlated negatively with latent factors representing social exploratory and non-social exploratory and play behavior. Adult neurogenesis could not be studied in the present cohort but we do know that under identical conditions, cumulative RE correlated positively with adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We can thus hypothesize that the mice with more exploratory experience in terms of areal coverage (as quantified by RE) and related greater levels of adult hippocampal plasticity, might also be the ones that were less involved in interactions within the group and, hence, more individualistic. While this remains to be confirmed experimentally, the present data suggest that the described mechanism of individualization, which has previously been shown to be hippocampus-dependent, has a social component. PMID:25987202

  9. Evaluation of long-lived Alpha (llα) activity associated with respirable dust in the underground Narwapahar uranium mine in India

    Uranium mining activities, in general, produce dust particle of different size in and around the location of operations being actually carried out. The most prominent being that of respirable size. Meticulously, the airborne uranium ore dust in underground uranium mines contains long-lived alpha (llα) emitters of the natural uranium decay chain. The main mining operations such as drilling, blasting, mucking, loading-dumping etc. generate ore dust of different particle size which becomes dispersed in the mine environment and gives rise to an inhalation hazard. The present work has been done in underground U mine at Narwapahar (ore grade about 0.043 % U3O8). The objective of the present study is to estimate the long lived alpha activity associated with the airborne respirable particulate in the underground mine at Narwapahar

  10. Experiences of Patients Living With Heart Failure: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Seah, Alvin Chuen Wei; Tan, Khoon Kiat; Huang Gan, Juvena Chew; Wang, Wenru

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, needs, and coping strategies of patients living with heart failure in Singapore. A descriptive qualitative design was used. A purposive sample of 15 informants was recruited from two cardiology wards of a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a semistructured interview guideline that was developed based on a review of the literature and a pilot study. Content analysis was adopted to analyze the data, and four main categories were identified: perceived causes, manifestations, and prognosis; enduring emotions; managing the condition; and needs from health care professionals. The informants were overwhelmed with the experience of living with heart failure due to the disruptive and uncertain nature of the condition. This study offers health care professionals practical and useful suggestions when providing holistic care for patients with heart failure. PMID:25724928

  11. From surface to intracellular non-invasive nanoscale study of living cells impairments

    Ewald, Dr. Maxime [University of Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon, France.; Tetard, Laurene [ORNL; Elie-Caille, Dr. Cecile [Institut FEMTO-ST UMR CNRS 6174, University Franche-Comté, 25044 Besancon, France; Nicod, Laurence [University of Franche-Comte, Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Bourillot, Dr. Eric [University of Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon, France.; Lesniewska, Prof. Eric [University of Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon, France.

    2014-01-01

    Among the enduring challenges in nanoscience, subsurface characterization of live cells holds major stakes. Developments in nanometrology for soft matter thriving on the sensitivity and high resolution benefits of atomic force microscopy have enabled detection of subsurface structures at the nanoscale (1,2,3). However, measurements in liquid environments remain complex (4,5,6,7), in particular in the subsurface domain. Here we introduce liquid-Mode Synthesizing Atomic Force Microscopy (l-MSAFM) to study both the inner structures and the chemically induced intracellular impairments of living cells. Specifically, we visualize the intracellular stress effects of glyphosate on living keratinocytes skin cells. This new approach for living cell nanoscale imaging, l-MSAFM, in their physiological environment or in presence of a chemical stress agent confirmed the loss of inner structures induced by glyphosate. The ability to monitor the cell's inner response to external stimuli, non-destructively and in real time, has the potential to unveil critical nanoscale mechanisms of life science.

  12. From surface to intracellular non-invasive nanoscale study of living cells impairments

    Among the enduring challenges in nanoscience, subsurface characterization of living cells holds major stakes. Developments in nanometrology for soft matter thriving on the sensitivity and high resolution benefits of atomic force microscopy have enabled detection of subsurface structures at the nanoscale. However, measurements in liquid environments remain complex, in particular in the subsurface domain. Here we introduce liquid-mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (l-MSAFM) to study both the inner structures and the chemically induced intracellular impairments of living cells. Specifically, we visualize the intracellular stress effects of glyphosate on living keratinocytes skin cells. This new approach, l-MSAFM, for nanoscale imaging of living cell in their physiological environment or in presence of a chemical stress agent could resolve the loss of inner structures induced by glyphosate, the main component of a well-known pesticide (RoundUp™). This firsthand ability to monitor the cell’s inner response to external stimuli non-destructively and in liquid, has the potential to unveil critical nanoscale mechanisms of life science. (paper)

  13. Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    Shin, Ilchung [Ames Laboratory; Ray, Judhajeet [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Vinayak [Iowa State University; Ilgu, Muslum [Ames Laboratory; Beasley, Jonathan [Iowa State University; Bendickson, Lee [Ames Laboratory; Mehanovic, Samir [Molecular Express; Kraus, George A. [Iowa State University; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit [Ames Laboratory

    2014-04-20

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

  14. Listening to the voices: an exploratory study of the experiences of women diagnosed and living with breast cancer in Uganda

    Gonzaga, Mubuuke Aloysius

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths amongst Ugandan women. Most women live through challenging and emotional experiences having been diagnosed with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of women diagnosed and living with breast cancer. Methods This was an exploratory qualitative study using a convenience sample (n = 12) of women confirmed with breast cancer and reporting to the Radiology department for imaging. In-de...

  15. Actinides separation and long-lived fission products from the high activity effluent

    The aim of this document is to study the decontamination of a high activity effluent in minor actinides-α transmitters (241Am, 243Am, 243Cm, 245Cm, 237Np, 238Pu, 242Pu, 235U, 238U) and long-life fissions products (133Cs, 137Cs) and then the separation of Am, Cm, Np, Cs and Pu, U traces. (TEC). 16 figs., 1 tab

  16. Script Generation of Activities of Daily Living in HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    Scott, J. Cobb; Woods, Steven Paul; Vigil, Ofilio; Heaton, Robert K.; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J.; Marcotte, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Script generation describes one’s ability to produce complex, sequential action plans derived from mental representations of everyday activities. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of HIV infection on script generation performance. Sixty HIV+ individuals (48% of whom had HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders [HAND]) and 26 demographically comparable HIV− participants were administered a novel, standardized test of script generation, which required participants to verbally genera...

  17. Evaluation of Psychometric Aspects of Cleveland Scale of Activity Daily Living in the Diagnosis of Dementia in Iran

    Maryam Noroozian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to design a valid questionnaire to the Iranian culture for dementia diagnosis and more specifically in its early stage.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Memory Clinic of Roozbeh Hospital and Iranian Alzheimer Association in Tehran in 2012. Among 235 subjects, there were 72 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, 137 patients with other types of dementia, and 26 subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, which 107 of them were male. Moreover, 42 healthy subjects were selected as control group. We considered psychometric properties of the Cleveland Scale of Activity Daily Living (CSADL questionnaire and used standard making operations according to exploratory factor analysis.Results: Three factors were extracted: self-care (21 items, language skills (14 items, and planning (7 items. Convergent validity was 0.86 and cut off point for total, basic and instrumental scores respectively was 20, 3 and 20.Conclusion: It can be claimed that Persian Version of CSADL psychometric questionnaire has appropriate indicators and can serve as a useful tool for research in dementia and in its early stage. It can also enable the implementation of scientific research in academic and medical centers on dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease specifically in Iran.

  18. Physical activity and affect in elementary school children’s daily lives

    JanKühnhausen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive influence of physical activity (PA on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using smartphones. In the current article, we show that it is feasible to objectively measure children’s PA with accelerometers for a period of several weeks and report descriptive information on the amount of activity of 51 children from 3rd and 4th grade. Additionally, we investigate the influence of daily PA on daily affect in children. Mixed effects models show no effect of PA on any of the four measured dimensions of affect. We discuss that this might be due to effects taking place at shorter time intervals, which can be investigated in future analyses.

  19. Simulation Studies of Diffusion-Release and Effusive-Flow of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes

    Zhang, Yan; Kawai, Yoko

    2005-01-01

    Delay times associated with diffusion release from targets and effusive-flow transport of radioactive isotopes to ion sources are principal intensity limiters at ISOL-based radioactive ion beam facilities, and simulation studies with computer models are cost effective methods for designing targets and vapor transport systems with minimum delay times to avoid excessive decay losses of short lived ion species. A finite difference code, Diffuse II, was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study diffusion-release of short-lived species from three principal target geometries. Simulation results are in close agreement with analytical solutions to Fick’s second equation. Complementary to the development of Diffuse II, the Monte-Carlo code, Effusion, was developed to address issues related to the design of fast vapor transport systems. Results, derived by using Effusion, are also found to closely agree with experimental measurements. In this presentation, the codes will be used in conc...

  20. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking

    Darrin V. Bann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses produce full-length RNA that serves both as a genomic RNA (gRNA, which is encapsidated into virus particles, and as an mRNA, which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. However, we are only beginning to understand the cellular and viral factors that influence trafficking of retroviral RNA and the selection of the RNA for encapsidation or translation. Live cell imaging studies of retroviral RNA trafficking have provided important insight into many aspects of the retrovirus life cycle including transcription dynamics, nuclear export of viral RNA, translational regulation, membrane targeting, and condensation of the gRNA during virion assembly. Here, we review cutting-edge techniques to visualize single RNA molecules in live cells and discuss the application of these systems to studying retroviral RNA trafficking.

  1. Physical and psychosocial effects of Wii Fit exergames use in assisted living residents: a pilot study.

    Chao, Ying-Yu; Scherer, Yvonne K; Montgomery, Carolyn A; Wu, Yow-Wu; Lucke, Kathleen T

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and psychosocial effects of the Wii Fit exergames incorporating self-efficacy theory on assisted living residents. The study was a quasi-experimental pre/post-test design. Thirty-two participants were recruited from two assisted living facilities. Sixteen participants received the Wii Fit exergames incorporating self-efficacy theory twice a week for 4 weeks. The other participants received a health education program. Physical function, fear of falling, depression, and quality of life were evaluated. T tests were used for data analysis. After the 4-week intervention, the Wii Fit group showed significant improvements in balance (p exergames show promise as a potential tool to improve and maintain physical and psychosocial health for older adults. PMID:25488422

  2. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G. [Medical Radiological Research Centre RAMS, Kaluga Region, (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm{sup 2} can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal`s renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning 25 refs.

  3. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of 165Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm2 can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of 165Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of 165Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal's renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning

  4. The lived experience of fibromyalgia in female patients, a phenomenological study

    Wuytack Francesca; Miller Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome with no cure. A thorough understanding of the illness experience is therefore key in the palliative care of patients with this condition. In search for supportive treatments fibromyalgia patients often attend a chiropractor or other manual therapist. Knowledge of the meaning and reality of living with this condition to the patient could be considered essential to any health care practitioner playing a role in the management. This study ai...

  5. Psychiatry in the flesh. Embodiment of troubled lives. Studies of anorexia nervosa and eating disorders.

    2007-01-01

    Body and mind – new perspectives on eating disorders In this doctoral dissertation the author focuses on models of understanding of how body and mind might interact in eating disorders, with particular emphasis on anorexia nervosa. The thesis ”Psychiatry in the flesh. Embodiment of troubled lives. Studies of anorexia nervosa and eating disorders” is based on six scientific articles which all have been published in referee-based psychiatric journals. Three of these scientific papers d...

  6. Psychosocial Factors and Substance Use in High Risk Youth Living with HIV: A Multisite Study

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Kolmodin, Karen; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Murphy, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test relationships between psychosocial factors and alcohol and illicit drug use among high risk youth living with HIV. 186 high risk youth with HIV (defined as those with a substance use problem, sexual risk problem OR medication adherence problem) were enrolled across 5 cities (ages 16 to 24). Alcohol and illicit drug use was measured with the ASSIST and a timeline follow-back interview. Questionnaires assessed constructs from the adapted TTM including a cont...

  7. Anemia, diet and therapeutic iron among children living with HIV: a prospective cohort study

    Shet, Anita; Bhavani, PK; Kumarasamy, N; Arumugam, Karthika; Poongulali, S.; Elumalai, Suresh; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background Children living with HIV have higher-than-normal prevalence of anemia. The beneficial effect of therapeutic iron has been questioned in the setting of high prevalence of infections. This study examines anemia prevalence and effect of standard therapeutic iron on HIV disease progression among children. Methods Perinatally-infected children aged 2–12 years were enrolled at three sites in southern India, and were followed for 1 year with clinical assessments, dietary recall and anthro...

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Healthy-Living and Travel Behavior

    Hallab, Zaher A. A.

    1999-01-01

    In the field of travel and tourism, scholars with interest in consumer behavior studies have explored different variables and linked them with the individual's behavior. Variables such as destination image, environmental awareness, service preception, preferences, and motivations for travel are commonly used to understand and predict destination selections and travel behavior. There is also enough evidence to suggest that healthy-living is positively associated with travel beahvior. If any...

  9. Pakistanis in Spain: a study based on the community living in the city of Barcelona

    Montserrat Solé Aubia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of Spain becoming a country of immigration is the greater protagonism that some countries have acquired which had not traditionally been a major source of migration movements towards Spain. Such is the case of Pakistan, whose nationals living in Spain have considerably increased in recent years, mainly in the area of Barcelona. This study seeks to undertake a research line in order to get to know more deeply the reality of this community.

  10. Independent Living in Age-Friendly Cities: Study on Dyads of Elderly Pedestrians Walking Dynamics

    Avento, N

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has, as one of its main goals, the objective to introduce the phenomenon of Ageing Society, particularly focusing on the theme of elderly population mobility in urban environment. The originality of this thesis comes from the study of elderly dyads walking dynamics in urban settings and senior citizens' perception about the neighbourhood they live in, in terms of safety and walkable conditions. The final purpose is to demonstrate, through the analysis of institutional and s...

  11. 我国Living Library的实践与理论发展研究%Study on the Practice and Theory Development of Living Library in China

    詹丽华

    2012-01-01

    应用文献资料法和数理统计法对我国Living Library的实践与理论发展进行分析,认为举办单位和服务对象单一、活动主题狭窄、影响力低、推广中组织性较弱,需要加强资源建设、拓展服务对象、改变服务方法、转移服务重点,才能深化Living Library的服务功能,促进其在我国的良性发展。%Living Library is a new information service activity, whose purpose is to eliminate discrimination and enhance understanding, and it spreads in America, Canada and other countries. There are such shortcomings as holding unit and service object single, activity theme narrow and lack of enough influence in the practice development and theoretical research in China. At the same time, it faces the following obstacles: the idea's promotion and acceptance, no organization, real books' recruitment and management and real books' legal rights. To overcome these shortcomings and obstacles, strengthening resource construction, expanding the service targets, changing the service method and transferring services focus are needed.

  12. Recognition- and reactivity-based fluorescent probes for studying transition metal signaling in living systems.

    Aron, Allegra T; Ramos-Torres, Karla M; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    Metals are essential for life, playing critical roles in all aspects of the central dogma of biology (e.g., the transcription and translation of nucleic acids and synthesis of proteins). Redox-inactive alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and zinc are widely recognized as dynamic signals, whereas redox-active transition metals such as copper and iron are traditionally thought of as sequestered by protein ligands, including as static enzyme cofactors, in part because of their potential to trigger oxidative stress and damage via Fenton chemistry. Metals in biology can be broadly categorized into two pools: static and labile. In the former, proteins and other macromolecules tightly bind metals; in the latter, metals are bound relatively weakly to cellular ligands, including proteins and low molecular weight ligands. Fluorescent probes can be useful tools for studying the roles of transition metals in their labile forms. Probes for imaging transition metal dynamics in living systems must meet several stringent criteria. In addition to exhibiting desirable photophysical properties and biocompatibility, they must be selective and show a fluorescence turn-on response to the metal of interest. To meet this challenge, we have pursued two general strategies for metal detection, termed "recognition" and "reactivity". Our design of transition metal probes makes use of a recognition-based approach for copper and nickel and a reactivity-based approach for cobalt and iron. This Account summarizes progress in our laboratory on both the development and application of fluorescent probes to identify and study the signaling roles of transition metals in biology. In conjunction with complementary methods for direct metal detection and genetic and/or pharmacological manipulations, fluorescent probes for transition metals have helped reveal a number of principles underlying transition metal dynamics. In this Account, we give three recent

  13. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    Following the recommendations of the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), the IAEA Nuclear Data Section has established a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in concentrating on the cross sections for the reactions suggested by the 16th INDC meeting. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting of the CRP was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 11 to 12 November 1991. The main objectives of the meeting were to review the results under the CRP and the status of long-lived activation cross section data and to fix the future working programme for the CRP. The proceedings contain the progress reports of the CRP and 12 contributed papers presented at the meeting as well as the summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Measurement and calculations of long-lived radionuclide activity forming in the fast neutron field in some ITER construction steels

    Highlights: • Measurement and calculations of long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclide activity forming in the fission reactor fast neutron field were done, in some ITER construction steels. • The neutron flux density was measured by means of activation foil method and unfolding technique. • Activity calculations were done by means of FISPACT-II code using the activation libraries EAF-2010 and TALYS-2011. • The activity measurements were done by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. - Abstract: Measurement and calculations of long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclide activity forming in the fission reactor fast neutron field were done, for some ITER construction steels. The activation was conducted in fast neutron irradiation channel of the MARIA research fission reactor (Poland). The dimensions of steel samples were 10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm and mass was approximately 0.8 g. The neutron flux density was measured by means of activation foil method and unfolding technique; fraction of neutrons above 1 keV was 95%. The activation lasted 242 h and cooling took 100 days; the mean neutron flux density was 2.9E12 n/(cm2 s) (neutrons above 500 keV are 53% of total) whereas total fluency 2.53E18 cm−2. The activity measurements were done by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity calculations were done by means of FISPACT-II code using the activation libraries EAF-2010 and TENDL-2011 and experimentally determined neutron flux. Measured activity of long-lived gamma emitting radionuclides was, in average, about 6.3 MBq/g 100 days after activation; the dominant radionuclides were 58Co and 54Mn (about 81% and 14% of total activity respectively). The C/E ratio differs for particular radionuclides and is in the range 0.86–0.92 for 51Cr, 0.93–1.21 for 54Mn, 0.77–0.98 for 57Co, 0.91–1.21 for 58Co, 1.17–1.27 for 59Fe, and 1.75–2.44 for 60Co

  15. Activation analysis with short- and medium-lived radionuclides for the supervision of incineration plants

    Incineration plants are needed to cope with the enormous volumes of waste produced by modern society in highly industrialized countries. These plants employ modern filter systems such as electrostatic filters for the deposition of aerosols and two-stage flue gas washing systems for the retention of volatile compounds. As garbage contains practically all the elements, the output streams should be surveyed by multielement methods. The current feasibility study shows that most of the toxic elements could be screened by activation analysis. This method could be applied with a minimum of sample preparation and is sufficiently fast and sensitive to meet the legislative requirements. Short-time activation analysis combined with an additional 2 h of irradiation fulfills the analytical requirements. The fast sample preparation outweighs the drawback of having to allow 24 to 36 h for decay and a 2-h measurement time

  16. An epidemiologic study of congenital malformations of the anterior abdominal wall in more than half a million consecutive live births.

    Baird, P A; MacDonald, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The records of an ongoing health surveillance registry that utilizes multiple sources of ascertainment were used to study the incidence rate of congenital malformations of the anterior abdominal wall in live-born children in British Columbia during the period 1964--1978 inclusive. No overall increase in incidence rate of these anomalies was detected during the study period. The estimated live-born incidence rates were: one in 4,175 live births for omphalocoele, one in 12,328 live births for g...

  17. Monitoring the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium in working and living environment through standard biochemical blood parameters and liver endonucleases activity

    Nikolić Ružica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals as pollutants in the working and living environment are a serious health and environmental problem because they are toxic, non-biodegradable, accumulate in living systems and have a long half-life in soil. Sources of lead contamination are combustion products in the chemical industry and metallurgy, industrial waste water, landfills, traffic etc. Lead enters into the body via the food chain and drinking water. In the body lead is deposited in the liver, kidneys, brain and mineral tissues. Excretion of lead causes damage to the epithelial cells of certain organs. High level exposure to cadmium is usually the result of environmental pollution by human activities. Exposure to cadmium can lead to acute and chronic tissue damage of various organs, including liver and kidneys in humans and in animals. In this paper we analyzed the effects of lead and cadmium exposure, in working and living environment, on the model system of experimental animals, particularly the activity of certain liver enzymes, acid and alkaline DNase, and standard biochemical blood parameters. The study showed that lead and cadmium significantly affect the protein content, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the activity of liver enzymes. This harmful effect of this toxic metal can be reduced by the supplements.

  18. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    The proceedings contain the progress reports of the Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology and the contributed papers (9) presented at the Consultants' Meeting held at Argonne National Laboratory between 11-12 September 1989. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. An activation analysis system for short-lived radioisotopes including automatic dead-time corrections with a microcomputer

    A system based on an IBM-PC microcomputer coupled to a Canberra Series 80 multichannel analyser was developed for activation analysis with short-lived radioisotopes. The data transfer program can store up to 77 gamma-ray spectra on a floppy disc. A spectrum analysis program, DVC, was written to determine peak areas interactively, to correct the counting losses, and to calculate elemental concentrations. (author)

  20. Visualization of Polarized Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Live Cells by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Imaging*S⃞

    Ouyang, Mingxing; Lu, Shaoying; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Jing; Seong, Jihye; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; Shyy, John Y.-J.; Weiss, Stephen J.; Wang, Yingxiao

    2008-01-01

    Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) plays a critical role in cancer cell biology by proteolytically remodeling the extracellular matrix. Utilizing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging, we have developed a novel biosensor, with its sensing element anchoring at the extracellular surface of cell membrane, to visualize MT1-MMP activity dynamically in live cells with subcellular resolution. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced significant FR...

  1. Daily life after Subarachnoid Haemorrhage : Identity construction, patients’ and relatives’ statements about patients’ memory, emotional status and activities of living

    Berggren, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to describe patients’ experience and reconstruction regarding the onset of, and events surrounding being struck by a Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH), and to describe patients’ and relatives’ views of patients’ memory ability, emotional status and activities of living, in a long-term perspective. Methods: Both inductive and deductive approaches were used. Nine open interviews were carried out in home settings, in average 1 year and 7 seven months after the pat...

  2. Free-Living Physical Activity Energy Expenditure Is Strongly Related to Glucose Intolerance in Cameroonian Adults Independently of Obesity

    Assah, Felix K; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—We examined the cross-sectional association between objectively measured free-living physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose tolerance in adult Cameroonians without known diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—PAEE was measured in 34 volunteers using the doubly labeled water method and indirect calorimetry (resting). Fasting blood glucose and 2-h postload blood glucose were measured during a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS—There was a significant ne...

  3. A New Nanobody-Based Biosensor to Study Endogenous PARP1 In Vitro and in Live Human Cells.

    Andrea Buchfellner

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 is a key player in DNA repair, genomic stability and cell survival and it emerges as a highly relevant target for cancer therapies. To deepen our understanding of PARP biology and mechanisms of action of PARP1-targeting anti-cancer compounds, we generated a novel PARP1-affinity reagent, active both in vitro and in live cells. This PARP1-biosensor is based on a PARP1-specific single-domain antibody fragment (~ 15 kDa, termed nanobody, which recognizes the N-terminus of human PARP1 with nanomolar affinity. In proteomic approaches, immobilized PARP1 nanobody facilitates quantitative immunoprecipitation of functional, endogenous PARP1 from cellular lysates. For cellular studies, we engineered an intracellularly functional PARP1 chromobody by combining the nanobody coding sequence with a fluorescent protein sequence. By following the chromobody signal, we were for the first time able to monitor the recruitment of endogenous PARP1 to DNA damage sites in live cells. Moreover, tracing of the sub-nuclear translocation of the chromobody signal upon treatment of human cells with chemical substances enables real-time profiling of active compounds in high content imaging. Due to its ability to perform as a biosensor at the endogenous level of the PARP1 enzyme, the novel PARP1 nanobody is a unique and versatile tool for basic and applied studies of PARP1 biology and DNA repair.

  4. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    Overdorp, Eduard J; Kessels, Roy P C; Claassen, Jurgen A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2016-03-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test performance concurrently in relation to IADL in this population. As a result, it remains largely unknown whether these factors independently predict functional outcome. The current systematic review intended to address this lack of information by reviewing the literature on older adults, incorporating studies that examined e.g., normal aging, but also stroke or dementia patients. A comprehensive search of databases (Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO) and reference lists was performed, focusing on papers in the English language that examined the combined effect of neuropsychological and neuroanatomical factors on IADL in samples of adults with an average age above 50. In total, 58 potential articles were identified; 20 were included in the review. The results show that especially neuropsychological variables (primarily memory and executive functions) independently predict IADL. Although some unique predictive value of brain morphological changes, such as hippocampal atrophy, was found, support for the importance of white matter changes was limited. However, the results of the studies reviewed are diverse, and appear to be at least partially determined by the variables included. For example, studies were less likely to find an independent effect of cognition if they solely employed a cognitive screening instrument. This indicates that a structured examination of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of IADL in different patient populations is warranted. PMID:26732392

  5. Recommendations on Physical Activity and Exercise for Older Adults Living in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Taskforce Report.

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Morley, John E; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; H Pitkala, Kaisu; Weening-Djiksterhuis, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Barbagallo, Mario; Rosendahl, Erik; Sinclair, Alan; Landi, Francesco; Izquierdo, Mikel; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2016-05-01

    A taskforce, under the auspices of The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-Global Aging Research Network (IAGG-GARN) and the IAGG European Region Clinical Section, composed of experts from the fields of exercise science and geriatrics, met in Toulouse, in December 2015, with the aim of establishing recommendations of physical activity and exercise for older adults living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to the high heterogeneity in terms of functional ability and cognitive function that characterizes older adults living in LTCFs, taskforce members established 2 sets of recommendations: recommendations for reducing sedentary behaviors for all LTCF residents and recommendations for defining specific, evidence-based guidelines for exercise training for subgroups of LTCF residents. To promote a successful implementation of recommendations, taskforce experts highlighted the importance of promoting residents' motivation and pleasure, the key factors that can be increased when taking into account residents' desires, preferences, beliefs, and attitudes toward physical activity and exercise. The importance of organizational factors related to LTCFs and health care systems were recognized by the experts. In conclusion, this taskforce report proposes standards for the elaboration of strategies to increase physical activity as well as to prescribe exercise programs for older adults living in LTCFs. This report should be used as a guide for professionals working in LTCF settings. PMID:27012368

  6. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  7. Association of Markers of Inflammation with Sleep and Physical Activity Among People Living with HIV or AIDS.

    Wirth, Michael D; Jaggers, Jason R; Dudgeon, Wesley D; Hébert, James R; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Blair, Steven N; Hand, Gregory A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined associations of sleep and minutes spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 among persons living with HIV. Cross-sectional analyses (n = 45) focused on associations of inflammatory outcomes (i.e., CRP and IL-6) with actigraph-derived sleep duration, latency, and efficiency; sleep onset; wake time; and wake-after-sleep-onset; as well as MVPA. Least square means for CRP and IL-6 by levels of sleep and MVPA were computed from general linear models. Individuals below the median of sleep duration, above the median for sleep onset, and below the median of MVPA minutes had higher CRP or IL-6 levels. Generally, individuals with both low MVPA and poor sleep characteristics had higher inflammation levels than those with more MVPA and worse sleep. Understanding the combined impact of multiple lifestyle/behavioral factors on inflammation could inform intervention strategies to reduce inflammation and therefore, chronic disease risk. PMID:25399034

  8. Effects of Live Load on Seismic Response of Bridges: A Preliminary Study

    Sanders D.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although live load is well known to have a dynamic effect on bridge response in addition to its self-weight, the significance of these effects on seismic response is unclear. In addition, most bridge design specifications have few requirements concerning the inclusion of live load in their seismic design provisions. The main objective of this study is therefore to investigate and obtain insight into the effect of vehicle-bridge interaction during earthquake shaking. The study consists of both experimental and analytical investigations. This paper focuses on the experimental work, which includes shake table testing of a 2/5-scale model of a horizontally curved steel girder bridge loaded with a series of representative vehicles. Preliminary experimental results show that the presence of the live load had a clear beneficial effect on performance for small amplitude motions, but that this improvement diminished with increasing amplitude of shaking. Parameters used to measure performance include column displacements, abutment shear forces, abutment uplift, and concrete spalling.

  9. Incidence of Malignancy after Living Kidney Transplantation: A Multicenter Study from Iran

    Einollahi, Behzad; Rostami, Zohreh; Nourbala, Mohammad Hossein; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahboob; Simforoosh, Naser; Nemati, Eghlim; Pourfarziani, Vahid; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Nafar, Mohsen; Pour-Reza-Gholi, Fatemeh; Mazdeh, Mitra Mahdavi; Amini, Manochehr; Ahmadpour, Pedram; Makhdoomi, Khadijeh; Ghafari, Ali; Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Khosroshahi, Hamid Taebi; Oliaei, Farshid; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Abbaszadeh, Shahin; Fatahi, Mohammad Reza; Hiedari, Fatemeh; Makhlogh, Atehieh; Azmandian, Jalal; Samimagham, Hamid Reza; Shahbazian, Heshmatollah; Nazemian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Massih; Khosravi, Masoud; Monfared, Ali; Mosavi, Seyed Majid; Ahmadi, Javad; Jalalzadeh, Mojgan

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common complication after renal transplantation. However, limited data are available on post-transplant malignancy in living kidney transplantation. Therefore, we made a plan to evaluate the incidence and types of malignancies, association with the main risk factors and patient survival in a large population of living kidney transplantation. We conducted a large retrospective multicenter study on 12525 renal recipients, accounting for up to 59% of all kidney transplantation in Iran during 22 years follow up period. All information was collected from observation of individual notes or computerized records for transplant patients. Two hundred and sixty-six biopsy-proven malignancies were collected from 16 Transplant Centers in Iran; 26 different type of malignancy categorized in 5 groups were detected. The mean age of patients was 46.2±12.9 years, mean age at tumor diagnosis was 50.8±13.2 years and average time between transplantation and detection of malignancy was 50.0±48.4 months. Overall tumor incidence in recipients was 2%. Kaposis' sarcoma was the most common type of tumor. The overall mean survival time was 117.1 months (95% CI: 104.9-129.3). In multivariate analysis, the only independent risk factor associated with mortality was type of malignancy. This study revealed the lowest malignancy incidence in living unrelated kidney transplantation. PMID:22712025

  10. The Elderly's Independent Living in Smart Homes: A Characterization of Activities and Sensing Infrastructure Survey to Facilitate Services Development.

    Ni, Qin; García Hernando, Ana Belén; de la Cruz, Iván Pau

    2015-01-01

    Human activity detection within smart homes is one of the basis of unobtrusive wellness monitoring of a rapidly aging population in developed countries. Most works in this area use the concept of "activity" as the building block with which to construct applications such as healthcare monitoring or ambient assisted living. The process of identifying a specific activity encompasses the selection of the appropriate set of sensors, the correct preprocessing of their provided raw data and the learning/reasoning using this information. If the selection of the sensors and the data processing methods are wrongly performed, the whole activity detection process may fail, leading to the consequent failure of the whole application. Related to this, the main contributions of this review are the following: first, we propose a classification of the main activities considered in smart home scenarios which are targeted to older people's independent living, as well as their characterization and formalized context representation; second, we perform a classification of sensors and data processing methods that are suitable for the detection of the aforementioned activities. Our aim is to help researchers and developers in these lower-level technical aspects that are nevertheless fundamental for the success of the complete application. PMID:26007717

  11. Use of short- and long-lived rubidium tracers for the study of transient ischemia

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with rubidium-82 (82Rb) has been developed to measure regional myocardial perfusion and to detect transient ischemia both in the experimental laboratory and in humans. There are known and separate contaminating effects of the 82Rb signal by disturbances in wall motion, wall thinning, and the partial volume effect that occur during transient ischemia. In nine anesthetized greyhounds, PET with 82Rb (T1/2 = 78 sec) was used to determine the regional myocardial uptake of this cation during a control period that consisted of a mild stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery in the absence of ischemia (to limit reactive hyperemia), during 10 min of total occlusion and, finally, at 30 and 60 min of recovery with release of the occlusion but not of the stenosis. Separately, rubidium-81 (81Rb); T1/2 = 4.58 hr) was given as a peripheral intravenous injection 2 hr before the study to allow this long-lived tracer to distribute in the potassium space of the myocardium. Observations during control and ischemia revealed marked decreases in 82Rb uptake (0.84 +/- 0.12 to 0.28 +/- 0.12, p = 0.001) in affected regions and were paralleled by similar decreases in microsphere blood flow (0.88 +/- 0.08 to 0.12 +/- 0.10 ml/min/g, p = 0.003), which gradually recovered by 60 min postischemia. Lesser decreases in 81Rb activity (0.84 +/- 0.11 to 0.76 +/- 0.17, p = 0.83) were observed in the same regions during ischemia, but these were immediately reversible. Separate in vitro postmortem experiments in eight rabbits confirmed a linear relationship between plasma and myocardial activities of stable potassium and 81Rb although there was a greater concentration of 81Rb in the myocardium that in the plasma relative to potassium (y = -3.29 +/- 0.79 x, s.e.e. 1.91, r = 0.95)

  12. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND LEISURE TIME AMONG 13-15-YEAR-OLD TEENAGERS LIVING IN BIAŁA PODLASKA

    Grad Rafał

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to get information about physical activity and forms of spending leisure time by teenagers between 13 and 15 years old, who live in Biała Podlaska. The research included 229 pupils from three Grammar Schools (115 girls and 114 boys. The range of respondents’ age is from 13 to 15 years old. The research tool was anonymous questionnaire consisting of questions concerning healthy lifestyle, physical activity and forms of spending leisure time. In total, the questionnaire consisted of 17 both open and close questions. On the basis of the questionnaire, it was proved that pupils’ knowledge on physical education and health is low (37-47% of correct answers. Young people more and more often choose passive forms of activity. Boys much more often take up active forms of exercise than girls. Teenagers devote most time to physical activity, the development of interests and taking care of one’s own appearance.

  13. To Live or to Die: Prosurvival Activity of PPARγ in Cancers

    Y. Lynn Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of PPARγ in tumorigenesis is controversial. In this article, we review and analyze literature from the past decade that highlights the potential proneoplastic activity of PPARγ. We discuss the following five aspects of the nuclear hormone receptor and its agonists: (1 relative expression of PPARγ in human tumor versus normal tissues; (2 receptor-dependent proneoplastic effects; (3 impact of PPARγ and its agonists on tumors in animal models; (4 clinical trials of thiazolidinediones (TZDs in human malignancies; (5 TZDs as chemopreventive agents in epidemiology studies. The focus is placed on the most relevant in vivo animal models and human data. In vitro cell line studies are included only when the effects are shown to be dependent on the PPARγ receptor.

  14. The lived experiences of being physically active when morbidly obese: A qualitative systematic review

    Bente Skovsby Toft

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to identify facilitators and barriers for physical activity (PA experienced by morbidly obese adults in the Western world. Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle have become a major challenge for health and well-being, particularly among persons with morbid obesity. Lifestyle changes may lead to long-term changes in activity level, if facilitators and barriers are approached in a holistic way by professionals. To develop lifestyle interventions, the perspective and experiences of this group of patients are essential for success. The methodology of the systematic review followed the seven-step procedure of the Joanna Briggs Institute and was published in a protocol. Six databases were searched using keywords and index terms. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in cited citations up until March 2015. The selected studies underwent quality appraisal in the Joanna Briggs-Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Data from primary studies were extracted and were subjected to a hermeneutic text interpretation and a data-driven coding in a five-step procedure focusing on meaning and constant targeted comparison through which they were categorized and subjected into a meta-synthesis. Eight papers were included for the systematic review, representing the experiences of PA among 212 participants. One main theme developed from the meta-data analysis: “Identity” with the three subthemes: “considering weight,” “being able to,” and “belonging with others.” The theme and subthemes were merged into a meta-synthesis: “Homecoming: a change in identity.” The experiences of either suffering or well-being during PA affected the identity of adults with morbid obesity either by challenging or motivating them. A change in identity may be needed to feel a sense of “homecoming” when active.

  15. Review of short-lived radionuclide activities in the United States

    A review is given of the accelerator-produced short-lived radionuclides which are used in radiopharmaceuticals available commercially in the US and of the accelerator facilities devoted primarily to their production. Reactions for the efficient production of 67Ga, 81Rb → /sup 81m/Kr, 111In, 201Tl, and 123I are given. Methods for the production of higher purity 123I are suggested

  16. Living Donor Liver Transplant is not a Transparent Activity in India

    Naidu, Sudeep

    2012-01-01

    Living donor liver transplant has gained rapid popularity in India as a life saving procedure for end stage liver disease. The undoubted benefit for the recipient is clouded by a few unfavorable outcomes in donors which have led to allegations of lack of transparency. These factors are easily remediable with an attitude of self audit and self disclosure by transplant centers, enabling a truly informed consenting procedure.

  17. Nuclear dynamics of influenza A virus ribonucleoproteins revealed by live-cell imaging studies

    The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by the viral RNA polymerase. Only four viral polypeptides are required but multiple cellular components are potentially involved. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to characterise the dynamics of GFP-tagged viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) components in living cells. The nucleoprotein (NP) displayed very slow mobility that significantly increased on formation of transcriptionally active RNPs. Conversely, single or dimeric polymerase subunits showed fast nuclear dynamics that decreased upon formation of heterotrimers, suggesting increased interaction of the full polymerase complex with a relatively immobile cellular component(s). Treatment with inhibitors of cellular transcription indicated that in part, this reflected an interaction with cellular RNA polymerase II. Analysis of mutated influenza virus polymerase complexes further suggested that this was through an interaction between PB2 and RNA Pol II separate from PB2 cap-binding activity.

  18. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND LEISURE TIME AMONG 13-15-YEAR-OLD TEENAGERS LIVING IN BIAŁA PODLASKA

    Grad Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research was to get information about physical activity and forms of spending leisure time by teenagers between 13 and 15 years old, who live in Biała Podlaska. The research included 229 pupils from three Grammar Schools (115 girls and 114 boys). The range of respondents’ age is from 13 to 15 years old. The research tool was anonymous questionnaire consisting of questions concerning healthy lifestyle, physical activity and forms of spending leisure time. In total, the questionn...

  19. Translating the Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and assessing their concurrent validity with VAS measures of pain and activities in daily living

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires are three validated instruments to measure physical activity and limitations in daily living in patients with lower extremity disorders living at home of which no German equivalents are available. Our scope was to translate the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and to verify its concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Methods We translated the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 52 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the lower extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event were obtained. We assessed the concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Results We found that variability in the German Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires was largely explained by measures of pain and activities in daily living on the Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusion Our study shows that the domains pain and activities in daily living are properly represented in the German versions of the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Raising and Sitting Questionnaires. We would like to propagate their use in clinical practice and research alike.

  20. Effect of six-month standardized tertiary rehabilitation program on the activities of daily living in stroke patients with hemiplegia

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, there are many studies on the rehabilitation therapy of stroke patients with hemiplegia, but there is deficiency of corresponding standardized rehabilitation program.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of standardized tertiary rehabilitation on the activities of daily living in stroke patients with hemiplegia within 6 months after attack.DESIGN: A clinical observation.SETTING: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University.PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two outpatients and inpatients with acute stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, Shanghai Huashan Hosptial from January 1999 to June 2003, including 49 males and 33 females, 40 - 80 years of age, with a mean age of (65 ± 11) years old. Inclusive criteria: According to the diagnostic standards for cerebrovascular diseases set by Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease in 1995, the patients were diagnosed as new attack of cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage, and confirmed by CT or MRI to be initial patients; They should be accorded with the following conditions, including within 1 week after stabilization of life signs, Glasgow coma score > 8 points, 40 - 80 years of age, with disturbance of limb function. Informed consents were obtained from all the patients or their relatives. Exclusive criteria: Patients were excluded due to active liver disease, liver and kidney malfunction, congestive heart failure, malignant tumor, history of dementia, failure in respiratory function,tetraplegia; cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage for more than 3 weeks; unable to be followed up due to in other cities and provinces; psychiatric history; deafness and muteness. According to the will of the patients or their relatives, the patients who accepted the standardized rehabilitation program were enrolled as the treatment group (n =42), and the others as the control group (n =40). Approval was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital

  1. Study of non-thermal effects from laser radiation on live tissues

    The functional biological effects related to the irradiation of live tissues with low power lasers, called non-thermal effects were theoretical and experimentally studied. For the experimental part, a device which allows to: irradiation lesions artificially created on the back of rats by a He-Ne laser, or put a moving ground glass in front of the laser beam, by irradiation of this same laser with its coherence degree decreased. The relevance of the radiation coherence in the lesion cicatrization process was shown. The electrical field distribution and the intensity distribution on a surface with micro-roughness when irradiated by coherent light are theoretically studied. (M.C.K.)

  2. Evolution of the French policy related to the studies on long-lived radioactive waste management

    This paper reports on a new law which has recently been passed at the end of 1991 by the French Parliament. It gives definite information on a detailed framework related to the long lived radioactive waste management. Studies will be carried out following three directions: sharper actinide separation and transmutation; waste conditioning; and researches in underground laboratories. These studies will be assessed within fifteen years. The law also sets up ANDRA as a Etablissement public and caractere industrial et commercial (independent state owned company) which is especially responsible for industrial realization and participation into the research program

  3. Comparative study on presentation of biliary ascariasis with dead and living worms

    Alam Shahinul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparison was done by chi-square and independent t tests. Results: The age (mean ± SD of the patients was 36.8 ± 16.1 years. Prevalence ratio between male and female patients was 1:5. Ninety eight patients contained living worms and 40 had dead worms. Males were more prone to develop dead worm BPA. The commonest presentation was biliary colic (131; 94.9%; others were acute cholangitis (30; 21.7%, obstructive jaundice (19; 13.8%, choledocholithiasis (20; 14.5%, acute pancreatitis (10; 7.2%, acute cholecystitis (6; 4.3%, liver abscess (2; 1.4%, hepatolithiasis (3; 2.2%, stricture of common bile duct (2; 1.4%, pancreatic abscess (1; 0.7% and cirrhosis of liver (1; 0.7%. Choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis, liver abscess and cirrhosis were associated only with dead worms. We could successfully remove all the worms with endoscopic interventions, but 5 patients required surgical intervention as there were strictures and stones within the biliary tree or Ascaris were in gallbladder. Recurrences of stone and cholangitis occurred only in those with dead worms. Conclusion: Biliary ascariasis with dead worms is more dangerous than that with living worms. Endoscopic or surgical intervention may be required repeatedly in those with dead worms.

  4. Living with sickle cell disease and depression in Lagos, Nigeria: A mixed methods study.

    Ola, Bolanle A; Yates, Scott J; Dyson, Simon M

    2016-07-01

    Sickle cell disorders (SCD) and depression are both chronic illnesses of global significance. Past research on SCD and depression struggles to make sense of statistical associations, essentializes depression within the person with SCD, and treats stigma as an automatic correlate of chronic illness. A mixed methods study (March 2012-April 2014) was undertaken with people living with SCD and depression in Lagos, Nigeria, examining depression-as disease (questionnaires); depression-as-illness-experience (individual depth interviews), and depression-as-societal-sickness (focus groups). 103 people with SCD attending an outpatients clinic were administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and 82 self-identified with some level of depression. Fifteen were subsequently interviewed about their illness experience. Their lives were characterized by being extensively subjected to vicious discriminatory remarks, including from significant others, negative experiences they felt contributed to their depression and even to suicidal thoughts and actions. Contrary to misconceptions of the relational nature of stigma, respondents recognized that stigma resulted not from their SCD but from assumed broken social norms and expectations, norms to do with educability, employability and parenthood. They recounted either that they successfully met such expectations in their own lives, or that they could conceivably do so with reasonable societal adjustments. Ten respondents with SCD and depression further took part in two series of three focus groups with five people in each series of groups. In groups people living with SCD were able to challenge negative assumptions about themselves; to begin to recognize collective social interests as a group, and to rehearse backstage, in discussions between themselves, social actions that they might engage in frontstage, out in wider society, to challenge discriminatory societal arrangements they held to contribute to their depression. To the extent

  5. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report.

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  6. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  7. Impact of Gait Speed and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living on All-Cause Mortality in Adults ≥65 Years of Age with Heart Failure

    Lo, Alexander X.; Donnelly, John P.; McGwin, Gerald; Bittner, Vera; Ahmed, Ali; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    Mobility and function are important predictors of survival. However, their combined impact on mortality in adults ≥65 years of age with heart failure (HF) is not well understood. This study examined the role of gait speed and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in all-cause mortality in a cohort of 1,119 community-dwelling Cardiovascular Health Study participants ≥65 years of age with incident HF. Data on HF and mortality were collected through annual examinations or contact during...

  8. Detection of activities of daily living impairment in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using information and communication technology

    Sacco G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guillaume Sacco,1–3 Véronique Joumier,1,4 Nelly Darmon,1 Arnaud Dechamps,1,5 Alexandre Derreumaux,1,3 Ji-Hyun Lee,2 Julie Piano,2 Nathalie Bordone,2 Alexandra Konig,1,6 Bernard Teboul,3 Renaud David,1,2 Olivier Guerin,1,3 François Bremond,1,4 Philippe Robert1,21EA CoBTeK, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 2Centre Mémoire de Ressource et de Recherche, CHU de Nice, 3Plateforme Patient du Centre d'Innovation et d'Usage en Santé, CHU de Nice, 4Equipe Stars, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France; 5University of Pancasila, Department of Psychology, Jakarta, Indonesia; 6University of Maastricht, Faculty of Psychology and Neuropsychology, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht, The NetherlandsBackground: One of the key clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD is impairment in daily functioning. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI also commonly have mild problems performing complex tasks. Information and communication technology (ICT, particularly techniques involving imaging and video processing, is of interest in order to improve assessment. The overall aim of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible using a video monitoring system to obtain a quantifiable assessment of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs in AD and in MCI.Methods: The aim of the study is to propose a daily activity scenario (DAS score that detects functional impairment using ICTs in AD and MCI compared with normal control group (NC. Sixty-four participants over 65 years old were included: 16 AD matched with 10 NC for protocol 1 (P1 and 19 MCI matched with 19 NC for protocol 2 (P2. Each participant was asked to undertake a set of daily tasks in the setting of a “smart home” equipped with two video cameras and everyday objects for use in activities of daily living (8 IADLs for P1 and 11 for P2, plus 4 temporal execution constraints. The DAS score was then computed

  9. Safety evaluation by living probabilistic safety assessment. Procedures and applications for planning of operational activities and analysis of operating experience

    Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a daily safety management system and it is based on a plant-specific PSA and supporting information systems. In the living use of PSA, plant status knowledge is used to represent actual plant safety status in monitoring or follow-up perspective. The PSA model must be able to express the risk at a given time and plant configuration. The process, to update the PSA model to represent the current or planned configuration and to use the model to evaluate and direct the changes in the configuration, is called living PSA programme. The main purposes to develop and increase the usefulness of living PSA are: Long term safety planning: To continue the risk assessment process started with the basic PSA by extending and improving the basic models and data to provide a general risk evaluation tool for analyzing the safety effects of changes in plant design and procedures. Risk planning of operational activities: To support the operational management by providing means for searching optimal operational maintenance and testing strategies from the safety point of view. The results provide support for risk decision making in the short term or in a planning mode. The operational limits and conditions given by technical specifications can be analyzed by evaluating the risk effects of alternative requirements in order to balance the requirements with respect to operational flexibility and plant economy. Risk analysis of operating experience: To provide a general risk evaluation tool for analyzing the safety effects of incidents and plant status changes. The analyses are used to: identify possible high risk situations, rank the occurred events from safety point of view, and get feedback from operational events for the identification of risk contributors. This report describes the methods, models and applications required to continue the process towards a living use of PSA. 19 tabs, 20 figs

  10. Influence of music lessons on the vocabulary of bilingual children : a study among 16 bilingual children living in mixed communicative environment in Oslo, Norway

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies in the field of bilingualism and early childhood education have been made. Very few studies, from the ones I found, focus specifically on using music activities with the bilingual children, which raises interest for this particular research. Being a teacher of music myself it made me especially interested in such kind of research. The study may lead to a better understanding of influence of music lessons on extending of vocabulary of children living in mixed commu...

  11. Lectin Conjugated Gold Nanoparticle-based Colorimetric Assay for Studying the Interactions of Antibiotic with Living Cell

    WANG Jin-e; WANG Cheng-ke; LIU Dian-jun; WANG Zhen-xin

    2011-01-01

    The interactions of antibiotic with living cells were studied by iectin conjugated gold nanoparticles(GNPs)based colorimetric assay. Because of the high affinity of lectin for saccharides, the lectin conjugated GNPs are able to employ as indicators for monitoring the antibiotic induced changes of glycosyl complexes. The interactions of a well known antibiotic, tunicamycin, with two different cell lines, HeLa and SHG-44, were selected to establish this assay.In the presence of tunicamycin, the dose- and time-dependence on the decreasing of binding affinity of lectin conjugated GNPs with living cells were demonstrated by conventional microscopic and UV-Vis spectroscopic studies. The experimental result demonstrates that our approach can be used to identify antibiotic induced expression difference of glycosyl complexes on different cellular surfaces and determine drug activity quantitatively. For further confirming the capability of the GNP-based assay, the system was also studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM)and classic flow cytometry(FCM) assay, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  12. DO MOST ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI LIVE IN HIGH STAR FORMATION NUCLEAR CUSPS?

    We present early results of the Herschel PACS (70 and 160 μm) and SPIRE (250, 350, and 500 μm) survey of 313 low redshift (z < 0.05), ultra-hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the 58 month Swift/Burst Alert Telescope catalog. Selection of AGNs from ultra-hard X-rays avoids bias from obscuration, providing a complete sample of AGNs to study the connection between nuclear activity and star formation in host galaxies. With the high angular resolution of PACS, we find that >35% and >20% of the sources are ''point-like'' at 70 and 160 μm respectively and many more have their flux dominated by a point source located at the nucleus. The inferred star formation rates (SFRs) of 0.1-100 M ☉ yr–1 using the 70 and 160 μm flux densities as SFR indicators are consistent with those inferred from Spitzer Ne II fluxes, but we find that 11.25 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon data give ∼3× lower SFR. Using GALFIT to measure the size of the far-infrared emitting regions, we determined the SFR surface density (M ☉ yr–1 kpc–2) for our sample, finding that a significant fraction of these sources exceed the threshold for star formation driven winds (0.1 M ☉ yr–1 kpc–2)

  13. Understanding barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and active living in rural communities.

    Seguin, Rebecca; Connor, Leah; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea; Eldridge, Galen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8-15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30-84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  14. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities

    Rebecca Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Studies demonstrate that people’s food and physical activity (PA environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents’ food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD = 61 (14 (N=95. On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking. Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions.

  15. The Health Benefits and Challenges of Exercise Training in Persons Living with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    Donna J. Lang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In addition to the hallmark cognitive and functional impairments mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is also associated with an increased risk for the development of secondary complications, in particular cardio-metabolic disease. This is thought to be the result of various factors including physical inactivity and the metabolic side effects of psychotropic medications. Therefore, non-pharmacological approaches to improving brain health, physical health, and overall well-being have been promoted increasingly. Methods: We report on the health-related physical fitness (body composition, blood pressure, heart rate, and aerobic fitness and lipid profile of persons living with schizophrenia and effective means to address the challenges of exercise training in this population. Results: There was a markedly increased risk for cardio-metabolic disease in 13 persons living with schizophrenia (Age = 31 ± 7 years including low aerobic fitness (76% ± 34% of predicted, reduced HDL (60% of cohort, elevated resting heart rate (80% of cohort, hypertension (40% of cohort, overweight and obesity (69% of cohort, and abdominal obesity (54% of cohort. Individualized exercise prescription (3 times/week was well tolerated, with no incidence of adverse exercise-related events. The exercise adherence rate was 81% ± 21% (Range 48%–100%, and 69% of the participants were able to complete the entire exercise training program. Exercise training resulted in clinically important changes in physical activity, aerobic fitness, exercise tolerance, blood pressure, and body composition. Conclusion: Persons living with schizophrenia appear to be at an increased risk for cardio-metabolic disease. An individualized exercise program has shown early promise for the treatment of schizophrenia and the various cognitive, functional, and physiological impairments that ultimately affect health and well-being.

  16. Comparison of activities of daily living after osteoporotic hip fracture surgery in patients admitted from home and from geriatric health service facilities

    Horikawa A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Akira Horikawa,1 Naohisa Miyakoshi,2 Yoichi Shimada,2 Hiroyuki Kodama1 1South Akita Orthopedic Clinic, Katagami, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan Abstract: With the population and proportion of the elderly increasing each year, ­difficulties with postoperative treatment outcomes after osteoporotic hip fracture are increasing. This study focused on activities of daily living (ADL in patients who underwent surgery for hip fracture through an investigation of living arrangements, the presence of dementia, and other complications of aging. Information from 99 patients who lived either at home or in geriatric health service facilities was collected for this trial. Most patients were over 65 years of age and female, and about half of them had dementia. The postoperative ADL score (focusing on patients’ walking ability was significant for those living at home than for those living in facilities. In addition, patients with dementia were divided into the following two categories: an early-rising group, comprising patients who were able to use a wheelchair within 48 hours of their operation; and a late-rising group, who did not start using a wheelchair until more than 48 hours after surgery. The ADL scores for the two groups were compared. Although the preoperative ADL scores were not significantly different between the two groups, postoperative ADL scores were significantly higher in the early-rising group than in the late-rising group, especially in patients who had undergone hemiarthroplasty. These data suggest that ADL in dementia patients following hip fracture depends on the surgical procedure performed and whether they are late or early risers after surgery. Keywords: delirium, dementia, rehabilitation, elderly

  17. The daily living for informal caregivers with a partner with Parkinson’s disease: - An interview study of women´s experiences of care decisions and selfmanagement

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, B. D.; Wagner, L.

    2011-01-01

    phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used. Interviews with female partners (N = 10) of patients with Parkinson disease who were living at home were conducted in Denmark in 2008. The French philosopher Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation guided the data analysis. Conclusion.  This study shows that essential to...... the women’s experiences was the impact on daily life and changes to their quality of life in living close to a partner with Parkinson’s disease. As the disease gradually developed to affect motor, cognitive and emotional functioning, the need for care decisions related to help with daily activities...

  18. Morir con dignidad: Estudio sobre voluntades anticipadas Dying with dignity: A study of living wills

    Cristina Nebot

    2010-12-01

    draw up a living will, to analyze physicians´ knowledge of living wills and attitudes toward them, and to compare the regulations pertaining to this right in the distinct autonomous regions of Spain. Method: A descriptive study that included an analysis of a systematic sample of 931 living wills registered in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain, a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 84 physicians working in emergency departments and intensive care units (45% response rate, and a comparison of the regional legislation covering living wills. Results: A total of 1.6% of inhabitants aged 16 or over had registered a living will (female/male ratio: 1.8/1. Most (73.8% used a standard document drawn up by a particular religious faith. The most common reasons for writing a living will were to limit therapeutic efforts (99% and obtain pain-relieving drugs (98%. Although 61 physicians (72.6% frequently attended the terminally ill, only 6% consulted the register of living wills in these situations and 28% did not know how to consult this register. There is wide variation among regions in the minimum age for registering a living will, in the procedure to be followed if the signer is pregnant, in designating a person as having the authority to make a living will, and in the number of registration points available to deposit livingwills. Conclusions: Most persons registering a living will are healthy individuals with a particular religious faith who reject certain treatments. Most health professionals do not check whether critically ill patients have made a living will. Exercising the rights contained in living wills is complicated by the diversity of criteria among different regions.

  19. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  20. Detecting cells in time varying intensity images in confocal microscopy for gene expression studies in living cells

    Mitra, Debasis; Boutchko, Rostyslav; Ray, Judhajeet; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a time-lapsed confocal microscopy image analysis technique for an automated gene expression study of multiple single living cells. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a technology by which molecule-to-molecule interactions are visualized. We analyzed a dynamic series of ~102 images obtained using confocal microscopy of fluorescence in yeast cells containing RNA reporters that give a FRET signal when the gene promoter is activated. For each time frame, separate images are available for three spectral channels and the integrated intensity snapshot of the system. A large number of time-lapsed frames must be analyzed to identify each cell individually across time and space, as it is moving in and out of the focal plane of the microscope. This makes it a difficult image processing problem. We have proposed an algorithm here, based on scale-space technique, which solves the problem satisfactorily. The algorithm has multiple directions for even further improvement. The ability to rapidly measure changes in gene expression simultaneously in many cells in a population will open the opportunity for real-time studies of the heterogeneity of genetic response in a living cell population and the interactions between cells that occur in a mixed population, such as the ones found in the organs and tissues of multicellular organisms.

  1. Nutrition as long-term care as experienced by persons living with inflammatory bowel disease: a qualitative study.

    Skrautvol, Kari; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how young adult people living with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experienced that knowledge about their body symptoms and their food intake could promote recovery from their diagnosed disease. A hermeneutic approach was used to analyze interviews with patients living with IBD outside hospital. Thirteen young adults 18 to 45 years of age, with IBD, resided in their home environment and were engaged in different study and work activities. Two main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: (1) confidence with symptoms of disease as a source to recovery and (2) nutritional recovery in different stages of IBD. The course of the disease may be turned toward regeneration using a balanced diet in a long-term management perspective. Development of a tailored diet will provide energy and act as a catalyst to enhance the adaptive immune system in the body. Embodied knowledge and recovery from IBD within the individual patient requires understanding, clinical support, and the skills of the IBD nurse, dietitian, and doctor in an interdisciplinary team collaboration. PMID:25470477

  2. Modesty and recognition--a qualitative study of the lived experience of recovery from anal cancer

    Midtgaard, Julie; Hansen, Mette Juel; Grandjean, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    's phenomenological methodology. FINDINGS: The analysis revealed two concepts, modesty and recognition, which describe the essence of the lived experience of anal cancer, and which each appear to be important resistance resources. While modesty is regarded as an enforced and necessary competence developed and...... survivors of anal cancer to resist and to manage potentially complex stressors encountered in the recovery from the disease. DESIGN: A qualitative, salutogenetic-oriented, phenomenological study was conducted based on audio-taped, semi-structured interviews. METHODS: Interviewee selection was carried out...

  3. Living on the Margins of Life: A Study about Street Children in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Pokharel, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    This thesis entitled ‘Living on the Margins of Life: A Study about Street Children in Kathmandu, Nepal’ is based on the idea that children rights, the most basic of human rights need to be discussed and promoted, since children are the future of the community, nation and the world. Indigenous peoples and their struggle for human rights is now a significant force, as the movement moves in a new era. In such a context, the main interest of this research work is the current situation of indigeno...

  4. Economic abuse in the lives of women abused by an intimate partner: a qualitative study.

    Sanders, Cynthia K

    2015-01-01

    This article presents qualitative findings of a study that examined the role of financial issues and economic factors in the lives of women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Eight themes emerged in discussions with women about the ways in which money and economic issues played a role in their experiences of abuse. Taken together, women's discussions clearly support an "economic abuse" dimension of IPV. Implications for safely advancing the economic well-being of low-income survivors are discussed. PMID:25548376

  5. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

    Eliud Wekesa

    Full Text Available Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS.A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41] with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires.Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-infection prevention. More than a third (34% of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent.Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of

  6. Modeling study of effects of short-lived radionuclide fixation on decay chain radionuclides migration

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Watanabe, Shoji

    1993-08-01

    Effects of a short lived radionuclide fixation to minerals during alteration process from a primary mineral (M1) to tertiary mineral (M3) through secondary mineral (M2) on a decay chain radionuclides migration (DCRM) have been studied based on mathematical simulation studies. The mathematical migration model in which a daughter radionuclide, N[sub 2], corresponds to a short lived radionuclide and is fixed to M2 during alteration from M1 to M2, is proposed. Also, a fraction of the granddaughter radionuclide, N[sub 3], is assumed to be released from M2 into a solution during the alteration process from M2 to M3. The model studies lead the delay in the migration of N[sub 3], with the delay becoming remarkably enhanced if the fixation rate constant of N[sub 2] is greater than the decay constant of N[sub 2]. Whereas, the delay is reduced by the release of N[sub 3] with a faster rate than the decay constant of N[sub 3]. Therefore, it is important clarify decay chain radionuclides fixation and release mechanisms during an alteration process. (author).

  7. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  8. Living alone and alcohol-related mortality: a population-based cohort study from Finland.

    Kimmo Herttua; Pekka Martikainen; Jussi Vahtera; Mika Kivimäki

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Throughout most of human history, people have lived in tight-knit communities where there was likely to be someone to turn to for help, advice, or company. But the modern way of life in industrialized countries is greatly reducing the quantity and quality of social relationships. Instead of living in extended families, many people now live miles away from their relatives, often living and working alone. Others commute long distances to work, which leaves little tim...

  9. Study on lipid droplet dynamics in live cells and fluidity changes in model bacterial membranes using optical microscopy techniques

    Wong, Christine Shiang Yee

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis optical microscopy techniques are used to consider aspects of viral and bacterial infections. In part 1, the physical effects of cytomegalovirus on lipid droplet dynamics in live cells are studied; in part 2, the effects of an antimicrobial peptide on the fluidity of model bacterial membranes are studied. The optical microscopy techniques used to study the effects of murine-cytomegalovirus (mCMV) on lipid droplets in live NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells in real-time are...

  10. Teach to live or live to teach: A case study on the educational beliefs of displaced teachers in Taiwan

    Su, Yu-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current changes in the Taiwan’s Teacher Education Law has brought forth new and diverse outlook on Taiwan’s teacher education. The law aims at breaking the traditional conservative approach on teacher education; a provision which allow students of non-education degree (as oppose to graduates of normal colleges to pursue teaching credentials, hence providing a more diverse choice in teacher selection. However, the over expansion of schools who provide such kind of teaching credentials, has resulted in the over saturation of the market with surplus workforce, thus leading to extreme competition of the job market and the appearance of the concept of teachers without regular jobs, vagabond teachers, or just simply displaced teachers. This phenomenon is being herald as the resulting problem of the Taiwan’s Teacher Education Law, however, few studies has been conducted on such relevant issues. Therefore, in order to further understand the issue, this case study shall focus on the so-called displaced teachers’ educational beliefs and the factors that may affect the teachers’ choice of career. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted on twelve (12 displaced teachers, to understand the impact of educational beliefs on their attitude in facing the intense career competition. Result shows that there is a direct correlation between the teachers’ current career choice and their initial educational beliefs. Findings shall serve as a point of reference for contemporary visions on future teacher education policy.

  11. The interplay of biomolecules and water at the origin of the active behavior of living organisms

    It is shown that the main component of living matter, namely liquid water, is not an ensemble of independent molecules but an ensemble of phase correlated molecules kept in tune by an electromagnetic (e.m) field trapped in the ensemble. This field and the correlated potential govern the interaction among biomolecules suspended in water and are in turn affected by the chemical interactions of molecules. In particular, the phase of the coherent fields appears to play an important role in this dynamics. Recent experiments reported by the Montagnier group seem to corroborate this theory. Some features of the dynamics of human organisms, as reported by psychotherapy, holistic medicine and Eastern traditions, are analyzed in this frame and could find a rationale in this context.

  12. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  13. Fitting Fitness into Women's Lives: Effects of a Gender-tailored Physical Activity Intervention

    Segar, Michelle; Jayaratne, Toby; Hanlon, Jennifer; Richardson, Caroline R

    2002-01-01

    Although regular exercise has important health benefits, women's physical activity participation remains low. Addressing the gender- and generation-specific barriers in an intervention may help women become more physically active. Fifty women (mean age = 45 years) participated in a six-session cognitive-behavioral intervention. Baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up data were collected. Total physical activity levels increased from baseline to post-intervention and were maintained at long...

  14. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena. PMID:22279770

  15. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation

  16. The lives of female sex workers in Vietnam: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Ngo, Anh D; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine; Ratliff, Eric A; Pham, Hang T B

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate better understanding of the environment and power structures in which sex work in Vietnam takes place, this study examined the sex workers' social and economic lives, their working environment, social relationships and presentation of self in everyday social contacts and interactions. Thirty in-depth interviews and 14 focus groups were conducted with street-based and venue-based sex workers in the cities of Da Nang and Hanoi. Results show that sex workers live and work within a complex system involving multiple relationships. In any of these relations, women have limited power to protect their personal security and secure payment for services rendered. Economic hardship is a major problem facing street-level sex workers and contributes to unsafe sexual practices. Venue-based sex workers worry less about economic hardships as such, but frequently incur gambling debts. Women also reported incidents of abuse and experiences of social stigma. Although many women exhibited a strong desire to leave sex work, they found themselves trapped in the sex industry by the lack of alternative employment options. This study provides evidence that socio-psychological factors must be addressed along with risky behaviours to promote women's well-being and social integration. PMID:17963096

  17. Infrared Surface-Plasmon-Resonance -- a novel biophysical tool for studying living cell

    Golosovsky, M; Yashunsky, V; Davidov, D; Aroeti, B; 10.1063/1.3116143

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the Surface-Plasmon-Resonance (SPR) technique based on Fourier -Transform - InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry. We explore the potential of the infrared surface plasmon resonance technique for biological studies in aqueous solutions and compare it to the conventional surface plasmon technique operating in the visible range. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of the SPR technique in the infrared range is not lower and in fact is even higher. We show several examples of applying FTIR-SPR for biological studies: (i) monitoring D-glucose concentration in solution, and (ii) measuring D-glucose uptake by erythrocytes in suspension. We emphasize the advantages of infrared SPR for studying living cell cultures and show how this technique can be used for characterization of (i) cholesterol penetration into plasma membrane, and (ii) transferrin-induced clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  18. Stories of Growth and Wisdom: A Mixed-Methods Study of People Living Well With Pain.

    Owens, Justine E; Menard, Martha; Plews-Ogan, Margaret; Calhoun, Lawrence G; Ardelt, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain remains a daunting clinical challenge, affecting 30% of people in the United States and 20% of the global population. People meeting this challenge by achieving wellbeing while living with pain are a virtually untapped source of wisdom about this persistent problem. Employing a concurrent mixed-methods design, we studied 80 people living with chronic pain with "positive stories to tell" using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires. In-depth interviews focused on what helped, what hindered, how they changed, and advice for others in similar circumstances. Major qualitative themes included acceptance, openness, self-efficacy, hope, perseverance, self-regulation, kinesthetic awareness, holistic approaches and integrative therapies, self-care, spirituality, social support, and therapeutic lifestyle behaviors such as music, writing, art, gardening, and spending time in nature. Themes of growth and wisdom included enhanced relationships, perspective, clarity, strength, gratitude, compassion, new directions, and spiritual change. Based on narrative analysis of the interviews and Ardelt's Three-Dimensional Wisdom Model, participants were divided into 2 groups: 59 wisdom exemplars and 21 nonexemplars. Non-exemplar themes were largely negative and in direct contrast to the exemplar themes. Quantitatively, wisdom exemplars scored significantly higher in Openness and Agreeableness and lower in Neuroticism compared to non-exemplars. Wisdom exemplars also scored higher in Wisdom, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Posttraumatic Growth than nonexemplars, and more exemplars used integrative therapies compared to the non-exemplars. As a whole, the exemplar narratives illustrate a Positive Approach Model (PAM) for living well with pain, which allows for a more expansive pain narrative, provides positive role models for patients and clinicians, and contributes to a broader theoretical perspective on persistent pain. PMID:26937311

  19. Tiredness in daily activities: a subjective measure for the identification of frailty among non-disabled community-living older adults

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the responses to questions about tiredness in daily activities is an early subjective sign of frailty indicating older community-living adults at increased risk for disability and mortality. Tiredness in daily activities as measured by the Mob......-T Scale, maximal power in sustained work, and comorbid diseases were assessed together with sociodemographic variables in a sample of 705 non-disabled, 70-year old men and women surveyed in 1984. Vital status of members was determined prospectively over the next 15 years. Onset of disability was measured...... in daily activities is suggested as a basis for identifying vulnerable frail subsets of older adults requiring targeted strategies for prevention....

  20. Effectiveness of the "Cancer Home-Life Intervention" on everyday activities and quality of life in people with advanced cancer living at home

    Brandt, Åse; Pilegaard, Marc Sampedro; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen;

    2016-01-01

    Background During the past decade an increasing number of people live with advanced cancer mainly due to improved medical treatment. Research has shown that many people with advanced cancer have problems with everyday activities, which have negative impact on their quality of life, and that they...... spend a considerable part of their time at home. Still, research on interventions to support the performance of and participation in everyday activities is only scarcely available. Therefore, the occupational therapy-based “Cancer Home-Life Intervention” consisting of tailored adaptive interventions...... applied in the participant’s home environment was developed. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Cancer Home-Life Intervention compared to usual care on the performance of and participation in everyday activities and quality of life in people with...

  1. A longitudinal study of cerebral blood flow and intelligences in normal elderly people living in retirement house

    It is well known that the number of the neuron in the brain gradually reduced with advancing age, but speed of decline of brain functions differs among individuals. We have reported that social environmental factors had significant influences to cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mental function. In this paper, we report 2.5 years longitudinal study concerning with CBF and intelligences in twenty normal elderly people, mean age of 76 years old at the first measurement, living in retirement house. 1) Mean CBF measured by Xe 133 inhalation method did not alter significantly during the observation period. 2) Performance intelligence evaluated by Kohs' block design test had reduced at the point of begining but no more reduction was observed during the period. 3) Verbal intelligence evaluated by Hasegawa's intelligence scale for aged which was within normal range at the begining, slightly (-7.5 %) but significantly (p < 0.05) reduced during the period. 4) Performance intelligence tended to reduce in subjects who showed reduction of CBF. There were no significant correlation between both intelligences and CBF. CBF could be maintained even in elderly people living in retirement house which has less social stimuli during relatively short observation period in so far as they maintain active daily life. The speed of reduction of performance intelligence may be getting slow after certain age and verbal intelligence gradually decreases perhaps by disuse of the mental function. (author)

  2. Differences in Physical Activity between Black and White Girls Living in Rural and Urban Areas.

    Felton, Gwen M.; Dowda, Marsha; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of race and rural/urban setting to physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental factors associated with physical activity among eighth grade girls. More differences related to race than setting. Black girls were less active and more heavy than white girls. Enjoyment of physical education and family involvement in…

  3. Phospholipase D activation correlates with microtubule reorganization in living plant cells

    P.B. Dhonukshe; A.M. Laxalt; J. Goedhart; Th.W.J. Gadella; T. Munnik

    2003-01-01

    A phospholipase D (PLD) was shown recently to decorate microtubules in plant cells. Therefore, we used tobacco BY-2 cells expressing the microtubule reporter GFP-MAP4 to test whether PLD activation affects the organization of plant microtubules. Within 30 min of adding n-butanol, a potent activator

  4. Memoryless self-reinforcing directionality in endosomal active transport within living cells

    Chen, Kejia; Wang, Bo; Granick, Steve

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to Brownian transport, the active motility of microbes, cells, animals and even humans often follows another random process known as truncated Lévy walk. These stochastic motions are characterized by clustered small steps and intermittent longer jumps that often extend towards the size of the entire system. As there are repeated suggestions, although disagreement, that Lévy walks have functional advantages over Brownian motion in random searching and transport kinetics, their intentional engineering into active materials could be useful. Here, we show experimentally in the classic active matter system of intracellular trafficking that Brownian-like steps self-organize into truncated Lévy walks through an apparent time-independent positive feedback such that directional persistence increases with the distance travelled persistently. A molecular model that allows the maximum output of the active propelling forces to fluctuate slowly fits the experiments quantitatively. Our findings offer design principles for programming efficient transport in active materials.

  5. Psychosocial profile and lived experience of HIV-infected long-term nonprogressors: a mixed method study.

    Côté, José; Bourbonnais, Anne; Rouleau, Geneviève; Ramirez-Garcìa, Pilar; Couture, Mélanie; Massé, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this mixed method study was to describe the psychosocial profile of HIV-infected persons identified as long-term nonprogressors (LTNP), and their experiences of nonprogression. Data were collected from 24 participants with a mean age of 48 years and a mean duration of infection of 14 years. Results show rather moderate levels of anxiety and depression symptoms and a modest mean score of social support. Participants adapted by using acceptance, positive restructuring, and active coping strategies. Seven themes marked the experience: (a) reacting to announcement and dealing with diagnosis, (b) valuing interpersonal relations and well-being, (c) making changes in life, (d) coping with stress, (e) dealing with health care, (f) beliefs about reasons for nonprogression, and (g) living positively while dreading progression. The findings enrich a field of knowledge that has had little attention so far and shed light on the psychosocial profile of LTNP and their experiences of nonprogression. PMID:24759059

  6. Nonlinear electromagnetic responses of active membrane protein complexes in live cells and organelles

    Nawarathna, Dharmakirthi

    The response of biological cells to an applied oscillating electric field contains both linear and nonlinear components (eg. induced harmonics). Such noninvasive measurements can be used to study active processes taking place inside the cells. The measurement of induced harmonics is the tool used for the study described here. A highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is used to detect the response at low frequencies, which greatly reduces electrode polarization effects. At high frequencies, a four- probe method is used. At low frequencies, harmonic generation by budding yeast cells in response to a sinusoidal electric field is reported, which is seen to be minimal when the field amplitude is less than a threshold value. Surprisingly, sodium metavanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPases and glucose, a substrate of P-type ATPase responsible for nonlinear response in yeast, reduces the threshold field amplitude, increasing harmonic generation at low amplitudes while reducing it at large amplitudes. We have thus proposed a model that explicitly introduces a threshold field, similar to those observed in density waves, where fields above threshold drive charge transport through an energy landscape with multiple wells, and in Coulomb blockade tunnel junctions, recently exploited to define the current standard. At high frequencies, the induced harmonics exhibit pronounced features that depend on the specific organism. Budding yeast (S. cerevisiae ) cells produce numerous harmonics. When the second or third harmonic amplitude is plotted vs. applied frequency, we observe two peaks, around 3 kHz and 12 kHz, which are suppressed by the respiratory inhibitor potassium cyanide. We then measured the response to oscillatory electric fields of intact bovine heart mitochondria, a reproducible second harmonic (at ˜3-4 kHz applied frequency) was detected. Further, with coupled mouse mitochondria, an ADP sensitive peak (˜ 12-15 kHz applied frequency) was

  7. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Doubova Svetlana V; Santos José; Castillo Raúl; Sandoval Araceli; Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo; Reyes Hortensia; Gutiérrez Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one ur...

  8. Social aspects of living with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative descriptive study in Soweto, South Africa – a low resource context

    Manabile Esther; Schneider Marguerite; Tikly Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic illness with important functional, social and employment consequences. We therefore undertook a cross-sectional study, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework, to investigate the personal and social consequences of RA in women, living under largely impoverished conditions. Methods A qualitative case study design was used with a convenience sample of 60 women with RA living in Soweto, Sout...

  9. Study of short-lived tin isotopes with a laser ion source

    A chemically selective laser ion source based on resonance ionization of atoms in a hot cavity was applied for study of short-lived tin isotopes at the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC/GSI. Tin atoms were ionized by a three-step resonance laser excitation of an autoionizing state. Yields of fusion-produced 108Sn and 108In isotopes were compared with the plasma ion source FEBIAD-B3. The total efficiency of tin ionization was determined to be 8.5%, whilst the indium isobar ionization was suppressed by a factor of 12. An experimental run on study of decay properties of extremely neutron deficient isotopes 101-103Sn has been carried out

  10. Organelle-Specific Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Living Cells

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Chrisler, William B.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-02-06

    A multimodal acidic organelle targeting activity-based probe was developed for analysis of subcellular native enzymatic activity of cells by fluorescent microscopy and mass spectrometry. A cathepsin reactive warhead was conjugated to an acidotropic amine, and a clickable alkyne for appendage of AlexaFluor 488 or biotin reporter tags. This probe accumulated in punctate vesicles surrounded by LAMP1, a lysosome marker, as observed by Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) in J774 mouse macrophage cells. Biotin conjugation, affinity purification, and analysis of in vivo labeled J774 by mass spectrometry showed that the probe was very selective for Cathepsins B and Z, two lysosomal cysteine proteases. Analysis of starvation induced autophagy, which is an increase in cell component catabolism involving lysosomes, showed a large increase in tagged protein number and an increase in cathepsin activity. Organelle targeting activity-based probes and subsequent analysis of resident proteins by mass spectrometry is enabled by tuning the physicochemical properties of the probe.

  11. IMPROVING SUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION OF DAILY ACTIVITIES LIVING USING NEW COST SENSITIVE CRITERION FOR C-SVM

    M’hamed Bilal Abidine; Belkacem Fergani

    2013-01-01

    The growing population of elders in the society calls for a new approach in care giving. By inferring what activities elderly are performing in their houses it is possible to determine their physical and cognitive capabilities. In this paper we show the potential of important discriminative classifiers namely the Soft-Support Vector Machines (C-SVM), Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) for recognizing activities from sensor patterns in a smart home en...

  12. Why live recording sounds better: A case study of Schumann’s Träumerei

    Haruka eShoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the concept that artists perform best in front of an audience. The negative effects of performance anxiety are much better known than their related cousin on the other shoulder: the positive effects of social facilitation. The present study, however, reveals a listener's preference for performances recorded in front of an audience. In Study 1, we prepared two types of recordings of Träumerei performed by 13 pianists: recordings in front of an audience and those with no audience. According to the evaluation by 153 listeners, the recordings performed in front of an audience sounded better, suggesting that the presence of an audience enhanced or facilitated the performance. In Study 2, we analyzed pianists' durational and dynamic expressions. According to the functional principal components analyses, we found that the expression of Träumerei consisted of three components: the overall quantity, the cross-sectional contrast between the final and the remaining sections, and the control of the expressive variability. Pianists' expressions were targeted more to the average of the cross-sectional variation in the audience-present than in the audience-absent recordings. In Study 3, we explored a model that explained listeners' responses induced by pianists' acoustical expressions, using path analyses. The final model indicated that the cross-sectional variation of the duration and that of the dynamics determined listeners' evaluations of the quality and the emotionally moving experience, respectively. In line with human's preferences for commonality, the more average the durational expressions were in live recording, the better the listeners' evaluations were regardless of their musical experiences. Only the well-experienced listeners (at least 16 years of musical training were moved more by the deviated dynamic expressions in live recording, suggesting a link between the experienced listener's emotional experience and the unique dynamics in

  13. Leisure as a context for active living, recovery, health and life quality for persons with mental illness in a global context

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Coyle, Catherine P.; Shank, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, the mental health system is being transformed into a strengths-based, recovery-oriented system of care, to which the concept of active living is central. Based on an integrative review of the literature, this paper presents a heuristic conceptual framework of the potential contribution that enjoyable and meaningful leisure experiences can have in active living, recovery, health and life quality among persons with mental illness. This framework is holistic and reflects the humanistic...

  14. Ventilatory and muscular assessment in healthy subjects during an activity of daily living with unsupported arm elevation

    Giselle F. L. Panka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD report dyspnea when performing activities of daily living (ADLs with elevated upper limbs. To elucidate the determinants of dyspnea, it is important to study the changes in the respiratory pattern of these patients and the electromyographic activity of their accessory muscles of respiration during ADLs. In the literature, there are no reports of a normative parameter, therefore it is necessary to study how these variables behave in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVES: To verify, in healthy subjects, the existence of changes in the respiratory pattern and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM muscle during an ADL with unsupported arm elevation. METHODS: Thirteen male subjects, 60.57 (±6.42 years old, with normal spirometry values for age and sex, were evaluated using surface electromyography (EMG and respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP collected at rest and during the activity of combing their hair with elevated and unsupported upper limbs. The data distribution was assessed using Shapiro-Wilk's test. ANOVA was used to compare the phases, and when the difference was significant (pINTRODUÇÃO: Pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC relatam dispneia quando realizam atividades da vida diária (AVD com membros superiores (MMSS elevados. Estudar as alterações do padrão respiratório e a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos acessórios da respiração desses pacientes nas AVD pode contribuir para esclarecer os determinantes de dispneia. Entretanto, não se encontrou, na literatura, um padrão de normalidade, fazendo-se necessário estudar, primeiramente, o comportamento dessas variáveis em saudáveis. OBJETIVOS: Verificar, em indivíduos saudáveis, a existência de mudanças no padrão respiratório e na ativação do músculo esternocleidomastoideo (ECM durante a realização de uma AVD com os MMSS elevados e sem apoio. MÉTODOS: Treze volunt

  15. Identification of a β-galactosidase transgene that provides a live-cell marker of transcriptional activity in growing oocytes and embryos.

    Edwards, Nicole; Farookhi, Riaz; Clarke, Hugh J

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the events and molecular mechanisms that regulate oocyte growth has emerged as a key objective of research in human fertility, fuelled by evidence from human and animal studies indicating that disease and environmental factors can act on oocytes to affect the health of the resulting individual and by efforts to grow oocytes in vitro to enable fertility preservation of cancer survivors. Techniques that monitor the development of growing oocytes would be valuable tools to assess the progression of growth under different conditions. Most methods used to assess oocytes grown in vitro are indirect, however, relying on characteristics of the somatic compartment of the follicle, or compromise the oocyte, preventing its subsequent culture or fertilization. We investigated the utility of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/Lef)-LacZ transgene expression as a predictor of global transcriptional activity in oocytes and early embryos. Using a fluorescent β-galactosidase substrate combined with live-cell imaging, we show that TCF/Lef-LacZ transgene expression is detectable in growing oocytes, lost in fully grown oocytes and resumes in late two-cell embryos. Transgene expression is likely regulated by a Wnt-independent mechanism. Using chromatin analysis, LacZ expression and methods to monitor and inhibit transcription, we show that TCF/Lef-LacZ expression mirrors transcriptional activity in oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Oocytes and preimplantation embryos that undergo live-cell imaging for TCF/Lef-LacZ expression are able to continue development in vitro. TCF/Lef-LacZ reporter expression in living oocytes and early embryos is thus a sensitive and faithful marker of transcriptional activity that can be used to monitor and optimize conditions for oocyte growth. PMID:25882542

  16. A qualitative, phenomenological study on the lived experiences of science teachers in The Bahamas

    Micklewhite, Thalia Vionne

    This phenomenological study investigates the lived experiences and perceptions of secondary science teachers in the archipelagic country of The Bahamas and how these teachers make meaning of the secondary science program in The Bahamas through the lens of life in a democratic society. The study's purpose was to answer the question: What are the lived experiences of secondary science teachers in The Bahamas in terms of their working conditions'? Using principles of phenomenological research to approach meaning, in-depth interviewing was conducted with six secondary science teachers on four islands of The Bahamas, including the capital of New Providence. The participants and the selected islands are representative of the diversity of teachers, the population, and school climates and structures throughout the country. Narratives were obtained via three ninety-minute interviews with each participant; and thematic analysis was the instrument by which three central themes emerged. Analysis of narratives reveals that lived experience of secondary science teachers revolve around themes of: (1) The Professional Self, (2) Curriculum Leadership, and (3) Curriculum. Most participants are in the career of secondary science education as second choice but are still committed to the profession. Participants overwhelmingly commented that there was a lack of supportive frameworks for critical elements of their daily work, and a need for clear, visionary and decisive curriculum leadership by The Ministry of Education and private School Boards. Participants also desired more appropriate and alternative science curricula that would meet the need of non-academically inclined Bahamian students. Antecedent to their calls was a pressing recognition that they lacked participatory democratic voice in national secondary science education evidenced by years of unrecognized and unattended suggestions sent to those in authority. As a result of these findings, the researcher was propelled towards

  17. Comparison of the activation kinetics of the M3 acetylcholine receptor and a constitutively active mutant receptor in living cells.

    Hoffmann, Carsten; Nuber, Susanne; Zabel, Ulrike; Ziegler, Nicole; Winkler, Christiane; Hein, Peter; Berlot, Catherine H; Bünemann, Moritz; Lohse, Martin J

    2012-08-01

    Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors is the first step of the signaling cascade triggered by binding of an agonist. Here we compare the activation kinetics of the G(q)-coupled M(3) acetylcholine receptor (M(3)-AChR) with that of a constitutively active mutant receptor (M(3)-AChR-N514Y) using M(3)-AChR constructs that report receptor activation by changes in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal. We observed a leftward shift in the concentration-dependent FRET response for acetylcholine and carbachol with M(3)-AChR-N514Y. Consistent with this result, at submaximal agonist concentrations, the activation kinetics of M(3)-AChR-N514Y were significantly faster, whereas at maximal agonist concentrations the kinetics of receptor activation were identical. Receptor deactivation was significantly faster with carbachol than with acetylcholine and was significantly delayed by the N514Y mutation. Receptor-G-protein interaction was measured by FRET between M(3)-AChR-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-Gγ(2). Agonist-induced receptor-G-protein coupling was of a time scale similar to that of receptor activation. As observed for receptor deactivation, receptor-G-protein dissociation was slower for acetylcholine than that for carbachol. Acetylcholine-stimulated increases in receptor-G-protein coupling of M(3)-AChR-N514Y reached only 12% of that of M(3)-AChR and thus cannot be kinetically analyzed. G-protein activation was measured using YFP-tagged Gα(q) and CFP-tagged Gγ(2). Activation of G(q) was significantly slower than receptor activation and indistinguishable for the two agonists. However, G(q) deactivation was significantly prolonged for acetylcholine compared with that for carbachol. Consistent with decreased agonist-stimulated coupling to G(q), agonist-stimulated G(q) activation by M(3)-AChR-N514Y was not detected. Taken together, these results indicate that the N514Y mutation produces constitutive activation of M(3

  18. IMPROVING SUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION OF DAILY ACTIVITIES LIVING USING NEW COST SENSITIVE CRITERION FOR C-SVM

    M’hamed Bilal Abidine

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing population of elders in the society calls for a new approach in care giving. By inferring what activities elderly are performing in their houses it is possible to determine their physical and cognitive capabilities. In this paper we show the potential of important discriminative classifiers namely the Soft-Support Vector Machines (C-SVM, Conditional Random Fields (CRF and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN for recognizing activities from sensor patterns in a smart home environment. We address also the class imbalance problem in activity recognition field which has been known to hinder the learning performance of classifiers. Cost sensitive learning is attractive under most imbalanced circumstances, but it is difficult to determine the precise misclassification costs in practice. We introduce a new criterion for selecting the suitable cost parameter C of the C-SVM method. Through our evaluation on four real world imbalanced activity datasets, we demonstrate that C-SVM based on our proposed criterion outperforms the state-of-the-art discriminative methods in activity recognition.

  19. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of “Being Active,” Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings

    Rosemary L. Aird

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether self-ratings of “being active” among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of “being active” were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking. No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of “age-friendly” environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. “Active aging” promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group.

  20. Predictive value of daily living score in acute respiratory failure of COPD patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation pilot study

    Langlet Ketty

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical ventilation (MV is imperative in many forms of acute respiratory failure (ARF in COPD patients. Previous studies have shown the difficulty to identify parameters predicting the outcome of COPD patients treated by invasive MV. Our hypothesis was that a non specialized score as the activities daily living (ADL score may help to predict the outcome of these patients. Methods We studied the outcome of 25 COPD patients admitted to the intensive care unit for ARF requiring invasive MV. The patients were divided into those weaning success (group A n = 17, 68% or failure (group B n = 8, 32%. We investigated the correlation between the ADL score and the outcome and mortality. Results The ADL score was higher in group A (5.1 ±1.1 vs 3.7 ± 0.7 in group B, p  Conclusion Our pilot study demonstrates that the ADL score is predictive of weaning success and mortality at 6 months, suggesting that the assessment of daily activities should be an important component of ARF management in COPD patients.

  1. Live imaging the phagocytic activity of inner ear supporting cells in response to hair cell death.

    Monzack, E L; May, L A; Roy, S; Gale, J E; Cunningham, L L

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss and balance disorders affect millions of people worldwide. Sensory transduction in the inner ear requires both mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) and surrounding glia-like supporting cells (SCs). HCs are susceptible to death from aging, noise overexposure, and treatment with therapeutic drugs that have ototoxic side effects; these ototoxic drugs include the aminoglycoside antibiotics and the antineoplastic drug cisplatin. Although both classes of drugs are known to kill HCs, their effects on SCs are less well understood. Recent data indicate that SCs sense and respond to HC stress, and that their responses can influence HC death, survival, and phagocytosis. These responses to HC stress and death are critical to the health of the inner ear. Here we have used live confocal imaging of the adult mouse utricle, to examine the SC responses to HC death caused by aminoglycosides or cisplatin. Our data indicate that when HCs are killed by aminoglycosides, SCs efficiently remove HC corpses from the sensory epithelium in a process that includes constricting the apical portion of the HC after loss of membrane integrity. SCs then form a phagosome, which can completely engulf the remaining HC body, a phenomenon not previously reported in mammals. In contrast, cisplatin treatment results in accumulation of dead HCs in the sensory epithelium, accompanied by an increase in SC death. The surviving SCs constrict fewer HCs and display impaired phagocytosis. These data are supported by in vivo experiments, in which cochlear SCs show reduced capacity for scar formation in cisplatin-treated mice compared with those treated with aminoglycosides. Together, these data point to a broader defect in the ability of the cisplatin-treated SCs, to preserve tissue health in the mature mammalian inner ear. PMID:25929858

  2. Infrared studies of active galaxies

    IRAS observations of extragalactic objects are analyzed, supplemented by optical spectroscopy and 10 μm photometry. The relationship between various forms of activity in the nuclei of spiral galaxies and their mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distributions is explored. It is shown that more than 70% of galaxies with F60/F25 ≤ 3 are Seyferts, while the remainder have bright optical emission lines in their nuclear spectra. It is argued that most Seyferts are powered by their active nuclei at 25 μm, while there is some indication that Seyferts with large F60/F25 flux ratios are undergoing starbursts in the vicinity of their nuclei. The properties of a sample of bright, extragalactic IRAS sources are studied. A catalog containing total infrared and blue fluxes, distance estimates, recession velocities, and morphological classifications for these objects is presented. The brightest sources at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths are nearby, normal spiral galaxies; galaxies with disturbed or irregular morphology (often known as interacting galaxies); type 2 Seyferts; and dust-embedded type 1 Seyferts. All of these sources are dominated by thermal emission from dust. The dust in the peculiar, irregular, and Seyfert galaxies is exposed to a higher mean intensity of radiation. Moreover, these IR-active galaxies tend to have strong, compact nuclear sources at 11 μm, whether or not they contain a known Seyfert nucleus. The distinctive spectral behavior of IR-luminous galaxies is shown to result from the presence of compact, dust-dominated IR nuclear sources, which are the predominant cause of IR luminosities above 1011 L of sun

  3. Online living lab community development towards social web:a case study of PATIO

    W. HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Living Lab has gained attention as a user-centered approach in ICT development, especially when talking about the innovation creation. Nowadays, social network has become part of the daily life for many people to share news, pictures, and stories. The earlier researches mostly see Living Lab as an approach for innovation with the supporting of social media in terms of user involvement. Considering the challenges of user commitment into the online Living Lab communities, an...

  4. "Power, Regulation and Physically Active Identities": The Experiences of Rural and Regional Living Adolescent Girls

    Casey, M.; Mooney, A.; Smyth, J.; Payne, W.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on interpretations of Foucault's techniques of power, we explored the discourses and power relations operative between groups of girls that appeared to influence their participation in Physical Education (PE) and outside of school in sport and physical activity (PA) in rural and regional communities. Interviews and focus groups were…

  5. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

  6. Using Family Leisure Activities to Support Families Living with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Lock, Robin H.; Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.; Layton, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Support for families of children with autism spectrum disorders continues to be important, but formal support groups may not ft every need. The authors describe Family Fun Days, a program that paired leisure activities with opportunities for support. There was an increase in the number of participants over traditional support meetings,…

  7. Monte Carlo study of living polymers with the bond-fluctuation method

    Rouault, Yannick; Milchev, Andrey

    1995-06-01

    The highly efficient bond-fluctuation method for Monte Carlo simulations of both static and dynamic properties of polymers is applied to a system of living polymers. Parallel to stochastic movements of monomers, which result in Rouse dynamics of the macromolecules, the polymer chains break, or associate at chain ends with other chains and single monomers, in the process of equilibrium polymerization. We study the changes in equilibrium properties, such as molecular-weight distribution, average chain length, and radius of gyration, and specific heat with varying density and temperature of the system. The results of our numeric experiments indicate a very good agreement with the recently suggested description in terms of the mean-field approximation. The coincidence of the specific heat maximum position at kBT=V/4 in both theory and simulation suggests the use of calorimetric measurements for the determination of the scission-recombination energy V in real experiments.

  8. Conversion of the PUN probabilistic safety study into a living PRA format

    The 1981 Italian Energy Plan recommended that a number of nuclear power plants of 1000 MWe be built and operated in Italy on the basis of a reference design, Progetto Unificato Nucleare (PUN) PWR type, which is a standard plant design for all future nuclear power stations. A Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) is part of the safety evaluation. The preliminary goal of the PSS was to provide an assessment of core damage frequency for the PUN design. The conversion of the PUN-PSS into a Living PRA has been carried out by Westinghouse for ENEL. The objective of this paper is to summarize the work done, present some results and the experience gained during this job, showing an example where, through this tool, indication to the risk management can be given. (orig./HSCH)

  9. Live, Online Short-Courses: A Case Study of Innovative Teacher Professional Development

    Meghan E. Marrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are searching for new venues through which they may meet stringent professional development requirements. Under competitive funding from NASA’s (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Education and the NASA Explorer Schools Project, U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc. created a series of live, online, interactive short-courses. In this case study, a mixed methods analysis of a variety of data sources reveals that diverse educators from a variety of classroom contexts view the short-courses as a useful professional development tool, both as a vehicle for a teacher’s own professional growth and for classroom applications. Teachers were particularly interested in the ability to participate in a collaborative community of practice with other educators, instructors, and scientists from across the country, and they found useful the flexible design of the professional development. This short-course design offers promise for future professional development opportunities.

  10. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  11. SCALS: a fourth-generation study of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joe; Hughes, Gemma; Lynch, Jenni; A'Court, Christine; Hinder, Sue; Fahy, Nick; Byrne, Emma; Finlayson, Alexander; Sorell, Tom; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research to date into assisted living technologies broadly consists of 3 generations: technical design, experimental trials and qualitative studies of the patient experience. We describe a fourth-generation paradigm: studies of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context. Fourth-generation studies are necessarily organic and emergent; they view technology as part of a dynamic, networked and potentially unstable system. They use co-design methods to generate and stabilise local solutions, taking account of context. Methods and analysis SCALS (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions) consists (currently) of 5 organisational case studies, each an English health or social care organisation striving to introduce technology-supported services to support independent living in people with health and/or social care needs. Treating these cases as complex systems, we seek to explore interdependencies, emergence and conflict. We employ a co-design approach informed by the principles of action research to help participating organisations establish, refine and evaluate their service. To that end, we are conducting in-depth ethnographic studies of people's experience of assisted living technologies (micro level), embedded in evolving organisational case studies that use interviews, ethnography and document analysis (meso level), and exploring the wider national and international context for assisted living technologies and policy (macro level). Data will be analysed using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval for the first 4 case studies has been granted. An important outcome will be lessons learned from individual co-design case studies. We will document the studies’ credibility and rigour, and assess the transferability of findings to other settings while also recognising unique aspects of the contexts in which they were generated

  12. Outdoor physical activity and self rated health in older adults living in two regions of the U.S.

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults spend little time outdoors and many are physically inactive. The relationship between outdoor physical activity and self rated health has not been studied in older adults. This paper aimed to assess the relation of location of physical activity to self rated health and physical activity minutes. This was an observational study of ambulatory adults 66 years and older conducted in 2005–2008. Participants (N = 754 completed survey measures of physical activity location and self rated health, and wore an accelerometer to objectively assess physical activity. A mixed model linear regression procedure adjusted for neighborhood clustering effects. Differences in self rated health and physical activity minutes were compared across three physical activity settings (indoor only, outdoor only, both indoor and outdoor. Results Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were significantly greater in those who were physically active at least once a week outdoors compared with those who were physically active indoors only. Self rated health was significantly related to being physically active but did not vary by location of activity. Conclusions Older adults who were physically active outdoors accumulated significantly more physical activity, but self-rated health was not significantly greater than those being physically active indoors.

  13. Effect of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness in children: a 4 year longitudinal study

    Golle, Kathleen (Diplom Sportwissenschaftlerin); Granacher, Urs; Hoffmann, Martin; Wick, Ditmar; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies detected associations between physical fitness, living area, and sports participation in children. Yet, their scientific value is limited because the identification of cause-and-effect relationships is not possible. In a longitudinal approach, we examined the effects of living area and sports club participation on physical fitness development in primary school children from classes 3 to 6. Methods One-hundred and seventy-two children (age: 9–12 years; sex: 6...

  14. Length of residence and risk of eating disorders in immigrant adolescents living in Madrid; the AFINOS study

    Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Veiga, Óscar Luis; Gõmez-Martínez, Sonia; Veses, Ana María; Regidor, Enrique; Martínez, David Parés; Marcos, Ascensión; Calle, María Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to compare the risk of having an eating disorder (ED) among immigrant and native adolescents living in Madrid and to determine the possible influence of length of residence (LOR) on the risk of the immigrants. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from november 2007 to february 2008 in a representative sample of adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (n = 2,077, 1,052 girls) living in the Madrid region. Data were collected usin...

  15. Breastfeeding Practices in Relation to Country of Origin Among Women Living in Denmark: A Population-Based Study

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002–2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor’s Child Health Database. The data was linked with ...

  16. Living Arrangements of Widowed Elderly Women and their Differentials: A Study in an Urban Setting of Tamil Nadu, India

    Neelu Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Living arrangements in the twilight of life is a matter of primary concern for elderly widowedwomen. In view of this, an attempt is made to examine the effect of backgroundcharacteristics on the living arrangements of the widowed elderly women making use of thedata collected from 330 elderly widowed women from Coimbatore city, Tamil Nadu withfrequency and cross-tabular analyses as well as chi-square test of significance. The studyfound that slightly less than three-tenths of widowed women are „old-old‟ (75+ years. Onthe other hand, three-fifths of elderly belonged to most backward / backward caste andmajority (63% of them illiterates. About two-fifths (42% of the elderly widowed women areliving with married son. The differentials of elderly living alone vs with children are mostlyin expected direction and highly significant (p<0.001 with an increase in the number ofearning members in the family, number of children living in the same area / city as well asthose who belonged to the households of high standard of living. On the other hand, thepercentage of widowed elderly who live alone has shown a clear increasing pattern with anincrease in occupational status and instrumental activities of daily living scale. Further, it isnoticed that the elderly who are living alone is higher among those who are feeling„unhealthy‟ as compared to those elderly widowed women as „healthy‟. All these percentagedifferentials are also turned out as significant at different levels of extent (p<0.001 or p<0.05.Based on these findings a few policy implications have been postulated.

  17. Active digestion of sperm mitochondrial DNA in single living sperm revealed by optical tweezers

    Nishimura, Yoshiki; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Takeshi; Sumi, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2006-01-01

    In almost all eukaryotes, mitochondrial (mt) genes are transmitted to progeny mainly from the maternal parent. The most popular explanation for this phenomenon is simple dilution of paternal mtDNA, because the paternal gametes (sperm) are much smaller than maternal gametes (egg) and contribute a limited amount of mitochondria to the progeny. Recently, this simple explanation has been challenged in several reports that describe the active digestion of sperm mtDNA, down-regulation of mtDNA repl...

  18. Chemoselective tarantula toxins report voltage activation of wild-type ion channels in live cells

    Tilleya, DC; Euma, KS; Fletcher-Taylor, S; Austina, DC; Dupré, C; Patrón, LA; Garcia, RL; Lam, K; Yarov-Yarovoy, V; Cohenc, BE; Sack, JT

    2014-01-01

    Electrically excitable cells, such as neurons, exhibit tremendous diversity in their firing patterns, a consequence of the complex collection of ion channels present in any specific cell. Although numerous methods are capable of measuring cellular electrical signals, understanding which types of ion channels give rise to these signals remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe exogenous probes which use a novel mechanism to report activity of voltage-gated channels. We have synthesize...

  19. Public transfers and living alone among the elderly: A case study of Korea's new income support program

    Erin Hye-Won Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the significant implications of older adults' living arrangements for their well-being, it is not clear whether public transfers for the elderly will increase or decrease their independent living. A few natural experiments in the U.S. show that such support increases elders' living alone owing to their preferences for privacy. There has been little quasi-experimental evidence in Asia, where multigenerational coresidence is prevalent and norms and preferences for that form of living arrangement remain strong. Objective: In 2008 the Korean government introduced the Basic Old-Age Pension (BOAP, a means-tested income support program for elders. This article examines how the program affects unmarried Korean elders' likelihood of living alone. Methods: I analyze the 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 waves of the Korean Retirement and Income Study, a longitudinal survey of nationally representative Koreans. The analysis takes a difference-in-difference approach, which compares changes in the living arrangements of two elderly groups, one that received BOAP benefits and the other that did not. Results: Overall, the program has a negative, not positive, impact on elders' living alone. A closer look reveals that the transfers helped non-coresident elders to continue living alone and prevented coresident elders from forming one-person households. Conclusions: Ambivalent attitudes towards living alone in the transitional Korean society, together with the modest amount of BOAP benefits, appear to explain the mixed results. These findings are particularly relevant to other rapidly changing societies where public elder-support systems are expanding and norms of familial elder support are weakening.

  20. High-level activities of daily living and disease-specific mortality during a 12-year follow-up of an octogenarian population

    Takata Y

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Takata,1 Toshihiro Ansai,2 Inho Soh,2 Shuji Awano,2 Ikuo Nakamichi,1 Sumio Akifusa,3 Kenichi Goto,1 Akihiro Yoshida,2 Hiroki Fujii,1 Ritsuko Fujisawa,1 Kazuo Sonoki31Division of General Internal Medicine, 2Division of Community Oral Health Science, 3Department of Oral Health and Environment, School of Oral Health Science, Kyushu Dental University, Kitakyushu, JapanBackground: Little is known about the relationship between disease-specific mortality and high-level activities of daily living in the elderly. We examined whether mortality is associated with high-level activities of daily living in an octogenarian population.Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional and prospective cohort study in 693 older persons aged 80 years and living in Japan’s Fukuoka Prefecture. We then evaluated the association between 12-year disease-specific mortality and high-level functional capacity as measured by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, which is a standardized multidimensional 13-item instrument; items 1 through 5 are classified as instrumental self-maintenance activity, items 6 through 9 as intellectual activity, items 10 through 13 as social roles activity, and all 13 items together yield total functional capacity.Results: By the 12-year follow-up of the 693 participants, 413 had died, 242 survived, and 38 were unable to be located. Of the 413 who died, 105 died of cardiovascular disease, 73 of respiratory tract disease, 71 of cancer, and 39 of senility. Of the other 125 deaths, 59 were due to other diseases, and the cause of death for 66 participants is not known. The hazard ratio (HR for all-cause mortality, adjusted for confounding factors with multivariate Cox analyses, fell by 6% (HR 0.937, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.899–0.978, P = 0.003 with each one-point increase in participants’ scores on the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of total functional capacity. With one