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Sample records for active living study

  1. Employees Psychology towards Corporate Social Responsibility Activities: A Live Study

    Neeraj Kumari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand the employee?s psychology towards Corporate Social Responsibility activities and ethical business. The sample size of the study is 200 comprising of the respondents from four companies. Non-probability sampling technique has been used. Industry associations and business magazines are coming up with various criteria for judging, listing and ranking companies. Perhaps, as business ethics will increasingly emerge as an important factor, determining the p...

  2. Active Travel - Healthy Lives

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    Across Ireland, there is considerable scope to replace many short car journeys with walking and cycling which would bring about a range of benefits to health as well as saving money for individuals and society.'Active travel, healthy lives' presents a summary of international evidence on the health and economic benefits of active travel and makes recommendations on how active travel can become a viable, safe and attractive alternative to car use.

  3. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  4. A Functionalized Sphingolipid Analogue for Studying Redistribution during Activation in Living T Cells.

    Collenburg, Lena; Walter, Tim; Burgert, Anne; Müller, Nora; Seibel, Jürgen; Japtok, Lukasz; Kleuser, Burkhard; Sauer, Markus; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle

    2016-05-01

    Sphingolipids are major components of the plasma membrane. In particular, ceramide serves as an essential building hub for complex sphingolipids, but also as an organizer of membrane domains segregating receptors and signalosomes. Sphingomyelin breakdown as a result of sphingomyelinase activation after ligation of a variety of receptors is the predominant source of ceramides released at the plasma membrane. This especially applies to T lymphocytes where formation of ceramide-enriched membrane microdomains modulates TCR signaling. Because ceramide release and redistribution occur very rapidly in response to receptor ligation, novel tools to further study these processes in living T cells are urgently needed. To meet this demand, we synthesized nontoxic, azido-functionalized ceramides allowing for bio-orthogonal click-reactions to fluorescently label incorporated ceramides, and thus investigate formation of ceramide-enriched domains. Azido-functionalized C6-ceramides were incorporated into and localized within plasma membrane microdomains and proximal vesicles in T cells. They segregated into clusters after TCR, and especially CD28 ligation, indicating efficient sorting into plasma membrane domains associated with T cell activation; this was abolished upon sphingomyelinase inhibition. Importantly, T cell activation was not abrogated upon incorporation of the compound, which was efficiently excluded from the immune synapse center as has previously been seen in Ab-based studies using fixed cells. Therefore, the functionalized ceramides are novel, highly potent tools to study the subcellular redistribution of ceramides in the course of T cell activation. Moreover, they will certainly also be generally applicable to studies addressing rapid stimulation-mediated ceramide release in living cells. PMID:27036914

  5. Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study

    Sánchez-Sánchez Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is today widely accepted that participation in social activities contributes towards successful ageing whilst, at the same time, maintaining independence in the activities of daily living (ADLs is the sine qua non for achieving that end. This study looks at people aged 65 and over living in an urban area in Spain who retain the ability to attend Social Centres providing recreational facilities. The aim of this paper is to quantify independence and identify the risk factors involved in its deterioration. Methods The sample size was calculated using the equation for proportions in finite populations based on a random proportional sample type, absolute error (e = 0.05, α = 0.05, β = 0.1, p = q = 0.5. Two-stage sampling was used. In the first place, the population was stratified by residence and a Social Centre was randomly chosen for each district. In the second stage, individuals were selected in a simple random sample without replacement in proportion to the number of members at each social centre. A multivariate logistical regression analysis takes functional ADL capacity as the dependent variable. The choice of predictive variables was made using a bivariate correlation matrix. Among the estimators obtained, Nagelkerke's R2 coefficient, and the Odds ratio (CI 95% were considered. Sensitivity and 1-specificity were adopted to present the results in graphic form. Results Out of this sample, 63.7% were fully capable of carrying out ADLs, while the main factors contributing to deterioration, identified on the basis of a logistic regression model, are in order of importance, poor physical health, poor mental health, age (above 75 years and gender (female. The model employed has a predictive value of 88% and 92% (depending on the age range considered with regard to the independence in ADLs. Conclusion A review of the few Spanish works using similar methodology shows that the percentage of non-institutionalised persons who are

  6. Validity of the Katz Index to assess activities of daily living by informants in neuropathological studies

    Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the evidences of construct validity of the Katz Index for the retrospective assessment of activities of daily living (ADL by informants, to assist neuropathological studies in the elderly. METHOD A cross-sectional study analyzed the functional ability of ADL measure by the Katz Index, of 650 cases randomly selected from the Brazilian Brain Bank of the Ageing Brain Study Group (BBBABSG database. Sample was divided in two subsamples for the analysis (N=325, each and then stratified according to cognitive decline assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR. Factor analyses with calculations of internal consistency and invariance were performed. RESULTS Factor analysis evidenced a unidimensional instrument with optimal internal consistency, in all subgroups. Goodness of fit indices were obtained after two treatments of covariance, indicating adequacy of the scale for assessing ADL by informants. The scale is invariant to cognitive decline meaning that it can be used for subjects with or without cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION Katz Index is valid for the retrospective assessment of basic ADL by informants, with optimal reliability.

  7. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Sarah Caporicci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  8. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    S. Caporicci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  9. Comparative Study on Living Library Activities at Home and Abroad%国内外图书馆开展Living Library服务比较研究

    王旻霞

    2011-01-01

    Living Library以“人”为书,是图书馆界一种崭新的读者服务活动.从活动举办者、活动主题和目的、活体图书等方面对国内外图书馆开展Living Library的现状进行比较分析,并对Living Library在中国的进一步开展策略进行了初步探讨.%Taking "person" as books, living library is a new service activity for reader in library. This paper compared and analyzed the current development situation of living library activities in library at home and abroad from organizers, titles, activity aims, books and so on. Moreover, some further development measures in China are explored preliminarily in this article.

  10. Estimated long lived isotope activities in ET-RR-1 reactor structural materials for decommissioning study

    The first Egyptian research reactor, ET-RR-1 is tank type with light water as a moderator, coolant and reflector. Its nominal power is 2MWt and the average thermal neutron flux is 10 13 n/cm2 sec-1. Its criticality was on the fall of 1961. The reactor went through several modifications and updating and is still utilized for experimental research. A plan for decommissioning of ET-RR-1 reactor should include estimation of radioactivity in structural materials. The inventory will help in assessing the radiological consequences of decommissioning. This paper presents a conservative calculation to estimate the activity of the long lived isotopes which can be produced by neutron activation. The materials which are presented in significant quantities in the reactor structural materials are aluminum, cast iron, graphite, ordinary and iron shot concrete. The radioactivity of each component is dependent not only upon the major elements, but also on the concentration of the trace elements. The main radioactive inventory are expected to be from 60Co and 55Fe which are presented in aluminium as trace elements and in large quantities in other construction materials. (author)

  11. Greener living environment healthier people? Exploring green space, physical activity and health in the Doetinchem Cohort Study

    Picavet, H.S.J.; Milder, Ivon; Kruize, Hanneke; Vries, de Sjerp; Hermans, Tia; Wendel-Vos, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence is emerging that more green space in the living environment is associated with better health, partly via the pathway of physical activity. Objectives: We explored the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between green space and physical activity and several health in

  12. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    Horwath Caroline; Motl Robert W; Pagano Ian S; Nigg Claudio R; Chai Weiwen; Dishman Rod K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity) with perceived quality of life (QOL) in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month int...

  13. Promoting healthy diets and active lives to hard-to-reach groups: market research study.

    White, S L; Maloney, S K

    1990-01-01

    Continued progress over the next decade in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from chronic disease will require that health communication efforts target a significant proportion of the American public that has not been influenced by the health promotion efforts of the 1980s. Focus groups conducted with members of the hard-to-reach American public showed that while being healthy seemed to be important to participants, and they were generally aware of what to do to stay healthy, they had a different operational definition of health than that used in health promotion programs. Participants seemed to believe that better health behaviors would build their resistance to acute illnesses, that is, keep them healthy, but that chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, were due to fate and heredity and beyond their individual control. The focus group results show that participants had not made the link between chronic disease prevention and the importance of diet, exercise, and weight control. Although most of them seemed to express a genuine interest in "doing better," they were not able to supply more than superficial examples of how such changes might be made. Surprisingly, there were more similarities than differences in participants' attitudes and beliefs, with the similarities cutting across boundaries of race-ethnicity, age, and sex. Interest in changing behaviors was only slightly more pronounced among female rather than male, and older rather than younger, participants. However, there was not much evidence from the participants that they were actively seeking health information or trying to reconcile conflicting knowledge and beliefs. PMID:2113679

  14. A Case Study: Analyzing City Vitality with Four Pillars of Activity-Live, Work, Shop, and Play.

    Griffin, Matt; Nordstrom, Blake W; Scholes, Jon; Joncas, Kate; Gordon, Patrick; Krivenko, Elliott; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Montague, Elizabeth; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    This case study evaluates and tracks vitality of a city (Seattle), based on a data-driven approach, using strategic, robust, and sustainable metrics. This case study was collaboratively conducted by the Downtown Seattle Association (DSA) and CDO Analytics teams. The DSA is a nonprofit organization focused on making the city of Seattle and its Downtown a healthy and vibrant place to Live, Work, Shop, and Play. DSA primarily operates through public policy advocacy, community and business development, and marketing. In 2010, the organization turned to CDO Analytics ( cdoanalytics.org ) to develop a process that can guide and strategically focus DSA efforts and resources for maximal benefit to the city of Seattle and its Downtown. CDO Analytics was asked to develop clear, easily understood, and robust metrics for a baseline evaluation of the health of the city, as well as for ongoing monitoring and comparisons of the vitality, sustainability, and growth. The DSA and CDO Analytics teams strategized on how to effectively assess and track the vitality of Seattle and its Downtown. The two teams filtered a variety of data sources, and evaluated the veracity of multiple diverse metrics. This iterative process resulted in the development of a small number of strategic, simple, reliable, and sustainable metrics across four pillars of activity: Live, Work, Shop, and Play. Data during the 5 years before 2010 were used for the development of the metrics and model and its training, and data during the 5 years from 2010 and on were used for testing and validation. This work enabled DSA to routinely track these strategic metrics, use them to monitor the vitality of Downtown Seattle, prioritize improvements, and identify new value-added programs. As a result, the four-pillar approach became an integral part of the data-driven decision-making and execution of the Seattle community's improvement activities. The approach described in this case study is actionable, robust, inexpensive

  15. Development and community-based validation of the IDEA study Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IDEA-IADL questionnaire

    Cecilia Collingwood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dementia diagnosis gap in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is large, partly due to difficulties in assessing function, an essential step in diagnosis. Objectives: As part of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA study, to develop, pilot, and validate an Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL questionnaire for use in a rural Tanzanian population to assist in the identification of people with dementia alongside cognitive screening. Design: The questionnaire was developed at a workshop for rural primary healthcare workers, based on culturally appropriate roles and usual activities of elderly people in this community. It was piloted in 52 individuals under follow-up from a dementia prevalence study. Validation subsequently took place during a community dementia-screening programme. Construct validation against gold standard clinical dementia diagnosis using DSM-IV criteria was carried out on a stratified sample of the cohort and validity assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve analysis. Results: An 11-item questionnaire (IDEA-IADL was developed after pilot testing. During formal validation on 130 community-dwelling elderly people who presented for screening, the AUROC curve was 0.896 for DSM-IV dementia when used in isolation and 0.937 when used in conjunction with the IDEA cognitive screen, previously validated in Tanzania. The internal consistency was 0.959. Performance on the IDEA-IADL was not biased with regard to age, gender or education level. Conclusions: The IDEA-IADL questionnaire appears to be a useful aid to dementia screening in this setting. Further validation in other healthcare settings in SSA is required.

  16. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action. PMID:26327514

  17. Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model in Detecting Activities of Daily Living in Wearable Videos for Studies of Dementia

    Karaman, Svebor; Dovgalecs, Vladislavs; Mégret, Rémi; Pinquier, Julien; André-Obrecht, Régine; Gaëstel, Yann; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for indexing activities of daily living in videos obtained from wearable cameras. In the context of dementia diagnosis by doctors, the videos are recorded at patients' houses and later visualized by the medical practitioners. The videos may last up to two hours, therefore a tool for an efficient navigation in terms of activities of interest is crucial for the doctors. The specific recording mode provides video data which are really difficult, being a single sequence shot where strong motion and sharp lighting changes often appear. Our work introduces an automatic motion based segmentation of the video and a video structuring approach in terms of activities by a hierarchical two-level Hidden Markov Model. We define our description space over motion and visual characteristics of video and audio channels. Experiments on real data obtained from the recording at home of several patients show the difficulty of the task and the promising results of our approach.

  18. A study on the effect of self bedside exercise program on resilience and activities of daily living for patients with hemiplegia

    Lee, Yang-Chool; Yi, Eun-Surk; Choi, Won-Ho; Lee, Byung-Mun; Cho, Sung-Bo; Kim, Ji-Youn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a repeatable universal rehabilitation program in which patients with hemiplegia can participate voluntarily, complementing physical and occupational therapies to increase voluntary exercise practice rate. Also, this study attempted to identify the relationship between psychological resilience due to the implementation of self-bedside exercise and functional recovery of activity of daily living (ADL). 12 patients with hemiplegia voluntarily participated ...

  19. Cognitive profile and activities of daily living

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) (AM) is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the alpha-mannosidase enzyme. The typical signs consist of hearing impairment, intellectual disabilities, coarse facial features and motor function disturbances. We report on the...... cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function and...... assess that this group of patients has, despite their intellectual disabilities, a potential for continuous cognitive development, especially during childhood and early teenage years. This should be included and supported in the individual educational planning....

  20. Activity driven fluctuations in living cells

    Fodor, É; Gov, N S; Visco, P; Weitz, D A; van Wijland, F

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model for the dynamics of a probe embedded in a living cell, where both thermal fluctuations and nonequilibrium activity coexist. The model is based on a confining harmonic potential describing the elastic cytoskeletal matrix, which undergoes random active hops as a result of the nonequilibrium rearrangements within the cell. We describe the probe's statistics and we bring forth quantities affected by the nonequilibrium activity. We find an excellent agreement between the predictions of our model and experimental results for tracers inside living cells. Finally, we exploit our model to arrive at quantitative predictions for the parameters characterizing nonequilibrium activity, such as the typical time scale of the activity and the amplitude of the active fluctuations.

  1. Studies on the behaviour of ancient man-made materials as analogues of materials used for the disposal of high-activity and long lived waste

    The disposal of high-activity and long lived waste (HLW) requires the study of ancient materials distinguished by their longevity in different environments in order to predict the long-term durability of the waste containers. The patina thickness of pre-Columbian and historical artefacts from Argentina was measured and their corrosion rates determined. The results can be used as an example of the durability of some man-made materials for designing HLW repositories. (author)

  2. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Asylum Seekers Ability Regarding Activities of Daily Living During Their Stay in the Asylum Center

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess change in activities of daily living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to change in ADL......-ability. The study was a combined baseline, follow-up correlational study amongst individuals from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, living in Danish asylum centers. Forty-three persons aged 20-50, were invited and participated in the baseline study. Twenty-two were still in asylum center at the follow-up and 17 of...... depression increased. Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r = 0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r = 0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers...

  4. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    Horwath Caroline

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity with perceived quality of life (QOL in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139 from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month intervals for the first year and 6-month intervals for the second year. QOL was assessed from self-reports of mental or physical health at the end of the study. Results Overall, the cohort participants appeared to maintain relatively constant levels of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and TV/video watching. Physical activity was positively related to mental health (p-values Conclusion Our study supports that physical activity is positively associated with mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption and TV/video watching may be too specific to represent an individual's overall nutritional status and physical inactivity, respectively.

  5. Healthy active living for children and youth

    2002-01-01

    Poor lifestyle habits, such as unhealthy eating and physical inactivity, are major contributors to increased adult morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Over the past decade there has been an increase in sedentary lifestyle and obesity in children and adolescents, both in North America and worldwide. Physicians need to be aware of the scope of this problem, provide anticipatory guidance to families and promote healthy active living in their practices.

  6. Disability in activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life among older medical ICU survivors: a prospective cohort study

    Pisani Margaret A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of quality of life in older ICU survivors is difficult but critical for understanding the long-term impact of our treatments. Activities of daily living (ADLs are important components of functional status and more easily measured than quality of life (QOL. We sought to determine the cross-sectional associations between disability in ADLs and QOL as measured by version one of the Short Form 12-item Health Survey (SF-12 at both one month and one year post-ICU discharge. Methods Data was prospectively collected on 309 patients over age 60 admitted to the Yale-New Haven Hospital Medical ICU between 2002 and 2004. Among survivors an assessment of ADL's and QOL was performed at one month and one-year post-ICU discharge. The SF-12 was scored using the version one norm based scoring with 1990 population norms. Multivariable regression was used to adjust the association between ADLs and QOL for important covariates. Results Our analysis of SF-12 data from 110 patients at one month post-ICU discharge showed that depression and ADL disability were associated with decreased QOL. Our model accounted for 17% of variability in SF12 physical scores (PCS and 20% of variability in SF12 mental scores (MCS. The mean PCS of 37 was significantly lower than the population mean whereas the mean MCS score of 51 was similar to the population mean. At one year mean PCS scores improved and ADL disability was no longer significantly associated with QOL. Mortality was 17% (53 patients at ICU discharge, 26% (79 patients at hospital discharge, 33% (105 patients at one month post ICU admission, and was 45% (138 patients at one year post ICU discharge. Conclusions In our population of older ICU survivors, disability in ADLs was associated with reduced QOL as measured by the SF-12 at one month but not at one year. Although better markers of QOL in ICU survivors are needed, ADLs are a readily observable outcome. In the meantime, clinicians

  7. Single-Molecule Studies in Live Cells

    Yu, Ji

    2016-05-01

    Live-cell single-molecule experiments are now widely used to study complex biological processes such as signal transduction, self-assembly, active trafficking, and gene regulation. These experiments' increased popularity results in part from rapid methodological developments that have significantly lowered the technical barriers to performing them. Another important advance is the development of novel statistical algorithms, which, by modeling the stochastic behaviors of single molecules, can be used to extract systemic parameters describing the in vivo biochemistry or super-resolution localization of biological molecules within their physiological environment. This review discusses recent advances in experimental and computational strategies for live-cell single-molecule studies, as well as a selected subset of biological studies that have utilized these new technologies.

  8. Performance of activities of daily living among hospitalized cancer patients

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify and character...

  9. Physical activity and the built environment among 11-15 yr olds living in Denmark: cross-sectional study

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    hours of PA/week. Girls living in poor areas or of low affluence had greater odds (OR = 3.13 and 2.23) of not reaching PA recommendations. Fewer parks was significantly related to greater odds of not exercising daily for boys (OR = 1.35) but not for girls. Conclusions: The odds of exercising less than 7...... in boys. Results indicate the built environment may affect PA differently for boys and girls....

  10. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  11. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2014-01-01

    questionnaire about exposure to torture and trauma. Ten months later, 17 participants were accessible for re-assessment, based on the same instruments as above. The participants took part in the usual activities in a centre during the time between baseline and follow-up. Results: At entrance, the asylum seekers...... impairment that increased during time spent in a centre, and that the increase may be associated with exposure to number of applied torture methods. Contribution to practice/evidence base of occupational therapy: The knowledge contributes to the planning and execution of preventive and rehabilitation...

  12. [Functional disability in activities of daily living and instrumental or domestic activities of daily living in the elderly living at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    Berthé, Abdramane; Berthé-Sanou, Lalla; Konaté, Blahima; Hien, Hervé; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Serge; Bayala, Éric; Drabo, Maxime; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, various studies have been conducted on severe disability in activities of daily living, instrumental or domestic activities. These studies have reported different rates without describing the social context for understanding their results. This study was conducted in Burkina Faso to fill the gaps in scientific information on disability in these areas. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in Bobo-Dioulasso among the older population, aged 60 and above. Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done with the help of Stata. A systematic random sample of 351 aging adults was interviewed. Moderate to severe functional disability or the need for supervision or assistance was present in 7% in activities of daily living and 86% in instrumental or domestic activities of daily living. This need for assistance varied according to the different activities or items in each domain. The proportions of disability found in this study are higher than those of previous studies that measured the often severe disabilities. All persons with disability claimed to have stable human resources which help them to manage their disabilities. The social context instrumental or domestic activities of daily living are divided by generation and/or by sex. That explains some results. With this division, it's inacceptable in some family that elders and/or old men do instrumental or domestic activities of daily living as prepare meals, do laundry, carry water to wash. The variation of this division from one family to another complicates the assessment of functional disability. To best manage elders disabilities, strategies must develop to: 1) retard the resignation of the family in care of its elderly in functional disability, 2) anticipate the preparation of formal social networks, public structures to support the elderly. PMID:26707555

  13. NMR Dynamic Studies in Living Systems

    闫永彬; 范明杰; 罗雪春; 张日清

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can noninvasively monitor the intracellular concentrations and kinetic properties of numerous inorganic and organic compounds. These characteristics have made NMR a useful tool for dynamic studies of living systems. Applications of NMR to living systems have successfully extended to many areas, including studies of metabolic regulation, ion transport, and intracellular reaction rates in vivo. The major purpose of this review is to summarize the results that can be obtained by modern NMR techniques in living systems. With the advances of new techniques, NMR measurements of various nuclides have been performed for specific physiological purposes. Although some technical problems still remain and there are still discrepancies between NMR and traditional biochemical results, the abundant and unique information obtained from NMR spectra suggests that NMR will be more extensively applied in future studies of living systems. The fast development of these new techniques is providing many new NMR applications in living systems, as well as in structural biology.

  14. Lives of women and men active in the social protests of the 1960s: a longitudinal study.

    Franz, C E; McClelland, D C

    1994-01-01

    This study found that 46 of 116 children from the R. R. Sears, E. E. Maccoby, and H. Levin (1957) child-rearing study classified at age 31 as participants in the protest movements of the 1960s came more often from middle-class families and attained higher educational levels than their counterparts who did not participate in the protests. In midlife, activists remained more rebellious and altruistic than their peers of equivalent education. Sixties activists did better in grade school and had positive permissive parents at age 5. Parenting style was associated with doing well in school only in girls. As adults, female activists were less involved in family life and had better jobs than their peers. Male activists did less well occupationally and were less happy than their male peers or the female activists. PMID:8126649

  15. Travel Behavior Comparisons of Active Living and Inactive Living Lifestyles

    Burbidge, Shaunna K; Goulias, Konstadinos G.; Kim, Tae-Gyu

    2006-01-01

    The past century’s radical change, innovation in transportation technology and concomitant increase in options for our travel modes moves us away from walking to an almost total extinction of modes that require physical exercise. This is accompanied by a modern American city design that requires the use of an automobile with urban sprawl creating distant destinations that alter older methods of travel and make active forms of transportation almost impossible. However, many more reasons exis...

  16. Effects of donepezil on activities of daily living: integrated analysis of patient data from studies in mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease

    Gauthier, Serge; Lopez, Oscar Lopez; Waldemar, Gunhild; Jones, Roy W; Cummings, Jeffrey; Zhang, Richard; Schindler, Rachel; Schwam, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to develop a standardization method to pool data recorded on different activities of daily living (ADL) scales in order to reduce variability of functional outcome data from Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials and to better evaluate the effect of donepezil treatment on function in p...

  17. Normal shoulder muscular activation and co-ordination during a shoulder elevation task based on activities of daily living: an electromyographic study.

    Hawkes, David H; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Roebuck, Margaret M; Frostick, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of normal shoulder function have often failed to consider the inter-relationship between different muscle groups in activities relevant to daily life. Upper limb functional status was assessed in 12 healthy male volunteers using the Functional Impairment Test-Hand, Neck, Shoulder and Arm test (FIT-HaNSA). Electromyography was then used to study the activity and coordination of 13 muscles (10 by surface electrodes, 3 by fine-wire intramuscular electrodes) around the shoulder during a dynamic movement task based on the shelf-lifting task in FIT-HaNSA. Muscles were grouped for analysis into deltoid (anterior, middle, and posterior divisions), adductors (latissimus dorsi and teres major), rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis), and elbow flexor (brachioradialis, biceps brachii) groups. There were no significant inter-session effects. Using cross-correlation analysis to investigate the whole time-course of activation, there were highly significant positive correlations (p elbow flexor groups (p = 0.031). We conclude that the deltoid, adductor, and rotator cuff muscles all contribute to the muscular component of glenohumeral joint stability. Muscular stability can be adapted as required to meet task-specific demands. PMID:21674607

  18. Assessment of the daily physical activity in free-living Japanese men : validation and application study of an accelerometer against the doubly labeled water method

    Rafamantanantsoa, Hoby Hasina

    2003-01-01

    Background - There is a general agreement that measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) is indispensable to elucidate the changes in energy balance.With the advancement and availability of the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure human energy expenditure in free-living condition since 1982, attempts have made to calculate the TEE by adding expenditures from basal metabolic rate (BMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and physical activity. However, findings on physical activity-...

  19. Developing obesity prevention interventions among minority ethnic children in schools and places of worship: The DEAL (DiEt and Active Living study

    Anderson Annie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems. Studies in the US and UK have shown that ethnicity is consistently associated with childhood obesity, with Black African origin girls in particular being more vulnerable to overweight and obesity than their White peers. Little is known, however, about what promotes or hinders engagement with prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Methods/Design This paper describes the background and design of an exploratory study conducted in London, UK. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and cultural acceptability of child- and family-based interventions to reduce risk factors for childhood and adolescent obesity among ethnic minorities. It investigated the use of a population approach (in schools and a targeted approach (in places of worship. We used a mixture of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires to explore what children, parents, grandparents, teachers and religious leaders think hinder and promote engagement with healthy eating and active living choices. We assessed the cultural appropriateness of validated measures of physical activity, dietary behaviour and self efficacy, and of potential elements of interventions informed by the data collected. We are also currently assessing the potential for wider community support (local councils, community networks, faith forums etc of the intervention. Discussion Analysis of the data is ongoing but the emergent findings suggest that while the school setting may be better for the main implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions, places of worship provide valuable opportunities for family and culturally specific support for implementation. Tackling the rise in childhood and adolescent obesity is a policy priority, as reflected in a range of government initiatives. The study will enhance such

  20. Living Lives, Studying Lives, Writing Lives: An Educational Potpourri or Pot au Feu?

    Smith, Louis M.

    This autobiographical paper describes the teaching of an adjunct faculty member at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri, and the doctoral and postdoctoral students he taught. The paper discusses the author's study of the area of biography and autobiography; the use of ethnography, history, and biography in qualitative research; the…

  1. Relationship between activity of daily living and asteatosis in the lower legs among elderly residents in long-term care institutions: a cross-sectional study.

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Kimura, Nao; Takehara, Kimie; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional observational study investigated the relationship between the level of activities of daily living (ADL) and asteatosis in the lower legs among elderly residents. We enrolled 173 residents from a long-term care health facility and two special nursing homes for elderly persons in the Tokyo metropolitan area and Oshima Island, Japan. The level of ADL was measured by the Barthel Index. The relationship between the Barthel Index total score and the presence of asteatosis in the lower legs diagnosed by a dermatologist was analysed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among the residents, 79·2% had asteatosis in their lower legs. An increase of 1 point in the Barthel Index total score was significantly associated with a decreased probability of lower leg asteatosis after adjusting for age, sex and the type of institution (adjusted odds ratio = 0·982; 95% confidence interval: 0·966-0·998). A higher level of ADL is associated with a lower probability of having asteatosis in the lower legs among residents in long-term care institutions. Nurses should pay specific attention to residents with limited ADL for initiating preventive care for asteatosis. PMID:24131671

  2. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow study with 123I-IMP in patients with dementia and in patients with poor activities of daily living

    N-isopropyl-p[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) SPECT and quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies were performed in 111 patients with cerebral disorders. Continuous arterial blood sampling method based on the microsphere model was used as a quantitative rCBF measurement. We evaluated rCBF in patients with dementia and also in patients with poor activities of daily living (ADL). Patients with dementia showed significant reduction of mean CBF in contrast to patients without dementia. Significant decrease of rCBF in the bilateral frontal cortex, parietal cortex and basal ganglia and the right temporal cortex were found in demented patients. Although patients with vascular dementia showed decreased rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia, demented patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant reduction of rCBF in any region. Patients with poor ADL showed decreased rCBF in all brain regions. And particularly frontal and basal ganglionic defects were most pronounced. Patients with poor ADL resulting from cerebral infarction showed significant decrease of rCBF in bilateral basal ganglia. However, there was no significant correlation in Parkinson's disease between ADL and rCBF. The rCBF measurement with 123I-IMP is useful for clinical evaluation of demented patients and patients with poor ADL. (author)

  3. Experiences of Older Men Living Alone: A Qualitative Study.

    Bergland, Astri Marie Glosli; Tveit, Bodil; Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen

    2016-01-01

    More and more old people live alone, and living alone is reported to be a key risk factor for experiencing loneliness and developing poor health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of living alone for older men. Systematic text condensation and hermeneutic interpretation were used in analysis of the data. Four themes emerged: lonely at times, missing and longing for a shared life, keeping active, and some kind of freedom. The findings revealed that inner and outer resources come into play and have influence on the processes of managing and solving the situation of living alone. The findings are in accordance with theoretical perspectives on loneliness, aloneness, and solitude. The findings offer nurses in any clinical context valuable information to allow them to address the core emotional and potential mental health issues old men face in coping with the situation of living alone. PMID:26864842

  4. Active living environment assessments in four rural Latino communities

    Cynthia K. Perry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities.

  5. Correlates of physical activity in school-aged children: parents' role in active living. A comparative study between Italy and Germany

    Gobbi, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge that inactivity during childhood predisposes youngsters to a variety of negative outcomes (e.g. lack of socialization, poor emotional aspects, worsening psychological well-being and cognitive abilities, health risks, etc.), in combination with research indicating that many children are not enough physically active, has stimulated interest in better understanding children's physical activity determinants. It is necessary to identify the social, psychological, biological, and deve...

  6. eWall for Active Long Living

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Independent living of senior citizens is one of the main challenges linked to the ageing population, due to the impact on: (1) the life of the elderly people, (2) the national health systems, (3) the insurance companies, (4) the relatives and (5) the care-givers. Senior citizens may suffer from...... citizens may suffer from a decline of memory function, less ability to orientate and a declined ability to cope with complex situations. This paper describes work in progress and proposes a novel architecture design for eHealth services in support of independent living and compensating for prevailing age......- or disease-related physical and cognitive impairments for a significant prolongation of the primary end-user’s functional capacity, a delay in institutionalization, increased autonomy and, prolonged participation in the society...

  7. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    Sundsli K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kari Sundsli,1,2 Geir Arild Espnes,3 Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway, 2Centre for Caring Research, Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway, 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active.Methods: Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi.Results: Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They

  8. Cement Vertebroplasty In The Elderly With Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures. A Preliminary Study On The Change In Activity Of Daily Living After Treatment

    Collin Looi Seng-Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the effect of cementvertebroplasty on the activity of daily living of elderlypatients who have sustained a vertebral osteoporoticfracture.Patients and Methods: Seven patients with clinicallysignificant and radiologically proven osteoporoticvertebral compression fractures suitable to be treatedwith percutaneous cement vertebroplasty wererecruited. Evaluation was based on pre- and postprocedureactivity by clinical documentation (includinginterview and by a self-developed questionnaire(including quality of life.Results: Following the procedure, 54% of patientsresumed their activities of daily living with minimalpain while 46% of patients were able to do so withoutany pain (p<0.05. Up to 85% of patients did notrequire any form of medication (p<0.05 and 77% ofpatients were found to have no pain. In addition to that,almost 62% of patients were able to ambulate normally.Conclusion: Percutaneous cement vertebroplastyappears to significantly improve the activities of dailyliving of elderly patients who have sustained vertebralosteoporotic fractures. It is also found to be a safeprocedure which contributes to reduced usage ofmedication, immediate pain reduction andimprovement in functional status of the patient.

  9. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of 94Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed

  10. Activity of daily living performance amongst Danish asylum seekers

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Christensen, Robin; Amris, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability impairment in newly arrived Danish asylum seekers. It was hypothesized that exposure to trauma and torture would negatively influence ADL performance and that measures of ADL ability would be...... and Process Skills (AMPS). Interviews were based on questionnaires about torture exposure, WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Major Depression Inventory and Pain Detect Questionnaire. All participants were interviewed and tested using a linguistic interpreter. RESULTS: Thirty three (77%) participants reported...

  11. Living with Chronic Pancreatitis: A qualitative study.

    CRONIN, PATRICIA; Begley, Cecily

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED OBJECTIVE: Recent literature acknowledges the impact of this progressive and debilitating disease on psychological and social well-being, but the plight of those with chronic pancreatitis remains unknown and hidden. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of what it means to live with chronic pancreatitis. DESIGN: Qualitative study based on philosophical hermeneutics using multiple unstructured interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen people with chronic...

  12. Differences in ability to perform activities of daily living among women with fibromyalgia

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; La Cour, Karen;

    2015-01-01

    capacities of the individual and are relevant targets for interventions aiming at improving activities of daily living ability. Since self-report instruments do not capture differences in activities of daily living process ability, clinicians should include observationsbased assessment of activities of daily......Objective: To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences in...... ability to perform activities of daily living. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Methods: Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence...

  13. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers.

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  14. Long lived activation products in eurofer

    Two samples of eurofer steel were irradiated in TRIGA reactor at JSI. One sample was irradiated bare and one under Cd filter which absorbed almost all neutrons with energies below 0.5 eV. The samples were exposed to the (unperturbed) total neutron fluence of 2x1019 n/cm2. After irradiation the samples were measured with gamma spectroscopy using HPGe detector. The highest contribution to the total activity is (n, gamma) reaction on 51Cr and 182Ta in both samples. The highest contribution (∼ 80 %) to the total dose rate is due to neutron capture in 181Ta. (author)

  15. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  16. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In certain countries, closed expatriate compounds have developed.  They serve to provide resident expatriates and accompanying family members with a comfortable and safe environment. Unfortunately, not much is known about compound life since associated empirical research is scarce. Through...... ethnographic field-work methodology, including interviews and participant observation during a period of three months, this exploratory study investigated 16 Danish business expatriates of a large Danish corporation and their families living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. They shared their spare time...

  17. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items

    Phillips Charles D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Methods Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. Results The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Conclusions Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information

  18. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign

  19. Vital Autofluorescence: Application to the Study of Plant Living Cells

    Roshchina, Victoria V.

    2012-01-01

    The application of various microscopy methods such as luminescence microscopy, microspectrofluorimetry and laser-scanning confocal microscopy has been considered as an approach to study the autofluorescence of plant living cells—from cell diagnostics up to modelling the cell-cell contacts and cell interactions with fluorescent biologically active substances. It bases on the direct observations of secretions released from allelopathic and medicinal species and the cell-donor interactions with ...

  20. Activities of daily living, instrumental activities for daily living and predictors of functional capacity of older men in Jamaica

    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: An extensive search of the literature found no studies that have examined functional capacity [Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities for Daily Living (I ADL] of Jamaican older men as well as factors that determine their functional capacity. Aims: The current study examines 1 ADL, 2 (I ADL, 3 self-reported health status, 4 functional capacity, and 5 factors that determine functional capacity of older men. Methods and Method: Stratified multistage probability sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 2,000 55+ year men. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, cross tabulations were used to examine non-metric variables and logistic regression provides a model of predictors of functional capacity. Result: Fifty-five percent of sample indicated good current health status. Four percent was mostly satisfied with life; 21.7% had moderate dependence; 77.1% had high dependence (i.e. independence; 1.2% had low dependence; 21.9% were ages 75 years and older; 35.6% were ages 65 to 74 years and 42.6% reported ages 55 to 64 years. Functional capacity can be determined by church attendance (β=0.245; 95% CI: 0.264, 1.291; social support (β=0.129; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.258, area of residence (β=-0.060; 95% CI: -0.427, -0.061 and lastly by age of respondents. Conclusion: Ageing in explains deterioration in their (I ADL, suggesting the challenges of ageing men’s independence. More rural men were rarely satisfied with life; but more of them had a greater functional capacity than urban men. Depression was found to negatively relate to functional capacity, and church attendees had a greater functional status than non-attendees

  1. ACTIVITY ANALYSIS WITH HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL FOR AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING

    Dietmar Bruckner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL project the activities of the user will be analyzed. The raw data is from a motion detector. Through data processing the huge amount of dynamic raw data was translated to state data. With hidden Markov model, forward algorithm to analyze these state data the daily activity model of the user was built. Thirdly by comparing the model with observed activity sequences, and finding out the similarities between them, defined the best adapt routine in the model. Furthermore an activity routine net was built and used to compare with the hidden Markov model.

  2. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    Naidu, J. R.; Greenhouse, N. A.; Knight, G.; Craighead, E. C.

    1980-07-01

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns.

  3. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns

  4. Cohort profile: the Young Lives study.

    Barnett, Inka; Ariana, Proochista; Petrou, Stavros; Penny, Mary E; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, S; Woldehanna, Tassew; Escobal, Javier A; Plugge, Emma; Boyden, Jo

    2013-06-01

    Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ≈ 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years, recruited in 2002 and sampled from 20 sentinel sites. The first survey data collection from primary caregivers and older children took place in 2002, the second in 2006-07 and the third in 2009-10. Data on the community contexts were collected to complement the household surveys. To elaborate and extend the quantitative data, longitudinal qualitative research with a subgroup of the children was carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2010-11. Topic areas covered included nutrition, health and well-being, cognitive and physical development, health behaviours and education, as well as the social, demographic and economic status of the household. Survey data from the study are archived in the International Section of the UK Public Data Archive. PMID:22617687

  5. Healthy active living: Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity is rising globally. Although the risk factors for obesity are multifactorial, many are related to lifestyle and may be amenable to intervention. These factors include sedentary time and non-exercise activity thermogenesis, as well as the frequency, intensity, amounts and types of physical activity. Front-line health care practitioners are ideally suited to monitor children, adolescents and their families’ physical activity levels, to evaluate lifestyle choice...

  6. People can live longer by being physically more activity

    Li; Li

    2012-01-01

    <正>We all know being physically active is good for you.But do we know how good? People can live up to 3 years longer,even with as little as 15 min of physical activity a day,according to last October’s report by Wen and his colleagues at the China Medical University in Taiwan,China. Many researchers in the field of sport and health sciences know being physically active can bring many benefits to one’s life.But this message has sometimes been disseminated using a negative tone.So much so,Bortz of California,USA,has

  7. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Los Angeles, CA

    2013-03-05

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about active living and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like teaching fun dances and yoga classes.  Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  8. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deteriorati...

  9. Estimates of adherence and error analysis of physical activity data collected via accelerometry in a large study of free-living adults

    Baer David J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activity monitors (AM are small, electronic devices used to quantify the amount and intensity of physical activity (PA. Unfortunately, it has been demonstrated that data loss that occurs when AMs are not worn by subjects (removals during sleeping and waking hours tend to result in biased estimates of PA and total energy expenditure (TEE. No study has reported the degree of data loss in a large study of adults, and/or the degree to which the estimates of PA and TEE are affected. Also, no study in adults has proposed a methodology to minimize the effects of AM removals. Methods Adherence estimates were generated from a pool of 524 women and men that wore AMs for 13 – 15 consecutive days. To simulate the effect of data loss due to AM removal, a reference dataset was first compiled from a subset consisting of 35 highly adherent subjects (24 HR; minimum of 20 hrs/day for seven consecutive days. AM removals were then simulated during sleep and between one and ten waking hours using this 24 HR dataset. Differences in the mean values for PA and TEE between the 24 HR reference dataset and the different simulations were compared using paired t-tests and/or coefficients of variation. Results The estimated average adherence of the pool of 524 subjects was 15.8 ± 3.4 hrs/day for approximately 11.7 ± 2.0 days. Simulated data loss due to AM removals during sleeping hours in the 24 HR database (n = 35, resulted in biased estimates of PA (p Conclusion Although estimated adherence was good, measurements of PA can be improved by relatively simple imputation of missing AM data.

  10. Antiretroviral effect of lovastatin on HIV-1-infected individuals without highly active antiretroviral therapy (The LIVE study: a phase-II randomized clinical trial

    Montoya Carlos J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy produces a significant decrease in HIV-1 replication and allows an increase in the CD4 T-cell count, leading to a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and mortality. However, the cost, side effects and complexity of antiretroviral regimens have underscored the immediate need for additional therapeutic approaches. Statins exert pleiotropic effects through a variety of mechanisms, among which there are several immunoregulatory effects, related and unrelated to their cholesterol-lowering activity that can be useful to control HIV-1 infection. Methods/design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, single-center, phase-II clinical trial. One hundred and ten chronically HIV-1-infected patients, older than 18 years and naïve for antirretroviral therapy (i.e., without prior or current management with antiretroviral drugs will be enrolled at the outpatient services from the most important centres for health insurance care in Medellin-Colombia. The interventions will be lovastatin (40 mg/day, orally, for 12 months; 55 patients or placebo (55 patients. Our primary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on viral replication. The secondary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on CD4+ T-cell count in peripheral blood. As tertiary aims we will explore differences in CD8+ T-cell count, expression of activation markers (CD38 and HLA-DR on CD4 and CD8 T cells, cholesterol metabolism, LFA-1/ICAM-1 function, Rho GTPases function and clinical evolution between treated and not treated HIV-1-infected individuals. Discussion Preliminary descriptive studies have suggested that statins (lovastatin may have anti HIV-1 activity and that their administration is safe, with the potential effect of controlling HIV-1 replication in chronically infected individuals who had not received antiretroviral medications. Considering that there is limited clinical data available on

  11. Active Cellular Mechanics and Information Processing in the Living Cell

    Rao, M.

    2014-07-01

    I will present our recent work on the organization of signaling molecules on the surface of living cells. Using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we have found that many cell surface receptors are organized as dynamic clusters driven by active currents and stresses generated by the cortical cytoskeleton adjoining the cell surface. We have shown that this organization is optimal for both information processing and computation. In connecting active mechanics in the cell with information processing and computation, we bring together two of the seminal works of Alan Turing.

  12. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs. PMID:25896955

  13. Long-Lived Fission Product Transmutation Studies

    A systematic study on long-lived fission products (LLFPs) transmutation has been performed with the aim of devising an optimal strategy for their transmutation in critical or subcritical reactor systems and evaluating impacts on the geologic repository. First, 99Tc and 129I were confirmed to have highest transmutation priorities in terms of transmutability and long-term radiological risk reduction. Then, the transmutation potentials of thermal and fast systems for 99Tc and 129I were evaluated by considering a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) core and a sodium-cooled accelerator transmutation of waste system. To determine the best transmutation capabilities, various target design and loading optimization studies were performed. It was found that both 99Tc and 129I can be stabilized (i.e., zero net production) in the same PWR core under current design constraints by mixing 99Tc with fuel and by loading CaI2 target pins mixed with ZrH2 in guide tubes, but the PWR option appears to have a limited applicability as a burner of legacy LLFP. In fast systems, loading of moderated LLFP target assemblies in the core periphery (reflector region) was found to be preferable from the viewpoint of neutron economy and safety. By a simultaneous loading of 99Tc and 129I target assemblies in the reflector region, the self-generated 99Tc and 129I as well as the amount produced by several PWR cores could be consumed at a cost of ∼10% increased fuel inventory. Discharge burnups of ∼29 and ∼37% are achieved for 99Tc and 129I target assemblies with an ∼5-yr irradiation period.Based on these results, the impacts of 99Tc and 129I transmutation on the Yucca mountain repository were assessed in terms of the dose rate. The current Yucca Mountain release evaluations do not indicate a compelling need to transmute 99Tc and 129I because the resulting dose rates fall well below current regulatory limits. However, elimination of the LLFP inventory could allow significant relaxation of

  14. [Measurement of activities of daily living in patients with dementia living at home: development of a questionnaire].

    Teunisse, S; Derix, M M

    1991-04-01

    In clinical practice and for scientific research a method is needed for the assessment of changes in functioning in daily life of dementia patients living at home. As existing methods have their limitations, a questionnaire was developed (the Interview for Deterioration in Daily life in Dementia: IDDD), to be answered by caregivers. The questionnaire concerns self-care and complex activities, that are usually performed by men as well as women. Attention is paid to the difference between lack of initiative and impaired performance itself. Caregivers are interviewed in a structured interview. A study among 30 caregivers of dementia patients living at home, showed the relevance and usefulness of the questions. The questionnaire shows high internal consistency, which may be the result of our structured interview technique. PMID:2042235

  15. Light-Up Probes Based on Fluorogens with Aggregation-Induced Emission Characteristics for Monoamine Oxidase-A Activity Study in Solution and in Living Cells.

    Shen, Wei; Yu, Jiajun; Ge, Jingyan; Zhang, Ruoyu; Cheng, Feng; Li, Xuefeng; Fan, Yong; Yu, Shian; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Qing

    2016-01-13

    Fluorogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIEgens) have emerged as a powerful and versatile platform for the development of novel biosensors. In this study, a series of water-soluble fluorescent probes based on tetraphenylethylene (TPE) were designed and synthesized for the detection of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) based on specific interactions between the probes and the proteins. Among the six probes developed, t-TPEM displays a significant fluorescence increase upon introduction of MAOs. Of particular significance is that the fluorescence of t-TPEM in the presence of MAO-A is 21-fold higher than other proteins including MAO-B. Lineweaver-Burk plots reveal that t-TPEM acts as an uncompetitive inhibitor of MAO-A with Ki = 17.1 μM, which confirms its good binding affinity toward MAO-A. Furthermore, a cell imaging experiment reveals that t-TPEM is able to selectively monitor the activity of MAO-A which is localized in mitochondria of MCF-7 cells. PMID:26666866

  16. Studies on the bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in mussels in north-west Spain. Part of a coordinated programme on behaviour of long-lived radionuclides released from deep-ocean dumping activities

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis), seawater and sediment, were analysed for Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-239,240 from six locations. For mussels, activity levels were about 4-8 pCi/kg (wet weight) for Cs-137, about 0.04-1.5 pCi/kg for Pu-239,240 and less than 0.5 pCi/kg for Pu-238; for seawater Sr-90 was about 0.09-0.34 pCi/l, Cs-137 0.14-0.53 pCi/l Co-60 0.14-0.19 pCi/l, Pu-239,240, 0.002 pCi/l, Pu-238 less than 0.002 pCi/l and for sediments (dry weight basis) Cs-137 was 13-450 pCi/kg, and Pu-239,240 was 2-110 pCi/kg. The results were comparable with others in the literature

  17. A STUDY ON DISABILITIES AMONGST THE ELDERLY IN THE URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN THE KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAM BASED ON THE ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING (ADL AND FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS

    Jhankar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health problems are a major concern for the elderly and they are prone to diseases and disabilities more than the younger age groups which can make them physically and economically dependent. The increasing number of elderly in the country means that they are going to make contributions to the economy. Elderly persons, being one of the most vulnerable groups of the society have more chances of chronic disease, infections, as well as disabilities. Disability has been defined as a restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.[1] It reflects how well an individual is able to function in general areas of life. Disability in elderly can be grouped in three large groups. First - who can manage in their daily activities with the help of mechanical devices. Second - who have multiple health problems and severe limitations in mental and/or physical functioning who require very intensive levels of care. Third-in between above two groups, they are functionally disabled in one or two ADLs, or have mild cognitive impairments.[2] OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: 1. To assess disability related to Activities of Daily Living(ADL amongst the elderly in the urban and rural area. 2. To determine the use of physical aids by the elderly in both the urban and rural areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 60 years and above, in urban and rural areas in the Kamrup district, Assam. In the study, 400 no.s of elderly are under study of which 200 are from the urban area and 200 from the rural areas. The urban area is from the Guwahati city which consists of 60 municipalty blocks. Out of the sixty municipalty blocks, 10 no.s of blocks are randomly selected and 20 elderly are chosen from each block totaling a mark of 200.The kamrup rural area of Rani Community Development block is choosen from where 20 no.s of villages are

  18. Intention to consent to living organ donation: an exploratory study

    Browne, Christina; Desmond, Deirdre M.

    2008-01-01

    Living organ donation, i.e. the removal and transplantation of whole organs or segments of organs that a volunteering donor can live without, has been proposed as an effective and sustainable source of transplantable organs to mitigate the deficit in supply from the traditional cadaveric donor pool. In 2006 the Irish government deemed the development of a national Living Transplant Programme a service priority. The current study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behav...

  19. Relationship between cognitive status and activities of daily living among the elderly of nursing homes

    Heiman Nazari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increased life expectancy has caused the emergence of aging phenomenon in Iran. This study was conducted on 79 elderly in nursing homes. Data were collected by the demographic questionnaire, Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTs and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL Index. The mean score of AMT was 4.06 (SD: 3.05 and the mean of Barthel Index was 66.15 (SD: 33.27. Results indicated a significantly positive correlation between cognitive status and activities of daily living (P=0.001, r=0.354. Accordingly, cognitive status can be a good predictor of functional independence in activities of daily living for the elderly.

  20. A study on the development and application of models for the activities of long-lived fission products at operating PWR

    It requires estimating difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides, especially PDTM (particularly DTM) radionuclides such as 129I and 99Tc, in the waste package generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs) prior to shipment to disposal facility. These radionuclides are critical nuclides for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste because they dominate radiation dose through ground water. Therefore, their activities in each waste package should be accurately identified prior to disposal. However, their activities cannot be analyzed by routine measurement techniques used in NPPs because these PDTM radionuclides are non-gamma emitters. Therefore, instead of direct measurement, scaling factor method is typically used to estimate the quantity of the PDTM radionuclides in the waste package. The scaling factor is empirically derived ratio or correlation between a reference gamma emitting radionuclide, which can be easily measured at NPPs, and the non-gamma emitting radionuclide. The scaling factor is typically derived from a set of waste samples analyzed at commercial laboratories for both gamma and DTM radionuclides. However, in general, the concentrations of PDTM radionuclides in low-level waste are too low to be detected by the conventional measurement techniques i.e., photon counting method. When the lower limit of detection rather than the actually analyzed concentration is used for scaling factor, the determination of the scaling factor value is difficult but also the value generally involves a large uncertainty. In addition, the activity of radionuclide in radioactive wastes can be highly overestimated. Therefore, theoretical approaches have been proposed as a means of estimating activity or scaling factor for PDTM radionuclides, especially 129I. Also, evaluations of the 129I inventory are generally based on the release of related fission products from the source term such as defective fuel and tramp uranium. However, in these approaches, the ratio of the

  1. Falls in nonagenarians living in their own homes; the Nonasantfeliu study

    Formiga Pérez, Francesc; Ferrer, A.(Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), University of Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain); Duaso, E.; Olmedo, C.; Pujol Farriols, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of falls and their circumstances in non-institutionalized people older than 89 years and living in an urban community. Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Community-based study. Participants: 137 nonagenarians living at home. Measurements: We evaluated sociodemographic data, capacity to perform basic activities according to the Barthel Index (BI) and instrumental activities on the Lawton-Brody Index (LI), cognition with the Spanish version of ...

  2. Disability, Activities of Daily Living and Self Efficacy in Dialysis Patients

    Mukadder Mollaoglu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD and continuos ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, to examine the relationship between them. Material and Methods: This study was carried with 152 patients as sample group. In this study, three instruments were used: Personal Information Form, Brief Disability Questionnaire, Katz\\'s Activity\\'s of Daily Living Index and Lawton and Brody\\'s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Index and Self-efficacy Assessment Form. Data collected from the study was analyzed using percent, mean, Tukey test, significance test of two means, One-way variant analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The study results demonstrate that while there is a correlation between self-care ability and age, education level, marital status and additional health problems, factors such as age, gender, education level, work status, income level, social insurance status and frequency of hemodialysis application determine self-efficacy. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between patients’ disability and activities of daily living , self-efficacy. It was determined that as the level of disability increases self-efficiacy level decreases. Conclusions: Dialysis application affects patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy levels. In view of this study’s results, it is recommended to organize education programs to increase self-efficacy levels of dialysis patients and prepare comprehensive plans including patients’ families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 181-186

  3. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Conradsson, Mia; Littbrand, Håkan; Boström, Gustaf; Lindelöf, Nina; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospec...

  4. Strategies of Daily Living Rehabilitative Activities for Post Stroke Patients at Minia University Hospital

    Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…

  5. Early Prediction of Outcome of Activities of Daily Living After Stroke A Systematic Review

    Veerbeek, Janne M.; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables t

  6. Development of the k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis for short-lived radionuclides

    Dung, H.M.; Blaauw, M.; Beasley, D.; Freitas, M.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    The k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis (k0-CNAA) technique has been studied to explore the applicability at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI). In particular, for the determination of elements which form short-lived radionuclides, particularly fluorine (20F, 11.16 s half-life) and seleni

  7. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells.

    Kim, Neil H; Lee, Gloria; Sherer, Nicholas A; Martini, K Michael; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Kuhlman, Thomas E

    2016-06-28

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE's orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  8. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells

    Lee, Gloria; Martini, K. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE’s orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  9. Daily activities and living at a Therapeutic Residential Care Center

    Luciane Prado Kantorki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and analyzes day-to-day issues in a Therapeutic Residential Care Center and the daily life characteristics of its residents. This case study was conducted in Caxias do Sul, based on an evaluation of the fourth generation together with a Methodology for Analyzing Everyday Life Networks. The following categories emerged: possibilities in the territory, participation and flexibility in household tasks, situations that mark living, employees who are mediators in conflict resolution, staff committed to the resident, freedom as a therapeutic tool, difficulties in daily life, and building of alliances. This study helped to get to know the structure of everyday life experienced by the residents, identifying some difficulties they face and the mechanisms used to overcome them, in addition to noticing that the professionals can be instrumental in strengthening a daily living that can be pluralized, busy, and enriched, while still respecting the uniqueness of each resident. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i4.22923.

  10. 2002 summary of the report on studies and activities. Research on the Disposal of High-level Long-lived Radioactive Wastes

    This synthesis presents the studies underway and the major results obtained in the framework of the second research area prescribed by the Law of 1991 (the feasibility study of a deep geological repository). It also clarifies the French and international contexts of that research, namely with regard to the development of scientific partnerships. Content: 1 - scientific knowledge gained in 2002: packages, materials evolution, works about the clayey environment, works about the granitic environment, modeling approach; 2 - the 2002 granite dossier: context and goals, content; 3 - the 2002 concept choices for the clayey environment: overall architecture, packages and storage cells for B-type wastes, packages and storage cells for C-type vitrified wastes, packages and storage cells for spent fuels; 4 - international context: IAEA, OECD/NEA, integrated group for the safety case (IGSC), forum for stakeholders confidence (FSC), working party on decommissioning and dismantling (WPDD), general direction of energy transport, general direction of research, status of partnerships and bilateral agreements, advance of research cooperations, European Union; 5 - ANDRA's participations to international meetings; 6 - scientific partnerships: Ecole des Mines, BRGM, GdR FORPRO, MoMas, CEA, IFP, PRACTIS, PARIS, 7 - information and evaluation: national commission of evaluation (CNE), scientific committee, permanent group, orientation and follow-up committee; 8 - ANDRA's theses; 9 - ANDRA's publications. (J.S.)

  11. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING: THE INTERNSHIP AND LIVE-CASE STUDY RELATIONSHIP

    Green, Robert D.; Farideh A. Farazmand

    2012-01-01

    Educators are increasingly using experiential learning pedagogy to improve learning (knowledge and skills). Two highly effective experiential methods are live-case study projects and internships. This study examines the learning outcomes of courses with live-case study projects for students who have had a prior internship experience and those who have not as well as correlation analysis for each group. The results find that prior internship experience does improve applied project learning out...

  12. Activities of daily living and lesion position among multiple sclerosis patients by Bayes network

    Zhifang Pan; Hongtao Lu; Qi Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive approach for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and T2-weighted images can reveal lesions in the cerebral white matter, gray matter, and spinal cord. However, the lesions have a poor correlation with measurable clinical disability. In this study, we performed a large-scale epidemiological survey of 238 patients with multiple sclerosis in eleven districts by network member hospitals in Shanghai, China within 1 year. The involved patients were scanned for position and size of lesions by MRI. Results showed that lesions in the cerebrum, spinal cord, or supratentorial position had an impact on the activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis patients, as assessed by the Bayes network. On the other hand, brainstem lesions were very unlikely to influence the activities of daily living, and were not associated with the position of lesion, patient's gender, and patient's living place.

  13. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  14. User Modeling for Activity Recognition and Support in Ambient Assisted Living

    Hossain, Shabbir; Valente, Pedro Ricardo da Nova; Hallenborg, Kasper;

    Current research work shows that progress on AI and wireless sensor networks, made it possible to improve the quality of life of the people with disabilities using recent technologies [1]. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is one of the well-known research areas that has a goal to use ambient...... intelligent technologies to support people with special demands to live longer periods in their proffered environment [2]. The prime challenges of the AAL are recognition of the assisted person’s current activity and providing appropriate support to the person [3]. But these systems need extensive studies on...

  15. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    Tiago da Silva Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80. After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84, demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events

  16. Identification and super-resolution imaging of ligand-activated receptor dimers in live cells

    Winckler, Pascale; Giannone, Gregory; De Giorgi, Francesca; Ichas, François; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions are key to many chemical and biological processes like protein function. In many signaling processes they occur in sub-cellular areas displaying nanoscale organizations and involving molecular assemblies. The nanometric dimensions and the dynamic nature of the interactions make their investigations complex in live cells. While super-resolution fluorescence microscopies offer live-cell molecular imaging with sub-wavelength resolutions, they lack specificity for distinguishing interacting molecule populations. Here we combine super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule F\\"orster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to identify dimers of receptors induced by ligand binding and provide super-resolved images of their membrane distribution in live cells. By developing a two-color universal-Point-Accumulation-In-the-Nanoscale-Topography (uPAINT) method, dimers of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) activated by EGF are studied at ultra-high densities, revealing preferential cell-edge sub-...

  17. Development, validity, and reliability of the General Activities of Daily Living Scale: a multidimensional measure of activities of daily living for older people

    Jonas J. de Paula

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose and evaluate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional measure of activities of daily living (ADLs based on the Katz and Lawton indices for Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: In this study, 85 patients with MCI and 93 with AD, stratified by age (≤ 74 years, > 74 years, completed the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale, and their caregivers completed scales for ADLs. Construct validity (factor analysis, reliability (internal consistency, and criterion-related validity (receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were assessed. Results: Three factors of ADL (self-care, domestic activities, and complex activities were identified and used for item reorganization and for the creation of a new inventory, called the General Activities of Daily Living Scale (GADL. The components showed good internal consistency (> 0.800 and moderate (younger participants or high (older participants accuracy for the distinction between MCI and AD. An additive effect was found between the GADL complex ADLs and global ADLs with the MMSE for the correct classification of younger patients. Conclusion: The GADL showed evidence of validity and reliability for the Brazilian elderly population. It may also play an important role in the differential diagnosis of MCI and AD.

  18. Testing and Analysis of Activities of Daily Living Data with Machine Learning Algorithms

    Ayse Cufoglu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 28% of European Union’s population will be aged 65 or older by 2060. Europe is getting older and this has a high impact on the estimated cost to be spent for older people. This is because, compared to the younger generation, older people are more at risk to have/face cognitive impairment, frailty and social exclusion, which could have negative effects on their lives as well as the economy of the European Union. The ‘active and independent ageing’ concept aims to support older people to live active and independent life in their preferred location and this goal can be fully achieved by understanding the older people (i.e their needs, abilities, preferences, difficulties they are facing during the day. One of the most reliable resources for such information is the Activities of Daily Living (ADL, which gives essential information about people’s lives. Understanding this kind of information is an important step towards providing the right support, facilities and care for the older population. In the literature, there is a lack of study that evaluates the performance of Machine Learning algorithms towards understanding the ADL data. This work aims to test and analyze the performance of the well known Machine Learning algorithms with ADL data.

  19. Influence of peripheral arterial disease on daily living activities in elderly women.

    Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; de Mattos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Wolosker, Nelson; Nasri, Fábio; Costa, Maria Luiza Monteiro; de Carvalho, José Antônio Maluf

    2016-06-01

    Aging has been associated with decreases in physical and cognitive functions. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been associated with further impairments in these functions, especially in women. However, no detailed information is available indicating whether PAD leads to further impairment in these functions in elderly women. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to compare the capacity to perform daily living activities between elderly women with and without PAD and 2) to identify the factors related with the performance in daily activities. Twenty-seven elderly women with PAD and 22 elderly non-PAD women were surveyed in a geriatric hospital. Women aged ≥65 years and with no signal of dementia were included. PAD was identified by the ankle-brachial index ≤0.90, whereas elderly non-PAD women presented ankle-brachial index >1.0. Patients were interviewed to obtain information regarding basic (Katz questionnaire) and instrumental daily living activities (Lawton-Brody scale) and performed the mini-mental state examination, handgrip strength test, and timed up and go tests. PAD and non-PAD women had similar age, clinical characteristics, handgrip strength test, and cognitive function (P > 0.05). The capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily living activities was similar between PAD and non-PAD women (P > 0.05). In PAD and non-PAD, the instrumental daily living activities were significantly correlated with cognitive function (r = 0.44, P < 0.05 and r = 0.74 and P < 0.05, respectively). PAD elderly women present similar capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily activities than non-PAD women. In addition, in both groups, the capacity to perform instrumental daily activities was related with cognitive function. PMID:27210449

  20. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement...

  1. Predicting functional outcome after stroke: the influence of neglect on basic activities in daily living

    Tanja Nijboer; Ingrid Van de Port

    2013-01-01

    One prominent deficit resulting from stroke is visuo-spatial neglect, which has been associated with slower and more attenuated recovery patterns of sensory-motor impairment as well as limitations in activities of daily living. The aim of the current study was to further specify the relationship between neglect and recovery of different domains of ADL. 184 Patients were assessed with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) in the first week of inpatient rehabilitation, and again at 6, 12, a...

  2. Effect of structured physical exercise program on older adult's daily living activities and cognitive functions

    Manal Abo El Magd; Sahar Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older adults experience marked physiological and cognitive changes. Literature states that, daily exercising positively effects older adults' both physical and cognitive functioning. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the developed Structured Physical Exercise Program (SPEP) on both older adult's activities of daily living and cognitive functions. Subjects and methods: A quasi experimental design (pre/ post- tests) was utilized for the current study where the older adults' sample serv...

  3. Effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and activities of living in stroke patients

    Yoo, Chanuk; Yong, Mi-hyun; Chung, Jaeyeop; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation using a computer on cognitive function and activities of daily living in stroke patients presenting impairment of cognitive function. [Subjects] Forty-six stroke patients were divided into two groups (a training group and control group) through random assignment. [Methods] The training group received rehabilitation therapy and an additional computerized cognitive rehabilitation program using The RehaCo...

  4. Evaluation of a complex intervention to improve activities of daily living of disabled cancer patients

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line Elisabeth; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; la Cour, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many cancer patients have problems performing activities of daily living (ADL). A randomised controlled trial was designed to examine the effects of an ADL intervention in addition to standard treatment and care in a hospital setting. The objective of this article was to present the s......-up period were mostly due to death among participants. Very few participants declined to complete questionnaires during follow-up. Keywords: Cancer rehabilitation, Occupational therapy, Activities of daily living, Intervention studies, Feasibility studies...... study and to analyse the feasibility of the recruitment process and the intervention. Methods: Adult disabled cancer patients at Næstved Hospital in Denmark were enrolled between 1 March 2010 and 30 June 2011 and randomised into an ADL intervention or to a control group. The intervention was performed......Background: Many cancer patients have problems performing activities of daily living (ADL). A randomised controlled trial was designed to examine the effects of an ADL intervention in addition to standard treatment and care in a hospital setting. The objective of this article was to present the...

  5. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  6. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID. PMID:26079525

  7. Determining the relationship between nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages and their health and body compositions

    Hüseyin GÜMÜŞ; Bulduk, Sıdıka; Akdevelioğlu, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls) within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were c...

  8. Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study

    Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2006-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…

  9. Marker placement to describe the wrist movements during activities of daily living in cyclical tasks

    Murgia, A; Kyberd, PJ; Chappell, PH; Light, CM

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To describe the wrist kinematics during movement through free range of motion and activities of daily living using a cyclical task. Design. The wrist angles were initially calculated in a calibration trial and then in two selected activities of daily living (jar opening and carton pouring

  10. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  11. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; King, Abby C; Crawford, David

    2010-06-01

    Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains

  12. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001)…

  13. Radon decay products in realistic living rooms and their activity distributions in human respiratory system

    In this study, the individual activity concentrations of attached short-lived radon decay products (218Po, 214Pb and 214Po) in aerosol particles were measured in ten poorly ventilated realistic living rooms. Using standard methodologies, the samples were collected using a filter holder technique connected with alpha-spectrometric. The mean value of air activity concentration of these radionuclides was found to be 5.3±0.8, 4.5±0.5 and 3.9±0.4 Bq m-3, respectively. Based on the physical properties of the attached decay products and physiological parameters of light work activity for an adult human male recommended by ICRP 66 and considering the parameters of activity size distribution (AMD = 0.25 μm and σg = 2.5) given by NRC, the total and regional deposition fractions in each airway generation could be evaluated. Moreover, the total and regional equivalent doses in the human respiratory tract could be estimated. In addition, the surface activity distribution per generation is calculated for the bronchial region (BB) and the bronchiolar region (bb) of the respiratory system. The maximum values of these activities were found in the upper bronchial airway generations. (authors)

  14. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  15. A novel live cell assay to measure diacylglycerol lipase α activity.

    Singh, Praveen K; Markwick, Rachel; Howell, Fiona V; Williams, Gareth; Doherty, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) hydrolyses DAG to generate the principal endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα dependent cannabinoid (CB) signalling has been implicated in numerous processes including axonal growth and guidance, adult neurogenesis and retrograde signalling at the synapse. Recent studies have implicated DAGLα as an emerging drug target for several conditions including pain and obesity. Activity assays are critical to the drug discovery process; however, measurement of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity using its native substrate generally involves low-throughput MS techniques. Some relatively high-throughput membrane based assays utilizing surrogate substrates have been reported, but these do not take into account the rate-limiting effects often associated with the ability of a drug to cross the cell membrane. In the present study, we report the development of a live cell assay to measure DAGLα activity. Two previously reported DAGLα surrogate substrates, p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl octanoate (DiFMUO), were evaluated for their ability to detect DAGLα activity in live cell assays using a human cell line stably expressing the human DAGLα transgene. Following optimization, the small molecule chromogenic substrate PNPB proved to be superior by providing lower background activity along with a larger signal window between transfected and parental cells when compared with the fluorogenic substrate DiFMUO. The assay was further validated using established DAGL inhibitors. In summary, the live cell DAGLα assay reported here offers an economical and convenient format to screen for novel inhibitors as part of drug discovery programmes and compliments previously reported high-throughput membrane based DAGL assays. PMID:27013337

  16. Active mechanics reveal molecular-scale force kinetics in living oocytes

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Almonacid, Maria; Bussonnier, Matthias; Verlhac, Marie-Helene; Gov, Nir S; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frederic; Betz, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Unlike traditional materials, living cells actively generate forces at the molecular scale that change their structure and mechanical properties. This nonequilibrium activity is essential for cellular function, and drives processes such as cell division. Single molecule studies have uncovered the detailed force kinetics of isolated motor proteins in-vitro, however their behavior in-vivo has been elusive due to the complex environment inside the cell. Here, we quantify active force generation in living oocytes using in-vivo optical trapping and laser interferometry of endogenous vesicles. We integrate an experimental and theoretical framework to connect mesoscopic measurements of nonequilibrium properties to the underlying molecular-scale force kinetics. Our results show that force generation by myosin-V drives the cytoplasmic-skeleton out-of-equilibrium (at frequencies below 300 Hz) and actively softens the environment. In vivo myosin-V activity generates a force of $F \\sim 0.4$ pN, with a power-stroke of len...

  17. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (˜20 cells), medium (˜100 cells), and large (˜400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  18. The lived experience of physically active older prostate cancer survivors on androgen deprivation therapy.

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Malcolm, Wanda; Keogh, Justin W L

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to explore the lived experiences of physically active prostate cancer survivors on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), who exercise individually. Three older men (74-88 years old) with prostate cancer, using ADT continuously for at least 12 months and regularly exercising for at least 6 months, participated in this qualitative pilot study, informed by interpretive phenomenology. Data were gathered using individual semi-structured interviews, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Coherent stories were drawn from each transcript and analyzed using iterative and interpretive methods. van Manen's lifeworld existentials provided a framework for interpreting across the research text. Three notions emerged: Getting started, Having a routine and Being with music. Together they reveal what drew the participants to exercising regularly despite the challenges associated with their cancer and treatments. This study provides insights into the benefits of, and what it means for, older men with prostate cancer to regularly exercise individually. These findings may assist cancer clinicians and other allied health professionals to be more attuned to prostate cancer survivors' lived experiences when undergoing ADT, allowing clinicians to better promote regular exercise to their patients as a foundational component of living well. PMID:23862577

  19. A Comparison of Two Motion Sensors for the Assessment of Free-Living Physical Activity of Adolescents

    Roman Cuberek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the daily step counts recorded by two different motion sensors in order to estimate the free-living physical activity of 135 adolescent girls. Each girl concurrently wore a Yamax pedometer and an ActiGraph accelerometer (criterion measure every day for seven consecutive days. The convergent validity of the pedometer can be considered intermediate when used to measure the step counts in free-living physical activity; but should be considered with caution when used to classify participants’ step counts into corresponding physical activity categories because of a likelihood of ‘erroneous’ classification in comparison with the accelerometer.

  20. High-Efficiency Capture of Drug Resistant-Influenza Virus by Live Imaging of Sialidase Activity

    Tamoto, Chihiro; Sahara, Keiji; Otsubo, Tadamune; Yokozawa, Tatsuya; Shibahara, Nona; Wada, Hirohisa; Minami, Akira; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses possess a neuraminidase protein that shows sialidase activity. Influenza virus-specific neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are commonly used for clinical treatment of influenza. However, some influenza A and B viruses that are resistant to NAIs have emerged in nature. NAI-resistant viruses have been monitored in public hygiene surveys and the mechanism underlying the resistance has been studied. Here, we describe a new assay for selective detection and isolation of an NAI-resistant virus in a speedy and easy manner by live fluorescence imaging of viral sialidase activity, which we previously developed, in order to achieve high-efficiency capture of an NAI-resistant virus. An NAI-resistant virus maintains sialidase activity even at a concentration of NAI that leads to complete deactivation of the virus. Infected cells and focuses (infected cell populations) of an oseltamivir-resistant virus were selectively visualized by live fluorescence sialidase imaging in the presence of oseltamivir, resulting in high-efficiency isolation of the resistant viruses. The use of a combination of other NAIs (zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir) in the imaging showed that the oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in 2008 was sensitive to zanamivir and laninamivir but resistant to peramivir. Fluorescence imaging in the presence of zanamivir also succeeded in selective live-cell visualization of cells that expressed zanamivir-resistant NA. Fluorescence imaging of NAI-resistant sialidase activity will be a powerful method for study of the NAI resistance mechanism, for public monitoring of NAI-resistant viruses, and for development of a new NAI that shows an effect on various NAI-resistant mutations. PMID:27232333

  1. The Influence of Climacteric Symptoms on Women’s Lives and Activities

    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we performed an analysis of the influence of climacteric symptoms on women’s lives and activities, i.e. their quality of life (QoL. The study was performed between October 2011 and February 2012. It included 148 women aged 44–62. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instrument was the Blatt-Kupperman index. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, quality of life, and the influence of climacteric symptoms on life and its various aspects. The respondents experiencing moderate or severe climacteric symptoms also had stronger feelings of failure (p = 0.005, feeling that opportunities are still available (p = 0.002, of losing their youth and beauty (p < 0.0001, compared to those who had slight or no symptoms. The intensity of climacteric symptoms significantly affects women’s lives and activities, i.e., their QoL. The reported intensity of climacteric symptoms is influenced by the respondents’ education, residence, marital status and professional activity. The more severe the climacteric symptoms, the lower the women’s quality of life, as evidenced for example by the feeling of failure and of losing one’s youth, beauty and opportunities.

  2. Measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in living brain by positron emission tomography (PET)

    Central cholinergic neuronal system has been known to be related to learning and memory, and its deficit is found in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other degenerative disorders. Postmortem studies have shown that acetylcholinesterase (AChE), one of biochemical markers of central cholinergic nerve system, is consistently reduced in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Non-invasive mapping and/or measuring AChE activity in the living brain by positron emission tomography (PET) would be a useful tool for assessment of cholinergic dysfunction in AD and other disorders, and provide a direct method for validation of therapeutic efficacy of drugs, AChE inhibitors. We have challenged to measure AChE activity using tracers of substrate type, radiolabelled acetylcholine analogs, which are lipophilic enough to go across blood brain barrier and are metabolically trapped by AChE in the brain. The analogs designed, N-methylpiperidyl esters, were evaluated in terms of their metabolic rate and specificity against AChE. Studies examining the response to AChE activity showed metabolic accumulation of some analogs responded well to changes in cortical AChE activity in an animal model of AD. The study was further applied to living human by PET using [11C]N-methylpiperidyl-4-acetate (MP4A), which was chosen on the basis of its reactivity and specificity suitable for the human cortical AChE. Regional cerebral metabolic rate of MP4A reflecting AChE activity was quantitatively determined using three compartment model analysis of dynamic PET data and the arterial input function obtained by TLC-radioluminography or plasma samples. The kinetic analyses showed that AChE activities estimated were well agree with those of postmortem examination in cerebral cortices and thalamus in healthy subjects, and that there was significant reduction of cortical AChE activity in patients with AD. The results suggest feasibility of the present method for assessing ACh

  3. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

  4. O desempenho de idosos institucionalizados com alterações cognitivas em atividades de vida diária e mobilidade: estudo piloto Performance in daily living activities and mobility among institutionalized elderly people with cognitive impairments: pilot study

    DLC Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    and Go" (TUG test, and daily living activities (DLA via the Katz Index. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between mobility assessed by TUG and performance in the MMSE (Pearson's r = 0.234; p = 0.232. A positive association was detected between the elderly people's performance in the TUG test and their achievement in bathing, dressing and transferal tasks measured by the Katz Index (p = 0.039; p = 0.000; p = 0.001, respectively; ANOVA. There was no significant association between cognitive impairment detected by MMSE and the elderly people's performance in the five activities of the Katz Index (bathing: p= 0.774; dressing: p = 0.567; hygiene: p = 0.857; transferal: p = 0.824; continence: p= 0.947; ANOVA. Increasing age did not demonstrate any significant correlation with performance in any of the tests (TUG: p = 0.466, r = 0.144; MMSE: p = 0.841, Pearson's r = 0.040. Conclusion: The cognitive impairment of these elderly people, detected via the MMSE, did not have any association with their performance in the mobility and DLA tests. However, there was a significant association between their performance in the mobility test and their achievement in bathing, dressing and transferal activities.

  5. Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population

    Pulkki-Råback Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association. Methods The participants were a nationally representative sample of working-age Finns from the Health 2000 Study, totaling 1695 men and 1776 women with a mean age of 44.6 years. In the baseline survey in 2000, living arrangements (living alone vs. not and potential explanatory factors, including psychosocial factors (social support, work climate, hostility, sociodemographic factors (occupational grade, education, income, unemployment, urbanicity, rental living, housing conditions, and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, were measured. Antidepressant medication use was followed up from 2000 to 2008 through linkage to national prescription registers. Results Participants living alone had a 1.81-fold (CI = 1.46-2.23 higher purchase rate of antidepressants during the follow-up period than those who did not live alone. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors attenuated this association by 21% (adjusted OR = 1.64, CI = 1.32-2.05. The corresponding attenuation was 12% after adjustment for psychosocial factors (adjusted OR = 1.71, CI = 1.38-2.11 and 9% after adjustment for health behaviors (adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.41-2.14. Gender-stratified analyses showed that in women the greatest attenuation was related to sociodemographic factors and in men to psychosocial factors. Conclusions These data suggest that people living alone may be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The public health value is in recognizing that people who live alone are more likely to have material and psychosocial problems that may contribute to excess mental health problems in this population group.

  6. The Theory of Dynamics of Living Systems Activity in Interpersonal Interaction

    Sergei V. Kharitonov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the study of the dynamics of the interaction between people. The theoretical basis of the research is the model of the dynamics of living systems activity, stating the existence of three phases of systems dynamics: termnet, affinity and involvement. The equivalents of these phrases in interpersonal communication are the following: prudence during interaction (equivalent to termnet phase, readiness to avow one’s goals (equivalent to affinity phase, readiness to plan united actions (equivalent to involvement phase. The goal of the research is to study the process of interaction between two persons from the perspective of the theory of dynamics of living systems activity. The participants were offered to enter into agreement during an hour. The time limit of their dialogue had three 20-minute periods. The level of prudence, readiness to discuss goals and plan united actions were estimated every three time segments, using visual-analogue scale. The research was conducted in the group, involving 42 people. The obtained results showed that the communication structure, projected by the theory of dynamics activity seems to be convincing and can be used to describe communicative interactions.

  7. Identity formation of Italian emerging adults living with parents: a narrative study.

    Sestito, Laura Aleni; Sica, Luigia S

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the links between family and identity processes of Italian emerging adults living with their parents. Examining the impact of family is important in the countries of Mediterranean area where also emerging adults live with parents for a prolonged time. In Italy living with parents is associated with a specific "delay syndrome" in the transition to adulthood. Participants consisted of 20 Italian emerging adults attending second and last years of university, in a large Italian city (Naples). All participants were subjected to an open interview, based on the thematic life story. Our findings indicate that parents are perceived as active agents of identity, responsive and supportive of autonomy; they encourage the active involvement of young people in the work of identity formation. Despite this, parental impact produces different configurations that could shed light on the pathways of Italian emerging adults' transition to adulthood. The above configurations are discussed using exemplars. PMID:24703589

  8. Variability in measuring (instrumental) activities of daily living functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients: a systematic review.

    Buurman, B.M.; Munster, B.C. van; Korevaar, J.C.; Haan, R.J. de; Rooij, S.E. de

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study instruments used and definitions applied in order to measure (instrumental) activities of daily living (I [ADL]) functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Syste

  9. Personalizing energy expenditure estimation using physiological signals normalization during activities of daily living

    In this paper we propose a generic approach to reduce inter-individual variability of different physiological signals (HR, GSR and respiration) by automatically estimating normalization parameters (e.g. baseline and range). The proposed normalization procedure does not require a dedicated personal calibration during system setup. On the other hand, normalization parameters are estimated at system runtime from sedentary and low intensity activities of daily living (ADLs), such as lying and walking. When combined with activity-specific energy expenditure (EE) models, our normalization procedure improved EE estimation by 15 to 33% in a study group of 18 participants, compared to state of the art activity-specific EE models combining accelerometer and non-normalized physiological signals. (paper)

  10. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  11. Wear testing of moderate activities of daily living using in vivo measured knee joint loading.

    Jörn Reinders

    Full Text Available Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities.

  12. Stigma, activism, and well-being among people living with HIV.

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lang, Shawn M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence demonstrates that HIV stigma undermines the psychological and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). Yet, PLWH describe engaging in HIV activism to challenge stigma, and research suggests that individuals may benefit from activism. We examine associations between experiences of HIV stigma and HIV activism, and test whether HIV activists benefit from greater well-being than non-activists. Participants include 93 PLWH recruited from drop-in centers, housing programs, and other organizations providing services to PLWH in the Northeastern USA between 2012 and 2013 (mean age = 50 years; 56% Black, 20% White, 18% Other; 61% non-Latino(a), 39% Latino(a); 59% male, 38% female, 3% transgender; 82% heterosexual, 15% sexual minority). Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Results of regression analyses suggest that PLWH who experienced greater enacted stigma engaged in greater HIV activism. Anticipated, internalized, and perceived public stigma, however, were unrelated to HIV activism. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance suggest that HIV activists reported greater social network integration, greater social well-being, greater engagement in active coping with discrimination, and greater meaning in life than non-activists. Yet, HIV activists also reported somewhat greater depressive symptoms than non-activists, suggesting that the association between HIV activism and well-being is complex. By differentiating between HIV stigma mechanisms, the current study provides a more nuanced understanding of which experiences of HIV stigma may be associated with HIV activism. It further suggests that engagement in activism may offer benefits to PLWH, while raising the possibility that activists could experience greater depressive symptoms than non-activists. Given the preliminary nature of this study, future research should continue to examine these complex associations between HIV stigma, activism, and well-being among PLWH

  13. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    Nourian, Manijeh; Shahbolaghi, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Tabrizi, Kian Nourozi; Rassouli, Maryam; Biglarrian, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care.Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities.Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method...

  14. The half-lives of biological activity of some pesticides in water

    Kyaw Myint Oo,

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of analytical methods, the half-lives of biological activity of pesticides can be estimated by bioassays. To determine the half-lives of biological acivity of pesticides to fish, static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with ten different formulations of pesticides using Labeo rohita as a bio-indicator. The half-lives of biological activity for ten different pesticides in soft water at pH 7.5 and 27░C, ranged from 4.6 days to 11.8 days. The half-life of biological acti...

  15. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract; Plan de developpement. Projet HAVL. Resume

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  16. Study on the relationship between individual activities of daily living and self-rated health among elderly people in Beijing%老年人生活自理能力与健康自评的相关性研究

    李蕾; 孙菲; 汤哲; 刁丽军

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解北京市老年人生活自理能力状况及其与健康自评之间的相关关系。方法采取分层整群抽样方法,抽取来自北京市城区和农村的2411名60岁及以上的老年人进行问卷调查。问卷包括人口学资料、家庭与经济状况、卫生行为、躯体健康及生活活动能力等多个维度的内容。结果在接受健康自评调查的2335名老年人中,分别有6.38%和40.21%的人认为自己的健康状况为“很好”或“好”,17.26%和2.01%的老年人认为自己的健康状况为“差”或“很差”。农村老年人在日常活动中的非完全自理比例均明显高于城区老年人。女性老年人“洗澡”、“自己乘车”、“上街购物”、“走半里路”、“剪脚趾甲”和“上下一层楼”等项目的非完全自理比例明显高于男性老年人。 Logistic回归分析结果显示老年人的生活自理能力与健康状态之间存在明显的相关关系,生活非完全自理的老年人的健康自评结果明显较自理老年人差。在各因素中,进食( OR=7.51,95%CI:3.55~15.89)和室内活动(OR=7.36,95%CI:4.29~12.64)是与健康自评有关的、主要的、独立的影响因素。结论生活自理能力是老年人的自评健康状态的重要影响因素。%Objective To investigate both the prevalence of functional disability in each activity of basic activities of daily living ( ADL) item and instrumental activities of daily living ( IADL) item scales, then the association between each ADL and IADL item and the self-rated health was also explored among the elderly in Beijing. Methods The sample population consisted of 2 411 elderly people over 60, which were taken samples from urban and rural district in Beijing by stratified cluster sampling method. The investigations were completed by trained staff using questionnaires concerning demographic characteristics, living conditions and health status, and activities of

  17. Validity of physical activity monitors in adults participating in free-living activities

    Berntsen, S; Hageberg, R; Aandstad, A;

    2010-01-01

    Background For a given subject, time in moderate to very vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) varies substantially among physical activity monitors. Objective In the present study, the primary objective, whether time in MVPA recorded with SenseWear Pro(2) Armband (Armband; Body......Reg, respectively. ActiReg (p = 0.004) and ActiGraph (p = 0.007) underestimated energy expenditure in MVPA, and all monitors underestimated total energy expenditure (by 5% to 21%). Conclusions Recorded time in MVPA and energy expenditure varies substantially among physical activity monitors. Thus, when comparing...... physical activity level among studies, it is essential to know the type of physical activity monitor being used....

  18. EFFECTS OF BURN ON THE MOBILITY OF UPPER LIMB/S, FUNCTIONS OF HAND /S & ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING

    Perera M M N; Nanayakkarawasam P P; Katulanda P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burn is an injury cause destruction of skin and underling tissue. Post burns complications are severe. Objective of this study is to identify the effects on the Active Range of Motion (AROM) of upper limb/s, hand functions and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) who attend the physical therapy department of burns unit. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at out-patient physical therapy department of burns unit of National Hospital of SriLanka (NHS...

  19. Ventilatory and muscular assessment in healthy subjects during an activity of daily living with unsupported arm elevation

    Giselle F. L. Panka; Marina M. Oliveira; Danielle C. França; Parreira, Verônica F; Raquel R. Britto; Marcelo Velloso

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) report dyspnea when performing activities of daily living (ADLs) with elevated upper limbs. To elucidate the determinants of dyspnea, it is important to study the changes in the respiratory pattern of these patients and the electromyographic activity of their accessory muscles of respiration during ADLs. In the literature, there are no reports of a normative parameter, therefore it is necessary to study how these variabl...

  20. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA PSA (:60)

    2013-06-07

    Making communities bike-friendly can help reduce traffic congestion and increase the physical activity of residents. Learn how one Philadelphia resident worked with his community to make Philadelphia a more bike-friendly city.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  1. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Austin, TX PSA (:60)

    2013-06-07

    A local Austin, Texas, woman started a walking group to make physical activity fun for herself and community.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  2. Minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery: A grounded theory on living with fibromyalgia

    Lillemor R.-M. Hallberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992. Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category. This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the “pain gaps” are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to “pain gaps”. This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of

  3. What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

  4. Validity of the Acti4 method for detection of physical activity types in free-living settings

    Stemland, Ingunn; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Christiansen, Caroline S; Jensen, Bente Rona; Hanisch, Christiana; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the ability of the Acti4 software for identifying physical activity types from accelerometers during free-living with different levels of movement complexity compared with video observations. Nineteen aircraft cabin cleaners with ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer at the thigh and ...

  5. Activities of Daily Living in patients with Hunter syndrome: Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Tanjuakio, Julian; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Patel, Pravin; Yasuda, Eriko; Kubaski, Francyne; Tanaka, Akemi; Yabe, Hiromasa; Mason, Robert W.; Montaño, Adriana M.; Orii, Kenji E.; Orii, Koji O.; FUKAO, TOSHIYUKI; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in patients with Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II; MPS II) using a newly designed ADL questionnaire. We applied the questionnaire to evaluate clinical phenotypes and therapeutic efficacies of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We also explored early signs and symptoms to make early diagnosis feasible.

  6. Incubating knowledge: A critical exploration with teachers studying live chickens

    Rauchwerk, Susan I.

    This thesis documents a professional development workshop conducted with eight teachers who worked at Drumlin Farm, an outdoor education center, organic farm and wildlife sanctuary (Appendix C). The participants studied live chickens for eight consecutive workshop sessions. Seven years later the same group met for two follow-up sessions to discuss the effects of the workshop on their teaching practice. The workshop and follow-up sessions were conducted using a teaching-research method developed by Eleanor Duckworth called critical exploration (Duckworth, in press). In this thesis, findings from the eight-week workshop and the two followup sessions are documented in a narrative format showing how and what individuals and the group as a whole, came to understand from studying live chickens, as well as the process and application of the critical exploration method. Over the course of the workshop and the follow-up sessions, group explorations focused on the biological concept of broodiness (the desire to sit, tend, and hatch eggs) in domestic laying hens. In the process of developing and investigating their questions about broodiness, the participants developed and used a scientific process. Their experiences as learners in critical exploration with chickens as the subject matter, resulted in participants both thinking about, and modifying, their ideas about teaching and learning.

  7. Using Citizen Scientists to Gather, Analyze, and Disseminate Information About Neighborhood Features That Affect Active Living.

    Winter, Sandra J; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Padilla Romero, Priscilla; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Baker, Cathleen; King, Abby C

    2016-10-01

    Many Latinos are insufficiently active, partly due to neighborhoods with little environmental support for physical activity. Multi-level approaches are needed to create health-promoting neighborhoods in disadvantaged communities. Participant "citizen scientists" were adolescent (n = 10, mean age = 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and older adult (n = 10, mean age = 71.3 ± 6.5 years), low income Latinos in North Fair Oaks, California. Citizen scientists conducted environmental assessments to document perceived barriers to active living using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool, which records GPS-tracked walking routes, photographs, audio narratives, and survey responses. Using a community-engaged approach, citizen scientists subsequently attended a community meeting to engage in advocacy training, review assessment data, prioritize issues to address and brainstorm potential solutions and partners. Citizen scientists each conducted a neighborhood environmental assessment and recorded 366 photographs and audio narratives. Adolescents (n = 4), older adults (n = 7) and community members (n = 4) collectively identified reducing trash and improving personal safety and sidewalk quality as the priority issues to address. Three adolescent and four older adult citizen scientists volunteered to present study findings to key stakeholders. This study demonstrated that with minimal training, low-income, Latino adolescent and older adult citizen scientists can: (1) use innovative technology to gather information about features of their neighborhood environment that influence active living, (2) analyze their information and identify potential solutions, and (3) engage with stakeholders to advocate for the development of healthier neighborhoods. PMID:26184398

  8. Studies on short-lived fission products at the Mainz TRIGA reactor

    Neutron-rich nuclei of medium mass number are produced by thermal-neutron-induced fission of heavy elements, e.g., 235U, 239Pu, and 249Cf. Pulse irradiations lead to an enhancement of the ratio of short-lived activities to the accompanying longer-lived components. One approach for investigating the properties of short-lived nuclei consists in a combination of rapid chemical separations with higher-resolution gamma spectroscopy. This is demonstrated by the isolation of neutron-rich isotopes of niobium by sorption on glass and of ruthenium by solvent extraction. Other rapid separation procedures from aqueous solutions are briefly summarized and a few examples for their application in nuclear fission- and delayed neutron studies are given. Some experiments with an on-line mass separator of the ISOLDE-type, using chemical targets, are described. (U.S.)

  9. The lived experiences of being physically active when morbidly obese

    Toft, Bente Skovsby; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to identify facilitators and barriers for physical activity (PA) experienced by morbidly obese adults in the Western world. Inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle have become a major challenge for health and well-being, particularly among persons with morbid obesity. Lifestyle changes may...... into a meta-synthesis. Eight papers were included for the systematic review, representing the experiences of PA among 212 participants. One main theme developed from the meta-data analysis: “Identity” with the three subthemes: “considering weight,” “being able to,” and “belonging with others.” The...... theme and subthemes were merged into a meta-synthesis: “Homecoming: a change in identity.” The experiences of either suffering or well-being during PA affected the identity of adults with morbid obesity either by challenging or motivating them. A change in identity may be needed to feel a sense of...

  10. α-decay half-lives study of superheavy nuclei

    Now a days, the synthesis of superheavy nuclei (SHN) has become an outstanding research topic in nuclear physics. Since the predictions of the existence of superheavy island in 1960s. In recent years, much experimental progress has been made in synthesizing SHN with atomic number Z=114-118 by hot fusion reactions. α-decay is the most powerful tool in studying exotic nuclei in the superheavy region as it can provide some reliable knowledge on the nuclear structure and is used to identify new isotopes when an unknown parent nucleus decays to a known daughter nucleus. In this paper, we calculate the α-decay half-lives of some SHN by considering the unstable parent nucleus as a quantum two-body system of the ejected α particle and the daughter nucleus exhibiting resonance scattering phenomena under the combined effect of nuclear, coulomb and centrifugal forces. Finally, predictions within the same frame work are given for the α-decay half-lives of nuclei having Z=120-126 are made for future experiments

  11. The Graduate Experience: Living and Studying Abroad (A Case Study

    Rosario Hernández Castañeda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative case study describing the experience of Angélica an international graduate student from Latin America, who received her doctorate at the University of New Mexico in the United States. Her case demonstrated how administrators and faculty learn about the experience and struggles endured by international students, especially those who learned English a short time before admission to graduate studies. While a single case is understandably idiographic in nature and inevitably requires a larger sample, from the analysis of Angélica’s case and the analysis of the relevant literature common topics emerged persuading me to conclude that the issues that commonly impact the life of international students have to do with: 1 second language problems; 2 the quality of academic advisement received; 3 the availability of financial support; 4 the level of integration into their academic program; and 5 the level of cultural adjustment in their host country.

  12. Effect of structured physical exercise program on older adult's daily living activities and cognitive functions

    Manal Abo El Magd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older adults experience marked physiological and cognitive changes. Literature states that, daily exercising positively effects older adults' both physical and cognitive functioning. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the developed Structured Physical Exercise Program (SPEP on both older adult's activities of daily living and cognitive functions. Subjects and methods: A quasi experimental design (pre/ post- tests was utilized for the current study where the older adults' sample served as their own control. The study was conducted at a charity geriatric home (Female section in Giza Governorate on a convenient sample of 45 older adult females. Data were collected through using three tools; Personal and clinical data assessment sheet, and the two pre-post scales (i.e. Activity of Daily Living scale "ADL" and Nurses’ Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities "NOSCA"; both scales were already developed and tested before. Results: Data revealed that, after implementation of SPEP, statistically significant differences, indicating improvement, were found between the older adult's ADL and both their age, presence of support network, the number of offspring and medical history. Also Statistically significant difference, indicating improvement, was found between ADL and NOSCA scales among the study sample before and after implementing the SPEP. Conclusion: Both ADL level and cognitive functions of study sample were significantly improved after implementing the SPEP. Regular physical exercising is likely to have positive effect on both older adults' physical and cognitive functioning resulting in higher level of independency. Recommendation: This study recommends wide range application of the developed SPEP on older adults in Egypt.

  13. Novel Bioluminescent Activatable Reporter for Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Living Mice.

    Leng, Weibing; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Chen, Baoqin; Gong, Qiyong; Gao, Fabao; Bi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Src kinase is implicated in the development of a variety of human malignancies. However, it is almost impossible to monitor Src activity in an in vivo setting with current biochemical techniques. To facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the activity of Src kinase both in vitro and in vivo, we developed a genetically engineered, activatable bioluminescent reporter using split-luciferase complementation. The bioluminescence of this reporter can be used as a surrogate for Src activity in real time. This hybrid luciferase reporter was constructed by sandwiching a Src-dependent conformationally responsive unit (SH2 domain-Srcpep) between the split luciferase fragments. The complementation bioluminescence of this reporter was dependent on the Src activity status. In our study, Src kinase activity in cultured cells and tumor xenografts was monitored quantitatively and dynamically in response to clinical small-molecular kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib. This system was also applied for high-throughput screening of Src inhibitors against a kinase inhibitor library in living cells. These results provide unique insights into drug development and pharmacokinetics/phoarmocodynamics of therapeutic drugs targeting Src signaling pathway enabling the optimization of drug administration schedules for maximum benefit. Using both Firefly and Renilla luciferase imaging, we have successfully monitored Src tyrosine kinase activity and Akt serine/threonine kinase activity concurrently in one tumor xenograft. This dual luciferase reporter imaging system will be helpful in exploring the complex signaling networks in vivo. The strategies reported here can also be extended to study and image other important kinases and the cross-talks among them. PMID:26941850

  14. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required. PMID:25969424

  15. Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils.

    Orr, Caroline H; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M; Cummings, Stephen P

    2011-02-01

    Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ≤ 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms. PMID:21131514

  16. Determinants of environmental domain of quality of life in economically active population living in Silesian agglomeration, Poland

    Małgorzata Kowalska; Felix Danso; Maria Humeniuk; Elżbieta Kułak; Hubert Arasiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that determine the environmental domain of quality of life in economically active adults living in the industrial agglomeration in Poland. Materials and Methods: During the crosssectional epidemiological study conducted among the economically active population aged 45–60, we used a short version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Respondents were recruited randomly from selected factories located in the Silesian Agglomeration. The st...

  17. Continuous monitoring α-activity on aerosol filters by the pseudo-coincidence-technique. Explicitly taking into account the short lived Po-218 activity

    Pseudo-coincidence-technique is applied to continuous monitoring of α-activity on aerosolfilters by proportional counters. Filter activity can markedly increase or decrease by changing air conditions especially by the amount of short lived Po-218 activity. Conditions of constant proportions of activity concentrations for the short lived species for operating this technique are seldom fulfilled. The dynamic behavior of artificial (long lived) and natural (short lived) activity is mathematically modelled and the measured moving count rates are analyzed under this model by a multivariate regression analysis for activity concentrations of artificial resp. short lived activity. Results are compared to standard recommendations of DIN ISO 11929.

  18. Assessment of executive dysfunction during activities of daily living in schizophrenia.

    Semkovska, Maria; Bédard, Marc-André; Godbout, Lucie; Limoge, Frédérique; Stip, Emmanuel

    2004-08-01

    Many neuropsychological studies have described deficits of memory and executive functions in patients with schizophrenia, and the severity of these deficits seems to be determinant in predicting the community outcome of these patients [Schizophr. Bull. 26 (2000) 119]. However, neuropsychological evaluation does not provide valuable information about how the cognitive deficits directly affect daily living, that is, which cognitive deficit affects which behavior. The present study aimed at determining whether executive dysfunction in schizophrenia could be directly measured by analyzing three activities of daily living (ADL), in addition to assessing the ecological validity of commonly used neuropsychological tests. Within specific ADL (choosing a menu, shopping the ingredients, cooking a meal), the sequences of behaviors that have been performed by 27 control subjects and 27 patients with schizophrenia were both analyzed by using a preset optimal sequence of behavior. When compared with control subjects, patients with schizophrenia showed more omissions when choosing the menu, more sequencing and repetitions errors during the shopping task, and more planning, sequencing, repetition and omission errors during the cooking task. These behavioral errors correlated significantly with negative, but not with positive symptoms of the patients. Furthermore, they also correlated with the poor performances on executive neuropsychological tests, especially those sensitive to shifting and sequencing abilities, but not with memory tests. These results suggest that executive deficits in schizophrenia may specifically affect ADL and that such deficits can be quantitatively assessed with a behavioral scale of action sequences. PMID:15469200

  19. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients.

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  20. Performance Study of Live Virtual Machine Migration using KVM Hypervisor

    Deepti Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a cloud computing environment, migrating operating system instances across distinct physical hosts is a useful tool for administrators of data centers and clusters: It allows a clean separation between hardware and software, and facilitates fault management, load balancing, and low-level system maintenance. Live migration allows moving a continuously running VM from one physical host to another. It provides special benefit for data centers in a variety of scenarios including load balancing, maintenance and power management. Live migration is of two types: (1 Pre-copy live migration and (2 Post-Copy live migration each having its own advantages and disadvantages. In this report performance evaluation of post-copy live migration is presented along with proper mathematical modeling. This model can be used to estimate the Downtime, Resume Time and Total Migration Time of a VM being transferred using post-copy live migration

  1. Effects of the six-minute walking test on dyspnea and activities of daily living in pneumoconiosis patients

    Kim, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hye-Soon; Lee, Myung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of walking exercise through a 6-min walking test on subjective dyspnea, pulmonary function test, arterial blood gas analysis, and activities of daily living to provide base data for the nursing intervention of pneumoconiosis patients. The subjects were pneumoconiosis patients men aged over 60. This quasi-experimental study was designed with a non-equivalent control group pre- and post-test design, and the study period was September to Decem...

  2. Are Immigrant Enclaves Healthy Places to Live? The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Hadley, Craig; Kandula, Namratha

    2009-01-01

    The growing size and changing composition of the foreign born population in the USA highlights the importance of examining the health consequences of living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants. Using data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in four US cities, we examined whether neighborhood immigrant composition was associated with health behaviors (diet, physical activity) among Hispanic and Chinese Americans (n=1902). Secondarily we tested whether neighborhoods...

  3. Depression Training in an Assisted Living Facility: A Pilot Study.

    Beuscher, Linda; Dietrich, Mary

    2016-05-01

    Depression in older adults residing in assisted living facilities (ALFs) is often not recognized. ALF staff who work with residents on a daily basis are the most likely individuals to recognize residents' depressive symptoms. The purpose of the current pilot study was to determine feasibility of a 4-week training program for 15 direct care staff to recognize any depression symptoms of 32 residents. Although training significantly improved knowledge, it did not improve staff recognition of residents with positive depressive symptoms. Staff reported the training provided them a better understanding about depression and rated the training as very helpful to be able to recognize depression symptoms. Staff requested more information on ways to respond to someone who is depressed. Additional training should emphasize staff-resident communication skills for staff. Challenges included resident attrition and dwindling staff participation. Strategies to address these challenges are presented. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 25-31.]. PMID:26848806

  4. Systematic study of α half-lives of superheavy nuclei

    Two different descriptions of the α-decay process, namely, the shell model rate theory and phenomenological description are emphasized to investigate the α-decay properties of superheavy nuclei (SHN). These descriptions are shortly presented and illustrated by their results. Special attention is given to the shell structure and resonance scattering effects due to which they exist and decay. A first systematics of α-decay properties of SHN was per- formed by studying the half-life vs. energy correlations in terms of atomic number and mass number. Such a systematics shows that the transitions between even-even nuclei are favored, while all other transitions with odd nucleons are prohibited. The accuracy of experimental and calculated α-half-lives is illustrated by the systematics of these results. (authors)

  5. We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems

    Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,

    2013-08-01

    Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates

  6. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Conradsson M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Conradsson,1 Håkan Littbrand,1,2 Gustaf Boström,1 Nina Lindelöf,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Erik Rosendahl1,2 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56% of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores. Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized β for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31, BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14, Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06, and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86. There were no interaction effects for dementia. Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care

  7. Recreating communities to support active living: a new role for social marketing.

    Maibach, Edward W

    2003-01-01

    The lack of routine physical activity has become an all too pervasive health threat in the United States. Social marketing can be used directly to promote increased physical activity among people who have access to active living options (e.g., safe and convenient sidewalks or bike paths). A second, albeit indirect, use of social marketing to promote physical activity--and the focus of this article--involves promoting behaviors that influence the built environment for the purpose of increasing people's access to active living options. This use of social marketing involves changing the behavior of consumers, developers, distribution channels (e.g., real estate agents) and policy makers. The approach offers public health and other organizations a disciplined, consumer-focused means of mobilizing their available resources in a manner that maximizes the odds of creating active living communities. These means include understanding the competition, understanding target markets, creating mutually beneficial exchanges, segmenting markets and targeting them based on anticipated return. This article identifies specific opportunities for applying the social marketing approach to create active living communities, and identifies opportunities at the state and national level that will enhance the effectiveness of local efforts. PMID:13677970

  8. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deterioration, unilateral spatial neglect or apathy. [Methods] According to abdominal strength, the 24 patients were divided into a nonweakness group and a weakness group. For the assessment, we used the stroke impairment assessment set, the Berg balance scale, a simple test for evaluating hand function, grip strength, and functional independence measure scale scores and the results were compared between the groups. [Results] The Berg balance scale score and scores for dressing, toilet use, transfer to bed, and walk items of the functional independence measure were significantly lower in the weakness group than in the nonweakness group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that weakness of the abdominal muscles adversely impacts the balance of patients with mild stroke as well as their ability to dress, use a toilet, transfer, and walk. Trunk training, including abdominal muscle exercises, can effectively improve the performance of these activities of daily living items. PMID:25931737

  9. [Dependency for activities of daily living in the elderly in Catalonia, Spain].

    Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Puig-Oriol, Xavier; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Séculi-Sánchez, Elisa; Salvà-Casanovas, Antoni

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this article is to estimate the disabilty prevalence for the activities of daily living (ADL), the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the use of health services, distinguishing between the population receiving assistance for ADL and not. Cross-sectional study (Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña [ESCA] 2006). We have analyzed 17 ADL. Differences among proportions are estimated with a 95% confidence interval to characterize the analysis groups. Logistic regression describes the explanatory variables about getting help or not. Disabilty prevalence for the ADL: 26.6% men and 48.2% in women. Of these, 79.6% is getting help. There is a socioeconomic gradient in prevalence, not being observed in relation to assistance or not. We must deepen our understanding of the phenomenon and its evolution to which the ESCA is an essential tool. PMID:22310361

  10. Activities of Daily Living Indexing by Hierarchical HMM for Dementia Diagnostics

    Karaman, Svebor; Dartigues, Jean-François; Gaëstel, Yann; Mégret, Rémi; Pinquier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for indexing human ac- tivities in videos captured from a wearable camera being worn by patients, for studies of progression of the dementia diseases. Our method aims to produce indexes to facilitate the navigation throughout the individual video recordings, which could help doctors search for early signs of the dis- ease in the activities of daily living. The recorded videos have strong motion and sharp lighting changes, inducing noise for the analysis. The proposed approach is based on a two steps analysis. First, we propose a new approach to segment this type of video, based on apparent motion. Each segment is characterized by two original motion de- scriptors, as well as color, and audio descriptors. Second, a Hidden-Markov Model formulation is used to merge the multimodal audio and video features, and classify the test segments. Experiments show the good properties of the ap- proach on real data.

  11. Living with an unfixable heart: a qualitative study exploring the experience of living with advanced heart failure.

    Ryan, Marie

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses working with patients with advanced heart failure need knowledge that will help us to help patients cope with their situations of chronic illness. However, our knowledge bank is deficient due to the scarcity of inquiry that takes the affected person\\'s point of view as its central focus. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe patients\\' experiences of living with advanced heart failure. METHODS: The study sample (N=9) consisted of male (N=6) and female (N=3) patients with advanced (NYHA classes III-IV) heart failure. The design was qualitative and open unstructured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim during 2006. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: Living in the Shadow of Fear; Running on Empty; Living a Restricted life; and Battling the System. The experience of living with advanced heart failure was described as a fearful and tired sort of living characterised by escalating impotence and dependence. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there may be an illogical but enduring ethos of \\'cure\\' pervading health care worker\\'s attitudes to advanced heart failure care. This mindset might be working to hinder the application of additional or alternative therapies, which might better palliate the physical and psychosocial distress of patients.

  12. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  13. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure....

  14. Log live high activity radioactive wastes / Researches and results law of the 30 December 1991. Separation and transmutation of long lived radionuclides

    The law of the 30 December 1991 on the high activity long lived radioactive wastes reached the end. This synthesis final document presents the scientific and technological results, obtained still the end of 2005, on the separation and the transmutation of long lived radionuclides of high activity long lived radioactive wastes. It is organized in five chapters: a presentation of the context and the historical aspects, the researches, the objectives and the strategy of the axis 1, the researches results on the advanced separation, the researches results on the transmutation, the scenario of separation-transmutation and their environmental, technical and economical impacts. (A.L.B.)

  15. Effectiveness of Pain, Disease Severity and Radiological Grading on Disability of Daily Living Activities in Knee Osteoarthritis

    Deniz Evcik; Saime Ay

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this study we planned to investigate the effects of pain, disease severity, and radiological grading on the disability of daily living activities in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and to find out the determinative factors. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 knee OA patients who were admitted to the outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic were included this study. The diagnosis was based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Pati...

  16. Variability in measuring (instrumental) activities of daily living functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients: a systematic review.

    Buurman, B.M.; Munster, B.C.; Korevaar, J.C.; Haan, R.J. de; Rooij, S.E. de

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study instruments used and definitions applied in order to measure (instrumental) activities of daily living (I [ADL]) functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 to January 2010. Articles were included if they (1) focused on acute hospitalization for medical illness in older patients; (2) described the instrument used to measure func...

  17. Self-Study and Evaluation Guide/1979 Edition. Section D-23: Program for Independent Living.

    National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped, New York, NY.

    Standards regarding independent living programs for blind and visually handicapped students are presented in the self study and evaluation guide. Five areas are addressed: planning and organization, personnel, concept development and travel skills, living skills, and program evaluation. (CL)

  18. Total activation analysis of large samples using short- and medium-lived nuclides

    The trace- and minor-element content of various samples, especially of organic material, is not always investigated sufficiently. TRIGA and small research reactors with a neutron flux of approximately 1012/ s cm2 offer the opportunity to study this field effectively. The sensitivity of determination by NAA depends mainly on the activities induced. This activity is proportional to neutron flux and sample weight. A lower flux was therefore compensated by irradiation of larger samples (up to 250 times the weight of the usual 100 mg samples) with the distinct advantage of a better sample representation and a much lower radiation degradation compared to the irradiation of a small sample in a high-flux reactor. As shown in the previous papers, Total Activation Analysis (TAA) is especially useful for AA with short-lived nuclides. TAA, the continuous registration of up to several hundred LFC- and pileup corrected and uncorrected γ-spectra, enables the selection of the optimal time interval for spectra-summing so that each element can be evaluated under optimal conditions. Quality assurance is possible by decay plots. Starting TAA with the expelling signal, the irradiation time is registered by the incoming rise of activity. TAA of the well-known standards Bowen's Kale, NBS-SRM-1572 Citrus Leaves, and samples of yellow peas and oats allows the determination of many short and medium lived elements. With 15 s activation of roughly 25 g samples the oxygen content of yellow peas and oats can be determined by the O-19 and N-16 activities together with Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Cu and their detection limits. Even the sulphur content can roughly be estimated in the same run. The measurements were performed using the General Atomic rabbit system together with the new inexpensive measurement system: an n-type HP-Ge detector with resetting pre-amplifier, digital-preloaded filter amplifier and a software based PC-MCA with real time correction of dead-time and pile-up losses. The

  19. HIV patients with latent tuberculosis living in a low-endemic country do not develop active disease during a 2 year follow-up; a Norwegian prospective multicenter study

    Pullar, Nadine D; Steinum, Harald; Bruun, Johan N; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Background Interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) serve as immunodiagnostics of tuberculosis (TB) infection to identify individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) eligible for preventive anti-TB therapy. In this longitudinal study of HIV-infected LTBI patients we have observed for possible progression to active TB as well as evaluated repeated IGRA testing in a TB low-endemic setting. Methods QuantiFERON...

  20. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  1. The Lived Experiences of Participating in Physical Activity among Young People with Mental Health Problems. A Recovery-Oriented Perspective

    Staal Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing understanding that psychiatric treatment is more than psychotherapy and medication, and that people themselves can be active in preventing and handling mental health problems. This brings non-medical solutions into play. Physical activity (in terms of exercise, sport, and fitness becomes an important contribution in this particular context. The perceived mental and physical benefits of physical activity (both preventative and therapeutic for people experiencing mental health problems are well documented. Typically, this kind of research focuses narrowly on “size of effect” or “most successful type of intervention” or “exercise versus other treatment.” Less research has explored the lived experience of physical activity and the meaning and relevance it has for individuals in their everyday lives. This article suggests that sport and exercise can play a valuable role in and contribute to the recovery process for young people with mental health problems. Results from an evaluation study of a developmental project in Denmark shows how physical activity affects a person‟s lived experiences, relationships, and pursuits. The findings is discussed in relation to the concept of recovery, especially focusing on exercise as a form of self-care strategy, as an opportunity to create social relationships, and as a way to become part of a meaningful social activity.

  2. Immobilizing live Escherichia coli for AFM studies of surface dynamics

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-L-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-L-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg2+ and Ca2+ was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane stabilization while

  3. Immobilizing live Escherichia coli for AFM studies of surface dynamics

    Lonergan, N.E.; Britt, L.D.; Sullivan, C.J., E-mail: sullivcj@evms.edu

    2014-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-L-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-L-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane

  4. Cancer Screening among Immigrants Living in Urban and Regional Australia: Results from the 45 and Up Study

    Weber, Marianne F.; May Chiew; Eleonora Feletto; Clare Kahn; Freddy Sitas; Lucy Webster

    2014-01-01

    Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%), live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT), and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian...

  5. Subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living in patients with mild stroke

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Post, A; Poulsen, T.E.;

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with mild stroke. Methodology: Data was generated from January – December 2011 and consisted of 41 individual ADL-I interviews with patients in hospital and another 41...

  6. Ready, Steady, Action: What Enables Young People to Perceive Themselves as Active Agents in Their Lives?

    Sharp, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having…

  7. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of Live Versus Dead Bacterial Cells and Spores

    Bernardini, James N.; LaDuc, Myron T.; Diamond, Rochelle; Verceles, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a coupled fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescent staining technology for purifying (removing cells from sampling matrices), separating (based on size, density, morphology, and live versus dead), and concentrating cells (spores, prokaryotic, eukaryotic) from an environmental sample.

  8. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II-IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study.

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Crane, Tracy E; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  9. Activation of protein kinase A alters subnuclear distribution pattern of human steroidogenic factor 1 in living cells

    LIU Wei刘伟; FAN Wu-qiang范吴强; Toshihiko Yanase; Masayuki Saitoh; WU Yin吴茵

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify the subnuclear distribution pattern of human orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in living cells with and without the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signal pathway, and thus try to explain the unknown mechanism by which PKA potentiates SF-1 transactivation. Methods Full-length cDNAs of wild type and a naturally occurring mutant (G35E) human SF-1 were cloned and fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Subcellular distribution pattern of human SF-1 in living cells, whose PKA signaling was either activated or not, was studied by laser confocal microscopy after the validity of the gene sequence was confirmed.Results The transactivation ability of the GFP-SF-1 chimeric protein was highly conserved. Wild type human SF-1 diffused homogeneously within the nuclei of cells when PKA was not active, and converged to clear foci when PKA was activated. Mutant SF-1 diffused within the nuclei even in the presence of PKA activation, surprisingly aggregating as fluorescent dots inside the nucleoli, a phenomenon not altered by PKA.Conclusions Activation of PKA causes wild type, but not mutant SF-1 to alter its subnuclear distribution pattern to a transactivationally active form (foci formation). This finding may throw new light on the mechanism by which PKA activates the orphan nuclear receptor.

  10. Impact of Sativex(®) on quality of life and activities of daily living in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity.

    Arroyo, Rafael; Vila, Carlos; Dechant, Kerry L

    2014-07-01

    In individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity, associated symptoms such as spasms, pain, mobility restrictions and sleep disturbances can interfere with the ability to perform activities of daily living and reduce quality of life (QoL). Recent cross-sectional studies from Europe have confirmed that advancing severity of MS spasticity correlates directly with worsening QoL. The treatment effect of Sativex(®) (GW Pharmaceuticals PLC, Porton Down, UK; Laboratorios Almirall, SA, Barcelona, Spain) on QoL has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials, observational studies conducted under everyday clinical practice conditions and a survey in long-term users. Symptomatic relief of MS spasticity in responders to Sativex was associated with quantifiable improvements in QoL and activities of daily living that were maintained over time. Benefits were perceived by both patients and caregivers. PMID:25275238

  11. Gender Differences in Health Related Quality of Life among People Living with HIV on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome measure for highly active antiretroviral treatment program. In Ethiopia, studies revealed that there are improved qualities of life among adults living with the viruses taking antiretroviral therapy but there is no explicit data showing gender differences in health related quality of life. Aim. To assess gender differences in HRQOL and its associated factors among people living with HIV and on highly active antiretrovi...

  12. Live in vivo imaging of Egr-1 promoter activity during neonatal development, liver regeneration and wound healing

    Schaper Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 (Early growth response 1 is central to several growth factors and represents an important activator of target genes not only involved in physiological processes like embryogenesis and neonatal development, but also in a variety of pathophysiological processes, for example atherosclerosis or cancer. Current options to investigate its transcription and activation in vivo are end-point measurements that do not provide insights into dynamic changes in the living organism. Results We developed a transgenic mouse (Egr-1-luc in which the luciferase reporter gene is under the control of the murine Egr-1 promoter providing a versatile tool to study the time course of Egr-1 activation in vivo. In neonatal mice, bioluminescence imaging revealed a high Egr-1 promoter activity reaching basal levels three weeks after birth with activity at snout, ears and paws. Using a model of partial hepatectomy we could show that Egr-1 promoter activity and Egr-1 mRNA levels were increased in the regenerating liver. In a model of wound healing, we demonstrated that Egr-1 promoter activity was upregulated at the site of injury. Conclusion Taken together, we have developed a transgenic mouse model that allows real time in vivo imaging of the Egr-1 promoter activity. The ability to monitor and quantify Egr-1 activity in the living organism may facilitate a better understanding of Egr-1 function in vivo.

  13. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Wagner O. de Morais; Jens Lundström; Nicholas Wickström

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. D...

  14. The effect of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    Park, Jin-Young; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects were each assigned to a mirror therapy group and a sham therapy group. The Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment and the Box and Block Test were performed to compare paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities. The functional independence measurement was conducted to compare abi...

  15. Longitudinal changes in heart rate after participating in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    Jong, Johan de; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of 18 months. Multi-level analyses were conducted; growth and final models were developed. Significant...

  16. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    Jong, Johan de; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement design was conducted; 151 participants were included, providing 398 heart rate files over a period of 18 months. Multi-level analyses were conducted; growth and final models were developed. Significant...

  17. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals

    Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to ...

  18. Effects of mild and severe knee joint pain on various activities of daily living in the female elderly

    Sugiura, Hiroki; Demura, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the differences in the ability to perform various activities of daily living (ADLs) among groups with various knee problems. The participants consisted of 328 elderly females (age 60-94; mean age 76.1 years; standard deviation 6.2). The subjects were classified into three groups: those without knee pain, those with mild knee pain, and those with severe knee pain. ADLs with markedly higher (>97%) and lower (

  19. Effects of Mild and Severe Knee Joint Pain on Various Activities of Daily Living in the Female Elderly

    Hiroki Sugiura; Shinichi Demura

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the differences in the ability to perform various activities of daily living (ADLs) among groups with various knee problems. The participants consisted of 328 elderly females (age 60–94; mean age 76.1 years; standard deviation 6.2). The subjects were classified into three groups: those without knee pain, those with mild knee pain, and those with severe knee pain. ADLs with markedly higher (>97%) and lower (

  20. Determination of blood Cd in subjects living near dismessed mines and active industrial sites

    Madeddu, Roberto Beniamino; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    The environmental exposure to Cd in 265 subjects living in a South-Western area of Sardinia (Sulcis-Iglesiente) with a great history of mining activities and large industrial settings was assessed. Individuals living near the industrial plants had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (0.47 μg/l) and than residents of the mining sites (0.54 μg/l). Demographic and lifestyle variables were also investigated and data show...

  1. We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems

    Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,

    2013-08-01

    Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates

  2. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine Improves Activities of Daily Living in Parkinson's Disease

    Weidong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, named Zeng-xiao An-shen Zhi-chan 2 (ZAZ2, on patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Among 115 patients with idiopathic PD enrolled (mean age, 64.7 ± 10.2 years old, 110 patients (M = 65, F = 45; mean age, 64.9 ± 10.7 years old completed the study. Patients took either ZAZ2 (=59 or placebo granule (=56 in a blind manner for 13 weeks while maintaining other anti-Parkinson medications unchanged. All participants wore a motion logger, and we analyzed the power-law temporal autocorrelation of the motion logger records taken on 3 occasions (before, one week, and 13 weeks after the drug administration. Drug efficacy was evaluated with the conventional Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, as well as the power-law exponent α, which corresponds to the level of physical activity of the patients. ZAZ2 but not placebo granule improved the awake-sleep rhythm, the UPDRS Part II, Part II + III, and Part IV scores, and the α values. The results indicate that ZAZ2 improved activities of daily living (ADL of parkinsonism and, thus, is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.

  4. Intellectual function, activities of daily living and computerized tomography of the brain in geriatric demented patients

    Thirty eight patients of geriatric dementia (mean age 74.9 years) were examined by computerized tomography (CT) and their intellectual functions and activities of daily living (ADL) were evaluated. CT was evaluated by both visual assessment method and direct measuring method. Intellectual function was evaluated by Jikei University dementia rating scale. ADL was evaluated by both Hasegawa's rating scale and Sengoku's rating scale. Results were as follows: significant influence by age was observed in intellectual functions and ADL of subjects above 75 years old. There were good correlations between the higher intellectual function, the better grooming and hygiene, and less needs of nursing care. The severe brain atrophy evaluated by the visual assessment method was correlated with the depressed level of intellectual function. When brain atrophy is mild despite high degree of dementia, reexamination should be made to explore somatic diseases inducing depression of mental activity. It also should be noted that sex and age difference is important in studying geriatric patients. (author)

  5. A Study of Daily Living Dependency Status among Elderly in an Urban Slum area of Dehradun

    Puneet Ohri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method:  A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.

  6. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    Manijeh Nourian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results: The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion: Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.

  7. More Older Women Now Living with 'Moderate' Disability, Study Shows

    ... disability-free life: In 1982, a 65-year-old man could expect to live, on average, another 14 years; by 2011, that had increased to 19 years -- with almost all of that extra time disability-free. For the typical 65-year-old woman, life expectancy rose by only two years, ...

  8. What makes primary care effective for people in poverty living with multiple chronic conditions?: study protocol

    Barbeau David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inverse care law persists: people living in poverty have the greatest needs and face considerable challenges in getting the care they need. Evidence reveals that GPs encounter difficulties in delivering care to poor patients, while many of those patients feel stigmatized by healthcare professionals. Patients living in poverty report negative healthcare experiences and unmet healthcare needs. Indeed, there is a growing recognition in primary care research of the importance of addressing the capabilities and social conditions of the poor when delivering care. Few studies have looked at the factors contributing to effective and "socially responsive" care for people living in poverty. Methods/Design Our study adopts a qualitative ethnographic approach in four healthcare organizations in deprived areas of metropolitan Montreal (Québec, Canada, using patient shadowing techniques and interviews. Data will be collected through fieldwork observations and informal interviews with patients before and after consultations. We will observe medical consultations, care organization activities, and waiting areas and reception of patients. We will conduct a total of 36 individual interviews with 12 GPs and 24 patients. The interviews will be audio-recorded and transcribed for purposes of analysis. The analysis consists of debriefing sessions, coding and interpretive analysis. Discussion This study aims to investigate how positive healthcare interactions between physicians and patients can improve the management of chronic conditions. We hypothesize that factors related to care organization, to healthcare professionals' experience and to patients may enhance the quality of healthcare interactions, which may have positive impacts for preventing and managing chronic conditions. Our study will provide a unique set of data grounded in the perspectives of healthcare professionals and of patients living in poverty.

  9. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    Alaine Souza Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.

  10. Forensic pediatric radiology: studies in living and deceased children

    Hoogendoorn, T.

    2014-01-01

    Radiology is an important tool in establishing the diagnosis of physical abuse, as one can objectively depict fractures or internal injuries. In this thesis we have tried to provide some insight into the possibilities and impossibilities of (forensic) pediatric radiology in establishing a diagnosis of physical child abuse, in both living (part 1) and deceased (part 2) children. In the first part we have given an overview of imaging techniques in child abuse, risk factors for and radiological ...

  11. Chemoselective tarantula toxins report voltage activation of wild-type ion channels in live cells.

    Tilley, Drew C; Eum, Kenneth S; Fletcher-Taylor, Sebastian; Austin, Daniel C; Dupré, Christophe; Patrón, Lilian A; Garcia, Rita L; Lam, Kit; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Cohen, Bruce E; Sack, Jon T

    2014-11-01

    Electrically excitable cells, such as neurons, exhibit tremendous diversity in their firing patterns, a consequence of the complex collection of ion channels present in any specific cell. Although numerous methods are capable of measuring cellular electrical signals, understanding which types of ion channels give rise to these signals remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe exogenous probes which use a novel mechanism to report activity of voltage-gated channels. We have synthesized chemoselective derivatives of the tarantula toxin guangxitoxin-1E (GxTX), an inhibitory cystine knot peptide that binds selectively to Kv2-type voltage gated potassium channels. We find that voltage activation of Kv2.1 channels triggers GxTX dissociation, and thus GxTX binding dynamically marks Kv2 activation. We identify GxTX residues that can be replaced by thiol- or alkyne-bearing amino acids, without disrupting toxin folding or activity, and chemoselectively ligate fluorophores or affinity probes to these sites. We find that GxTX-fluorophore conjugates colocalize with Kv2.1 clusters in live cells and are released from channels activated by voltage stimuli. Kv2.1 activation can be detected with concentrations of probe that have a trivial impact on cellular currents. Chemoselective GxTX mutants conjugated to dendrimeric beads likewise bind live cells expressing Kv2.1, and the beads are released by channel activation. These optical sensors of conformational change are prototype probes that can indicate when ion channels contribute to electrical signaling. PMID:25331865

  12. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  13. THE IMPACT OF PENSIONS SAVING AND EDUCATION DEFICIT ON THE LIVING STANDARDS IN ROMANIA, IN THE POST-ACTIVITY PERIOD

    SANDRA TEODORESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts with the study on the annual pension deficit in the EU member states, elaborated by AVIVA and DELOITTE companies in 2010. The paper analyzes the impact of pensions saving and education deficit on the living standards in Romania, in the post-activity period. It comprises the following sections: an introduction to the analysis, several definitions and the calculation method employed in the above-mentioned study, comparisons between Romania and other EU members states, focusing on the pension deficit, as well as a brief overview on the pension systems in Romania. In the end of the paper, we propose a debate on good financial planning that can make the difference between poverty and a decent standard of living at the time of retirement.

  14. Validation of an electrogoniometry system as a measure of knee kinematics during activities of daily living

    Urwin, Samuel; Kader, Deiary; Caplan, Nick; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Stewart, Su

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing use of electrogoniometry (ELG) in clinical research requires the validation of different instrumentation. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the concurrent validity of an ELG system during activities of daily living. Methods: Ten asymptomatic participants gave informed consent to participate. A Biometrics SG150 electrogoniometer was directly compared to a 12 camera three dimensional motion analysis system during walking, stair ascent, stair descent, s...

  15. Correlation Between Instrumental Hand Function and Activities of Daily Living in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Gupta AK; Yadav SL; Singh U; Wadhwa S; Kumar A; Borah D; Pandey RM

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find the correlation of instrumental handfunction (grip strength, muscle power and range ofmotion) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) inrheumatoid arthritis patients.Methods: 50 patients of either sex were included in thestudy. Objective evaluation of hand function was doneusing Hand dynamometer and Electrogoniometer(Tracker system-version 4®). The patients were assessedfor their functional limitations using Indian version ofHAQ-DI. Spearman rank collision was performed to fin...

  16. Automatic Task Assistance for Persons with Cognitive Disabilities in Basic Activities of Daily Living

    Peters, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Persons with cognitive disabilities such as Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities tend to have problems in sequencing and coordinating steps in the execution of basic Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) due to limited capabilities in cognitive functioning. In order to successfully perform basic ADLs, these persons are highly reliant on the assistance of a human caregiver. This leads to a decrease or even a loss of independence for care recipients and imposes a high bur...

  17. SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING STRATEGY : Case: LiveActive by Studio Moderna d.o.o.

    Helin, Mia

    2013-01-01

    In the technology driven world of today, digital marketing, particularly social media marketing has revolutionized the way companies market and communicate with their customers. The purpose of this thesis is to further delve into the world of social media marketing and to focus on how important it is for the businesses to build and strengthen their social media marketing efforts. This thesis will focus on a Slovenian health & fitness brand called LiveActive. The main objectives are to ide...

  18. Relationship Between Grip and Pinch Strength and Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu; Shin, Hyun Iee; Shin, Hye Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between grip and pinch strength and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. Methods Medical records of 577 stroke patients from January 2010 to February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' grip and pinch strength of both hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic hands and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score were collected. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (onset duration: ≤3 month...

  19. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of living cells: Different redox activities of nonmetastatic and metastatic human breast cells

    Liu, Biao; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Mirkin, Michael V.

    2000-01-01

    Electrochemical methods have been widely used to monitor physiologically important molecules in biological systems. This report describes the first application of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to probe the redox activity of individual living cells. The possibilities of measuring the rate and investigating the pathway of transmembrane charge transfer are demonstrated. By this approach, significant differences are detected in the redox responses given by nonmotile, nontransform...

  20. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Cederbom S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  1. Activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Blake J Lawrence

    Full Text Available This study examined whether activities of daily living (ADL mediate the relationship between depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL in people with Parkinson's disease (PD. A cross-sectional, correlational research design examined data from 174 participants who completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-section 2 (UPDRS-section 2 [ADL]. Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA was used to examine the mediator model. Depression and ADL significantly (p<.001 predicted HR-QOL, and depression significantly (p<.001 predicted ADL. Whilst ADL did not impact on the relationship between depression and HR-QOL, there was a significant (p<.001 indirect effect of depression on HR-QOL via ADL, suggesting both direct and indirect (via ADL effects of depression on HR-QOL. The magnitude of this effect was moderate (R2 = .13. People with PD who report depression also experience greater difficulty completing ADL, which impacts upon their HR-QOL. It is recommended that clinicians adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care by combining pharmacological treatments with psycho/occupational therapy, thereby alleviating the heterogeneous impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on HR-QOL in people with PD.

  2. Experiences of women living with fibromyalgia: an exploratory study of their information needs and preferences

    Lubna Daraz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women living with fibromyalgia consistently report experiencing a change in their lives in terms of stigma, inability to work, isolation from society and difficulty in managing their illness. Lack of understanding and knowledge about their disease has been linked to compromised health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of information use of women living with fibromyalgia. A descriptive phenomenology was used for this study. Participants were identified through gatekeepers for women living with fibromyalgia across Canada. Data was collected via taperecorded interviews. The study was conducted in Canada between 2009-2010. Ten women (18 or older participated in the research. Three essential themes emerged from the analysis that were vital to understand the unique experiences of women: i understanding the need for information required to live with fibromyalgia, ii struggling to meet vital and fundamental information needs and iii transforming themselves to improve health and quality of life. Women living with fibromyalgia have vital and specific information needs and struggle to find and access appropriate information. They use diverse strategies in overcoming some of the challenges in accessing information. Most significantly, women draw on the information to make changes and to begin to coordinate their lives to live with fibromyalgia. For women living with fibromyalgia, the phenomenon of information use has a significant effect on their lives. Healthcare providers are perceived as an important source of information and need to be better informed, more prepared and dedicated to assisting women with their information needs.

  3. Children of the "Sug": A Study of the Daily Lives of Street Children in Khartoum, Sudan, with Intervention Recommendations

    Kudrati, Mustafa; Plummer, Mary L.; Yousif, Nassrin Dafaalla El Hag

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study examines street children's daily lives in Khartoum, Sudan to recommend ways to improve their conditions and to successfully assist them off the streets. Methods: In 2000-2001, eight researchers conducted participant observation for 7 weeks; 20 groups of children engaged in role-plays and drawing activities; over 500 children…

  4. Recent developments in short-lived nuclide activation analysis and analytical efficiency

    In various applications of neutron activation analysis, wide element concentration and nuclide half-life ranges, overlapping peaks and other interferences in the gamma-spectrum and the request for isotope abundance determination as well as other special problems are encountered which led to the development of a flexible analytical system for the optimization and differentiation of the experimental conditions in order to solve properly these multiparameter problems. The new features were introduced mainly in the analysis of short-lived nuclides with high throughput capability, enhancing also the analytical efficiency and broadening the application range of neutron activation analysis. (author) 4 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Physical Activity of Male and Female Adolescents Living in a Town and a City in the Context of Public Health Recommendations

    Mynarski, Wladyslaw; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Rozpara, Michal; Garbaciak, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the physical activity of male and female adolescents from Poland living in a town (Czechowice-Dziedzice) and in a city (Katowice). Material and methods: The research involved 431 high school students aged 16-18 years (249 from Czechowice-Dziedzice and 182 from Katowice). Physical activity was measured by the short form of the…

  6. Perioperative Complications After Living Kidney Donation: A National Study.

    Lentine, K L; Lam, N N; Axelrod, D; Schnitzler, M A; Garg, A X; Xiao, H; Dzebisashvili, N; Schold, J D; Brennan, D C; Randall, H; King, E A; Segev, D L

    2016-06-01

    We integrated the US transplant registry with administrative records from an academic hospital consortium (97 centers, 2008-2012) to identify predonation comorbidity and perioperative complications captured in diagnostic, procedure, and registry sources. Correlates (adjusted odds ratio, aOR) of perioperative complications were examined with multivariate logistic regression. Among 14 964 living kidney donors, 11.6% were African American. Nephrectomies were predominantly laparoscopic (93.8%); 2.4% were robotic and 3.7% were planned open procedures. Overall, 16.8% of donors experienced a perioperative complication, most commonly gastrointestinal (4.4%), bleeding (3.0%), respiratory (2.5%), surgical/anesthesia-related injuries (2.4%), and "other" complications (6.6%). Major Clavien Classification of Surgical Complications grade IV or higher affected 2.5% of donors. After adjustment for demographic, clinical (including comorbidities), procedure, and center factors, African Americans had increased risk of any complication (aOR 1.26, p = 0.001) and of Clavien grade II or higher (aOR 1.39, p = 0.0002), grade III or higher (aOR 1.56, p 50 (aOR 0.55, p < 0.0001) was associated with lower risk. Complications after live donor nephrectomy vary with baseline demographic, clinical, procedure, and center factors, but the most serious complications are infrequent. Future work should examine underlying mechanisms and approaches to minimizing the risk of perioperative complications in all donors. PMID:26700551

  7. Probabilistic learning from incomplete data for recognition of activities of daily living in smart homes.

    Zhang, Shuai; McClean, Sally I; Scotney, Bryan W

    2012-05-01

    Learning behavioral patterns for activities of daily living in a smart home environment can be challenged by the limited number of training data that may be available. This may be due to the infrequent repetition of routine activities (e.g., once daily), the expense of using observers to label activities, and the intrusion that would be caused by the presence of observers over long time periods. It is important, therefore, to make as much use of any labeled data that are collected, however, incomplete these data may be. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for learning behavioral patterns for multi-inhabitants living in a single smart home environment, by making full use of all limited labeled activities, including incomplete data resulting from unreliable low-level sensors in this environment. Through maximum-likelihood estimation, using Expectation-Maximization, we build a model that captures both environmental uncertainties from sensor readings and user uncertainties, including variations in how individuals carry out activities. Our algorithm outperforms models that cannot handle data incompleteness, with increasing performance gains as incompleteness increases. The approach also enables the impact of particular sensors to be assessed and can thus inform sensor maintenance and deployment. PMID:22411044

  8. Studies of Powder Mixing with Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    Many industrial processes involve the mixing of powders to form homogenous products. If the mixing conditions are not well established the mixing units will not be used to their best advantage. Many mixing problems can be studied by means of chemical analysis, but a series of such analyses is expensive in comparison with the fast and cheap measurement of radioactivity. For this reason radioisotopes are often used in determining optimum mixing conditions. The statistical nature of radioactive decay also simplifies the treatment of the data obtained. The theory and application of some useful statistical methods are described. As an example, the mixing of light concrete from cement powder, aluminium powder, sand and water is described. This is a severe mixing problem as mixing must occur before the reaction between water and aluminium, which gives the typical light-concrete structure, takes place to any considerable extent. Samples of aluminium powder and cement powder are activated in a reactor and are then used as radioactive tracers for the 5 m3 batches of mixture. The behaviour of the aluminium powder is studied using the nuclide Mn56 which is produced from manganese impurities in the aluminium. If certain precautions are taken it is possible to use this nuclide in spite of its short half-life (2.6 h). In the case of cement powder, use is made of the nuclides Na24 and K42 which are formed in this material. (author)

  9. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review

    Thi-Hoa-Cuc Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory.

  10. Preliminary cognitive scale of basic and instrumental activities of daily living for dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Rodríguez-Bailón, María; Montoro-Membila, Nuria; Garcia-Morán, Tamara; Arnedo-Montoro, María Luisa; Funes Molina, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we explored cognitive and functional deficits in patients with multidomain mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with dementia, and healthy age-matched control participants using the Cognitive Scale for Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, a new preliminary informant-based assessment tool. This tool allowed us to evaluate four key cognitive abilities-task memory schema, error detection, problem solving, and task self-initiation-in a range of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL, respectively). The first part of the present study was devoted to testing the psychometric adequateness of this new informant-based tool and its convergent validity with other global functioning and neuropsychological measures. The second part of the study was aimed at finding the patterns of everyday cognitive factors that best discriminate between the three groups. We found that patients with dementia exhibited impairment in all cognitive abilities in both basic and instrumental activities. By contrast, patients with MCI were found to have preserved task memory schema in both types of ADL; however, such patients exhibited deficits in error detection and task self-initiation but only in IADL. Finally, patients with MCI also showed a generalized problem solving deficit that affected even BADL. Studying various cognitive processes instantiated in specific ADL differing in complexity seems a promising strategy to further understand the specific relationships between cognition and function in these and other cognitively impaired populations. PMID:25805061

  11. Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Improving Cognitive Function and Activities of Daily Living among Elderly Patients with Stroke at Assiut University Hospital

    Abd-Elaziz, Saieda Abd-Elhameed; Khedr, Eman M.; Ahmed, Hanaa Abd Elhakiem; Ibrahim, Hoda Diab Fahmy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. The study aimed to measure the effect of cognitive rehabilitation of elderly patients with stroke on their cognitive function and activities of daily living. Quasi experimental research design were used in this study. This study was conducted at neuropsychiatric, physical medicine and…

  12. A multicenter, non-interventional study to evaluate patient-reported experiences of living with psoriasis

    Pariser, David; Schenkel, Brad; Carter, Chureen; Farahi, Kamyar; Brown, T Michelle; Charles N. Ellis; ,

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (with or without psoriatic arthritis) places significant burden on patients’ lives. Objective: Explore and document patients’ experiences of living with psoriasis, including symptoms, treatments, impact on daily lives and patient-reported functioning. Methods: In a US-based, non-interventional study, narrative interviews were conducted at baseline and again within 16 weeks. In interviews, patients with moderate to severe psoriasis indic...

  13. 長寿者の居住地の特性と日常生活動作能力 (Activities of Daily Living : ADL)

    荒木, 英俊

    1997-01-01

    A study on relationship between the living environment and activities of daily living (ADL) was conducted to all eldery persons of more than 100 years old in 1993. The response was received from 840 males (73.6%) of 100-107 years of ages. Living environment was devided into three areas according to the geographical areas (Hokkaido-Tohoku-Hokuriku-Sanin, Kanto-Tokai-Kinki, and Sanyo-Shikoku-Kyushu), two community types according to an urban or an agricultural or fishing village, and four commu...

  14. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 1012n.cm-2.s-1, then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  15. Leisure-time physical activity in Canadians living with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis: population-based estimates.

    Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Gilmore, Jennica C; Gunnell, Katie E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide population-based estimates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in Canadians diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Data were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 3.1 (2005). Those diagnosed with CD (n = 474; 61.60% female) or UC (n = 637; 65.10% female) were compared with those not reporting CD/UC (n = 113,685; 53.60% female). The most prevalent forms of LTPA reported were walking and gardening/yard work. Individuals with CD were more likely to be classified as "inactive" (OR = 1.34; 95% CI [1.12, 1.61]) and less likely to be "active" (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55, 0.87]) than those not reporting CD/UC. These trends were mirrored for those living with UC, although statistical significance was not attained. Despite claims advocating the benefits of LTPA for ameliorating complications associated with CD/UC, prevalence estimates from a population-based sample of Canadians living with CD/UC suggest that the majority do not meet current public health guidelines. Results offer benchmarks for prevalence of LTPA in those diagnosed with CD/UC. Findings suggest that many living with this condition will not benefit from the protective role of LTPA on complications associated with CD/UC. PMID:21814062

  16. 3D-LIVE: D5.3 Dissemination and exploitation activity report – M30 Issue

    Conte, M; Posio, E.; Jylkka, S.; Crowle, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the dissemination activities related to the 3D LIVE project over the 2nd reporting period of the project, starting on September 1st, 2013 and ending on February 28, 2015. The report first describes the brief summary of main results of the 3D LIVE project. Then it gives an overview of the dissemination strategy. Then, the report describes the dissemination towards external communities and gives details of the 3D LIVE specific events. The report also describes infrastructu...

  17. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

    Donald Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.

  18. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  19. Versão brasileira da Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL Brazilian version of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL

    Mayra Cristina Aratani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL avalia o impacto da tontura e desequilíbrio corporal nas atividades cotidianas de indivíduos vestibulopatas. A escala contempla 28 atividades divididas em três dimensões (funcional, locomoção e instrumental. OBJETIVO: Traduzir, adaptar transculturamente e verificar a confiabilidade da VADL para o português do Brasil. MÉTODO: Pesquisa metodológica de tradução de questionário. Foram recrutados 80 idosos (> 65 anos com tontura crônica de origem vestibular, dos quais 40 participaram do pré-teste e 40 da análise de confiabilidade. A confiabilidade foi testada pelo Coeficiente de Correlação de Concordância (CCC e a consistência interna pelo Alfa de Cronbach (α. RESULTADOS: No pré-teste, houve 15% de incompreensão em duas atividades da versão brasileira da VADL, sendo necessária adaptação desses itens. A VADL-Brasil apresentou valor semelhante de confiabilidade intra e inter-examinadores para o escore total com concordância substancial (CCC = 0,79. A consistência interna apresentou valor excelente para o escore total (α = 0,92, bom para as dimensões funcional (α = 0,89 e locomoção (α = 0,86, e fraco para a instrumental (α = 0,56. CONCLUSÃO: A versão brasileira da VADL mostrou-se adequada, com boa confiabilidade e consistência interna, sendo, assim, uma alternativa para avaliar a capacidade funcional de vestibulopatas.The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL assesses the impact of dizziness and body imbalance on the everyday activities of patients with vestibulopathy. The scale encompasses 28 activities divided into three sub-scales (functional, ambulation and instrumental. OBJECTIVE: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the VADL to the Brazilian Portuguese language and verify its reliability. METHOD: Questionnaire translation methodological research. Eighty elderly subjects (age > 65 years with chronic dizziness arising from

  20. Single live cell topography and activity imaging with the shear-force-based constant-distance scanning electrochemical microscope.

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) has become an important tool in topography and activity studies on single live cells. The used analytical probes ("SECM tips") are voltammetric micro- or nanoelectrodes. The tips may be tracked across a live cell in constant-height or constant-distance mode, while kept at potentials that enable tracing of the spatiotemporal dynamics of functional chemical species in the immediate environment. Depending on the type of single live cells studied, cellular processes addressable by SECM range from the membrane transport of metabolites to the stimulated release of hormones and neurotransmitters and processes such as cell respiration or cell death and differentiation. In this chapter, we provide the key practical details of the constant-distance mode of SECM, explaining the establishment, and operation of the tailored distance control unit that maintains a stable tip-to-cell separation during scanning. The continuously maintained tip positioning of the system takes advantage of the decreasing impact of very short-range hydrodynamic tip-to-surface shear-forces on the vibrational amplitude of an oscillating SECM tip, as the input for a computer-controlled feedback loop regulation. Suitable microelectrode probes that are nondestructive to soft cells are a prerequisite for the success of this methodology and their fabrication and successful application are the other topics covered. PMID:22264538

  1. An Empirical Typology of Residential Care/Assisted Living Based on a Four-State Study

    Park, Nan Sook; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Eckert, J. Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Residential care/assisted living describes diverse facilities providing non-nursing home care to a heterogeneous group of primarily elderly residents. This article derives typologies of assisted living based on theoretically and practically grounded evidence. Design and Methods: We obtained data from the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term…

  2. A Phenomenological Study: The Experience of Live Supervision during a Pre-Practicum Counseling Techniques Course

    Koltz, Rebecca L.; Feit, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of live supervision for three, master's level, pre-practicum counseling students were explored using a phenomenological methodology. Using semi-structured interviews, this study resulted in a thick description of the experience of live supervision capturing participants' thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Data revealed that live…

  3. ''Sleeping reactor'' irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux (φ) of ∼ 4 x 1014 n/cm2 · s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of ∼ 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about ± 0.5 s) make irradiations of 9Be(γ,n)8Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to ∼ 1 x 1010 n/cm2 · s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to ∼ 6 x 108. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant

  4. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four ...

  5. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    David Maunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions.

  6. Activity size distributions for long-lived radon decay products in aerosols collected in Barcelona (Spain)

    The activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of long-lived radon decay product (210Pb, 210Po) in aerosols collected in the Barcelona area (Northeast Spain) during the period from April 2006 to February 2008 are presented. The 210Po mean AMAD was 420 nm, while the 210Pb mean AMAD was 500 nm. The temporal evolution of 210Pb and 210Po AMADs shows maxima in autumn and winter and minima in spring and summer. 210Pb AMAD are being used to estimate the mean-residence time of atmospheric aerosols.

  7. The psychometric properties of ADCS - activities of daily living inventory and comparison of different ADL scores

    Rózsa, S.; Brandtmüller, A.; Nagy, B.; Brennan, A.(School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia); Akehurst, R

    2009-01-01

    Several multi-item activities of daily living (ADL) scales have been developed for assessment of functional status of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in the last few decades. A disadvantage of the large number of scales is that scores of different ADL scales cannot be compared directly with each other. ADL scales which are used by McNamee’s (Townsend's disability scale) and Hill’s (Medicare Beneficiary definitions and Katz index of ADL) provide suitable tools for modelling the cost-eff...

  8. Nutritional status, body composition and physical activity among older people living in residential care facilities

    Carlsson, Maine

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to study, whether drinkable yoghurt enriched with probiotic bacteria could have any effect on constipation and body weight (BW) among older people with dementia. Further, it concerns poor nutritional status among older people with physical and cognitive impairments and its relationship with factors commonly occur in older people living in residential care facilities. It also discusses how body composition changes with ageing and the associations between cha...

  9. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  10. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their application as SERS-active tags inside living cells

    Boca, Sanda; Astilean, Simion [Nanobiophotonics Center, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Nanobioscience, Babes-Bolyai University, Treboniu Laurian 42, 400271 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rugina, Dumitrita; Pintea, Adela [Department of Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Manastur 3-5, 400372, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian, E-mail: sanda.boca@phys.ubbcluj.ro, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Electron Microscopy Center, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babes-Bolyai University, Clinicilor 5-7, 400006, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-02-04

    The detection of Raman signals inside living cells is a topic of great interest in the study of cell biology mechanisms and for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of flower-shaped gold nanoparticles and demonstrates their applicability as SERS-active tags for cellular spectral detection. The particles were synthesized by a facile, rapid new route that uses ascorbic acid as a reducing agent of gold salt. Two triarylmethane dyes which are widely used as biological stains, namely malachite green oxalate and basic fuchsin, were used as Raman-active molecules and the polymer mPEG-SH as capping material. The as-prepared SERS-active nanoparticles were tested on a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line and found to present a low level of cytotoxicity and high chemical stability together with SERS sensitivity down to picomolar particle concentrations.