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Sample records for active left-sided inflammatory

  1. A phylogenetic group of Escherichia coli associated with active left-sided inflammatory bowel disease

    Petersen, Andreas M; Nielsen, Eva M; Litrup, Eva;

    2009-01-01

    positive ExPEC gene among different groups, 86% were found positive among active IBD patients, significantly more than 13% among inactive IBD patients (p < 0.05), and 11% among healthy controls (p < 0.05). The B2 phylogenetic group was found in a specific cluster based on MLST, but no further separation......BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli have been found in increased numbers in tissues from patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and adherent-invasive E. coli have been found in resected ileum from patients with Crohn's disease. This study aimed to characterize possible differences in phylogenetic...... 10 healthy controls. Disease activity was evaluated by sigmoidoscopy. Interestingly, E. coli strains of the phylogenetic group B2 were cultured from 60% of patients with IBD compared to 11% of healthy controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, when comparing the number of E. coli B2 strains with at least one...

  2. Left-sided omental torsion: CT appearance

    A 34-year-old male presented with exquisite left flank pain. Computed tomography showed a hyperdense vascular structure surrounded by whirling linear streaks situated in the greater omentum under the splenic flexure of the colon. Omental stranding extended caudally into the pelvis where part of the inflamed omentum entered a left inguinal hernia sac. Surgery revealed left-sided torsion of the greater omentum. Left-sided omental torsion is infrequent and pre-operative diagnosis is rarely established. The CT findings of an omental fatty mass with a whirling pattern is characteristic of omental torsion. Preoperative diagnosis is important because conservative management has been suggested. (orig.)

  3. Transcriptional analysis of left-sided colitis, pancolitis, and ulcerative colitis-associated dysplasia

    Bjerrum, Jacob T; Nielsen, Ole H; Riis, Lene B; Pittet, Valerie; Mueller, Christoph; Rogler, Gerhard; Olsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown why patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) have a higher risk of colorectal cancer compared with patients with left-sided UC. This study characterizes the inflammatory processes in left-sided UC, pancolitis, and UC-associated dysplasia at the transcriptional level...... compared with left-sided UC and controls, whereas laminin γ2 (LAMC2) was found with a lower expression in dysplasia compared with the remaining 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates pancolitis and left-sided UC as distinct inflammatory processes at the transcriptional level, and identifies INSRA......, MKNK2, and LAMC2 as potential critical transcripts in the inflammation-driven preneoplastic process of UC....

  4. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  5. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    O. B. Zhukov; A. V. Verzin; P. L. Penkov

    2013-01-01

    One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler k...

  6. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  7. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  8. Left-sided congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicula.

    Sakkers, R J; Tjin a Ton, E; Bos, C F

    1999-01-01

    This a well-documented case of a 13-year-old girl with unilateral pseudarthrosis of the left clavicle without the presence of cervical ribs or dextrocardia. Magnetic resonance imaging could not detect any abnormality that could be related to the left-sided pseudarthrosis. PMID:10709598

  9. Epidermoid cyst radiologically mistaken as a left sided subpulmonic effusion.

    Sameh, Ibrahim Sersar; Gewaeli, NourEldeen Noaman; Hamza, Usama Ali; Awadalla, Mohammed Mounir el-said

    2003-09-01

    A 33-year-old female had a left sided chest pain for the last 3 months. Chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity. Computed tomography chest suggested a left sided subpulmonic effusion (17.5x12.2x13 cm) with thick enhanced walls with marked collapse of the left lower lobe and displacement of the heart and mediastinum to the right side. Trial of thoracocentesis was done and it was positive. Trial of intercostal tube insertion was done with a sense of very thick pleura and the patient developed a vasovagal attack. Accordingly, exploratory thoracotomy was decided. Intraoperative assessment showed a huge anterosuperior mediastinal cyst attached to the pericardium and was successfully resected. The pathological findings were compatible with epidermoid cyst. PMID:17670071

  10. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    O. B. Zhukov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler kidney, basin area left renal vein, aorto-mesenteric portion; the scrotum with a sample Trombetta, phlebography аnd phlebotonometry basin left renal vein and the common iliac vein. Renospermatic reflux was detected in 89 (81 %, ileospermatic 12 (11 % and mixed 9 (8 % patients. Patients with reflux ileospermatic excluded from the study. The 96 patients with left-sided varicocele underwent venography and phlebotonometry in 37 (38.5 % were renal venous hypertension, with 35 of them that it was due to aorto-mesenteric compression, and in 2 cases an anomaly development – annular renal vein. Our data are comparable with the results of other authors. Patients with mesenteric compressed statistically significant reduction in the diameter of renal veins in the aorto-mesenteric portion and increased blood flow in this region, and expand prestenosis left renal vein and reduce flow velocity in this region compared with the group without renal phlebohypertension. Patients with renal phlebohypertension subsequently held shunt types of operations performed in patients with normotension occlusive types of operations. An integrated assessment of patients with left-side allows to make a holistic understanding of the basic mechanisms of disease etiology and select the appropriate type of surgery.

  11. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    O. B. Zhukov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler kidney, basin area left renal vein, aorto-mesenteric portion; the scrotum with a sample Trombetta, phlebography аnd phlebotonometry basin left renal vein and the common iliac vein. Renospermatic reflux was detected in 89 (81 %, ileospermatic 12 (11 % and mixed 9 (8 % patients. Patients with reflux ileospermatic excluded from the study. The 96 patients with left-sided varicocele underwent venography and phlebotonometry in 37 (38.5 % were renal venous hypertension, with 35 of them that it was due to aorto-mesenteric compression, and in 2 cases an anomaly development – annular renal vein. Our data are comparable with the results of other authors. Patients with mesenteric compressed statistically significant reduction in the diameter of renal veins in the aorto-mesenteric portion and increased blood flow in this region, and expand prestenosis left renal vein and reduce flow velocity in this region compared with the group without renal phlebohypertension. Patients with renal phlebohypertension subsequently held shunt types of operations performed in patients with normotension occlusive types of operations. An integrated assessment of patients with left-side allows to make a holistic understanding of the basic mechanisms of disease etiology and select the appropriate type of surgery.

  12. Curative resection for left-sided pancreatic malignancy

    Bergenfeldt, Magnus; Moesgaard, Flemming; Burcharth, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Background. Surgical technique in pancreatic cancer has seen significant developments, but much of the knowledge refers to pancreatic head carcinoma. Reports on the management of tumours of the body and tail have been less frequent. Current knowledge teaches that adenocarcinomas of the body and tail of the pancreas have a worse prognosis. The aim of this study is to report the short- and long-term outcome in 20 patients with left-sided pancreatic malignancy, where ‘resection for cure’ was don...

  13. Difference between right and left side in total knee and unicondylar knee replacement: An interesting observation

    Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.

  14. Right-side and left-side colon cancer follow different pathways to relapse

    Bauer, Kerry M.; Hummon, Amanda B.; Buechler, Steven

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cancer of the ascending (right-side) colon is different from cancer of the descending (left-side) colon at the molecular level. Using microarray data from 102 right-side colon carcinomas and 95 left-side colon carcinomas we show that different pathways dominate progression to relapse in right-side and left-side colon cancer. Right-side tumors at a high risk for relapse exhibit elevated expression of cell cycle control genes and elevated Wnt signaling. On the oth...

  15. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-Sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Yue, Ning J.; Goyal, Sharad; Park, Joo Han; Jones, Sheri; XU, XIAOTING; Khan, Atif; Haffty, Bruce G.; CHEN Ting

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration. Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided...

  16. Left-sided gastroschisis with placenta findings: case report and literature review

    Shi, Yang; Farinelli, Christine K; Chang, Michael S; CARPENTER, PHILIP M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastroschisis is a congenital abdominal-wall defect that typically occurs to the right of the umbilicus. Only twenty-one cases of left-sided gastroschisis have been described in the literature. Here we report a large left-sided gastroschisis with pulmonary hypoplasia, scoliosis, ventricular septal defect and absence of gallbladder. Section of placental membranes revealed vacuolization of the amnion, without increased macrophage infiltration of the chorion. Postmortem comparative genomic hybri...

  17. Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is the body's first response to infection or injury and is critical for both innate and adaptive immunity. It can be considered as part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The search for natural compounds and phytoconstituents that are able to interfere with these mechanisms by preventing a prolonged inflammation could be useful for human health. Here, the anti-inflammatory properties of plant-based drugs are put together with both in vitro and acute (carrageenan, egg albumin and croton oil) and chronic (cotton pellet) in vivo models. PMID:26939273

  18. Left-sided approach of AV junction ablation for drug refractory atrial fibrillation

    Yoga Yuniadi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available AV junction ablation has been proven effective to treat symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory to antiarrhythmias or fail of pulmonary vein isolation. However, about 15% of conventional right-sided approach AV junction ablation failed to produce complete heart block. This study aimed to characterize His bundle potential at ablation site during conventional or left-sided approach of AV junction ablation. Twenty symptomatic AF patient (age of 60.5 ± 9.28 and 11 are females underwent conventional AV junction ablation. If 10 applications of radiofrequency energy are failed, then the ablation was performed by left-sided approach. Seventeen patients are successfully ablated by conventional approach. In 3 patients, conventional was failed but successfully ablated by left-sided approach. The His bundle amplitude at ablation site was significantly larger in left-sided than correspondence right-sided (16.0 ± 4.99 mm vs. 6.9 ± 4.02 mm respectively, p = 0.001, 95% CI -14.0 to -4.3. ROC analysis of His bundle potential amplitude recorded from right-sided revealed that cut off point of > 4.87 mm given the sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 53.8% for successful right-sided approach of AV junction ablation. In case of failed conventional approach, the left-sided approach is effective for AV junction ablation. An early switch to the left-sided approach may avoid multiple RF applications in patients with a low amplitude His-bundle potential (< 4.87 mm. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:109-14Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, AV junction ablation, left-sided approach

  19. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Cecilia Guariglia

    Full Text Available Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  20. Comparison between the incidence of right and left sided congenital torticollis

    Congenital torticollis is an intriguing condition of unknown origin, characterized by unilateral shortening and tightness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Patients usually present with head tilt, facial asymmetry and plagiocephaly. A sternomastoid mass or tumor may or may not be clinically apparent. Untreated, cervical function and facial cosmesis may be severely compromised. Objective: My study is aimed at establishing a comparison between the incidence of right versus left sided congenital torticollis. Method: This observational study included 30 patients of congenital torticollis that completed the questionnaire. The data was collected from patients coming to the Physiotherapy and Orthopedic departments of Children Hospital, Lahore. Results: Results showed that right side was involved in 19 (63.3%) patients and left side was involved in 11 (36.7%) patients. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7%) were male, of which 8 had right sided congenital torticollis and 6 had left sided congenital torticollis, and 16 (53.3%) were female, of which right sided congenital torticollis and 5 had left sided congenital torticollis. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that incidence of right sided congenital torticollis is more common than left sided congenital torticollis. The incidence of con-genital torticollis is higher in females than in males. (author)

  1. Incidence of Important Hemobilia Following Transhepatic Biliary Drainage: Left-Sided Versus Right-Sided Approaches

    Our purpose here is to describe our experience with important hemobilia following PTBD and to determine whether left-sided percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is associated with an increased incidence of important hemobilia compared to right-sided drainages. We reviewed 346 transhepatic biliary drainages over a four-year period and identified eight patients (2.3%) with important hemobilia requiring transcatheter embolization. The charts and radiographic files of these patients were reviewed. The side of the PTBD (left versus right), and the order of the biliary ductal branch entered (first, second, or third) were recorded. Of the 346 PTBDs, 269 were right-sided and 77 were left-sided. Of the eight cases of important hemobilia requiring transcatheter embolization, four followed right-sided and four followed left-sided PTBD, corresponding to a bleeding incidence of 1.5% (4/269) for right PTBD and 5.2% (4/77) for left PTBD. The higher incidence of hemobilia associated with left-sided PTBD approached, but did not reach the threshold of statistical significance (p = 0.077). In six of the eight patients requiring transcatheter embolization, first or second order biliary branches were accessed by catheter for PTBD. All patients with left-sided bleeding had first or proximal second order branches accessed by biliary drainage catheters. In conclusion, a higher incidence of hemobilia followed left- versus right-sided PTBD in this study, but the increased incidence did not reach statistical significance

  2. Mixed connective tissue disease presenting as a left sided pleural effusion.

    Ilan, Y; Ben-Yehuda, A; Okon, E.; Breuer, R

    1992-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) usually occurs in women aged 13-50 years. Pleural effusion is rarely the presenting feature of this disease. The case is reported here of a male patient with MCTD who presented at the age of 79 years with a left sided pleural effusion.

  3. Percutaneous extraction of inadvertently placed left-sided pacemaker leads with complete cerebral embolic protection.

    Bahadorani, John N; Schricker, Amir A; Pretorius, Victor G; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika; Dominguez, Arturo; Mahmud, Ehtisham

    2015-10-01

    Lead wire malposition is a known, but rare complication of permanent pacemaker or defibrillator implantation. The actual incidence and prevalence is unknown and management options for inadvertent left ventricular lead malposition have not been uniform. Current recommendations include systemic anticoagulation with warfarin or surgical lead removal with circulatory arrest for compelling clinical scenarios. Percutaneous left-sided lead extraction is contraindicated due to the potentially increased risk of thromboembolic complications associated with this procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of percutaneous extraction of inadvertently placed left ventricular and left atrial endocardial pacemaker leads with flow-preserving complete cerebral embolic protection. We also review the current literature regarding the incidence, management, and percutaneous extraction of left-sided cardiac leads. PMID:25581608

  4. Regional odontodysplasia: Long-term observation of a case on the mandibular left side

    Iizawa, Futabako; Kinjoh, Natsuko; Taguchi, Yo

    2010-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual non-hereditary developmental anomaly of tooth structures in both primary and permanent dentitions. The appropriate treatment differs for each individual's clinical findings. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings and the long-term progress as to the treatment and the management of a male patient who was diagnosed with regional odontodysplasia on the left side of the mandible. The mandibular left primary molars had shown a remarka...

  5. Total colectomy: Options in management of acute obstruction of the left-side colon

    Vuković Milivoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emergency colorectal surgery has been associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The current trend for the management of obstruction of left-sided colorectal carcinoma favours primary resection and anastomosis, as a safe and acceptable approach to selected patients. Method Retrospective review of 81 patients (46 male and 35 female, mean 64 years. Results Morbidity after emergency total colectomy was 21%, and mortality was 6%. There were 6 anastomotic complications (2 an-astomotic disruptions and 4 anastomotic leaks. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. 82% patients had adequate continence. Discussion: Traditional approach for left-sided colon obstruction is three-stage procedure (Bloch-Paul-Mikulicz. The idea of removing dilated colon proximal to an obstructing tumor is not new, since Lane suggested this option in 1914. In 1965 Hughes and Cuthberson described their experience with 12 patients. At the moment of laparotomy 20% patients had advanced malignant disease. The cumulative morbidity and mortality are high in three-stage procedure. Three-stage approach is associated with high permanent colostomy rate. One-stage resection with primary anastomosis of the obstructed left-sided colon is a safe alternative to staged procedures. Emergency radical resection can be safely performed in majority of patients with left-colon obstruction. Conclusions Total colectomy with anastomosis is a suitable procedure for treating left-sided colonic obstruction provided that pelvic floor is adequate. Total colectomy has low mortality, acceptable morbidity and good quality of life. The success of the surgery depends on the selection of patients. .

  6. Primary restorative colectomy in malignant left-sided large bowel obstruction.

    Dorudi, S.; Wilson, N. M.; Heddle, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 18 consecutive patients who underwent primary resection and immediate anastomosis as the treatment for malignant left-sided large bowel obstruction are presented. Intraoperative mechanical preparation of the colon was omitted. There was no clinical evidence of anastomotic dehiscence or wound infection. The mean duration of hospital stay was 11 days. It is suggested that colonic continuity can be restored immediately and safely without mechanical bowel preparation, providing attent...

  7. Tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy technique for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy

    Virén, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Janne; Myllyoja, Kimmo; Koskela, Kristiina; Lahtinen, Tapani; Seppälä, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to introduce a new restricted tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy (tVMAT) technique for whole breast irradiation and compare its dosimetric properties to other currently used breast cancer radiotherapy techniques. Method Ten consecutive women with left-sided breast cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study. Four treatment plans were generated for each patient: 1) standard tangential field-in-field (FinF), 2) tangential intensity modul...

  8. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs....

  9. IMPROVEMENTS IN LEFT-SIDED HEMIPARESIS IN AN ELDERLY FEMALE USING FUNCTIONAL NEUROLOGY TREATMENTS.

    Chris Sass; Susan Elizabeth Esposito

    2015-01-01

    Background: A 71-year-old female presented to a functional neurology clinic with left-sided decorticate posturing caused by a stroke eight years prior. Her symptoms included imbalance, gait disturbances, and cervicalgia. She required the use of a cane for ambulation. Her left upper extremity was completely immobilized for volitional movement, save minor function of the shoulder joint. Methods: A complete physical and neurological exam including eye movement and vestibular testing was p...

  10. Warfarin therapy and incidence of cerebrovascular complications in left-sided native valve endocarditis

    Snygg-Martin, U.; Rasmussen, R. V.; Hassager, C; Bruun, N. E.; Andersson, R.; Olaison, L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Anticoagulant therapy has been anticipated to increase the risk of cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in native valve endocarditis (NVE). This study investigates the relationship between ongoing oral anticoagulant therapy and the incidence of symptomatic CVC in left-sided NVE. In a prospective cohort study, the CVC incidence was compared between NVE patients with and without ongoing warfarin. Among 587 NVE episodes, 48 (8%) occurred in patients on warfarin. A symptomatic ...

  11. Heart dose reduction by prone deep inspiration breath hold in left-sided breast irradiation

    Background and purpose: Cardiac disease has been related to heart dose after left-sided breast radiotherapy. This trial evaluates the heart sparing ability and feasibility of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in the prone position for left-sided whole breast irradiation (WBI). Materials and methods: Twelve patients underwent CT-simulation in supine shallow breathing (SB), supine DIBH, prone SB and prone DIBH. A validation cohort of 38 patients received prone SB and prone DIBH CT-scans; the last 30 patients were accepted for prone DIBH treatment. WBI was planned with a prescription dose of 40.05 Gy. Results: DIBH was able to reduce (p < 0.001) heart dose in both positions, with results for prone DIBH at least as favorable as for supine DIBH. Mean heart dose was lowered from 2.2 Gy for prone SB to 1.3 Gy for prone DIBH (p < 0.001), while preserving the lung sparing ability of prone positioning. Moreover prone DIBH nearly consistently reduced mean heart dose to less then 2 Gy, regardless of breast volume. All patients were able to perform the simulation procedure, 28/30 patients were treated with prone DIBH. Conclusions: This trial demonstrates the ability and feasibility of prone DIBH to acquire optimal heart and lung sparing for left-sided WBI

  12. Left-Sided Whole Breast Irradiation with Hybrid-IMRT and Helical Tomotherapy Dosimetric Comparison

    An-Cheng Shiau; Chen-Hsi Hsieh; Hui-Ju Tien; Hsin-Pei Yeh; Chi-Ta Lin; Pei-Wei Shueng; Le-Jung Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Limited-tomotherapy and hybrid-IMRT treatment techniques were compared for reductions in ipsilateral and contralateral lung, heart, and contralateral breast radiation doses. Methods and Materials. Thirty consecutively treated left-sided early-stage breast cancer patients were scheduled for lTomo and hIMRT. For the hIMRT plan conventional tangential-field and four-field IMRT plans were combined with different weightings in the prescribed dose. For the lTomo plan a geometrically limite...

  13. Left-Sided Appendicitis in an Elderly Patient with Midgut Malrotation.

    Chuang, Pei Wen; Huang, Bo-Ming; Liu, Chung Hsien; Chen, Chien-Chin; Tsai, Ming-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Appendicitis is a common surgical abdominal disease with various presentations. Its diagnosis may be obscured by asymptomatic congenital anatomical anomalies like midgut malrotation. Midgut malrotation is a rare fetal anomaly resulting from incomplete or failure of midgut rotation and fixation. It is mostly presented with bowel obstruction or volvulus in early life. Presentation in adult is rare. Here, we report an elderly patient presented with left lower abdominal pain and urinary tract infection. Abdominal computed tomography revealed left-sided appendicitis with non-rotational-type midgut malrotation. Clinicians should bear in mind the possibility of underlying midgut malrotation, as appendicitis could be the first presentation of this rare congenital condition. PMID:27011586

  14. Warfarin therapy and incidence of cerebrovascular complications in left-sided native valve endocarditis

    Snygg-Martin, U; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, C;

    2011-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy has been anticipated to increase the risk of cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in native valve endocarditis (NVE). This study investigates the relationship between ongoing oral anticoagulant therapy and the incidence of symptomatic CVC in left-sided NVE. In a prospective...... factors for CVC, while warfarin on admission (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.94), history of congestive heart failure (adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.1-0.52) and previous endocarditis (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-0.79) correlated with lower CVC frequency....

  15. Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis Presenting as a Spontaneous Left-Sided Bacterial Empyema.

    Chertoff, Jason; Nathoo, Sunina

    2016-01-01

    Decompensation of cirrhosis presents with ascites, encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Infrequently, decompensation can result from spontaneous bacterial empyema. A 38-year-old man presented with fevers, chills, and dyspnea. Labs were significant for leukocytosis, transaminitis, and coagulopathy. Imaging showed liver cirrhosis with ascites and a left pleural effusion. Treatment of the effusion consisted of chest tube drainage and antibiotics. Spontaneous bacterial empyema was diagnosed after pleural fluid cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. Our case demonstrates that spontaneous bacterial empyemas can be left-sided, and the first sign of decompensation. PMID:26958567

  16. Functional Treatment of an Asymmetry Case Having Left Side Paralysis: A Case Report

    Rubenduz, Meliha; Uslu, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This case report presents the results of functional and myofunctional treatment of a 9-year, 5-month-old male patient with laterognathy, facial asymmetry and dentofacial deformity. The patient had a history of herpes encephalitis at age 8.5 months and palsy on the left side in early childhood, and his left side remained paralyzed as a sequela. The patient had dentoalveolar asymmetry with a Class I right and Class III left canine relation, a 1.5 mm midline deviation, anterior cross-bite, an overjet of −3 mm and an overbite of 3 mm. The dentoalveolar and facial asymmetries were corrected using a modified removable appliance, with an acrylic vestibular shield inserted on the right side to guide the mandible in the upper arch and an acrylic plate with artificial teeth in the lower arch. The patient was instructed to practice myofunctional exercises regularly. In total, treatment, including observation, was completed in a period of 2 years and 10 months, at which time, a marked correction in facial asymmetry and profile and improvement in smile esthetics could be observed. PMID:20613926

  17. Left-Sided Whole Breast Irradiation with Hybrid-IMRT and Helical Tomotherapy Dosimetric Comparison

    An-Cheng Shiau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Limited-tomotherapy and hybrid-IMRT treatment techniques were compared for reductions in ipsilateral and contralateral lung, heart, and contralateral breast radiation doses. Methods and Materials. Thirty consecutively treated left-sided early-stage breast cancer patients were scheduled for lTomo and hIMRT. For the hIMRT plan conventional tangential-field and four-field IMRT plans were combined with different weightings in the prescribed dose. For the lTomo plan a geometrically limited arc was designed for the beamlet entrance. A Dp of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions was used for the PTV. The dose coverage, homogeneity index, conformity index of the target, and the dose volumes of critical structures were compared. Results. Both modalities presented similar target coverage. The homogeneity and conformity were improved for lTomo with P<0.001 and P=0.006, respectively. In the lTomo plan a concave dose distribution was generated with significant dose reductions in both high and low dose regions for ipsilateral lung and heart (P<0.001. Conclusions. lTomo plan can have similar dose coverage and better homogeneity and conformity to the target. By properly designing the directionally and completely blocked structure, lTomo plan was developed successfully in reducing doses to the healthy tissues for early-stage left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy.

  18. Fetal circulation in left-sided congenital heart disease measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a case–control study

    Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; van Amerom, Joshua FP; Forsey, Jonathan; Jaeggi, Edgar; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Macgowan, Christopher K; Seed, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of blood flow in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) is likely to influence fetal growth, organ development, and postnatal outcome, but has previously been difficult to study. We present the first measurements of the distribution of the fetal circulation in left-sided CHD made using phase contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Twenty-two fetuses with suspected left-sided CHD and twelve normal controls underwent fetal CMR and echocardiography at ...

  19. Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?

    Zhu, Tie-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Gang; Meng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    A best evidence topic in adult valvular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Does concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty increase the perioperative mortality and morbidity when correcting left-sided valve disease?' A total of 561 papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, country, journal, date of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Among these 12 papers, there were nine retrospective studies, two cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial (RCT). Overall, additional tricuspid valve (TV) repair takes more time during operations, particularly with a ring annuloplasty method. The mean aortic cross-clamping times were 57-83 min without associated tricuspid repair and 62-100 min with, and cardiopulmonary bypass times without and with repair were 82-124 and 90-174 min, respectively. A study of 624 patients who had undergone isolated mitral valve (MV) surgery and MV surgery plus TV repair showed more female and atrial fibrillation patients in the tricuspid valve plasty (TVP) group, but no increase in the 30-day mortality was found. One RCT, presenting similar patient baseline characteristics, also found no difference in the hospital mortality rates between the TVP group and the non-TVP group. Another 10 studies also demonstrated no statistically significant differences in perioperative mortality. In a cohort study of 311 patients undergoing MV repair with or without tricuspid annuloplasty, postoperative complications, such as bleeding, stroke, pacemaker, haemofiltration and myocardial infarction, all showed no statistically significant differences in the two groups. One study retrospectively analysed a large number of patients undergoing either isolated left-sided valve surgery or a concomitant TV repair, and there were no statistically significant differences

  20. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Ning Jeff Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration.Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Results: Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10, and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm. The added heart block areas ranged from 3 mm2 to 1230 mm2 (mean = 331 mm2. Conclusion: In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the

  1. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. PMID:26221780

  2. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  3. POSTTRAUMATIC LEFT-SIDED PORTAL HYPERTENSION MANIFESTED WITH BLEEDING FUNDAL VARICES

    G. Zastavnitsky

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Splenic vein obstruction (usually due to thrombosis induces left-sided portal hypertension and isolated fundal varices in patients with unaffected liver parenchyma and permeable portal vein. Pancreatic etiology is among the most frequent for splenic vein thrombosis. Hemorrhage from isolated fundal varices is a lifethreatening situation and an unusual endoscopic finding. Isolated splenic vein thrombosis with gastric varices is rare and represents one of the few curable syndromes inducing portal hypertension. The treatment for this situation is controversial, various options being described in the literature: endoscopic injection hemostasis, interventional radiology techniques and surgery.We herein describe the clinical case of a 50-year old patient with bleeding fundal varices, which proved to be attributable to a blunt abdominal trauma thirty six years previously, successfully managed by stapling fundectomy with splenectomy.

  4. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50 Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V5). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing

  5. VMAT techniques for lymph node-positive left sided breast cancer

    Pasler, Marlies; Lutterbach, Johannes; Bjoernsgard, Mari; Reichmann, Ursula; Bartelt, Susanne [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, Dietmar [Medical Univ. Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the plan quality of two different volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Two VMAT plans were generated for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients: one plan using one single segment of a full rotation, typically an arc segment of 230 (1s-VMAT); and a second plan consisting of 2 small tangential arc segments of about 50 (2s-VMAT). For plan comparison, various dose and dose volume metrics (D{sub mean}, D{sub 98%}, D{sub 2%} for target volumes, D{sub 2%}, D{sub mean} and V{sub x%} for organs at risk (OAR)) were evaluated. Both techniques fulfilled both clinical target dose and OAR goals. 1s-VMAT achieved a slightly better homogeneity and better target coverage (D{sub 2%} = 54.2 ± 0.7 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 30.3 ± 1.8 Gy) compared to 2s-VMAT (D{sub 2%} = 55.0 ± 1.1 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 29.9 ± 1.7 Gy). For geometrical reasons, OAR sparing was noticeable but not significant better using 2s-VMAT, particularly heart and contralateral breast. The heart received a mean dose of 4.4 ± 0.8 Gy using 1s-VMAT and 3.3 ± 1.0 Gy using 2s-VMAT; the contralateral breast received 1.5 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.9 ± 0.3 Gy, respectively. A VMAT technique based on two small tangential arc segments enables improved OAR sparing; the differences between the two techniques in target coverage and homogeneity are minor. Patient age and -anatomy must be considered for each individual case when deciding which technique to be used.

  6. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study.

    Wang, Jiahao; Li, Xiadong; Deng, Qinghua; Xia, Bing; Wu, Shixiu; Liu, Jian; Ma, Shenglin

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V5). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing. PMID:25534167

  7. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study

    Wang, Jiahao, E-mail: mashenglin@medmail.com.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Li, Xiadong; Deng, Qinghua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Xia, Bing; Wu, Shixiu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Breast Surgery, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Shenglin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-10-01

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50 Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V{sub 5}). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing.

  8. VMAT techniques for lymph node-positive left sided breast cancer

    To investigate the plan quality of two different volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Two VMAT plans were generated for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients: one plan using one single segment of a full rotation, typically an arc segment of 230 (1s-VMAT); and a second plan consisting of 2 small tangential arc segments of about 50 (2s-VMAT). For plan comparison, various dose and dose volume metrics (Dmean, D98%, D2% for target volumes, D2%, Dmean and Vx% for organs at risk (OAR)) were evaluated. Both techniques fulfilled both clinical target dose and OAR goals. 1s-VMAT achieved a slightly better homogeneity and better target coverage (D2% = 54.2 ± 0.7 Gy, D98% = 30.3 ± 1.8 Gy) compared to 2s-VMAT (D2% = 55.0 ± 1.1 Gy, D98% = 29.9 ± 1.7 Gy). For geometrical reasons, OAR sparing was noticeable but not significant better using 2s-VMAT, particularly heart and contralateral breast. The heart received a mean dose of 4.4 ± 0.8 Gy using 1s-VMAT and 3.3 ± 1.0 Gy using 2s-VMAT; the contralateral breast received 1.5 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.9 ± 0.3 Gy, respectively. A VMAT technique based on two small tangential arc segments enables improved OAR sparing; the differences between the two techniques in target coverage and homogeneity are minor. Patient age and -anatomy must be considered for each individual case when deciding which technique to be used.

  9. Tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy technique for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a new restricted tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy (tVMAT) technique for whole breast irradiation and compare its dosimetric properties to other currently used breast cancer radiotherapy techniques. Ten consecutive women with left-sided breast cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study. Four treatment plans were generated for each patient: 1) standard tangential field-in-field (FinF), 2) tangential intensity modulated radiotherapy (tIMRT), 3) tangential VMAT (tVMAT) with two dual arcs of 50-60° and 4) continuous VMAT (cVMAT) with a dual arc of 240°. The plans were created with Monaco® (tIMRT, tVMAT and cVMAT) and Oncentra® (FinF) treatment planning systems. With both VMAT techniques significantly higher cardiac avoidance, dose coverage and dose homogenity were achieved when compared with FinF or tIMRT techniques (p < 0.01). VMAT techniques also decreased the high dose areas (above 20 Gy) of ipsilateral lung. There were no significant differences in the mean dose of contralateral breast between the tVMAT, tIMRT and FinF techniques. The dose coverage (V47.5 Gy) was greatest with cVMAT. However, with cVMAT the increase of contralateral breast dose was significant. The present results support the hypothesis that the introduced tVMAT technique is feasible for treatment of left-sided breast cancer. With tVMAT dose to heart and ipsilateral lung can be reduced and the dose homogeneity can be improved without increasing the dose to contralateral breast or lung

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of cationic lipids.

    Filion, M C; Phillips, N C

    1997-10-01

    1. The effect of liposome phospholipid composition has been assumed to be relatively unimportant because of the presumed inert nature of phospholipids. 2. We have previously shown that cationic liposome formulations used for gene therapy inhibit, through their cationic component, the synthesis by activated macrophages of the pro-inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). 3. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of different cationic lipids to reduce footpad inflammation induced by carrageenan and by sheep red blood cell challenge. 4. Parenteral (i.p. or s.c) or local injection of the positively charged lipids dimethyldioctadecylammomium bromide (DDAB), dioleyoltrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), dimyristoyltrimethylammonium propane (DMTAP) or dimethylaminoethanecarbamoyl cholesterol (DC-Chol) significantly reduced the inflammation observed in both models in a dose-dependent manner (maximum inhibition: 70-95%). 5. Cationic lipids associated with dioleyol- or dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine retained their anti-inflammatory activity while cationic lipids associated with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) showed no anti-inflammatory activity, indicating that the release of cationic lipids into the macrophage cytoplasm is a necessary step for anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of cationic lipids was abrogated by the addition of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-poly(ethylene)glycol-2000 (DPPE-PEG2000) which blocks the interaction of cationic lipids with macrophages. 6. Because of the significant role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the inflammatory process we have determined whether the cationic lipids used in this study inhibit PKC activity. The cationic lipids significantly inhibited the activity of PKC but not the activity of a non-related protein kinase, PKA. The synthesis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is not dependent on PKC activity for its

  11. Left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy with and without breath-hold: Does IMRT reduce the cardiac dose even further?

    Purpose: In radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer, Active Breathing Control enables a decrease of cardiac and Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery dose. We compared 3D-Conformal (3D-CRT) to Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plans based on free-breathing (FB) and breath-hold (BH). We investigated whether IMRT enables an additional decrease of cardiac dose in radiotherapy plans with and without BH. Methods and materials: Twenty patients referred for whole breast irradiation were included. The whole breast, heart and LAD-region were contoured. Four treatment plans were generated: FB3D-CRT; FBIMRT; BH3D-CRT; BHIMRT. Several doses were obtained from Dose Volume Histograms and compared. Results were compared statistically using the Wilcoxin Signed Rank Test. For heart and LAD-region, a significant dose reduction was found in BH (p < 0.01). For both BH and FB, a significant dose reduction was found using IMRT (p < 0.01). By using IMRT an average reduction of 5% was noted in the LAD-region for the volume receiving 20 Gy. In 5 cases, the LAD-region remained situated in the vicinity of the radiation portals even in BH. Nevertheless, with IMRT the LAD dose was reduced in these cases. Conclusion: IMRT results in a significant additional decrease of dose in the heart and LAD-region in both breath-hold and free-breathing

  12. A comparative dosimetric study of left sided breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery treated with VMAT and IMRT

    Zhao, Hongfu; He, Mingyuan; Cheng, Guanghui; Han, Dongmei; Wu, Ning; Shi, Dan; Zhao, Zhipeng; Jin, Jianxue

    2015-01-01

    Background and purposes This study compared VMAT and IMRT plans for intact breast radiotherapy for left sided breast cancer and evaluated the irradiated dose of planning target volume and OARs, especially focusing on heart and coronary artery. Materials and methods Eleven patients with left sided breast cancer whose breast was relatively smaller (the mean volumes is 296 cc) treated with breast-conserving surgery were prescribed radiotherapy of 50 Gy in 25 fractions using two or four-field ste...

  13. Noninvasive identification of left-sided heart failure in a population suspected of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Jacobs, Wouter; Konings, Thelma C; Heymans, Martijn W; Boonstra, Anco; Bogaard, Harm Jan; van Rossum, Albert C; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2015-08-01

    Exclusion of pulmonary hypertension secondary to left-sided heart disease (left heart failure (LHF)) is pivotal in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In case of doubt, invasive measurements are recommended. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether it is possible to diagnose LHF using noninvasive parameters in a population suspected of PAH.300 PAH and 80 LHF patients attended our pulmonary hypertension clinic before August 2010, and were used to build the predictive model. 79 PAH and 55 LHF patients attended our clinic from August 2010, and were used for prospective validation.A medical history of left heart disease, S deflection in V1 plus R deflection in V6 in millimetres on ECG, and left atrial dilation or left valvular heart disease that is worse than mild on echocardiography were independent predictors of LHF. The derived risk score system showed good predictive characteristics: R(2)=0.66 and area under the curve 0.93. In patients with a risk score ≥72, there is 100% certainty that the cause of pulmonary hypertension is LHF. Using this risk score system, the number of right heart catheterisations in LHF may be reduced by 20%.In a population referred under suspicion of PAH, a predictive model incorporating medical history, ECG and echocardiography data can diagnose LHF noninvasively in a substantial percentage of cases. PMID:25837029

  14. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  15. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    Laqmani, Azien; Dulz, Simon; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Sehner, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, Hans-Dieter [Scientific and Application-oriented Studies and Consulting in Radiology (SASCRAD), Buchholz (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 and L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. (orig.)

  16. An unusual case of metastasis to the left side of the heart: a case report

    Boyars Michael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac metastases are found in six to 20% of autopsies of patients with malignant neoplasm. The most common neoplasms that metastasize to the heart are malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia, but the relative numbers are greater with breast and lung cancers, reflecting the most common incidence of these cancers. Case presentation A 60-year-old Hispanic man presented to our hospital after being transferred from an outside hospital for workup and evaluation of an adrenal mass of the abdomen and pelvis, found on computed tomography. His chief complaint upon admission was altered mental status. Physical examination was unremarkable. He was alert and oriented and had a dry and non-erythematous oropharynx, and bilateral diffuse wheezing on lung examination. Computed tomography of the chest showed multiple hypodense lesions in the left ventricular myocardium, suggestive of metastases. There were also tiny sub-centimeter nodular densities in the right upper and lower lobes. Adrenal glands contained hypodense lesions, which showed characteristic adenocarcinomatous malignant cells. Conclusion Cancers which have metastasized to the heart are found in six to 20% of patients with malignant neoplasms. The right side of the heart is more commonly involved in metastasis. This study is unusual in that a tumor of an unknown primary origin had metastasized to the left side of the heart.

  17. Reproducibility of deep inspiration breath hold for prone left-sided whole breast irradiation

    Investigating reproducibility and instability of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in the prone position to reduce heart dose for left-sided whole breast irradiation. Thirty patients were included and underwent 2 prone DIBH CT-scans during simulation. Overlap indices were calculated for the ipsilateral breast, heart and lungs to evaluate the anatomical reproducibility of the DIBH maneuver. The breathing motion of 21 patients treated with prone DIBH were registered using magnetic probes. These breathing curves were investigated to gain data on intra-fraction reproducibility and instability of the different DIBH cycles during treatment. Overlap index was 0.98 for the ipsilateral breast and 0.96 for heart and both lungs between the 2 prone DIBH-scans. The magnetic sensors reported population amplitudes of 2.8 ± 1.3 mm for shallow breathing and 11.7 ± 4.7 mm for DIBH, an intra-fraction standard deviation of 1.0 ± 0.4 mm for DIBH, an intra-breath hold instability of 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and a treatment time of 300 ± 69 s. Prone DIBH can be accurately clinically implemented with acceptable reproducibility and instability

  18. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    Osman, S.O.; Hol, S.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Essers, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 13 patients, four treatment co

  19. A Left-Sided Prevalence of Lentigo Maligna: A UK Based Observational Study and Review of the Evidence

    Mark Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer has been shown to present asymmetrically, prevalent on the left side of the body, more so in subtypes of cutaneous melanoma such as lentigo maligna. Biases have been linked to cumulative UV light exposure and automobile driving patterns. Though left-right ratios have previously correlated with the side men or women tend to position themselves or countries drive on, more recent trends indicate a consistent left-sided bias. To clarify reasons for changing trends, a review of the evidence base and LM’s laterality in a UK cohort (99 cases 2000–2011 was conducted for the first time. The strong correlation of left-sided excess, found in both genders (ratios 1.381–1.5, P<0.05  X2 0.841, is congruent with more recent findings. Though evidence indicates that driving position is no longer a risk factor for LM, due most likely to improved car window UV protection, it remains the most commonly attributed cause. Understanding phenomena such as UV lights “scatter effect” or that cumulative exposure may not be a significant risk factor helps rationalize older conclusions that would otherwise appear contradictory. The reasons for left-sided excess remain unclear but may be due to factors requiring further research such as the body’s anatomical/embryological asymmetry.

  20. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael; Jess, Tine

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  1. Deep inspiration breath hold technique reduces heart dose from radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer

    Adjuvant left breast radiotherapy (ALBR) for breast cancer can result in significant radiation dose to the heart. Current evidence suggests a dose–response relationship between the risk of cardiac morbidity and radiation dose to cardiac volumes. This study explores the potential benefit of utilising a deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique to reduce cardiac doses. Thirty patients with left-sided breast cancer underwent CT-simulation scans in free breathing (FB) and DIBH. Treatment plans were generated using a hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique with simultaneous integrated boost. A dosimetric comparison was made between the two techniques for the heart, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), left lung and contralateral breast. Compared with FB, DIBH resulted in a significant reduction in heart V30 (7.1 vs. 2.4%, P < 0.0001), mean heart dose (6.9 vs. 3.9 Gy, P < 0.001), maximum LAD planning risk volume (PRV) dose, (51.6 vs. 45.6 Gy, P = 0.0032) and the mean LAD PRV dose (31.7 vs. 21.9 Gy, P < 0.001). No significant difference was noted for lung V20, mean lung dose or mean dose to the contralateral breast. The DIBH plans demonstrated significantly larger total lung volumes (1126 vs. 2051 cc, P < 0.0001), smaller maximum heart depth (2.08 vs. 1.17 cm, P < 0.0001) and irradiated heart volume (36.9 vs. 12.1 cc, P < 0.0001). DIBH resulted in a significant reduction in radiation dose to the heart and LAD compared with an FB technique for ALBR. Ongoing research is required to determine optimal cardiac dose constraints and methods of predicting which patients will derive the most benefit from a DIBH technique.

  2. Positron emission tomographic localization of left-sided unilateral spatial agnosia

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to clarify the localization and the underlying mechanisms of left-sided unilateral spatial agnosia (LUSA). Eleven right-handed patients with cerebral infarction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery who had LUSA were included in this study. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) were measured with PET using 15O steady state method. Sixteen right-handed patients with cerebral infarction who did not exhibit LUSA served as a control group. The mean local values of CBF and CMRO2 in the control group were 37.4 ml/100 ml tissue/min and 2.66 ml/100 ml tissue/min, respectively. By contrast, those values of CBF and CMRO2 in the patients with LUSA were 21.7 ml/100 ml tissue/min and 1.43 ml/100 ml tissue/min, respectively. Both CBF and CMRO2 in the right posterior parietal region were significantly lower in the patients with LUSA as compared with the control group (p 2 between 1.8 and 2.2 ml/100 ml tissue/min. These ranges of CBF and CMRO2 in the right parietal region were considered to include the threshold level producing LUSA. The CMRO2 values were more stabilized in the course of cerebral infarction as compared with the CBF values which may be variable on account of luxury perfusion syndrome. The right posterior parietal CMRO2 values less than 2.0 ml/100 ml tissue/min was considered to be critical in causing LUSA. The above results may suggest that severe damages of CBF and metabolism in the posterior part of the right parietal lobe play an important role in the occurrence of LUSA. (J.P.N.)

  3. Distinctive left-sided distribution of adrenergic-derived cells in the adult mouse heart.

    Kingsley Osuala

    Full Text Available Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced within the heart from neuronal and non-neuronal sources. These adrenergic hormones have profound effects on cardiovascular development and function, yet relatively little information is available about the specific tissue distribution of adrenergic cells within the adult heart. The purpose of the present study was to define the anatomical localization of cells derived from an adrenergic lineage within the adult heart. To accomplish this, we performed genetic fate-mapping experiments where mice with the cre-recombinase (Cre gene inserted into the phenylethanolamine-n-methyltransferase (Pnmt locus were cross-mated with homozygous Rosa26 reporter (R26R mice. Because Pnmt serves as a marker gene for adrenergic cells, offspring from these matings express the β-galactosidase (βGAL reporter gene in cells of an adrenergic lineage. βGAL expression was found throughout the adult mouse heart, but was predominantly (89% located in the left atrium (LA and ventricle (LV (p<0.001 compared to RA and RV, where many of these cells appeared to have cardiomyocyte-like morphological and structural characteristics. The staining pattern in the LA was diffuse, but the LV free wall displayed intermittent non-random staining that extended from the apex to the base of the heart, including heavy staining of the anterior papillary muscle along its perimeter. Three-dimensional computer-aided reconstruction of XGAL+ staining revealed distribution throughout the LA and LV, with specific finger-like projections apparent near the mid and apical regions of the LV free wall. These data indicate that adrenergic-derived cells display distinctive left-sided distribution patterns in the adult mouse heart.

  4. Monitoring ABC-assisted deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast radiotherapy with an optical tracking system

    Mittauer, Kathryn E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 and J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Deraniyagala, Rohan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lu, Bo; Liu, Chihray; Samant, Sanjiv S.; Lightsey, Judith L.; Yan, Guanghua, E-mail: yangua@shands.ufl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Recent knowledge on the effects of cardiac toxicity warrants greater precision for left-sided breast radiotherapy. Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal vs thoracic breathing) can lead to chest wall positional variations, even though the patient’s tidal volume remains consistent. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using optical tracking for real-time quality control of active breathing coordinator (ABC)-assisted deep inspiration BH (DIBH). Methods: An in-house optical tracking system (OTS) was used to monitor ABC-assisted DIBH. The stability and localization accuracy of the OTS were assessed with a ball-bearing phantom. Seven patients with left-sided breast cancer were included. A free-breathing (FB) computed tomography (CT) scan and an ABC-assisted BH CT scan were acquired for each patient. The OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the patient’s xiphoid process to measure the positional variation of each individual BH. Using the BH within which the CT scan was performed as the reference, the authors quantified intra- and interfraction BH variations for each patient. To estimate the dosimetric impact of BH variations, the authors studied the positional correlation between the marker and the left breast using the FB CT and BH CT scans. The positional variations of 860 BHs as measured by the OTS were retrospectively incorporated into the original treatment plans to evaluate their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs [heart and left anterior descending (LAD) artery]. Results: The stability and localization accuracy of the OTS was within 0.2 mm along each direction. The mean intrafraction variation among treatment BHs was less than 2.8 mm in all directions. Up to 12.6 mm anteroposterior undershoot, where the patient’s chest wall displacement of a BH is less than that of a reference BH, was observed with averages of 4.4, 3.6, and 0.1 mm in the anteroposterior, craniocaudal, and mediolateral directions

  5. Monitoring ABC-assisted deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast radiotherapy with an optical tracking system

    Purpose: Recent knowledge on the effects of cardiac toxicity warrants greater precision for left-sided breast radiotherapy. Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal vs thoracic breathing) can lead to chest wall positional variations, even though the patient’s tidal volume remains consistent. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using optical tracking for real-time quality control of active breathing coordinator (ABC)-assisted deep inspiration BH (DIBH). Methods: An in-house optical tracking system (OTS) was used to monitor ABC-assisted DIBH. The stability and localization accuracy of the OTS were assessed with a ball-bearing phantom. Seven patients with left-sided breast cancer were included. A free-breathing (FB) computed tomography (CT) scan and an ABC-assisted BH CT scan were acquired for each patient. The OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the patient’s xiphoid process to measure the positional variation of each individual BH. Using the BH within which the CT scan was performed as the reference, the authors quantified intra- and interfraction BH variations for each patient. To estimate the dosimetric impact of BH variations, the authors studied the positional correlation between the marker and the left breast using the FB CT and BH CT scans. The positional variations of 860 BHs as measured by the OTS were retrospectively incorporated into the original treatment plans to evaluate their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs [heart and left anterior descending (LAD) artery]. Results: The stability and localization accuracy of the OTS was within 0.2 mm along each direction. The mean intrafraction variation among treatment BHs was less than 2.8 mm in all directions. Up to 12.6 mm anteroposterior undershoot, where the patient’s chest wall displacement of a BH is less than that of a reference BH, was observed with averages of 4.4, 3.6, and 0.1 mm in the anteroposterior, craniocaudal, and mediolateral directions

  6. Left-sided breast cancer irradiation using rotational and fixed-field radiotherapy

    Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xqi@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Liu, Tian X. [Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Liu, Arthur K.; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Hu, Y. Angie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique is the standard for breast cancer radiotherapy. During treatment planning, not only the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) but also the minimization of the dose to critical structures, such as the lung, heart, and contralateral breast tissue, need to be considered. Because of the complexity and variations of patient anatomy, more advanced radiotherapy techniques are sometimes desired to better meet the planning goals. In this study, we evaluated external-beam radiation treatment techniques for left breast cancer using various delivery platforms: fixed-field including TomoDirect (TD), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT), and rotational radiotherapy including Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy helical (TH). A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer who did or did not have positive lymph nodes and were previously treated with 3DCRT/sIMRT to the entire breast were selected, their treatment was planned with Monaco VMAT, TD, and TH. Dosimetric parameters including PTV coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, dose-volume histograms, and target minimum/maximum/mean doses were evaluated. It is found that for plans providing comparable PTV coverage, the Elekta VMAT plans were generally more inhomogeneous than the TH and TD plans. For the cases with regional node involvement, the average mean doses administered to the heart were 9.2 (± 5.2) and 8.8 (± 3.0) Gy in the VMAT and TH plans compared with 11.9 (± 6.4) and 11.8 (± 9.2) Gy for the 3DCRT and TD plans, respectively, with slightly higher doses given to the contralateral lung or breast or both. On average, the total monitor units for VMAT plans are 11.6% of those TH plans. Our studies have shown that VMAT and TH plans offer certain dosimetric advantages over fixed-field IMRT plans for advanced breast cancer requiring regional nodal treatment. However, for early-stage breast cancer fixed

  7. Refining language mapping by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with left-sided perisylvian brain lesions

    Ille, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The present thesis is based on two publications for which we performed language mapping in patients suffering from left-sided perisylvian brain lesions by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and direct cortical stimulation (DCS) during awake surgery. In summary, we ascertained that rTMS language mappings should be analyzed with specific thresholds in order to avoid false-positive results. Furthermore, we showed that b...

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of cationic lipids

    Filion, Mario C; Phillips, Nigel C

    1997-01-01

    The effect of liposome phospholipid composition has been assumed to be relatively unimportant because of the presumed inert nature of phospholipids.We have previously shown that cationic liposome formulations used for gene therapy inhibit, through their cationic component, the synthesis by activated macrophages of the pro-inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).In this study, we have evaluated the ability of different cationic lipids to reduce footpad inf...

  9. The deep inspiration breath hold technique using Abches reduces cardiac dose in patients undergoing left-sided breast irradiation

    We explored whether the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique using Abches during left-sided breast irradiation was effective for minimizing the amount of radiation to the heart and lung compared to free breathing (FB). Between February and July 2012, a total of 25 patients with left-sided breast cancer underwent two computed tomography scans each with the DIBH using Abches and using FB after breast-conserving surgery. The scans were retrospectively replanned using standardized criteria for the purpose of this study. The DIBH plans for each patient were compared with FB plans using dosimetric parameters. All patients were successfully treated with the DIBH technique using Abches. Significant differences were found between the DIBH and FB plans for mean heart dose (2.52 vs. 4.53 Gy), heart V30 (16.48 vs. 45.13 cm3), V20 (21.35 vs. 54.55 cm3), mean left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) dose (16.01 vs. 26.26 Gy, all p 3 of the LAD (41.65 vs. 47.27 Gy, p = 0.017). The mean left lung dose (7.53 vs. 8.03 Gy, p = 0.073) and lung V20 (14.63% vs. 15.72%, p 0.060) of DIBH using Abches were not different significantly compared with FB. We report that the use of a DIBH technique using Abches in breathing adapted radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer is easily feasible in daily practice and significantly reduces the radiation doses to the heart and LAD, therefore potentially reducing cardiac risk.

  10. Computed tomography in left-sided and right-sided blunt diaphragmatic rupture: experience with 43 patients

    Aim: To investigate differences in the radiographic signs for left and right-sided blunt diaphragmatic rupture (BDR) in order to provide guidance to avoid missing these injuries. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the computed tomography (CT) examinations of 43 patients with BDR treated at our hospital between January 1995 and 2007 was undertaken. The presence of diaphragmatic discontinuity, diaphragmatic thickening, herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity, collar/hump sign, dependent viscera sign, abnormally elevated 4 cm or more above the dome of the other-sided hemi-diaphragm, and of associated injuries was recorded and their relationship to each other and to BDR diagnosis examined. A comparison between the use of axial and sagittal/coronal reconstruction images in diagnosis was also performed in 15 patients. Results: On axial imaging, left-sided diaphragmatic rupture occurred in 31 patients (72%) and right-sided in 12 (28%). Twenty-nine patients had associated injuries. More than 60% of the patients showed the 'dependent viscera' sign, 'abdominal organ herniation' sign, diaphragm thickening, or had a more than 4 cm elevation of one side of the diaphragm. 'Diaphragmatic discontinuity' and 'stomach herniation' were seen almost exclusively in left-sided rupture. Those with BDR and haemothorax had a significantly lower incidence of 'diaphragm discontinuity' (p = 0.034) than those without haemothorax. Sagittal/coronal reconstruction slightly increased the number of band signs, diaphragmatic discontinuities and diaphragmatic thickenings seen. Conclusions: Of the CT signs examined in this study, when herniation of abdominal organs was used as a diagnostic marker, only a very small fraction of trauma patients identifiable by CT would be missed. Further, CT signs differ for left-sided and right-sided BDR, thus the possibility of BDR should be considered when any of the reported CT signs are present.

  11. Long-term mortality from cardiac causes after adjuvant hypofractionated vs. conventional radiotherapy for localized left-sided breast cancer

    Background and purpose: Ongoing concern remains regarding cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole breast/chest-wall radiotherapy (HF-WBI) compared to conventional radiotherapy (CF-WBI) in left-sided breast cancer patients. The purpose was to determine if cardiac mortality increases with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Materials and methods: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women with early-stage breast cancer received post-operative radiotherapy to the breast/chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor and treatment factors. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors were identified from hospital administrative records. A propensity-score model balanced risk factors between radiotherapy groups. Cause of death was coded as breast cancer, cardiac or other cause. Cumulative mortality from each cause after radiotherapy was estimated using a competing risk approach. Results: For left-sided cases, median follow-up was 14.2 years. 485 women received CF-WBI, 2221 women received HF-WBI. There was no difference in 15-year mortality from cardiac causes: 4.8% with HF-WBI and 4.2% with CF-WBI (p = 0.74), even after propensity-score adjustment (p = 0.45). There was no difference in breast cancer mortality or other cause mortality. For right-sided cases, there was no difference in mortality for the three causes of death. Conclusions: At 15-years follow-up, cardiac mortality is not statistically different among left-sided breast cancer patients treated with HF-WBI or CF-WBI

  12. Computed tomography in left-sided and right-sided blunt diaphragmatic rupture: experience with 43 patients

    Chen, H.-W. [Division of Emergency and Critical Care Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Wong, Y.-C., E-mail: b2401003@gmail.co [Division of Emergency and Critical Care Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Wang, L.-J.; Fu, C.-J. [Division of Emergency and Critical Care Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Fang, J.-F.; Lin, B.-C. [Division of Trauma and Emergency, Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    Aim: To investigate differences in the radiographic signs for left and right-sided blunt diaphragmatic rupture (BDR) in order to provide guidance to avoid missing these injuries. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the computed tomography (CT) examinations of 43 patients with BDR treated at our hospital between January 1995 and 2007 was undertaken. The presence of diaphragmatic discontinuity, diaphragmatic thickening, herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity, collar/hump sign, dependent viscera sign, abnormally elevated 4 cm or more above the dome of the other-sided hemi-diaphragm, and of associated injuries was recorded and their relationship to each other and to BDR diagnosis examined. A comparison between the use of axial and sagittal/coronal reconstruction images in diagnosis was also performed in 15 patients. Results: On axial imaging, left-sided diaphragmatic rupture occurred in 31 patients (72%) and right-sided in 12 (28%). Twenty-nine patients had associated injuries. More than 60% of the patients showed the 'dependent viscera' sign, 'abdominal organ herniation' sign, diaphragm thickening, or had a more than 4 cm elevation of one side of the diaphragm. 'Diaphragmatic discontinuity' and 'stomach herniation' were seen almost exclusively in left-sided rupture. Those with BDR and haemothorax had a significantly lower incidence of 'diaphragm discontinuity' (p = 0.034) than those without haemothorax. Sagittal/coronal reconstruction slightly increased the number of band signs, diaphragmatic discontinuities and diaphragmatic thickenings seen. Conclusions: Of the CT signs examined in this study, when herniation of abdominal organs was used as a diagnostic marker, only a very small fraction of trauma patients identifiable by CT would be missed. Further, CT signs differ for left-sided and right-sided BDR, thus the possibility of BDR should be considered when any of the reported CT signs are

  13. Rare Anatomical Variation of Dual IVC with Left Sided IVC Draining into Hemiazygous Vein- A Case Report.

    Gandhi, Shruti P; Modi, Pranjal; Sutariya, Harsh; Patel, Kajal

    2016-03-01

    Congenital anomalies of the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) result from the persistence of the embryonic venous system. Knowledge of such anomaly is of great importance during abdominal surgery, liver and kidney transplantation, renal venous sampling and in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Here, we report a rare anatomical variation of dual IVC with normal course of right sided IVC and hemiazygous continuation of left sided IVC with interiliac communication in potential renal donor. Congenital abnormalities of the inferior vena cava are easily identified on Computed Tomography (CT) and should be considered when interpreting any CT of the abdomen or chest. PMID:27134969

  14. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: an unusual case of left-sided location with extension into the pelvis

    Segmental omental infarction (OI) is a rare cause of abdominal pain in children. It generally occurs in the right lower and upper quadrants of the abdomen and only a few cases of other locations have been described in adults. We report a unique paediatric case of OI with an unusual left-sided location extending into the pelvis in a 6-year-old non-obese girl. The diagnosis was suspected on US and CT based on imaging patterns previously described in adults and children. Laparoscopic resection should be balanced with nonsurgical management. (orig.)

  15. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    Maria Sitnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  16. Imaging analysis of heart movement for improving the respiration-gated radiotherapy in patients with left sided breast cancer

    Respiration induced heart movement during radiotherapy exposes the heart to the inevitable risks of radio-exposure, and hence radiation injury, in cases of Lt. sided breast cancer. The impact of such a risk is additionally aggravated by the use of radiotherapy in combination with cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Radio-oncologists pay special attention to the coronary arteries that might be included in this small part of the heart exposed to radiation. The aim of this study was to include the internal heart movement for improving respiration-gated radiotherapy of left sided breast cancer. For 70 patients, all females left sided breast cancer, two planning CT's in inspiration and expiration, and one free breathing scan are performed. The heart motion was analyzed with the clinic-developed software ORAT in the simulator sequence for acquiring information of the cranio-caudal amplitude of heart movements in free breathing (respiration-induced amplitude) and a 15 seconds breath-hold phase (inherent amplitude). The role of inherent heart movement varies from one patient to another which should be taken in consideration during defining the parameters of respiration-gated radiotherapy. The inherent amplitude of the heart motion is the physiological lower limit of the respiration-gating window.

  17. Cardiac dose reduction with breathing adapted radiotherapy using self respiration monitoring system for left-sided breast cancer

    To quantify the cardiac dose reduction during breathing adapted radiotherapy using Real-time Position Management (RPM) system in the treatment of left-sided breast cancer. Twenty-two patients with left-sided breast cancer underwent CT scans during breathing maneuvers including free breathing (FB), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH), and end inspiration breath-hold (EIBH). The RPM system was used to monitor respiratory motion, and the in-house self respiration monitoring (SRM) system was used for visual feedback. For each scan, treatment plans were generated and dosimetric parameters from DIBH and EIBH plans were compared to those of FB plans. All patients completed CT scans with different breathing maneuvers. When compared with FB plans, DIBH plans demonstrated significant reductions in irradiated heart volume and the heart V25, with the relative reduction of 71% and 70%, respectively (p < 0.001). EIBH plans also resulted in significantly smaller irradiated heart volume and lower heart V25 than FB plans, with the relative reduction of 39% and 37%, respectively (p = 0.002). Despite of significant expansion of lung volume using inspiration breath-hold, there were no significant differences in left lung V25 among the three plans. In comparison with FB, both DIBH and EIBH plans demonstrated a significant reduction of radiation dose to the heart. In the training course, SRM system was useful and effective in terms of positional reproducibility and patient compliance.

  18. Imaging analysis of heart movement for improving the respiration-gated radiotherapy in patients with left sided breast cancer

    Abdelhamid, Rania; Farrag, A.; Khalifa, A. [Clinical Oncology Department, Assiut University (Egypt); Block, Andreas [Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenschutz, Klinikum Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Respiration induced heart movement during radiotherapy exposes the heart to the inevitable risks of radio-exposure, and hence radiation injury, in cases of Lt. sided breast cancer. The impact of such a risk is additionally aggravated by the use of radiotherapy in combination with cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Radio-oncologists pay special attention to the coronary arteries that might be included in this small part of the heart exposed to radiation. The aim of this study was to include the internal heart movement for improving respiration-gated radiotherapy of left sided breast cancer. For 70 patients, all females left sided breast cancer, two planning CT's in inspiration and expiration, and one free breathing scan are performed. The heart motion was analyzed with the clinic-developed software ORAT in the simulator sequence for acquiring information of the cranio-caudal amplitude of heart movements in free breathing (respiration-induced amplitude) and a 15 seconds breath-hold phase (inherent amplitude). The role of inherent heart movement varies from one patient to another which should be taken in consideration during defining the parameters of respiration-gated radiotherapy. The inherent amplitude of the heart motion is the physiological lower limit of the respiration-gating window.

  19. Determining optimal two-beam axial orientations for heart sparing in left-sided breast cancer patients

    Background and purpose: The optimal intensity fluence profile of a beam depends on the profiles of other beams but most optimizations assume fixed beam orientations, a priori. Breast cancer radiotherapy attempts to cover the target and to spare critical structures such as the heart and lungs. The study aims are (1) to determine and document the optimal two-beam orientation that best spares the heart for left-sided breast cancer patients and (2) to investigate the influence of the treatment technique (i.e., conformal versus intensity modulation) on the optimal objective cost function. Material and methods: Ten left-sided breast cancer patients were planned using a conformal (3DCRT) and a simplified intensity modulated (sIMRT) technique using predefined segments and different two-beam orientations. Optimal segment weights were determined exhaustively for all axial two-beam combinations, in 5 deg. increments, by minimizing a quadratic objective cost function. The resulting objective cost function was analyzed with respect to target geometry and treatment technique. Results: The sIMRT plans are generally less sensitive to beam orientation compared to 3DCRT plans. Optimal two-beam orientations for 3DCRT and sIMRT plans exist and they correspond to a hinge angle of approximately 188 deg. and 160 deg. or 210 deg. (the latter is bimodal), respectively. Conclusions: The optimization software is a useful tool that can test many different beam combinations and estimate their associated objective cost values. Afterwards, the most promising beam orientations could be re-optimized under the TPS to fine-tune and verify the dose distributions. Optimal uniform two-beam orientations for the breast consist of opposing tangential medial and lateral beams. Optimal nonuniform two-beam orientations for left-sided breast cancers are bimodal, containing hinge angles around 160 deg. and 210 deg. Nonuniform beam techniques are less sensitive to beam orientation compared to uniform beam

  20. Results and evaluation of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy after homologous left-sided lung transplantation in the dog

    Left-sided homologous lung transplantations (LTP) were carried out in 18 mongrel dogs. Exhalation and perfusion scintigraphies was performed for interpreting the ventilation and perfusion in the postoperative course. The per cent 133Xe storage and the exhalation per minute showed the significant reduction of the ventilation in the transplants dependent on the duration of the postoperative interval. The compensation behavior of the ventilation of the non-operated lung showed the compartment analysis. The perfusion index Q/sub L//Q/sub R/ with /sup 99m/Tc decreased progressively in the postoperative course. These investigation methods are slightly invasive. They allow the synoptic recording of the relationships between ventilation and perfusion. A differential diagnosis of complications after lung transplantations is not possible, however. (author)

  1. Differential auditory-oculomotor interactions in patients with right versus left sided subjective tinnitus: A saccade study

    Alexandre eLang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective tinnitus (ST is a frequent but poorly understood medical condition. Recent studies demonstrated abnormalities in several types of eye movements (smooth pursuit, optokinetic nystagmus, fixation and vergence in ST patients. The present study investigates horizontal and vertical saccades in patients with tinnitus lateralized predominantly to the left or to the right side. Compared to left sided ST, tinnitus perceived on the right side impaired almost all the parameters of saccades (latency, amplitude, velocity, etc. and noticeably the upward saccades. Relative to controls, saccades from both groups were more dysmetric and were characterized by increased saccade disconjugacy (i.e. poor binocular coordination. Although the precise mechanisms linking ST and saccadic control remain unexplained, these data suggest that ST can lead to detrimental auditory, visuomotor and perhaps vestibular interactions.

  2. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    Veerappan, Sundaram G

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  3. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. Materials and methods: For 13 patients, four treatment combinations were compared; 3D-conformal RT (i.e., forward IMRT) in free-breathing 3D-CRT(FB), 3D-CRT(vmDIBH), 2 partial arcs VMAT(FB), and VMAT(vmDIBH). Prescribed dose was 42.56 Gy in 16 fractions. For 10 additional patients, 3D-CRT and VMAT in vmDIBH only were also compared. Results: Dose conformity, PTV coverage, ipsilateral and total lung doses were significantly better for VMAT plans compared to 3D-CRT. Mean heart dose (Dmean,heart) reduction in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) was between 0.9 and 8.6 Gy, depending on initial Dmean,heart (in 3D-CRT(FB) plans). VMAT(vmDIBH) reduced the Dmean,heart further when Dmean,heart was still >3.2 Gy in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH). Mean contralateral breast dose was higher for VMAT plans (2.7 Gy) compared to 3DCRT plans (0.7 Gy). Conclusions: VMAT and 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) significantly reduced heart dose for patients treated with locoregional RT of left-sided breast cancer. When Dmean,heart exceeded 3.2 Gy in 3D-CRT(vmDIBH) plans, VMAT(vmDIBH) resulted in a cumulative heart dose reduction. VMAT also provided better target coverage and reduced ipsilateral lung dose, at the expense of a small increase in the dose to the contralateral breast

  4. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values RRR in dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean <30 breaths/min at home. Clinicians can use these data to help determine how best to control CHF in dogs and cats. PMID:26639825

  5. Myocardial perfusion changes in patients irradiated for left-sided breast cancer and correlation with coronary artery distribution

    Purpose: To evaluate postradiation regional heart perfusion changes with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging in 69 patients treated with tangential photon beams radiation therapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer. To correlate SPECT changes with percent irradiated left ventricle (LV) volume and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Materials: Rest SPECT of the LV was acquired pre-RT and at 6-month intervals post-RT. The extent of defects (%) with a severity > 1.5 standard deviations below the mean was quantitatively analyzed for the distributions of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, left circumflex (LCX) artery, and right coronary artery (RCA) based on computer assisted polar map reconstruction (i.e., bull's-eye-view). Changes in perfusion were correlated with percent irradiated LV receiving > 25 Gy (range 0-32%). Data on patient- and treatment-related factors were collected prospectively (e.g., cardiac premorbidity, risk factors for CAD, chemotherapy, and hormonal treatment). Results: In the LAD distribution, there were increased perfusion defects at 6 months (median 11%; interquartile range 2-23) compared with baseline (median 5%; interquartile range 1-14) (p<0.001). There were no increases in perfusion defects in the LCX or RCA distributions. In multivariate analysis, the SPECT perfusion changes in the LAD distribution at 6 months were independently associated with percent irradiated LV (p<0.001), hormonal therapy (p=0.005), and pre-RT hypercholesterolemia (p=0.006). The SPECT defects in the LAD distribution at 12 and 18 months were not statistically different from those at 6 months. The perfusion defects in the LAD distribution were limited essentially to the regions of irradiated myocardium. Conclusion: Tangential photon beam RT in patients with left-sided breast cancer was associated with short-term SPECT defects in the vascular distribution corresponding to the radiation portals. Factors

  6. Mitogen activated protein kinases: a role in inflammatory bowel disease?

    Broom, O J; Widjaya, B; Troelsen, J;

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery more than 15 years ago, the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) have been implicated in an ever-increasingly diverse array of pathways, including inflammatory signalling cascades. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are...... their related signalling proteins in influencing the progression of IBD....

  7. Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    Mömke, S; Sickinger, M; Lichtner, P; Doll, K; Rehage, J; Distl, O

    2013-06-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is one of the most common disorders of the digestive system in many dairy breeds and particularly in Holstein dairy cows. We performed a genome-wide association study for 854 German Holstein cows, including 225 cases and 629 controls. All cows were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After quality control of genotypes, a total of 36,226 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were left for analysis. We used a mixed linear model approach for a genome-wide association study of LDA. In total, 36 SNP located on 17 bovine (Bos taurus) chromosomes (BTA) showed associations with LDA at nominal -log10P-values >3.0. Two of these SNP, located on BTA11 at 46.70 Mb and BTA20 at 16.67 Mb, showed genome-wide significant associations with LDA at -log10P-values >4.6. Pathway analyses indicated genes involved in calcium metabolism and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to be factors in the pathogenesis of LDA in German Holstein cows. PMID:23548285

  8. Clinical application of self-expanding metallic stent in the management of acute left-sided colorectal malignant obstruction

    You-Ben Fan; Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ni-Wei Chen; Hui-Min Xu; Zhe Yang; Yue Wang; Yu-Yao Huang; Qi Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To summarize our experience with the application of self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in the management of acute left-sided colorectal malignant obstruction.METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing placement of SEMS between April 2000 and January 2004 was performed.RESULTS: Insertion of SEMS was attempted in 26patients under fluoroscopic guidance with occasional endoscopic assistance. The sites of lesions were located in splenic flexure of two patients, left colon of seven patients, sigmoid colon of eight patients and rectum of nine patients. The intended uses of SEMS were for palliation in 7 patients and as a bridge to elective surgery in 19 patients. In the latter group, placement of SEMS allowed for preoperative systemic and bowel preparation and the following one-stage anastomosis. Successful stent placement was achieved in 22 (85%) of the 26patients. The clinical bowel obstruction resolved 24 hours after successful stent placement in 21 (95%) patients.Three SEMS-related minor complications occurred, two stents migrated and one caused anal pain.CONCLUSION: SEMS represents an effective and safe tool in the management of acute malignant colorectal obstruction. As a bridge to surgery, SEMS can provide time for systematic support and bowel preparation and obviate the need for fecal diversion or on-table lavage.As a palliative measure, SEMS can eliminate the need for emergent colostomy.

  9. Comparison of the Complications between Left Side and Right Side Subclavian Vein Catheter Placement in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Masoud Tarbiat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to compare left and right subclavian vein catheter placement via the infraclavicular approach in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery.Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed in193 patients. The technique applied for cannulation was infraclavicular approach for both the right and the left sides. Subclavian vein of other side was attempted only when catheterization at initial side was unsuccessful at two attempts. The success and complication rates were compared for the two sides.Results: On193 patients, catheterization attempts were performed. 177 catheterizations (91.7% were successful during the first attempt, 105 (92.1% on the right side and 72 (91.1% on the left side. There was no significant difference between success rate and side of catheterization. Malposition of the catheter tip on the right side (9.6% was significantly more than the left side (0% (P= 0.003. The differences in other complications on two sides were statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Compared with the right side, insertion of the cannula on the left side resulted in fewer catheter tip misplacements. Incidence of cannulation failure and other complications were similar on both sides.

  10. A diagnostic dilemma: Left-sided appendicitis in a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation. A case report

    Ashvini Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Left sided acute appendicitis is a diagnostic dilemma, thus often leading to management delays. It is pertinent to remember that malrotation of the gut is more common than previously thought, and not just a disease of infancy. It is advisable to consider imaging studies while balancing the risk-benefit-ratio of radiation exposure, especially in paediatric cases to cinch the diagnosis.

  11. Inflammatory Cytokines and Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Margarida Florindo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Besides the functional benefits, physical activity triggers a hormonal pattern of immunologic responses with an anti-inflammatory effect in individuals who suffer from multiple sclerosis. Purpose. To analyze the influence of physical activity on multiple sclerosis and identify the intensity threshold which triggers the anti-inflammatory physiological mechanism. Methodology. A systematic review was made on the databases Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, PloS, PEDro, and Web of Scienc...

  12. Case Series: Fetal Pulmonary Vein A-Wave Reversal: An Early Marker of Left-Sided Cardiac Anomalies?

    Aldo L. Schenone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Improvements in congenital heart disease (CHD screening are needed based on the lack of sensitivity of current screening methods and the understanding that the early detection of certain CHDs may improve outcomes. Fetal venous circulation has caught medical attention, and two studies demonstrated that it is feasible to register pulmonary vein flow velocity waveforms (FVWs during early gestation. Meanwhile, the latter study proposed pulmonary vein A-wave reversal as a marker of cardiac anomaly. Methods - We report a series of six consecutive fetuses with confirmed cardiac anomalies that underwent first-trimester screening, including pulmonary vein FVWs, at our center during 2013. CHD was confirmed by late pregnancy echocardiography, and in three cases fetal autopsies were performed. Result/Discussion - The ductus venosus (DV and nuchal translucency (NT predicted 50% of CHD cases, whereas the combination of markers identified 66.6% of CHD cases. When adding pulmonary vein assessment, the rate of detection rose to 83.3%. Total five of six cases of CHD had reversal of pulmonary vein A-wave during early pregnancy. The sixth case with CHD and nonreversal of A-wave was described as right ventricle hypoplasia with type 1 tricuspid atresia and persistent ductus arteriosus. Conclusion This is the first series reporting pulmonary vein end-diastolic reversal as a CHD screening add-on during early pregnancy. The addition of pulmonary vein FVW assessment to the current CHD screening bundle could increase the rate detection of cardiac anomalies. This pilot study suggests that pulmonary vein end-diastolic flow reversal favors detection of left-sided CHD over the right-sided ones.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Melanthera scandens

    Jude E Okokon; Anwanga E Udoh; Samuel G Frank; Louis U Amazu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods: The crude leaf extract (39-111 mg/kg) of M. scandens was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using various experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carragenin, egg-albumin induced oedema models, while acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking and thermal-induced pain models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive property. Results: The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 - 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different agents used. Conclusions: The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  14. Scutellarein Reduces Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting Src Kinase Activity

    Sung, Nak Yoon; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant pigments that have been demonstrated to exert various pharmacological effects including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanisms in terms of exact target proteins of flavonoids are not fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of scutellarein (SCT), a flavonoid isolated from Erigeron breviscapus, Clerodendrum phlomidis and Oroxylum i...

  15. Enhanced inflammatory activity of endometriotic lesions from the rectovaginal septum.

    Bertschi, Dominic; Mc Kinnon, Brett; Evers, Jakob; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of ectopic lesions at multiple locations outside the uterine cavity and may be considered a collection of distinct but related conditions. The exact aetiology of endometriosis is still not clear although a role for inflammation is increasingly accepted. We therefore investigated the inflammatory activity of eutopic tissue and that of the matching ectopic lesions from different locations by measuring the genetic expression of inflammatory chemokines...

  16. Enhanced Inflammatory Activity of Endometriotic Lesions from the Rectovaginal Septum

    Dominic Bertschi; Brett D. McKinnon; Jakob Evers; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of ectopic lesions at multiple locations outside the uterine cavity and may be considered a collection of distinct but related conditions. The exact aetiology of endometriosis is still not clear although a role for inflammation is increasingly accepted. We therefore investigated the inflammatory activity of eutopic tissue and that of the matching ectopic lesions from different locations by measuring the genetic expression of inflammatory chemokines...

  17. Cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with worsening of intestinal inflammatory activity.

    Alexandre Medeiros do Carmo

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent virus and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease often induce a state of immunosuppression. Because this, there are still doubts and controversies about the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and cytomegalovirus.Evaluate the frequency of cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identify correlations.Patients with inflammatory bowel disease underwent an interview, review of records and collection of blood and fecal samples. The search for cytomegalovirus was performed by IgG and IgM blood serology, by real-time PCR in the blood and by qualitative PCR in feces. Results were correlated with red blood cell levels, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and fecal calprotectin levels for each patient.Among the 400 eligible patients, 249 had Crohn's disease, and 151 had ulcerative colitis. In the group of Crohn's disease, 67 of the patients had moderate or severe disease, but 126 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. In patients with ulcerative colitis, only 21 patients had moderate disease, but 76 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. A large majority of patients had positive CMV IgG. Overall, 10 patients had positive CMV IgM, and 9 patients had a positive qualitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR in the feces. All 400 patients returned negative results after the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood by real-time PCR. Analyzing the 19 patients with active infections, we only found that such an association occurred with the use of combined therapy (anti-TNF-alpha + azathioprine.The findings show that latent cytomegalovirus infections are frequent and active cytomegalovirus infection is rare. We did not find any association between an active infection of CMV and inflammatory bowel

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of root of Alpinia galanga willd

    Asim Kumar Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of root extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using albino rats of either sex (150-200 g. An extract of the root of A. galanga was prepared using absolute alcohol and distillation in a Soxhlet apparatus. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were evaluated using carrageenan-, bradykinin-, and 5-HT-induced rat paw edema. The chronic anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema. Results and Analysis: Inhibition of inflammation was seen to be 32.22% in carrageenan-induced, 37.70% in 5-HT-induced, and 35.21% in bradykinin-induced anti-inflammatory models. In chronic inflammatory model, a progressive inhibition of 34.73% (3 rd day, 37.50% (5 th day, 38.83% (7 th day, 44.66% (9 th day, 49.59% (11 th day, and 55.75% (13 th day was observed with study compound. The efficacy was comparable with the standard drugs. Conclusion: It can be thus concluded that A. galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and probably acts by blocking histaminic and serotonin pathways. It may be an effective alternative to NASAIDs and corticosteroid in inflammatory disorders.

  19. Modified partially wide tangents technique in post-mastectomy radiotherapy for patients with left-sided breast cancer

    ZHANG Qian; CHEN Jia-yi; HU Wei-gang; GUO Xiao-mao

    2010-01-01

    from the IMRT (P=0.868 and P=0.212).Conclusions No single technique provides both the best CW and IMN coverage with minimum lung and heart dose.The modified PWT technique can be used as a clinical tool for the treatment of the left-sided post-mastectomy breast cancer patients to provide homogeneous target coverage while maintaining Iow doses to normal tissue.

  20. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF Roldana platanifolia

    Amira Arciniegas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study of Roldana platanifolia led to the isolation of β-caryophyllene, five eremophilanolides, chlorogenic acid, and a mixture of β-sitosterol-stigmasterol, β-sitosteryl glucopyranoside, and sucrose. The anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts and isolated products were tested using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA model of induced acute inflammation. The acetone and methanol extracts showed dose dependent activities (ID50 0.21 and 0.32 mg/ear, respectively, while none of the isolated compounds exhibited relevant edema inhibition. The active extracts were also evaluated with the myeloperoxidase assay technique (MPO to determine their ability to prevent neutrophil infiltration. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity was related to the compound’s ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators such as neutrophils.

  1. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation

  2. Thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of late myocardial damage in left-side breast cancer treated with adjuvant radiotherapy

    Purpose: To evaluate late myocardial damage after adjuvant radiotherapy using a mixed-beam (photons plus electrons) technique to treat the internal mammary lymph nodes in left-side breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A bicycle ergometer stress test coupled with thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy and analysis by single-photon computed tomography (CT) was performed on 19 patients treated with left-side breast/chest wall and internal mammary radiation for breast cancer between 1987 and 1993. To be sure that we would evaluate late toxicity caused by the irradiation, patients had to fulfill the following eligibility criteria: left-side breast cancer, treatment between 1987 and 1993 and no recurrence during follow-up, age ≤75 years, no known risk for coronary artery disease, no previous chemotherapy, internal mammary field treated with an association of photons and electrons, and CT scan-based treatment planning. Results: Median age at scintigraphy was 59 years. Two patients did not reach optimal exercise level and were not evaluable. Among the 17 evaluable patients representing 91.6 patient years of follow-up, there were no perfusion defects by visual or quantitative analysis. Conclusion: The mixed-beam technique seemed to spare the heart from harmful irradiation and to protect the myocardium. Results need to be confirmed on the long-term use of this technique

  3. The impact of deep inspiration on cardiac volume within the radiation fields for left-sided breast cancer

    the spine was measured at the transverse level corresponding to the 4-chamber view of the heart. Patients were categorized into two equal-sized groups based on their ETid AP diameter of ≤ or > 8.5 cm. Comparisons among respiratory maneuvers were performed with use of a two-sided Wilcoxon-paired test. Comparison of Insp Δ by AP groups used a two-sided Wilcoxon two-sample test. Results: Eight of the nine subjects (89%) had inclusion of at least a portion of the heart within the radiation port (median 19.0 ml, range 3-88 ml) at ETid. For these women, ETid AP diameter of the chest increased with Insp and decreased with Exp. In all subjects Insp decreased cardiac volume in the radiation portals (median: -10.1 ml, p=0.008), whereas Exp increased cardiac volume (median: +6.1 ml, p=0.008). Subjects with ETid AP diameter ≤8.5 cm had larger decreases in cardiac volume with Insp than those with diameter > 8.5 cm (median: -9.6 vs. -4.7 ml, p=0.06). Conclusions: A portion of the heart is commonly included when patients receive left-sided breast RT. Deep inspiration significantly decreases cardiac volume in the radiation fields. Subjects who experienced the greatest decrease of cardiac volume were those with smaller AP chest cavities at baseline. We conclude that implementation of simple inspiratory breathholding during delivery of RT deserves further study, and may be particularly useful in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (especially doxorubicin)

  4. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  6. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M; Seidelin, J B; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder, be dis...

  7. Linking estrogen receptor β expression with inflammatory bowel disease activity.

    Pierdominici, Marina; Maselli, Angela; Varano, Barbara; Barbati, Cristiana; Cesaro, Paola; Spada, Cristiano; Zullo, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Rosati, Marco; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Limiti, Maria Rosaria; Guidi, Luisa; Conti, Lucia; Gessani, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose pathogenesis is only poorly understood. Estrogens have a complex role in inflammation and growing evidence suggests that these hormones may impact IBD pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction (p exploitation of T cell-associated ERβ as a biomarker of endoscopic disease activity. PMID:26497217

  8. Gastric emptying and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    Keller, Jutta; Binnewies, Ulrich; Rösch, Marie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) is delayed in a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have shown before that altered release of gastrointestinal hormones may contribute to GE disturbances, but overall effects of disease activity remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate GE...

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    Juan eMoles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From these, ethanol extracts of ten species from five different phyla resulted suitable to be studied in cell macrophage cultures (RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity (MTT method and production of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-1 were determined at three extract concentrations (50, 125, 250 g/mL. Bioassays resulted in four different species showing anti-inflammatory activity corresponding to three sponges: Mycale (Oxymycale acerata, Isodictya erinacea, and I. toxophila; and one hemichordate: Cephalodiscus sp. These results show that Antarctic sessile invertebrates may have great value as a source of lead compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial activity of Flacourtia Ramontchi Leaves

    Sulbha Lalsare

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature survey revealed that a very merge amount of pharmacological work has been carried out on Flacourtia ramontchi. Also it was observed from the Ayurvedic literature and Ethnobotanical studies that the plant is very useful in treating inflammation and infectious diseases but no scientific investigation has been done in such direction. Very merge work has been done regarding phytochemical and pharmacological effectiveness on this plant. Successive extraction of the leaves with solvents of increasing polarity; preliminary phytochemical studies of different extracts; screening of chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic extracts for anti-inflammatory (by Carrageenan induced rat paw model and antimicrobial activity (by Cup and plate method and thin layer chromatographic studies of active extracts using mobile phase i.e. chloroform and methanol. The results clearly indicate that all three extracts i.e. chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic, of the leaves having anti-inflammatory activity. But the chloroform and methano extract showed promising results and even chloroform extract at the dose 150mg/kg exhibits equipotent anti-inflammatory activity as that of the standard Indomethacin. Methanol extract possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at concentration 10000 mg/ml whereas hydromethanolic and chloroform extracts having more or less antimicrobial activity.

  11. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Camellia japonica oil.

    Kim, Seungbeom; Jung, Eunsun; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Moohan; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2012-03-01

    Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) has been used traditionally in East Asia to nourish and soothe the skin as well as help restore the elasticity of skin. CJ oil has also been used on all types of bleeding instances. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of CJ oil and its mechanisms of action were investigated. CJ oil inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, PGE(2), and TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of COX-2 and iNOS genes was reduced. To evaluate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of CJ oil, LPS-induced activation of AP-1 and NF-κB promoters was found to be significantly reduced by CJ oil. LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκBα, ERK, p38, and JNK was also attenuated. Our results indicate that CJ oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling. [BMB reports 2012; 45(3): 177-182]. PMID:22449705

  13. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum corymbiflorum leaves.

    Piana, Mariana; Camponogara, Camila; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Machado, Michel Mansur; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2016-02-17

    Solanum corymbiflorum is popularly known as "baga-de-veado" and its leaves are applied on inflamed legs, scabies, tick bite, boils, mastitis, low back pain and otitis. The aim of this study was evaluate anti-inflammatory in vivo activity and relate this activity with antioxidant compounds present in the extract of S. corymbiflorum leaves. The extract from S. corymbiflorum leaves topically applied was able to reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity with maximum inhibition of 87±3% and 45±7%, rescpectively in the dose of 1mg/ear. Similar results were found for positive control dexamethasone, which presented inhibitions of ear edema and MPO activity of 89±3% and 50±3%, respectively in a dose of 0.1mg/ear. These findings are due, at least in part, the presence of polyphenols (195.28mg GAE/g) and flavonoids, as chlorogenic acid (59.27mg/g), rutin (12.72mg/g), rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. This species showed potencial antioxidant by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and carbonyl groups in proteins methods which may be related with the presence of this compounds. This species possess anti-inflammatory activity confirming their popular use for the local treatment of skin inflammatory disorders. PMID:26721215

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum extract.

    Tripathi, Priyanka; Chauhan, N S; Patel, J R

    2012-01-01

    Abutilon indicum Linn. had been broadly used for its reported biological activities in indigenous system of medicine. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of A. indicum Linn. was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity at doses 250, 500 and 750 mg kg⁻¹ using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in healthy Wistar albino rats. Results of in vivo activity led to the conclusion that the ethanolic extract of A. indicum showed predominantly significant activity in a dose-dependent manner, which is comparable to the reference standard ibuprofen. The results prove the traditional use of plant in the treatment of inflammation. PMID:21999427

  15. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments

  16. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments.

  17. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer.

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-01-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V(20 Gy)) and 5 Gy (V(5 Gy)) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. PMID:26116150

  18. A case of left-sided unilateral spatial neglect owing to the cerebral infarction in the distribution of the right posterior cerebral artery

    We report a case of left-sided unilateral spatial neglect (USN) induced by the cerebral infarction in the distribution of right posterior cerebral artery (PCA). A 69-year-old, right-handed man, who had had a sudden onset of left hemiparesis in August 1983, was admitted to our hospital on January 16, 1984, because of nocturnal delirium. He became alert a few days after admission, but was euphoric and sometimes irritable. Neurologic examination disclosed left homonymous hemianopsia, dysarthria, left central facial weakness, spastic left hemiparesis, hyperactive reflexes on the left with no Babinski sign, left hemisensory loss, and left thalamic pain. On neuropsychologic examination it was revealed that he had a tendency to neglect the left half of his extrapersonal space. When asked to locate cities on a blank map of Japan, he located most of them not only on the right side of the map but also incorrectly. He also had a severe acalculia. There was gradual improvement in these neuropsychologic symptoms. CT demonstrated an area of decreased density in the territory of the right PCA, posterolateral portion of the right thalamus, and the posterior limb of right internal capsule, sparing parietal and temporal lobes. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using the Xenon-133 inhalation method showed, however, diminished regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in an area larger than the area of infarction demonstrated by CT, including the right parieto-temporo-occipital junctional area, which has been considerd to be responsible for left-sided USN. The authors ascribed the patient's left-sided USN to the lesion of this area that was revealed not morphologically by CT but functionally by SPECT, although the possibility that the lesions of the medial portion of the right occipital lobe and/or subcortical lesions of such areas as the thalamus and the internal capsule more or less influenced the neuropsychologic symptoms could not be excluded. (author)

  19. Transcription Factor Binding Site Polymorphism in the Motilin Gene Associated with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum in German Holstein Cattle

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) locate...

  20. Colonic stenting as bridge to surgery versus emergency surgery for management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction: a multicenter randomized trial (Stent-in 2 study

    Scholten Pieter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute left-sided colonic obstruction is most often caused by malignancy and the surgical treatment is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Moreover, these operated patients end up with a temporary or permanent stoma. Initial insertion of an enteral stent to decompress the obstructed colon, allowing for surgery to be performed electively, is gaining popularity. In uncontrolled studies stent placement before elective surgery has been suggested to decrease mortality, morbidity and number of colostomies. However stent perforation can lead to peritoneal tumor spill, changing a potentially curable disease in an incurable one. Therefore it is of paramount importance to compare the outcomes of colonic stenting followed by elective surgery with emergency surgery for the management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction in a randomized multicenter fashion. Methods/design Patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction eligible for this study will be randomized to either emergency surgery (current standard treatment or colonic stenting as bridge to elective surgery. Outcome measurements are effectiveness and costs of both strategies. Effectiveness will be evaluated in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Quality of life will be measured with standardized questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-CR38, EQ-5D and EQ-VAS. Morbidity is defined as every event leading to hospital admission or prolonging hospital stay. Mortality will be analyzed as total mortality as well as procedure-related mortality. The total costs of treatment will be evaluated by counting volumes and calculating unit prices. Including 120 patients on a 1:1 basis will have 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.5 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 global health scale, using a two group t-test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level. Differences in quality of life and morbidity will be analyzed using mixed-models repeated measures

  1. N-Terminal Pro-B–Type Natriuretic Peptide Plasma Levels as a Potential Biomarker for Cardiac Damage After Radiotherapy in Patients With Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cardiac biomarkers may aid in identifying patients with radiation-mediated cardiac dysfunction. We evaluated the correlation between N-terminal pro-B–type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin (TnI) and the dose of radiation to the heart in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: NT-proBNP and TnI plasma concentrations were measured in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 55.0 years) 5 to 22 months after RT (Group I) and in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 57.0 years) before RT as control group (Group II). Dosimetric and geometric parameters of heart and left ventricle were determined in all patients of Group I. Seventeen patients underwent complete two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher (p = 0.03) in Group I (median, 90.0 pg/ml; range, 16.7–333.1 pg/ml) than in Group II (median, 63.2 pg/ml; range, 11.0–172.5 pg/ml). TnI levels remained below the cutoff threshold of 0.07 ng/ml in both groups. In patients with NT-proBNP values above the upper limit of 125 pg/ml, there were significant correlations between plasma levels and V3Gy(%) (p = 0.001), the ratios D15cm3(Gy)/Dmean(Gy) (p = 0.01), the ratios D15cm3/D50% (Gy) (p = 0.008) for the heart and correlations between plasma levels and V2Gy (%) (p = 0.002), the ratios D1cm3(Gy)/Dmean(Gy) (p = 0.03), and the ratios D0.5cm3(Gy)/D50%(Gy) (p = 0.05) for the ventricle. Conclusions: Patients with left-sided breast cancer show higher values of NT-pro BNP after RT when compared with non–RT-treated matched patients, increasing in correlation with high doses in small volumes of heart and ventricle. The findings of this study show that the most important parameters are not the mean doses but instead the small percentage of organ volumes (heart or ventricle) receiving high dose levels

  2. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    Cuauhtemoc Pérez González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA- induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36±4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%. The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9±2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity and composition of Senecio salignus Kunth.

    González, Cuauhtemoc Pérez; Vega, Roberto Serrano; González-Chávez, Marco; Sánchez, Miguel Angel Zavala; Gutiérrez, Salud Pérez

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (<300 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Among them, the chloroform extract from G. lucidum was the most effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25271860

  6. Anti-inflammatory activities of selected synthetic homoisoflavanones.

    Shaikh, Mahidansha M; Kruger, Hendrik G; Bodenstein, Johannes; Smith, Peter; du Toit, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Four homoisoflavanones of the 3-benzylidene-4-chromanone type, some of which were previously isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima, were synthesised to determine their anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity. A range of four different homoisoflavanones (compounds 4a-4d) were synthesised from the corresponding substituted phenols. ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR data together with high-resolution mass spectroscopy data were employed to elucidate the structures. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in mice with acute croton oil-induced auricular dermatitis. In vitro cytotoxicity was tested against a Chinese hamster ovarian cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Compound 4a exhibited a tendency to inhibit oedema in a dose-dependent manner after 3 and 6 h of treatment. Compounds 4b-4d also inhibited oedema, although a clear dose-response relationship was not observed. Compounds 4a-4c were found to be less cytotoxic than compound 4d. Compound 4b was the least cytotoxic. Compounds 4a-4d exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and varying levels of cytotoxicity. PMID:21950651

  7. Dosimetric Comparison and Evaluation of Three Radiotherapy Techniques for Use after Modified Radical Mastectomy for Locally Advanced Left-sided Breast Cancer.

    Ma, Changchun; Zhang, Wuzhe; Lu, Jiayang; Wu, Lili; Wu, Fangcai; Huang, Baotian; Lin, Yan; Li, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the post-modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRMRT) for left-sided breast cancer utilizing 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with field-in-field technique (3DCRT-FinF), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (5F-IMRT) and 2- partial arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (2P-VMAT). We created the 3 different PMRMRT plans for each of the ten consecutive patients. We performed Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Dunn's-type multiple comparisons to establish a hierarchy in terms of plan quality and dosimetric benefits. P IMRT and 2P-VMAT plans exhibited similar PTV coverage (V95%), hotspot areas (V110%) and conformity (all p > 0.05), and significantly higher PTV coverage compared with 3DCRT-FinF (both p IMRT plans provided significantly less heart and left lung radiation exposure than 2P-VMAT (all p IMRT has dosimetrical advantages compared with the other two techniques in PMRMRT for left-sided breast cancer given its optimal balance between PTV coverage and OAR sparing (especially heart sparing). Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve dosage distribution. PMID:26194593

  8. SU-E-P-56: Dosimetric Comparison of Three Post Modified Radical Mastectomy Radiotherapy Techniques for Locally Advanced Left-Sided Breast Cancer and Beyond

    Ma, C; Zhang, W; Lu, J; Wu, L; Wu, F; Huang, B; Li, D [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetry of post modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRMRT) for left-sided breast cancer using 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: We created ten sets of PMRMRT plans for ten consecutive patients and utilized two tangential and one or two supraclavicular beams in 3DCRT, a total of 5 beams in IMRT and two optimized partial arcs in VMAT. The difference in results between any two of the three new plans, between new and previous 3DCRT plans were compared and analyzed by ANOVA (α =0.05) and paired-sample t-test respectively. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Both IMRT and VMAT plans had similar PTV coverage, hotspot area and conformity (all p>0.05), and significantly higher PTV coverage compared with new 3DCRT (both p<0.001). IMRT plans had significantly less heart and left lung radiation exposure compared with VMAT (all p<0.05). The 3DCRT plans with larger estimated CTV displacement had better target coverage but worse OARs sparing compared to those with smaller one. Conclusion: IMRT has dosimetrical advantages over the other two techniques in PMRMRT for left-sided breast cancer. Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve dosage distribution. This work was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Procvince (A2014455 to Changchun Ma)

  9. SU-E-P-56: Dosimetric Comparison of Three Post Modified Radical Mastectomy Radiotherapy Techniques for Locally Advanced Left-Sided Breast Cancer and Beyond

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetry of post modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRMRT) for left-sided breast cancer using 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: We created ten sets of PMRMRT plans for ten consecutive patients and utilized two tangential and one or two supraclavicular beams in 3DCRT, a total of 5 beams in IMRT and two optimized partial arcs in VMAT. The difference in results between any two of the three new plans, between new and previous 3DCRT plans were compared and analyzed by ANOVA (α =0.05) and paired-sample t-test respectively. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Both IMRT and VMAT plans had similar PTV coverage, hotspot area and conformity (all p>0.05), and significantly higher PTV coverage compared with new 3DCRT (both p<0.001). IMRT plans had significantly less heart and left lung radiation exposure compared with VMAT (all p<0.05). The 3DCRT plans with larger estimated CTV displacement had better target coverage but worse OARs sparing compared to those with smaller one. Conclusion: IMRT has dosimetrical advantages over the other two techniques in PMRMRT for left-sided breast cancer. Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve dosage distribution. This work was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Procvince (A2014455 to Changchun Ma)

  10. A comparative dosimetric study for treating left-sided breast cancer for small breast size using five different radiotherapy techniques: conventional tangential field, filed-in-filed, Tangential-IMRT, Multi-beam IMRT and VMAT

    Jin, Guang-Hua; Chen, Li-Xin; Deng, Xiao-Wu; LIU, XIAO-WEI; Ying HUANG; Huang, Xiao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background and purposes To compare the dosimetry for the left-sided breast cancer treatment using five different radiotherapy techniques. Materials and methods Twenty patients with left sided breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery followed by radiotherapy. They were planned using five different radiotherapy techniques, including: 1) conventional tangential wedge-based fields (TW); 2) field-in-field (FIF) technique; 3) tangential inverse planning intensity-modulated radiation the...

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of Camellia japonica oil

    Seungbeom Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil has been used traditionally in EastAsia to nourish and soothe the skin as well as help restore theelasticity of skin. CJ oil has also been used on all types ofbleeding instances. However, little is known about itsanti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the anti-inflammatoryeffects of CJ oil and its mechanisms of action were investigated.CJ oil inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, PGE2, andTNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of COX-2and iNOS genes was reduced. To evaluate the mechanism ofthe anti-inflammatory activity of CJ oil, LPS-induced activationof AP-1 and NF-κB promoters was found to be significantlyreduced by CJ oil. LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκBα, ERK,p38, and JNK was also attenuated. Our results indicate that CJoil exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating theexpression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition ofNF-κB and AP-1 signaling. [BMB reports 2012; 45(3: 177-182

  12. Enhanced Inflammatory Activity of Endometriotic Lesions from the Rectovaginal Septum

    Dominic Bertschi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of ectopic lesions at multiple locations outside the uterine cavity and may be considered a collection of distinct but related conditions. The exact aetiology of endometriosis is still not clear although a role for inflammation is increasingly accepted. We therefore investigated the inflammatory activity of eutopic tissue and that of the matching ectopic lesions from different locations by measuring the genetic expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. The gene expression in matching eutopic and ectopic tissue was compared, as was the gene expression in lesions from different locations. A significantly higher mRNA expression of the chemokines ENA-78 and RANTES and the cytokines IL-6 and TNFα was observed in endometriotic lesions of the rectovaginal septum (RVS compared to that of matching eutopic tissue. Comparisons across lesion locations showed a significantly higher expression of IL-6 and TNFα in the RVS compared to lesions from either the ovaries or the peritoneum. These results show that the production of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines is significantly increased in the ectopic endometrial tissue compared to matching eutopic tissue. Furthermore, IL-6 and TNFα are produced in significantly higher quantities in RVS lesions compared to other lesions.

  13. Enhanced inflammatory activity of endometriotic lesions from the rectovaginal septum.

    Bertschi, Dominic; McKinnon, Brett D; Evers, Jakob; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of ectopic lesions at multiple locations outside the uterine cavity and may be considered a collection of distinct but related conditions. The exact aetiology of endometriosis is still not clear although a role for inflammation is increasingly accepted. We therefore investigated the inflammatory activity of eutopic tissue and that of the matching ectopic lesions from different locations by measuring the genetic expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. The gene expression in matching eutopic and ectopic tissue was compared, as was the gene expression in lesions from different locations. A significantly higher mRNA expression of the chemokines ENA-78 and RANTES and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF α was observed in endometriotic lesions of the rectovaginal septum (RVS) compared to that of matching eutopic tissue. Comparisons across lesion locations showed a significantly higher expression of IL-6 and TNF α in the RVS compared to lesions from either the ovaries or the peritoneum. These results show that the production of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines is significantly increased in the ectopic endometrial tissue compared to matching eutopic tissue. Furthermore, IL-6 and TNF α are produced in significantly higher quantities in RVS lesions compared to other lesions. PMID:24453419

  14. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    Lin, Jia-Fu [Department of Radiation Physics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Dah-Cherng [Department of General Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Hui-Ling, E-mail: hlyeh@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chen-Fa [Department of Radiation Physics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jin-Ching [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.

  15. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]50.4 Gy and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV62 Gy). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V20 Gy) and 5 Gy (V5 Gy) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer

  16. SU-E-T-483: Treatment Planning Study of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Left-Sided Breast and Chestwall Cancers

    Purpose: To perform the comparison of dose distributions and dosevolume- histograms generated by VMAT and conventional field-in-field technique for left-sided breast and chestwall cancers; to determine whether VMAT offers more dosimetric benefits than does the field-in-field technique. Methods: All VMAT and field-in-filed plans were produced in Eclipse(version 10). Five plans were generated for left-sided breast and leftsided chestwall with supraclavicular nodes, respectively. A clockwise arc (CW) and a counter-clockwise arc (CCW) were used with start and stop angles being 310o±10o and 140o±10o. Collimator angles were 30o for CW and 330o for CCW. The conformity index (CI) is the ratio of V95% over PTV. The homogeneity index (HI) is the ratio of the difference between D2% and D98% over the prescribed dose. The V5, as an indicator of low dose bath to organs-at-risk, was used for ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and contralateral breast. The V20, as an indicator of radiation pneumonitis, was used for ipsilateral lung. Results: Breast/chestwall VMAT delivers much higher low dose bath to ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung and contralateral breast/chestwall for both intact breast and chestwall with nodes. V5 for heart is increased in VMAT plans. V20 for ipsilateral lung is lower in VMAT plans. PTV coverage is similar for both techniques. For one particular chestwall patient with supraclavicular and internal mammary nodes, VMAT offers superior dose coverage of PTVs with slightly more low-dose-wash to heart, contralateral lung and contralateral breast. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is generally no benefit using VMAT for left-sided intact breast, due to large low-dose-bath (5Gy) to normal tissues with insignificant improvement in PTV coverage. Dosimetric benefits will be seen in VMAT plans for some chestwall patients with large size, and/or internal mammary nodes, etc. Whether a chestwall patient is treated with VMAT should be carefully

  17. Anterior Myocardial Territory May Replace the Heart as Organ at Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Purpose: We investigated whether the heart could be replaced by the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as the organ at risk (OAR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the breast for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with left-sided breast cancer who received postoperative radiation after breast-conserving surgery were studied. For each patient, we generated five IMRT plans including heart (H), left ventricle (LV), AMT, LV+AMT, and H+LV as the primary OARs, respectively, except both lungs and right breast, which corresponded to IMRT(H), IMRT(LV), IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV+AMT), and IMRT(H+LV). For the planning target volumes and OARs, the parameters of dose–volume histograms were compared. Results: The homogeneity index, conformity index, and coverage index were not compromised significantly in IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV) and IMRT(LV+ AMT), respectively, when compared with IMRT(H). The mean dose to the heart, LV, and AMT decreased 5.3–21.5% (p < 0.05), 19.9–29.5% (p < 0.05), and 13.3–24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, the low (e.g., V5%), middle (e.g., V20%), and high (e.g., V30%) dose-volume of the heart, LV, and AMT decreased with different levels. The mean dose and V10% of the right lung increased by 9.2% (p < 0.05) and 27.6% (p < 0.05), respectively, in IMRT(LV), and the mean dose and V5% of the right breast decreased significantly in IMRT(AMT) and IMRT(LV+AMT). IMRT(AMT) was the preferred plan and was then compared with IMRT(H+LV); the majority of dose–volume histogram parameters of OARs including the heart, LV, AMT, both lungs, and the right breast were not statistically different. However, the low dose-volume of LV increased and the middle dose-volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IMRT(AMT). Also, those of the right lung (V10%, V15%) and right breast (V5%, V10%) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The AMT may replace the heart as the OAR in left-sided breast IMRT after breast

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase is activated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    King, Tanya S; Russe, Otto Quintus; Möser, Christine V; Ferreirós, Nerea; Kynast, Katharina L; Knothe, Claudia; Olbrich, Katrin; Geisslinger, Gerd; Niederberger, Ellen

    2015-09-01

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor, which is activated in stages of increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decrease of inflammatory processes and inhibition of disease progression of diabetes and obesity. A recent study suggested that salicylate, the active metabolite of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) acetyl-salicylic acid (aspirin), is able to activate AMPK pharmacologically. This observation raised the question whether or not other NSAIDs might also act as AMPK activators and whether this action might contribute to their cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated mouse and human neuronal cells and liver tissue of mice after treatment with various NSAIDs. Our results showed that the non-selective acidic NSAIDs ibuprofen and diclofenac induced AMPK activation similar to aspirin while the COX-2 selective drug etoricoxib and the non-opioid analgesic paracetamol, both drugs have no acidic structure, failed to activate AMPK. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK can be activated by specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as salicylic acid, ibuprofen or diclofenac possibly depending on the acidic structure of the drugs. AMPK might therefore contribute to their antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26049010

  19. Puerarin partly counteracts the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Xiaojie Liu; Zhigang Mei; Jingping Qian; Yongbao Zeng; Mingzhi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Puerarin, a major isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medical herb radix puerariae (Gegen), has been reported to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and play an anti-inflammatory role in focal cerebral ischemia model rats. Recent findings regarding stroke pathophysiology have recognized that an-ti-inflammation is an important target for the treatment of ischemic stroke. The cholinergic an-ti-inflammatory pathway is a highly robust neural-immune mechanism for inflammation control. This study was to investigate whether activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be in-volved in the mechanism of inhibiting the inflammatory response during puerarin-induced cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Results showed that puerarin pretreatment (intravenous injection) re-duced the ischemic infarct volume, improved neurological deficit after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and decreased the levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-αin brain tissue. Pretreatment with puerarin (intravenous injection) attenuated the inflammatory response in rats, which was accompanied by janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibition. These observa-tions were inhibited by the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) antagonistα-bungarotoxin (α-BGT). In addition, puerarin pretreatment increased the expression of α7nAchR mRNA in ischemic cerebral tissue. These data demonstrate that puerarin pretreatment strongly protects the brain against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibits the inflammatory re-sponse. Our results also indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of puerarin may partly be me-diated through the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

  20. Flavonoids from Anoectochilus annamensis and their Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    Hoi, Tran Minh; Thai, Tran Van; Ha, Chu Thi Thu; Anh, Ha Thi Van; Minh, Phan Xuan Binh; Dat, Nguyen Tien

    2016-05-01

    One new flavonol diglycoside, 4',5-dihydroxy-3,3',7-trimethoxyflavone 4'-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and two known compounds (2-3) were isolated from the methanolic extract of Anoectochilus annamensis Aver. aerial parts. The effects were evaluated of all isolated compounds (1-3) on LPS-induced production of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) by RAW264.7 cells. 4',5-Dihydroxy-3,3',7-trimethoxyflavone (2) was the most active while the addition of a rutinoside at C4' (compound 1) decreased the inhibitory activity. This is the first report on the chemical composition and biological activity of A. annamensis. PMID:27319131

  1. BET Inhibition Attenuates Helicobacter pylori-Induced Inflammatory Response by Suppressing Inflammatory Gene Transcription and Enhancer Activation.

    Chen, Jinjing; Wang, Zhen; Hu, Xiangming; Chen, Ruichuan; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2016-05-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. H. pylori-initiated chronic gastritis is characterized by enhanced expression of many NF-κB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. Brd4 has emerged as an important NF-κB regulator and regulates the expression of many NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes. In this study, we demonstrated that Brd4 was not only actively involved in H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene mRNA transcription but also H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene enhancer RNA (eRNA) synthesis. Suppression of H. pylori-induced eRNA synthesis impaired H. pylori-induced mRNA synthesis. Furthermore, H. pylori stimulated NF-κB-dependent recruitment of Brd4 to the promoters and enhancers of inflammatory genes to facilitate the RNA polymerase II-mediated eRNA and mRNA synthesis. Inhibition of Brd4 by JQ1 attenuated H. pylori-induced eRNA and mRNA synthesis for a subset of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes. JQ1 also inhibited H. pylori-induced interaction between Brd4 and RelA and the recruitment of Brd4 and RNA polymerase II to the promoters and enhancers of inflammatory genes. Finally, we demonstrated that JQ1 suppressed inflammatory gene expression, inflammation, and cell proliferation in H. pylori-infected mice. These studies highlight the importance of Brd4 in H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene expression and suggest that Brd4 could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of H. pylori-triggered inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:27084101

  2. Extravascular lung water measured with 99mTc-RBC and 99mTc-DTPA is increased in left-sided heart failure

    Extravascular lung water (EVLW) was quantitatively measured in 81 patients consisting of 10 subjects with normal cardiac function and 71 patients with left-sided heart diseases, using 99mTc-RBC as a non-diffusible indicator and 99mTc-DTPA as a diffusible indicator in the equilibrium phase. EVLW averaged 3.0±1.4 (ml/kg, mean±SD) in subjects with normal cardiac function (n=10), 4.3±1.7 in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class 1 patients (n=30), 4.8±2.4 in NYHA functional class 2 patients (n=33) and 9.4±5.4 in NYHA functional class 3 (n=8) patients. EVLW was greater in NYHA class 3 than in normal controls or NYHA class 1 or 2 (p<0.01). Lung thermal volume (LTV) was also measured in 31 of the 81 patients using a double indicator dilution technique with sodium and heat. LTV averaged 6.0±1.2 (ml/kg) in normal subjects (n=4), 8.6±2.0 in NYHA functional class 1 patients (n=11), 9.7±3.0 in NYHA functional class 2 patients (n=13), and 15.9±8.2 in NYHA functional class 3 patients (n=3). The correlation between EVLW and LTV was significant (EVLW=0.79 x LTV-72.8, r=0.80, p<0.01). There were significant differences in EVLW/LTV ratio between NYHA class 3 (0.93±0.16) and NYHA class 1 (0.62±0.22) or class 2 (0.60±0.23). Thus, it was shown that EVLW was increased in left-sided heart failure and that LTV overestimated the EVLW. (author)

  3. Neuropsychological profile in early Parkinson′s disease: Comparison between patients with right side onset versus left side onset of motor symptoms

    Sikandar Adwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Though impaired cognition in Parkinson′s disease (PD is well known, data in early PD is sparse. This study was designed to assess the cognitive profile in patients with early PD (motor symptoms <5 years and Hoehn and Yahr stage <2, and to compare the cognitive profile between these patients with right versus left side onset of motor symptoms. Materials and Methods: National Institute of National Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS neuropsychological battery was used to assess the cognitive profile in 50 patients with early PD and compared with 50 age-, education-, and gender-matched healthy controls. Within the PD group, the cognitive profile was also compared between patients with right side onset motor symptoms (RPD versus those with left side onset (LPD. The neuropsychological tests assessed the executive functions, memory, attention, visuospatial functions, and psychomotor speed. Results: Among the 50 patients, 25 each were RPD and LPD. The two subgroups were matched for age, gender, education, age at disease onset, disease duration, and degree of motor disability. There was no significant difference between the groups on Hoehn and Yahr staging or Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS motor score. Patients with early PD performed significantly worse in the tasks involving memory, executive functions, and attention compared to controls. However, there was no difference in the cognitive profile between RPD and LPD subgroups. Conclusions: Patients with early PD have cognitive dysfunction with predominant involvement of frontal and temporal lobes. Side of onset of motor symptoms probably does not have significant role in future development or profile of cognitive dysfunction in PD.

  4. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALPINIA GALANGA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Venuturumilli Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the anti - inflammatory activity of Alpinia galanga is evaluated using rat paw edema, in comparison with Indomethacin using digital Plethysmometer. Male Wistar rats were grouped into 3 of 6 each. Test group given 250mg/kg Alpinia galang a suspended in 2% gum acacia, Standard group 20mg/kg Indomethacin orally. Hind paw edema was produced by sub plantar injection of 0.1ml of 1% carrageenin and the paw edema was measured at 0 and 3 hrs after injection using digital plethysmometer. Mean incre ase in paw volume and percentage inhibition were calculated. Data were represented as percentage inhibition of paw volume and Mean±S.E.M. Statistical analysis was done using student ‘t’ test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. CONCLUSION: Alpinia galanga showed a 52.5% percentage of inhibition in comparison with Indomethacin which showed 68.75%. The test compound Alpinia galanga showed anti - inflammatory activity with a p value of <0.05 in comparison with Indomethacin with a p value of <0.001

  5. Galectin-8 elicits pro-inflammatory activities in the endothelium.

    Cattaneo, Valentina; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Carabelli, Julieta; Carestia, Agostina; Schattner, Mirta; Campetella, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    Galectins (Gals), a family of mammalian lectins, play diverse roles under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analyzed the tandem-repeat Gal-8 synthesis, secretion and effects on the endothelium physiology. Gal-8M and Gal-8L isoforms were secreted under basal conditions by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). However, expression and secretion of the Gal-8M isoform, but not Gal-8L, were increased in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulus and returned to control values after LPS removal. Similarly, cell surface Gal-8 exposure was increased after stimulation with LPS. To evaluate Gal-8 effects on the endothelium physiology, HMEC-1 cells were incubated in the presence of recombinant Gal-8M. Pretreated HMEC-1 cells became proadhesive to human normal platelets, indicating that Gal-8 actually activates endothelial cells. This effect was specific for lectin activity as it was prevented by the simultaneous addition of lactose, but not by sucrose. Endothelial cells also increased their exposition of von Willebrand factor after Gal-8 treatment, which constitutes another feature of cell activation that could be, in turn, responsible for the observed platelet adhesion. Several pro-inflammatory molecules were abundantly produced by Gal-8 stimulated endothelial cells: CXCL1 (GRO-α), GM-CSF, IL-6 and CCL5 (RANTES), and in a lower degree CCL2 (MCP-1), CXCL3 (GRO-γ) and CXCL8 (IL-8). In agreement, Gal-8M induced nuclear factor kappa B phosphorylation. Altogether, these results not only confirm the pro-inflammatory role we have already proposed for Gal-8 in other cellular systems but also suggest that this lectin is orchestrating the interaction between leukocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. PMID:24957054

  6. Berberine inhibits inflammatory activation of rat brain microglia

    Kyong Nyon Nam; Jae-Hong Kim; Hoon-Ji Jung; Jung-Mi Park; Sang-Kwan Moon; Young-Suk Kim; Sun Yeou Kim; Eunjoo H.Lee

    2010-01-01

    Chronic activation of microglial cells endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors.Berberine,the effective ingredient of Coptidis Rhizoma and Cortex Phellodendri,has a wide range of pharmacological functions,including anti-inflammatory,anti-atherosclerotic and anti-cancer effects.The neuroprotective potential of berberine has previously been demonstrated.The present study aimed to examine whether berberine could repress microglial activation and can be considered a potential therapeutic candidate to target neurodegenerative diseases.Primary microglial cells and BV2 microglial cells were cultured and stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide(LPS).Berberine chloride was treated prior to LPS or simultaneously with LPS stimulation.Results revealed that berberine was effective at inhibiting nitric oxide release from primary microglial cells when cells were exposed to the compound prior to LPS or simultaneously with LPS.It also reduced the LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α,interleukin-1β,prostaglandin E2,and intracellular reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor-kappa activation.Additionally,berberine reduced nitric oxide release from microglia stimulated with interferon-γ and amyloid β.These results suggest that berberine provides neuroprotection by reducing the production of various neurotoxic molecules from activated microglia.

  7. Comparison of doses and NTCP to risk organs with enhanced inspiration gating and free breathing for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy using the AAA algorithm

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential dose reduction to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and the ipsilateral lung for patients treated with tangential and locoregional radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer with enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) compared to free breathing (FB) using the AAA algorithm. The radiobiological implication of such dose sparing was also investigated. Thirty-two patients, who received tangential or locoregional adjuvant radiotherapy with EIG for left-sided breast cancer, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Each patient was CT-scanned during FB and EIG. Similar treatment plans, with comparable target coverage, were created in the two CT-sets using the AAA algorithm. Further, the probability of radiation induced cardiac mortality and pneumonitis were calculated using NTCP models. For tangential treatment, the median V25Gy for the heart and LAD was decreased for EIG from 2.2% to 0.2% and 40.2% to 0.1% (p < 0.001), respectively, whereas there was no significant difference in V20Gy for the ipsilateral lung (p = 0.109). For locoregional treatment, the median V25Gy for the heart and LAD was decreased for EIG from 3.3% to 0.2% and 51.4% to 5.1% (p < 0.001), respectively, and the median ipsilateral lung V20Gy decreased from 27.0% for FB to 21.5% (p = 0.020) for EIG. The median excess cardiac mortality probability decreased from 0.49% for FB to 0.02% for EIG (p < 0.001) for tangential treatment and from 0.75% to 0.02% (p < 0.001) for locoregional treatment. There was no significant difference in risk of radiation pneumonitis for tangential treatment (p = 0.179) whereas it decreased for locoregional treatment from 6.82% for FB to 3.17% for EIG (p = 0.004). In this study the AAA algorithm was used for dose calculation to the heart, LAD and left lung when comparing the EIG and FB techniques for tangential and locoregional radiotherapy of breast cancer patients. The results support the dose and

  8. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL. (ACANTHACEAE)

    Balu, S.; Alagesaboopathi, C.

    1993-01-01

    The anti – inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis Wall. were assayed at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in Male albino rats using carrageenin induced rat paw edema. All the extracts were screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in Carrageenin induced inflammation in rats. The maximal anti-inflammatory activity was found with the alcoholic extract of Andrographis alata Nees.

  9. The adhesion receptor CD44 promotes atherosclerosis by mediating inflammatory cell recruitment and vascular cell activation

    Cuff, Carolyn A.; Kothapalli, Devashish; Azonobi, Ijeoma; Chun, Sam; Zhang, Yuanming; Belkin, Richard; Yeh, Christine; Secreto, Anthony; Richard K Assoian; Rader, Daniel J; Puré, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Atherosclerosis causes most acute coronary syndromes and strokes. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis includes recruitment of inflammatory cells to the vessel wall and activation of vascular cells. CD44 is an adhesion protein expressed on inflammatory and vascular cells. CD44 supports the adhesion of activated lymphocytes to endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, ligation of CD44 induces activation of both inflammatory and vascular cells. To assess the potential contribution of CD4...

  10. Dural administration of inflammatory soup or Complete Freund's Adjuvant induces activation and inflammatory response in the rat trigeminal ganglion

    Lukács, M; Haanes, K A; Majláth, Zs;

    2015-01-01

    induces inflammatory activation in the trigeminal ganglion. METHODS: We performed topical administration of inflammatory soup (IS) or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) onto an exposed area of the rat dura mater in vivo for 20 min. The window was closed and the rats were sacrificed after 4 h and up to 7...... previously been shown that application of inflammatory or algesic substances onto the dura mater or chemical stimulation of the dural receptive fields causes hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation together with direct activation of the TG. We asked whether local inflammation of dura mater...... days. Myography was performed on middle meningeal arteries. The trigeminal ganglia were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry or Western blot. RESULTS: Both CFA and IS induced enhanced expression of pERK1/2, IL-1β and CGRP in the trigeminal ganglia. The pERK1/2 immunoreactivity was mainly seen...

  11. Dexmedetomidine attenuates inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues of septic mice by activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    Liu, Zhaoguo; Wang, Yueping; Wang, Yaoqi; Ning, Qiaoqing; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Chunzhi; Zhao, Wenxiang; Jing, Guangjian; Wang, Qianqian

    2016-06-01

    Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist that is widely used for sedation in intensive care units and in clinical anesthesia. Dex has also been shown to possess anti-inflammatory benefits. However, the underlying mechanism by which Dex relieves the inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues of septic mice has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanism of Dex on the sepsis-induced lung inflammatory response in mice. Sepsis was induced in mice models through the intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The preemptive administration of Dex substantially abated sepsis-induced pulmonary edema, pulmonary histopathological changes, and NF-κB p65 activity. The production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at both the mRNA and protein levels was also reduced. Moreover, these effects were significantly blocked by the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) antagonist α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt). α-Bgt aggravated pulmonary edema and pulmonary histopathological changes, as well as increased NF-κB p65 activity and TNF-α and IL-6 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The overall results demonstrate that Dex inhibits the LPS-induced inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues of septic mice partly through the α7nAChR-dependent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. PMID:27074053

  12. Insights into Intrinsic Brain Networks based on Graph Theory and PET in right- compared to left-sided Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Vanicek, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Hilger, Eva; Spies, Marie; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Asenbaum-Nan, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The human brain exhibits marked hemispheric differences, though it is not fully understood to what extent lateralization of the epileptic focus is relevant. Preoperative [18F]FDG-PET depicts lateralization of seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and reveals dysfunctional metabolic brain connectivity. The aim of the present study was to compare metabolic connectivity, inferred from inter-regional [18F]FDG PET uptake correlations, in right-sided (RTLE; n = 30) and left-sided TLE (LTLE; n = 32) with healthy controls (HC; n = 31) using graph theory based network analysis. Comparing LTLE and RTLE and patient groups separately to HC, we observed higher lobar connectivity weights in RTLE compared to LTLE for connections of the temporal and the parietal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere (CH). Moreover, especially in RTLE compared to LTLE higher local efficiency were found in the temporal cortices and other brain regions of the CH. The results of this investigation implicate altered metabolic networks in patients with TLE specific to the lateralization of seizure focus, and describe compensatory mechanisms especially in the CH of patients with RTLE. We propose that graph theoretical analysis of metabolic connectivity using [18F]FDG-PET offers an important additional modality to explore brain networks. PMID:27349503

  13. Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele) = 0.64; -log(10)P(allele) = 6.8, -log(10)P(genotype) = 7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA. PMID:22536407

  14. Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    Stefanie Mömke

    Full Text Available Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH cows indicated motilin (MLN as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele = 0.64; -log(10P(allele = 6.8, -log(10P(genotype = 7.0 with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C. In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA.

  15. Preoperative intestinal stent decompression with primary laparoscopic surgery to treat left-sided colorectal cancer with obstruction: a report of 21 cases

    This work aimed to study the safety and efficacy of preoperative intestinal stent decompression combined with laparoscopic surgery to treat left-sided colorectal cancer with obstruction (LCCO). Retrospective analysis was conducted on data obtained from 21 LCCO patients admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University during March 2008 and December 2011. To remove the intestinal obstruction, preoperative intestinal stent placement under colonoscopic guidance was performed. Approximately 7 to 10 days after the operation, laparoscopic radical surgery of colorectal cancer was conducted. Among the 21 cases studied, laparoscopic surgery was successful in 20 patients. Emergent laparotomy was conducted in one patient because of tumor invasion in the ureter. The duration of the operation ranged from 180 to 320 min, and the average time was 220 min. The recovery time for bowel function ranged from 2 to 5 days with an average time of 3 days. Postoperative infection of the incision occurred in one case. No anastomotic leakage was observed in any of the cases. Preoperative intestinal stent decompression, combined with primary stage laparoscopic surgery, is a safe and effective method for the treatment of LCCO

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.

    Salemme, Adele; Togna, Anna Rita; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Ottaviani, Monica; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Venditti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomolecules with important physiological antioxidant role as glutathione. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential effect of dihydroasparagusic acid on microglial activation in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response in primary rat microglial cultures. Our results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and lipoxygenase activity in microglia cells. Moreover it effectively suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species and affected lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase, including p38, and nuclear factor-kB pathway. These results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation. It is a compound that can effectively inhibit inflammatory and oxidative processes that are important factors of the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26592472

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NEWER MACROLIDES WITH ETORICOXIB

    Gajendra Naidu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides and to compare with standard non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID etoricoxib. This study was conducted in male wistar albino rats by inducing edema with 1% carrageenan. Animals were divided into 5 groups with 6 in each and paw edema volume was measured by digital plethysmograph before and 3hrs after 1% carrageenan administration. Percentage of inhibition of paw edema was calculated. Results showed macrolides having significant anti-inflammatory activity & the anti-inflammatory activity of roxithromycin was almost equally comparable with etoricoxib

  18. WNT signaling in activated microglia is pro-inflammatory: WNT/β-catenin signaling in microglia

    Halleskog, Carina; Mulder, Jan; Dahlström, Jenny; Mackie, Ken; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tanila, Heikki; Puli, Lakshman Kumar; Färber, Katrin; Harkany, Tibor; Schulte, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Microglia activation is central to the neuroinflammation associated with neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, particularly since activated microglia are often a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite decades-long research, the molecular cascade of pro-inflammatory transformation of microglia in vivo remains largely elusive. Here, we report increased β–catenin expression, a central intracellular component of WNT signaling, in microglia undergoing a pro-inflammatory morphogenic t...

  19. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  20. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  1. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Rejane B. Oliveira; Daniela A. Chagas-Paula; Adriana Secatto; Thaís H. Gasparoto; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Campanelli, Ana P.; Fernando B. Da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this...

  2. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer: An analysis of predictors for organ-at-risk sparing

    To identify anatomic and treatment characteristics that correlate with organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique to guide patient selection for this technique. Anatomic and treatment characteristics and radiation doses to OARs were compared between free-breathing and DIBH plans. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently predicting for cardiac sparing. We identified 64 patients: 44 with intact breast and 20 postmastectomy. For changes measured directly on treatment planning scans, DIBH plans decreased heart-chest wall length (6.5 vs 5.0 cm, p < 0.001), and increased lung volume (1074.4 vs 1881.3 cm3, p < 0.001), and for changes measured after fields are set, they decreased maximum heart depth (1.1 vs 0.3 cm, p < 0.001) and heart volume in field (HVIF) (9.1 vs 0.9 cm3, p < 0.001). DIBH reduced the mean heart dose (3.4 vs 1.8 Gy, p < 0.001) and lung V20 (19.6% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis found that only change in HVIF independently predicted for cardiac sparing. We identified patients in the bottom quartile of the dosimetric benefits seen with DIBH and categorized the cause of this “minimal benefit.” Overall, 29% of patients satisfied these criteria for minimal benefit with DIBH and the most common cause was favorable baseline anatomy. Only the reduction in HVIF predicted for reductions in mean heart dose; no specific anatomic surrogate for the dosimetric benefits of DIBH technique could be identified. Most patients have significant dosimetric benefit with DIBH, and this technique should be planned and evaluated for all patients receiving left-sided breast/chest wall radiation

  3. SU-E-J-32: Calypso(R) and Laser-Based Localization Systems Comparison for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients Using Deep Inspiration Breath Hold

    Robertson, S [Northwest Medical Physics Center, Lynnwood, WA (United States); Kaurin, D; Sweeney, L [Northwest Medical Physics Center, Lynnwood, WA (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States); Kim, J; Fang, L; Tran, A [Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Holloway, K [Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Our institution uses a manual laser-based system for primary localization and verification during radiation treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients using deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). This primary system was compared with sternum-placed Calypso(R) beacons (Varian Medical Systems, CA). Only intact breast patients are considered for this analysis. Methods: During computed tomography (CT) simulation, patients have BB and Calypso(R) surface beacons positioned sternally and marked for free-breathing and DIBH CTs. During dosimetry planning, BB longitudinal displacement between free breathing and DIBH CT determines laser mark (BH mark) location. Calypso(R) beacon locations from the DIBH CT are entered at the Tracking Station. During Linac simulation and treatment, patients inhale until the cross-hair and/or lasers coincide with the BH Mark, which can be seen using our high quality cameras (Pelco, CA). Daily Calypso(R) displacement values (difference from the DIBH-CT-based plan) are recorded.The displacement mean and standard deviation was calculated for each patient (77 patients, 1845 sessions). An aggregate mean and standard deviation was calculated weighted by the number of patient fractions.Some patients were shifted based on MV ports. A second data set was calculated with Calypso(R) values corrected by these shifts. Results: Mean displacement values indicate agreement within 1±3mm, with improvement for shifted data (Table). Conclusion: Both unshifted and shifted data sets show the Calypso(R) system coincides with the laser system within 1±3mm, demonstrating either localization/verification system will Resultin similar clinical outcomes. Displacement value uncertainty unilaterally reduces when shifts are taken into account.

  4. Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer. Dosimetrical comparison and clinical feasibility in 20 patients

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer (BC) is a well-established indication. The risk of ischaemic heart disease after radiotherapy for BC increases linearly with the heart mean dose with no apparent threshold. Radiotherapy to the left breast in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) reduces the dose to the heart. A new linac system with an integrated surface scanner (SS) for DIBH treatments was recently installed in our department. We tested it for potential benefits, safety, patients' acceptance/compliance and associated additional workload. Twenty consecutive patients following BCS for breast carcinoma of the left side were enrolled in our institutional DIBH protocol. We compared dose to the heart and ipsilateral lung (IL) between plans in DIBH and free breathing (FB) using standard defined parameters: mean dose, maximal dose to a volume of 2 cm3 (D2 cm 3), volume receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V5), 10 Gy (V10), 15 Gy (V15) and 20 Gy (V20). Comparison of median calculated dose values was performed using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. DIBH was associated with a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001) in all studied parameters for the heart and the IL. In 16 of 20 patients the heart D2 cm 3 was less than 42 Gy in DIBH. In FB the heart D2 cm 3 was ≥ 42 Gy in 17 of 20 patients. The median daily treatment time was 9 min. Radiotherapy of the left breast in DIBH using a SS could easily be incorporated into daily routine and is associated with significant dose reduction to the heart and IL. (orig.)

  5. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer: An analysis of predictors for organ-at-risk sparing

    Register, Steven; Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Reis, Isildinha; Zhao, Wei [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Amestoy, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Wright, Jean, E-mail: jwrigh71@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-04-01

    To identify anatomic and treatment characteristics that correlate with organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique to guide patient selection for this technique. Anatomic and treatment characteristics and radiation doses to OARs were compared between free-breathing and DIBH plans. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently predicting for cardiac sparing. We identified 64 patients: 44 with intact breast and 20 postmastectomy. For changes measured directly on treatment planning scans, DIBH plans decreased heart-chest wall length (6.5 vs 5.0 cm, p < 0.001), and increased lung volume (1074.4 vs 1881.3 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001), and for changes measured after fields are set, they decreased maximum heart depth (1.1 vs 0.3 cm, p < 0.001) and heart volume in field (HVIF) (9.1 vs 0.9 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001). DIBH reduced the mean heart dose (3.4 vs 1.8 Gy, p < 0.001) and lung V{sub 20} (19.6% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis found that only change in HVIF independently predicted for cardiac sparing. We identified patients in the bottom quartile of the dosimetric benefits seen with DIBH and categorized the cause of this “minimal benefit.” Overall, 29% of patients satisfied these criteria for minimal benefit with DIBH and the most common cause was favorable baseline anatomy. Only the reduction in HVIF predicted for reductions in mean heart dose; no specific anatomic surrogate for the dosimetric benefits of DIBH technique could be identified. Most patients have significant dosimetric benefit with DIBH, and this technique should be planned and evaluated for all patients receiving left-sided breast/chest wall radiation.

  6. SU-E-J-32: Calypso(R) and Laser-Based Localization Systems Comparison for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients Using Deep Inspiration Breath Hold

    Purpose: Our institution uses a manual laser-based system for primary localization and verification during radiation treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients using deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). This primary system was compared with sternum-placed Calypso(R) beacons (Varian Medical Systems, CA). Only intact breast patients are considered for this analysis. Methods: During computed tomography (CT) simulation, patients have BB and Calypso(R) surface beacons positioned sternally and marked for free-breathing and DIBH CTs. During dosimetry planning, BB longitudinal displacement between free breathing and DIBH CT determines laser mark (BH mark) location. Calypso(R) beacon locations from the DIBH CT are entered at the Tracking Station. During Linac simulation and treatment, patients inhale until the cross-hair and/or lasers coincide with the BH Mark, which can be seen using our high quality cameras (Pelco, CA). Daily Calypso(R) displacement values (difference from the DIBH-CT-based plan) are recorded.The displacement mean and standard deviation was calculated for each patient (77 patients, 1845 sessions). An aggregate mean and standard deviation was calculated weighted by the number of patient fractions.Some patients were shifted based on MV ports. A second data set was calculated with Calypso(R) values corrected by these shifts. Results: Mean displacement values indicate agreement within 1±3mm, with improvement for shifted data (Table). Conclusion: Both unshifted and shifted data sets show the Calypso(R) system coincides with the laser system within 1±3mm, demonstrating either localization/verification system will Resultin similar clinical outcomes. Displacement value uncertainty unilaterally reduces when shifts are taken into account

  7. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeung, R; Phan, T [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hudson, A [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients.

  8. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 01: Dosimetric Analysis of Respiratory Induced Cardiac Intrafraction Motion in Left-sided Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Patrick, J [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London Canada (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario Canada (Canada); Yu, E [Department of Oncology, Western University, London Canada (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario Canada (Canada); Gaede, S [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London Canada (Canada); Department of Oncology, Western University, London Canada (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario Canada (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario Canada (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: Long-term cardiac side effects in left-sided breast cancer patients (BREL) after post-operative radiotherapy has become one of the most debated issues in radiation oncology. Through breathing-adapted radiotherapy the volume of the heart exposed to radiation can be significantly reduced by delivering the radiation only at the end of inspiration phase of the respiratory cycle, this is referred to as inspiration gating (IG). The purpose of this study is to quantify the potential reduction in cardiac exposure during IG compared to conventional BREL radiotherapy and to assess the dosimetric impact of cardiac motion due to natural breathing. Methods: 24 BREL patients treated with tangential parallel opposed photon beams were included in this study. All patients received a standard fast helical planning CT (FH-CT) and a 4D-CT. Treatment plans were created on the FH-CT using a clinical treatment planning system. The original treatment plan was then superimposed onto the end of inspiration CT and all 10 phases of the 4D-CT to quantify the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion and IG through 4D dose accumulation. Results: Through IG the mean dose to the heart, left ventricle, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be reduced in comparison to the clinical standard BREL treatment by as much as 8.39%, 10.11%, and 13.71% respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Failure to account for respiratory motion can lead to under or overestimation in the calculated DVH for the heart, and it's sub-structures. IG can reduce cardiac exposure especially to the LAD during BREL radiotherapy.

  9. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 01: Dosimetric Analysis of Respiratory Induced Cardiac Intrafraction Motion in Left-sided Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Introduction: Long-term cardiac side effects in left-sided breast cancer patients (BREL) after post-operative radiotherapy has become one of the most debated issues in radiation oncology. Through breathing-adapted radiotherapy the volume of the heart exposed to radiation can be significantly reduced by delivering the radiation only at the end of inspiration phase of the respiratory cycle, this is referred to as inspiration gating (IG). The purpose of this study is to quantify the potential reduction in cardiac exposure during IG compared to conventional BREL radiotherapy and to assess the dosimetric impact of cardiac motion due to natural breathing. Methods: 24 BREL patients treated with tangential parallel opposed photon beams were included in this study. All patients received a standard fast helical planning CT (FH-CT) and a 4D-CT. Treatment plans were created on the FH-CT using a clinical treatment planning system. The original treatment plan was then superimposed onto the end of inspiration CT and all 10 phases of the 4D-CT to quantify the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion and IG through 4D dose accumulation. Results: Through IG the mean dose to the heart, left ventricle, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be reduced in comparison to the clinical standard BREL treatment by as much as 8.39%, 10.11%, and 13.71% respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Failure to account for respiratory motion can lead to under or overestimation in the calculated DVH for the heart, and it's sub-structures. IG can reduce cardiac exposure especially to the LAD during BREL radiotherapy

  10. Usefulness of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation, as a Strong Predictor of Heart Failure and Death in Patients With Native Left-Sided Infective Endocarditis.

    Ferrera, Carlos; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández, Cristina; López, Javier; Sarriá, Cristina; Olmos, Carmen; Vivas, David; Sáez, Carmen; Sánchez-Enrique, Cristina; Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; San Román, José Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in adults and has been independently related to increased morbidity and mortality. AF is a frequent arrhythmia in infective endocarditis (IE). Nevertheless, there are no data on how AF affects the clinical outcome of patients with endocarditis. Our purpose was to investigate patient characteristics, microbiology, echocardiographic findings, in-hospital course, and prognosis of patients with IE who develop new-onset AF (NAF) and compare them with those who remained in sinus rhythm (SR) or had previous AF (PAF). From 1997 to 2014, 507 consecutive patients with native left-sided IE were prospectively recruited at 3 tertiary care centers. We distinguished 3 groups according to the type of baseline heart rhythm during hospitalization and previous history of AF: NAF group (n = 52), patients with no previous history of AF and who were diagnosed as having NAF during hospitalization; SR group (n = 380), patients who remained in SR; and PAF group (n = 75), patients with PAF. Patients with NAF were older than those who remained in SR (68.3 vs 59.6 years, p <0.001). At admission, heart failure was more common in NAF group (53% vs 34.3%, p <0.001), whereas stroke (p = 0.427) was equally frequent in all groups. During hospitalization, embolic events occurred similarly (p = 0.411). In the multivariate analysis, NAF was independently associated with heart failure (odds ratio 3.56, p <0.01) and mortality (odds ratio 1.91, p = 0.04). In conclusion, the occurrence of NAF in patients with IE was strongly associated with heart failure and higher in-hospital mortality independently from other relevant clinical variables. PMID:26762724

  11. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity

    Waseem Rizvi; Mohd Fayazuddin; Syed Shariq; Ompal Singh; Shagufta Moin; Kafil Akhtar; Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cichorium intybus L. commonly known as chicory is one of the important medicinal plants commonly used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is commonly used for the treatment of diseases involving a khapa and pitta doshas. Traditionally, C. intybus is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but there are only few in vitro studies reporting the anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory. Objective: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory and me...

  13. Modulating the inflammatory properties of activated microglia with Docosahexaenoic acid and Aspirin

    Pettit, Lauren K; Varsanyi, Christopher; Tadros, James; Vassiliou, Evros

    2013-01-01

    Background Microglia are considered the “resident macrophages” of the brain. When in their resting state, microglia perform routine maintenance and immune surveillance. Once activated, either by injury or an immune stimulus, microglia secrete a variety of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as Nitric Oxide, superoxide, and inflammatory cytokines. Up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules is transient, and does not cause neurodegeneration. However, if up-regulation lasts for an extended period ...

  14. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

    Sandhia. K. G; Bindu. A. R

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema) at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male W...

  15. Antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa bark decoction: a mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Dinis, Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Decoctions prepared from the bark of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) are widely used in the traditional Peruvian medicine for the treatment of several diseases, in particular as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine if the well-known anti-inflammatory activity of cat's claw decoction was related with its reactivity with the oxidant species generated in the inflammatory process and to establish a relationship between such antioxidant abilit...

  16. Determination of Teloschistes flavicans (sw norm anti-inflammatory activity

    Eugênia C Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichens produce a variety of substances that possesses pharmacological actions. However, rare products are submitted to rigorous scientific tests or have the risk potential or side effects evaluated. The lack of medical and sanitary control, absence of accurate botanical identification or purity certification, founded in diverse natural products, may represent great danger to population health. This work aimed to evaluate toxic effects and anti-inflammatory action in vivo of Teloschistes flavicans (Sw. Norm. (TFN unrefined extracts, as well as determinate its main constituents. Methods: The carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet implant induced granuloma methods were utilized, besides a classic acute toxicity test. TFN acetone extract inhibited carrageenan paw edema on 60, 120, and 180 min (inhibition percentiles of 45.03%, 60.59% and 41.72%. Results: TFN ethereal (inhibition percentiles of 23.95% and 29.01% and chloroform (inhibition percentiles of 28.8% and 22.04% extracts inhibited edema on 120 and 180 min. None of the extract inhibited the granuloma development. None of the extract caused death or other acute toxicity signs. Vicanicine (60.26% in ethereal extract and 51.17% in acetone extract, parietine (9.60% in ethereal extract and 15.38% on second, falacinol (0.78% in ether and 14.95% in acetone and very low concentration of falacinal (0.15% in ethereal extract and 3.32% in acetone extract were detected in the medicine. Conclusions: The tested extracts have antiedematogenic activity, but are not effective on subchronic inflammation. The extracts do not present toxic effects in administered doses.

  17. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils: A Short Review

    Maria Graça Miguel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of interest in thye food and cosmetic industries as well as in the human health field. In this work, a review was done on the most recent publications concerning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. At the same time a survey of the methods generally used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity and some of the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils are also reported.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvadora persica L. against Carrageenan Induced Paw Oedema in Rat Relevant to Inflammatory Cytokines

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous alcoholic crude extract and ethyl acetate extract of miswak sticks (Salvadora persica L. was investigated in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema in respect to immunological parameters. Adult male sapargue dawely rats were classified into four groups, group I received the vehicle (0.25% gum acacia solution, group II received crude aqueous alcoholic extract orally at 100 mg/kg, group III received ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/kg orally and group IV received indomethacin (20 mg/kg orally, and served as standard reference. The oedema was quantified by measuring the hind paw thickness immediately before subplantar injection, and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Blood samples were withdrawn after the 4th hour of carrageenan induction, centrifuged and sera were used for analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Administration of aqueous alcoholic extract and ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/ml significantly reduced the oedema thickness in a time dependent manner, the inhibition percentage of inflammation was 17% for crude extract and 27% for ethyl acetate extract. Also the two extracts reduced secretion of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor nercrosis factor-α (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in serum. The ethyl acetate extract shows potent activity to be nearly the same of indomethacin activity on all determined parameters at the last hour of following up. These results may be due to the presence of flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract. Three major flavonoids were isolated from ethyl acetate extract and identified as apigenin rhamnoglucoside, luteolin glucoside and rutin. The experimental study revealed that Salvadora persica extracts display remarkable anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Treatment of left sided breast cancer for a patient with funnel chest: Volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs. 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    This case study presents a rare case of left-sided breast cancer in a patient with funnel chest, which is a technical challenge for radiation therapy planning. To identify the best treatment technique for this case, 3 techniques were compared: conventional tangential fields (3D conformal radiotherapy [3D-CRT]), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The plans were created for a SynergyS® (Elekta, Ltd, Crawley, UK) linear accelerator with a BeamModulator™ head and 6-MV photons. The planning system was Oncentra Masterplan® v3.3 SP1 (Nucletron BV, Veenendal, Netherlands). Calculations were performed with collapsed cone algorithm. Dose prescription was 50.4 Gy to the average of the planning target volume (PTV). PTV coverage and homogeneity was comparable for all techniques. VMAT allowed reducing dose to the ipsilateral organs at risk (OAR) and the contralateral breast compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT: The volume of the left lung receiving 20 Gy was 19.3% for VMAT, 26.1% for IMRT, and 32.4% for 3D-CRT. In the heart, a D15% of 9.7 Gy could be achieved with VMAT compared with 14 Gy for IMRT and 46 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral breast, D15% was 6.4 Gy for VMAT, 8.8 Gy for IMRT, and 10.2 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral lung, however, the lowest dose was achieved with 3D-CRT with D10% of 1.7 Gy for 3D-CRT, and 6.7 Gy for both IMRT and VMAT. The lowest number of monitor units (MU) per 1.8-Gy fraction was required by 3D-CRT (192 MU) followed by VMAT (518 MU) and IMRT (727 MU). Treatment time was similar for 3D-CRT (3 min) and VMAT (4 min) but substantially increased for IMRT (13 min). VMAT is considered the best treatment option for the presented case of a patient with funnel chest. It allows reducing dose in most OAR without compromising target coverage, keeping delivery time well below 5 minutes

  20. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Vishal Gulecha; Sivakumar, T.; Aman Upaganlawar; Manoj Mahajan; Chandrashekhar Upasani

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  1. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae)

    N. M. U. Seruji; H. Y. Khong; C. J. Kutoi

    2013-01-01

    In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was per...

  2. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT OF POLYGALA ROSMARINIFOLIA WIGHT & ARN (POLYGALACEAE

    V.R. Mohan et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Polygala rosmarinifolia whole plant was extracted with ethanol and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using a carrageenan induced paw edema method. Ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg at 3rd hr after administration is compared with reference standard drug, Indomethacin. Observed pharmacological activity in the present study provides scientific validation of ethnomedicinal use of this plant in treating acute inflammation.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin

    Campos, Janaína K. L.; Araújo, Chrisjacele S. F.; Araújo, Tiago F. S.; Santos, Andréa F. S.; Teixeira, J.A.; Vera L M Lima; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.

    2016-01-01

    A galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia monandra leaves (BmoLL) have been purified through ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by guar gel affinity chromatography column. This study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of pure BmoLL in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by 1% carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice treated with BmoLL. Acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate methods evaluated antinociceptive activity. B...

  4. Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of simvastatin and atorvastatin

    Jaiswal, Swapnil R.; Smita D Sontakke

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of atorvastatin and simvastatin in different experimental models in mice and rats. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity of simvastatin and atorvastatin was assessed in tail flick model in rats (n = 6), where it was compared with aspirin and tramadol and in acetic acid induced writhing in mice (n = 6), where it was compared with aspirin. Anti-inflammatory activity of statins was evaluated using ca...

  5. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Jae Ho; Park, Gwang Hun; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was...

  6. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract of Chiliotrichum diffusum

    Sandra M. Alcalde Bahamonde; Flores, María L.; Córdoba, Osvaldo L.; Carlos A. Taira; Susana Gorzalczany

    2013-01-01

    The flowers of the Chiliotrichum diffusum (G. Forst.) Kuntze, Asteraceae, have long been used in traditional medicine and rituals. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of a decoction of the flowers were evaluated and a phytochemical analysis was performed by HPLC-DAD. In order to evaluate the antinociceptive activity, the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate tests were used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenaninduced ra...

  7. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy) Acetamide Derivatives

    Priyanka Rani; Dilipkumar Pal; Rahul Rama Hegde; Syed Riaz Hashim

    2014-01-01

    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activ...

  8. [In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from Ilex centrochinensis].

    Li, Lu-jun; Yu, Li-juan; Li, Yan-ci; Liu, Meng-yuan; Wu, Zheng-zhi

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from flex centrochinensis S. Y. Hu in vitro and their structure-activity relationship. LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage was used as inflammatory model. MTT assay for cell availability, Griess reaction for nitric oxide (NO) production, the content of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and PGE, were detected with ELISA kits; DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals scavenging activities were also investigated. According to the result, all flavans tested exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in different levels. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 showed potent anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NO, TNF-alpha, IL-lp and IL-6, of which 1 was the most effective inhibitor, however, 2 and 5 were relatively weak or inactive. The order of free radical scavenging activities was similar to that of anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, these results suggest that 3, 4 and 6, especially of 1, were,in part responsible for the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ilex centrochinensis. Hydroxyl group at 4'-position of B-ring plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging capacities. PMID:26281592

  9. Exploring the anti-inflammatory activity of a novel 2-phenylquinazoline analog with protection against inflammatory injury

    Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Somenath; Das, Sujata [Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal (India); Chattopadhyay, Debprasad [ICMR Virus Unit, ID and BG Hospital, GB 4, 57 Dr Suresh C Banerjee Road, Beliaghata, Kolkata-700010 (India); Saha, Krishna Das, E-mail: krishnaiicb@yahoo.com [Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal (India)

    2012-10-15

    Inflammation is a protective immune response against harmful stimuli whose long time continuation results in host disease. Quinazolinones are nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds with wide spectrum of biological activities. The anticancer effect of a 3-(arylideneamino)‐phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative was reported earlier. The anti-inflammatory effect of these quinazolinone derivatives has now been examined in endotoxin stimulated macrophages and in different in vivo models of inflammation by measuring the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), mediators NO and NF-κB (by ELISA and western blot), and translocation of the nuclear factor kB (by immunocytochemical analysis). To elucidate the in vivo effect, mice endotoxin model was and the various levels of edema, inflammatory pain and vascular permeability were studied. One of the quinazolinone derivatives showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2, p-IκB and NF-κBp65. Significant (P < 0.01) improvement was observed in the mortality of endotoxemic mice. The carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema thicknesses were found to be reduced significantly (P < 0.01) along with the reduction of pain, vascular permeability and edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that 3-(arylideneamino)‐phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative as a potential anti-inflammatory agent. -- Highlights: ► 2-phenylquinazoline analog suppresses the cytokines in stimulated macrophages. ► 2-phenylquinazoline analog down regulated NF-kB P65 translocation. ► Role of 2-phenylquinazoline analog in endotoximia and peripheral inflammations.

  10. Exploring the anti-inflammatory activity of a novel 2-phenylquinazoline analog with protection against inflammatory injury

    Inflammation is a protective immune response against harmful stimuli whose long time continuation results in host disease. Quinazolinones are nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds with wide spectrum of biological activities. The anticancer effect of a 3-(arylideneamino)‐phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative was reported earlier. The anti-inflammatory effect of these quinazolinone derivatives has now been examined in endotoxin stimulated macrophages and in different in vivo models of inflammation by measuring the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), mediators NO and NF-κB (by ELISA and western blot), and translocation of the nuclear factor kB (by immunocytochemical analysis). To elucidate the in vivo effect, mice endotoxin model was and the various levels of edema, inflammatory pain and vascular permeability were studied. One of the quinazolinone derivatives showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2, p-IκB and NF-κBp65. Significant (P < 0.01) improvement was observed in the mortality of endotoxemic mice. The carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema thicknesses were found to be reduced significantly (P < 0.01) along with the reduction of pain, vascular permeability and edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that 3-(arylideneamino)‐phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative as a potential anti-inflammatory agent. -- Highlights: ► 2-phenylquinazoline analog suppresses the cytokines in stimulated macrophages. ► 2-phenylquinazoline analog down regulated NF-kB P65 translocation. ► Role of 2-phenylquinazoline analog in endotoximia and peripheral inflammations.

  11. IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. STEM BARK ON ALBINO RATS

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.

  12. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy Acetamide Derivatives

    Priyanka Rani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy-N-(1-phenylethylacetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer, SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma, anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a–j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenylethyl-2-(4-nitrophenoxyacetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent.

  13. Anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of synthesized 2-(substituted phenoxy) acetamide derivatives.

    Rani, Priyanka; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz

    2014-01-01

    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a-j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenoxy)acetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. PMID:25197642

  14. Exploration of possible mechanisms for anti-inflammatory activity of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (Convolvulaceae

    Mital N. Manvar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently used steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have severe side effects. These side effects are very difficult to manage than the disease itself. Hence, there is to search new safe resources to cure such diseases that the use of plant based drugs. This study deals with anti-inflammatory evaluation of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ipomoea aquatica leaves as well as their possible mechanism of action. A carrageenan‐induced rat paw oedema model was used for anti-inflammatory study. The mechanism/s by which Ipomoea aquatica is mediated the ant-inflammatory activity was determined by its effects in antihistamine activity, prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity, membrane stabilizing activity and protein denaturation inhibition activity. Dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity was found with HAEIA in rat paw oedema model using carrageenan. HAEIA effective to suppressed the wheal area formed by histamine. HAEIA revealed dose dependent prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity. HAEIA was effectively inhibited the heat induced hemolysis of HRBCs as well as heat induced albumin denaturation. Therefore, it was concluded that the HAEIA has anti-inflammatory activity possibly mediated through inhibition of release of mediator histamine and prostaglandin and has also HRBCs membrane stabilization and protein denaturation inhibition properties.

  15. Cytotoxicity and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Methylsulfanyl-triazoloquinazolines

    Moustafa M. G. Fouda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty five 2-methylsulfanyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline derivatives 1–25 was previously synthesized. We have now investigated their cytotoxic effects against hepatocellular Hep-G2 and colon HCT-116 carcinoma cells and effect on the macrophage growth, in addition to their influence of the inflammatory mediators [nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2 and in bacterial lipopolysachharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages]. The findings revealed that compounds 13 and 17 showed the highest cytotoxicity and that 3, 6–8 and 25 are promising multi-potent anti-inflammatory agents.

  16. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of fixed dose combination: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in experimental animals

    Amit Lahoti

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Combining paracetamol with ibuprofen enhances analgesic/anti-inflammatory activity over their individual component but potentiation of analgesic activity of diclofenac was not seen when paracetamol was added to it.

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA LONGA

    Mohammad Basir Khan , Md. Atai Rabby , Md Hasmat Ullah and Chowdhury Faiz Hossain*

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant used as a food additive. It has been reported that rhizome of this plant have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor property. Methanol extract of Rhizome of Curcuma longa was investigated here to see the antimicrobial actions and anti-inflammatory effect. During the extraction process a purified single compound (D1 was isolated and investigated for its antimicrobial activity. Significant antimicrobial activity than penicillin were found for 500µg C. longa extract. Anti-inflammatory action of C. longa was also assessed using mice models. The purified compound D1 fraction showed antimicrobial action in 50µg concentration. Our study reveal that C. longa has antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and gram negative bacteria where curcumin may not be the only compound that is responsible for the antimicrobial activity. On the other hand, C. longa extract had shown significant anti-inflammatory action.

  19. Dosimetric comparison for volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy on the left-sided chest wall and internal mammary nodes irradiation in treating post-mastectomy breast cancer

    Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xiao Li; Hu, Wei Gang; Chen, Jia Yi; Wang, Jia Zhou; Ye, Jin Song; Guo, Xiao Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the dosimetric benefit of applying volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the post-mastectomy left-sided breast cancer patients, with the involvement of internal mammary nodes (IMN). Patients and methods The prescription dose was 50 Gy delivered in 25 fractions, and the clinical target volume included the left chest wall (CW) and IMN. VMAT plans were created and compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans on Pinnacle treatmen...

  20. Potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. nut.

    Bhandare, Amol M; Kshirsagar, Ajay D; Vyawahare, Neeraj S; Hadambar, Avinash A; Thorve, Vrushali S

    2010-12-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. (ANE) nut was screened for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant potential. Three doses of ANE (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg orally) were tested for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Evaluation of analgesic activity of ANE was performed using hot plate and formalin test in mice. ANE showed maximum increase in hot plate reaction time (56.27%, pAreca catechu could be considered as a potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. PMID:20849907

  1. Synthesis and Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of New Pyridazinones

    DOĞRUER, Deniz S.; ŞAHİN, M. Fethi

    2003-01-01

    A new series of 2-(6-oxo-3,5-diphenyl-6H-pyridazin-1-yl)- acetamides and 3-[6-oxo-3,5-diphenyl-6H-pyridazin-1-yl)-propanamides were synthesized and evaluated in terms of their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All compounds except for 7g were more potent than aspirin in a p-benzoquinone--induced writhing test at 100 mg/kg dose. Compounds 7b, 7c and 7e had the highest anti-inflammatory activity; compound 7e was the most potent in terms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory acti...

  2. A Review on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pomegranate in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Elisa Colombo; Enrico Sangiovanni; Mario Dell'Agli

    2013-01-01

    Several biological activities of pomegranate have been widely described in the literature, but the anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract has not been reviewed till now. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of pomegranate for coping with inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The paper has been organized in three parts: (1) the first one is devoted to the modifications of pomegranate active compounds in the gast...

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Agave Plants and the Compound Cantalasaponin-1

    Jaime Tortoriello; Maribel Herrera-Ruiz; Manases Gonzalez-Cortazar; Alejandro Zamilpa; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio R.; Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer; Martha L. Arenas Ocampo; Nayeli Monterrosas-Brisson

    2013-01-01

    Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants’ leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear ede...

  4. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Nasir, Fazli; Hassan, Muhammad; Ismail; Shah, Waheed Ali

    2014-03-01

    In present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of three medicinal plants, Xanthium strumarium, Achyranthes aspera and Duchesnea indica were evaluated, using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to carry out the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, while for in vitro screening lipoxygenase inhibition assay was used. Crude extract of all the selected plants depicted significant (plt;0.001) anti-inflammatory activity, at late phase of inflammation. Achyranthes aspera also showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity (47%) at relatively lower concentration (200 mg/ml), at the initial phase of inflammation. Similarly the ethyl acetate fraction of all the selected plants showed significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity when compared with the standard drug (Baicalein). The results obtained from both in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of all the selected plants can be used for the isolation of new lead compounds with better anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24577927

  5. Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer. Dosimetrical comparison and clinical feasibility in 20 patients

    Hepp, Rodrigo; Ammerpohl, Mark; Morgenstern, Christina; Erichsen, Patricia [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Nielinger, Lisa [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt, Lippstadt (Germany); Abdallah, Abdallah [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Senologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Galalae, Razvan [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Medizinische Fakultaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer (BC) is a well-established indication. The risk of ischaemic heart disease after radiotherapy for BC increases linearly with the heart mean dose with no apparent threshold. Radiotherapy to the left breast in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) reduces the dose to the heart. A new linac system with an integrated surface scanner (SS) for DIBH treatments was recently installed in our department. We tested it for potential benefits, safety, patients' acceptance/compliance and associated additional workload. Twenty consecutive patients following BCS for breast carcinoma of the left side were enrolled in our institutional DIBH protocol. We compared dose to the heart and ipsilateral lung (IL) between plans in DIBH and free breathing (FB) using standard defined parameters: mean dose, maximal dose to a volume of 2 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3}), volume receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V{sub 5}), 10 Gy (V{sub 10}), 15 Gy (V{sub 15}) and 20 Gy (V{sub 20}). Comparison of median calculated dose values was performed using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. DIBH was associated with a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001) in all studied parameters for the heart and the IL. In 16 of 20 patients the heart D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3} was less than 42 Gy in DIBH. In FB the heart D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3} was ≥ 42 Gy in 17 of 20 patients. The median daily treatment time was 9 min. Radiotherapy of the left breast in DIBH using a SS could easily be incorporated into daily routine and is associated with significant dose reduction to the heart and IL. (orig.) [German] Die adjuvante Strahlentherapie nach brusterhaltener Operation (BCS) bei Brustkrebs (BC) ist eine seit langem anerkannte Behandlungsform. Das postradiogene Risiko einer kardialen Ischaemie steigt linear ohne erkennbaren Schwellenwert mit der mittleren Herzdosis. Die Bestrahlung der linken Brust in tiefer Inspiration unter Anhalten der

  6. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: II. Activity against periopathogenic biofilms and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Hua, J; Scott, R W; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Whereas periodontal disease is ultimately of bacterial etiology, from multispecies biofilms of gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, much of the deleterious effects are caused by the resultant epithelial inflammatory response. Hence, development of a treatment that combines anti-biofilm antibiotic activity with anti-inflammatory activity would be of great utility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins are naturally occurring peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum activity as well as a variety of immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, bacteria do not readily develop resistance to these agents. However, clinical studies have suggested that they do not represent optimal candidates for exogenous therapeutic agents. Small-molecule mimetics of these AMPs exhibit similar activities to the parent peptides, in addition to having low toxicity, high stability and low cost. To determine whether AMP mimetics have the potential for treatment of periodontal disease, we examined the activity of one mimetic, mPE, against biofilm cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Metabolic assays as well as culture and biomass measurement assays demonstrated that mPE exhibits potent activity against biofilm cultures of both species. Furthermore, as little as 2 μg ml(-1) mPE was sufficient to inhibit interleukin-1β-induced secretion of interleukin-8 in both gingival epithelial cells and THP-1 cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with a reduction in activation of nuclear factor-κB, suggesting that mPE can act both as an anti-biofilm agent in an anaerobic environment and as an anti-inflammatory agent in infected tissues. PMID:21040516

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth

    Rupali Vitthal Sarpate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth belongs to family Acanthaceae. The plants have been the subject of scientific research which confirms its use in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory drugs showing potent anti-rheumatic effects. Previous research claims the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of Lupeol and 19α-H Lupeol isolated from Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala roots. Based on the literature cited, the unexplored parts stems and leaves of the two species were selected for the present study. Aim: The present study is designed to isolate steroidal and alkaloidal components from the two species Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala using the unexplored parts viz. stems and leaves and to investigate its anti-inflammatory effect. Settings and Design: The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated employing subacute anti-inflammatory models namely cotton pellet granuloma and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using isolated test components RVS-A (Lupeol, RVS-C (Doctriacantone and standard drug Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg. Results: The present study has dealt up with isolation of two phytoconstituents Lupeol and Dotriacontane which gave marked anti-inflammatory activity at the dose 20 mg/kg in both the models Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and Cotton pellet granuloma. Conclusion: The results confirm that the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of RVS-A (Lupeol and RVS-C (Doctriacantone involves reduction of prostaglandins through inhibition of cyclooxygenase and suppression of proliferative phase of sub acute inflammation. Thus the steroidal and alkaloidal components Lupeol and Doctriacantone isolated from Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth shows marked anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities ofPassiflora foetida L

    Sasikala V; Saravanan S; Parimelazhagan T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida (P. foetida) leaves.Methods:Ethanol extract ofP. foetida leaf was evaluated for analgesic action by acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate method in albino mice. The anti-inflammatory property of ethanolic leaf extract was tested by carrageenan induced acute paw edema and histamine induced acute paw edema in rats.Results:The dose200 mg/kg ofP. foetida leaf extract exhibited highest significant analgesic activity [(13.50±0.43) min] at a reaction time of20 min in hot plate method in mice. The ethanol extract of leaf dose 100 mg/kg produced a highly significant anti inflammatory effect [(1.302±0.079)mL] in rats.Conclusions: It is very clear thatP. foetidaalso has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities for the pharmaceuticals.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Camellia japonica oil

    Seungbeom Kim; Eunsun Jung; Seungwoo Shin; Moohan Kim; Young-Soo Kim; Jongsung Lee; Deokhoon Park

    2012-01-01

    Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) has been used traditionally in EastAsia to nourish and soothe the skin as well as help restore theelasticity of skin. CJ oil has also been used on all types ofbleeding instances. However, little is known about itsanti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the anti-inflammatoryeffects of CJ oil and its mechanisms of action were investigated.CJ oil inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, PGE2, andTNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of COX-2and iNOS genes w...

  10. PGH1, the precursor for the anti-inflammatory prostaglandins of the 1-series, is a potent activator of the pro-inflammatory receptor CRTH2/DP2

    Schröder, Ralf; Xue, Luzheng; Konya, Viktoria;

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin H(1) (PGH(1)) is the cyclo-oxygenase metabolite of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and the precursor for the 1-series of prostaglandins which are often viewed as "anti-inflammatory". Herein we present evidence that PGH(1) is a potent activator of the pro-inflammatory PGD(2) receptor ...

  11. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of extract of Vernonia Amygdalina

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract ofVernonia amygdalina (V.A).Methods: Inflammatory response was induced by topical application of croton oil dissolved in suitable vehicle on the rat ear. After 6 hrs, cutting out the ear quantitated the response. The cut ear was weighed and the increase in weight relative to control group was evaluated.Results: When co-applied with croton oil to the rat ear extract of V.A. produced a reduction in the inflammatory response when croton oil alone was applied to the rat ear. The extract produced (69.1±2.0)% reduction of the inflammatory response produced by croton oil alone, lower than the reduction of the inflammatory response produced by acetyl salicylic acid [(71.1±2.0)%].Conclusions: This finding suggests that extract of V.A. exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and may explain the usefulness of the leaves of this plant in the treatment of inflammatory disease conditions by traditional healers.

  12. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    Ji Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  13. Topical Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Hybrid Molecules of Terpenes and Synthetic Drugs

    Cristina Theoduloz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in the activity of anti-inflammatory terpenes from Chilean medicinal plants after the formation of derivatives incorporating synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. Ten new hybrid molecules were synthesized combining terpenes (ferruginol (1, imbricatolic acid (2 and oleanolic acid (3 with ibuprofen (4 or naproxen (5. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was assessed in mice by the arachidonic acid (AA and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA induced ear edema assays. Basal cytotoxicity was determined towards human lung fibroblasts, gastric epithelial cells and hepatocytes. At 1.4 µmol/mouse, a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the TPA assay was observed for oleanoyl ibuprofenate 12 (79.9% and oleanoyl ibuprofenate methyl ester 15 (80.0%. In the AA assay, the best activity was observed for 12 at 3.2 µmol/mouse, with 56.8% reduction of inflammation, in the same range as nimesulide (48.9%. All the terpenyl-synthetic anti-inflammatory hybrids showed better effects in the TPA assay, with best activity for 6, 12 and 15. The cytotoxicity of the compounds 8 and 10 with a free COOH, was higher than that of 2. The derivatives from 3 were less toxic than the triterpene. Several of the new compounds presented better anti-inflammatory effect and lower cytotoxicity than the parent terpenes.

  14. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eugenia Caryophllata Essential Oil: An animal model of anti-inflammatory activity

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is gas chromatographic analysis of Eugenia caryaphyllata (clove) essential oil and investigation of its anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: The study involved eight groups; Serum physiologic, ethyl alcohol, indomethacin (3 mg/kg), etodolac (50 mg/kg), cardamom (0.05 mL/kg), EC-I (0.025 mL/kg), EC-II (0.050 mL/kg), EC-III (0.100 mL/kg) and EC-IV (0.200mL/kg). After measuring the volumes of right hind-paws of rats using a plethysmometer, drugs were injected intraperit...

  15. SU-D-18A-06: Variation of Controlled Breath Hold From CT Simulation to Treatment and Its Dosimetric Impact for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy with a Real-Time Optical Tracking System

    Purpose: Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal breathing vs. chest breathing) during CT simulation and treatment can lead to chest wall positional variation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the variation of active breathing control (ABC)-assisted BH and estimate its dosimetric impact for left-sided whole-breast radiotherapy with a real-time optical tracking system (OTS). Methods: Seven breast cancer patients were included. An in-house OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the xiphoid process of the patient at CT simulation and throughout the treatment course to measure BH variations. Correlation between the IR marker and the breast was studied for dosimetric purposes. The positional variations of 860 BHs were retrospectively incorporated into treatment plans to assess their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD]). Results: The mean intrafraction variations were 2.8 mm, 2.7 mm, and 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior (AP), craniocaudal (CC), and mediolateral (ML) directions, respectively. Mean stability in any direction was within 1.5 mm. A general trend of BH undershoot at treatment relative to CT simulation was observed with an average of 4.4 mm, 3.6 mm, and 0.1 mm in the AP, CC, and ML directions, respectively. Undershoot up to 12.6 mm was observed for individual patients. The difference between the planned and delivered dose to breast targets was negligible. The average planned/delivered mean heart doses, mean LAD doses, and max LAD doses were 1.4/2.1, 7.4/15.7, and 18.6/31.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic undershoot was observed in ABC-assisted BHs from CT simulation to treatment. Its dosimetric impact on breast coverage was minimized with image guidance, but the benefits of cardiac organ sparing were degraded. A real-time tracking system can be used in junction with the ABC device to improve BH reproducibility

  16. Murine inflammatory factor co-chromatographs with murine interleukin-2 activity

    In a study of the in vivo effects of semi-purified mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2), inflammatory activity indicated by edema and plasma protein extravasation (PPE) was detected in those fractions having IL-2 activity. The molecular weight of the inflammatory factor activity from conditioned medium was 30 to 48 kDal on the basis of gel filtration on Sephadex G75. The edema, characterized as maximum paw thickness, occurred at 4 h, whereas the PPE peak (measured with 125I-albumin) occurred 1.5 to 3 h after injection. Both edema and PPE were inhibited by dexamethasone or indomethacin, suggesting the involvement of prostaglandins in the process. This inflammatory activity may be partly responsible for some of the in vivo activities ascribed to IL-2. (author)

  17. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of calyces from Physalis peruviana.

    Toro, Reina M; Aragón, Diana M; Ospina, Luis F; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:25532284

  18. [Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a trans-cutaneous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, etofenamate gel].

    Nakamura, H; Yokoyama, Y; Motoyoshi, S; Seto, Y; Ishii, K; Imazu, C; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of topically applied etofenamate gel (5% etofenamate) were investigated in experimental animals. Etofenamate gel showed a dose related inhibition against vascular permeability caused by histamine in mice and ultra violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs at doses of 10--100 mg/site and 25--200 (ED50 = 26.6) mg/site, respectively. The erythema was not inhibited with its topical application of 100 mg/site to the skin distant from the erythema. Granuloma formation, caused by felt-pellet implantation, was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by repeated application of etofenamate gel (10--100 mg/site/day). Etofenamate gel inhibited the pain-like responses in both the arthritic joint and the edematous hind paw of rats with 50--200 mg/joint and 100 mg/paw, respectively. In these tests, the vehicle gel did not show any significant activity. The potency of etofenamate gel was stronger than that of adrenal-extracts ointment (Mobilat) and approximately comparable to indomethacin ointment (1% indomethacin) in a weight basis of formulations. Topical application of etofenamate (0.5--2 mg/ear) resulted in a dose related decrease of contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone in mice, and its activity was nearly equipotent to flufenamic acid and about one-fourth that of indomethacin. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate gel, applied topically to the inflamed tissue, showed a certain inhibitory activity against acute and subacute-chronic inflammation and inflammatory pain-like responses. PMID:7173741

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of bupropion in animal models

    Hajhashemi, V.; Khanjani, P.

    2014-01-01

    Antidepressants are widely used for the treatment of various neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that bupropion is effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Also antidepressants like bupropion showed anti-inflammatory properties. So in the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of bupropion in mice and rat were investigated. The acetic acid, formalin and hot plate tests were used in male mice to assess analgesic activity. For eval...

  20. Phenolic Enriched Extract of Baccharis trimera Presents Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities

    Simone C. B. Gnoatto; Jarbas R. de Oliveira; Grace Gosmann; Vanusa Manfredini; Carmen Regla Vargas; Lucimara N. Comunello; Amaral, Robson H.; Gabriela Lucas da Silva; Cristiane B. de Oliveira; Adroaldo Lunardelli; Pires, Melissa G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Baccharis trimera is a plant popularly used as a tea and to treat gastrointestinal diseases and inflammatory processes as well. The total phenolic content was determined and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of six extracts (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, aqueous, saponin and phenolic) from B. trimera were evaluated. Using carrageenan-induced pleurisy as a model of acute inflammation, the phenolic extract at 15 mg/kg decreased significantly the analyzed parameters whe...

  1. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC STEM EXTRACTS OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA LINN. IN RATS

    Tailor Chandra Shekhar; Bahuguna Y M; Singh Vijender

    2010-01-01

    In the present Study of Ethanolic extract of Stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn.(Rubiaceae) was screened for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema rats. The effect was assessed by Difference in paw oedema volume, before & after the low & high dose administration of the extract in Rats. Ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia stem (20 & 40 mg./kg./ml.) were administered orally. Anti-inflammatory effects were compared with Standard drug- Indomethacin (10mg./kg/ml.). These observ...

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya; Parveen Kumar; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; B R Balakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia...

  3. Role of interleukin 1 in inflammatory bowel disease--enhanced production during active disease.

    Ligumsky, M; Simon, P L; Karmeli, F; Rachmilewitz, D

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin 1 is a polypeptide cytokine produced by various cell types and has been shown to have a major role in inflammatory and immunological responses. In experimental colitis it proved to be a dominant mediator and a reliable marker of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro the extent of production and release of interleukin 1 from colonic mucosa of patients with active untreated inflammatory bowel disease. Colonic mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained duri...

  4. Anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and E. mulungu in mice

    Silvânia M. M. Vasconcelos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs from Erythrina velutina Willd. (Ev and E. mulungu Mart. ex Benth. (Em in the carrageenan- and dextran-induced mice hind paw edema models. These medicinal plants belonging to the Fabaceae family are used in some Brazilian communities to treat pain, inflammation, insomnia and disorders of the central nervous system. In the present work, the extracts were administered orally in male mice at the doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg. In the carrageenan-induced test, only Em showed anti-inflammatory activity, decreasing the paw edema, at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. No effect was observed with Ev in this model. On the other hand, in the dextran model, Ev demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect, showing decrease of the paw edema at the 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24th h. Em (200 or 400 mg/kg presented anti-inflammatory effect at the 2, 3 and 4th h after administration of dextran, as compared to control. In conclusion, the work showed that Ev and Em present anti-edematous actions, which possibly occurs by distinct mechanisms. While Ev seems to interfere especially in inflammatory processes in which mast cells have an important role, Em exerts greater activity in the inflammatory process that depends mainly on polymorphonuclear leucocytes. However, further studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism of action of the species investigated.

  5. Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.

    Apurba Sarker Apu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L. was evaluated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L. showed statistically significant (p-1 oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p<0.05 dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p<0.05 dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control.

  6. QSAR and docking studies on capsazepine derivatives for immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Aparna Shukla

    Full Text Available Capsazepine, an antagonist of capsaicin, is discovered by the structure and activity relationship. In previous studies it has been found that capsazepine has potency for immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory activity and emerging as a favourable target in quest for efficacious and safe anti-inflammatory drug. Thus, a 2D quantitative structural activity relationship (QSAR model against target tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was developed using multiple linear regression method (MLR with good internal prediction (r2 = 0.8779 and external prediction (r2pred = 0.5865 using Discovery Studio v3.5 (Accelrys, USA. The predicted activity was further validated by in vitro experiment. Capsazepine was tested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced inflammation in peritoneal mouse macrophages. Anti-inflammatory profile of capsazepine was assessed by its potency to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediator TNF-α. The in vitro experiment indicated that capsazepine is an efficient anti-inflammatory agent. Since, the developed QSAR model showed significant correlations between chemical structure and anti-inflammatory activity, it was successfully applied in the screening of forty-four virtual derivatives of capsazepine, which finally afforded six potent derivatives, CPZ-29, CPZ-30, CPZ-33, CPZ-34, CPZ-35 and CPZ-36. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of capsazepine and its derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET studies were performed. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADMET screening and in vitro experimental studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent anti-inflammatory & immunomodulatory drug.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the sesquiterpene fraction from Annona reticulata L. bark.

    Chavan, Machindra J; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

    2012-01-01

    The sesquiterpene fraction of Annona reticulata bark was studied by GC/MS. Three major components were identified: copaene (35.40%), patchoulane (13.49%) and 1H-cycloprop(e)azulene (22.77%). The fraction was also screened for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The sesquiterpene fraction at doses 12.5 and 25 mg kg⁻¹ and the unsaponified petroleum ether extract at a dose of 50 mg kg⁻¹ exhibited significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities were comparable with the standard drugs used in the respective experiments. PMID:22007723

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Rossini Lucio; Steinwurz Flávio; Klug Wilmar; Rolim Ernani; Fang Chia; Vieira Andrea; Candelária Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS...

  9. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO. PMID:20645831

  10. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of imidazo [1,2-a] pyrimidine derivatives

    Jin Pei Zhou; Yi Wei Ding; Hui Bin Zhang; Lian Xu; Yue Dai

    2008-01-01

    A series of imidazo [1,2-a] pyrimidine derivatives substituted adjacently with two aryls at positions 2 and 3 were designed and synthesized in order to improve their anti-inflammatory activities. Biological tests suggested that these compounds have antiinflammatory activities with COX-2 selectivity to some extent.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of acetophenone semicarbazone and benzophenone semicarbazone

    Shaikh M Mohsin Ali; Mele Jesmin; M Abul Kalam Azad; M Khairul Islam; Ronok Zahan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in swiss albino mice, two schiff bases namely acetophenone semicarbazone (ASC) and benzophenone semicarbazone (BSC) were synthesized and characterized. Methods: Two doses of the test compounds 25 and 50 mg/kg (p.o) for each were selected throughout the research work. The anti-inflammatory activity of the test compounds was determined by ‘carragenan induced mice paw edema inhibition’ method. The analgesic activity was determined by both, ‘acetic acid induced writhing’ and ‘tail immersion' methods. All such data were compared with standard drugs at the dose of 10 mg/kg (p.o.). Results:Both ASC and BSC have showed positive effects as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the test compounds at 50 mg/kg (p.o.) were quite comparable to those of standard drugs at 10 mg/kg (p.o.). Conclusion: Both ASC and BSC can be considered as potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.

  12. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L. BLUME

    Srinivas Reddy K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  14. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of some potential cyclic phenothiazines.

    Kumar, A; Ram, T; Tyagi, R; Goel, B; Bansal, E; Srivastava, V K

    1998-05-01

    Some new schiff's bases (IVa-IVe), thiazolidinones (Va-Ve), delta 2-triazolines (VIa-VIe) and formazans (VIIa-VIIe) of 2-chlorophenothiazine have been synthesized and screened against Carrageenin induced oedema in albino rats. Some compounds of the series have shown promising activity. The most active compound is 2-chloro-10[5-(2-fluorophenyl-2-oxo-4 thiazolidin-1-yl)-amino acetyl] phenothiazine was found to be most potent. This compound (Vb) was further evaluated in detail and compared with phenylbutazone for its relative anti inflammatory potency (ED50), ulcerogenic liabilities (UD50) and acute toxicity (ALD50). It was found to be almost comparable to phenylbutazone as regards anti-inflammatory activity was concerned but and minimum ulcerogenic liability and cardiovascular effects. Hence, it seems promising as an anti-inflammatory agent in our preliminary studies. PMID:9689901

  15. Urokinase and type I plasminogen activator inhibitor production by normal human hepatocytes: modulation by inflammatory agents.

    Busso, N; Nicodeme, E; Chesne, C; Guillouzo, A; Belin, D; Hyafil, F

    1994-07-01

    We examined the effects of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta) on the plasminogen activator system (urokinase, tissue-type plasminogen activator, type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. We show that interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increase urokinase-type plasminogen activator production, reinforcing the concept that increased urokinase production is associated with inflammatory processes. By contrast, the same agents (i.e., interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) do not stimulate plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 production. This latter observation rules out hepatocytes as a major cellular source of plasmatic plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 during acute-phase-related responses. Among the inflammatory agents used, transforming growth factor-beta was found to be the most effective modulator of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, inducing severalfold increases of activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, antigen and the corresponding mRNA and increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 antigen and mRNA levels. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 modulation by transforming growth factor-beta may play a critical role in hepatic pathophysiology. PMID:8020888

  16. Tissue Distribution and Anti-inflammatory Activity of DexamethasoneAcetate Incorporated In Lipid Emulsion

    QuanDongqin; CuiGuanghua; DongHuajin; RuanJinxiu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory activity and tissue distribution patterns of intravenousemulsion of dexamethasone acetate in mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory solution for injection andLimethasone(Jepanese product) given intravenously were evaluated by using the preformed carrageenan granulomapouch method in rats. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone acetate emulsion at low dose of 0.05mg.kg1 was as potent as dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution at high dose of 0.3 mg.kg1. The distributionpatterns in mice tissues of [3H]dexamethasone acetate emulsion and [3H]dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution inmice were markedly different. Dexamethasone acetate emulsion showed a much higher concentration in the liver,spleen, lung, and inflamed tissues, whereas dexamethasone sodium phosphate had a high concenti,mon in themuscles of vastus lateralis. These results may indicate that dexamethasone incoporated in lipid emulsion was taken upby the reticuloendothelial system and inflammatory cells much more than dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution.Conclusion: When dexamethasone acetate was incorporated in emulsion, the distribution patterns in tissues werechanged and they had a stronger anti-inflammatory activity.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic activities of Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L Merr leaves

    Roslida Abdul Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases. Aims: The present study has been designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of various fractions of Acanthopanax trifoliatus leaves ethanolic extract in rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan-induced edema on rat paw whilst anti-hyperalgesic was assessed by using carrageenan-evoked thermal hyperalgesia on plantar test. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Student t-test to compare with control.Multiple comparisons for difference between control and extract-treated groups were evaluated by Tukey HSD (Honestly Significant Difference test. P values less than 0.05 (P < 0.05 is considered significant. Results: Among three different fractions i.e., hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol tested, methanolic fraction displayed the most potent fraction amongst those three. It gave significant anti-inflammatory effect at highest dose, 500 mg/kg, with 77.24% of inhibition. Whilst for anti-hyperalgesic activity, methanolic fraction showed the highest efficacy at 375 mg/kg. Administration of methanolic fraction of Acanthopanax trifoliatus inhibited paw edema in a dose- dependent manner. The inhibition for both activities might be due to possible composition of polar compounds, which are flavonoids and phenolics content. Conclusions: Methanol fraction of Acanthopanax trifoliatus leaves has potential effect as anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia in acute inflammation model.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves

    Manjit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL (Nyctaginaceae leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory potential.

  19. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

    Sandhia. K. G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male Wister albino rats. The in vitro cytotoxicity study was done by Trypan blue dye exclusion technique in Daltons Ascites Lymphoma (DLA cells at 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 μg/ml concentrations. Estimation studies by Folin Cio-calteau method and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method showed that phenolics and flavonoids are abundant in the stem bark. The in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory studies shows that TEE exhibits more anti-inflammatory effect which increases in a dose dependent manner. TEE exhibits 100% cytotoxicity even at 100 μg/ml concentrations. The present study revealed that presence high quantities of phenolics and flavonoids in the stem bark may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory anticancer properties.

  20. Activation of interleukin-32 pro-inflammatory pathway in response to influenza A virus infection.

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-32 is a recently described pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been reported to be induced by bacteria treatment in culture cells. Little is known about IL-32 production by exogenous pathogens infection in human individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we found that IL-32 level was increased by 58.2% in the serum samples from a cohort of 108 patients infected by influenza A virus comparing to that of 115 healthy individuals. Another pro-inflammatory factor cyclooxygenase (COX-2-associated prostaglandin E2 was also upregulated by 2.7-fold. Expression of IL-32 in influenza A virus infected A549 human lung epithelial cells was blocked by either selective COX-2 inhibitor NS398 or Aspirin, a known anti-inflammatory drug, indicating IL-32 was induced through COX-2 in the inflammatory cascade. Interestingly, we found that COX-2-associate PGE(2 production activated by influenza virus infection was significantly suppressed by over-expression of IL-32 but increased by IL-32-specific siRNA, suggesting there was a feedback mechanism between IL-32 and COX-2. CONCLUSIONS: IL-32 is induced by influenza A virus infection via COX-2 in the inflammatory cascade. Our results provide that IL-32 is a potential target for anti-inflammatory medicine screening.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanobotnical Plants Used as Traditional Medicine: A Review.

    Shrestha Bajpai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal „renaissance is happening all over the globe. The herbal products today symbolise safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment .Inflammation is one of the body unique mechanisms that help body to protect itself against infection, burn, toxic chemicals, allergens or other noxious stimuli. However, over reaction of the body reaction may be harmful or undesirable. This has lead to extensive development of anti-inflammatory drugs. Now a day world population moves towards herbal remedies for treatment of such ailments. The several side effects of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs evoked us to search for new anti-inflammatory agents from natural botanical sources that may have minimal side effects. The number of plants has been screened for their anti-inflammatory, but only few of them reached up to the clinical level. This review article focuses on our current knowledge of plants which have anti-inflammatory activity and discusses their potential therapeutic use in the management relevant inflammatory diseases.

  2. ANTI – INFLAMMATORY AND SEDATIVE – HYPNOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF MENTHA ARVENSIS

    Verma, S. M.; Arora, H.; R. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    Mentha arvensis Linn, a plant used as traditional medicine and in perfumery, has now been explored for its pharmacological activities as an anti-inflammatory and also as sedativehypnotic plant drug. The methanolic extract of the leaves after being processed, was taken for the pharmacological study. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, the activity was compared to that of a standard anti-inflammatory drug – nimesulide and the percent inhibition of oedema determin...

  3. Antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Mimusops elengi leaves

    Biswakanth Kar; RB Suresh Kumar; Indrajit Karmakar; Narayan Dolai; Asis Bala; Upal K Mazumder; Pallab K Haldar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Mimusops elengi L (M. elengi) leaves. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for peroxynitrite, superoxide and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity. Total phenolic content also determined. Inhibition of protein denaturation and HRBC (Human Red Blood Cell) membrane stabilization method was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The leave extract of M. elengi exhibited dose dependent free radical scavenging property in peroxynitrite, superoxide and hypochlorous acid models and the IC50 value were found to be (205.53 ± 2.30), (60.5±2.3), (202.4±5.3) μg/mL respectively. Total phenolic content was found to be 97.3 μg/mg of extract. The maximum membrane stabilization of M. elengi L was found to be (73.85±0.80)% at a dose of 1 000 μg/0.5 mL and that of protein denaturation was found to be 86.23% at a dose of 250 μg/mL with regards to standards in the anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: From the result it can conclude that M. elengi extract show good antioxidant and in vitro anti -inflammatory activities.

  4. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract of Valeriana wallichii DC.

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Zakiullah; Khan, Ayub; Nasir, Fazli

    2012-10-01

    Valeriana wallichii DC (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used traditional remedies for various complications associated with nervous system and digestion. No antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory studies have so far been carried out on the aerial parts of the plant. The present work was focused to evaluate the antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial) and anti-inflammatory properties of V. wallichii using reported methods. Chloroform fraction (VW-2) and hexane fraction (VW-3) exhibited significant activity against S. aureus and B. subtilus, respectively. The chloroform fraction (VW-2) showed significant activity against S. aureus with 0.27 mg/ml MIC, where 0.31 mg/ml MIC was deduced for VW-3 fraction against B. subtilus. VW-3 fraction was also found to be the most potent inhibitor of M. canis, showing 70% inhibition with an MIC value of 0.19 mg/ml. Considerable inhibitory activity was also observed for VW-2 and water fraction (VW-6) against M. canis and A. flavus. A remarkable anti-inflammatory like activity was observed for the crude extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg at all observed durations. Other doses of the sample also showed excellent activity. Looking to these results it may be concluded that V. wallichii may be a potential source for activity guided isolation of natural products with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory-like properties. PMID:23009985

  5. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products. PMID:25216803

  6. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

    2014-04-01

    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice. PMID:24433073

  7. CTGF promotes inflammatory cell infiltration of the renal interstitium by activating NF-kappaB.

    Sánchez-López, Elsa; Rayego, Sandra; Rodrigues-Díez, Raquel; Rodriguez, Javier Sánchez; Rodrigues-Díez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Vita, Juan; Carvajal, Gisselle; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Selgas, Rafael; Mezzano, Sergio A; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2009-07-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important profibrotic factor in kidney diseases. Blockade of endogenous CTGF ameliorates experimental renal damage and inhibits synthesis of extracellular matrix in cultured renal cells. CTGF regulates several cellular responses, including adhesion, migration, proliferation, and synthesis of proinflammatory factors. Here, we investigated whether CTGF participates in the inflammatory process in the kidney by evaluating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathway, a key signaling system that controls inflammation and immune responses. Systemic administration of CTGF to mice for 24 h induced marked infiltration of inflammatory cells in the renal interstitium (T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages) and led to elevated renal NF-kappaB activity. Administration of CTGF increased renal expression of chemokines (MCP-1 and RANTES) and cytokines (INF-gamma, IL-6, and IL-4) that recruit immune cells and promote inflammation. Treatment with a NF-kappaB inhibitor, parthenolide, inhibited CTGF-induced renal inflammatory responses, including the up-regulation of chemokines and cytokines. In cultured murine tubuloepithelial cells, CTGF rapidly activated the NF-kappaB pathway and the cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases, demonstrating crosstalk between these signaling pathways. CTGF, via mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB activation, increased proinflammatory gene expression. These data show that in addition to its profibrotic properties, CTGF contributes to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the kidney by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. PMID:19423687

  8. Sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana calyces with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Franco, Luis A; Ocampo, Yanet C; Gómez, Harold A; De la Puerta, Rocío; Espartero, José L; Ospina, Luis F

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana is a native plant from the South American Andes and is widely used in traditional Colombian medicine of as an anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, specifically the leaves, calyces, and small stems in poultice form. Previous studies performed by our group on P. peruviana calyces showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in an enriched fraction obtained from an ether total extract. The objective of the present study was to obtain and elucidate the active compounds from this fraction and evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro. The enriched fraction of P. peruviana was purified by several chromatographic methods to obtain an inseparable mixture of two new sucrose esters named peruviose A (1) and peruviose B (2). Structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations. The anti-inflammatory activity of the peruvioses mixture was evaluated using λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages. Results showed that the peruvioses did not produce side effects on the liver and kidneys and significantly attenuated the inflammation induced by λ-carrageenan in a dosage-dependent manner, probably due to an inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, which was demonstrated in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of sucrose esters in P. peruviana that showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest the potential of sucrose esters from the Physalis genus as a novel natural alternative to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:25338213

  9. ω3-PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory activity in visceral adipocytes from colorectal cancer patients.

    Massimo D'Archivio

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate specific fatty acid profiles of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT with inflammatory signatures potentially associated with colorectal cancer (CRC. METHODS: Human adipocytes were isolated from biopsies of visceral WAT from 24 subjects subdivided in four groups: normal-weight (BMI 22.0-24.9 Kg/m2 and over-weight/obese (BMI 26.0-40.0 Kg/m2, affected or not by CRC. To define whether obesity and/or CRC affect the inflammatory status of WAT, the activation of the pro-inflammatory STAT3 and the anti-inflammatory PPARγ transcription factors as well as the expression of adiponectin were analyzed by immunoblotting in adipocytes isolated from each group of subjects. Furthermore, to evaluate whether differences in inflammatory WAT environment correlate with specific fatty acid profiles, gas-chromatographic analysis was carried out on WAT collected from all subject categories. Finally, the effect of the ω3 docosahexaenoic acid treatment on the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in adipocytes was also evaluated. RESULTS: We provide the first evidence for the existence of a pro-inflammatory environment in WAT of CRC patients, as assessed by the up-regulation of STAT3, and the concomitant decrease of PPARγ and adiponectin with respect to healthy subjects. WAT inflammatory status was independent of obesity degree but correlated with a decreased ω3-/ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio. These observations suggested that qualitative changes, other than quantitative ones, in WAT fatty acid may influence tissue dysfunctions potentially linked to inflammatory conditions. This hypothesis was further supported by the finding that adipocyte treatment with docosahexaenoic acid restored the equilibrium between STAT3 and PPARγ. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that adipocyte dysfunctions occur in CRC patients creating a pro-inflammatory environment that might influence cancer development. Furthermore

  10. Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: potential for modulation of inflammatory disease.

    O'Sullivan, S E; Kendall, D A

    2010-08-01

    Cannabinoids act via cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)) and the ion channel receptor TRPV1. Evidence has now emerged suggesting that an additional target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors. There are three PPAR subtypes alpha, delta (also known as beta) and gamma, which regulate cell differentiation, metabolism and immune function. The major endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and ajulemic acid, a structural analogue of the phytocannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have anti-inflammatory properties mediated by PPARgamma. Other cannabinoids which activate PPARgamma include N-arachidonoyl-dopamine, THC, cannabidiol, HU210, WIN55212-2 and CP55940. The endogenous acylethanolamines, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide regulate feeding and body weight, stimulate fat utilization and have neuroprotective effects mediated through PPARalpha. Other endocannabinoids that activate PPARalpha include anandamide, virodhamine and noladin ether. There is, as yet, little direct evidence for interactions of cannabinoids with PPARdelta. There is a convergence of effects of cannabinoids, acting via cell surface and nuclear receptors, on immune cell function which provides promise for the targeted therapy of a variety of immune, particularly neuroinflammatory, diseases. PMID:19833407

  11. Myelin alters the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages by activating PPARs

    Bogie, Jeroen; Jorissen, Winde; Mailleux, Jo; Vanmierlo, Tim; van Horssen, Jack; Hellings, Niels; Stinissen, Piet; Hendriks, J. J. A.; Nijland, Philip G.; Zelcer, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Background Foamy macrophages, containing myelin degradation products, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Recent studies have described an altered phenotype of macrophages after myelin internalization. However, mechanisms by which myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype influences lesion progression remain unclear. Results We demonstrate that myelin as well as phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid found in myelin, reduce nitri...

  12. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO2 or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% 239Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO2-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% 239Pu than for 70% 239Pu. (authors)

  13. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  14. Bioassay-guided evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of pistachio, Pistacia vera L.

    Orhan, I; Küpeli, E; Aslan, M; Kartal, M; Yesilada, E

    2006-04-21

    The ethanolic and aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) as well as its oleoresin were evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Among the extracts screened, only the oleoresin was shown to possess a marked anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses whereas the rest of the extracts were totally inactive. While the oleoresin was found to display significant antinociceptive activity at 500 mg/kg dose, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts belonging to fruit, leaf, branch and peduncle of Pistacia vera did not exhibit any noticeable antinociception in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. Fractionation of the oleoresin indicated the n-hexane fraction to be active, which further led to recognition of some monoterpenes, mainly alpha-pinene (77.5%) by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as the oleoresin itself. alpha-Pinene was also assessed for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in the same manner and exerted a moderate anti-inflammatory effect at 500 mg/kg dose. PMID:16337351

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  16. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    Ting Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AG is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/activator protein (AP-1 and (2 IκB kinase ε (IKKε/interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  18. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    Shen, Ting; Yang, Woo Seok; Yi, Young-Su; Sung, Gi-Ho; Rhee, Man Hee; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Woon; Kim, Jong Heon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2013-01-01

    Andrographolide (AG) is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and interferon-beta (IFN- β ) in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/activator protein (AP)-1 and (2) I κ B kinase ε (IKK ε )/interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets. PMID:23840248

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Libyan medicinal plants in experimental animals

    Nahar Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballota pseudodictamnus (L. Benth. (Lamiaceae, Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Lamiaceae and Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae are three well-known medicinal plants from the Libyan flora, which have long been used for the treatment of inflammations. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory property of the methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of these plants. Shade-dried and ground aerial parts of B. pseudodictamnus, S. fruticosa and T. garganica were Soxhlet-extracted with MeOH. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure at 40°C. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced mice paw edema model. The administration of the extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight produced statistically significant inhibition (p < 0.05 of edema within 3 h of carrageenan administration. The results demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties of the test extracts. Among the extracts, the S. fruticosa extract exhibited the most significant inhibition of inflammation after 3 h (62.1%. Thus, S. fruticosa could be a potential source for the discovery and development of newer anti-inflammatory ‘leads’ for drug development. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. pseudodictamnus and S. fruticosa could be assumed to be related to high levels of phenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, present in these plants.

  20. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Faust, Alejandra H.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Cross, Raymond K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the contributions of coping and social constraint to disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to examine group differences in disease activity and HRQOL between patients with high versus low anxiety or depression symptoms in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis in which disease activity was measured with either the Harvey-Bradshaw Index or the Simple Clinical Colitis Activit...

  1. Modified eremophilanes and anti-inflammatory activity of Psacalium cirsiifolium

    Arciniegas, Amira; Perez-Castorena, Ana L.; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Vivar Alfonso Romo de, E-mail: alperezc@unam.mx [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico); Villasenor, Jose Luis [Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    Four new modified eremophilanes, together with ten known cacalol derivatives, two caryophyllenes, one aromadendrene and one flavonoid were isolated from Psacalium cirsiifolium. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The antiinflammatory activity of extracts and of seven of the isolated compounds was evaluated on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) model of induced acute inflammation. The new compound 2{alpha}-hydroxyadenostin B (4) showed a dose dependent activity (IC{sub 50} 0.41 {mu}mol per ear) and a neutrophil inhibition effect as measured by the myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay similar to that of indomethacin at 0.31 and 1.0 {mu}mol per ear. (author)

  2. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity of selected osthole derivatives.

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Cisowski, Wojciech; Mazol, Irena; Włodarczyk, Maciej; Gleńsk, Michał

    2009-01-01

    From osthole [7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-chromen-2-one] (I), obtained by selective extraction of Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W. Koch roots, ostholic acid (II) was synthetized as a result of its oxidation with chromium trioxide. From ostholic acid, through its chloride, four amides were obtained: the morpholide 1, the p-chloro-benzylamide 2, the piperidine 3 and the N-methyl-piperazide 4. Except for 1, other compounds have not been described before. The amides 1-4 and their precursor osthole (I) were tested for their potential activities in selected immunological assays. The compounds showed moderate inhibitory activity in the humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes in mice in vitro, and 4 was the most suppressive. The effects of 1 and 3 on concanavalin A- and pokeweed mitogen-induced mouse splenocyte proliferation were inhibitory and those of 4 stimulatory. The compounds were also tested for their activity on tumour necrosis factor a and interleukin 6 production, induced by lipopolysaccharide, in cultures of rat peritoneal cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 inhibited tumour necrosis factor a (rat cells), whereas compound 2 stimulated the production of both cytokines. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were also strongly inhibitory on tumour necrosis factor a production in human blood cells (73, 78 and 80% inhibition at 10 microg/ml, respectively). On the other hand, 2 and 4 stimulated the interleukin 6 production (2- to 3-fold stimulation). In addition, 2 and 4 suppressed the carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice (56.5% and 68.3% inhibition, respectively). In summary, the compounds predominantly displayed suppressive and antiinflammatory activities in the investigated models. PMID:19678539

  3. Wide tangential fields including the internal mammary lymph nodes in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Influence of respiratory-controlled radiotherapy (4D-CT) on cardiac exposure

    Stranzl, Heidi; Zurl, Brigitte; Langsenlehner, Tanja; Kapp, Karin S. [University Medical School, Graz (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiotherapy and Oncology

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of wide-tangent fields including the internal mammary chain during deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in patients with left-sided breast cancer on cardiac exposure. Patients and Methods: Eleven patients with left-sided breast cancer were irradiated postoperatively and underwent CT scans during free breathing and DIBH. For scientific interest only, treatment plans were calculated consisting of wide tangents including the ipsilateral mammary lymph nodes using both, the free breathing and respiratory-controlled CT scan. The resulting dose-volume histograms were compared for irradiated volumes and doses to organs at risk. Results: The mean patient age was 51 years (range: 37-65 years). Radiotherapy using wide tangents with DIBH as compared to free breathing led to a significantly lower cardiac exposure. Mean irradiated heart volumes ({>=} 20 Gy) were 14 cm{sup 3} (range: 0-51.3 cm{sup 3}) versus 35 cm{sup 3} (range: 2.1-78.7 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.01). For eight patients, DIBH reduced irradiated relative lung volume, while in three patients, the lung volume slightly increased. Conclusion: Radiation exposure of organs at risk can significantly be reduced for breast cancer patients using the DIBH technique. If radiotherapy of the internal mammary lymph nodes is considered necessary, DIBH may be the preferable technique. (orig.)

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Sclerochloa dura (Poaceae

    Bukhari Syed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Sclerochloa dura is traditionally used in South-East Serbia to treat menstrual disorders characterized by pain and excessive bleeding. According to subjects’ statements, a reduction in bleeding and pain is experienced shortly after oral intake. The focus of this investigation was to determine the inhibitory effects of the plant on the arachidonic acid (AA cascade alongwith the spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant capacity. The AA release assay was performed using the human fibroblastlike synoviocyte cell line SW982 to determine the AA release and hence phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity. The crude extract and subsequent fractions of S. dura inhibit IL-1 induced release of AA in a time- and dose-dependent manner in SW982 cells. The IC50 for the crude extract is 1.5 mg/mL at 4 h and 24 h of stimulation. Treating the cells with 0.22, 0.11 and 0.06 mg/mL of methanolic fraction resulted in 97%, 91%, and 63% inhibition of AA-release, respectively. One milligram of the crude extract contained 34.78 μg pyrocatechol equivalent phenolic content, 22.80 μg quercetin equivalent flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of 70.11 μg α-tocopherol equivalents. Strong inhibitory effects of the S. dura extracts on AA cascade may explain the reported pain- and discomfort relieving effects.

  5. Pharmacognostic study and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemon lanceolatus leaf

    Kumar S; Kumar V; Prakash OM

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study detail pharmacognosy and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemonlanceolatus (C. lanceolatus) leaf. Methods: Leaf sample was studied by organoleptic, macroscopical, microscopical, phytochemical and other WHO recommended methods for standardizations. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant was also screened for anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally. The detail pharmacognostic study of the C. lanceolatus leaf was carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies. Results: C. lanceolatus methanolic leaf extract showed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. This significant anti-inflammatory of C. lanceolatus methanolic leaf extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg was comparable with diclofenac sodium. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic profile of the C. lanceolatus leaf is helpful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification. The methanolic extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg shows a significant activity in comparison with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg).

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract of Kydia calycina Roxb.

    Baburao Bhukya, Rama Narsimha Reddy Anreddy, Carey M. William and Krishna Mohan Gottumukkala

    2009-01-01

    The methanol extract of leaves of Kydia calycina Roxb. was screened for the analgesic (using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice) and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test) activity at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. A significant (p

  7. EVALUTION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LINN

    Priyanka Bagri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous-ethanolic (50% extracts of fruit rind (PGR, flower (PGF, and leaves (PGL of Punica granatum were examined for its oral anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Oral pretreatment with the dried extracts of P. granatum produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all doses when compared to the control groups. The highest activity was shown in the PGR that at 500 mg/kg p.o. inhibited inflammation by 82.14%. (79 % for indomethacin at 10 mg/kg. On the contrary, the aqueous-ethanolic (50 % extracts of PGF and PGL exhibited 71.42% and 67.85% inhibition, respectively, at 500 mg/kg dose. The extracts at tested doses were found to possess analgesic activity in mice against tail-flick method. These results indicated that extracts of P. granatum possessed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities suggesting its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent for use in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases in traditional medicine.

  8. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts of Acalypha alopecuroidea (Euphorbiaceae)

    Madlener, S.; Svačinová, Jana; Kitner, Miloslav; Kopecký, Jiří; Eytner, R.; Lackner, A.; Vo, T. P. N.; Frisch, R.; Grusch, M.; De Martin, R.; Doležal, Karel; Strnad, Miroslav; Krupitza, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2009), s. 881-891. ISSN 1019-6439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Acalypha alopecuroidea * cancer * anti-inflammatory activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2009

  9. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract

    Cínthia R. C. Porto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus niruri L., Euphorbiaceae, spray-dried standardized extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of spray-dried standardized extract was observed in carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycolate-induced leukocyte migration, while antinociceptive effects were observed using Randall & Selitto, tail flick, and hot plate tests. This study showed that intraperitoneal spray-dried standardized extract at 100, 200, 800, or 1600 mg/kg reduced the vascular response in the inflammatory process of paw edema induced by 1% carrageenan. Oral spray-dried standardized extract at 100 or 200 mg/kg inhibited leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation induced by 3% thioglycolate. In rats, at 100 and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally, the extract exhibited a marked peripheral analgesic effect in a Randall & Selitto assay and showed significant central analgesic activity in a hot plate and tail flick assay. In conclusion, this study suggested that Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract has potent inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and that these activities are not modified by standard drying process, making it feasible to use the dry extract standardized to obtain a phytotherapic preparation and thus validating its use for the treatment of pain and inflammation disorders.

  11. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract of Chiliotrichum diffusum

    Sandra M. Alcalde Bahamonde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of the Chiliotrichum diffusum (G. Forst. Kuntze, Asteraceae, have long been used in traditional medicine and rituals. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of a decoction of the flowers were evaluated and a phytochemical analysis was performed by HPLC-DAD. In order to evaluate the antinociceptive activity, the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate tests were used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenaninduced rat paw oedema. The decoction induced a significant anti-inflammatory effect (inhibition of 56.0% at 3 h and produced significant inhibition on nociception in the acetic acid test (ED50 35 mg/kg i.p.; ED50 709 mg/kg p.o.. In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive activity of the extract employed at 500 mg/kg i.p. was significantly suppressed by pretreatment with naloxone (5 mg/kg. HPLC analysis showed the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, afzelin, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol. The decoction of C. diffusum proved to have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects that may be related to the presence of the flavones, flavonols and phenolic acids identified. The opiod system seems to be involved in the mechanism of antinociception of the extract.

  12. Considering depression as a consequence of activation of the inflammatory response system

    Korf, J; Klein, HC; Versijpt, J; den Boer, J; ter Horst, GJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the possible interrelation between peripheral and/or cerebral inflammation and depression. Often, depression is regarded as a consequence of life events, including disabling diseases. The question addressed here is whether activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS) ca

  13. Asian Dust Particles Induce Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Kazuma Higashisaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian dust is a springtime meteorological phenomenon that originates in the deserts of China and Mongolia. The dust is carried by prevailing winds across East Asia where it causes serious health problems. Most of the information available on the impact of Asian dust on human health is based on epidemiological investigations, so from a biological standpoint little is known of its effects. To clarify the effects of Asian dust on human health, it is essential to assess inflammatory responses to the dust and to evaluate the involvement of these responses in the pathogenesis or aggravation of disease. Here, we investigated the induction of inflammatory responses by Asian dust particles in macrophages. Treatment with Asian dust particles induced greater production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α compared with treatment with soil dust. Furthermore, a soil dust sample containing only particles ≤10 μm in diameter provoked a greater inflammatory response than soil dust samples containing particles >10 μm. In addition, Asian dust particles-induced TNF-α production was dependent on endocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Together, these results suggest that Asian dust particles induce inflammatory disease through the activation of macrophages.

  14. Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiparasitic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Laennecia confusa

    María G. Martínez Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigated the potential benefit of the traditional Mexican medicinal plant Laennecia confusa (Cronquist G. L. Nesom (Asteraceae. Fractions from the hexane, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts were analyzed for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic activities. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions was assessed on bacterial and fungal strains, in addition to the protozoa Leishmania donovani, using a microdilution assay. The propensity of the plant's compounds to produce adverse effects on human health was also evaluated using propidium iodine to identify damage to human macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions was investigated by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6. Chemical analyses demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides, saponins, sesquiterpene lactones, and triterpenes in the chloroform extract. A number of extracts and fractions show antibacterial activity. Of particular interest is antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and its relative methicillin-resistant strain, MRSA. Hexanic and chloroformic fractions also exhibit antifungal activity and two extracts and the fraction CE 2 antiparasitic activity against Leishmania donovani. All bioactive extracts and fractions assayed were also found to be cytotoxic to macrophages. In addition, the hexane and methane extracts show anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the secretion of interleukine-6.

  15. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica

    Mohan CG; Deepak M; Viswanatha GL; Savinay G; Hanumantharaju V; Rajendra CE; Praveen D Halemani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. Results: In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC50 values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC50 of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions.

  16. The assessment of inflammatory activity and toxicity of treated sewage using RAW264.7 cells

    Makene, Vedastus W.; Pool, Edmund J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater samples were evaluated using RAW264.7 cells as a bioassay model. The RAW264.7 cell cultures were exposed to sterile filtered wastewater samples collected from a sewage treatment plant. Cell viability was evaluated using WST‐1 and XTT assays. Inflammatory effects of samples were assessed by determination of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6). The NO was estimated using the Griess reaction and IL‐6 was measured by enzyme‐linked i...

  17. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of bromelain by its encapsulation in katira gum nanoparticles.

    Bernela, Manju; Ahuja, Munish; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Bromelain-loaded katira gum nanoparticles were synthesized using 3 level optimization process and desirability approach. Nanoparticles of the optimized batch were characterized using particle size analysis, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Investigation of their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by employing carrageenan induced rat-paw oedema method showed that encapsulation of bromelain in katira gum nanoparticles substantially enhanced its anti-inflammatory potential. This may be attributed to enhanced absorption owing to reduced particle size or to protection of bromelain from acid proteases. PMID:27083339

  18. Muscle cells challenged with saturated fatty acids mount an autonomous inflammatory response that activates macrophages

    Pillon Nicolas J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Within adipose tissue of mice fed a high fat diet, resident and infiltrating macrophages assume a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by the production of cytokines which in turn impact on the surrounding tissue. However, inflammation is not restricted to adipose tissue and high fat-feeding is responsible for a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in muscle. Although skeletal muscle is the major disposer of dietary glucose and a major determinant of glycemia, the origin and consequence of muscle inflammation in the development of insulin resistance are poorly understood. We used a cell culture approach to investigate the vectorial crosstalk between muscle cells and macrophages upon exposure to physiological, low levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Inflammatory pathway activation and cytokine expression were analyzed in L6 muscle cells expressing myc-tagged GLUT4 (L6GLUT4myc exposed to 0.2 mM palmitate or palmitoleate. Conditioned media thereof, free of fatty acids, were then tested for their ability to activate RAW264.7 macrophages. Palmitate -but not palmitoleate- induced IL-6, TNFα and CCL2 expression in muscle cells, through activation of the NF-κB pathway. Palmitate (0.2 mM alone did not induce insulin resistance in muscle cells, yet conditioned media from palmitate-challenged muscle cells selectively activated macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of palmitate activate autonomous inflammation in muscle cells to release factors that turn macrophages pro-inflammatory. We hypothesize that saturated fat-induced, low-grade muscle cell inflammation may trigger resident skeletal muscle macrophage polarization, possibly contributing to insulin resistance in vivo.

  19. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions and type 1 modic changes

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the values of ADC in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions are different from ADC values in type 1 Modic changes. Subjects and methods: 95 patients with recent lumbar pain, including 46 patients with diagnosed or suspected spondylarthritis and 49 patients with purely degenerative history, underwent spine MRI. T1w, STIR, and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were obtained. Two musculoskeletal radiologists interpreted the images. Axial active inflammatory lesions from the SpA group and type 1 Modic changes from the degenerative group were identified on T1w and STIR sequences. ADC values from these lesions and from healthy subchondral bone were compared. Results: All axial active inflammatory lesions (n = 27) and type 1 Modic changes (n = 22) identified in T1w and STIR images were visible on DWI. ADC values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for axial active inflammatory lesions (median = 0.788 × 10−3 mm2/s, IQR 25–75 [0.7 × 10−3 mm2/s; 0.9 × 10−3 mm2/s]) than for type 1 Modic changes (median = 0.585 × 10−3 mm2/s, IQR 25–75 [0.55 × 10−3 mm2/s; 0.60 × 10−3 mm2/s]) and normal subchondral bone (median = 0.443 × 10−3 mm2/s, IQR 25–75 [0.40 × 10−3 mm2/s; 0.50 × 10−3 mm2/s]). Intra-class correlation coefficients for intra- and inter-reader ADC values comparison were excellent (0.89 and 0.98 respectively). Conclusion: DWI is a sensitive and fast sequence that offer the possibility of quantifying diffusion coefficients of the lesions, which could help to discriminate between spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory and type 1 Modic changes

  20. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Mark J Soloski

    Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcuminoids, Turmerones, and Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa

    Ashish Subhash Bagad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil, the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice and albino Wistar rats, respectively. The results showed that COFAE of C. longa at three dose levels significantly (P≤0.05 inhibited inflammation in both models, as evidenced by reduction in ear weight and decrease in wet as well as dry weights of cotton pellets, when compared to the vehicle control. The COFAE of C. longa showed considerable anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation and the effects were comparable to those of curcuminoids and turmerones.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritic Activity of Anthraquinone Derivatives in Rodents

    Ajay D. Kshirsagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe emodin is isolated compound of aloe vera which is used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro pharmacokinetic data suggest that glucuronosyl or sulfated forms of aloe emodin may provide some limitations in its absorption capacity. Aloe emodin was reported to have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity due to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (iNO and prostaglandin E2, via its action on murine macrophages. However, present work evidenced that molecular docking of aloe emodin modulates the anti-inflammatory activity, as well as expression of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2 in rodent. The AEC (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2 carboxylic acid was synthesized using aloe emodin as starting material. The study was planned for evaluation of possible anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity in carrageenan rat induced paw oedema and complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The AE (aloe emodin and AEC significantly P<0.001 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema at 50 and 75 mg/kg. Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis model showed significant P<0.001 decrease in injected and noninjected paw volume, arthritic score. AE and AEC showed significant effect on various biochemical, antioxidant, and hematological parameters. Diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg showed significant P<0.001 inhibition in inflammation and arthritis.

  3. Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some New Benzoxazinone and Quinazolinone Candidates.

    El-Hashash, Maher Abd El-Aziz; Azab, Mohammad Emad; Faty, Rasha Abd El-Aziz; Amr, Abd El-Galil Elsyed

    2016-01-01

    Benzoxazinones and quinazolinones have a wide spectrum of biological activity. In this paper we focused on studying the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of some newly synthesized benzoxazinone and quinazolinone derivatives. Thus we prepared 2-[α-benzoylaminostyryl]-6,8-dibromo-3,1-benzoxazin-4(H)-one 2 which underwent a reaction with primary and secondary amines, and hydrazine hydrate to give compounds 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Treatment of 2 with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, formamide and/or NaN3/AcOH afforded compounds 7, 8, 11 and 12, respectively. Also, compound 2 reacted with maleic anhydride, aromatic hydrocarbons and/or active methylene compounds to produce compounds 13, 15a-c and 16, respectively. Most of the newly synthesized compounds showed significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities comparable to ampicillin, mycostatine and indomethacin positive controls. PMID:26699093

  4. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  5. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.).

    Howlader, Md Amran; Alam, Mahmudul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Khatun, Farjana; Apu, Apurba Sarker

    2011-10-01

    The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) was evaluated for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of percentage of writhing of 33.57 and 61.31% at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control. PMID:22518936

  6. Genetically engineered immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus strains producing antioxidant enzymes exhibit enhanced anti-inflammatory activities.

    Del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti-inflammatory

  7. Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages via activation of Nrf2

    Li, Bin [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Abdalrahman, Akram; Lai, Yimu; Janicki, Joseph S. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Ward, Keith W.; Meyer, Colin J. [Department of Pharmacology, Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irving, TX 75063 (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: Dongqi.Tang@uscmed.sc.edu [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: taixing.cui@uscmed.sc.edu [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Dh404 suppresses the expression of a selected set of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflamed macrophages via activating Nrf2. • Dh404 activates Nrf2 while keeping Keap1 function intact in macrophages. • Dh404 minimally regulates NF-κB pathway in macrophages. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is the major regulator of cellular defenses against various pathological stresses in a variety of organ systems, thus Nrf2 has evolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment and/or prevention of human disease. Several synthetic oleanolic triterpenoids including dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404) appear to be potent activators of Nrf2 and exhibit chemopreventive promises in multiple disease models. While the pharmacological efficacy of Nrf2 activators may be dependent on the nature of Nrf2 activation in specific cell types of target organs, the precise role of Nrf2 in mediating biological effects of Nrf2 activating compounds in various cell types remains to be further explored. Herein we report a unique and Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory profile of dh404 in inflamed macrophages. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed RAW264.7 macrophages, dh404 dramatically suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), while minimally regulating the expression of interleulin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Dh404 potently activated Nrf2 signaling; however, it did not affect LPS-induced NF-κB activity. Dh404 did not interrupt the interaction of Nrf2 with its endogenous inhibitor Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) in macrophages. Moreover, knockout of Nrf2 blocked the dh404-induced anti-inflammatory responses in LPS-inflamed macrophages. These results demonstrated that dh404 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages via an activation

  8. IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA LINN. VAR. ALBA

    Vijender Kumar; Z. A. Bhat; Dinesh Kumar; Puja Bohra; S. Sheela

    2011-01-01

    The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC). The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new the...

  9. Therapeutic Role of Rifaximin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical Implication of Human Pregnane X Receptor Activation

    Cheng, Jie; Yatrik M. Shah; Ma, Xiaochao; Pang, Xiaoyan; Tanaka, Toshiya; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Frank J. Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Human pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Rifaximin, a human PXR activator, is in clinical trials for treatment of IBD and has demonstrated efficacy in Crohn's disease and active ulcerative colitis. In the current study, the protective and therapeutic role of rifaximin in IBD and its respective mechanism were investigated. PXR-humanized (hPXR), wild-type, and Pxr-null mice were treated with rifaximin in the dextran sulfate sod...

  10. Pain mechanisms and ultrasonic inflammatory activity as prognostic factors in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    Højgaard, Pil; Christensen, Robin; Dreyer, Lene;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent pain is a major concern for patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Pain may be due to inflammatory activity or augmented central pain processing. Unawareness of the origin and mechanisms of pain can lead to misinterpretation of disease activity (by composite scores) and...... NCT02572700). Results will be disseminated through publication in international peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02572700, Pre-results....

  11. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the medicinal halophyte Reaumuria vermiculata

    Karker, Manel; Falleh, Hanen; Msaada, Kamel; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Legault, Jean; Ksouri, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Reaumuria vermiculata is a xero-halophytic specie widely distributed in the south of Tunisia. In the current study, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Reaumuria vermiculata shoot extracts as well as its phenolic compounds were investigated in different solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water). Results showed a strong antioxidant activity, using the ORAC method and a cell based-assay, in methanol extract as well as an important phenolic compositio...

  12. Experimental study of anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined with drug urolytolytic action

    Iermolenko T.I.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines provide their versatile complex influence on the course of the pathological process in the kidneys due to biologically active compounds. Specifically, they cause the direct impact on the concrements formation. The search of drugs which would contain high biological compounds of plant origin is an actual issue of modern pharmacology. The aim of investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined drug of urolytolytic action, which includes the total pl...

  13. Experimental study of anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined with drug urolytolytic action.

    Iermolenko, T. I.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines provide their versatile complex influence on the course of the pathological process in the kidneys due to biologically active compounds. Specifically, they cause the direct impact on the concrements formation. The search of drugs which would contain high biological compounds of plant origin is an actual issue of modern pharmacology. The aim of investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined drug of urolytolytic action, which includes the total pl...

  14. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

    Muhammad Naveed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages.

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown.To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR activation.We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation.Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05 in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05. The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05.This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of some extracts and isolates from leonotis nepetaefolia on TPA-induced edema model

    Hortensia Parra Delgado; Gabriela García Ruiz; Antonio Nieto Camacho; Mariano Martínez Vázquez

    2004-01-01

    Several extracts of aerial parts of Leonotis nepetaefolia showed anti-inflammatory activity on TPA-induced edema model. The chromatography of the extracts led to the isolation of stigmasterol and leonotinin. Although the presence of leonotinin is in agreement with previous phytochemical studies of this species, this is the first time that its anti-inflammatory activity is determined.

  17. MALT1 Protease Activity Controls the Expression of Inflammatory Genes in Keratinocytes upon Zymosan Stimulation.

    Schmitt, Anja; Grondona, Paula; Maier, Tabea; Brändle, Marc; Schönfeld, Caroline; Jäger, Günter; Kosnopfel, Corinna; Eberle, Franziska C; Schittek, Birgit; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Yazdi, Amir S; Hailfinger, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) plays an important role in antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation by controlling the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and is thus essential for the expression of inflammatory target genes. MALT1 is not only present in cells of the hematopoietic lineage, but is ubiquitously expressed. Here we report that stimulation with zymosan or Staphylococcus aureus induced MALT1 protease activity in human primary keratinocytes. Inhibition of the Src family of kinases or novel protein kinase C isoforms as well as silencing of CARMA2 or BCL10 interfered with activation of MALT1 protease. Silencing or inhibition of MALT1 protease strongly decreased the expression of important inflammatory genes such as TNFα, IL-17C, CXCL8 and HBD-2. MALT1-inhibited cells were unable to mount an antimicrobial response upon zymosan stimulation or phorbolester/ionomycin treatment, demonstrating a central role of MALT1 protease activity in keratinocyte immunity and suggesting MALT1 as a potential target in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:26767426

  18. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Farukh Sharopov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC and 1250 µg/mL (MBC for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  19. Evaluating Anti-Inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae

    E O Agbaje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus (SPH DC (Apocynaceae in rodents, using standard laboratory models. Doses of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of aqueous SPH were administered orally in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema, xylene-induced ear oedema in mice, and formalin-induced mice hind paw oedema (sub-acute 6 days, using indomethacin (10 mg/kg, dexamethasone 1 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, 100 mg/kg respectively as standard drugs. The study further explored the effect of the herbal drug on some inflammatory mediators-histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin, using only the highest dose of SPH. Results obtained showed that the extract exerted a dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, which compared favourably with the positive control.  Significant inhibitions of mediators were also recorded; however, the least inhibition (42.8 % was produced in the serotonin model. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and anthraquinones.  It is also noteworthy that zinc, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium were the elemental constituents in the aqueous extract of SPH, some of which have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory property. While 2 g/kg of SPH administered orally did not produce any mortality, the median lethal dose by i.p route was 39.81 mg/kg, and it is thought that the lead contribute to the toxicity recorded. The pH of the herbal drug was 6.7. Our findings substantiate the local use of SPH in the treatment of acute and sub-acute inflammatory conditions, while it also suggests some possible pathways for its anti-inflammatory activity.  Lastly, since the herbal drug is liable to producing toxic effects, it must be used with caution. Industrial relevance: Herbal remedies continue to serve as an important source of conventional therapies for diverse disease conditions

  20. A comparative dosimetric study for treating left-sided breast cancer for small breast size using five different radiotherapy techniques: conventional tangential field, filed-in-filed, Tangential-IMRT, Multi-beam IMRT and VMAT

    To compare the dosimetry for the left-sided breast cancer treatment using five different radiotherapy techniques. Twenty patients with left sided breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery followed by radiotherapy. They were planned using five different radiotherapy techniques, including: 1) conventional tangential wedge-based fields (TW); 2) field-in-field (FIF) technique; 3) tangential inverse planning intensity-modulated radiation therapy (T-IMRT); 4) multi-field IMRT (M-IMRT); and 5) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The CTV, PTV and OARs including the heart, the regions of coronary artery (CA), the contralateral breast, the left and right lung were delineated. The PTV dose was prescribed 50Gy and V47.5≥95%. Same dose constraint was used for all five plans. The planned volumetric dose of PTV and PRV-OARs were compared and analyzed. Except VMAT (Average V47.5 was 94.72%±1.2%), all the other four plans were able to meet the V95% (V47.5) requirement. T-IMRT plan improved the PTV dose homogeneity index (HI) by 0.02 and 0.03 when compared to TW plan and VMAT plan, and decreased the V5, V10 and V20 of all PRV-OARs. However, the high dose volume (≥ 30Gy) of the PRV-OARs in T-IMRT plan had no statistically significant difference compared with the other two inverse plans. In all five plans, the dose volume of coronary artery area showed a strong correlation to the dose volume of the heart (the correlation coefficients were 0.993, 0.996, 1.000, 0.995 and 0.986 respectively). Compared to other techniques, the T-IMRT technology reduced radiation dose exposure to normal tissues and maintained reasonable target homogeneity, VMAT is not recommended for left-sided breast cancer treatment. In five techniques, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the heart can be used to predict the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the coronary artery

  1. Anti-Tumor Effect and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Boschniakia rossica

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effect and anti-inflammatory activity of Boschniakia rossica (BR). Methods: The expression of tumor marker, GST-P, p53 and p21ras proteins in promotion stage of rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis were examined by immunohistochemical technique ABC method. Anti-tumor effect of BR was investigated by inhibitory test on Sarcoma180. Anti-inflammatory activity of BR was tested by xylene-induced mouse ear swelling method. Results: BR-H2O extract (the H2O extract fractionated from BR-Methanol extract with CH2Cl2 and H2O) 500 mg/kg has inhibitory effect on the formation of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in rat liver with the expression of mutant p53 and p21ras proteins lower than those of non-treated hepatic preneoplastic lesions. BR extract showed inhibitory effect on Sarcoma180 and anti-inflammatory effect in mice by xylene-induced mouse ear swelling tests. Conclusion: BR- H2O extract exerted inhibitory effect on DEN-induced preneoplastic hepatic foci in promotion stage of rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and might suppress the growth of solid Sarcoma180 in mice. Both CH2Cl2 and H2O extract from BR exerted anti-inflammatory effect in mice.

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM SEED EXTRACT

    Gupta Jeetendra Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Punica granatum of family Punicaceae is distributed throughout India and reputed to have numerous applications in traditional medicine system. In order to justify its folkloric use in nociception and inflammation, the study was performed.In this study, the extraction of Punica granatum seed extract was carried out in aqueous media. In order to explore its potency, various experimental models of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were taken. The oral administration of the extract 100mg and 200mg per kg body weight showed significant pharmacological action. Furthermore the anti-ulcer activity was carried out with the help of Indomethacin induced ulceration model using Mesoprostol as standard drug and it showed no ulcerogenic effect in wistar albino rats.Overall, the extract was found to be significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity with no ulcerogenic adverse effect.

  3. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:12065153

  4. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Zwetsloot KA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kevin A Zwetsloot,1 Casey S John,1 Marcus M Lawrence,1 Rebecca A Battista,1 R Andrew Shanely1,2 1Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 2Human Performance Laboratory, North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1 the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2 whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max. Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT. Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. Keywords: cycle ergometer, inflammatory cytokines, exercise training

  5. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial essential oils.

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Miguel, Maria G

    2014-04-01

    Essential oils (EO) possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, insect repellent, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties, among others. In the present work, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial EOs (Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Cupressus sempervirens, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated and compared with their main constituents. T. vulgaris EO showed the best free radicals scavenging capacity. This EO was also the most effective against lipid peroxidation along with C. limon and F. vulgare EOs. C. sempervirens EO was the most effective in scavenging NO free radicals, whereas C. limon EO showed the best chelating power. Not all of the major compounds of the EO were responsible for the whole activity of the EOs. T. vulgaris EO showed the best anti-proliferative activity against THP-1 cells in contrast to that of F. vulgare. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the EOs were plant species dependent and not always attributable to the EOs main components. Nevertheless, the EOs anti-proliferative activities were more related to their main components, as with T. vulgaris, C. limon, E. globulus and C. sempervirens. PMID:24868891

  6. Experimental study of anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined with drug urolytolytic action

    Iermolenko T.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines provide their versatile complex influence on the course of the pathological process in the kidneys due to biologically active compounds. Specifically, they cause the direct impact on the concrements formation. The search of drugs which would contain high biological compounds of plant origin is an actual issue of modern pharmacology. The aim of investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined drug of urolytolytic action, which includes the total plant extract and succinate buffer complex. Materials and methods: aseptic exudative inflammation was caused by subplantar introduction of 0,1 ml of 1% solution of λ-karahenin in the right hind paw of rats, the investigated drug was administered at doses 1, 2 and 4 ml/kg. The influence of the studied drug was evaluated in terms of swelling limbs volume. It is shown that the severity of antiexudative action of flarosukcine had dose-dependent nature, increasing from dose of 1,0 ml/kg to 2,0 ml/kg (by 5,5%. Further dose increase to 4,0 ml/kg, was not defined by significant increase of activity. Anti-inflammatory activity of the drug ranged from 25 to 33%, which can be regarded as quite distinct, since in pharmacological study of anti-inflammatory drugs pharmacological activity level of at least 20% is significant.

  7. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae

    N. M. U. Seruji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties. The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts. However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT-29 cell lines. Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Iridoids and Verbascoside Isolated from Castilleja tenuiflora

    Verónica Rodríguez-López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Castilleja tenuiflora (Orobanchaceae has been used in Mexican traditional medicine as a treatment for cough, dysentery, anxiety, nausea and vomiting as well as hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. The ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Castilleja tenuiflora was separated by silica gel column chromatography. The fractions were evaluated using the induced edema acetate 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol (TPA anti-inflammatory activity model. The most active fraction was subjected to medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC with UV detection at 206 and 240 nm. The following iridoids were isolated: geniposidic acid, aucubin, bartioside, 8-epi-loganin, mussaenoside, and the phenylpropanoid verbascoside. The most active iridoid was geniposidic acid, which was more active than the control (indomethacin, and the least active iridoid was mussaenoside. 8-epi-Loganin, and mussaenoside have not been previously reported to be anti-inflammatory compounds. The results of these investigations confirm the potential of Mexican plants for the production of bioactive compounds and validate the ethnomedical use of Castilleja tenuiflora-like anti-inflammatory plants.

  9. Rutin-loaded chitosan microspheres: Characterization and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity.

    Cosco, Donato; Failla, Paola; Costa, Nicola; Pullano, Salvatore; Fiorillo, Antonino; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fresta, Massimo; Paolino, Donatella

    2016-11-01

    Rutin was microencapsulated in a chitosan matrix using the spray-drying technique and the resulting system was investigated. High amounts of rutin were efficiently entrapped within polymeric microspheres, and these microparticles were characterized by a smooth surface and afforded a controlled release of the active compound. The anti-inflammatory activity of rutin-loaded microspheres was investigated in in vitro models of NCTC 2544 and C-28 cells treated with LPS by determining the levels of IL-1β and IL-6. The rutin-loaded microspheres showed an increase of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with respect to the free active compound. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that massive intracellular uptake of the chitosan microspheres took place after a few hours of incubation and that the drug was localized in the cytosol compartment of the treated cells. The improved anti-inflammatory activity of the rutin-loaded microspheres was further confirmed by an in vivo model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. PMID:27516307

  10. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Berberis aristata DC. in experimental models of inflammation

    Rohit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The result of the present study thus demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BAHE which may be attributed to its inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived cytokine and mediators.

  12. Evaluation of Phytochemical Screening and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Leaves and Stem of Mikania scandens (L.) Wild

    Banerjee, S.; Chanda, A.; Adhikari, A.; Das, AK; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The greatest disadvantage in the presently available potent synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs lies in their toxicity and reappearance of symptoms after discontinuation. Hence, people are returning to the natural products with the hope of safety and security. Several species of Mikania have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The present study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves and stem of Mikania scandens in vi...

  13. Investigation of Pharmacological Activity of Caralluma penicillata: Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Gastritis Protection against Indomethacin in Adult Guinea Pigs

    Albaser, Nabil; Ghanem, Najeeb; Shehab, Mohanad; Al-Adhal, Adnan; Amood AL-Kamarany, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Caralluma is a plant that possessing a great therapeutic potential in folk medicine in Yemen, namely, Caralluma penicillata (C. penicillata) as antiulcer. The study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties and gastritis protection activity of C. penicillata against indomethacin in adult guinea pigs. The study was divided into four parts: firstly, the optimum dose of extract as anti-inflammatory effect was determined. Secondly, the acute anti-inflammatory effect of extract were estima...

  14. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  15. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits.

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; Alencar, Severino Matias de

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of the essential oils from Senecio flammeus.

    Xiao, Kai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Xia; Dai, Jia-Li; Zhu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Many species from Senecio genus have been used in traditional medicine, and their pharmacological activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Senecio flammeus. A total of 48 components representing 98.41 % of the total oils were identified. The main compounds in the oils were α-farnesene (11.26 %), caryophyllene (8.69 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.23 %), and α-pinene (6.36 %). The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was evaluated in rodents (10-90 mg/kg bw) in classical models of inflammation [carrageenan-induced paw edema, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma]. The essential oils at doses of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg bw significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema by 17.42 % (P < 0.05), 52.90 % (P < 0.05), and 66.45 % (P < 0.05) 4 h after carrageenan injection, respectively, and significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity (P < 0.05). The essential oils (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) also produced a significant dose-dependent response to reduce TPA-induced ear edema by 20.27 % (P < 0.05), 33.06 % (P < 0.05), and 53.90 % (P < 0.05), respectively. The essential oils produced significant dose-response anti-inflammatory activity against cotton pellet-induced granuloma that peaked at the highest dose of 90 mg/kg (49.08 % wet weight and 47.29 % dry weight). Results demonstrate that the essential oils of S. flammeus were effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, thereby supporting the traditional use of this herb. PMID:26417301

  17. Lactobacillus acidophilus alleviates platelet-activating factor-induced inflammatory responses in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Alip Borthakur

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been used as alternative prevention and therapy modalities in intestinal inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Pathophysiology of IBD and NEC includes the production of diverse lipid mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF that mediate inflammatory responses in the disease. PAF is known to activate NF-κB, however, the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammation are not fully defined. We have recently described a novel PAF-triggered pathway of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, requiring the pivotal role of the adaptor protein Bcl10 and its interactions with CARMA3 and MALT1. The current studies examined the potential role of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in reversing the PAF-induced, Bcl10-dependent NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in IECs. PAF treatment (5 µM×24 h of NCM460 and Caco-2 cells significantly increased nuclear p65 NF-κB levels and IL-8 secretion (2-3-fold, P<0.05, compared to control, which were blocked by pretreatment of the cells for 6 h with L. acidophilus (LA or its culture supernatant (CS, followed by continued treatments with PAF for 24 h. LA-CS also attenuated PAF-induced increase in Bcl10 mRNA and protein levels and Bcl10 promoter activity. LA-CS did not alter PAF-induced interaction of Bcl10 with CARMA3, but attenuated Bcl10 interaction with MALT1 and also PAF-induced ubiquitination of IKKγ. Efficacy of bacteria-free CS of LA in counteracting PAF-induced inflammatory cascade suggests that soluble factor(s in the CS of LA mediate these effects. These results define a novel mechanism by which probiotics counteract PAF-induced inflammation in IECs.

  18. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·−, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  19. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Vishal Gulecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results : The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o. and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o were found to be more effective (P<0.01 in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o. and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o. were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion : Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain.

  20. Is Xanthine oxidase activity in polycystic ovary syndrome associated with inflammatory and cardiovascular risk factors?

    Isık, Hatice; Aynıoglu, Oner; Tımur, Hakan; Sahbaz, Ahmet; Harma, Muge; Can, Murat; Guven, Berrak; Alptekin, Husnu; Kokturk, Furuzan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to determine the relationship between xanthine oxidase (XO) and oxidative stress, inflammatory status, and various clinical and biochemical parameters. In this cross-sectional study a total of 83 women including 45 PCOS patients and 38 healthy women were enrolled. We collected blood samples for XO and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, hormone levels, cholesterol values, and inflammatory markers. Body mass index (BMI) , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and blood pressure were assessed. Blood samples were taken for hormonal levels, cholesterol levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell and neutrophil counts, XO and SOD activities. The basal hormone levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, TG/HDL-C (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) ratios FPG, FPI and HOMA-IR levels were higher in PCOS patients compared to controls (pPCT) values, CRP, and XO activity were significantly increased, however SOD activity was decreased in PCOS patients (pPCT, FPG, FPI, and HOMA-IR, and negatively correlated with QUICKI levels. In conclusion, XO is a useful marker to assess oxidative stress in PCOS patients. Positive correlations between XO and inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease risk factors suggest that XO plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS and its metabolic complications. PMID:27295433

  1. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Inonotus obliquus (IO is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H2O2-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.

  2. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

  3. Postprandial activation of metabolic and inflammatory signalling pathways in human peripheral mononuclear cells.

    Ehlers, Kerstin; Brand, Tina; Bangert, Adina; Hauner, Hans; Laumen, Helmut

    2014-06-28

    High-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) meals induce an inflammatory response in mononuclear cells (MNC). Here, we studied the interaction between metabolic and inflammatory signalling pathways by the measurement of postprandial effects of three different test meals on intracellular Akt, S6 kinase (S6K)/mammalian target of rapamycin and NF-κB signalling in human MNC. We recruited six healthy, lean individuals. Each individual ingested three different meals in the morning separated by at least 3 d: a HFHC meal; an oral lipid-tolerance test meal; a healthy breakfast. Blood samples were obtained before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after ingestion. Plasma insulin and IL-6 levels were measured. Intracellular metabolic and inflammatory signalling pathways were assessed by measuring the phosphorylation of Akt kinase and S6K, the degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) protein and the DNA binding activity of NF-κB in MNC. mRNA expression levels of the Akt and NF-κB target genes Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), CC-chemokine-receptor 5 (CCR5), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. We found a positive correlation of Akt phosphorylation with NF-κB activation (NF-κB binding activity: r 0·4500, P= 0·0003; IκB-α protein levels: r -0·5435, PMNC. PMID:24576401

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Agave Plants and the Compound Cantalasaponin-1

    Jaime Tortoriello

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants’ leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema induced in mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA technique. A dose of 6 mg/ear of acetone extract from the three agave species induced anti-inflammatory effects, however, the one from A. americana proved to be the most active. Different fractions of this species showed biological activity. Finally the F5 fraction at 2.0 mg/ear induced an inhibition of 85.6%. We identified one compound in this fraction as (25R-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23α-triol-3,6-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cantalasaponin-1 through 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral analysis and two dimensional experiments like DEPT NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC. This steroidal glycoside showed a dose dependent effect of up to 90% of ear edema inhibition at the highest dose of 1.5 mg/ear.

  5. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Obstructing Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer under Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Comparison of the Clinical Results according to Stent Diameter

    Kang, Pyeong Guk; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Min Hee; Park, Hae Won; Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of self-expandable metallic stent for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer under fluoroscopic guidance, and to compare results according to the stent diameter. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 31 self-expandable metallic stents were placed into 25 patients for palliative purposes. The rates of technical success, clinical success, complications associated with stent insertion, patient survival, and primary stent patency were evaluated. The results were also compared between two groups: 13 patients using stents with a diameter of 22 mm and 12 patients using stents with a diameter of 26 mm. The technical and clinical success rates were 93.5 and 90.3%, respectively. The complications included severe abdominal pain (6.5%), minor rectal bleeding (9.7%), stent migration (9.7%), and tumor ingrowth or overgrowth (9.7%). No statistical differences in technical were detected between the two groups for the clinical success rate and complication rates. The mean survival time was 5.5 +- 1.4 months. The primary stent patency rates were 91.3% at 5 months, 85.2% at 10 months, and 77.4% at 15 months. The mean period of stent patency was 12.4 +- 2.6 months. The mean period of primary stent patency was 16.4 +- 2.6 months in the 26 mm stent group, and significantly higher than 5.4 +- 1.4 months in the 22 mm stent group (p=0.031). A self-expandable metallic stent under fluoroscopic guidance, for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer, was feasible and effective, and yielded good clinical results. The period of primary stent patency of the 26 mm stent group was longer than the 22 mm stent group, and the complication rate was not significantly different between the two stent groups

  6. SU-E-P-51: Dosimetric Comparison to Organs at Risk Sparing Using Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Radiotherapy of Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric characteristics of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in treatment planning for left-sided breast cancer patients with modified radical mastectomy. Methods: Twenty-four left-sided breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy were selected in this study. The planning target volume (PTV) was generated by using 7-mm uniform expansion of the clinical target volume (CTV) in all direction except the skin surface. The organs at risk (OARs) included heart, left lung, right lung, and right breast. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were utilized to evaluate the dose distribution in PTV and OARs. Results: Both VMAT and IMRT plans met the requirement of PTV coverage. VMAT was superior to IMRT in terms of conformity, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.024). Mean doses, V5 and V10 of heart and both lungs in VMAT plans were significantly decreased compared to IMRT plans (P<0.05), but in terms of heart volume irradiated by high doses (V30 and V45), no significant differences were observed (P>0.05). For right breast, VMAT showed the reduction of V5 in comparison with IMRT (P<0.05). Additionally, the mean number of monitor units (MU) and treatment time in VMAT (357.21, 3.62 min) were significantly less than those in IMRT (1132.85, 8.74 min). Conclusion: VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and significant advantage in OARs sparing compared with IMRT, especially in terms of decreased volumes irradiated by low doses, while significantly reducing the treatment time and MU number

  7. SU-E-P-51: Dosimetric Comparison to Organs at Risk Sparing Using Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Radiotherapy of Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Qiao, L; Deng, G [Department of Oncology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xie, J; Cheng, J; Liang, N; Zhang, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandon, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang, J; Luo, H [Division of Oncology, Department of Graduate, Weifang Medical College, 2610, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric characteristics of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in treatment planning for left-sided breast cancer patients with modified radical mastectomy. Methods: Twenty-four left-sided breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy were selected in this study. The planning target volume (PTV) was generated by using 7-mm uniform expansion of the clinical target volume (CTV) in all direction except the skin surface. The organs at risk (OARs) included heart, left lung, right lung, and right breast. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were utilized to evaluate the dose distribution in PTV and OARs. Results: Both VMAT and IMRT plans met the requirement of PTV coverage. VMAT was superior to IMRT in terms of conformity, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.024). Mean doses, V5 and V10 of heart and both lungs in VMAT plans were significantly decreased compared to IMRT plans (P<0.05), but in terms of heart volume irradiated by high doses (V30 and V45), no significant differences were observed (P>0.05). For right breast, VMAT showed the reduction of V5 in comparison with IMRT (P<0.05). Additionally, the mean number of monitor units (MU) and treatment time in VMAT (357.21, 3.62 min) were significantly less than those in IMRT (1132.85, 8.74 min). Conclusion: VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and significant advantage in OARs sparing compared with IMRT, especially in terms of decreased volumes irradiated by low doses, while significantly reducing the treatment time and MU number.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Methyl Salicylate Glycosides Isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch. Rehder

    Guan-Hua Du

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch. Rehder is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatments of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling and pain. Two methyl salicylate glycosides, namely methyl benzoate-2-O-b-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6-O-b-D-gluco-pyranoside (J12122 and methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (J12123, are natural salicylic derivatives isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of J12122 and J12123 on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells by measuring the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of nitric oxide (NO, and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The results showed that both methyl salicylate glycosides dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6, respectively. Consistent with these observations, J12122 and J12123 significantly suppressed the accumulation of NO, with an inhibitory rate of 56.20% and 51.72% at 3.0 μg/mL concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the two methyl salicylate glycosides reduced the level of ROS induced by LPS. These results showed that the isolated compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition the production pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and ROS.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl salicylate glycosides isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder.

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Rui; Sun, Lan; Huang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Tai; Du, Guan-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatments of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling and pain. Two methyl salicylate glycosides, namely methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (J12122) and methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (J12123), are natural salicylic derivatives isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of J12122 and J12123 on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells by measuring the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that both methyl salicylate glycosides dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6, respectively. Consistent with these observations, J12122 and J12123 significantly suppressed the accumulation of NO, with an inhibitory rate of 56.20% and 51.72% at 3.0 μg/mL concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the two methyl salicylate glycosides reduced the level of ROS induced by LPS. These results showed that the isolated compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition the production pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and ROS. PMID:21555977

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin.

    Sogo, Takayuki; Terahara, Norihiko; Hisanaga, Ayami; Kumamoto, Takuma; Yamashiro, Takaaki; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, which has been used for folk beverages and herbal medicine although the molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. Based on the properties of Dp3-Sam and the information of inflammatory processes, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms in both cell and animal models in the present study. In the cell model, Dp3-Sam and Delphinidin (Dp) reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators including iNOS, NO, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α induced by LPS. Cellular signaling analysis revealed that Dp3-Sam and Dp downregulated NF-κB pathway and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. In animal model, Dp3-Sam and Dp reduced the production of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α and attenuated mouse paw edema induced by LPS. Our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that Hibiscus Dp3-Sam possessed potential anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25728636

  11. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

    Pravaree Phuneerub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to evaluate nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE 2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  12. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  13. Regulating inflammation through the anti-inflammatory enzyme platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase

    Hugo C Castro Faria Neto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor (PAF is one of the most potent lipid mediators involved in inflammatory events. The acetyl group at the sn-2 position of its glycerol backbone is essential for its biological activity. Deacetylation induces the formation of the inactive metabolite lyso-PAF. This deacetylation reaction is catalyzed by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH, a calcium independent phospholipase A2 that also degrades a family of PAF-like oxidized phospholipids with short sn-2 residues. Biochemical and enzymological evaluations revealed that at least three types of PAF-AH exist in mammals, namely the intracellular types I and II and a plasma type. Many observations indicate that plasma PAF AH terminates signals by PAF and oxidized PAF-like lipids and thereby regulates inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the potential of PAF-AH as a modulator of diseases of dysregulated inflammation.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds from Desmodium caudatum leaves and stems.

    Li, Wei; Sun, Ya Nan; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Sohyun; Chae, Doobyeong; Hyun, Jin Won; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-06-01

    Four flavanonols (1-4), one xanthone (5), and three flavonoid glycosides (6-8), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Desmodium caudatum. Their structures were elucidated by comparing spectroscopic data with reported values. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS-induced IL-6, IL-12 p40, and TNF-α production with IC50 values ranging from 6.0 to 29.4 μM. Compound 5 exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. These results warrant further studies of the potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits of compounds from D. caudatum. PMID:24026429

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata.

    Owoyele, Victor B; Adediji, Joseph O; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata was investigated in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formalin-induced oedema methods. The extract was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. In the carrageenan method the paw oedema was significantly reduced by all the doses of the extract administered, with the 200 mg/kg dose producing the highest oedema inhibition (80.5%). In the cotton pellet method, granuloma weight was significantly reduced from 14 +/- 0.1 to 9.0 +/- 0.1 mg, while in the formaldehyde induced arthritis the extract inhibited the oedema during the 10-day period. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity of C. odorata and, thus, justifies the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of wounds and inflammation. PMID:16280100

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM SEED EXTRACT

    Gupta Jeetendra Kumar; Sharma Sandeep Kumar; Misra Vimlesh; Patel Kanika

    2011-01-01

    The plant Punica granatum of family Punicaceae is distributed throughout India and reputed to have numerous applications in traditional medicine system. In order to justify its folkloric use in nociception and inflammation, the study was performed.In this study, the extraction of Punica granatum seed extract was carried out in aqueous media. In order to explore its potency, various experimental models of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were taken. The oral administration of ...

  17. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    Beong Ou Lim; Jeong Eun Jo; Da Hye Kim; Trishna Debnath; Sa Ra Park

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed...

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

    Khatib N.A; Pawase Kiran; Patil PA.

    2010-01-01

    Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum) is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR) for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP) were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose) shows significant (P

  19. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epi...

  20. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

    Muhammad Naveed; Saeed Muhammad; Khan Haroon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME). Methods VBME was employe...

  1. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities of ingredients of Curcuma phaeocaulis Val

    Hou, Yan; Lu, Chuan-li; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. is used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia as health food and folk medicine for removing blood stasis, alleviating pain and tumor therapy. This research was aimed to explore and compare three main bioactivities including anti-oxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities between the ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis and its fractions using different in vitro models. Firstly, 70 % ethanol was used to extract C. Phaeocaulis, and then the crude extract was re-extracted, resu...

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of mushrooms extracts, identified phenolic acids and their possible metabolites

    Taofiq, Oludemi; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Abreu, Rui M.V.; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms are rich sources of many bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, that play an important role in the organism, acting as antioxidants, antitumors, antimicrobials, immunomodulators, among others. However, their anti-inflammatory activity has not been deeply studied. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of fourteen edible mushroom species were firstly characterized in terms of phenolic acids and related compounds by HPLC-PDA, followed by the study of the ant...

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of coumarins from Ligusticum lucidum Mill. subsp. cuneifolium (Guss.) Tammaro (Apiaceae)

    Menghini, Luigi; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Marcotullio, M. Carla; Sosa, Silvio; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Four coumarin derivatives [selidinin 1, (+)-praeruptorin A 2, visnadin 3 and (R)-(+)-7-(2',3'-epoxy-3'-methylbutoxy)-coumarin 4] were isolated from the aerial parts of Ligusticum lucidum Mill. subsp. cuneifolium (Guss.) Tammaro (Apiaceae). This is the first report on identification of these compounds in Ligusticum genus. Their topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated as inhibition of the Croton oil-induced ear dermatitis in mice. Each compound induced a significant...

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract from red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata

    Neivys García Delgado; Ana Iris Frías Vázquez; Hiran Cabrera Sánchez; Roberto Menéndez Soto del Valle; Yusvel Sierra Gómez; Ana María Suárez Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract from D. obtusata using classic models in mice (croton oil-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing) and a phospholipase A2 activity test. Qualitative analysis of the chemical composition of seaweed was also determined by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity and precipitation and color tests. Results of qualitative chemical study showed the presence of lac...

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The es...

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of saponified fraction from Annona reticulata L. Bark

    Chavan, Machindra J.; Pravin S. Wakte; Shinde, Devanand B.

    2010-01-01

    The saponified petroleum ether extract (SPE) of the Annona reticulata L. bark were studied for fatty acid composition by GC-MS analysis. Six fatty acids amounting 86.68% of the total contents were identified. The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid was 22.10 % and 64.58 %, respectively. SPE at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight showed significant central as well as peripheral analgesic, along with anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. Toso regulates differentiation and activation of inflammatory dendritic cells during persistence-prone virus infection

    Lang, P A; Meryk, A; Pandyra, A A; Brenner, D; A. Brüstle; Xu, H. C.; Merches, K; Lang, F; Khairnar, V; Sharma, P; Funkner, P; Recher, M.; Shaabani, N.; Duncan, G S; Duhan, V

    2014-01-01

    During virus infection and autoimmune disease, inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs) differentiate from blood monocytes and infiltrate infected tissue. Following acute infection with hepatotropic viruses, iDCs are essential for re-stimulating virus-specific CD8+ T cells and therefore contribute to virus control. Here we used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) model system to identify novel signals, which influence the recruitment and activation of iDCs in the liver. We observed that ...

  8. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice

    Daniela Almeida Cabrini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID50 value of 0.05 (range: 0.02–0.13 mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear. All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%. Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Apparecido N. Daniel; Sartoretto, Simone M.; Gustavo Schmidt; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana M.; Ciomar A. Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji N. Cuman

    2009-01-01

    Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol) have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following...

  10. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    Taher, Yousef A.; Samud, Awatef M.; El-Taher, Fathy E.; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S.; Badryia F. Al-Mehdawi; Salem, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache.Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice.Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer’s-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to ...

  11. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  12. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    Magraner, M., E-mail: majomagbe@ono.com [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Coret, F., E-mail: coret_fra@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Casanova, B., E-mail: Casanova_bon@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta{sup Registered-Sign} and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm{sup 3}, to 960 mm{sup 3} (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} to 1.42 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was -2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0-6 months PBVC -1.7%; 6-12 months PBVC -0.74%; 12-18 months PBVC -0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient -0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (-2.3% to -1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  13. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Leucas cephalotes (Roxb.ex Roth) Spreng

    Bhukya Baburao; Anreddy Rama Narsimha Reddy; Gangarapu Kiran; Yellu Narsimha Reddy; Gottumukkala Krishna Mohan

    2010-01-01

    The whole plant of the methanolic extract from Leucas cephalotes was screened for invitro antioxidant (using the DPPH method), invivo analgesic (using hot plate test in mice) and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test) activities. The methanolic extract of Leucas cephalotes (MELC) scavenged the DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value to scavenge DPPH radicals was found to be 421.3µg/ml. A significant (p

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaves ofJatropha gossypifolia L. by hrbc membrane stabilization method

    Yerramsetty Nagaharika; Valluri kalyani; Shaik Rasheed; Ramadosskarthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    Object:To evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of leaves extracts ofJatropha gossypifolia(J. gossypifolia)L.Methods:The plantJ. gossypifoliaL.(Eurphorbiaceae) is known as belly ache bush.The plant originated fromBrazil and it is now cultivated in tropical countries throughout the world.The roots, stems, leaves, seeds and fruits of the plant have been widely used in traditional folk medicine in many parts ofWestAfrica.The young stem of the plant is used as tooth brush as well as to clean tongue in the treatment thrush.The tuber of the plant grinded into a paste is also locally used in the treatment of hemorrhoids.The present study aimed to evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract ofJ. gossypifolia leaves byin vitroHRBC membrane stabilization method.Results:Thein vitro method showed significant anti inflammatory property of different extracts tested.Conclusion:The aqueous extract at a concentration of200 μg/mL showed significant activity when compared with the standard drug Diclofenac sodium.

  15. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Cassia uniflora Mill

    She S Chaudhari; Sanjay R Chaudhari; Machindra J Chavan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of leaves of Cassia uniflora (C. uniflora) Mill. Methods: Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of C. uniflora (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) was screened for analgesic (Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing), anti-inflammatory (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and anti-arthritic (Complete Freund's Adjuvant induced arthritis). In Complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model degree of inflammation was evaluated by hind paw swelling, body weight, and biochemical parameters and supported by radiological analysis. Results: Treatment with extracts of C. uniflora showed significant (P<0.05) and dose dependant increase in paw licking time in Eddy's hot plate method. In writhing test, extracts were significantly reduced the number of writhes. A dose dependant and significant inhibition of edema was observed in carrageenan induced paw edema. Petroleum ether extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed most potent and significant activity which is supported by the results of body weight, biochemical parameters and radiological analysis in complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model. Conclusion:The extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    Jung-Chun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7 and carrageenan (Carr-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB, and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA level and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

  17. Design, synthesis, and local anti-inflammatory activity of 17β-carboxamide derivatives of glucocorticoids.

    Dobričić, Vladimir; Marković, Bojan; Milenković, Nikola; Savić, Vladimir; Jaćević, Vesna; Rančić, Nemanja; Vladimirov, Sote; Cudina, Olivera

    2014-11-01

    Molecular docking studies were performed on 18 17β-carboxamide steroids in order to select compounds with potential local anti-inflammatory activity. These derivatives are amides of cortienic acids (obtained from hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and methylprednisolone) with methyl or ethyl esters of six amino acids. Interactions with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), binding energies and ligand efficiency values of these compounds were compared with dexamethasone and cortienic acid obtained from prednisolone (inactive metabolite). On the basis of molecular docking studies, seven compounds were selected and their binding affinities for the GR were predicted by use of the exponential model created in this study. Subsequently, selected compounds were synthesized in good yields by use of modified N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC)/1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) coupling procedure. Finally, the local anti-inflammatory activity of the synthesized compounds was examined by use of the croton oil-induced ear edema test. In vivo evaluation of systemic side effects as well as in silico prediction of metabolism were performed on the derivative with the best local anti-inflammatory activity. The combination of molecular docking studies and the exponential model for the GR binding affinity prediction could be used as an in silico tool for the rational design of novel 17β-carboxamide steroids with potentially better biological profile than dexamethasone. PMID:25159891

  18. Characterization of inflammatory markers and transcriptome profiles of differentially activated embryonic stem cell-derived microglia.

    Beins, Eva; Ulas, Thomas; Ternes, Svenja; Neumann, Harald; Schultze, Joachim L; Zimmer, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Microglia, the immune cells of the CNS, are highly adaptive cells that can acquire different pro- and anti-inflammatory activation states with distinct functions in CNS homeostasis and pathologies. To study microglial function in vitro, primary microglia or immortalized cell lines are commonly used. An alternative to these cells are embryonic stem cell-derived microglia (ESdM). ESdM have previously been shown to be very similar to primary microglia in terms of expression profiles and surface molecules. In this study, ESdM and primary microglia were treated with different inflammatory stimulants to analyze their ability to adopt different activation states. Using quantitative real-time PCR, comparative transcriptomics, ELISA, and flow cytometry, we found that different activation states can be induced in ESdM, which are similar to those found in primary microglia. These states are characterized by specific sets of inflammatory marker molecules and differential transcriptome signatures. Our results show that ESdM are a valuable alternative cell model to study microglial functions and neuroinflammatory mechanisms. GLIA 2016;64:1007-1020. PMID:26959607

  19. The adhesion receptor CD44 promotes atherosclerosis by mediating inflammatory cell recruitment and vascular cell activation

    Cuff, Carolyn A.; Kothapalli, Devashish; Azonobi, Ijeoma; Chun, Sam; Zhang, Yuanming; Belkin, Richard; Yeh, Christine; Secreto, Anthony; Assoian, Richard K.; Rader, Daniel J.; Puré, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Atherosclerosis causes most acute coronary syndromes and strokes. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis includes recruitment of inflammatory cells to the vessel wall and activation of vascular cells. CD44 is an adhesion protein expressed on inflammatory and vascular cells. CD44 supports the adhesion of activated lymphocytes to endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, ligation of CD44 induces activation of both inflammatory and vascular cells. To assess the potential contribution of CD44 to atherosclerosis, we bred CD44-null mice to atherosclerosis-prone apoE-deficient mice. We found a 50–70% reduction in aortic lesions in CD44-null mice compared with CD44 heterozygote and wild-type littermates. We demonstrate that CD44 promotes the recruitment of macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, we show that CD44 is required for phenotypic dedifferentiation of medial smooth muscle cells to the “synthetic” state as measured by expression of VCAM-1. Finally, we demonstrate that hyaluronan, the principal ligand for CD44, is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE-deficient mice and that the low-molecular-weight proinflammatory forms of hyaluronan stimulate VCAM-1 expression and proliferation of cultured primary aortic smooth muscle cells, whereas high-molecular-weight forms of hyaluronan inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. We conclude that CD44 plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms. PMID:11581304

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  1. A functional variant of elafin with improved anti-inflammatory activity for pulmonary inflammation.

    Small, Donna M; Zani, Marie-Louise; Quinn, Derek J; Dallet-Choisy, Sandrine; Glasgow, Arlene M A; O'Kane, Cecilia; McAuley, Danny F; McNally, Paul; Weldon, Sinéad; Moreau, Thierry; Taggart, Clifford C

    2015-01-01

    Elafin is a serine protease inhibitor produced by epithelial and immune cells with anti-inflammatory properties. Research has shown that dysregulated protease activity may elicit proteolytic cleavage of elafin, thereby impairing the innate immune function of the protein. The aim of this study was to generate variants of elafin (GG- and QQ-elafin) that exhibit increased protease resistance while retaining the biological properties of wild-type (WT) elafin. Similar to WT-elafin, GG- and QQ-elafin variants retained antiprotease activity and susceptibility to transglutaminase-mediated fibronectin cross-linking. However, in contrast to WT-elafin, GG- and QQ-elafin displayed significantly enhanced resistance to degradation when incubated with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with cystic fibrosis. Intriguingly, both variants, particularly GG-elafin, demonstrated improved lipopolysaccharide (LPS) neutralization properties in vitro. In addition, GG-elafin showed improved anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung was reduced in lungs of mice treated with GG-elafin, predominantly neutrophilic infiltration. A reduction in MCP-1 levels in GG-elafin treated mice compared to the LPS alone treatment group was also demonstrated. GG-elafin showed increased functionality when compared to WT-elafin and may be of future therapeutic relevance in the treatment of lung diseases characterized by a protease burden. PMID:25189740

  2. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need

  3. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o. BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o. dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o. indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c. morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01 and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01. In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01. Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01. In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01 of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more

  4. In Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Lipoic Acid Derivatives in Mice 

    Brunon Kwiecień

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In mammals lipoic acid (LA and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA function as cofactors for multienzymatic complexes catalyzing the decarboxylation of α-ketoacids. Moreover, LA is used as a drug in a variety of diseases including inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to examine anti-inflammatory properties of LA metabolites.Material/methods:The present paper reports the chemical synthesis of 2,4-bismethylthio-butanoic acid (BMTBA and tetranor-dihydrolipoic acid (tetranor-DHLA. BMTBA is one of the biotransformation products of LA, while tetranor-DHLA is an analogue of DHLA. Structural identity of these compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR. These compounds were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity in mice. For this purpose, the zymosan-induced peritonitis and the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema animal models were applied.Results/conclusions: The obtained results indicated that the early vascular permeability measured at 30 min of zymosan-induced peritonitis was significantly inhibited in groups receiving BMTBA (10, 30, 50 mg/kg. The early infiltration of neutrophils measured at 4 hours of zymosan-induced peritonitis was inhibited in the group receiving BMTBA (50 mg/kg and tetranor-DHLA (50 mg/kg. The results indicated that the increase in paw edema was significantly inhibited in the groups receiving BMTBA (50, 100 mg/kg and tetranor-DHLA (30, 50 mg/kg. In summary, the present studies clearly demonstrated that both BMTBA and tetranor-DHLA were able to act as anti-inflammatory agents. This is the first study examining in vivo the anti-inflammatory properties of LA metabolites.

  5. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Parastoo Karimian; Gholamreza Kavoosi; Zahra Amirghofran

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods:In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-αmRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 μg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-αmRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 μg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions:T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of β-patchoulene isolated from patchouli oil in mice.

    Zhang, Zhenbiao; Chen, Xiaoying; Chen, Hanbin; Wang, Lan; Liang, Jiali; Luo, Dandan; Liu, Yuhong; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Yucui; Xie, Jianhui; Su, Ziren

    2016-06-15

    β-Patchoulene (β-PAE) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from the oil of Pogostemon cablin (patchouli oil), which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, as one of the major principle of patchouli oil, the biological activity of β-PAE has not been explored so far. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and the underlying mechanism, of β-PAE was investigated on experimental mice models of acute inflammation, i.e. xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results showed that β-PAE evoked a significant dose-dependent inhibition of ear edema induced by xylene, paw edema induced by carrageenan and suppressed the increase of vascular permeability elicited by acetic acid. Histopathological analysis indicated that β-PAE could markedly decrease the cellular infiltration in paw tissue. β-PAE was also shown to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in edema paw. In addition, carrageenan-induced production of some pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner in mice subjected to β-PAE pretreatment, and it also significantly down-regulated the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Further analysis revealed that β-PAE also inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and stabilize the conversion of nuclear factor-κBα (IκBα) level. These results provided additional chemical and pharmacological basis for the traditional application of P. cablin in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27090925

  7. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory-analgesic activity of 2',4'-difluoro-3-(carbamoyl)biphenyl-4-yl benzoates

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen 2',4'-difluoro-3-(carbamoyl)biphenyl-4-yl benzoates were synthesized from diflunisal in three steps with total yields from 72% to 86%. All compounds were identified by IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity for 18 compounds were evaluated. The preliminary assay results showed that compounds 4a and 4p exhibited potent anti-inflammatory-analgesic activity.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of thymoquinone in activated BV-2 microglial cells.

    Taka, Equar; Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Goodman, Carl B; Redmon, Natalie; Flores-Rozas, Hernan; Reams, Renee; Darling-Reed, Selina; Soliman, Karam F A

    2015-09-15

    Thymoquinone (TQ), the main pharmacological active ingredient within the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) is believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects on chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, asthma and neurodegeneration. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory role of TQ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 murine microglia cells. The results obtained indicate that TQ was effective in reducing NO2(-) with an IC50 of 5.04μM, relative to selective iNOS inhibitor LNIL-l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (IC50 4.09μM). TQ mediated reduction in NO2(-) was found to parallel the decline of iNOS protein expression as confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TQ on ninety-six (96) cytokines using a RayBio AAM-CYT-3 and 4 cytokine antibody protein array. Data obtained establish a baseline protein expression profile characteristic of resting BV-2 cells in the order of osteopontin>MIP-1alpha>MIP-1g>IGF-1 and MCP-I. In the presence of LPS [1ug/ml], activated BV-2 cells produced a sharp rise in specific pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine's IL-6, IL-12p40/70, CCL12 /MCP-5, CCL2/MCP-1, and G-CSF which were attenuated by the addition of TQ (10μM). The TQ mediated attenuation of MCP-5, MCP-1 and IL-6 protein in supernatants from activated BV-2 cells were corroborated by independent ELISA. Moreover, the data obtained from the RT(2) PCR demonstrated a similar pattern where the LPS mediated elevation of mRNA for IL-6, CCL12/MCP-5, CCL2/MCP-1 were significantly attenuated by TQ (10μM). Also, in this study, consistent data were obtained for both protein antibody array densitometry and ELISA assays. In addition, TQ was found to reduce LPS mediated elevation in gene expression of Cxcl10 and a number of other cytokines in the panel. These findings demonstrate the significant anti-inflammatory properties of TQ in LPS activated microglial cells. Therefore, the obtained results might indicate

  9. Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ppc-1, Active Principle of the Cellular Slime Mold Polysphondylium pseudo-candidum.

    Azelmat, Jabrane; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Epifano, Francesco; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The diisopentenyloxy quinolobactin derivative 3-methylbut-2-enyl-4-methoxy-8-[(3-methylbut-2-enyl)oxy] quinoline-2-carboxylate, also named as Ppc-1, has been initially isolated from the fruiting bodies of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pseudo-candidum. Given that few data are available in the literature concerning the biological properties of this compound, this study was undertaken to evaluate its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Ppc-1 exerted antibacterial activity on the Gram negative periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, while it had no such effect on the other bacterial species tested. The antibacterial activity of Ppc-1 appeared to result from its ability to permeate the cell membrane. Using the U937-3xκB-LUC human monocytic cell line, Ppc-1 was found to dose-dependently inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation, a signaling pathway that has been associated with inflammatory mediator secretion. In conclusion, Ppc-1, by exhibiting a dual mode of action including antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, may represent a promising targeted therapeutic agent for periodontal diseases. PMID:25925558

  10. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview.

    Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Lian; Miron, Anca; Klímová, Blanka; Wan, Dan; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria that has long been used as a food supplement. In particular, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the most important. Thanks to a high protein and vitamin content, Spirulina is used as a nutraceutical food supplement, although its other potential health benefits have attracted much attention. Oxidative stress and dysfunctional immunity cause many diseases in humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Thus, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of these microalgae may play an important role in human health. Here, we discuss the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina in both animals and humans, along with the underlying mechanisms. In addition, its commercial and regulatory status in different countries is discussed as well. Spirulina activates cellular antioxidant enzymes, inhibits lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, scavenges free radicals, and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Notably, there appears to be a threshold level above which Spirulina will taper off the antioxidant activity. Clinical trials show that Spirulina prevents skeletal muscle damage under conditions of exercise-induced oxidative stress and can stimulate the production of antibodies and up- or downregulate the expression of cytokine-encoding genes to induce immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Spirulina induces these activities is unclear, but phycocyanin and β-carotene are important molecules. Moreover, Spirulina effectively regulates the ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and IκB pathways. This review provides new insight into the potential therapeutic applications of Spirulina and may provide new ideas for future studies. PMID:27259333

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  12. Ortho-eugenol exhibits anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; Aragão Neto, Humberto de C; Golzio, Adriana M F O; Caldas Filho, Marcelo R D; Melo, Cynthia G F; Leite, Fagner C; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Barbosa Filho, José M; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-09-01

    Ortho-eugenol is a much used phenylpropanoid whose ability to reduce pain and inflammation has never been studied. Researching ortho-eugenol's antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, and its possible mechanisms of action is therefore of interest. The administration of vehicle, ortho-eugenol (50, 75 and 100mg/kg i.p.), morphine (6mg/kg, i.p.) or dexamethasone (2mg/kg, s.c.) occurred 30min before the completion of pharmacological tests. Pretreatment with ortho-eugenol did not change motor coordination test results, but reduced the number of writhes and licking times in the writhing test and glutamate test, respectively. The reaction time from thermal stimulus was significantly increased in the hot plate test after administration of ortho-eugenol. Treatment with yohimbine reversed the antinociceptive effect of ortho-eugenol, suggesting involvement of the adrenergic system. In anti-inflammatory tests, ortho-eugenol inhibited acetic acid induced vascular permeability and leukocyte migration, reducing TNF-α and IL-1β by virtue of its suppression of NF-κB and p38 phosphorylated forms in the peritonitis test. From these results, ortho-eugenol antinociceptive effects mediated by the adrenergic system and anti-inflammatory activity through regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of NF-kB and p38 become evident for the first time. PMID:27355133

  13. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models.

    Saeed, Noha M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M; Algandaby, Mardi M; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. PMID:22842335

  16. Nuclear Control of the Inflammatory Response in Mammals by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    Stéphane Mandard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of a very large number of biological processes including inflammation. Using specific examples, this paper focuses on the interplay between PPARs and innate immunity/inflammation and, when possible, compares it among species. We focus on recent discoveries establishing how inflammation and PPARs interact in the context of obesity-induced inflammation and type 2 diabetes, mostly in mouse and humans. We illustrate that PPARγ ability to alleviate obesity-associated inflammation raises an interesting pharmacologic potential. In the light of recent findings, the protective role of PPARα and PPARβ/δ against the hepatic inflammatory response is also addressed. While PPARs agonists are well-established agents that can treat numerous inflammatory issues in rodents and humans, surprisingly very little has been described in other species. We therefore also review the implication of PPARs in inflammatory bowel disease; acute-phase response; and central, cardiac, and endothelial inflammation and compare it along different species (mainly mouse, rat, human, and pig. In the light of the data available in the literature, there is no doubt that more studies concerning the impact of PPAR ligands in livestock should be undertaken because it may finally raise unconsidered health and sanitary benefits.

  17. EFFECT OF PREGNANE XENOBIOTIC RECEPTOR ACTIVATION ON INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE TREATED WITH RIFAXIMIN.

    Wan, Y C; Li, T; Han, Y-D; Zhang, H-Y; Lin, H; Zhang, B

    2015-01-01

    The causes and pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are still not clearly understood. This study aims to prove the important role of rifaximin played in inflammatory reaction caused by abnormity of the intestinal mucosal immune system. Intestinal microflora can greatly promote and maintain the inflammatory reaction of IBD, therefore, antibiotics can be used to treat IBD. Rifaximin is a medicine usually used for local intestinal infection. Many clinical and basic studies have shown that both a single application of rifaximin and the joint application with other medicines could achieve a good efficacy. This paper studied the activation of Pregnane Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) in treating IBD with rifaximin and analyzed its efficacy in IBD when PXR was involved in the transport of medicine and metabolism. The results prove that rifaximin can not only serve as an anti-microbial drug, but can activate PXR and actually weaken the reaction of IBD. Thus it is safe to say that rifaximin has great potential in treating IBD. PMID:26122229

  18. Fatty acid composition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. seeds

    Sumaia Awad Elkariem Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus (H. sabdariffa (commonly known as “Karkadeh” in Arabic is widely used in various pharmacological applications in Sudan. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of H. sabdariffa seed extracts using rat models. In acute anti-inflammatory models, oral administration of petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seeds inhibited the hind paw edema (p<0.01 which was induced by carrageenan. The petroleum ether extract exhibited significant (p<0.01 inhibition of vascular permeability in rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (0.6%. In cotton pellet granuloma method, the petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seed showed significant inhibition of granuloma. The extract reduced (p<0.001 abdominal constrictions which was induced by injection of acetic acid (0.7%. Analysis of seed oil of H. sabdariffa using Gas Chromatography revealed the presence of three fatty acids; these were linolelaidic acid, arachidic acid, and palmitic acid. In conclusion, H. sabdariffa seeds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat model.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC

    Raju Senthil Kumar; Balasubramanian Rajkapoor; Perumal Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extract ofIndigofera cassioides(I. cassioides)(MEIC) using various animal models.Methods:Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities ofMEIC was assessed by using different animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated by using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma method.Anti-nociceptive activity of the extract was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions by usingEddy’s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing respectively.The study was carried out using dose of200 &400 mg/kg orally.Aceclofenac, aspirin and pentazocine was used as standard drugs to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, respectively.Results:Treatment withMEIC significantly (P<0.001) decrease the paw volume and weight of cotton pellet in the tested models.It also exhibit potent analgesic activity on chemical and thermal induced pain in mice.MEIC exhibit potent and dose dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in all the tested animal models. Conclusions:All the results obtained revealed that the extractMEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used.The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  20. Tumors induce a subset of inflammatory monocytes with immunosuppressive activity on CD8+ T cells

    Gallina, Giovanna; Dolcetti, Luigi; Serafini, Paolo; Santo, Carmela De; Marigo, Ilaria; Colombo, Mario P.; Basso, Giuseppe; Brombacher, Frank; Borrello, Ivan; Zanovello, Paola; Bicciato, Silvio; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    Active suppression of tumor-specific T lymphocytes can limit the efficacy of immune surveillance and immunotherapy. While tumor-recruited CD11b+ myeloid cells are known mediators of tumor-associated immune dysfunction, the true nature of these suppressive cells and the fine biochemical pathways governing their immunosuppressive activity remain elusive. Here we describe a population of circulating CD11b+IL-4 receptor α+ (CD11b+IL-4Rα+), inflammatory-type monocytes that is elicited by growing tumors and activated by IFN-γ released from T lymphocytes. CD11b+IL-4Rα+ cells produced IL-13 and IFN-γ and integrated the downstream signals of these cytokines to trigger the molecular pathways suppressing antigen-activated CD8+ T lymphocytes. Analogous immunosuppressive circuits were active in CD11b+ cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These suppressor cells challenge the current idea that tumor-conditioned immunosuppressive monocytes/macrophages are alternatively activated. Moreover, our data show how the inflammatory response elicited by tumors had detrimental effects on the adaptive immune system and suggest novel approaches for the treatment of tumor-induced immune dysfunctions. PMID:17016559

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Vernonia patula (Dryand.) Merr.

    Arpona Hira; Shubhra Kanti Dey; Md Sariful Islam Howlader; Arif Ahmed; Hemayet Hossain; Ismet Ara Jahan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the inflammatory and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of aerial part of Vernonia patula (Dryand.) Merr (EAV). Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity of EAV was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, reducing power and Fe2+ion chelating ability were used for determining antioxidant activities. Results: The EAV, at the dose of 400 mg/kg, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (P Conclusions: Therefore, the obtained results suggest the acute anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the EAV and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant part as a remedy for inflammations.

  2. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children

    The outcome of HIV infection has improved since the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Some patients, however, develop a clinical and radiological deterioration following initiation of HAART due to either the unmasking of occult subclinical infection or an enhanced inflammatory response to a treated infection. This phenomenon is believed to result from the restored ability to mount an immune response and is termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) or immune reconstitution disease. IRIS is widely reported in the literature in adult patients, most commonly associated with mycobacterial infections. There is, however, a paucity of data documenting the radiological findings of IRIS in children. Radiologists need to be aware of this entity. As a diagnosis of exclusion it is essential that the radiological findings be assessed in the context of the clinical presentation. This article reviews the common clinical and radiological manifestations of IRIS in HIV-infected children. (orig.)

  3. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children

    Kilborn, Tracy [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Cape Town (South Africa); Zampoli, Marco [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    The outcome of HIV infection has improved since the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Some patients, however, develop a clinical and radiological deterioration following initiation of HAART due to either the unmasking of occult subclinical infection or an enhanced inflammatory response to a treated infection. This phenomenon is believed to result from the restored ability to mount an immune response and is termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) or immune reconstitution disease. IRIS is widely reported in the literature in adult patients, most commonly associated with mycobacterial infections. There is, however, a paucity of data documenting the radiological findings of IRIS in children. Radiologists need to be aware of this entity. As a diagnosis of exclusion it is essential that the radiological findings be assessed in the context of the clinical presentation. This article reviews the common clinical and radiological manifestations of IRIS in HIV-infected children. (orig.)

  4. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard).

    Hoang, Le Son; Tran, Manh Hung; Lee, Joo Sang; To, Dao Cuong; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-01-01

    A novel pyrrolizidine alkaloids, madhumidine A (1), and two known alkaloids, lindelofidine benzoic acid ester (2) and minalobine B (3) were isolated from the leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard) H. J. LAM. The chemical structures of these alkaloids were established mainly by NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophage RAW264.7 cell. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds was tested against a panel of cancer cell lines. PMID:26027474

  5. EVALUTION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LINN

    Priyanka Bagri; Mohd. Ali; Vidhu Aeri; Shahnaz Sultana; Malay Bhowmik

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous-ethanolic (50%) extracts of fruit rind (PGR), flower (PGF), and leaves (PGL) of Punica granatum were examined for its oral anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Oral pretreatment with the dried extracts of P. granatum produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all doses when compared to the control groups. The highest activity was shown in the PGR that at 500 mg/kg p.o...

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogs, in mice

    Bhutia Yangchen; Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan; Pathak Uma

    2010-01-01

    Objectives : To find out the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, if any, of Amifostine [S-2(3 amino propyl amino) ethyl phosphorothioate], DRDE-07 [S-2(3 amino ethyl amino) ethyl phenyl sulphide] and their analogs DRDE-30 and DRDE-35, the probable prophylactic agent for sulphur mustard (SM). Materials and Methods : In order to find out the analgesic activities of the compounds two methods were employed, namely, acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking. The pe...

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LINN LEAVES

    Nain Parminder; Saini Mamta; Malik Manisha

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of dried leaves of Punica granatum linn was studied for the anti-inflammatory activity in rat using carrageenan induced paw edema with plethysmometer and analgesic activity on mice by Eddy’s hot plate & tail immersion method. A preliminary phytochemical screening of leaves extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and steroids. Among all the doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, 600mg/kg, 800mg/kg) of methanolic extract 600mg/kg orally showed maximum signifi...

  8. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharide from Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Guzmán, S; Gato, A; Lamela, M; Freire-Garabal, M; Calleja, J M

    2003-06-01

    Crude polysaccharide extracts were obtained from aqueous extracts of the microalgae Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The crude extracts were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose columns. The molecular weights of the polysaccharides in each fraction were estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl columns. The crude polysaccharide extracts of both microalgae showed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. In assays of effects on the delayed hyper-sensitivity response, and on phagocytic activity assayed in vivo and in vitro, the C. stigmatophora extract showed immunosuppressant effects, while the P. tricornutum extract showed immunostimulatory effects. PMID:12820237

  9. SPONTANEOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN-SYNTHESIZING ACTIVITY OF B LYMPHOCYTES IN INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    A.T. T. Mamasaidov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of present work was to evaluate clinical significance of B-lymphocytes spontaneous antibody-synthesizing activity by B-lymphocytes (LASA in patients with rheumatic inflammatory diseases (RD, i.e., reactive arthritis (ReA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Significantly higher LASA levels were revealed in the patients with ReA, AS, RA, and SLE, as compared with healthy persons and patients with osteoarthrosis. Clinical significance of LASA indexes and their changes may reflect manifestation and degree of immunological activities in ReA, AS, RA, and SLE.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF BIS (INDOLYL METHANES (BIMs

    Partha Pratim Kaishap*, Chandrajit Dohutia and Dipak Chetia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-intestinal (GI toxicity is the common adverse effect which has been associated with most of NSAIDs available in the market. So the search for new therapeutic agents with high margin of safety and freedom from normally associated GI toxic effects has been a priority of pharmacologists and pharmaceutical industries. There are virtually limitless series of structurally novel heterocyclic compounds with a wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties. Literature survey reveals that coupling of two or more biodynamic molecules resulted in the enhanced biological activity. The present work embodied here involves synthesis and evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of some bis (indolyl methane derivatives.

  11. [Research of anti-inflammatory activity of the thiosemicarbaziden-morpholinilacetic acid].

    Bakirova, R; Fasylov, S; Nurkenov, O; Muravlyova, L; Gakupova, A

    2015-03-01

    Studying of synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of a number of new derivatives of N-acylsubstituted of thiosemicarbazide and product of their heterocyclization (thiadiazole). In work the following reagents are used: hydrazide of N-morfolinilacetic acids, allil-, benzoil-, 4-brom-benzoil isothiocyanates. IR spectrums of compounds are removed on a spectrometer from Fourier converter by "AVATAR-320" in tablets with KBr, 1H NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker DRX500 spectrometer with a frequency of 500 MHz in DMSO-d6 solution relative to internal tetramethylsilane standard. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out on four circuitous automatic diffractometer "Xcalibur". Mass spectra were recorded on a device FINNIGAN MAT.INCOS 50 direct input material with an ionization energy of 70 eV. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis was performed on plates «Sorbfil» system benzene-isopropanol-ammonia 10:5:2, display iodine vapor. Melting point defined on the device «Boetius». Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds is studied on white not purebred rats. Statistical processing of results was carried out with use of the software package of "Statistica 6,0". The experimental results showed that, among the received new hydrazide derivatives of N-morpholinilacetyc acids are compounds (II-IV and VI), which have anti-inflammatory activity. It is possible that novel anti-inflammatory properties associated with their antibacterial properties due to the presence in their chemical structure and thiosemicarbazides 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2 (3H)-thione fragments. The obtained results allow us to recommend the test compounds for advanced pre-clinical trials to study their properties. Based on N-hydrazide morpholinil acetic acid, a number of new N-acyl-substituted derivatives of thiosemicarbazide is synthesized and described, composition and structure of which is proved by IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. In an experimentation rats is founded anti-inflammatory activity of N

  12. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs. PMID:19663482

  13. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum

    Sharma Satish Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the synthetic drugs used at present as analgesic and antiinflammatory agents cause many side effects and toxic effects. Many medicines of plant origin with analgesic and antiinflammatory activity have been used since long time without adverse effects. The plant Abutilon indicum (AI is reported to be used as a febrifuge, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used to treat ulcers, toothache and hepatic disorders. Thus the present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory potential of the plant Abutilon indicum. The formalin induced paw licking and tail flick method were used to study the analgesic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to study anti-inflammatory activity. 200 mg/kg dose was selected to study both activities. Wistar strain albino rats were used for all studies. Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. In tail flick test the increase in the reaction time was highly significant (P < 0.001 with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant Abutilon indicum as compared to the control group. Acute edema in the left hind paw of the animals was induced by sub plantar injection of 0.1 ml (1% carrageenan suspension in normal saline. The ethanolic extract of the plant significantly (P <0.01 reduced the paw edema in carrageenan treated rats. The effect was maximum at 3hr after the carrageenan injection. The significant suppression of inflammation during the whole experimental period indicates the long duration of action of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the ethanolic extract of the plant under study. The phytochemical constituents present in these extracts may be responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the plant Abutilon indicum and the actions may be

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of β-sitosterol isolated from leaves of Oxalis corniculata

    Santosh Bhausaheb Dighe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxalis corniculata Linn. (Oxalidaceae is one of the important medicinal plants used traditionally for the treatment of fever, pain and inflammation.  To validate folk use of Oxalis corniculata as analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedy. The leaves of Oxalis corniculata was used for successive extraction with increasing polarity solvents. Petroleum ether extract was selected for activity guided fractionation to isolate β-sitosterol due to its better efficacy than other extracts. Analgesic activity was done by hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhings, while anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced paw edema method. All the extracts were screened at the dose of 100 mg/kg, i.p. and isolated β-sitosterol was screened at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to understand the mechanism of nociception. In hot plate test, Petroleum ether extract was found most active with reaction time of 8.4 ± 0.4 sec after 60 min while isolated β-sitosterol at dose of 20 mg/kg showed 11.1 ± 0.3 sec after 90 min. The number of writings in 30 min was compared with paracetamol. Petroleum ether extract and β-sitosterol (20 mg/kg showed 43.14 ± 1.9 and 34.21 ± 1.4 writhings respectively. Isolated β-sitosterol (20 mg/kg inhibited rat paw edema to 0.32± 0.06 ml after 120 min.  Naloxone reversed antinociceptive effects of extracts and isolated β-sitosterol.  It can be concluded that isolated β-sitosterol is responsible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Oxalis corniculata leaves and it works through central mechanism.

  15. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation and FXR genetic variation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Rian M Nijmeijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that activation of the bile salt nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR protects against intestinal inflammation in mice. Reciprocally, these inflammatory mediators may decrease FXR activation. We investigated whether FXR activation is repressed in the ileum and colon of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in remission. Additionally, we evaluated whether genetic variation in FXR is associated with IBD. METHODS: mRNA expression of FXR and FXR target gene SHP was determined in ileal and colonic biopsies of patients with Crohn's colitis (n = 15 and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 12, all in clinical remission, and healthy controls (n = 17. Seven common tagging SNPs and two functional SNPs in FXR were genotyped in 2355 Dutch IBD patients (1162 Crohn's disease (CD and 1193 UC and in 853 healthy controls. RESULTS: mRNA expression of SHP in the ileum is reduced in patients with Crohn's colitis but not in patients with UC compared to controls. mRNA expression of villus marker Villin was correlated with FXR and SHP in healthy controls, a correlation that was weaker in UC patients and absent in CD patients. None of the SNPs was associated with IBD, UC or CD, nor with clinical subgroups of CD. CONCLUSIONS: FXR activation in the ileum is decreased in patients with Crohn's colitis. This may be secondary to altered enterohepatic circulation of bile salts or transrepression by inflammatory signals but does not seem to be caused by the studied SNPs in FXR. Increasing FXR activity by synthetic FXR agonists may have benefit in CD patients.

  16. Methanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L. possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

    Kim, In-Tae; Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    As an attempt to identify bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the effects of the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. (MEXS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicate that MEXS is a potent inhibitor of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production. Consistent with these findings, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEXS inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity and the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus by blocking the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of MEXS in vivo. MEXS (100, 200 mg/kg/d, p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activities in an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. Thus, our study suggests that the inhibitions of iNOS, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release by the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. are achieved by blocking NF-kappaB activation, and that this is also responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:15635170

  17. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is increasingly important in the assessment of inflammatory activity in clinical trials with patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We investigated feasibility, inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory ability...... of 3 different scoring methods for MRI activity and change in activity of the spine in patients with AS. METHODS: Thirty sets of spinal MRI at baseline and after 24 weeks of followup, derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drug (n = 20) with placebo...... (n = 10) and selected to cover a wide range of activity at baseline and change in activity, were presented electronically in a partial latin-square design to 9 experienced readers from different countries (Europe, Canada). Readers scored each set of MRI 3 times, using 3 different methods including...

  18. Synthesis, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-oxidant activity of some substituted Benzimidazole Derivatives

    Rajasekaran S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Benzimidazoles are an important class of compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activity ranging from anti-hypertensive, anti-viral, anti-fungal, antitumor and anthelmintic activity. In addition, few N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives have shown to exhibit significant activity against several viruses, including HIV, herpes simplex (HSV-1, influenza, picorna, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and hepatitis C virus. The five membered heterocyclic moiety 1,3,4-oxadiazole also confers for various biological activity. Hence a series of benzimidazole derivatives fused with oxadiazole ring system have been synthesized, characterized by UV, IR and 1H NMR spectral data and evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Wattakaka volubilis (Dreagea volubilis

    Nandi Debkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wattakaka volubilis (Family: Asclepiadaceae has been reported to possess medicinal effects. In the present study, the dried leaf extract [methanol-water (1:1] of W. volubilis designated as ′the extract′ was evaluated for pharmacological activity in rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. In the acute toxicity study, it was found that the extract was non-toxic up to 1 g/kg, i.p. The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The extract significantly inhibited the arachidonic acid-induced paw oedema in rats, indicating that the extract inhibited both the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. The extract also significantly enhanced the macrophage count in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It is possible that the saponins present in the extract may be responsible for these activities.

  20. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the medicinal halophyte Reaumuria vermiculata.

    Karker, Manel; Falleh, Hanen; Msaada, Kamel; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Legault, Jean; Ksouri, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Reaumuria vermiculata is a xero-halophytic specie widely distributed in the south of Tunisia. In the current study, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Reaumuria vermiculata shoot extracts as well as its phenolic compounds were investigated in different solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water). Results showed a strong antioxidant activity, using the ORAC method and a cell based-assay, in methanol extract as well as an important phenolic composition (117.12 mg GAE/g). Hexane and dichloromethane proved an interesting anticancer activity against A-549 lung carcinoma cells, with IC50 values of 17 and 23 µg/ml, respectively. Besides, dichloromethane extract displayed the utmost anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting NO release over 100 % at 80 µg/ml in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. Taken together, these finding suggest that R. vermiculata exhibited an interesting biological activities which may be related to the phenolic composition of this plant. Moreover, the identification of phenolic compounds in R. vermiculata dichloromethane extract using RP-HPLC revealed that myricetin was the major molecule. These results allow us to propose R. vermiculata as a valuable source for bioactive and natural compounds exhibiting interesting biological capacities. PMID:27298615

  1. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Zehra Betül Paköz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  2. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the medicinal halophyte Reaumuria vermiculata

    Karker, Manel; Falleh, Hanen; Msaada, Kamel; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Legault, Jean; Ksouri, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Reaumuria vermiculata is a xero-halophytic specie widely distributed in the south of Tunisia. In the current study, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Reaumuria vermiculata shoot extracts as well as its phenolic compounds were investigated in different solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water). Results showed a strong antioxidant activity, using the ORAC method and a cell based-assay, in methanol extract as well as an important phenolic composition (117.12 mg GAE/g). Hexane and dichloromethane proved an interesting anticancer activity against A-549 lung carcinoma cells, with IC50 values of 17 and 23 µg/ml, respectively. Besides, dichloromethane extract displayed the utmost anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting NO release over 100 % at 80 µg/ml in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. Taken together, these finding suggest that R. vermiculata exhibited an interesting biological activities which may be related to the phenolic composition of this plant. Moreover, the identification of phenolic compounds in R. vermiculata dichloromethane extract using RP-HPLC revealed that myricetin was the major molecule. These results allow us to propose R. vermiculata as a valuable source for bioactive and natural compounds exhibiting interesting biological capacities. PMID:27298615

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of epiisopiloturine, an imidazole alkaloid isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus.

    Silva, Valdelânia G; Silva, Renan O; Damasceno, Samara R B; Carvalho, Nathalia S; Prudêncio, Rafael S; Aragão, Karoline S; Guimarães, Maria A; Campos, Stefano A; Véras, Leiz M C; Godejohann, Markus; Leite, José Roberto S A; Barbosa, André L R; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R

    2013-06-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of epiisopiloturine (1), an imidazole alkaloid found in the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1 was evaluated using several agents that induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Paw tissue and peritoneal fluid samples were obtained to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing, the hot plate test, and pain induction using formalin. Compared to vehicle treatment, pretreatment with 1 (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg, ip) of mice significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05). Furthermore, compound 1 at a dose of 1 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran sulfate, serotonin, and bradykinin, but had no effect on histamine-induced edema. The administration of 1 (1 mg/kg) following carrageenan-induced peritonitis reduced total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts and also carrageenan-induced paw MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the peritoneal cavity. Pretreatment with 1 also reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and inhibited the first and second phases of the formalin test, but did not alter response latency in the hot plate test. Pretreatment with naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of 1. PMID:23734744

  4. Bone marrow-derived macrophages exclusively expressed caveolin-2: The role of inflammatory activators and hypoxia.

    Maceckova, Michaela; Martiskova, Hana; Koudelka, Adolf; Kubala, Lukas; Lojek, Antonin; Pekarova, Michaela

    2015-11-01

    Caveolins are specific proteins involved in regulation of signal transduction to intracellular space. Still, their contribution to immune functions has not been completely clarified. Thus, we decided to characterize the expression of caveolins in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) under resting and inflammatory conditions. The effect of classical activators (lipopolysaccharide, LPS; interferon-gamma, IFN-γ) was further potentiated with hypoxic (5% O2) conditions. The activation of p44/42-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and expression of caveolin-1, -2, and -3, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was monitored using the Western blot technique. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) was analyzed by Griess method or ELISA, respectively. BMDMs were also transfected with siRNA against caveolin-2. Importantly, our study showed for the first time that BMDMs expressed only caveolin-2, and its level decreased after activation of macrophages with LPS, IFN-γ, and/or hypoxia. The expression of caveolin-2 negatively correlates with the iNOS and HIF-1α protein levels, as well as with the LPS/IFN-γ- and hypoxia-induced activation of ERK1/2. We concluded that caveolin-2 is most probably involved in regulation of pro-inflammatory responses of BMDMs, triggered via activation of ERK1/2. PMID:26215374

  5. Bowel wall thickening in patients with Crohn's disease: CT patterns and correlation with inflammatory activity

    AIM: To assess CT patterns of bowel wall thickening in patients with Crohn's disease and to correlate these patterns with inflammatory activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 58 helical abdominal CT scans of 53 patients with pathologically proven Crohn's disease. CT patterns of thickened bowel wall were divided into four types based on patterns of mural stratification and enhancement: type A, multilayered mural stratification; type B, two layers with strong mucosal enhancement and prominent low-density submucosa; type C, two layers without strong mucosal enhancement; and type D, homogeneous enhancement. We evaluated CT findings of the bowel and adjacent structures. We also reviewed pathologic features and clinical data to determine inflammatory activity. RESULTS: Fifty-five (95%) of 58 CT examinations showed bowel wall thickening. Of these 55 CT scans, type A pattern was found in 33 (60%), type B in 10 (18%), type C in five (9%), and type D in seven (13%). CT scans with type A showed significantly more wall thickening than those with either type C or type D. Histology revealed 43 cases with active disease and 12 with quiescent appearance. Thirty of 33 CT scans with type A and all 10 with type B were classified as acute disease, and three of five with type C and six of seven with type D as quiescent. CONCLUSION: In patients with Crohn's disease, CT patterns of bowel wall thickening correlated with inflammatory activity. Thickened bowel wall with layering enhancement is predictive of acute disease, and that of homogeneous enhancement suggests quiescence. Choi, D., et al. (2003)Clinical Radiology,58, 68--74

  6. JNK pathway is involved in the inhibition of inflammatory target gene expression and NF-kappaB activation by melittin

    Han Sang; Lee Jeong; Song Min; Song Ho; Son Dong; Choi Myung; Lee Hwa; Park Hye; Kim Youngsoo; Hong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Bee venom therapy has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis in humans and in experimental animals. We previously found that bee venom and melittin (a major component of bee venom) have anti-inflammatory effect by reacting with the sulfhydryl group of p50 of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and IκB kinases (IKKs). Since mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase family is implicated in the NF-κB activation and inflammatory reaction, we further in...

  7. In Silico, In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Safety and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Curcumin

    M. Venkata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Curcumin the active component of turmeric is known for its wide biological actions. Extensive studies on curcumin highlighted its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and anti-coagulant activity. The anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Though curcumin and its anti-inflammatory properties are well documented, the exact mechanism of action and effective in vivo dosage required for potential anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin are yet to be determined. The current work reflects in identfying the the role curcumin in the inflmmatory cascade and arriving at an optimal effective dose (ED50. Approach: The objective of the current study is to understand and establish the role of curcumin in the treatment of inflammatory condition, through in-silico, in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The specificity and binding affinity of curcumin to major inflammatory mediators such as, cytokines/chemokines, signaling proteins and transcription factors were evaluated using molecular docking. Subsequently, in-vitro experiments were conducted to establish the role of curcumin in reducing the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase form U937 human monocytes cell lines. Further, the Effective Dose (ED50 of curcumin was established for its potent in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Results: Our study confirmed a strong affinity of curcumin to various inflammatory mediators (ERK, PKC, P38 MAP Kinase, NFkB and Lipoxygenase. Curcumin when studied for its affinity towards chemokines/cytokines and TNF-α was found to be ineffective. Proportionate reduction in histamine and β-hexosaminidase release in U937 cells in vitro and inhibition of paw edema in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats affirmed the dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin. This in vivo study elucidated the ED50 value to be 570.6 mg kg-1 body weight for curcumin, which apparently shall be

  8. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    Xu, Guang-Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Shi-Cui [Jinhu Food and Drug Administration, Jiangsu (China); Wei, Shao-Hua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Zhu-Nan, E-mail: biopharmacology@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Ao, Gui-Zhen [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Soochow University, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-10-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway.

  9. Evaluation of Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Heterofucan from Dictyota menstrualis

    Helena Bonciani Nader

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term that defines a family of homo- and hetero-polysaccharides containing sulfated l-fucose in its structure. In this work, a heterofucan (F2.0v from the seaweed, Dictyota menstrualis, was evaluated as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agent. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg inhibits 100% of leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity after chemical stimulation. However, F2.0v does not alter the expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg has peripheral antinociceptive activity with potency similar to dipyrone. On the other hand, it had no effect on pain response on the hot plate test. Confocal microscopy analysis and flow cytometry showed that F2.0v binds to the surface of leucocytes, which leads us to suggest that the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive F2.0v is related to its ability to inhibit the migration of leukocytes to the site of tissue injury. In summary, the data show that F2.0v compound has great potential as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory, and future studies will be performed to further characterize the mechanism of action of F2.0v.

  10. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1 and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+ T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65, it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65. In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response.

  11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

    Gautam Mandal; Chandan Chatterjee; Mitali Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS) (family Nyctaginaceae) is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g). Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rot...

  12. Differential activation of JAK enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune disorders by pro-inflammatory cytokines: potential drug targets

    Malemud, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Charles J MalemudArthritis Research Laboratory, Division of Rheumatic Diseases, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Although several pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-12/IL-23, IL-17, IL-2, interferon, and the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4/IL-13, IL-10, and IL-22, all activate the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, in autoimmune disorders, ...

  13. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF FICUS BENGALENSIS IN PLANTS OF DIFFERENT AGE

    Patil, Vikas V.; Vijay R. Patil

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal plants have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. The aim of this study deals with the comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Ficus bengalensis in plants of different age. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma model for chronic inflammation. Indomethacin was used as a st...

  14. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    Wibool Ridtitid; Peerati Ruangsang; Wantana Reanmongkol; Malinee Wongnawa

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  16. Biochemical effects, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding of rats with high fat diet containing 3% cholesterol in olein oil, for 8 weeks. Feeding of rats with high fat diet for 8 weeks, leading to a significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, liver hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and paraoxonase-1 activities as compared to the normal control group. Treatment of high fat diet rats with Artemisia vulgaris extract for 4 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, resulted in normalized serum lipid profile, a significant increase in paraoxonase-1 activity and decrease in serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α level as compared to high fat diet-treated animals. Also the extract caused a significant decrease in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity as compared with both high fat diet-treated animals and control ones. In conclusion, Artemisia vulgaris extract has hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties; it may serve as a source for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26236098

  17. Anti-inflammatory and opioid-like activities in methanol extract of Mikania lindleyana, sucuriju

    Frederico A. Vanderlinde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikania lindleyana DC., Asteraceae (sucuriju, grows in the Amazon region, where is frequently used to treat pain, inflammatory diseases and scarring. This study was carried out to investigate phytochemical profile accompanied by in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory screening of n-hexane (HE, dichloromethane (DME and methanol (ME extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the plant. The oral administration of ME (0.1, 0.3, 1 g/kg caused a dose-related reduction (16.2, 42.1 e 70.2% of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing while HE and DME (1 g/kg, p.o. were ineffective. In the hot plate test, ME (300 mg/kg, p.o. increased the latency of heat stimulus between 30 and 120 min and inhibited the first (45% and second (60% phases of nociception in the formalin test. The antinociception induced by ME or positive control fentanyl (150 µg/kg, s.c. in hot plate and formalin tests was prevented by naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, ME (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 46.8, 59.4 and 64.8% respectively, while positive control dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 71.1%. These results indicate that the antinociception obtained after oral administration of methanol extract of M. lindleyana involves anti-inflammatory mechanisms accompanied with opioid-like activity which could explain the use of the specie for pain and inflammatory diseases.

  18. Recombinant human erythropoietin reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor and ameliorates pro-inflammatory responses following trauma

    M Mojtahedzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: Besides its hematopoietic effects, erythropoietin (EPO by mobilization of iron and modulation of some inflammatory cytokines has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these effects of erythropoietin and its impact on organ function in traumatized patients. "n Methods: Twenty-six ICU-admitted traumatized patients within 24 hrs after trauma were randomly assigned to the EPO (received EPO, 300 units/Kg/day and Control (not received EPO groups. The inflammatory biomarkers including Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, Interleukin 1 (IL-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and Nitrotyrosine were recorded at the admission, 3, 6 and 9 days thereafter. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores were also recorded. "n Results: Among 12 patients (EPO group TNF-α level at the day of 9 (P=0.046, and within EPO group at the days of 3 (P=0.026 ameliorate, 6 (P=0.016, and 9 (P=0.052 were significantly lowered. Level of IL-1 and PAI-1 decreased significantly at days of 3, 6 and 9 post intervention. Also there were significant differences between two groups in the SOFA score during three measured time intervals (the first, third and seventh days. "n Conclusion: From the results of this study it seems that injection of erythrocyte stimulating agent is well tolerated and inhibits the inflammatory response and oxidative stress following trauma.

  19. Comparison of dose distributions and organs at risk (OAR) doses in conventional tangential technique (CTT) and IMRT plans with different numbers of beam in left-sided breast cancer

    Aim: Our aim was to improve dose distribution to the left breast and to determine the dose received by the ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung and contralateral breast during primary left-sided breast irradiation by using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques compared to conventional tangential techniques (CTT). At the same time, different beams of IMRT plans were compared to each other in respect to CI, HI and organs at risk (OAR) dose. Background: Conventional early breast cancer treatment consists of lumpectomy followed by whole breast radiation therapy. CTT is a traditional method used for whole breast radiotherapy and includes standard wedged tangents (two opposed wedged tangential photon beams). The IMRT technique has been widely used for many treatment sites, allowing both improved sparing of normal tissues and more conformal dose distributions. IMRT is a new technique for whole breast radiotherapy. IMRT is used to improve conformity and homogeneity and used to reduce OAR doses. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with left-sided breast carcinoma were treated between 2005 and 2008 using 6, 18 or mixed 6/18 MV photons for primary breast irradiation following breast conserving surgery (BCS). The clinical target volume [CTV] was contoured as a target volume and the contralateral breast, ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung and heart tissues as organs at risk (OAR). IMRT with seven beams (IMRT7), nine beams (IMRT9) and 11 beams (IMRT11) plans were developed and compared with CTT and among each other. The conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and doses to OAR were compared to each other. Results: All of IMRT plans significantly improved CI (CTT: 0.76; IMRT7: 0.84; IMRT9: 0.84; IMRT11: 0.85), HI (CTT: 1.16; IMRT7: 1.12; IMRT9: 1.11; IMRT11: 1.11), volume of the ipsilateral lung receiving more than 20 Gy (>V20 Gy) (CTT: 14.6; IMRT7: 9.08; IMRT9: 8.10; IMRT11: 8.60), and volume of the heart receiving more than 30 Gy (>V30 Gy) (CTT: 6

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of 4-amino-2,6-diarylpyrimidine-5-carbonitriles with anti-inflammatory activity

    Silva, Joao Bosco P. da; Ramos, Mozart N.; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental]. E-mail: mramos@ufpe.br; Melo, Sebastiao Jose de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos]. E-mail: melosebastiao@yahoo.com.br; Falcao, Emerson Peter da Silva [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria de Santo Antao; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2008-07-01

    The experimental anti-inflammatory activities of eight 4-amino-2,6-diarylpyrimidine-5- carbonitriles were subjected to a QSAR analysis based on results from B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and AM1 electronic structure calculations. Principal component analyses and regressions based on these data indicate that potentially more active compounds should have low dipole moment and partition coefficient values and also be affected by the values of the charges of the carbon atoms through which the two aromatic rings are bonded to the pyrimidinic ring. Two new molecules were predicted to be at least as active as those with the highest activities used in the model building stage. One of them, having a methoxy group attached to one of the aromatic rings, was predicted to have an anti-inflammatory activity value of 52.3%. This molecule was synthesized and its experimental activity was found to be 52.8%, in agreement with the AM1 theoretical prediction. This value is 5% higher than the largest value used for modeling. (author)

  1. The Case for Increased Physical Activity in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Brief Review.

    Shephard, R J

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer, but there is little information on the merits of such activity in the prevention and management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). The present systematic review thus documents current levels of habitual physical activity and aerobic and muscular function in CIBD, and examines the safety, practicality and efficacy of exercise programmes in countering the disease process, correcting functional deficits and enhancing quality of life. A systematic search of the Ovid/Medline database from January 1996 to May 2015 linked the terms physical activity/motor activity/physical fitness/physical training/physical education/training/exercise/exercise therapy with Crohn's disease/colitis/ulcerative colitis/inflammatory bowel disease, supplementing this information by a scanning of reference lists and personal files.12 of 16 published studies show a low level of habitual physical activity in CIBD, with sub-normal values for aerobic power, lean tissue mass and muscular strength. 3 of 4 studies suggest physical activity may reduce the risk of developing IBD, and 11 interventions all note that exercise programmes are well tolerated with some decreases of disease activity, and functional gains leading to an increased health-related quality of life. Moreover, programme compliance rates compare favourably with those seen in the treatment of other chronic conditions. More information on mechanisms is needed, but regular moderate aerobic and/or resistance exercise improves the health status of patients with CIBD both by modulating immune function and by improving physical function. A regular exercise programme should thus become an important component in the management of CIBD. PMID:27116344

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

    Gautam Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS (family Nyctaginaceae is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g. Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The extract was freeze-dried (lyophilized and the yield was 8 g. This was used as an emulsion prepared in propylene glycol and orally administered (20 and 50 mg/kg. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of BS was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas chronic anti-inflammatory (immunoregulatory activity was evaluated by Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: BS (20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg had shown significant anti-inflammatory effects 20.6% and 67.6%, respectively, on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models. In dextran-induced edema, the effect was 30% and 66%, respectively. The standard drug indomethacin (87.3% and 91.5%, respectively showed better inhibitory response in both models. In arthritic model 50 mg/kg of BS showed significant chronic anti-inflammatory effect (38.46% in comparison to the standard drug dexamethasone (84.6%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the methanol extract of BS (50 mg/kg leaves has significant anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activity. Further studies involving isolation of active principles will help to pinpoint the mechanisms contributing to the observed activities of BS.

  3. Characterization of bergenin in Endopleura uchi bark and its anti-inflammatory activity

    Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec. is an Amazon species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammations and female disorders. Pure bergenin was isolated from the methanolic extract of bark of E. uchi, firstly by using liquid-liquid partition chromatography followed by column chromatography over Sephadex LH-20 and then silica gel 60 flash chromatography. The structure of bergenin was identified on the basis of its NMR spectra. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the measurement of the inhibitory concentration (IC) of bergenin against three key enzymes: COX-1, COX-2 (cyclooxygenases) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). These enzymes were selected because they are important targets for the discovery of new anti-inflammatory drugs associated with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The IC50 of bergenin for phospholipase A2 was determined as 156.6 μmol L-1 and bergenin was not considered active as compared to the positive control, tioetheramide PC. Bergenin did not inhibit COX-1 as well (IC50 = 107.2 μmol L-1). However, bergenin selectively inhibited COX-2 (IC50 = 1.2 μmol L-1). Because of the use of E. uchi in traditional medicine, bergenin was quantified in teas prepared as prescribed in traditional medicine by RP-HPLC as being 3% in the bark of E. uchi. The inhibitory activity towards COX-2 is important, since selective inhibitors of COX-2 have been clinically validated as anti-inflammatory therapeutics due to their enhanced gastrointestinal safety. (author)

  4. Characterization of bergenin in Endopleura uchi bark and its anti-inflammatory activity

    Nunomura, Rita C.S.; Nunomura, Sergio M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao em Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ritasn@ufam.edu.br; Oliveira, Viviane G.; Silva, Saulo L. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec. is an Amazon species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammations and female disorders. Pure bergenin was isolated from the methanolic extract of bark of E. uchi, firstly by using liquid-liquid partition chromatography followed by column chromatography over Sephadex LH-20 and then silica gel 60 flash chromatography. The structure of bergenin was identified on the basis of its NMR spectra. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the measurement of the inhibitory concentration (IC) of bergenin against three key enzymes: COX-1, COX-2 (cyclooxygenases) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). These enzymes were selected because they are important targets for the discovery of new anti-inflammatory drugs associated with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The IC50 of bergenin for phospholipase A2 was determined as 156.6 {mu}mol L-1 and bergenin was not considered active as compared to the positive control, tioetheramide PC. Bergenin did not inhibit COX-1 as well (IC50 = 107.2 {mu}mol L-1). However, bergenin selectively inhibited COX-2 (IC50 = 1.2 {mu}mol L-1). Because of the use of E. uchi in traditional medicine, bergenin was quantified in teas prepared as prescribed in traditional medicine by RP-HPLC as being 3% in the bark of E. uchi. The inhibitory activity towards COX-2 is important, since selective inhibitors of COX-2 have been clinically validated as anti-inflammatory therapeutics due to their enhanced gastrointestinal safety. (author)

  5. New labdane diterpenoids from Croton laui and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Chen, Li-Feng; Chen, Neng-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Nan; Jiang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-10-01

    Nine new labdane diterpenoids (1-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui, along with eight known analogues (10-17). Their structures were identified on the basis of the spectral data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and the structure of 8 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, compounds 1, 4, 7, 8, and 14 showed weak anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27575472

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam in experimental animals

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A; C. H. Janaki Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam (EECO) in experimental animals. Methods: Acute toxicity test was done following OECD guidelines. Carrageenan induced paw edema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of EECO (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. p.o) were used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st hr, ...

  7. Inflammatory stress increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency via activation of the mTOR signalling pathway.

    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress is an independent risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contributes to NAFLD progression, the mechanisms that link inflammatory stress to hepatic CD36 expression and steatosis remain unclear. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling pathway is involved in CD36 translational activation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress enhances hepatic CD36 expression via mTOR signalling pathway and the underlying mechanisms. To induce inflammatory stress, we used tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in vitro and casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress increased hepatic CD36 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression. A protein degradation assay revealed that CD36 protein stability was not different between HepG2 cells treated with or without TNF-α or IL-6. A polysomal analysis indicated that CD36 translational efficiency was significantly increased by inflammatory stress. Additionally, inflammatory stress enhanced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR signalling pathway and decreased the CD36 translational efficiency and protein level even under inflammatory stress resulting in the alleviation of inflammatory stress-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. This study demonstrates that the activation of the mTOR signalling pathway increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency, resulting in increased CD36 protein expression under inflammatory stress.

  8. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of medicinal plants grown in Jordan and Palestine

    Nooman A. Khalaf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbs like Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae, Peganum harmala (Nitrariaceae, Teucrium polium (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Artemasia herba-alba (Asteraceae and Arum palaestinum (Araceae have been studied for its various biological activities, the extract of fresh aerial parts of plant have not been reported for their antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities. Our aim was to study the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of fresh aerial parts of the plant. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method, DPPH free radical scavenging activity (antioxidant and effect of extract on gastro-intestinal tract motility was studied. Phenolic content of Verbena officinalis was higher (652.5 mg GAE % than the other plant extracts. Whereas antioxidant activity is concerned the Rosmarinus officinalis exhibited highest antioxidant activity (IC50= 6.25 µg/ml, and showed excellent anti-inflammatory (65.5% as compared to ascorbic acid (6.14 ± 0.09 µg/ml and diclofenac sodium (70.1% respectively. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract showed significant inhibition of the gastrointestinal activity (31.3 % when compared to all the other ethanolic extracts. The ethanolic extract of Arum palaestinum Bioss did not show any significant anti-inflammatory activity nor had any effect on gastrointestinal tract inhibition

  9. Acupuncture inhibits microglial activation and inflammatory events in the MPTP-induced mouse model.

    Kang, Jun Mo; Park, Hi Joon; Choi, Yeong Gon; Choe, Il Hwan; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lim, Sabina

    2007-02-01

    Using a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), this study investigated on the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture by examining whether acupuncture contributed to inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events. C57BL/6 mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Acupuncture was then applied to acupoints Yanglingquan (GB34) and Taichong (LR3) starting 2 h after the first MPTP administration and then at 48 h intervals until the mice were sacrificed for analyses at 1, 3, and 7 days after the last MPTP injection. These experiments demonstrated that acupuncture inhibited the decreased of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (IR) and generated a neuroprotective effects in the striatum (ST) and the substantia nigra (SN) on days 1, 3, and 7 post-MPTP injections. Acupuncture attenuated the increase of macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1), a marker of microglial activation, at 1 and 3 days and reduced the increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression on days 1, 3, and 7. In MPTP group, striatal dopamine (DA) was measured by 46% at 7 days, whereas DA in the acupuncture group was 78%. On the basis of these results, we suggest that acupuncture could be used as a neuroprotective intervention for the purpose of inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events in PD. PMID:17173870

  10. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

    Shu-Yuan Chiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM reduced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

    2013-08-15

    Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-κB luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3β-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application. PMID:23561137

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogs, in mice

    Bhutia Yangchen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To find out the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, if any, of Amifostine [S-2(3 amino propyl amino ethyl phosphorothioate], DRDE-07 [S-2(3 amino ethyl amino ethyl phenyl sulphide] and their analogs DRDE-30 and DRDE-35, the probable prophylactic agent for sulphur mustard (SM. Materials and Methods : In order to find out the analgesic activities of the compounds two methods were employed, namely, acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking. The persistent pain model of formalin-induced hind paw licking was carried out to test the effect of the compounds on neurogenic pain or early phase (0 to 5 minutes and on the peripheral pain or the late phase (15 to 30 minutes. To test the effect of the compound in acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema was carried out. This model of inflammation involves a variety of mediators of inflammation. Results : DRDE-07 (81.7% and DRDE-30 (79.4% showed significant reduction in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. DRDE-07 (93.1%, DRDE-30 (82%, and DRDE-35 (61.3% showed significant reduction in the second or late phase of formalin-induced paw licking. All the analogs (more than 60% including amifostine (43.9% showed significant reduction of paw edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Conclusion : The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the antidotes were comparable with aspirin.

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Wu, S J; Tsai, J Y; Chang, S P; Lin, D L; Wang, S S; Huang, S N; Ng, L T

    2006-12-01

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a medicinal herb widely used in folk medicine. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) method was employed to obtain three different PP extracts, namely SCEPP-0, SCEPP-4 and SCEPP-5. The total flavonoid and phenol concentrations, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these extracts were analyzed and compared with aqueous and ethanolic PP extracts. Among all the extracts tested, SCEPP-5 demonstrated the highest total flavonoid (234.63+/-9.61 mg/g) and phenol (90.80+/-2.21 mg/g) contents. At concentrations 0.1-30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect. At 30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/ml)-induced cell cytotoxicity in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells. At 10-50 microg/ml, it also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO release and PGE2 formation in a dose-dependent pattern. SCEPP-5 at 30 microg/ml remarkably blocked the LPS induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results suggest that SCEPP-5, an extract of SFE-CO2, displayed the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to other extracts. Its protection against LPS-induced inflammation could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. PMID:16820275

  14. Bioactivity screening of microalgae for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes and antibacterial activities

    Chiara eLauritano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active molecules for applications in the food industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. In this study, 21 diatoms, 7 dinoflagellates and 4 flagellate species were grown in three different culturing conditions and the corresponding extracts were tested for possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In addition, for two diatoms we also tested two different clones to disclose diversity in clone bioactivity. Six diatom species displayed specific anti-inflammatory, anticancer (blocking human melanoma cell proliferation and anti-biofilm (against the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis activities whereas, none of the other microalgae were bioactive against the conditions tested for. Furthermore, none of the 6 diatom species tested were toxic on normal human cells. Culturing conditions (i.e. nutrient starvation conditions greatly influenced bioactivity of the majority of the clones/species tested. This study denotes the potential of diatoms as sources of promising bioactives for the treatment of human pathologies.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin, a pterocarpene from Erythrina mildbraedii.

    Njamen, Dieudonné; Talla, Emmanuel; Mbafor, Joseph Tanyi; Fomum, Zacharias Tanee; Kamanyi, Albert; Mbanya, Jean-Claude; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Giner, Rosa M; Recio, M Carmen; Ríos, José Luis

    2003-05-01

    Erycristagallin, a pterocarpene isolated from Erythrina mildbraedii, was tested in vitro for its antioxidant properties on the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and on the arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, erycristagallin was tested on different experimental models of inflammation, such as the acute and chronic inflammation induced by the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on mice and the phospholipase A(2)-induced mouse paw oedema test. In the carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema test, the ethyl acetate extract obtained from E. mildbraedii showed anti-inflammatory activity, and erycristagallin was isolated as the active principle. In vivo, erycristagallin significantly inhibited the phospholipase A(2)-induced mouse paw oedema as well as the mouse ear oedema induced by TPA (ID(50)DPPH test. As with other phenolics, the anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin may be based on its capacity to inhibit the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. PMID:12729844

  16. Aberrant Inflammasome Activation Characterizes Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

    Tan, Hong Yien; Yong, Yean Kong; Shankar, Esaki M; Paukovics, Geza; Ellegård, Rada; Larsson, Marie; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; French, Martyn A; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-05-15

    Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) complicates combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in up to 25% of patients with HIV/TB coinfection. Monocytes and IL-18, a signature cytokine of inflammasome activation, are implicated in TB-IRIS pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated inflammasome activation both pre- and post-cART in TB-IRIS patients. HIV/TB patients exhibited higher proportions of monocytes expressing activated caspase-1 (casp1) pre-cART, compared with HIV patients without TB, and patients who developed TB-IRIS exhibited the greatest increase in casp1 expression. CD64(+) monocytes were a marker of increased casp1 expression. Furthermore, IL-1β, another marker of inflammasome activation, was also elevated during TB-IRIS. TB-IRIS patients also exhibited greater upregulation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome mRNA, compared with controls. Analysis of plasma mitochondrial DNA levels showed that TB-IRIS patients experienced greater cell death, especially pre-cART. Plasma NO levels were lower both pre- and post-cART in TB-IRIS patients, providing evidence of inadequate inflammasome regulation. Plasma IL-18 levels pre-cART correlated inversely with NO levels but positively with monocyte casp1 expression and mitochondrial DNA levels, and expression of IL-18Rα on CD4(+) T cells and NK cells was higher in TB-IRIS patients, providing evidence that IL-18 is a marker of inflammasome activation. We propose that inflammasome activation in monocytes/macrophages of HIV/TB patients increases with ineffective T cell-dependent activation of monocytes/macrophages, priming them for an excessive inflammatory response after cART is commenced, which is greatest in patients with TB-IRIS. PMID:27076678

  17. Inflammatory transcription factors as activation markers and functional readouts in immune-to-brain communication.

    Rummel, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Immune-to-brain communication pathways involve humoral mediators, including cytokines, central modulation by neuronal afferents and immune cell trafficking to the brain. During systemic inflammation these pathways contribute to mediating brain-controlled sickness symptoms including fever. Experimentally, activation of these signaling pathways can be mimicked and studied when injecting animals with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPS). One central component of the brain inflammatory response, which leads, for example, to fever induction, is transcriptional activation of brain cells via cytokines and PAMPS. We and others have studied the spatiotemporal activation and the physiological significance of transcription factors for the induction of inflammation within the brain and the manifestation of fever. Evidence has revealed a role of nuclear factor (NF)κB in the initiation, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 in the maintenance and NF-interleukin (IL)6 in the maintenance or even termination of brain-inflammation and fever. Moreover, psychological stressors, such as exposure to a novel environment, leads to increased body core temperature and genomic NF-IL6-activation, suggesting a potential use of NF-IL6-immunohistochemistry as a multimodal brain cell activation marker and a role for NF-IL6 for differential brain activity. In addition, the nutritional status, as reflected by circulating levels of the cytokine-like hormone leptin, influence immune-to-brain communication and age-dependent changes in LPS-induced fever. Overall, transcription factors remain therapeutically important targets for the treatment of brain-inflammation and fever induction during infectious/non-infectious inflammatory and psychological stress. However, the exact physiological role and significance of these transcription factors requires to be further investigated. PMID:26348582

  18. [The First Successful Application of a Mask with a Left Side Slit for Passing the Trunk of an Endoscope In Situ and Enabling Respiratory Support during Sedation for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy].

    Baba, Tomoko; Maekawa, Kengo; Tokunaga, Yukiko; Oyoshi, Takafumi; Kakihara, Satoshi; Matsushita, Ikuo

    2015-10-01

    Sedation in patients during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy involves the risk of respiratory depression. Ventilation support with a conventional face mask without removing an endoscope is impossible. We devised a ventilation mask with a slit and membranous valve on the left side wall and the circular upper end enabling to pass the trunk of an endoscope in situ, based on an idea published in the Japanese Journal of Anesthesia "Masui" 2013; 62: 105-8. An 82-year-old woman was scheduled for GI endoscopy for severe abdominal pain. An endoscope was inserted into her GI tract through the mouth after midazolam 1.5 mg i.v. Soon after the examination began, she developed respiratory depression, and her SpO2 gradually decreased to 84%, despite oxygen insufflated around the nose and mouth. The new slit mask was applied without removing the endoscope, and respiratory support was started by bag-valve method. Her SpO2 recovered and remained above 95% thereafter as the endoscopic examination continued. The side slit mask offers important advantages allowing its application in situ after an endoscope being inserted and by enabling positive pressure ventilation without interrupting the endoscopic procedure. PMID:26742409

  19. IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA LINN. VAR. ALBA

    Vijender Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC. The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic agent. In this work the methanolic extract of Basella alba (M.E.B.A. and aqueous extract of Basella alba (A.E.B.A. were studied for its in-vitro antiinflammatory activities. The potency of the extracts was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (50 and 100 @g/ml. The aqueous extract showed the most significant membrane stabilizing action on human red blood cell membrane.

  20. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of labdane and cis-clerodane type diterpenes.

    Demetzos, C; Dimas, K; Hatziantoniou, S; Anastasaki, T; Angelopoulou, D

    2001-10-01

    Two labdane type diterpenes, labd-13(E)-ene,-8alpha,15-diol (1) and labd-13(E)-ene,-8alpha,15-yl acetate (2) were isolated from the hexane extract of Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus (Viv.) Greuter & Burdet leaves, while (+)-19-acetoxy-cis-clerodan-3-en-15-oic acid (3) was isolated from the hexane extract of Cistus monspeliensis L. leaves. The compounds were examined for their in vitro cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against nine human leukemic cell lines, three of which exhibited a multidrug resistant phenotype. They were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on the back of hairless mice. The cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of the tested diterpenes followed the order 1>2>3. Topical application of the diterpenes on barrier disrupted skin did not seem to have a significant contribution to the repair rate of the skin barrier. PMID:11582537

  1. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti-inflammatory

  3. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin

    Tsung-Chun Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (PC is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat not only common cold, nausea and diarrhea but also headache and fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of standardized PC methanol extract (PCMeOH in vivo. Investigations were performed in mice with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid-induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested by λ-carrageenan (Carr-induced mice paw edema. These analgesic experimental results indicated that PCMeOH (1.0 g/kg decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, Carr-induced paw edema inflammation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner when PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg was administered 3 and 4 h after the Carr injection. Mechanistic studies showed that PCMeOH decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in the edema paw by increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and decreasing the cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α activities in the edema paw. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of PCMeOH, thus verifying its popular use in traditional medicine.

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chun-Hua; Hsu, Pei-Chien; Sun, Yu-Yo; Huang, Yu-Jie; Zhuo, Jiun-Horng; Wang, Chen-Yu; Gan, Yu-Ling; Hung, Chia-Chi; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Shie, Feng-Shiun

    2015-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates peripheral immunity; but its role in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the brain remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AhR mediates both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Activation of AhR by its ligands, formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) or 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), attenuated LPS-induced microglial immune responses. AhR also showed proinflammatory effects, as evidenced by the findings that genetic silence of AhR ameliorated the LPS-induced microglial immune responses and LPS-activated microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Similarly, LPS-induced expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were reduced in the cerebral cortex of AhR-deficient mice. Intriguingly, LPS upregulated and activated AhR in the absence of AhR ligands via the MEK1/2 signaling pathway, which effects were associated with a transient inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). Although AhR ligands synergistically enhance LPS-induced AhR activation, leading to suppression of LPS-induced microglial immune responses, they cannot do so on their own in microglia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results further revealed that LPS-FICZ co-treatment, but not LPS alone, not only resulted in co-recruitment of both AhR and NFκB onto the κB site of TNFα gene promoter but also reduced LPS-induced AhR binding to the DRE site of iNOS gene promoter. Together, we provide evidence showing that microglial AhR, which can be activated by LPS, exerts bi-directional effects on the regulation of LPS-induced neuroinflammation, depending on the availability of external AhR ligands. These findings confer further insights into the potential link between environmental factors and the inflammatory brain disorders. PMID:25690886

  5. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities of ingredients of Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.

    Hou, Yan; Lu, Chuan-Li; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. is used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia as health food and folk medicine for removing blood stasis, alleviating pain and tumor therapy. This research was aimed to explore and compare three main bioactivities including anti-oxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities between the ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis and its fractions using different in vitro models. Firstly, 70 % ethanol was used to extract C. Phaeocaulis, and then the crude extract was re-extracted, resulting in petroleum ether (EZ-PE), ethyl acetate (EZ-EA), and water fractions (EZ-W), respectively, and then a series of index was detected. Results showed that all the extracts had medium DPPH radical scavenging activity when the concentration was 200 μg/ml and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was in a concentration-dependent manner. The extracts except ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis had almost no cytotoxicity to the survival of RAW264.7 cell when the concentration reached 80 μg/ml, and all of them had medium inhibitory effect on nitrite release. Extracts of C. Phaeocaulis had medium intensity antitumor activity, EZ-PE and EZ-EA fractions significantly inhibited the proliferation of four tumor cells (SMMC-7721 cell lines, HepG-2 cell lines, A549 cell lines and Hela cell lines). C. Phaeocaulis had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which did not carry out centralized phenomenon when re-extracted. EZ-PE and EZ-EA were active antitumor sites of C. Phaeocaulis. PMID:26648822

  6. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etofenamate, in experimental animals].

    Nakamura, H; Motoyoshi, S; Imazu, C; Ishii, K; Yokoyama, Y; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered etofenamate, the diethylene glycol ester of flufenamic acid, were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice and ultra-violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs, etofenamate produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40--320 mg/kg and 5--20 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, felt-pellet-induced granuloma formation and adjuvant-induced arthritis were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of etofenamate at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days and 40 mg/kg/day for 21 days, respectively. Etofenamate showed an inhibitory activity on the squeak response caused by flexing and extending the silver nitrate-induced arthritic joint in rats; and it produced a dose related anti-writhing activity at doses of 50--300 mg/kg and 10--80 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Etofenamate showed a significant anti-pyretic activity at doses of 0.2 mg/kg or more. These potencies of etofenamate were 0.5 to 1.6 times those of flufenamic acid. In particular, the anti-erythema, anti-arthritis, and anti-pyretic activities of etofenamate were approximately equivalent to or superior to those of flufenamic acid. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate given orally, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities in experimental animals. PMID:6983482

  7. Vanillic Acid Inhibits Inflammatory Pain by Inhibiting Neutrophil Recruitment, Oxidative Stress, Cytokine Production, and NFκB Activation in Mice.

    Calixto-Campos, Cássia; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Manchope, Marília F; Zarpelon, Ana C; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-08-28

    Vanillic acid (1) is a flavoring agent found in edible plants and fruits. It is an oxidized form of vanillin. Phenolic compounds form a substantial part of plant foods used as antioxidants with beneficial biological activities. These compounds have received considerable attention because of their role in preventing human diseases. Especially, 1 presents antibacterial, antimicrobial, and chemopreventive effects. However, the mechanisms by which 1 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in vivo are incompletely understood. Thus, the effect of 1 was evaluated in murine models of inflammatory pain. Treatment with 1 inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, the second phase of the formalin test, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Treatment with 1 also inhibited carrageenan- and CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, paw edema, myeloperoxidase activity, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of 1 involved the inhibition of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and NFκB activation in the carrageenan model. The present study demonstrated 1 presents analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in a wide range of murine inflammation models, and its mechanisms of action involves antioxidant effects and NFκB-related inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:26192250

  8. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    Cuadrado, Irene [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Estevez-Braun, Ana [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigaciones del Cáncer (ICIC) (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE{sub 2} production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  9. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  10. Activation of Human Neutrophils by the Anti-Inflammatory Mediator Esenbeckia leiocarpa Leads to Atypical Apoptosis

    Rafael de Liz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Esenbeckia leiocarpa, a Brazilian plant, possesses potential anti-inflammatory properties, its effect in neutrophils, key players in inflammation, has never been investigated. In this study, a crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE was used to evaluate the potential toxic or agonistic effect of E. leiocarpa in human neutrophils. At a noncytotoxic concentration of 500 μg/mL, CHE increased actin polymerization and cell signaling events, especially p38 MAPK. Its modulatory activity on neutrophil cell apoptosis was investigated by cytology and by flow cytometry and, although CHE increased the apoptotic rate (by cytology and increased annexin-V binding, it did not, unexpectedly, increase CD16 shedding. CHE increased the degradation of the cytoskeletal proteins gelsolin and paxillin but, surprisingly, not of vimentin. The proapoptotic activity of CHE was reversed by a pan-caspase inhibitor but not by a p38 inhibitor. We conclude that CHE is a novel human neutrophil agonist that induces apoptosis by a caspase-dependent and p38-independent mechanism in an atypical fashion based on its lack of effect on CD16 shedding and vimentin degradation. Since the resolution of inflammation occurs by elimination of apoptotic neutrophils, the ability of CHE to induce neutrophil apoptosis correlates well with its anti-inflammatory properties, as previously reported.

  11. Is Synovial Macrophage Activation the Inflammatory Link Between Obesity and Osteoarthritis?

    Sun, Antonia RuJia; Friis, Thor; Sekar, Sunderajhan; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin; Prasadam, Indira

    2016-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disease, affecting nearly 25 % of the world population (WHO reports), leading to pain and disability. There are as yet no clinically proven therapies to halt OA onset or progression; the development of such therapies is, therefore, a national as well as international research priority. Obesity-related metabolic syndrome has been identified as the most significant, but also an entirely preventable risk factor for OA; however, the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. We have examined the available literature linking OA and metabolic syndrome. The two conditions have a shared pathogenesis in which chronic low-grade inflammation of affected tissues is recognized as a major factor that is associated with systemic inflammation. In addition, the occurrence of metabolic syndrome appears to alter systemic and local pro-inflammatory cytokines that are also related to the development of OA-like pathologies. Recent findings highlight the importance not only of the elevated number of macrophage in inflamed synovium but also the activation and amplification of the inflammatory state and other pathological changes. The role of local inflammation on the synovium is now considered to be a pharmacological target against which to aim disease-modifying drugs. In this review, we evaluate evidence linking OA, synovitis and metabolic syndrome and discuss the merits of targeting macrophage activation as a valid treatment option for OA. PMID:27422277

  12. Microparticles Containing Curcumin Solid Dispersion: Stability, Bioavailability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Teixeira, C C C; Mendonça, L M; Bergamaschi, M M; Queiroz, R H C; Souza, G E P; Antunes, L M G; Freitas, L A P

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, respectively. Accelerated stability test demonstrated that the solid dispersion was stable for 9 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed a 5.5-fold increase in curcumin in rat blood plasma when compared to unprocessed curcumin. The solid dispersion also provided enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw oedema. Finally, the solid dispersion proposed here is a promising way to enhance curcumin bioavailability at an industrial pharmaceutical perspective, since its preparation applies the spray drying, which is an easy to scale up technique. The findings herein stimulate further in vivo evaluations and clinical tests as a cancer and Alzheimer chemoprevention agent. PMID:26040724

  13. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW THIO-ETHER DERIVATIVES OF QUINOXALINE

    Singh, Dharmchand Prasad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of thioether derivatives of 2-Chloro-3-methylquinoxaline have been synthesized by reacting 3- methylquinoxalin-2-thiosodium with 2-chloro-N-(substituted aryl/alkyl-acetamides. The synthesis was initiated with the reaction of o-phenylenediamine (1 with ethyl pyruvate in n-butanol to yield 2-hydroxy-3-methyl quinoxaline (2, which on treatment with POCl3 ,yielded 2-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline(3.A mixture of the compound(3 and sodium sulphide in DMF was refluxed to yield 3-methylquinoxalin-2-thiosodium(4,which on treatment with different Nsubstituted chloroacetamides afforded the one pot synthesis of 2-(2-methylquinoxalin-3-ylthio-N-substitutedaryl/ alkyl-acetamides(5a-k. 2-chloro-N-substituted acetamides were prepared by treating substituted anilines in glacial acetic acid with chloroacetylchloride, warming on the water bath for half an hour and then precipitating, 2- chloro-N-substituted acetamides by addition of saturated aqueous solution of anhydrous sodium acetate. A compound 2-(benzylthio-3-methylquinoxaline 5l was also prepared. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, and 1HNMR spectra, analysis. All compounds (5a-l were screened for their in vivo anti inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. Compounds 5a, 5b, 5d, 5e, 5g and 5k have been found to possess good anti inflammatory activity.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activities of cecropin A and its mechanism of action.

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Areum; Kim, Yangmee

    2015-01-01

    Cecropin A is a novel 37-residue cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide isolated from the cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia. We have demonstrated that cecropin A is an antibacterial agent and have investigated its mode of action. In this study, we show that cecropin A has potent antimicrobial activity against 2 multidrug resistant organisms-Acinetobacter baumanii and-Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interactions between cecropin A and membrane phospholipids were studied using tryptophan blue shift experiments. Cecropin A has a strong interaction with bacterial cell mimetic membranes. These results imply that cecropin A has selectivity for bacterial cells. To address the potential the rapeutic efficacy of cecropin A, its anti-inflammatory activities and mode of action in mouse macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined. Cecropin A suppressed nitrite production, mTNF-α, mIL-1β, mMIP-1, and mMIP-2 cytokine release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, cecropin A inhibited intracellular cell signaling via the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathway, leading to the prevention of COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results strongly suggest that cecropin A should be investigated as a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25319409

  15. Triterpene saponins with anti-inflammatory activity from the stems of Entada phaseoloides.

    Xiong, Hui; Zheng, Yanan; Yang, Guangzhong; Wang, Huixia; Mei, Zhinan

    2015-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract from the stems of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr (also called "Guo Gang Long") led to the isolation of eleven triterpene saponins (1-11). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D- ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D-NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, HSQC-TOCSY and ROESY) experiments as well as ESIMS analysis and hydrolysis. These saponins comprised entagenic acid as the main aglycon, saccharide moieties at C-3 and C-28, and esterification of C-2 or C-3 hydroxyl group of the terminal β-d-glucopyranose unit with a monoterpenic acid. To further explain the clinical applications of "Guo Gang Long" for its anti-inflammatory effect, the inhibitory activities on the production of NO of the saponins and the related aglycon, entagenic acid (12), were evaluated in vitro. The compounds containing a free hydroxyl at C-3 of aglycon (1 and 4) and entagenic acid showed significant activities against NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells with IC50 values of 25.08, 20.13 and 23.48 μM, respectively. And the three compounds could also inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. PMID:25759122

  16. The role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in eosinophil activation during inflammatory allergic reactions

    Oliveira S.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are important chemotactic cytokines that play a fundamental role in the trafficking of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. They are also potent cell-activating factors, inducing cytokine and histamine release and free radical production, a fact that makes them particularly important in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. The action of chemokines is regulated at the level of agonist production and processing as well as at the level of receptor expression and coupling. Therefore, an analysis of the ligands must necessarily consider receptors. Eosinophils are target cells involved in the allergic inflammatory response since they are able to release a wide variety of mediators including CC and CXC chemokines and express their receptors. These mediators could damage the airway epithelial cells and might be important to stimulate other cells inducing an amplification of the allergic response. This review focuses on recently emerging data pertaining to the importance of chemokines and chemokine receptors in promoting eosinophil activation and migration during the allergic inflammatory process. The analysis of the function of eosinophils and their chemokine receptors during allergic inflammation might be a good approach to understanding the determinants of asthma severity and to developing novel therapies.

  17. Amides of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with thiomorpholine can yield hypolipidemic agents with improved anti-inflammatory activity.

    Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Kourti, Malamati; Gavalas, Antonios; Rekka, Eleni A

    2016-02-01

    Novel amides of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), α-lipoic acid and indole-3-acetic acid with thiomorpholine were synthesised by a simple method and at high yields (60-92%). All the NSAID derivatives highly decreased lipidemic indices in the plasma of Triton treated hyperlipidemic rats. The most potent compound was the indomethacin derivative, which decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol by 73%, 80% and 83%, respectively. They reduced acute inflammation equally or more than most parent acids. Hence, it could be concluded that amides of common NSAIDs with thiomorpholine acquire considerable hypolipidemic potency, while they preserve or augment their anti-inflammatory activity, thus addressing significant risk factors for atherogenesis. PMID:26750253

  18. Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera

    Fatma Alhakmani; Sokindra Kumar; Shah Alam Khan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman. Methods: Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results:Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Conclusions:The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Synthesis of antipyrine/pyridazinone hybrids and investigation of their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    BAYTAŞ, Sultan; İNCELER, Nazan; MAVANEH, Khatereh Fattahpour

    2012-01-01

    Eleven antipyrine/pyridazinone hybrids were synthesized and evaluated for their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities by p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test and carrageenan-induced paw edema model, respectively. The test results indicated that compounds 6a, 6c, and 6d were equally or more potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents than aspirin and indomethacin, respectively. Side effects of the compounds were examined on gastric mucosa. Most of the compounds were fou...

  20. The Oxidized Linoleic Acid Metabolite-Cytochrome P450 System is Active in Biopsies from Patients with Inflammatory Dental Pain

    Ruparel, Shivani; Hargreaves, Kenneth. M.; Eskander, Michael; Rowan, Spencer; Almeida, Jose F. A.; Roman, Linda; Henry, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous TRPV1 agonists such as oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OLAMs) and the enzymes releasing them [e.g., cytochrome P450 (CYP)], are up-regulated following inflammation in the rat. However, it is not known if such agonists are elevated in human inflammatory pain conditions. Since TRPV1 is expressed in human dental pulp nociceptors, we hypothesized that OLAM-CYP machinery is active in this tissue type and is increased under painful inflammatory conditions such as irreversible pulpiti...

  1. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

    Taylor, Cormac T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Kent, Brian D.; Crinion, Sophie J.; McNicholas, Walter T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Ryan, Silke, E-mail: silke.ryan@ucd.ie [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  2. HPLC profiling, antioxidant and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of Syzygium jambos available in Bangladesh

    Hossain, Hemayet; Rahman, Shaikh Emdadur; Akbar, Proity Nayeeb; Khan, Tanzir Ahmed; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Jahan, Ismet Ara

    2016-01-01

    Background Syzygium jambos has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in Bangladesh. The study investigates the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling of phenolic compounds, and evaluates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of S. jambos available in Bangladesh. Methods The extract was subjected to HPLC for the identification and quantification of the major bioactive polyphenols present in S. jambos. Antio...

  3. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    Raquel Kummer; Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz; Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva; Renata Grespan; Expedito Leite Silva; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka...

  4. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  5. Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone: An Overview on the Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Amin, Bahareh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    For many centuries, seeds of Nigella sativa (black cumin), a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used as a seasoning spice and food additive in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. Traditionally, the plant is used for asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The literature regarding the biological activities of seeds of this plant is extensive, citing bronchodilative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. The active ingredients of N. sativa are mainly concentrated in the fixed or essential oil of seeds, which are responsible for most health benefits. This review will provide all updated reported activities of this plant with an emphasis on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results of various studies have demonstrated that the oil, extracts, and their active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting the common folk perception of N. Sativa as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Many protective properties are attributed to reproducible radical scavenging activity as well as an interaction with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation, including proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. However, there is a need for further investigations to find out the precise mechanisms responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and its active constituents. PMID:26366755

  6. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem.

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is a special folk medicinal plant in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of the stem of K. gracilis. TEAC, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were analyzed. Among all fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The chloroform fraction also had the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Chloroform fractions also decreased LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions were studied in vitro using HepG2 cells, and the results were consistent with their antioxidant capacities. Chloroform fractions had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) of 136.85 ± 2.32 μg/ml. Eupafolin also had good pharmacological activity in the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiproliferative. Eupafolin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of K. gracilis. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of K. gracilis is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:22083996

  7. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  8. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Alafia barteri

    Margaret O. Sofidiya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Alafia barteri Oliv., Apocynaceae, based on its medicinal use in the treatment of toothaches, inflammation and fevers. The antinociceptive effect was assessed in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing, tail clip, tail immersion and formalin assays. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats, and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract at different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly (p < 0.05 and dose-dependently reduced pain by 35.04, 56.49 and 84.25%, respectively. The extract also significantly inhibited both the early and late phases of formalin-induced nociception in mice. In the tail immersion test, the extract caused a significant inhibition of pain (34.43% inhibition, after 90 min at a dose of 200 mg/kg, while the effect of the extract in the tail clip test was only significant at the 100 mg/kg dose. A. barteri caused a significant inhibition of paw oedema development in the carrageenan and xylene-induced oedema tests. There was no mortality recorded following treatment with the extract (5 g/kg, p.o.. The results support the traditional use of A. barteri in the treatment of various diseases associated with pain and inflammation.

  9. ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MIKANIA LINDLEYANA IN RODENTS

    Andressa S. B. Silva et al.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikania lindleyana is a plant widely distributed in Brazilian Amazonia, popularly known as “sucuriju” and largely used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, chronic ulcers and pain. In the present study, we identified the secondary metabolites of the aqueous extract of M. lindleyana (AEML and investigate its effects on several models of inflammation and nociception in rodents. Phytochemical screening of the AEML showed the presence of saponins, proteins, amino acids, phenols, tannins, organic acids and flavonoids. Oral pretreatment of mice with AEML significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the abdominal constrictions evoked by acetic acid injection and the licking time in both first and second phases in the formalin test but has no significant effect on hot plate test. In rats, AEML inhibited the edema formation induced by carrageenan and croton oil while has no significant effects on the edema induced by dextran. AEML inhibited the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration as well as the rolling and the adhesion of leukocytes. The present study shows for the first time that AEML displays antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities which could be attributed respectively to a possible opioid mechanism and to an inhibition of the adhesion molecules by interference on pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results support the widespread use of M. lindleyana in popular medicine to treat inflammation and pain.

  10. Attenuated viral hepatitis in Trem1-/- mice is associated with reduced inflammatory activity of neutrophils.

    Kozik, Jan-Hendrik; Trautmann, Tanja; Carambia, Antonella; Preti, Max; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Krech, Till; Wiegard, Christiane; Heeren, Joerg; Herkel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    TREM1 (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1) is a pro-inflammatory receptor expressed by phagocytes, which can also be released as a soluble molecule (sTREM1). The roles of TREM1 and sTREM1 in liver infection and inflammation are not clear. Here we show that patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection manifest elevated serum levels of sTREM1. In mice, experimental viral hepatitis induced by infection with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)-WE was likewise associated with increased sTREM1 in serum and urine, and with increased TREM1 and its associated adapter molecule DAP12 in the liver. Trem1-/- mice showed accelerated clearance of LCMV-WE and manifested attenuated liver inflammation and injury. TREM1 expression in the liver of wild-type mice was mostly confined to infiltrating neutrophils, which responded to LCMV by secretion of CCL2 and TNF-α, and release of sTREM1. Accordingly, the production of CCL2 and TNF-α was decreased in the livers of LCMV-infected Trem1-/- mice, as compared to LCMV-infected wildtype mice. These findings indicate that TREM1 plays a role in viral hepatitis, in which it seems to aggravate the immunopathology associated with viral clearance, mainly by increasing the inflammatory activity of neutrophils. PMID:27328755

  11. A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants.

    Li, Rachel W; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N; Lin, G David; Leach, Greg

    2003-03-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 33 ethanol extracts obtained from 24 plant species (representing 11 different families) on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) were evaluated. The plant materials selected for this study have been used in aboriginal medicine in Australia and traditional medicine in China for the treatment of various diseases that are considered as inflammation in nature, e.g. asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, edema, infections, snakebite and related inflammatory diseases. All of the selected plants, with one exception, showed inhibitory activity against COX-1, which supports their traditional uses. The most potent COX-1 inhibition were observed from the extracts of Acacia ancistrocarpa leaves (IC(50)=23 microg/ml). Ficus racemosa bark, Clematis pickeringii stem, Acacia adsurgens leaves, Tinospora smilacina stem and Morinda citrifolia fruit powder exhibited inhibition of COX-1 with the IC(50) of 100, 141, 144, 158 and 163 microg/ml, respectively. Aspirin and indomethacin used as the reference COX-1 inhibitors in this study inhibited COX-1 with IC(50) of 241 and 1.2 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may explain at least in part why these plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Australian aboriginal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12576199

  12. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF H1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIS T CETIRIZINE IN ANIMAL MODELS

    Vardhamane

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: The present study was designed to study anti-inflam matory activity of Cetirizine in albino rats and compare with standard drug Diclofenac. MATERIAL & METHODS : 1. Carrageenin induced rat paw edema method (Acute i nflammation: 5 animals in each group (3groups received orally 4% Gum acacia, Diclofenac sodium and Cetirizine respectively one hour before carrageenin injection into right paw. Th e rat paw edema was measured with plethysmograph after 3 hours and percentage inhibitio n of edema was calculated in each group. 2. Rexin pellet granuloma method (Chronic inflammati on: Four rexin pellets were implanted into dorsum skin of each rat of 3 groups (n=5, whic h include control, Diclofenac and Cetirizine respectively. The animals were treated with fixed do ses of drugs once a day for 7 days including the day of implantation of pellets and on 8th day rex in pellets were removed after sacrificing animals. Rexin pellets were kept in incubator at 60 0 C overnight. Pellets were then weighed and percent inhibition of granuloma tissue was calculate d. 3. Study of Mast cell counts. RESULT: Cetirizine showed significant anti-inflammatory act ivity both in acute and chronic animal models. CONCLUSION: Cetirizine may be used as potential drug for both a cute and chronic inflammation due to its anti-inflammatory property.

  13. Anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory activities of a bioactive alkaloid from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir

    A Vijayalakshmi; V Ravichandiran; Malarkodi Velraj; S Hemalatha; G Sudharani; S Jayakumari

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-anaphylactic, anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing properties of plumerianine (compound 1) isolated from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir. Methods: The anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was studied by using models such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive paw anaphylaxis and its anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in albino rats was also investigated using ketotifen and indomethacin as reference drugs. Results: A dose-dependent beneficial effect was observed on leakage of evans blue dye in skin challenged with antigen and on paw anaphylaxis induced by antiserum. The compound 1 also exhibited significant (P<0.01) inhibition of rat paw edema and granuloma tissue formation, including significant protection of RBC against the haemolytic effect of hypotonic solution, an indication of membrane-stabilizing activity. Conclusions: Anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 may be possibly due to inhibition of the release of various inflammatory mediators. Anti-inflammatory activity of compound may be related to the inhibition of the early phase and late phase of inflammatory events.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the hydrolyzed sasanquasaponins from the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera.

    Ye, Yong; Xing, Haiting; Chen, Xuelan

    2013-08-01

    The defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera (Abel.) are used for stopping itching and pain in old days, the effective compounds need to be investigated. Sasanquasaponin as a rich fraction was extracted with 70% ethanol, purified by AB-8 macro-reticular resin, crystallized in 80% ethanol, and further hydrolyzed by 4% hydroxyl potassium or 2 M hydrochloride. Anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were measured by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice; the analgesic activities were analyzed by hot plate test, acetic acid induced writhing in mice; the levels of pain mediators of IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE₂ were determined; the antioxidative activities in vivo were evaluated by MDA, SOD and GSH-Px in serum of rats. The extracts showed significant (p < 0.01) anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, remarkably (p < 0.01) inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2, decreased MDA and increased SOD and GSH-Px in serum. Inhibition of IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 may contribute to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects; elimination of free radicals is also involved. The sapogenin and acid hydrolyzed product have better anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects, and stronger antioxidative activity than sasanquasaponin and alkaline hydrolyzed product, and they are better candidate medicines for inflammation and pain. PMID:23625174

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pistacia khinjuk in different experimental models: isolation and characterization of its flavonoids and galloylated sugars.

    Esmat, Ahmed; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Algandaby, Mardi M; Moussa, Ashaimaa Y; Labib, Rola M; Ayoub, Nahla A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed at isolating and elucidating the structure of the main components of Pistacia khinjuk L. and exploring its potential anti-inflammatory effect in different experimental models. The extract was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by measuring paw volume in three experimental models. Then, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) level, ear edema, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histopathology, nitric oxide (NO) level, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level were assessed. Seven phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids and galloylated compounds, were isolated from the aqueous methanol extract: gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), quercetin-3-O-β-D-⁴C₁-galactopyranoside (hyperin) (3), myricetin-3-O-α-L-¹C₄-rhamnopyranoside (myricitrin) (4), 1,6-digalloyl-β-D-glucose (5), 1,4-digalloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 2,3-di-O-galloyl-(α/β)-⁴C₁-glucopyranose (nilocitin) (7). The anti-inflammatory activity was evidenced by decreased carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and PGE₂ elevation. In the croton oil-induced ear edema model, MPO activity was significantly inhibited, and inflammatory histopathological changes were ameliorated. In the rat air pouch model, NO generation and TNF-α release were significantly inhibited. The isolation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data of compound 6 from the genus Pistacia are revealed for the first time. Also, P. khinjuk L. aqueous methanol extract possesses anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models. PMID:22082098

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF 75 PERCENT V/V METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABUTILON INDICUM (LINN. SWEET LEAVES

    K Ponnudurai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The active constituent of leaf extract of the plant (Abutilon indicum contains various components such as essential oils in particular eugenol which is reported to possess antioxidant potential. Eugenol is the one of the constituents of plant under investigation. Therefore based on the above facts, it is clear that no scientific studies have been carried out in Abutilon indicum regarding the anti-inflammatory and gastro protective activity, the present study has been carried out to investigate and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of 75 percent methanolic extract of Abutilon indicum (Linn. Sweet leaves.

  17. An Unusual Case of Systemic Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor with Successful Treatment with ALK-Inhibitor

    Sanjivini V. Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an exceedingly rare entity. A 45-year-old Hispanic female presented with a 6-month history of left-sided thigh pain, low back pain, and generalized weakness. PET/CT scan revealed abnormal activity in the liver, adrenal gland, and pancreas. MRI of the abdomen demonstrated two 6-7 cm masses in the liver. MRI of the lumbar spine demonstrated lesions in the L2 to L4 spinous processes, paraspinal muscles, and subcutaneous tissues, as well as an 8 mm enhancing intradural lesion at T11, all thought to be metastatic disease. A biopsy of the liver showed portal tract expansion by a spindle cell proliferation rich in inflammation. Tumor cells showed immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin and anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1 (ALK1. Tissue from the L5 vertebra showed a process histologically identical to that seen in the liver. FISH analysis of these lesions demonstrated an ALK (2p23 gene rearrangement. The patient was successfully treated with an ALK-inhibitor, Crizotinib, and is now in complete remission. We present the first reported case, to our knowledge, of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with systemic manifestations and ALK translocation. This case is a prime example of how personalized medicine has vastly improved patient care through the use of molecular-targeted therapy.

  18. Functional and phenotypic effects of AhR activation in inflammatory dendritic cells

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces immune suppression. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen presenting cells governing T cell activation and differentiation. However, the consequences of AhR activation in DCs are not fully defined. We hypothesized that AhR activation alters DC differentiation and generates dysfunctional DCs. To test this hypothesis, inflammatory bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from C57Bl/6 mice were generated in the presence of vehicle or TCDD. TCDD decreased CD11c expression but increased MHC class II, CD86 and CD25 expression on the BMDCs. The effects of TCDD were strictly AhR-dependent but not exclusively DRE-mediated. Similar effects were observed with two natural AhR ligands, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1H-Indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (ITE). TCDD increased LPS- and CpG-induced IL-6 and TNF-α production by BMDCs but decreased their NO production. TCDD decreased CpG-induced IL-12p70 production by BMDCs but did not affect their secretion of IL-10. TCDD downregulated LPS- and CpG-induced NF-kB p65 levels and induced a trend towards upregulation of RelB levels in the BMDCs. AhR activation by TCDD modulated BMDC uptake of both soluble and particulate antigens. Induction of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and TGF-β3 has been implicated in the generation of regulatory T cells following AhR activation. TCDD increased IDO1, IDO2 and TGF-β3 mRNA levels in BMDCs as compared to vehicle. Despite the induction of regulatory mediators, TCDD-treated BMDCs failed to suppress antigen-specific T cell activation. Thus, AhR activation can directly alter the differentiation and innate functions of inflammatory DCs without affecting their ability to successfully interact with T cells.

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from Gloriosa superba Linn

    John Jomy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa supberba (family: Liliaceae is widely used as a medicinal plant, and the alkaloids from the plant (Colchicines and Gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. We evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract (50% v/v of dried aerial parts of G. superba. The analgesic activity of the extract was evaluated by using Eddy′s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing method. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using the cotton wool granuloma model and the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The percentage inhibitions of writhes or percentage protection were found to be 64.09%, 78.56% and 81.45% for extract at a dose 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage increase in reaction time at 90 minutes were 21.02%, 79.96% and 158.05% for extract at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in Eddy′s hot plate method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage inhibition of paw edema was increased with time and gave maximum effect at 2 hours, then declined in case of standard extract 400 mg/kg body weight. Only the 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight extracts exhibited significant result (P < 0.05 when compared with control. The rats exhibited 9.59%, 28.72% and 45.8% inhibition of granuloma mass formation after the 7 days treatment with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract when compared with control (P < 0.05 in cotton pellet granuloma.

  20. Resveratrol as a Bioenhancer to Improve Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Apigenin

    Jin-Ah Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin through co-treatment with resveratrol as a bioenhancer of apigenin. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with hepatic metabolites formed by the co-metabolism of apigenin and resveratrol (ARMs in HepG2 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. ARMs prominently inhibited (p < 0.05 the production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Otherwise no such activity was observed by hepatic metabolites of apigenin alone (AMs. ARMs also effectively suppressed protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Co-administration of apigenin (50 mg/kg and resveratrol (25 mg/kg also showed a significant reduction of carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (61.20% to 23.81%. Co-administration of apigenin and resveratrol led to a 2.39 fold increase in plasma apigenin levels compared to administration of apigenin alone, suggesting that co-administration of resveratrol could increase bioavailability of apigenin. When the action of resveratrol on the main apigenin metabolizing enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs, was investigated, resveratrol mainly inhibited the formation of apigenin glucuronides by UGT1A9 in a non-competitive manner with a Ki value of 7.782 μM. These results suggested that resveratrol helps apigenin to bypass hepatic metabolism and maintain apigenin’s anti-inflammatory activities in the body.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Free Radial Scavenging Activities of the Constituents Isolated from Machilus zuihoensis

    Shui-Tein Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new biflavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-(3¢→O-3¢¢¢- quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9, together with eight known compounds was isolated for the first time from the leaves of Machilus zuihoensis Hayata (Lauraceae. The structure of compound 9 was elucidated by various types of spectroscopic data analysis. Analysis of the biological activity assay found that compound 9 showed significant superoxide anion scavenging activity (IC50 is 30.4 μM and markedly suppressed LPS-induced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1 protein secretion in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the HMGB-1 protein secretion was also inhibited by quercitrin (3, ethyl caffeate (6, and ethyl 3-O-caffeoylquinate (7 treatment. In the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activation analysis, two known compounds, quercetin (1 and ethyl caffeate (6, were found to markedly suppress nitric oxide (NO production (IC50 value, 27.6 and 42.9 μM, respectively in RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, it was determined that ethyl caffeate (6 down-regulated mRNA expressions of iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the LPS-treatment of RAW264.7 cells via a suppressed NF-kB pathway. These results suggested for the first time that the new compound 9 and other constituents isolated from M. zuihoensis have potential anti-inflammatory and superoxide anion scavenging effects. These constituents may be useful for treating various inflammatory diseases.

  2. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for left-sided breast cancer and all regional nodes improves target volumes coverage and reduces treatment time and doses to the heart and left coronary artery, compared with a field-in-field technique

    We compared two intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for left-sided breast treatment, involving lymph node irradiation including the internal mammary chain. Inverse planned arc-therapy (VMAT) was compared with a forward-planned multi-segment technique with a mono-isocenter (MONOISO). Ten files were planned per technique, delivering a 50-Gy dose to the breast and 46.95 Gy to nodes, within 25 fractions. Comparative endpoints were planning target volume (PTV) coverage, dose to surrounding structures, and treatment delivery time. PTV coverage, homogeneity and conformality were better for two arc VMAT plans; V95%PTV-T was 96% for VMAT vs 89.2% for MONOISO. Homogeneity index (HI)PTV-T was 0.1 and HIPTV-N was 0.1 for VMAT vs 0.6 and 0.5 for MONOISO. Treatment delivery time was reduced by a factor of two using VMAT relative to MONOISO (84 s vs 180 s). High doses to organs at risk were reduced (V30left lung = 14% using VMAT vs 24.4% with MONOISO; dose to 2% of the volume (D2%)heart = 26.1 Gy vs 32 Gy), especially to the left coronary artery (LCA) (D2%LCA = 34.4 Gy vs 40.3 Gy). However, VMAT delivered low doses to a larger volume, including contralateral organs (mean dose [Dmean]right lung = 4 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 3.2 Gy). These were better protected using MONOISO plans (Dmeanright lung = 0.8 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 0.4 Gy). VMAT improved PTV coverage and dose homogeneity, but clinical benefits remain unclear. Decreased dose exposure to the LCA may be clinically relevant. VMAT could be used for complex treatments that are difficult with conventional techniques. Patient age should be considered because of uncertainties concerning secondary malignancies. (author)

  3. Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plans, With or Without Anterior Myocardial Territory and Left Ventricle as Organs at Risk, in Early-Stage Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients

    Purpose: We evaluated heart sparing using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan with the left ventricle (LV) and/or the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as additional organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer were selected for dosimetric planning. Both lungs, the right breast, heart, LV, and AMT were defined as OARs. We generated one tangential field plan and four IMRT plans for each patient. We examined the dose–volume histogram parameters of the planning target volume and OARs. Results: Compared with the tangential field plan, the mean dose to the heart in the IMRT plans did not show significant differences; however, the dose to the AMT and LV decreased by 18.7–45.4% and 10.8–37.4%, respectively. The maximal dose to the heart decreased by 18.6–35.3%, to the AMT by 22.0–45.1%, and to the LV by 23.5–45.0%, And the relative volumes of the heart (V≥12), AMT (V>11) and LV (V>10) decreased significantly with different levels, respectively. The volume of the heart, AMT, LV, both lungs, and right breast receiving ≥5 Gy showed a significant increase. Compared with the IMRT (H) plan, the mean dose to the heart, AMT, and LV decreased by 17.5–21.5%, 25.2–29.8%, and 22.8–29.8% and the maximal dose by 13.6–20.6%, 23.1–29.6%, and 17.3–29.1%, respectively. The IMRT plans for both lungs and the right breast showed no significant differences. Conclusions: The IMRT plans with the addition of the AMT and/or LV as OARs considerably increased heart sparing. We recommend including the LV as an additional OAR in such plans.

  4. Neuroactive and Anti-inflammatory Frankincense Cembranes: A Structure-Activity Study.

    Pollastro, Federica; Golin, Samantha; Chianese, Giuseppina; Putra, Masteria Yunovilsa; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; De Petrocellis, Luciano; García, Victor; Munoz, Eduardo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Appendino, Giovanni

    2016-07-22

    An expeditious isolation method for the cembrane diterpene alcohols incensol (1a) and serratol (2) has been developed from respectively African and Indian frankincense. The two native alcohols and a series of semisynthetic derivatives of incensol were evaluated for transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) activation and the inhibition of NF-κB, the putative molecular targets underlying the psychotropic and anti-inflammatory activities of incensol acetate (IA, 1b). Serratol (2) was the most potent TRPV3 activator, outperforming by 2 orders of magnitude the reference agonist thymol and by 1 order of magnitude incensol acetate (1b). Acylation, epimerization, and oxidation did not significantly improve the affinity of incensol for TRPV3, while NF-κB inhibition, marginal for both natural alcohols, could be improved by esterification of incensol (1a) with lipophilic acids. Interestingly, incensol (1a) but not IA (1b) was a potent inhibitor of STAT3, raising the possibility that hydrolysis to incensol (1a) might be involved in the in vivo biological activity of IA (1b). Serratol was not amenable to chemical modification, but some marine cembranoids related to the frankincense diterpenoids showed a certain degree of TRPV3-activating properties, qualifying the aliphatic macrocyclic cembrane skeleton as a selective chemotype to explore the pharmacology of TRPV3, a thermo-TRP otherwise resistant to modulation by small molecules. PMID:27352042

  5. Antioxidant, Anti-Glycation and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Phenolic Constituents from Cordia sinensis

    Muhammad Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine compounds have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of C. sinensis, namely protocatechuic acid (1, trans-caffeic acid (2, methyl rosmarinate (3, rosmarinic acid (4, kaempferide-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7, kaempferide-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (8 and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (9, all reported for the first time from this species. The structures of these compounds were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic studies, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1–9 were investigated for biological activity and showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageen induced rat paw edema test. The antioxidant activities of isolated compounds 1–9 were evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging test, and compounds 1, 2, 4 and 7–9 exhibited marked scavenging activity compared to the standard BHA. These compounds were further studied for their anti-glycation properties and some compounds showed significant anti-glycation inhibitory activity. The purity of compounds 2–5, 8 and 9 was confirmed by HPLC. The implications of these results for the chemotaxonomic studies of the genus Cordia have also been discussed.

  6. Quantification of disease activity in patients undergoing leucocyte scintigraphy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease

    Whole-body gamma camera counting is an alternative to faecal 111In collection for quantifying disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but requires administration of imaging activities of 111In. The aim of this study was to explore a dedicated whole-body counter which requires 20-fold less activity than gamma camera counting. Thirty patients with known or suspected IBD received 99mTc-granulocytes (∝200 MBq) and 111In-granulocytes (∝0.5 MBq). The 99mTc-cells were injected 45 min after the 111In-cells and immediately after a baseline 111In whole-body count. The decay-corrected count at 120 h was expressed as a fraction of baseline to give whole-body 111In retention (WBR). One patient was excluded as the injected cells were non-viable. Median 45-min intravascular 111In recovery was 35% in patients compared with 43% in six normal volunteers (p99mTc imaging from 87% to 96%. Only one of 11 patients with negative imaging had WBR 90%. There was a significant association between WBR and 99mTc image grade (Rs=0.73, ps=0.54, p>0.05). Dedicated whole-body counting is able to quantify disease activity in IBD but may give normal values in active CD. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 3-indolyl pyridine derivatives through one-pot multi component reaction

    Prakasam Thirumurugan; S Mahalaxmi; Paramasivan T Perumal

    2010-11-01

    A simple protocol for the efficient preparation of 2-(1-Indol-3-yl)-6-methoxy-4-arylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile has been achieved through one-pot multi-component reaction under reflux condition. These compounds showed a good anti-inflammatory activity. Also a series of bis-Hantzsch dihydropyridine derivatives were synthesized and they exhibit analgesic activity.

  8. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants and fungi containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds

    Diaz Patricia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to determine the relationship between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the thirteen herbs and two fungi extracts, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods Antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: an antioxidant activity assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a DPPH ((2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay to assess free radical scavenging, an assay assessing ferrous ions or iron (II chelating ability, and a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activities were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-activated J774A.1 macrophages. Their cytotoxicities against macrophages were determined by MTT assay. Results A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the plant extracts was found. The plant extracts with high phenolic and flavonoid content also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity with good cell viability. Conclusion The selected herbs could be a rich source of antioxidants and free radical scavenging compounds. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the herbs.

  9. The judgement of the inflammatory activity of the chronic infectious arthritis with the aid of the radio-isotopes

    The evaluation of the activity of inflammatory joint diseases is difficult. The more recently used isotopic methods are either - in the case of joint scanning - not satisfactory to evaluate short term changes of inflammatory activity, or - in the case of joint uptake measurements - not representative for the whole body inflammatory activity activity as only few joints are evaluated. Therefore a whole body profile scanner was used to examine the inflammatory activity of all joints of the extremities except shoulder and hip joints. By the use of a double tracer method - 113mIn-transferrin and 99mTc-pertechnetate - the intra- and extravascular uptake of the investigated regions were evaluated separately. The comparison of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis with a control group showed that local blood flow as well as the extravascular activity of pertechnetate were increased in patients with inflammatory joint disease. Furthermore repeated profile scans during the first 2 hours of the examination showed accelerated extravascular pertechnetate turnover in joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The usefullness of this method for the assessment of a short term antirheumatic therapy was studied in 17 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were examined before, 1 and 2 weeks after the onset of a short term antirheumatic treatment and compared with conventional parameters. Most of the clinical parameters and also some isotopic parameters (total pertechnetate uptake, extravascular pertechnetate uptake, and after 1 week of treatment the In-uptake) improved significantly. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between most of the clinical parameters and total pertechnetate uptake and extravascular pertechnetate uptake respectively. The presented study shows another method to evaluate the global inflammatory activity of joints in rheumatic diseases also useful to quantify effects of short term antirheumatic treatment. (Author)

  10. Changes in the anti-inflammatory activity of soy isoflavonoid genistein versus genistein incorporated in two types of cyclodextrin derivatives

    Danciu CorinaTiulea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isoflavonoid genistein represents the major active compound from soybean, the vegetal product from Glycine max (Fabaceae. The aim of this study is to prove that genistein was incorporated in two semisynthetic cyclodextrins, beta-cyclodextrin derivatives: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and randomly-methylated-beta-cyclodextrin as well as to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of genistein with that of genistein incorporated in these two types of semisynthetic cyclodextrins. Results The animal studies were conducted on 8-week old C57BL/6 J female mice. Inflammation was induced in both ears of each mouse by topical application of 10 micrograms 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-3-acetate dissolved in 0.1 ml solvent (acetone : dimethylsulfoxide in a molar ratio 9:1. Thirty minutes later treatment was applied. The inflammatory reaction was correlated with increased values in ear thickness. Treatment with genistein and genistein incorporated in the two cyclodextrins led to decreased values for ear thickness. Better anti-inflammatory action was found for the complexes of genistein. Both haematoxylin-eosin analysis and CD45 marker expression are in agreement with these findings. Conclusions Results allow concluding that genistein is an active anti-inflammatory phytocompound and its complexation with hydrophilic beta-cyclodextrin derivatives leads to a stronger anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Im, Eun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; PARK, Jin-Kyu; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investig...

  12. Targeting the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ to Counter the Inflammatory Milieu in Obesity

    Cesar Corzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue, which was once viewed as a simple organ for storage of triglycerides, is now considered an important endocrine organ. Abnormal adipose tissue mass is associated with defects in endocrine and metabolic functions which are the underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome. Many adipokines, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, regulate cells from the immune system. Interestingly, most of these adipokines are proinflammatory mediators, which increase dramatically in the obese state and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Drugs that target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of diabetes. These findings, and the link between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, will be reviewed here.

  13. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825).

    Santos, Israel J M; Leite, Gerlânia O; Costa, José Galberto M; Alves, Romulo R N; Campos, Adriana R; Menezes, Irwin R A; Freita, Francisco Ronaldo V; Nunes, Maria Janeth H; Almeida, Waltécio O

    2015-01-01

    Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. PMID:26664448

  14. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825

    Israel J. M. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications, arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control, dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Enoxacin Metal Complexes

    Saeed Arayne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work comprises the synthesis of enoxacin (Heno complexes with various transition metals. Two types of complexes [M(eno2(H2O2]3H2O(M=CuII, NiII or MnII and [M(eno(H2O2]Cl⋅4H2O  (M=FeIII were obtained. The complexes were characterized by different physicochemical, spectroscopic, and elemental analysis. Results suggest that enoxacin interacts with the metals as a monoanionic bidentate ligand. These complexes were also tested for their antibacterial activity against eleven (11 different microorganisms, and the results were compared with the parent drug. Moreover all the metal complexes were also tested for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species where by MnII and CuII complexes exhibited potential to mediate anti-inflammatory response.

  16. SYNTHESIZING DERIVATIVES FROM CYCLOPENTANONE ANALOGUE CURCUMIN AND THEIR TOXIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES

    Adel Zamri1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Three types of cyclopentanone derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehyde and ketone derivatives undera base condition through aldol condensation. These cyclopentanone products were 2,5-dibenzylidene-cyclopentanone(a, 2,5-bis-(4-hydroxy-benzylidene-cyclopentanone (b, and 2,5-bis-(4-hydroxy-benzylidene-cyclopentanone (cwhich has a yield of 63-99%. The chemical structure of these compounds were determined using UV, IR and NMRspectroscopy. In order to clarify the role of hydroxyl and amine moieties, toxic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatoryactivities were carried out. The toxic test indicated that the compounds showed strong toxicity. In addition, the presenceof hydroxyl and amine groups on both rings of curcumin increased the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

  17. 5β,19-epoxycucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia and their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity.

    Liaw, Chia-Ching; Huang, Hui-Chi; Hsiao, Ping-Chun; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Hwang, Syh-Yuan; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2015-01-01

    Five new 5β,19-epoxycucurbitane triterpenoids, taikugausins A-E (1-5), together with 5β,19-epoxy-25-methoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19-diol (6), have been isolated and characterized from the 70 % EtOH extract of the fresh fruits of Momordica charantia. The chemical structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments and HRESIMS data. The relationship between NMR chemical shifts and the configuration of C-19 with an OMe group in 5β,19-epoxycucurbitane are described. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory activities by the inhibition of nitric oxide production at the concentration of 10 µg/mL. In addition, 3 and 4 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against WiDr, Hep G2, MCF-7, and HEp-2 human tumor cell lines. PMID:25469855

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Calea prunifolia HBK (Asteraceae) in the TPA model of mouse ear inflammation

    Gomez, Milton; Gil, Juan F., E-mail: miltongoba@uniquindio.edu.co [Grupo de Busqueda de Principios Bioactivos, Programa de Quimica, Universidad del Quindio, Armenia (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    Phytochemical study of Calea prunifolia HBK identified two compounds derived from p-hydroxyacetophenone, the 1-(2-hydroxy-5-(1-methoxyethyl)phenyl)-3-methylbut-2.en-1-one showed a satisfactory anti-inflammatory activity (58.33%), when considering that this is a natural product. Although the two derived compounds are structurally similar, the anti-inflammatory activity of 1-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbut-2-en-1-one was not significant (2.08%). The test was conducted in a model of inflammation induced by topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the ear of mice. The positive control was tested with indomethacin and the negative control was done only with vehicle. These results allow the identification of a pharmacophore group that through molecular modeling studies and organic synthesis can result in compounds with improved anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  19. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa

    Bárbara Viviana de Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME, acetate (AE, hexanic (HE and chloroform (CE extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism

  20. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa

    da Matta, Carolina Babosa Brito; de Souza, Éverton Tenório; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME), acetate (AE), hexanic (HE) and chloroform (CE) extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the