WorldWideScience

Sample records for active labour market

  1. Active Labour Market Programmes and Unemployment in a Dual Labour Market

    Fukushima, Yoshihiko

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the macroeconomic effects of active labour market programmes in a dual labour-market framework. The paper uses the Shapiro-Stiglitz efficiency-wage model. Active labour market programmes train unskilled labour and transfer them from a high-unemployment to a low-unemployment sector. Programmes have a direct labour-transfer effect which tends to reduce total unemployment. They also have effects on wages via expectations. The later effects were to a v...

  2. Labour market programmes and labour market outcomes: a study of the Swedish active labour market interventions

    Adda, Jérôme; Costa Dias, Mónica; Meghir, Costas; Sianesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of Swedish welfare-to-work programmes on labour market performance including wages, labour market status, unemployment duration and future welfare-to-work participation. We develop a structural dynamic model of labour supply which incorporates detailed institutional features of these policies and allows for selection on observables and unobservables. We estimate the model from a rich administrative panel data set and show that training programmes - which account...

  3. Underground Activities and Labour Market Performance

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a general equilibrium search and matching model where an underground economy co-exists along with the formal part of the economy. In analyzing how tax and punishment policies a¤ect labour market performance, we find that punishment of infor- mal sector activities induce workers and firms to reallocate towards the formal sector. However, more importantly, we find that this real- location tends to improve e¢ ciency in search, reduce the overall wage pres...

  4. Public works for Poland? Active labour market policies during transition

    Puhani, Patrick A.; Steiner, Viktor

    1996-01-01

    Following the predominance of macroeconomic stabilisation policies and passive income support schemes in the first phase of transition, active labour market policies (ALMPs) have now come to play a more important role in transition economies. This paper looks at the Polish experience and provides empirical evidence on the effectiveness of ALMPs. We use the Polish Labour Force Survey of August 1994 in combination with its Supplement on the Evaluation of Labour Market Policies together with dat...

  5. Costs and benefits of Danish active labour market programmes

    Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...

  6. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non...... concept of experimental evidence. Our results are highly relevant in a policy perspective, as optimal labour market policy design requires knowledge on the effectiveness of specific policy measures....

  7. FEATURES OF ACTIVE MEASURES OF LABOUR MARKET SUPPORT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Larisa PANTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Active labour market policy aims at rising labour force’s competitiveness to enhance adjustment between labour demand and supply. The measures of active labour market policy comprise vocational training and requalification, professional counseling, job search assistance etc. A special attention require active measures that increase labour force flexibility, i.e. its geographic and professional mobility. Present article has the goal to appreciate the efficiency of active measures in rising labour force employment in the Republic of Moldova.

  8. Labour market

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, Eskil

    2015-01-01

    Although employment participation of older workers and their timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual-level decision, the opportunities or late career employment, and restrictions that older workers potentially face, are largely shaped by labour market contextual factors. Thes

  9. Disability pensions and active labour market policy

    Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix

    2013-01-01

    Danish active labor market policy, under the headline of flexicurity, has received international attention due to its claimed ability to curb unemployment while boosting employment. A strong belief in the positive effects of activation, in policy as well as practice, has had consequences for all ...

  10. FEATURES OF ACTIVE MEASURES OF LABOUR MARKET SUPPORT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Larisa PANTEA

    2013-01-01

    Active labour market policy aims at rising labour force’s competitiveness to enhance adjustment between labour demand and supply. The measures of active labour market policy comprise vocational training and requalification, professional counseling, job search assistance etc. A special attention require active measures that increase labour force flexibility, i.e. its geographic and professional mobility. Present article has the goal to appreciate the efficiency of active measures in risin...

  11. The political economy of active labour market policy

    Bonoli, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Active labour market policies have developed significantly over the last two decades across OECD countries, with substantial cross-national differences in terms of both extent and overall orientation. The objective of this paper is to account for cross-national variation in this policy field. It starts by reviewing existing scholarship concerning political, institutional and ideational determinants of ALMPs. It then argues that ALMPs is too broad a category to be used analytically, and develo...

  12. Are they working? Market Orientation and the Effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programmes in Ireland

    Philip J O'Connell

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the first findings of a new study of the labour market impact of a range of active labour market programmes (ALMPs) in Ireland. The paper combines the results of two individual-level data sets to compare the employment outcomes of participants in ALMPs with a comparison group of non-participants over the 1994-1996 period. The analysis focuses on employment probabilities two years post-programme, and shows that programmes with strong linkages to the labour market are more l...

  13. The Design of Active Labour Market Policies. What Matters and What Doesn't ?

    Cockx, Bart

    1999-01-01

    A first objective of this paper is to emphasise the role of a correct diagnosis of unemployment persistence for the design of effective active labour market policies. A second is to stress the importance of adequate incentives for programme administrators of active labour market policies, and that this may well be more important than providing adequate incentives to the unemployed. To illustrate this, we summarise two case studies evaluating active labour market policies in Belgium. The first...

  14. Active Labour Market Policy in East Germany: Waiting for the Economy to take off

    Michael Lechner; Conny Wunsch

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the most important East German active labour market programmes on the labour market outcomes of their participants. The analysis is based on a large and informative individual database coming from administrative data sources. Using matching methods, we find that over a horizon of 2.5 years after programme start the programmes fail to increase the employment chances of their participants in the regular labour market. However, the programmes may have other effects ...

  15. Shadow Activity and Unemployment in a Depressed Labour Market

    Boeri, Tito; Garibaldi, Pietro

    2002-01-01

    This Paper studies the border between shadow employment and unemployment. It argues that the two macroeconomic phenomena are two faces of the same coin: any policy aimed at reducing the former will increase the latter. Theoretically, it proposes and solves a matching model of the labour market, where shadow employment emerges in equilibrium as the endogenous response of firms and workers who felt overburdened by taxes and regulations. While the model we propose neatly rationalizes the labour ...

  16. Denmark a Nordic Welfare State - Are the Active Labour Market Policy Withering Away?

    Greve, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Denmark has been portrayed as a country with a focus on full employment, gender equality and high level of participation on the labour market. It has historically further been built upon consensus and class-compromises and known for flexi-curity. The active labour market policy has focused on how...... to ensure not only a work-first approach, but that a constant upgrading of qualifications would guarantee that the individual citizen could have the qualification to enter and to stay on the labour market. A core question is whether the focus on flexi-curity including upgrading of skills and...... integration on the labour market has been withering away towards a sharper focus on a work first approach, where activation is used as a stick more than a carrot, also implying that rights’ as citizens has been increasingly reduced, and, thereby increased the role of citizens as labourer on the labour market...

  17. Active labour market policy effects for women in Europe: A survey

    Bergemann, Annette; van den Berg, Gerard J.

    2006-01-01

    We survey the recent literature on the effects of active labour market policies on individual labour market outcomes like employment and income, for adult female individuals without work in European countries. We consider skill-training programs, monitoring and sanctions, job search assistance, and employment subsidies. The results are remarkably uniform across studies. We relate the results to the relevant level of female labour force participation.

  18. Labour Market Performance in Iceland

    Ingi Rúnar Eðvarðsson

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the unique performance of the Icelandic labour market. It demonstrates, by using international statistics, that the activity rates of both sexes are very high in Iceland, the unemployment rate is low, a high proportion of the the labour force work part time, and labour legislation is unrestricted. Contrary to the competitive labour market–, and flexible models of neo– classic economic theory, the author argues for a historical and institutional explan...

  19. Labour market of bachue Brazil.

    Rato Mhc; Braganca SL

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on the labour market of Brazil - discusses theoretical aspects of labour market and labour law, effects of government's wage policy, minimum wage laws, underemployment, unemployment, labour market segmentation, labour demand and labour supply in the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, the number of self employed, labour mobility, etc. Diagram, references and statistical tables.

  20. Active labour market policy in the European Union

    Schömann, Klaus

    1995-01-01

    This report deals with Action 5 of the White Paper Follow-Up process and analyses feasible steps or improvements already undertaken by Member States and the Community at large to make better use of public funds for combating unemployment. Public funds devoted to labour market policies play a vital role in achieving employment intensive growth. The White Paper on Growth, Competitiveness and Employment of the Commission of the European Communities proposes a full-scale overhaul of employment po...

  1. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates the...

  2. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates the...

  3. Women on the European Labour Market

    Jan Baran; Atilla Bartha; Agnieszka Chlon-Dominczak; Olena Fedyuk; Agnieszka Kaminska; Piotr Lewandowski; Maciej Lis; Iga Magda; Monika Potoczna; Violetta Zentai

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief looks at the major developments in women's position on the European labour market over the past two decades, identifying several pathways to increased female labour market activity and obstacles to overcome.

  4. Domain: Labour market

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    2015-01-01

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual deci

  5. Before and after the Hartz reforms: the performance of active labour market policy in Germany

    Jacobi, Lena; Kluve, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    "Having faced high unemployment rates for more than a decade, the German government implemented a comprehensive set of labour market reforms during the period 2003-2005. This paper describes the economic and institutional context of the German labour market before and after these so-called Hartz reforms. Focussing on active policy measures, we delineate the rationale for reform and its main principles. As preliminary results of programme evaluation studies post-reform have become available ju...

  6. Adult Workers in Theory or Practice? : Lone Mothers’ Participation in Active Labour Market Programmes in Germany

    Cordula Zabel

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an ad...

  7. Labour Market Institutions and Labour Market Performance in the European Union

    Michal, Tvrdon

    2008-01-01

    The presented article deals with labour market institutions and labour market performance in the European Union. The first chapter is devoted to theoretical and methodological background of labour market performance. Theoretical literature has created a set of institutional aspects such as employment protection legislation, structure of wage bargaining, taxation of labour, active labour market policy, the system of unemployment and social benefits. All these aspects determine the institutiona...

  8. Disciplining Disability under Danish Active Labour Market Policy

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...

  9. OAPS’ ACTIVITY IN THE LABOUR MARKET IN THE CONTEXT OF SURVEY RESEARCH

    Władysława Łuczka-Bakuła

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years not merely to young people’s activity in the labour market, but also to the vocational involvement of elderly people. The traditional attitude towards the contemporary labour market results from the social and economic transformation, but also demographic changes and, the process of population ageing. It is thus a vital issue. A growing number of elderly people contributes to the increase in the number of beneficiaries, which is reflected in lower labour force participation and, consequently, may lead to a deterioration of production capacity of economy. On the one hand, higher pensions may be viewed as higher incomes of pensioners, but on the other hand, they constitute an extra burden for public expenses. Conversely, lower pensions may not merely result in increased activity in the labour market and higher incomes, but also be linked with an increase in social welfare expenditure. The article discusses the results of survey research conducted between 2009 and 2010 in a group of pensioners. The research shows that over a half of the surveyed OAPs were active in the labour market and their activity was mainly induced by their financial situation. 

  10. Dual labour markets: A survey

    Wapler, Rüdiger

    1999-01-01

    Whereas the standard modern theories of unemployment were developed in the context of a single sector labour market, this paper presents a survey of how these theories can be integrated into a dual labour market setting. This approach dichotomises the labour market into two sectors, a primary with high wages and high job security, and a secondary sector with lower wages and higher labour turnover. The survey consists of three main parts. Part one applies standard labour market theories to dua...

  11. Essays on Labour Markets

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian

    This book represents an eclectic combination of four independent, self-contained essays on various dimensions of the labour market. The main chapters focus on theoretically and empirically analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3), on...... modelling the arousal and persistence of occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social subgroups (chapter 4), and respectively on characterizing the link between the firms' health and safety work environment and their financial performance (chapter 5). Each of the essays contributes...... return to seniority", with seniority the position of the worker in the tenure hierarchy of her firm, this concept establishing parsimoniously but effectively the link between the worker's fate in the labour market and her firm's fate in the product market; if network referrals are relevant for job search...

  12. Decentralisation of active labour market policy: The case of Swedish local employment service committees

    Skedinger, Per; Lundin, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Decentralisation of decision-making in active labour market policy makes it possible to use local information to the fullest, but may also impinge on the fulfilment of national objectives, as suggested by principal-agent theory. The purpose of this study is to ex-amine the effects of a Swedish pilot programme in 1996, which strengthened the role of the local authorities in labour market policy in parts of the country. Survey evidence suggests a non-negligible divergence between the objectives...

  13. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-01-01

    The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilit...

  14. The Czech Labour Market: Historical, Structural and Policy Perspectives

    Jiří Večerník

    2007-01-01

    A proper picture of the Czech labour market emerges by focusing on its nuanced details from various perspectives. First we focus on the specific phases of the labour market as it developed in the 1990s. Second, we observe the changing composition of the labour force and labour mobility. Third, we examine the vulnerable categories of people. Policies, active labour market policies in particular, are described in the fourth section. Fifthly, we analyse the flexibility of the labour market in it...

  15. Activation and active labour market policies in OECD countries: stylized facts and evidence on their effectiveness

    John P. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Activation policies aimed at getting working-age people off benefits and into work have become a buzzword in labour market policies. Yet they are defined and implemented differently across OECD countries and their success rates vary too. The Great Recession has posed a severe stress test for these policies with some commentators arguing that they are at best 'fair weather' policies.  This paper sheds light on these issues mainly via the lens of recent OECD research.  It presents the sty...

  16. Wages in Labour Market Theories

    Kryńska Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Already classical economists took interest in the role of wages and wage formation mechanisms, as well as in their influence on other components of the labour market. This article aims to systematise contemporary approaches to wages as one of the labour market components that have been developed within major economic theories. The systemization will serve as a basis for identifying main interactions between wages and other labour market components, such as labour supply and demand and labour market disequilibrium. The article presents major concepts formulated within neo-classical and Keynesian theories, labour market segmentation theories, efficiency wage theory, rent-sharing and rent-extraction theories, theory of job search, and search-and-matching models. One of the conclusions arising from the discussion is that the evolution of contemporary labour markets is a challenge for researchers seeking wage formation models adequately describing the real-life circumstances.

  17. Labour market frictions and migration

    Cremers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The 4th contribution to the series INT-AR papers is dedicated to the methods of assessing labour market frictions. The paper provides a (brief) international comparison of the role of labour migration in solving these frictions.

  18. Labour market models in the EU

    Koster, F; McQuinn, J.; Siedschlag, I.; Vliet, van, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the European Union, the most important labour market models that have been proposed for labour market reform are flexicurity and the transitional labour market. In this position paper, we conceptualise the models of flexicurity and the transitional labour market, and we outline potentially relevant research questions. These research questions focus on explaining the variations in labour market policies across EU countries and the impact of labour market institutions on labour market outcom...

  19. Comparative social policy analysis and active labour market policy:Putting Quality before Quantity

    Clasen, Jochen; Clegg, Daniel; Goerne, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade active labour market policy (ALMP) has become a major topic in comparative social policy analysis, with scholars exploiting cross-national variation to seek to identify the determinants of policy development in this central area of the ‘new welfare state’. In this paper we argue that better integration of this policy field into social policy scholarship however requires rather more critical engagement with some considerable methodological, conceptual and theoretical challen...

  20. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work?

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  1. What works, who works? The impact of active labour market programmes on the employment prospects of young people in Ireland

    O'Connell, Philip J.; MacGinnity, Fran

    1996-01-01

    The international literature on active labour market programmes has generated inconsistent and confusing, but generally pessimistic, conclusions regarding their impact on the employment prospects of participants. This paper argues that much of this confusion is due to a general lack of attention to qualitative differences between programmes. The paper develops a typology of active labour market programmes, differentiating between training and employment measures on the basis of their orientat...

  2. Adult Workers in Theory or Practice? : Lone Mothers’ Participation in Active Labour Market Programmes in Germany

    Cordula Zabel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an adult worker model of the family is reflected in practical policy implemen- tations. Thus, lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes is studied empiri- cally here on the basis of large-scale administrative data, using event-history analysis. Findings are that lone mothers are treated as adult workers with respect to workfare and training pro- grammes even when their children are still quite young. As soon as their youngest child is 3 - 5 years old, lone mothers’ transition rates into these programmes are as high as for childless single women. In the case of programmes that provide more direct pathways into regular employment, like job subsidies and in-firm training programmes, however, participation rates for lone mothers of young children are substantially lower than for childless single women.

  3. Labour market performance of immigrants in the UK labour market

    Dustmann, C.; F. Fabbri; Preston, I; Wadsworth, J

    2003-01-01

    From executive summary: This document is a report commissioned by the Home Office to analyse the performance of immigrants in the UK labour market. It attempts to draw a comprehensive picture of the labour market performance of immigrants, and the process of adaptation relative to the UK-born white population. Four indicators of economic performance are investigated: (i) employment, (ii) labour force participation, (iii) self-employment, and (iv) wages. The analysis distinguishes bet...

  4. The Czech Labour Market and Flexicurity

    Potužáková Zuzana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity reflects the current basic trend within the EU in guaranteeing high employment levels and attainability of national fiscal systems. It was introduced in Denmark in 90ties and helped to reduce the (long-term unemployment levels significantly. The Czech labour market, despite the transformation process, has still a space for further improvement, especially in the time of economic slow-down. The aim of the paper is to describe the flexicurity elements in the Czech Republic. First of all, we describe the general economical background and compare it with other Central European economies and with situation in Denmark where the concept comes from. In other parts of the paper we analyze the particular elements of the so called golden triangle of flexicurity – flexible labour market, generous welfare system and active labour market policies. We also focus on the components of the flexicurity, which the Czech labour market still lacks and would be useful to implement them. Despite the fact that the previous period (years 2005-2008 was very successful, the period was not used effectively to reform the labour market deeper. The Czech labour market faces nowadays several crucial problems such as too high employment protection of the regular workers or small incentives for the long-term unemployed to re-enter the labour market. As a result of these features we can speak without doubt about dual labour market protecting part of labour force too generously and leaving too many people outside the market. Further the construction of the social system does not motivate the long-term unemployed to enter the labour market again or to get further qualification to boost their chances to get a job again. All these facts lead to the ineffective operation with the human capital in the Czech Republic and deepen the costs on social and relating policies.

  5. Social Interaction in Regional Labour Markets

    Lingens, Joerg; Heining, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    Social interaction, i.e. the interdependence of agents' behaviour via non-market activities, has recently become the focus of economic analysis. Social interaction has been used to explain various labour market outcomes. An important result arising from the literature is the proposition that labour markets are characterised by multiple equilibria. Thus, social interaction is used as an explanation for regional unemployment disparities. Building on this, we construct a Pissarides (2000) type s...

  6. The effects of active labour market policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark

    Heinesen, Eskil; Leif, Husted,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the effect of active labour-market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post-programme effects, and......, surprisingly, even most in-programme effects are positive. The effects are largest for subsidized employment programmes, but effects are also large and significant for direct employment programmes and other programmes. Effects are larger if programmes begin after six months of unemployment. Implications of our...

  7. The Labour Market during the 2008-2009 Downturn

    Michael Plumb; Mark Baker; Gareth Spence

    2010-01-01

    The Australian labour market has performed relatively well over the past two years or so, compared with its performance in the early 1980s and 1990s recessions and in a recent international context. This is partly explained by the milder downturn in economic activity, the earlier strength of the labour market, and greater labour market flexibility than in previous downturns.

  8. Labour Market Turnover and Mobility

    Patrick D’Arcy; Linus Gustafsson; Christine Lewis; Trent Wiltshire

    2012-01-01

    Labour mobility plays a role in allocating workers to suitable jobs and is important in helping the economy adjust to shocks and structural change. But there are also benefits from longer job tenure, and costs associated with workers changing jobs. This article presents some stylised facts about labour market movements and the role that labour mobility has played in facilitating economic adjustment over the past decade. While most worker turnover is associated with the normal process of worke...

  9. Narratives about labour market transitions

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system. On...... the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a...

  10. Labour Market Structure: A Brief Literature Survey

    Pillai, Rajasekharan

    2010-01-01

    Labour market is a multi-dimensional entity, with inexorable institutional affiliation. Therefore, the studies on labour market fail to evolve a logical framework to its structure with satisfactory consensus to the theoreticians in totality. It is very interesting to examine the various dimensions of labour market. This paper reviews certain research contributions on labour market structure, segmentation and vulnerability issues.

  11. Organization of the Labour Market

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the organization of the labour market in a general equilibrium model of a closed economy with two industries and two types of labour input. Workers are organized in industry- and skill-specific unions. The wage is set in cooperation either between identical labour types...... across industries or within industries across labour types. If the organization structure is endogenous, the result will be joint unions of homogenous groups; the structure with the highest employmenIn this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ...... with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from...

  12. German labour markets after unification

    Franz, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains a description and analysis of the labour market in East Germany and an econometric evaluation of some effects of German unification on the West German labour market. At the outset, recent developments of employment and unemployment in East Germany are summarized together with an attempt at evaluation of the sources of joblessness. Moreover,'wage determination and wage dynamics are discussed at some length. It is investigated to what extent wage theories can contribute to a...

  13. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  14. Labour markets, labour processes and economic development: some research issues.

    Rodgers G

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on employment policy implications of urban area labour market structures in developing countries - studies unemployment, underemployment, labour market segmentation and wage determination; examines the impact of poverty on labour force participation; emphasizes the need to consider economic structures and institutional framework when developing human resources planning models. Bibliography.

  15. Intergenerational Correlation of Labour Market Outcomes

    Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the correlation of labour market outcomes of parents and children and investigates whether education is an important factor in this correlation, allowing for its potential endogeneity. Based on the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) data, the multivariate analyses show that men's labour market outcomes are affected by their fathers' labour market outcomes. The results show no significant intergenerational correlation of labour market outcomes for ...

  16. Immigration, Education and Labour Market Institutions

    Christian Lumpe; Benjamin Weigert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effect of immigration on the labour market conditions for different skill groups. We develop a model of endogenous labour supply in which immigration affects educational decisions. We show how the skill premium changes with immigration of low skilled labour under flexible and rigid wages. Depending on the labour market institutions, immigration of low skilled labour is absorbed either by an increased skill premium or increased unemployment of low skilled labour. T...

  17. Labour market in South Sudan

    L. Guarcello; F. C. Rosati; Scott, L

    2011-01-01

    The report assesses labour market conditions in the new state of South Sudan (officially the Republic of South Sudan). It highlights a number of key challenges faced by the new country in ensuring adequate livelihood opportunites for its population. The overwhelmingly rural labour force is concentrated primarily in low productivity, non-wage employment. By far the largest share of workers remain in subsistance farming and animal husbandry. Levels of human capital in the work force are extreme...

  18. Homelessness in France: Labour market implications

    Arup Mitra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses homelessness in France with regard to three major mutually interacting sets of factors: labour-market strains, illegal migration and institutional inadequacy. Macroeconomic challenges have resulted in the loss of jobs and subsequent labour-market hardships, and these have tended to affect those without adequate skills. As a result, labour-market problems together with a lack of social capital and adequate housing at affordable prices, accompanied by insufficient institutional support, has resulted in increased homelessness. All of this indicates that there should be active government intervention in the housing market in order to create space for the relatively weaker section of the population in the growth process, which is often unequal. Another important issue is how to create jobs with positive growth in real wages because, without adequate purchasing power, simply providing housing would mean transferring poverty from one space to another.

  19. Do labour market institutions matter?

    Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the...... industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible intuitive reasons for why there may be differences in the impact of outsourcing across the three countries, based on labour market institutions. This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three...... European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible...

  20. Active Ageing Beyond the Labour Market: Evidence on Work Environment Motivations

    Catherine Pollak; Nicolas Sirven

    2012-01-01

    Active Ageing” strategies aim to foster the participation of seniors in the society. Although economic literature has extensively studied the incentives for seniors to increase their labour supply, little is known about the motivations for older people to complement labour with other forms of social participation. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this article provides empirical evidence of the motivational role of the work environment in the supply of fo...

  1. Do Labour Market Institutions Matter?

    Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the...... industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. Estimating the same specification on different data show that there are some interesting differences in the effect of outsourcing across countries. We discuss some possible reasons for these differences based on labour market institutions...

  2. Flexicurity - labour market performance in Denmark

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    automatically among them since the basic flexicurity properties were also in place during the 1970s and 1980s where high and persistent unemployment was prevalent. Labour market performance has changed due to a series of reforms during the 1990s, the main thrust of which were a shift from a passive focus of...... labour market policies to a more active focus on job search and employment. The policy tightened eligibility for unemployment benefits and their duration as well as introduced workfare elements into unemployment insurance and social policies in general. Thereby policy makers attempted to strengthen the...... incentive structure without taking resort to general benefit reductions. We argue that the workfare policies have played an important role running primarily via motivation/threat and wage effects. However, active labour market policies are resource demanding, and although the workfare reforms have improved...

  3. The Labour Market in CGE Models

    Boeters, Stefan; Savard, Luc

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews options of labour market modelling in a CGE framework. On the labour supply side, two principal modelling options are distinguished and discussed: aggregated, representative households and microsimulation based on individual household data. On the labour demand side, we focus on the substitution possibilities between different types of labour in production. With respect to labour market coordination, we discuss several wage-forming mechanisms and involuntary unemployment.

  4. Reforming Europe's Labour Market: Political Issues

    Saint-Paul, Gilles

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we study the political issues associated with reform in the European labour market. We first discuss the role played by labour market rigidities in European society, and argue that reform is a difficult task because many regulations and rigidities benefit the majority of the employed. We conclude by analysing possible strategies for successful labour market reform.

  5. Global Trends in Labour Market Inequalities, Exclusion, Insecurity and Civic Activism

    Staveren, Irene; Hoeven, Rolph

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis background paper shows trends on economic inequalities, socio-economic exclusion and insecurity, and a civic dimension of democratization. Whereas most of these variables can be considered as measures of democratic performance, the last mentioned may be more suitably seen as a civic measure of legitimization of democratization. The inequalities concern income and other labour market inequality trends. The social measures, of exclusion and insecurity, assess the extent to whic...

  6. What works and for whom: a review of OECD countries' experiences with active labour market policies

    Martin, John P.; Grubb, David

    2001-01-01

    Although rather discouraging in general, the evaluation literature indicates some measures that have been successful. Job-search assistance, wage subsidies in the private sector, and labour market training do work for some groups, even if the impacts are not large. Also, the evaluation literature focuses on the impacts of one-off programs. Regular interventions, such as job-search monitoring, intensive interviews, and referrals to vacant jobs, have rarely been evaluated rigorously. Recently, ...

  7. IMMIGRANTS’ LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Aurica-Iris ALEXE

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic con...

  8. IMMIGRANTS’ LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Aurica-Iris ALEXE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic consequences related to filling labour shortages by means of immigration and the how the labour immigration in Romania is taking shape as a result of employment policies and immigration regime. Furthermore, it reflects on the relevant legislative, institutional and policy developments that impact on the immigrants’ labour market integration in Romania. This research highlights how Romania makes use of the immigrant human capital and whether the characteristics and skills of the immigrant workforce represent a competitive resource on the national labour market.

  9. The Impact of Active Labour Market Policy on Post-Unemployment Outcomes:Evidence from a Social Experiment in Denmark

    Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While job search theory predicts that active labour market policies (ALMPs) can affect post-unemployment outcomes, empirical evaluations investigating transition rates have mostly focused on the impact of ALMPs on exit rates from the current unemployment spell. We use a social experiment, which was conducted in Denmark in 2005-6, to investigate the effects of a dramatic intensification of ALMPs on reemployment stability. We investigate the nature of this impact. We estimate a duration model w...

  10. Stochastic labour market shocks, labour market programmes, and human capital formation: a theoretical and empirical analysis

    Michael Lechner; Rosalia Vazquez-Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a life-cycle model of labour supply that captures endogenous human capital formation allowing for individual's heterogeneous responses to stochastic labour market shocks. The shocks determines conditions in the labour market and sort individuals into three labour market regimes; employment, unemployment with and unemployment without participation in labour market programmes. The structural model entails time independent stochastic shocks that have transitory ef...

  11. THE MAJOR TENDENCIES IN UKRAINES LABOUR MARKET

    Ostapa, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the current tendencies in Ukraines labour market and develops practical recommendations as to overcoming major disproportions and raising the demand for labour force.

  12. The Polish labour market in transition

    Steiner, Viktor; Kwiatkowski, Eugeniusz

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of labour force dynamics in Poland in the period 1992 - 1993. Transitions between employment, unemployment and non-participation in the labour force at the individual level are derived from panel data of the Polish Labour Force Survey. These transitions are related by means of a dynamic microeconometric model to various demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the labour force, labour market indicators and other structural variables. Based on ...

  13. Labour market segmentation: evidence from Cyprus.

    House WJ

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on labour market segmentation in Cyprus - discusses the segmentation process, labour immobility and wage differentials by sex, public sector, private sector and size of enterprise. References and statistical tables.

  14. Labour Market Matters - June 2014

    Tran, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    According to the standard economic model of crime, which assumes that individuals are rational decisions makers who consider the opportunity cost of crime and take into account the possibility of getting caught and punished; the concern that immigration can cause increases in crime is warranted, considering the fact that there is much empirical evidence that suggest the labour market does not provide as many good opportunities to immigrants than to native born. Indeed, previous studies have f...

  15. Dynamics and Performance of the Italian Labour Market

    Mussida Chiara; Lucarelli Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the dynamics and performance of the Italian labour market before and during the crisis using longitudinal 2004-2011 LFS data. To achieve an exhaustive picture of the labour marketwe propose investigation in two directions: we provide both a descriptive analysis and an econometric investigation by estimating probit models. We find that, at least as far as our analyses go, the labour market in Italy is quite active, and we confirm flaws in the conventional wisdom that the It...

  16. Euro area labour markets and the crisis

    Mulder, J.; M. Druant

    2012-01-01

    The article summarises the main findings of the Eurosystem’s 2012 Structural Issues Report (SIR) and highlights some specific aspects for Belgium. It describes the main developments on euro area labour markets since the start of the Great Recession and its impact on mismatches and long-term unemployment. The ensuing policy conclusions refer to detrimental factors like wage rigidities, hysteresis and labour market segmentation and aim at increasing labour market flexibility so as to facilitate...

  17. Local labour market performance through different activation rates, input and economic returns to human capital

    Stambol, Lasse Sigbjorn

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Efficient and instant matching of demand and supply of competent labour is one of the most important elements in territorial competitiveness. Well-functioning regions are expected to become net receivers of labour from other regions. In addition these regions are also expected to attract the most qualified labour and thus be the winners in the competition of the best human capital. On the other hand the most qualified labour expect to achieve as much returns to their human capital in...

  18. Imperfect competition in the labour market

    Manning, Alan

    2010-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that labour markets are pervasively imperfectly competitive, that there are rents to the employment relationship for both worker and employer. This chapter considers why it is sensible to think of labour markets as imperfectly competitive, reviews estimates on the size of rents, theories of and evidence on the distribution of rents between worker and employer, and the areas of labour economics where a perspective derived from imperfect competition makes a substan...

  19. Efficiency and Equality in the Labour Market

    Agell, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the costs and benefits of welfare state intervention in the labour market, and argues that many forms of intervention can be justified for efficiency reasons. The paper reviews recent evidence on income inequality and income mobility, and it discusses labour market reforms that may improve efficiency without violating European voters’ preference for equality.

  20. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND LABOUR MARKET IMPACTS

    Liana SON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to identify and analyse the impact of labour emigration on labour markets within the European Union. The analysis is based on developing double-log macroeconometric models that combine cross-section and time series in a panel structure, by using a set of indicators specific for the emigration process and labour market, as main explanatory variables. The results show that an intense emigration process has extremely negative effects on the size and structure of the labour force, generating its significant reduction, especially regarding the highly skilled labour. At the same time, we identified a relaxation of the labour market pressures generated by high unemployment, through a downsize of this rate and a slight increase in employment, mainly due to a general improvement of the local employment opportunities.

  1. Labour market policy and the reallocation of labour across sectors

    Jackman, Richard; Pauna, C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of labour market reallocation across broad industrial sectors in the transition economies of Eastern Europe since 1989. It offers various measures of the magnitude of labour misallocation and of the speed and efficiency of reallocation during the first half of the 1980s. It compares the performance of the economies of Eastern Europe with one another and with two Southern European economies, Greece and Portugal, which have also been experiencing substantial e...

  2. Gender inequality in the Serbian labour market

    Bošković Olgica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many positive changes have been implemented in Serbia since the beginning of the transition period, and while these improve the position of women in the labour market the main indicators still show significant gender differences. Women are the majority of the unemployed and there are significant differences between regions and districts, in fields of work, experience, and the length of time taken to find work. An analysis of trends in the labour market over the past decade shows a worsening of the position of women, with a lower participation in economic activity and employment, rising unemployment rates, and an increase in the average time to find work and the proportion of women in traditionally female occupations. Problems of gender inequality demand more attention in order to improve existing legislation and the implementation of economic policies in the labour market which will ensure higher participation of women with lower education, with special emphasis on increasing the motivation of these women to undergo continuing education and training.

  3. Labour Market Reform and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...

  4. Labour Market in Prague:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in Prague. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  5. Implications of Educational Attainment on Labour Market

    Claudia ŞERBAN

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between education and the labour force, now, when education is essential for any economy in order to increase and create value. This relation is reflected in an increasing supply of well-educated workers to promote economic development. Present education choices significantly affect labour market performance in the future, an assessment of the educational level of labour force being necessary in terms of changes ...

  6. Convergence in an Open Labour Market

    John Curtis; John FitzGerald

    1994-01-01

    This paper looks at how the Irish experience of integration has affected the labour market, bringing about convergence in labour costs between Ireland and the UK. A model of this process is developed and estimated which takes account of the fact that productive capacity and output are mobile within the EC economy and that integration affects the supply of labour through the potential for migration and changing expectations. The results indicate that changes In tax in the UK can affect the Iri...

  7. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading is equi.......JEL Classification: F15, J30, J50Keywords: trade frictions, wage formation, employment, welfare gains...

  8. Evaluating Innovation and Labour Market Relationships: The Case of Italy

    Luca Pieroni; Fabrizio Pompei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the link between labour market flexibility and innovation is analysed, paying particular attention to the different technological regimes of economic activities and the different geographical areas of the Italian economy. A dynamic panel data specification is used to assess the endogenous relationship between patents, included as a proxy of the innovation, and job turnover and wages which represent labour market indicators. The results show that higher job turnover only has a si...

  9. Implications of Educational Attainment on Labour Market

    Claudia ŞERBAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between education and the labour force, now, when education is essential for any economy in order to increase and create value. This relation is reflected in an increasing supply of well-educated workers to promote economic development. Present education choices significantly affect labour market performance in the future, an assessment of the educational level of labour force being necessary in terms of changes in occupational structure and labour demand and supply.

  10. Labour market institutions and labour market performance: A survey of the literature

    Alfonso Arpaia; Gilles Mourre

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a selective survey of the recent literature on labour market institutions. It describes the different empirical approaches used to explore the nexus between labour market institutions and labour market performance. It stresses that the effect of institutions is complex in both stock and flow models and that it is also crucial to take into account the interactions they generate among themselves and with macroeconomic shocks.

  11. Labour market integration and its effect on child labour

    Gärtner, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This note demonstrates that when developing countries remove barriers to migration and integrate their labour markets, children may be driven out of schools and into informal or paid employment in the comparatively rich countries. In industrialized countries, the same mechanism might force individuals or families to hold multiple jobs, into public welfare programs or into government-subsidized employment.

  12. Job-seeker as a Product of the Labour Market

    Chlumská, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis presents labour as a product of the labour market with the same marketing patterns like any other market. This thesis demonstrates that is possible to apply marketing tools, such as marketing mix on the labour market and labour force. It aims to describe and analyze factors which are affecting the exchange of the labour force. The work is divided into two main parts. First part deals with labour force as a product of the labour market in general. The second part is devoted...

  13. Labour Market Dynamics in Pakistan: Evidence from the Longitudinal Data

    G.M. Arif; M. F. Kiani; Khalid H. Sheikh

    2002-01-01

    The bulk of research on labour market conditions in Pakistan has concentrated on the economic activity rate, the number of employed persons, or the unemployment rate at a particular point in time. These stock measures of labour market situation are useful from a policy viewpoint as they give a broad indication of the dimension of the problem. For example, the recent labour force surveys show an increase in the level of open unemployment from 5.9 percent in 1997-98 to 7.8 percent in 1999-2000 ...

  14. LEARNING AS PRECONDITION TO STAY ACTIVE IN LABOUR MARKET FOR ELDER PEOPLE

    Rutkiene, Ausra; Lengvinienе, Silva

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays society is getting older in European countries. Technologies, speed of life requires higher level of abilities and competencies. People who are 55 and older are very experienced in their workplace but some of them cannot catch changes in their professional area. Quantitative research results demonstrate that learning is one of important factors which helps to stay active in labor market for longer time. People participate in different learning activities to get more professional comp...

  15. Immigrant Assimilation Pre and Post Labour Market Entry: Evidence from the UK Labour Force Survey

    Lindley, JK; Clark, K.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate models of employment an earnings for a sample of white and non-white male immigrants drawn from the Labour Force Survey between 1993 and 2004. Immigrants who arrived to enter the labour market (labour market entrants) are distinguished from those who arrived to complete their education (education entrants). Diverse patterns of labour market assimilation are found depending on ethnicity and immigrant type. Amongst labour market entrants, whites do better than non-whites, whilst amo...

  16. Assessing Labour Market Vulnerability among Young People

    Theo Sparreboom; Lubna Shahnaz

    2007-01-01

    Labour market performance in Pakistan has improved markedly in recent years. This paper examines the extent to which young people have benefited from this improvement, using the labour market vulnerability framework that was recently introduced by the ILO. This framework can be used to assess the difficulties young people face on the road to decent employment, and may also serve as a basis for the development of appropriate policies and interventions. Drawing on empirical evidence from variou...

  17. The labour market impact of immigration

    Dustmann, C.; Glitz, A.; Frattini, T.

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, we present a stylised model of the labour market impact of immigration. We then discuss mechanisms through which an economy can adjust to immigration: changes in factor prices, output mix and production technology. In the second part, we explain the problems of empirically estimating how immigration affects labour market outcomes of the resident population and review some strategies to address these. We then summarise some recent empirical studies for the UK a...

  18. Immigration and the UK Labour Market

    David Metcalf

    2012-01-01

    During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. Perceptions do not seem to line up with the existing academic evidence. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration in general and EU immigration in particular have still not, on average, materialised. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immig...

  19. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  20. Optimal tax progressivity in imperfect labour markets

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    All modern labour market theories capable of explaining involuntary unemployment as an equilibrium phenomenon imply that increased income tax progressivity reduces unemployment, but they also imply that higher progressivity tends to reduce work effort and labour productivity. This suggests that...... there may be an optimal degree of tax progressivity where the marginal welfare gain from reduced involuntary unemployment is just offset by the marginal welfare loss from lower productivity. This paper sets up four different models of an imperfect labour market in order to identify the degree of tax...

  1. Migration in a segmented labour market.

    Gordon, I

    1995-01-01

    "Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves." PMID:12157825

  2. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-off

    Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently skil...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training.......This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...

  3. EFFECTS OF INTEGRATION AND GLOBALISATION ON LABOUR MARKET

    Valentina Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The relationship economic globalization and labour market functionality is multidimensional and more and more complex. The factors of globalization generate effects that are at once favourable and unfavourable on the national labour market. Lifelong learning and labour force mobility are two essential factors of adjusting national labour market policies in the context of post-accession.

  4. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  5. The Major Tendencies in Ukraine’s Labour Market

    Oksana Ostapa

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the currenttendencies in Ukraine’s labour market and develops practical recommendations as to overcoming major disproportions and raisingthe demand for labour force. The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the currenttendencies in Ukraine’s labour market and develops practical recommendations a...

  6. ASPECTS REGARDING LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND OTHER EUROPEAN STATES

    Adrian TĂNASE; Tănase, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the main aspects related to the labour market. It starts by several theoretical aspects in relation with the human capital and labour market, and continues by the investigation of labour productiveness and of unemployment rate, revealing at the same time the correlation between the education level and the insertion to the labour market. Furthermore, a comparative survey is conducted regarding the efficiency of the labour market in Romania and in the other EU count...

  7. Labour market impacts from disability onset

    Cain Polidano; Ha Vu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the causal labour market impacts of disability onset up to four years after onset using longitudinal data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) survey and difference-in-difference propensity score matching techniques. We find lasting negative impacts on employment, especially full-time employment, which is linked more to reduced movement into full-time employment than to downshifting from full-time to part-time work. Longer-term, impacts on ...

  8. Migrant Educational Mismatch and the Labour Market

    Piracha, Matloob; Vadean, Florin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on educational mismatch of immigrants in the labour market of destination countries. It draws on the theoretical arguments postulated in the labour economics literature and discusses their extension in the analysis of the causes and effects of immigrants' educational mismatch in the destination country. Relevant empirical approaches have been presented which show that immigrants are in general more over-educated than natives and that the reasons for those ran...

  9. Illegal Immigration and Agrarian Labour Market

    Venancio Salcines

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the relation which exists between a landowner and the immigrant workers contracted illegally by this person. For this reason, a theoretical model is developed based on the interconnection between the illegal and legal labour market. The big landowner analysed exercises a monopolistic power in the contracting of illegal manual labour. The application of a tariff in two parts permits this big landowner to obtain a greater surplus from the worker.

  10. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries for...

  11. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    Andersen, Torben M.; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance* In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered how imperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goods trade. Easier goods trading is equivalent to increased mobility of employment across countries and thus a change in the trade-off between wages and employment faced by wage setters. While the effects of product mar...

  12. Labour market in the Catalan cotton textile sector: Employment and fertility (1850-1913)

    Camps Cura, Enriqueta

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals whit the dynamics of the Catalan textile labour market (the Spanish region that concentrated most of the industrial and factory activity during the 19 Century) and offers hypotheses and results on the impact it had on living standards and fertility levels. We observe the formation of an uneven labour market in which male supply for labour (excluding women and children) grew much faster than the demand. We stress the fact that labour supply is very dependant ...

  13. The rise (and fall) of labour market programmes: The role of global and domestic factors

    Gaston, Noel; Rajaguru, Gulasekaran

    2004-01-01

    We study the political economy of labour market policies. First, it is shown that tax and redistributive considerations lead inside workers to prefer spending on active labour market programmes to passive spending, e.g., on unemployment benefits. We also show that greater active spending may be a feature of globalising economies. In the empirical work, panel data for OECD countries are used to examine the relationship between active and passive labour market spending, various measures of glob...

  14. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries' ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore...

  15. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  16. Labour Market Policies in International Trade

    Henriksen, Jonas Juul

    2014-01-01

    Within a frictional labour market, the unemployed workers endogenously determine their level of job search. The theoretical setting is a two-country international trade model with heterogeneous firms in line with Melitz (2003). The workers are homogeneous but can be in one of two states in the la......Within a frictional labour market, the unemployed workers endogenously determine their level of job search. The theoretical setting is a two-country international trade model with heterogeneous firms in line with Melitz (2003). The workers are homogeneous but can be in one of two states...

  17. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel the...... causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional on...

  18. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  19. Early labour market returns to college subject

    Pozzoli, Dario; Buonanno, Paolo

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  20. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece of...... national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...... assistance for non-members. The first tier is basically state-run system, while the second tier is administered by the municipalities. As for the performance of the Danish labour market, participation rates are quite high and although unemployment rates are relatively high and differentiated across groups...

  1. Labour market institutions and their effect on labour market performance in the new EU member countries

    Fialová, Kamila; Schneider, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of labour market institutions in explaining different labour market developments in European countries, with a special attention to the new European Union member countries. This may allow us to analyse effects of various institutional setups and of their changes on major labour market indicators. We aim at complementing several studies from the late 1990’s by using more recent data that allow us to compare institutional setups from the mid 1990’s and early 200...

  2. Evaluating labour market flexibility in V4 countries

    Němec Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This contribution focuses on evaluation of labour market flexibility in the V4 countries. These countries have similar historical destiny but the economic transition led to new labour market institutions. Labour market outcomes are thus quite different in the last decades. Using a small closed DSGE model with search and matching frictions, the main structural labour market differences among these countries are revealed. These differences are related to the changes in separation rates, matchin...

  3. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  4. Learning for career and labour market transitions

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Juul, Ida

    Presentation of the results of 21 narrative interviews with people in middle range positions in the Danish labour market focusing on learning and support during transitions. The narratives presented bring forth many paradoxes in the Danish model and education and training system. There seems to be...

  5. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…

  6. Global competition and the labour market

    Driffield, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    This study combines an industry level and a firm level analysis on the wage and employment effects of multinational companies. This has not been attempted in any previous work. In view of the results, important questions are raised regarding how global changes in the structure of production may affect labour markets and the organisation of work in the future.

  7. Labour market transitions and job satisfaction

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); A. van Dijk (Bram); J. de Koning (Jaap)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction w

  8. Regional labour market research on participation rates

    Elhorst, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the methodology of 17 empirical studies in which the participation rate has been estimated with the help of regional data. After defining and pointing our the orientation of regional labour market research on participation rates, three methodological issues dominate the discussi

  9. The Social Protection of Young People on the Labour Market

    Pobeda Loukanova

    2011-01-01

    The position of the young people on the Bulgarian labour market is presented in details, together with the possibilities for easy transfers to their first jobs. The stress is put on the increasing vulnerability of the youth employment in the period of recent crisis and on its specific problems in Bulgaria. The social protection of the young people in the field of education, and as active and passive policies on the labour market is examined from the point of view of the specific youth problem...

  10. The Impact of Training-Intensive Labour Market Policies on Labour and Educational Prospects of NEETS: Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…

  11. Labour market segmentation in Britain: the decline of occupational labour markets and the spread of ‘entry tournaments'

    Marsden, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing pattern of labour market segmentation in Britain since the mid-1970s. In the early 1980s, industrial labour markets in Britain, along with Germany, could be characterised as dominated by occupational labour markets for skilled workers compared with the predominance of firm internal labour markets in France and Italy. These provided for structured entry paths into the relevant occupations and jobs. Britain’s position in this picture has changed as a result of th...

  12. Revisiting German labour market reform effects : a panel data analysis for occupational labour markets

    Stops, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion that centres on the German labour market reforms (2003- 2005) and the role of these reforms in boosting the German economy. Considering that one of the main objectives of the reforms was to improve the matching process on the labour market, I use rich, high-frequency, and recent administrative panel data to present new details regarding the development of job-matching performance before and after the reform years. The results show that matching productivity incr...

  13. Labour Market Progression of Canadian Immigrant Women

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether Canadian immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the labor market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit the profile of secondary workers, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by marrie...

  14. Graduates’ integration on the labour market

    Palade, A.; Constantin, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the st...

  15. Helping the Unemployed. Active Labour Market Policies in Britain and Germany.

    Disney, Richard; And Others

    Both Germany and Great Britain have recently experienced increases in unemployment. Both countries have developed substantial labor market programs. Germany offers full-time adult training and retraining courses for employed and unemployed persons. Great Britain has a system of youth training but, until recently, has done little for adults. It has…

  16. Social and occupational security and labour market flexibility in Sweden: the case of unemployment compensation

    Lindquist, Gabriella Sjögren; Wadensjö, Eskil

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish labour market and social policy is aimed at facilitating flexibility in the labour market. The active labour market policy and the design of the social security pension system are two frequently mentioned examples of that policy. This does not necessarily mean that all policy programs are in accordance with the goal of enhancing flexibility. In this paper we analyze one part of the social and occupational (collectively bargained) security system - the compensation at unemployment ...

  17. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    Nour S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics 2010 the Fifth Sudan Population and Housing Census 2008. We explain several stylized facts on the relation between the structure of the labour market and demographic structure, labour force, participation rates...

  18. Fiscal Multipliers and the Labour Market in the Open Economy

    Faia, Ester; Lechthaler, Wolfgang; Merkl, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Several contributions have recently assessed the size of fiscal multipliers both in RBC models and New Keynesian models. None of the studies considers a model with frictional labour markets which is a crucial element, particularly at times in which much of the fiscal stimulus has been directed toward labour market measures. We use an open economy model (more specifically, a currency area calibrated to the European Monetary Union) with labour market frictions in the form of labour turnover cos...

  19. Life-course health and labour market exit in thirteen European countries : results from SHARELIFE

    Avendano, Mauricio; Mackenbach, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Headlines Health and labour market participation Measuring labour market exits and health Illness over the life-course The impact of illness on labour market exit The role of public health and labour policies Conclusions

  20. Labour Market Issues in Pakistan: Unemployment, Working Conditions, and Child Labour

    Sabur Ghayur

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s labour market is showing its inability to continue the past trend of labour absorption. Generation of additional work opportunities commensurate with labour supplies, increasing by over 3 percent annually, has emerged as the most formidable challenge of the nineties. The labour market is presently confronted with the twin menace of unemployment and underemployment. Although, the rate of unemployment has not as yet assumed serious proportions, the worrying aspect of this 5 percent u...

  1. Shortages in the labour market: an analysis of employers' behaviour

    Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Remery, C.; Schippers, J.

    2008-01-01

    Different policies are being promoted to increase the labour supply in ageing labour markets. This article presents the results of a large-scale survey carried out among Dutch employers into their management of the constraints presented by a tight labour market. Organizations take different measures

  2. ASPECTS REGARDING LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND OTHER EUROPEAN STATES

    Adrian TĂNASE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the main aspects related to the labour market. It starts by several theoretical aspects in relation with the human capital and labour market, and continues by the investigation of labour productiveness and of unemployment rate, revealing at the same time the correlation between the education level and the insertion to the labour market. Furthermore, a comparative survey is conducted regarding the efficiency of the labour market in Romania and in the other EU countries. The paper ends by forwarding a series of conclusions related to the labour market in Romania, identifying several measures meant to boost the labour market competitiveness in our country. The methods used in the present paper are the interpretative method, the structural-systemic approach, as well as the epistemological method.

  3. The problems of the labour market in Romania

    Sabina Irimie; Virginia Băleanu; Petru Hodor

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence factors regarding the phenomenons and trends upon the labour market in order to remake informations for taking some decisions respecting the occupation of the labour force and fighting against unemployment by sundries measures.

  4. Tax policy, housing and the labour market

    Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen;

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing unit......, and a public pension system. We simulate the model to illustrate some macroeconomic, allocative and distributional effects of a policy experiment involving a 10% cut in the capital income tax rate......This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units...

  5. The Impact of Active Labour Market Policy on Post-Unemployment Outcomes

    Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael

    was conducted in Denmark in 2005-6, to investigate the effects of a dramatic intensification of ALMPs on reemployment stability. We investigate the nature of this impact. We estimate a duration model with lagged duration dependence to separately identify "indirect" (via shorter unemployment duration......) and "direct" (through a more efficient matching process) effects of ALMPs on subsequent employment duration. We find that overall intensive activation significantly reduces unemployment recurrence for men, but not for women. When we control for dynamic selection into employment and lagged duration dependence...

  6. Labour market discrimination as an agency cost

    Méon, Pierre-Guillaume; Szafarz, Ariane

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies labour market discriminations as an agency problem. It sets up a principal-agent model of a firm, where the manager is a taste discriminator and has to make unobservable hiring decisions that determine the shareholder’s profits because workers differ in skills. The paper shows that performance-based contracts may moderate the manager’s propensity to discriminate, but that it is unlikely to fully eliminate discrimination.

  7. The labour market on the hypercube

    Araújo, Tanya; Weisbuch, Gérard

    2008-02-01

    Positions offered on a labour market and workers preferences are described here by bit strings representing individual traits. We study the co-evolution of workers and firms preferences modeled by such traits. Individual “size-like” properties are controlled by binary encounters whose outcomes depend upon a recognition process. Depending upon the parameter set-up, mutual selection of workers and positions results in different types of attractors, either an exclusive niches regime or a competition regime.

  8. Earnings Capacity and Labour Market Participation

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Fontein, P.F.; Euwals, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze models for individuals' labour market state.We distinguish between full-time and part-time work, but also between various types of economic inactivity, i.e. unemployment, disability, early retirement and working in the household.We consider the impact on the state probabilities of individual attributes, with emphasis on earnings capacity.We take account of the problem that only earnings of workers are observed, and of the potential endogeneity of earnings.We generalize the multinom...

  9. Trade, technical change, and labour market adjustment

    Heitger, Bernhard; Stehn, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    The paper empirically examines three possible reasons for the high and rising unemployment of low-skilled employees in Germany: (i) an upsurge in interindustry trade, (ii) a skill-biased technical change, and (iii) a failure of labour market adjustment. The empirical analyses indicate that an exogenous wage-setting process as well as a bundle of factors, including a skill-biased technical and structural change, have contributed to the decline in relative demand for low-skilled employees in Ge...

  10. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new...... ethnic group size on average increases the employment probability of refugees by 4 percentage points and earnings by 21 percent. I argue that in case of heterogeneous treatment effects, the estimated effects are local average treatment effects....

  11. Provincial labour market study : mould remediation industry

    Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention and

  12. Labour market transitions and job satisfaction

    Bijwaard, Govert; Van Dijk, Bram; Koning, Jaap de

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction with the job and discrepancies between the actual and the desired number of hours worked. Transitions can be changes in the hours worked, changes to a different job and/or employers, or combinations...

  13. Job quality and labour market performance

    Erhel, Christine; Guergoat-Larivière, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Job quality is a multidimensional concept, but the empirical analysis of job quality in Europe leads to three main types of result. First, it reveals important differences across countries, with four main regimes prevalent in Europe. Second, it supports the hypothesis that a higher level of job quality is associated with better labour market and economic performance. Finally, it emphasises the heterogeneity of quality across social groups, especially according to gender, age, and education.

  14. GRADUATES’ COMPETENCIES FOR THE INNOVATION LABOUR MARKET

    Natalia Shmatko

    2013-01-01

    The paper highlights key research questions that concern skills and abilities of highly qualified personnel who are employed in the innovation related professions in the labour market. Developing a national system of competencies which would allow selecting and training personnel capable of creating and applying innovations is a very challenging task. The solution implies first of all the construction of the relevant methodologies and tools for the assessment of competencies acquired during v...

  15. Adapting to Globalised Product and Labour Markets

    Steedman, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    Rapidly changing labour markets in European countries are a challenge for young people seeking employment. While in many countries around half of all young people move into tertiary education, apprenticeship provides a recognised route to skill for some or all of those who seek to move directly into employment after school. The paper identifies two distinct models of apprenticeship in Europe, the well-established demand-driven model found in the German-speaking countries and in Denmark and th...

  16. Factor Complementarity and Labour Market Dynamics

    Federico di Pace; Stefania Villa

    2014-01-01

    We propose and estimate a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model featuring search and matching frictions, deep habits and a CES production function. The model successfully replicates the cyclical properties of labour market variables in the US economy for three main reasons. First, the endogenous mechanisms of the model – factor complementarity, deep habits and unemployment benefits – play a key role for explaining the amplification in unemployment and vacancies. Second, factor-bias...

  17. Informal production and labour market segmentation

    John Bennett

    2011-01-01

    An industry is modeled in which entrepreneurs, who are heterogeneous in ability, may produce formally or informally. Two cases are distinguished, with and without labour market segmentation, for which different patterns of formal/informal supply obtain. Without segmentation, informality may generate production where otherwise there would be none. Typically, however, a trade-off obtains: when informality makes output higher it cuts the profit of the most able entrepreneurs, potentially damagin...

  18. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET. MOBILITY, CAREER DEVELOPMENT, INCOMES. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Vasile Liviu; Vasile Valentina

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates) highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, pr...

  19. Labour Markets and Monetary Union: A Strategic Analysis

    Cukierman, Alex; Lippi, Francesco

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic consequences of the establishment of a monetary union in the presence of unionized labour markets. It is shown that the effects of the formation of a monetary union depend on several labour market features, such as the degree of centralization of wage bargaining, labour unions' inflation aversion and the degree of substitutability between the labour of different unions. In particular, the switch from national monetary policies to a unified monetary policy...

  20. Labour Market Institutions and Employment Thresholds. An International Comparison

    Flaig, Gebhard; Rottmann, Horst

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects to labour market institutions on labour market performance. We analyse the employment threshold (the minimum growth rate necessaryto keep employment constant) which is an indicator for the labour intensity of production. We show for 17 OECD countries for the period 1971 to 2002 that the strictness of employment protection, the extent of wage bargaining co-ordination and the tax wedge reduce the labour intensity of production and raise the employment threshold.

  1. Obesity and Labour Market Outcomes

    Greve, Jane

    This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined with...

  2. Measuring Inefficiency of the Czech Labour Market

    Němec Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the performance of the Czech regional labour markets and to reveal the most influential economic factors standing behind its dynamics in the last fifteen years. Investigated labour markets are described using matching function approach. The successful matches are treated as an output of production process, where the unemployed are paired with vacancies. Efficiency of this matching process plays an important role in determining unemployment outflows. Using stochastic frontier model approach, dynamics of quantified efficiency terms is revealed and differences among regions are evaluated. The model specification includes a fixed effect term, where individual effect terms and inefficiency terms are estimated jointly. The stochastic frontier is estimated using monthly and quarterly regional panel data of 77 districts for the period 1999-2014. Matching efficiency of the Czech regional labour markets is negatively influenced people who have been unemployed for a long time and by the unemployed aged over 50 years. Although all districts were able to operate at their stochastic frontiers of matching, an upward trend in the inefficiency has been found within the investigated period. These tendencies are accompanied by rising disparities among the regions. Low levels of estimated matching inefficiency do not necessary mean the low unemployment in the corresponding districts.

  3. Legislative and Institutional Framework for Controlling the Romanian Labour Market

    Dorina Niţă

    2007-01-01

    As soon as the transition to a new organization form was made, the changes from the Romanian economy (privatization, technological and organizational restructuring, the introduction of mechanisms characteristic for the market economy) have led to new coordinates of the labour market in our country. By knowing all the elements which characterize the labour market, one is able to outline the action coordinates in order to ensure an efficient management of the labour market – on regional level, ...

  4. Unemployment and labour market institutions : the failure of the empirical case for deregulation

    Baker, Dean; Glyn, Andrew; Howell, David; Schmitt, John

    2004-01-01

    Based on a survey of the literature, assesses the strength of the evidence regarding the effects of labour market institutions and regulations on unemployment. Considers the effects of employment protection, trade union density, bargaining coordination, unemployment benefits, the labour tax wedge and active labour market policies. Argues that empirical results are largely inconclusive and suggests that there is no single model that guarantees successful employment performance.

  5. Classification of labour markets in the Silesian Province (Poland

    Sitek Sławomir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to try to classify labour markets of the Silesian Province on the municipality level. The proposed solution of grouping labour markets is based on three criteria: the size of the labour market measured by a number of jobs, the weight of the labour market expressed with a proportion of the number of jobs to the size of the population and that scale of the impact that is a proportion of the commuters to the ones leaving for work. As a result of the assumed criteria the municipalities have been grouped according to their meaning on the labour market, at the same time identifying weaker and stronger labour markets. The first stage of the research was to divide the municipal labour markets according to the number of the employed. As a result territorial units were grouped into 4 classes (small, medium, big and huge including in total 9 subclasses. Then the municipal labour markets were sorted according to their weight and the scale of their impact, verifying their position in this way. The research pointed out that a lot of labour markets in the Katowice conurbation showed lower levels than the assumptions. Consequently, it suggests polarization of the labour market of this urban unit that is mainly focused on Katowice and Gliwice. Higher parameters than the assumed ones were reached by several municipalities that are small or medium labour markets. In many cases these are municipalities where there are huge businesses connected with coal mining. A beneficial situation was noted in the southern part of the province that has a relatively steady situation on the labour market. The presented classification of labour markets can support the management process of local and regional development.

  6. Does product market competition improve the labour market performance ?

    Cardullo, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I construct a general equilibrium model in which the labour market exhibits search frictions, whereas Cournot competition is assumed in the goods market. The properties of the long run free-entry equilibrium show that a more competitive product market raises employment, but it has ambiguous effects both on the real wage and on the utility of the employees. Moreover, from a normative viewpoint, the level of employment and the degree of competition may be ineffi...

  7. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications of the...... labourmarket reform effect of product market integration is achieved despitean increase in the wage level.JEL Classification: F15, J30, J50.Keywords: Trade frictions, wage formation, employment, welfaregains....

  8. The Labour Market and Alumni

    Němečková, Adéla

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the issue of graduates applying for the job market. A particular attention is paid to the current structure of students and graduates, in addition the selected economic indicators and other areas of the given issue. The work interlinks the theoretical background of the society-wide phenomenon dealing with education and unemployment mainly focused on the specifics of the graduates. A part of the thesis is also a survey that describes the current situation within tertiary ...

  9. Graduates’ integration on the labour market

    Palade, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the study programs’ curriculum, in order to build specific competences for students, which make them capable to obtain a better job position after graduation.

  10. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET. MOBILITY, CAREER DEVELOPMENT, INCOMES. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Vasile Liviu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, professional and personal satisfaction opportunities which are provided by the labour market at local level, in country and abroad. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are presented about Romanian youths' labour market within the European context during the transition period. The impact of the crisis on youths' labour market is analysed, highlighting the challenges and opportunities, the particularities of the newly created jobs and especially the knowledge, skills and competencies requirements (KSC. The authors propose both the improvement of the systems of indicators for defining the potential and presence of youth on the labour market, the economic and social impact of external mobility of young graduates and an integrated scheme of policy measures for promoting adaptability and performance integration on Romanian labour market of youth. Particular attention is paid to presenting policy instruments for halting/diminishing the brain drain and brain shopping phenomena by promoting an attractive (professionally and monetary supply for employment in Romania's local economy. The authors succeed in highlighting the functional links between the education market (labour force supply and labour market (employment demand of the business environment underpinning the requirement of integrated management of labour potential in the years preceding studies' finalization and up to the post-insertion years by multi-criteria analysis models and graduate career tracking

  11. Labour Market Matters - July 2013

    Tran, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    How does time off from work affect an individual’s job prospects? A study by CLSRN affiliates Kory Kroft (University of Toronto), Fabian Lange (McGill University) and Matthew J. Notowidigdo (University of Chicago) entitled “Duration Dependence and Labor Market Conditions: Theory and Evidence from a Field Experiment†(CLSRN Working Paper no. 101) examines the role of employer behavior in generating “negative duration dependence†– the adverse effect of a longer unemployment spell on ...

  12. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Tanase Diana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.

  13. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has been developed the lohn production system. The gross labour was among the most required in this area, the design and sales activities were often external customer's responsibility. The old factories were not able to adapt to the new conditions, so many of them reduced the activity. In the end it led to a major layoff of labour force both in light industry, as well as in associated areas. Only a part of it has managed to reintegrate in the new enterprises which were more adapted to current market conditions. Solving the problem of excess labour force, given its presence especially in rural areas and in mono-industrial towns, representative areas and the developing Region South-West Oltenia, also involves the relaunching of light industry. There is need to support the internal sources of supply of raw materials, as well as a new view related to the selling of products, based on creative activities and exploration of markets. These marks can lead to occupational integration of the excess labour force and to ensure the social balance in the areas affected by the restructuring of national economy.

  14. Essays on labour market frictions and fiscal policy

    Obstbaum, Meri

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyzes labour market fluctuations and fiscal policy from the perspective of a small monetary union member state, namely Finland. The first essay identifies how frictions in the labour market shape the responses of the economy to government spending shocks. The nature of offsetting fiscal measures is found to be critical for the effects of fiscal stimulus, due to the different effects of different tax instruments on the labour market. Shifting the debt-stabilizing burden tow...

  15. BNew Developments in the Australian Labour Market in 2006

    O'Brien, Martin; Valadkhani, Abbas; Waring, Peter; Denniss, Richard

    2007-01-01

    2006 generally represented a solid year in terms of macroeconomic performance and labour market indicators, even under the threat of increasing inflation and interest rates. However, some favourable aggregate labour market indicators disguised major disparities at disaggregated regional, sectoral or demographic levels. The major development in the labour market was the implementation and operation of the WorkChoices legislation which will shape the industrial relations landscape in Australia ...

  16. New forms of labour market segmentation, insecurity and professional relations

    Lamotte, Bruno; Zubiri-Rey, Jon Bernat

    2008-01-01

    In the institutionalist analysis of labour markets, the segmentationist approaches are an interesting tool for understanding the employment models. In this paper we will try to show how these approaches must be adapted to the new labour market phenomena in France and what their impact on the French professional relations is. In the first part of this paper, we will show that the evolution of the internal labour markets question the traditional professional promotion and stabilisation in prima...

  17. The Interdependence between Social Protection System and Labour Market

    Mihaela Cristina MOSTAVI

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of social policy impact over the labour market focuses on assessing the interdependence between the social protection system and the labour market, and performance of the social policies management, determinant factor in order to achieve simultaneous acceleration for social inclusion and social protection. The relationship of interdependence between the social protection system and the labour market was analysed through the main social protection, economic and social indicators a...

  18. Wages and Subjective Assessments of Regional Labour Market Pressure

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    We utilise a rich set of regional labour market variables to explain regional variation in Norwegian manufacturing wages. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects. We find that average reported satisfaction with local job prospects and other survey-based indicators perform better in regional wage equations than traditional labour market variables, including the regional unemploymen...

  19. HUMAN CAPITAL, INEQUALITIES AND LABOUR MARKET PARTICIPATION IN ROMANIA

    Ana-Maria ZAMFIR; Cristina MOCANU

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse characteristics of the labour market participation in Romania in order to highlight the existing inequalities in employment opportunities. Official statistics are analysed for providing an in-depth overview of the recent evolutions of the Romanian labour market. Special attention will be given to gender, rural-urban and age inequalities. The results show significant gaps in labour market participation for specific groups such as people living in rural areas, women a...

  20. Immigrant Labour Market Assimilation and Arrival Effects: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey

    Clark, K; Lindley, J.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate models of earnings and employment outcomes for a sample of white and non-white male immigrants drawn from the Labour Force Survey between 1993 and 2002. Two hypotheses are investigated: (i) whether immigrant outcomes assimilate towards those of natives and (ii) whether labour market conditions at time of entry to the UK labour market have a permanent impact on outcomes. We find positive earnings assimilation for all immigrant groups and strong employment assimilation for those imm...

  1. Labour Market Matters - January 2013

    Tran, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    As developed countries shift more toward knowledge-based economic activities, information, technology, and learning play an increasingly important role. The use and adoption of new technologies by firms and workers constitutes a critical component of the process of technological diffusion and advancement. A paper by CLSRN affiliates Craig Riddell (University of British Columbia) and Xueda Song (York University) entitled “The Role of Education in Technology Use and Adoption: Evidence from th...

  2. Addressing Gender Gaps in the Ugandan Labour Market

    Kasirye, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Four out of every five women in Uganda are employed in agriculture, according to the 2008 Gender and Productivity Survey (GPS) in Uganda (EPRC, 2009); and 42 percent of women in the labour force are unpaid family workers—receiving no income despite contributing the largest proportion of the agricultural labour. Gender discrimination in the labour market is a pervasive economic problem in developing countries.1 Discrimination based on sex can take many forms in the labour market—from restricte...

  3. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

  4. Cultural Diversity and Local Labour Markets

    Suedekum, Jens; Wolf, Katja; Blien, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade there have been marked changes in the composition of the non-native workforce in the German labour market. In particular there has been a notable increase in the diversity of nationalities of which the foreign workforce is composed. In this paper we investigate the effects of this diversity for native employees. Our analysis is conducted at the local level and uses a panel of 326 Western German regions over the time period 1995-2006. When considering high-skilled foreig...

  5. Immigrant earnings in the Italian labour market

    Antonio Accetturo; Luigi Infante

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between individual skills and labour market performance of immigrants residing in Lombardy during the period 2001-2005. We use a recent dataset collected by the NGO ISMU, which includes information on individual characteristics and the legal status of each immigrant. Our results show that returns on schooling are positive and range from 0.8 per cent to 0.9 per cent, a figure that is much lower than the one estimated for native Italians. This...

  6. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has bee...

  7. Liberalism versus interventionism to the labour market. The case of Poland as a transition country

    Waclaw Jarmolowicz; Katarzyna Szarzec

    2010-01-01

    An objective of a paper is to compare views of liberal economy and interventionism to a labour market and labour market policy. It is a ground for discussing a concept of labour market in a transition economy.

  8. Labour market transitions in policy and in everyday life

    Thomsen, Rie; Cort, Pia

    In a time where transitions between jobs and in and out of the labour market are likely to become more frequent the way we conceptualise and experience ‘ transitions’ becomes equally important. In EU policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of the flexicurity model and its...... the 1990s focus in the employment policy has shifted gradually and introduced the ideas of activation and the duty of the unemployed to pursue employment. Unemployment has been individualized as a problem and focus has moved from upskilling to rapid re-integration into the labour market, hereby...... discourse has effect on the micro level where at the same time citizens are struggling to make radical changes to their working life. Changes that could be supported by recognizing pauses as productive and in line with the ideas and values that flexicurity was built upon....

  9. Graduate Labour Market Mismatches: New Features Of An Older Matter

    Mihai KORKA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society progress depends on innovation, on the knowledge acquired through education, on the science put in practice with the purpose of improving the natural, economic, technical and social condition of human life. Universities are in that favoured position of keeping and creating science, of training through and for science. But, universities face today a series of challenges originated in their relation with the state, with the actors from the national and international extra-university environment, in particular with those active in the labour market. The article explores a variety of education mismatches in the graduate labour market: from over-education to skill mismatches and their impact on the employability. It also focuses on the expected improvement of quality management and of the shared responsibilities for the employability of graduates in the interaction between universities and employers.

  10. Urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe the competitiveness of urban and regional labour markets becomes an increasingly important task for regional and sector policies. Efficient matching of local demand and supply of labour at different qualification levels is considered to be an important prerequisite both for economic growth and social cohesion in every region. This study contains the main results of a research project analysing the urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway. The main purpose of the study...

  11. COMPETITIVENESS OF WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MARKET IN LATGALE

    Zvaigzne, Anda; Saulāja, Inese; Čerpinska, Aija

    2014-01-01

    Competitiveness in the labour market is a range of various factors that assist an employee in getting or retaining a job, while an employer can attract and maintain a labour force adequate to meet the employer’s needs. The research aim is to examine the competitiveness of women in the labour market in Latvia and to develop proposals for its improvement. The present research deals with employment trends, especially focusing on statistical data on women. The research also examines statistical d...

  12. Effects of Business Cycles on Labour Market Assimilation of Immigrants

    Abdurrahman Aydemir

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of macroeconomic conditions on the labour market outcomes of immigrants. It simultaneously identifies the separate effects of macro conditions at the time of entry to the labour market and at the time of the survey, while allowing for cohort effects. Also, for the first time in literature the impacts on labour force participation along with employment outcomes are explored. The study uses 19 annual cross-sections of the Survey of Consumer Finances covering the...

  13. De-Professionalization through managerialization in labour market policy

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Nørup, Iben

    2015-01-01

    Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications......Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications...

  14. The increased labour market participation of Dutch students

    van der Meer, P; Wielers, R

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1980s students' labour market participation in the Netherlands has increased enormously. The first part of this article offers a description of the changed labour market position of students in the Netherlands. It demonstrates that this is the result both of changes in the

  15. Computing Careers and Irish Higher Education: A Labour Market Anomaly

    Stephens, Simon; O'Donnell, David; McCusker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of developments in the Irish economy and labour market on computing course development in the higher education (HE) sector. Extant computing courses change, or new courses are introduced, in attempts to match labour market demands. The conclusion reached here, however, is that Irish HE is producing insufficient…

  16. Evaluating Labour's market reforms, 2002-10.

    Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show. PMID:22315473

  17. Labour Market Segmentation : a Comparison between France and the UK From the Eighties to nowadays

    Valette, Aline

    2004-01-01

    Regarding changes in French and British labour market as in their educational system since the Eighties, one may address the evolution of their labour market segmentation. Is the predominance of Internal Labour Market in France and Occupational Labour Market in Great Britain (Eyraud, Marsden, Silvestre,1990) still relevant ? We propose a more complex segmentation of labour market with four segments based on tenure, labour mobility and their wage return to account for nowadays situation. Empir...

  18. Labour Market Institutions Without Blinders: The Debate over Flexibility and Labour Market Performance

    Richard B. Freeman

    2005-01-01

    The debate over the influence of labour market flexibility on performance is unlikely to be settled by additional studies using aggregate data and making cross-country comparisons. While this approach holds little promise, micro-analysis of workers and firms and increased use of experimental methods represent a path forward. Steps along this path could help end the current 'lawyer's case' empiricism in which priors dominate evidence.

  19. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...... of the change seems to matter. The smaller share an old organisation constitutes of the new organisation, the larger the effect is on health outcomes for its employees.......This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...

  20. The transformation of the Irish labour market : 1980-2003.

    Walsh, Brendan M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally characterised as a labour-surplus economy, Ireland was transformed during the 1990s. An impressive rate of employment growth led to a reduction in the unemployment rate from 15.7% to 4% between 1988 and 2004. Over the same period, labour force participation rates rose markedly and emigration was replaced by a rising net inflow of population. The improvements in labour market outcomes were widely spread across regions, age groups, and educational levels. Employment...

  1. Real wage convergence in an open labour market

    Curtis, John; FitzGerald, John D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper looks at how the Irish experience of integration has affected the labour market, bringing about convergence in labour costs between Ireland and the UK. A model of this process is developed and estimated which takes account of the fact that productive capacity and output are mobile within the EU economy and that integration affects the supply of labour through the potential for migration and changing expectations. The results indicate that changes in tax rates in the U K can affe...

  2. An Alternative Approach to Testing Dual Labour Market Theory

    Launov, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we suggest an alternative approach to testing for the dual structure of the labour market. The novelty of the suggested approach is that rather than considering wage determination we concentrate on the turnover. To perform the test we suggest using a latent class count data framework, which allows modelling the turnover in the unobserved primary and secondary markets in the appropriate way. To illustrate the suggested approach we apply our methodology to the German labour market...

  3. Economic implications of ASEAN integration for Malaysia's labour market

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 on Malaysia’s labour market. The discussion centres on the nature of the structural change that Malaysia has experienced, especially since the 1980s, and how that has impacted on its labour market. Integration into ASEAN markets has obviously helped Malaysia enjoy the synergies of regional coordination. Although Malaysia’s economic growth has been steady...

  4. Labour Market And Corruption Issues In Chiang Rai, Thailand

    John WALSH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of application of the rule of law in Thailand has various negative impacts on labour market and business environment. Lax policing of minimum wage legislation and unknown numbers of migrant workers contribute to depression of wages as whole and reduced incentives to add value to production. Instead, short-term competitiveness through low labour-cost manufacturing is prioritized. Although individual transactions which may be deemed corrupt are small scale in nature, they appear to be repeated very regularly and therefore have a significant impact upon the income generating possibilities for local workers and for their future prospects, not to mention the overall competitiveness of the country. The corrupt activities also lead to lower levels of safety in the workplace and for such issues as collective bargaining and freedom of association. The paper attempts to identify the major issues involved and some possible solutions.

  5. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost......Public policy shapes the lives of individuals, and even more so if they depend on state support. In the case of unemployment, the financial situation is largely determined by cash transfers and daily routines depend on the involvement in active labour market policy measures. To what extent, however......, can subjective well-being differences of European unemployed be traced back to the national design and generosity of labour market policy? This article applies multilevel and panel estimation techniques to identify the moderating effect of unemployment benefit generosity and active labour market...

  6. PRESSURE OF AGEING ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT. CHALLENGES AND LIMITS FOR THE LABOUR MARKET

    Silvia\tPISICĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available sing official statistics, the paper aims to contribute to regional perspective of labour market challenges and limits and the increasing number of elderly people participating in economic activity. Regional level is considered for analysing the social productivity of labour in terms of GDP and employment. The employment is analysed from the perspective of share and structure of elderly people on the labour market. In this respect, activity rates, ageing index and economic dependency ratio are reviewed. In order to shape the determinants of employment of elderly people, poverty measures at NUTS 2 level are figured out.

  7. A FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKET POLICIES

    Graţiela Georgiana Carica

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse European labour market policies and their integrated guidelines, by highlighting various measures that need to be adopted in order to increase labour productivity, with positive effects on long-term economic development. The paper methodizes the main conditions complied by structural reforms in order to encourage labour employment and the policies that frame a more efficient unemployment insurance system crucial to increase security while encouraging the unemployed to look for a job and to accept a job offer, respectively on flexicurity policies. We found that employment rates are generally associated with large expenses on labour market policies and with an increased number of participants to programs developed within these types of policies. The degree of influence and strong dependence between outcome and labour market policies are illustrated in various ways and discussed within the paper.

  8. Particularities of youth unemployment and the labour market in Romania

    Gabriela RÎMBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Youth unemployment has become a priority for the European Union. The globalisation, the cyclical economic changes and the fast evolution of the labour market require new public policy and new approaches in order to stimulate integration of the young people into the labour market. This paper intends to highlight the effects and efficiency of the public policy that supports the labour market in the European Union and Romania. The conclusion is that Romania is adopting important measures for facilitating the employment of young people and decreasing unemployment, but the implemented measures and strategies have registered limited progress and more innovative solutions are needed.

  9. The Czech labour market: historical, structural and policy perspectives

    Večerník, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2007), s. 220-236. ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/05/2769 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : labour market * labour force * employment policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  10. Employment insecurity and life satisfaction: The moderating influence of labour market policies across Europe

    Carr, Ewan; Chung, Heejung

    2014-01-01

    This article tests whether the link between employment insecurity and life satisfaction is moderated by the generosity of labour market policies across Europe. Employment insecurity provokes anxieties about (a) the difficulties of finding a new job and (b) alternative sources of non-work income. These components can be related to active and passive labour market policies, respectively. Generous policy support is thus expected to buffer the negative consequences of employment insecurity by low...

  11. A labour market extension for WorldScan; modelling labour supply, wage bargaining and unemployment in a CGE framework

    Stefan Boeters; Nico van Leeuwen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a labour market extension for the CGE model "WorldScan". The labour market module features endogenous labour supply at two margins: participation and hours of work. Involuntary unemployment is captured through a collective bargaining ("right to manage") set-up. The paper explains how these two labour market mechanisms interact and how they are calibrated to empirical elasticities. Illustrative simulations that can be placed in the context of the "double dividend"...

  12. THE SPLITTING OF LABOUR MARKET AND EMPLOYMENT ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIES

    MARIANA CLAUDIA MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal structure of the labour market has a highly complex character, which enabled the formulation of conclusions as there is no a single scale labour market economy. Inside it is identify different sections. Market segmentation are represented by all splitting techniques of a population database and follow up a groups of components that satisfy a condition of classification, according to the criteria considered. Labour market segmentation is determined both by economic considerations, also the characteristics of the workforce (level of training, qualifications, job mobility and institutional issues (regulation of employment, level of union organization. As such, there is barriers to transition from one segment to another job mobility occurs mainly within each segment and limited, between different segments, and wages are not the result of market forces free event, being the effect of social factors, institutional policies with specific expression of each labour market segment. Actual labour market segments are highlighted and analyzed by using several criteria: type of ownership, firm size, degree of organization of labour supply, etc.

  13. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  14. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  15. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke;

    This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through a...... factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown that there is a...... significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....

  16. Patterns of women's participation to the labour market

    Bozzon Rossella

    2008-01-01

    This contribution considers the effects of specific characteristics of the individual, the family and the labour market on women's working trajectories. The main career patterns are traced for 3131 women surveyed by Longitudinal Survey of Italian Families (ILFI). Life history data allow the deployment of sequence analysis, which yields a significant classification of female participation to the labour market, accounting for the data's inner structure. This empirical typology is subsequently r...

  17. Labour market states, mobility and entrepreneurship in transition economies

    Mark Dutz; Celine Kauffmann; Serineh Najarian; Peter Sanfey; Ruslan Yemtsov

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the different strategies adopted by individuals in transition economies to cope with labour market restructuring. Using micro-data from seven countries at different stages of transition, we focus on “active” coping strategies, in particular mobility and entrepreneurship. Our results show that there is significant mobility across labour market states in most countries, but little inflow into entrepreneurship from unemployment or inactivity. Entrepreneurship is a high-reward...

  18. Applied General Equilibrium Modelling and Labour Market Forecasting

    G.A.Meagher; P. D. Adams; J.M. Horridge

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the MONASH CGE model to labour market forecasting in Australia. The method consists of solving a top-down sequence of models that proceeds from a macro scenario to the CGE model to various labour market extensions. The extensions involve ex post processing of the MONASH results based on employment data from the census and a number of large sample surveys. Their purpose is to greatly increase the amount of information furnished by the simulations at mode...

  19. Employment in Poland 2007: Security on flexible labour market

    Bukowski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Piotr; Koloch, Grzegorz; Baranowska, Anna; Magda, Iga; Szydlowski, Arkadiusz; Bober, Magda; Bieliński, Jacek; Zawistowski, Julian; Sarzalska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This Report is a third in the series Employment in Poland. It consists of four Parts, devoted to empirical analysis of the impact of macroeconomic shocks on EU New Member States labour markets‘ in 1996-2006; utilization of flexible forms of employment on Polish labor market, determinants of wages and wage inequalities in Poland; effectiveness of ALMP in Poland, respectively. In Part I, we present how the cyclical upturn propagated on Polish labour market in 2003-2007 and how the performan...

  20. The labour market and the economy 20 years reviewed

    Gareth Clancy

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly considers a few of thechanges in the labour market in the last20 years and how these adjustmentsrelate to the economy in the UK. Itacknowledges that, during 2008, thetiming of movements in output indicatorsand labour market statistics differed. Toexplore this, the economic backgroundto 2008 is discussed, by presentingaggregate economic indicators for aselection of international trade partnersand looking at other statistics producedby the Office for National Statistics.Fin...

  1. Estimation of Gender wage Discrimination in the Portuguese labour market

    Bastos, Amélia; Fernandes, Graça Leão; Passos, José

    2003-01-01

    Gender wage discrimination is a reality in the Portuguese labour markets although no study has been until now carried on to measure its dimension. We think that economists should contribute to the knowledge of the dimension and significance of this phenomenon by giving orientation for the definition of political measures towards its reduction. In this paper we measure the size of gender wage discrimination in the Portuguese labour market. Furthermore, we evaluate this measure for the five Por...

  2. Unemployment and vacancy in the Hong Kong labour market

    Tse, CY; Leung, CKY; Chan, WYF

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines unemployment and vacancy data to analyse the efficiency of the Hong Kong labour market for the period 1976 to 1997. It is confirmed that the negative relationship between unemployment and vacancy, commonly known as the Beveridge curve, applies to the Hong Kong labour market. There was an inward shift of the Beveridge curve around 1982, which implies falling match frictions since then. Systematic evidence is also found that Hong Kong has been close to full employment, for o...

  3. Labour market effects of public sector employment and wages

    Pedro Gomes

    2009-01-01

    I build a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with search and matching frictions and both public and private sectors, in order to study the labour market effects of public sector employment and wages. I discuss what is the public sector wage that achieves the social planner's solution and how it varies with different labour market parameters. Public sector wage and employment shocks have mixed effects on unemployment. A wage shock raises unemployment rate while a reduction in the sep...

  4. Immigration, the European union and the UK labour market

    Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration in general and EU immigration in particular have still not, on average, materialised. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immigrants, especially in recent years, tend to be younger and better educate...

  5. Labour Market Entry Conditions, Wages and Job Mobility

    Bachmann, Ronald; Bauer, Thomas K.; David, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Economic conditions at the time of labour market entry can induce wage differentials between workers entering the labour market at different points in time. While the existence and persistence of these entry wage differentials are well documented, little is known about their interaction with employees’ mobility behaviour. This paper contributes to this research area by analyzing the interaction between job mobility and entry wage differentials using German administrative data. The results sug...

  6. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector has positive spill-overs, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labour market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector ...

  7. The impact of immigration on Canada’s labour market

    Grady, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of recent immigrants in Canada's labour market and reviews some of the literature on the causes of their poor performance. The paper concludes that, using the existing selection system, it is not possible to admit annually as many as 250,000 immigrants who are capable of doing well in the Canadian labour market, despite 16 years of economic expansion, during which the unemployment rate dropped below 6%. It also speculates that The situation can only worsen...

  8. Inflation Dynamics in the Presence of Informal Labour Markets

    Paul Castillo B.; Carlos Montoro Ll.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effects of informal labour markets on the dynamics of inflation and on the transmission of aggregate demand and supply shocks. In doing so, we incorporate the informal sector in a modified New Keynesian model with labour market frictions as in the Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model. Our main results show that the informal economy generates a "buffer" effect that diminishes the pressure of demand shocks on inflation. This finding is consistent with the empirical li...

  9. Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?

    Gandhi Kingdon, Geeta

    1997-01-01

    Labour market discrimination against women and parental discrimination against daughters are two of the most commonly cited explanations of the gender gap in education in developing countries. This study empirically tests the labour market explanation for India using household survey data collected in urban Uttar Pradesh in 1995. It estimates workforce participation functions and selectivity-corrected earnings fluctuations, and calculates the rates of return to education for the two sexes. Us...

  10. The labour market impact of immigration : theory and evidence

    Lumpe, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In this survey, we compare the history and status of immigration of a traditional immigration county (the US) with the experiences of a new immigration country (Germany). This reveals differences in the immigration policy as in the immigration population in the respective countries. We resume the theoretical model implications which the existing immigration should have had on the labour market outcome of natives. This takes into account the differing labour market institutions in both countri...

  11. The impact of unskilled immigration on local labour markets

    Weigert, Benjamin; Lumpe, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In a search-theoretic two region model, we analyse the impact of unskilled immigration and skill biased technological change on native wages and unemployment in local labour markets. We show that a specific combination of number and skills of immigrants generates a technology adoption of firms leading to insignificant wage changes. Thus our models explains the observed phenomenon of skill biased technological change, wage inequality and high inflows of immigrants in local labour markets. Our ...

  12. SKILL MISMATCH OF GRADUATES IN A LOCAL LABOUR MARKET

    Enrico Marelli; Dario Sciulli; Marcello Signorelli

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we first review the (potential and actual) role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education) in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial) labour market in order to...

  13. Wage Formation, Regional Migration and Local Labour Market Tightness

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre; Røed, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that local labour market tightness affects local wage setting as well as individuals' migration decisions. But how should we measure local labour market tightness? In this paper we show that the common practice of using the local rate of unemployment as the tightness indicator may be misplaced. Instead, we propose a human capital adjusted outflow rate from unemployment that can be computed on the basis of micro register data. This outflow rate performs better than tra...

  14. Mexico: commercialisation and the growth of a migratory labour market.

    Astorga Lira E

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the relationship between commercial farming and growth of a seasonal worker labour market in the agricultural sector in Mexico - briefly discusses trends (1950-1980) in urbanization, agricultural policy, agricultural production, agricultural employment, farm size, etc.; outlines the structure of the migrant worker labour market, recruitment and characteristics of the peasant farmer agricultural worker and impact on regional disparities. References.

  15. The Performance of the 1990s Canadian Labour Market

    Picot, Garnett; Heisz, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    There is a general sense that the 1990s labour market was unique. It has been characterized by notions such as "downsizing", "technological revolution", "the knowledge-based economy", "rising job instability", and so on. This paper provides an extensive overview of the performance of the 1990s labour market, and asks just how different it was from the 1980s. It goes on to ask if the facts are consistent with many common beliefs and explanations. The paper focuses on (a) macro-level labour mar...

  16. A PROPOSAL OF MODEL OF ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO ACTIVE LIFE OF ECONOMISTS BASED ON INTER-REGIONAL LABOUR MARKET PARTNERSHIP. STUDY CASE OF PRACTEAM PROJECT

    Chirila Lavinia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the integration of young people into the labour market has become more difficult, being accomplished in a gradual, complex and less uniform way comparatively to the years prior to the crises. The rate of youth employment is much lower than among other categories of population, and the insertion of young people on the labour market has become a difficult process, both in Romania and in the European Union, process that is characterised especially through raising the period of time passed from the moment of graduating from school to the moment of finding the first ‘significant’ workplace (for at least six months and with a length of at least 20 hours of work per week, preferably, from qualitative point of view, in accordance to the qualification obtained. In this context, in order to analyse the way in which the integration of young people into the labour market is done in Romania, the present paper makes, in the first part, a short theoretic incursion regarding the main theories referring to youth employment, transition from school to active life and, more specific, transition from higher education to employment, the main determinants of the transition from school to active life and the way in which the process is affected by the tendencies on the labour market, the ways of measurement and evaluation used up to the present etc. In the second part, the paper tries to propose a research methodology of the transition from higher education in the field of economics to employment, analyse that will be carried out in the project called „The practice of economist students. An inter-regional partnership on the labour market between universities and the business environment" (PRACTeam in the purpose of creating policy and strategy recommendations for diminishing the difficulties felt by young people in the process of transition from school to active life.

  17. Social exclusion of the young from the labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Tomić Velinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina is confronted with many challenges - economic, institutional and social. The participation of young people in education drops significantly after they turn 18, while entry into the labour market happens around 20 years of age. Unemployment mostly affects people with lower education levels, such as those with a secondary school degree or qualified workers. The youth unemployment rate, the most commonly used indicator of the disadvantages faced by young people in the labour market, is very high in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The single most significant factor affecting the labour market experiences of young people is the extensive informal economy in the country. Active Labour Market Policy for young people attempts to reduce the problems faced by young people in their attempts to find decent work once they enter the labour market. They attempt to remedy failures of the educational system and to improve the efficiency of labour market matching. The percentage of unemployed youth is of great importance because the youth are in the age when the ability and motivation for work are at their peak. Any society that excludes half of its population from the sphere of work acts against public interest.

  18. A Critique and Reframing of Personality in Labour Market Theory: Locus of Control and Labour Market Outcomes

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the theoretical arguments that underlie the literature linking personality traits to economic outcomes and provides empirical evidence indicating that labour market outcomes influence personality outcomes. Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we investigated the extent to which gender differences occur in the processes by which highly positive and negative labour market outcomes are determined and in the processes underlying the development of o...

  19. A contemporary overview labour market of Kazakhstan

    Ayhan Gençler; Recep Seymen; Arif Akbaş

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the structure of Kazakhstan's labor market and workforce development are examined in this context. Kazakhstan is rich in resources, and active because of the potential mobility of labor is a country in the world. Country gained its independence in the 90’s from the social and economic change / transformed. At the end of this process rather than the central state's economy, albeit a relatively free market economy, privatization and structural reforms are adopted and have b...

  20. Ife labour market: a Nigerian case study.

    Adeokun LA; Adepoju A; Ilori FA; Adewuyi AA

    1984-01-01

    Working paper on labour force participation of the women workers in Ife, Nigeria. Covers sex discrimination in employment, cultural factors, educational level and management attitudes. Discusses the time budget of the working mother. Bibliography and tables.

  1. Labour market specific institutions and the working conditions of labour migrants:

    Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions of...... Polish and Danish workers, it is shown that labour market institutional arrangements provide a better explanation for the differences found between the two groups than differences in individual characteristics of the migrants and the Danish workforce. In addition, the article argues that factors such as...... institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market....

  2. Women on the Arab labour market. Option becoming reality

    Górak-Sosnowska, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    The key potential of Arab economies, currently rather turning into their curse, is the human capital. According to the Arab Human Development Report 2002 there are approximately 6 million entrants yearly to the Arab labour market (UNDP 2002: 10) and the labour force is expected to grow in the next 10 years to 3,4% yearly―twice as much as in other developing regions (World Bank 2003: 3). The ‘demographic gift’―the growing number of labour force and decreasing dependency ratio, might lead to ec...

  3. Labour Market Institutions in Germany : Current Status and Ongoing Reforms

    Bothfeld, Silke

    2007-01-01

    "Although all economists agree that a major precondition for employment creation is sustainable economic growth of at least 2% per annum, they disagree about the effects of the institutional framework on the labour market: Optimistic observers stress the high performance of external trade and the highly specialized small and medium-sized companies operating at high potential. These have a well-qualified workforce, which relies on the existence of a highly differentiated system of labour marke...

  4. Skills and occupational needs: labour market forecasting systems in Italy

    CASTIGLIONI, C.; Tijdens, K.

    2014-01-01

    The development of forecasting systems for occupational needs represents, for different actors, such as enterprises, employers’ associations, trade unions, an opportunity to receive information and to anticipate labour market trends. Also, this information could be used to develop an effective vocational and educational training system aimed to guarantee more employability, to address labour policies and manage industrial relations. Starting from this theoretical framework, the paper aims to ...

  5. Women in the South African Labour Market, 1995 - 2005

    Carlene van der Westhuizen; Sumayya Goga; Morne Oosthuizen

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has found that changing policies and attitudes and improved economic performance have impacted on the labour market dynamics for women and the increased feminisation of the South African labour force since the mid-1990s has been well documented. While employment has increased more rapidly for women than for men over the period, it has been suggested that women are overrepresented in low-income, less secure employment. In addition, insufficient jobs were created to absorb the a...

  6. Rising house prices in an open labour market

    Duffy, David,; FitzGerald, John D.; Kearney, Ida

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the consequences of the recent steep rise in house prices for the openness of the Irish labour market. Specifically we look at the possible effect rising house prices may have on the migration decision. Since many immigrants are in the household formation age group, and tend to be highly skilled, we argue that the boom in house prices, by reducing the attractiveness of Ireland for potential immigrants, could reduce labour supply. Thus housing emerges as an important i...

  7. Contemporary Labour Market Policy and Poverty in South Africa

    Muzi Maziya

    1999-01-01

    The This paper outlines the recent labour market reforms in South Africa and discusses their likely impact on poverty and the working poor. Gauteng, South Africa's economic powerhouse, has long been dependent on immigration to supply its labour requirements, a phenomenon deeply rooted in the provinces early economic history and the development of mining and heavy industry. As far as possible, the analysis compared in-migrants to non-migrants and intra-Gauteng migrants in order to provide insi...

  8. Labour Market Segmentation: An Investigation into the Dutch Hospitality Industry

    Bispo, A

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality industry. The work force is a significant element in this industry for generating turnover. It is therefore vital to focus attention on the various aspects of labour to work towards a sustainable b...

  9. The Impact of Chernobyl on Health and Labour Market Performance

    Hartmut Lehmann; Jonathan Wadsworth

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. The variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive ass...

  10. LABOUR MARKET AND CORRUPTION ISSUES IN CHIANG RAI, THAILAND

    Walsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Lack of application of the rule of law in Thailand has various negative impacts on labour market and business environment. Lax policing of minimum wage legislation and unknown numbers of migrant workers contribute to depression of wages as whole and reduced incentives to add value to production. Instead, short-term competitiveness through low labour-cost manufacturing is prioritized. Although individual transactions which may be deemed corrupt are small scale in nature, they appear to be repe...

  11. Ethnic Inequalities at Labour Market Entry in Belgium and Spain

    Frank Kalter; Irena Kogan

    2002-01-01

    While the labour market integration of immigrant youth has increasingly received attention in recent years, due to the lack of appropriate data comparative studies are scarce until now and theoretical reasons for persistence of ethnic disadvantages often remain unclear. In this paper we try to enhance the understanding of ethnic inequalities making use of a new dataset made available by Eurostat, the European Union Labour Force Survey (EULFS) 2000 ad hoc module on school-to-work transitions. ...

  12. Determinants of Labour Force Participation for Selected Groups With Weak Labour Market Attachment

    Le Maire, Daniel; Scheuer, Christian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the eects of economic incentives on the labour market participation for selected groups with weak labour market attachment. We argue that the people most likely to be affected by economic incentives are recipients of socialassistance and home-working housewives. Partner...... income only seems to be exogenous to the participation decision for home-working housewives. We also estimate participationequations with own potential income gab from working, which in the case of recipients of social assistence are found to have signifcant positive effect. The elasticities fromchanging...

  13. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  14. Women’s job search propensity and selection effect in European labour markets

    Castellano, Rosalia; Punzo, Gennaro; Rocca, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the main determinants of women's job search propensity and the mechanism underlying the selection effect into labour markets. The analysis compares the European countries, sharing the lowest female activity rates, with the well-developed economies of North Europe, traditionally characterized by the highest levels of female labour force participation. The potential selection bias due to the overlap in some unobserved characteristics is addressed via a bivari...

  15. Exchange Rate Fluctuations and Immigrants' Labour Market Outcomes: New Evidence from Australian Household Panel Data

    Ha Trong Nguyen; Alan Duncan

    2015-01-01

    We present new and robust evidence that, unlike immigrants in the US, those in Australia as a whole do not reduce their yearly labour market utcomes when the local currency appreciates. While female immigrants don’t adjust their actual labour activities, they do desire to work more when the Australian dollar appreciates. By contrast, male immigrants reduce their weekly work intensity by participating less in full-time employment in response to an Australian dollar appreciation. We also presen...

  16. A contemporary overview labour market of Kazakhstan

    Ayhan Gençler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structure of Kazakhstan's labor market and workforce development are examined in this context. Kazakhstan is rich in resources, and active because of the potential mobility of labor is a country in the world. Country gained its independence in the 90’s from the social and economic change / transformed. At the end of this process rather than the central state's economy, albeit a relatively free market economy, privatization and structural reforms are adopted and have been started. A deep recession in the global economy experienced a period of Kazakhstan, of course, it also affected the world of work. Kazakhstan is not a familiar topic in modern working life enough in our country. Although it is the analysis of operational data in this context, the current labor market, workers' wages, social security and the changing profile of the characteristics of labor migration are explained.

  17. Mexican labour market performance and emigration

    Carla Pederzini

    2012-01-01

    During the last three decades, the Mexican economy has not generated enough jobs for the expanding labour force. Unemployment rate in Mexico is low, but almost one third of the labour force works in the informal sector. Migration flows from Mexico to the US have been significant in the last decade. Even though the number of Mexicans in the US has remained stable, Mexican immigration to the US dropped from 2006 to 2009. Emigration is a key employment channel for the enlarged working-age Mexica...

  18. Differences in Flexibility of Labour Markets in OECD Countries – the Topsis Method

    Agnieszka Ertman

    2011-01-01

    Flexible labour market can be defined as the market with capability to adapt to changing economic conditions so as to keep high employment rate, un-employment and inflation low and ensure continued growth in real incomes. Labour market flexibility has a significant influence on employment level in the economy. Some economists believe that higher level of protection in the labour market is accompanied with lower employment rates in the economy. Low labour market flexibility is a contemporary p...

  19. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.

  20. Equilibrium Unemployment and Investment Under Product and Labour Market Imperfections

    Kauppi , Heikki; Koskela, Erkki; Stenbacka, Rune

    2004-01-01

    The study looks at the implications of product market competition and investment for price setting, wage bargaining and thereby for equilibrium unemployment in an economy with product and labour market imperfections. We show that intensified product market competition will reduce equilibrium unemployment, whereas the effect of increased capital intensity is more complex. Higher capital intensity will decrease the equilibrium unemployment when the elasticity of substitution between capital and...

  1. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level....... Empirical evidence suggests that unemployment benefit receipt is associated with longer reemployment duration at the individual level. Furthermore, countries with more generous unemployment insurance and higher ALMP spending show a more sustainable reintegration record of previously unemployed workers....... These results point to a policy trade‐off between the well‐confirmed disincentive and locking‐in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand, and their positive effect on reemployment stability on the other hand....

  2. Informality and employment quality in Argentina : country case study on labour market segmentation

    Bertranou, Fabio; Casanova, Luis; Jiménez, Maribel; Jiménez, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    This working paper examines employment quality and labour market segmentation in Argentina. The labour market in the country is marked by heterogeneity; the rate of informal employment is high, though it diminished significantly during the 2003-2011 period.

  3. The Displacement Effect of Labour-Market Programs: Estimates from the MONASH Model

    Dixon, Peter B.; Maureen T. Rimmer

    2005-01-01

    A key question concerning labour-market programs is the extent to which they generate jobs for their target group at the expense of others. This effect is measured by displacement percentages. We describe a version of the MONASH model designed to quantify the effects of labour-market programs. Our simulation results suggests that: (1) labour-market programs can generate significant long-run increases in employment; (2) displacement percentages depend on how a labour-market program affects the...

  4. WHAT ARE THE FEMALE EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT PATTERNS ON THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET?

    ȘTELIAC NELA

    2015-01-01

    The challenges encountered by women in accessing and penetrating the labour market are undeniable realities of the present. One of the shortcomings of the labour market relates to gender differences. A significant part of these differences are caused by: the existence of a patriarchal social system; the segregation of the labour market; gender discrimination. This paper attempts to examine women’s employment and unemployment patterns on the Romanian labour market based on a series...

  5. Institutions and Performance in European Labour Markets: Taking a Fresh Look at Evidence

    Arpaia, Alfonso; Mourre, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a selective survey of the recent literature on labour market institutions and performance and offers new empirical EU-based evidence on the impact of labour market reforms on employment and labour market adjustment. While the literature traditionally treats labour market institutions as exogenous, attention shifted recently towards understanding the underlying causes of specific institutional arrangements. As a consequence, the literature highlights the great importance of...

  6. Labour market institutions in Hungary with a focus on wage and employment flexibility

    Horváth, Hedvig; Szalai, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    It is widely believed today, that the operation of the labour markets is influenced by institutional factors, affecting macroeconomic adjustment in response to shocks. In this way, labour market institutions affect both cyclical and long-term growth and inflation performance of an economy. The aim of our paper is to review the operation of Hungarian labour market institutions from the point of view of labour market flexibility and find its place in international comparison in the light of exi...

  7. Efficiency of the European labour markets: The Case of Czech Republic (A Stochastic frontier model approach)

    Němec Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This contribution aims to provide a consistent methodology to evaluate the performance of the European labour markets in the last 20 years and to reveal the most important factors influencing the efficiency of these labour markets. In particular, it focuses on the Czech labour market. Labour markets and their dynamics may be described by the standard Cobb-Douglas matching functions. Successful matches are thus treated as an output of a production process where unemployed are paired with avail...

  8. Dual Labour Market Theories And Irregular Jobs: Is There a Dualism Even in The Irregular Sector?

    Elisabetta Marzano

    2004-01-01

    The research deals with the characteristics of the irregular labour. Current literature considers that irregular labour arises because of the heavy tax burden on labour, or because of the existence of regulations which impose too many constraints on the labour market. In Italy the labour market has some effective constraints, for instance, due to firing regulations, minimum wage legislation, or to regulations on multiple job holdings (for instance it is only since last year that retired peopl...

  9. Crossing the Role of Institutional Factors in the Process of Unemployment in Regional Labour Markets of Russia in 1995-2010

    Kurzenev Vladimir A.; Perekrest Vladimir T.

    2012-01-01

    Some determinants of institutional unemployment are considered. Information and analytical technologies for labour market assessment and labour force quotation for regional labour markets are offered.

  10. Recruitment and Retention Issues in Rural Labour Markets

    de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…

  11. Vocational Trajectories within the Australian Labour Market. Research Report

    Yu, Serena; Bretherton, Tanya; Schutz, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of the first year of a three-year project entitled "Vocations: the link between post-compulsory education and the labour market." The project's aim is to research how pathways can be improved within education, within work, and between education and work. There are three strands in the project; the first strand is researching…

  12. The Relevance of Doctoral Training in Different Labour Markets

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relevance of doctoral training (thesis, coursework and generic skills) for a career in three types of labour market: academia, applied research institutes and industrial laboratories, and non-research workplaces. Data are drawn from a mail survey among PhD holders in Norway. In total, more than 40% of the respondents had…

  13. Model of Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions

    Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and…

  14. Learning about the Importance of Education for Labour Market Transitions

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…

  15. Skills and occupational needs: labour market forecasting systems in Italy

    C. Castiglioni; K. Tijdens

    2014-01-01

    The development of forecasting systems for occupational needs represents, for different actors, such as enterprises, employers’ associations, trade unions, an opportunity to receive information and to anticipate labour market trends. Also, this information could be used to develop an effective vocat

  16. Self-efficacy beliefs of youth entering the labour market

    Kot Paweł

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the psychological meaning of school-to-work transition. Transition to taking up new social roles entails numerous difficulties, and that is why young people see it as a crisis point. According to researchers one of the predictors of effective transition to the labour market is self-efficacy.

  17. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  18. Self-efficacy beliefs of youth entering the labour market

    Kot Paweł; Rożnowski Bohdan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the psychological meaning of school-to-work transition. Transition to taking up new social roles entails numerous difficulties, and that is why young people see it as a crisis point. According to researchers one of the predictors of effective transition to the labour market is self-efficacy.

  19. Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). As students…

  20. Labour Market Segmentation: An Investigation into the Dutch Hospitality Industry

    A. Bispo

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality

  1. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  2. High schools and labour market outcomes: Italian graduates

    Pozzoli, Dario

    2007-01-01

    To provide empirical evidence on differences across high school tracks in early occupational labour market outcome, I estimate how the employment probability, the time before the first job is taken up, and earnings depend on high school type, controlling for student characteristics by a propensit...

  3. LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY IN TERMS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION

    BUNEA DANIELA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies have a high dynamics because of the rapid fluctuations of macroeconomic variables and parameters. Moreover, globalization emphasises the interdependencies among national economies, increasing their production capacities but, at the same time, making them more vulnerable to external perturbations. Shocks resulting from this turmoil can be absorbed depending on the degree of macromarket flexibility: goods market, labour market and money market. This flexibility becomes even more important for the member states of some optimal currency areas (OCA because it considers both the mobility of production factors and the symmetry of business cycle transmission; i.e. the correlation of macroeconomic policies. The authors of this paper intend to analyse the situation of the internal mobility of workers as a basis for labour market flexibility.

  4. Innovations and Labour Market Institutions: An Empirical Analysis of the Italian Case in the middle 90’s.

    Luca Pieroni; Fabrizio Pompei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic panel data specification is used to assess the relationship between labour market flexibility and innovation activities by distinguishing different technological regimes of activities and geographical areas of the Italian economy. In order to estimate the previous relationship, regional patents are included as a proxy of the innovation, while job turnover and wages represent labour market indicators. The results show that higher job turnover has a significant and negat...

  5. The Labour Market Effect of Social Security in Germany

    Zhang, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between social security and laobour market in Germany and calculates the regression relation among social security expenditure,social security contribution,enterprise investment and unemployment rate.The results Indicated that the labour market has a closed relevance with social security. Reducing the social security contribution of enterprise is an important means to control the unemployment.And the proper level social security expenditure is the most...

  6. Labour Market Structure in Malaysia: Pre- and Post-Market Gender Comparison

    Chung-Khain Wye; Rahmah Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Gender inequality in Malaysian labour market can be observed through labour force participation, unemployment, occupational distribution, top management employment involving decision making, and average monthly salary. Such an inequality generally works to the disadvantage of females, notwithstanding their outperformance of educational attainment over their males’ counterparts. Case study in the ICT services subsector points to the importance of imparting employability skills among females to...

  7. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Serghei M RGULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  8. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    SERGHEI MARGULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  9. Youth Unemployment, Ageing and Regional Welfare: The Regional Labour Market Policy Response to Ageing in Sweden

    Rauhut, Daniel; Kahila, Petri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the regional labour market policy response to demographic ageing in Sweden and its consequences on the labour supply of young adults. Regions with ageing problems already experience significant problems at the labour market. The overall conclusion is that labour market policies in Sweden addressing the consequences of ageing fail to include young adults and the policies do not address regional heterogeneity regarding e.g. ageing and youth unemployment.

  10. Labour Market in Motion - Analysing Regional Flows in a Multi-Account System

    Haas, Anette; Rothe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the last years the analysis of flow figures turned out to be essential for labour market research and policy advice. The ongoing debate about how flexible is the German labour market could not been answered just analysing stock figures or turnover rates. Here we follow the useful analytical framework of transitional labour markets dealing centrally with flow figures. By developing a multi-account system (MAS) we go some steps ahead compared to indicators like job and labour turnover rates....

  11. Poles Apart? EU Enlargement and the Labour Market Outcomes of immigrants in the UK

    Drinkwater, Stephen; Eade, John; Garapich, Michal

    2006-01-01

    The UK was one of only three countries to allow migrants from accession countries to enter their labour markets more or less without restriction following EU enlargement in May 2004. Therefore, it is important to establish the characteristics and labour market performance of migrants from these countries who have subsequently entered the UK. We principally analyse Labour Force Survey data to compare the labour market outcomes of recent migrants from Poland and other accession countries to tho...

  12. How did the youth labour market situation evolve between 2012 and 2013? Second release of the KOF Youth Labour Market Index

    Pusterla, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    The KOF Youth Labour Market Index (KOF YLMI) describes the youth situation on the labour market with a multidimensional approach. Not only labour market status matter, but also working conditions, provided education and the ease of entry into the labour market is considered. Switzerland achieved in 2013 an index score of 5.66. That is a slight increase compared to the last publication of the KOF YLMI. The EU28 average was 4.60. However, while Switzerland still has the highest KOF YLMI, the la...

  13. POLISH YOUTH ON THE EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKET

    Joanna Nowakowska-Grunt; Judyta Kabus

    2014-01-01

    The starting point of this article is to attempt to analyze the current situation on the labor market in Europe. In order to characterize the European market the authors focused on the latest strategy called "Europe 2020" which aims to harmonize the functioning of the European market, to increase the competitiveness and productivity of the European economy by creating new jobs and higher standards of living. In the following part of the paper the authors present the new role of Polish univers...

  14. Adult learning, education, and the labour market inthe employability regime

    Staffan Nilsson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to draw on the research and scholarly literature to explorethe changing discourses and perspectives concerning adult learning, education, and thelabour market in the employability regime. The focus of the nalysis is a Nordic context.The dominant employability regime maintains a technical-rational perspective onlearning and employability. Education is predominantly regarded as an instrumentalpreparation for the labour market. The future demands of the labour market are largelyunknown, however, and vocational and professional training may not provide sufficientpreparation for the increasing complexities of work. Theoretical discussions have beendominated by an alleged mismatch between individual competence and thequalifications that are required in the world of work. There is no consensus regardinghow the gap should be described, explained, or bridged. New demands on educationaldesign have emerged, and ideas related to liberal education and ‘bildung’ have beenreinserted into the political agenda, offering general preparation for a wider array ofchallenges.

  15. The dual labour market theory and the informal sector in South Africa

    M. D. Uys

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper: The purpose of this paper is to revisit the dual labour market theory as far as the informal sector in South Africa is concerned. The hypothesis is that the dual labour market theory must be extended in order to be applicable to the informal sector of the South African economy. It is our view that within some informal occupations a further segmentation exists. Problem investigated: Among South Africa ’s grave socio-economic problems, unemployment is one of the most serious and intractable. An increase in informal and self-employment was experienced during the last decades. Traditional dual labour market theory maintains that jobs can be roughly divided into two groups: those with low wages, bad working conditions, unstable employment and little opportunity for advancement; and those with relatively high wages, good working conditions and opportunities for advancement. The problem that confronts researchers is that even within informal employment, further segmentation is possible. Approach: To determine whether the dualism, that described by the dual labour market theory, is also present within the informal sector itself, available data on a typical informal sector activity, namely car guarding, is analysed. This provides the evidence to achieve the objective of this paper. Findings and implications: The case study of car guards confirms that the dual labour market theory can also apply within the informal sector on the condition that it is expanded to make provision for a further segmentation of the periphery sector. This finding presents several important policy implications. A basket of policies is needed to address the problem of unemployment as effectively as possible. Value of the research: The paper provides further knowledge on informal employment in South Africa. This is an area that requires a lot of attention, given the importance of the informal sector in South Africa and Africa at large. It goes further than

  16. Gender and migration on the labour market: Additive or interacting disadvantages in Germany?

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Höhne, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Despite substantial differences in labour market attainment according to gender and migration status, gender and ethnic differences in labour market behaviour are most often studied separately. In contrast, this study describes and analyses interactions between gender, ethnic background and immigrant generation with regard to labour market participation, part-time work, and occupational status. The double comparison aims to reveal whether gender gaps in these labour market outcomes among the majority population generalise to ethnic minorities. Moreover, we ask whether variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour follows the patterns in migrants' origin countries, and whether gender gaps show signs of intergenerational assimilation. Our heterogeneous choice and OLS regressions of 2009 German Microcensus data reveal considerable variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour between East and West Germany, across ethnic groups and across generations. Intergenerational comparisons show that most ethnic minorities assimilate towards German patterns of gendered labour market attainment. PMID:23859734

  17. Labour Market Structure in Malaysia: Pre- and Post-Market Gender Comparison

    Chung-Khain Wye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality in Malaysian labour market can be observed through labour force participation, unemployment, occupational distribution, top management employment involving decision making, and average monthly salary. Such an inequality generally works to the disadvantage of females, notwithstanding their outperformance of educational attainment over their males’ counterparts. Case study in the ICT services subsector points to the importance of imparting employability skills among females to have its bearing on wagedetermination. As such, future research is expected to analyse gender wage decomposition taking into considerations of different types of labour market discrimination, occupational preferences, and gender differences in employability skills.

  18. Social Risk Management on German Labour Market

    Raluca Mihălcioiu

    2014-01-01

    Terms such as social policy and labor market policies seem not be very current. Instead, we speak more and more about risk management. Social Risk Management is a concept developed by the Word Bank. It is a tool to transfer management techniques from the operating or finance in the social and labor market policy, to support individuals, households and communities to better manage their risk. Due to poor incentive structures, inadequate insurance policies or control often remain un...

  19. THE WORLDS OF FLEXICURITY-LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN EUROPE

    Ionete Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, “flexicurity”, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled “PhD in economics at the standards

  20. Social Risk Management on German Labour Market

    Raluca Mihălcioiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as social policy and labor market policies seem not be very current. Instead, we speak more and more about risk management. Social Risk Management is a concept developed by the Word Bank. It is a tool to transfer management techniques from the operating or finance in the social and labor market policy, to support individuals, households and communities to better manage their risk. Due to poor incentive structures, inadequate insurance policies or control often remain under preventive, palliative and solidarity balancing risk management measures. This paper sets out to define the term of social risk management, describing the basic features from different perspectives and the main measures and strategies used in social risk management area. The essay considers the most discussed word of risk management as a moral opportunity to redefine the balance of responsibility and solidarity in the labor market.

  1. Skill Mismatch of Graduates in a Local Labour Market

    Enrico Marelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first review the (potential and actual role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial labour market in order to reconstruct the characteristics of the university-to-work transitions of graduates. Our results have important policy implications, since for local development it is crucial, among other things, to make the best use of all human resources and especially those with the highest educational level.

  2. Romanian Roma: An Institutional Ethnography of Labour Market Exclusion

    Janne Paulsen Breimo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roma individuals are struggling to access the formal labour market in Romania. Previous research occupied with this issue has traditionally been dominated by quantitative studies of socio-economic indicators that cling to the characteristics of the ethnic group. The study presented here, however, uses institutional ethnography as a method of social inquiry to demonstrate that this issue needs to be studied from a bottom-up perspective. The article illustrates that there are factors connected to how the system of occupational integration operates that must be taken into consideration in order to explain the difficulties Roma individuals face when trying to enter the labour market in Romania. We argue that these structural barriers create and reinforce processes of minoritising that increase marginalization and discrimination and thereby hinder work inclusion for Roma individuals.

  3. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spill-overs, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labour market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both sectors. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to the be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers....

  4. Congested interregional infrastructure, road pricing and regional labour markets

    McArthur, David Philip; Thorsen, Inge; Ubøe, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Traffic congestion and the policies to combat it have been studied extensively. However, most studies neglect the labour market impacts of congestion. Many also fail to account for the simultaneity between commuting and migration. This paper models impacts such as unemployment disparities, changes in commuting flows and changes in the flow of migrants by adopting an agent based simulation approach. This approach has the strength that it allows the simultaneous consideration of commuting, migr...

  5. Labour market transitions in Italy: a gender perspective

    Nicola Curci; Vincenzo Mariani

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates gender differences in labour market transitions in Italy. Women have a lower employment rate than men, owing to their shorter periods of employment and lower probability of entering into employment. The shorter duration of periods of employment for women is related to a higher incidence of non-permanent jobs compared with men. Italian women remain inactive longer than men, especially when inactivity is for family care reasons. Unemployed women are more likely than unemploy...

  6. The labour market and LGBT discrimination in Ireland

    Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto; Cantillon, Sara

    2010-01-01

    As recently as 1993, homosexuality was illegal in Ireland. Equality legislation prohibits both direct and indirect discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in both the private and public sectors, in work and employment. A key exception in relation to the situation of LGBT people in the labour market is the clause in the Employment Equality Act 1998, Section 37(1), which allows religious organisations, medical institutions and educational institutions an exemption on employment grounds....

  7. Workplace health promotion and labour market performance of employees

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the average effects of (firm-provided) workplace health promotion measures in form of the analysis of sickness absenteeism and health circles/courses on labour market out­comes of the firms’ employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables as well as on time-constant un...

  8. Socialized choices: Labour market behaviour of Dutch mothers

    Ruitenberg, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch mothers display diverse labour market behaviour, though typically they work part-time, making modest use of childcare. It is generally assumed that Dutch women are free to make their own choices regarding employment. This narrative of 'choice' finds fertile ground in an era of general acceptance towards concepts such as individualism and the possibility of self-agency, and in which opportunities for part-time work have been created. Within the tradition of phenomenological sociology, So...

  9. Labour Market Outcomes and Egypt’s Migration Potential

    AMER, Mona; Fargues, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Will the radical political changes Egypt has gone through since early 2011 have an impact on emigration from the country? This all depends on young Egyptian adults, who are the potential migrants of tomorrow. In order to understand the consequences of the Egyptian revolution might for migration, a questionnaire survey was conducted amongst Egyptian youth in 2013. The objective of this paper is to analyse the Egyptian labour market together with Egyptian migration to see whether changing condi...

  10. Globalisation, policy convergence and labour market: thepolitical economy of reforms

    Mahmood, Zaad

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation shows the relevance of political agency under conditions of globalisation through a sub-national comparative study of labour market reforms. The study builds upon existing literature by highlighting ‘relative autonomy’ of political actors and dynamics in determining policy and outcome. Such an assertion contradicts the purely structuralist interpretations of reform and asserts that forces of globalisation can be negotiated by domestic political actors. Base...

  11. Yes, we can: internships providing leverages in the labour market

    Patrícia Silva; Betina da Silva Lopes; Ana Isabel Melo; Elisabeth Brito; Dina Seabra; Marco Costa; Gonçalo Paiva Dias

    2014-01-01

    Facing unprecedented challenges to deal with the problem of graduate unemployment, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are increasingly concerned with the professional insertion of their graduates in the labour market and with the design of institutional mechanisms that facilitate students’ transition from higher education to work. This has been achieved, inter alia, through the creation of study programmes with internships, or several other forms of cooperative education between...

  12. Ethnic Discrimination in Germany's Labour Market: A Field Experiment

    Kaas, Leo; Manger, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies ethnic discrimination in Germany's labour market with a correspondence test. To each of 528 advertisements for student internships we send two similar applications, one with a Turkish-sounding and one with a German-sounding name. A German name raises the average probability of a callback by about 14 percent. Differential treatment is particularly strong and significant at smaller firms at which the applicant with the German name receives 24 percent more callbacks. Discrimin...

  13. Discrimination in the labour market: nationality, ethnicity and the recession

    Gillian Kingston; Frances McGinnity; Philip J O’Connell

    2015-01-01

    Previous research shows that immigrants, in common with other groups that suffer disadvantage in the labour market, are more vulnerable during recession. However, little research has focused on the impact of the Great Recession on work-related discrimination. We examine the extent to which discrimination varies across different national-ethnic groups in Ireland, and whether discrimination increased between 2004, during an economic boom, and 2010, in the midst of a severe recession. Our analys...

  14. Location decisions in a changing labour market environment

    Frank, Björn

    2003-01-01

    We study the location of various film-related services (such as camera rental, casting agencies or pyrotechnic services), the main determinant of interest being the human capital specificity. We show that firms which supply services with a lower firm specificity locate farther away from one another, and argue that it can be concluded that the "poaching" argument (fear of employees leaving for a competitor in large regional labour markets) has greater practical weight than the Marshallian labo...

  15. Labour market mobility among senior workers in Norway

    Tobro, Anne Marte Lunde

    2015-01-01

    As many developed countries, Norway has a growing elderly population and need to administer some policy change to cover the cost of the increasing number of pension recipients. One of the solutions to this problem is to give workers incentive to stay in the workforce longer. This thesis analyse the senior workers labour market mobility by studying the probability of leaving the workforce and the probability for senior workers to conduct a job change. Understanding job-to-nonemployment and job...

  16. Labour Market and Monetary Policy in South Africa

    Vincent Dadam; Nicola Viegi

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of the South African labour market on the conduct of monetary policy. Because of the weak response of wages to changes in employment, the South African Reserve Bank is confronted by an unfavourable short run unemployment-inflation trade off that complicates the implementation of the inflation targeting framework. First we provide some reduced form evidence by estimating a form of the traditional wage Phillips curve, showing the weak relationship between wage ...

  17. World inequality, globalisation, technology and labour market institutions

    20844840 - Cuyvers, Ludo; Dumont, Michel; Stojanovska, Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to assess to what extent the general trends with regard to world inequality can be explained by rising international economic integration, technological change and (labour market) institutions. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the existing literature, the stylized facts on inequality between and within nations, globalisation and technological change are reviewed, after which the empirical evidence of the impact of international trade and poverty in developi...

  18. Investigating differences between the Czech and Slovak labour market

    Němec Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This contribution reveals some structural properties and differences of the Czech and Slovak labour markets. A small search and matching model incorporated into standard DSGE model is estimated using Bayesian techniques. Two sources of rigidities were implemented: wage bargaining mechanism and "search and matching" process matching workers and firms. The results show that search and matching aspect provides satisfactory description of employment flows in both economies. Model estimates provid...

  19. Confronting Crises: Learning From Labour Markets in the Past

    Eduardo Zepeda

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis is spreading to the developing world. Even solid emerging economies are affected. IPC Working Paper 51 reviews labour markets in three Latin American countries over the past two decades and suggests how recessions affect the working poor. This One Pager looks at experiences that might guide policy options to confront the crisis. It examines two large, export-dependent countries, Chile and Mexico, and reviews two kinds of economic period: slow growth (Chile, 2000?20...

  20. EU labour market behaviour during the Great Recession

    Arpaia, Alfonso; Curci, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the labour market adjustment to the 2008-2009 recession in terms of employment, unemployment, hours worked and wages. It highlights differences in the response of employment and unemployment across countries and different socioeconomic groups. For all EU Member States, it provides evidence of the developments during the crisis of the monthly job finding and separation rates. This helps to assess whether the increase in unemployment is due to an increase of j...

  1. An Empirical Note on one Aspect of Labour Market Hysteresis

    Layton, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    One of the principal rationales for unemployment hysteresis focuses on the characterization of the labour market as consisting of insiders who possess wage negotiating power and outsiders who do not. A measure of bargaining power of insiders is overtime and this variable was found to be a significant determinant of wage inflation by Simes and Richardson (1987). Whereas their analysis dealt with aggregate national wage and overtime data, the current paper investigates the possibility that rela...

  2. Trade Liberalization and Labour Markets: Perspective from OECD Economies

    Michael Landesmann; Sebastian Leitner; Robert Stehrer

    2001-01-01

    This study looks at the relationship between trade integration and labour markets for a group of OECD economies (USA, Japan, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom). We examine particularly trade relationships between these OECD economies and different groups of 'Southern' economies Southern Europe, the advanced South East Asian economies, a larger group of developing and catching-up economies, and transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The analysis uses a disaggr...

  3. What Factors Influence Firm Perceptions of Labour Market Constraints to Growth in the MENA Region?

    Fakih, Ali; Ghazalian, Pascal L.

    2015-01-01

    Labour market constraints constitute prominent obstacles to firm development and economic growth of countries located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper aims at examining the implications of firm characteristics, national locations, and sectoral associations for the perceptions of firms concerning two basic labour market constraints: labour regulations and labour skill shortages. The empirical analysis is carried out using firm-level dataset sourced from the World B...

  4. Globalisation and Labour Markets in Boom and Crisis: The Case of Vietnam

    Chris Manning

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the global financial crisis on the Vietnam labour market against the backdrop of economic performance and labour dynamics before the crisis. The impact on labour has been milder compared with several neighbouring countries, than might have been expected for a country with Vietnam’s degree of international exposure. This can attributed to the timely stimulus package of late 2008, the tight labour market before the crisis, the competitive nature of Vietnam’s ke...

  5. Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in the Czech Republic: Evidence from Micro-data

    Huitfeldt, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The Czech labour market performance in early 1990s has widely been regarded as a success story. In particular, the Czech unemployment rate has been one of the lowest in Europe. In this paper we provide a microperspective on the Czech labour market by using data from the Czech labour force survey. We use the panel features of the labour force survey to investigate the determinants of transitions between employment, unemployment, and non-participation. The paper consists of two parts. The first...

  6. Labour Market Flexibility: Trends in Enterprises.

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Since the mid-1980s, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has carried out a number of studies on the issues of labor market flexibility under the supervision of the Manpower and Social Affairs Committee and its Working Party on Industrial Relations. While much of the previous work focused on the external forms of labor…

  7. Europe: A Labour Market without Frontiers.

    Vocational Training, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The six articles in this journal issue were all designed to provide an objective presentation of the framework within which the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) is charting a course toward establishing a common training policy and creating a single market in 1993. The first article, "Information on…

  8. The Equity Effects of Labour Market Programmes.

    Webster, Elizabeth; Johnson, David

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of data on the types of people who benefitted and lost from the provision of Australian labor market programs found that funding favors people with disadvantaged work histories and lower income. However, only 5-12 percent achieve continuing employment as a result of program participation. (JOW)

  9. Teaching Literacy in Labour Market Programs.

    National Staff Development Committee for Vocational Education and Training, Chadstone (Australia).

    Written in competency-based format, this professional development package is targeted at Australian teachers of adult English language, literacy, and numeracy working in labor market programs. The approximately 26-hour-long course aims to increase knowledge of and skills in liaising and negotiating with the Commonwealth Employment Service, labor…

  10. Towards a Sociology of Teacher Labour Markets.

    Robinson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    There is very little discussion of the structure of the teaching profession and the implications of that structure for the teacher's professional identity. A model of the teacher labor market is of importance to a theoretical understanding and to an appreciation of structural changes that face teachers in the future. (CJ)

  11. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Majlinda Mazalliu; Jeton Zogjani

    2015-01-01

    In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated ...

  12. Pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories: the role of catastrophic events.

    Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada, with whom we conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and then employed a thematic analysis that drew on concepts from life course theory to explore the mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. The participants' narratives identified processes corresponding to causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug-seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID and suggest the importance of multidimensional support to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage. PMID:26358407

  13. Recruiting abroad: The role of foreign affinity and labour market scarcity

    Bossler, Mario

    2013-01-01

    "I study the recruiting behaviour of German establishments with regard to the use of foreign labour markets. Applying instrumental variable strategies, I find foreign affinity and labour market scarcity to stimulate the use of foreign markets. Regional labour market scarcity is particularly relevant to small firms, and the effect of foreign affinity is largely driven by the share of foreigners in leading positions in large establishments. The results indicate that shortages are functional and...

  14. Central and East European Labour Markets in Transition: Developments, Causes, and Cures

    Franz, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    The main questions addressed in this paper are: First, how did labour markets in the Visegrad countries react to the breakdown of a command economy and the transformation to a market economy? Second, which way ahead is likely, or to put it differently, what should be done now to improve conditions in the labour market in these countries? A comprehensive survey of labour market developments in each country under consideration is offered at some length. Special emphasis is then put on the dynam...

  15. Analysis of Labour Market Indicators in Slovakia

    Kotulič Rastislav

    2011-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the creation of employment opportunities is the overall conditions of a country’s economy. However, this prerequisite is not the only requirement that guarantees an increase in employment. The factors that influence the rate of employment are connected with the entrepreneurial environment of a country. The entrepreneurial environment is one of the basic factors that contribute to the creation of work opportunities in a market economy. This paper points to the fact...

  16. Labour market regulation and retirement age

    Magnani, M

    2005-01-01

    Pension system and labor market reforms are widely debated issues in all industrialized countries and especially in Europe; any change over these two aspects of the Social Security System indeed, can affect heavily the functioning of the whole economy.A preminent role in this sense is played by employment protection regulation and by the mandatory retirement age; in this paper I focus on the political economy of such social policies jointly and consider the interaction between the choice over...

  17. Return to Work: Work-Based Learning and the Reintegration of Unemployed Adults into the Labour Market. Working Paper No 21

    Dehmel, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Low-qualified adults have experienced a greater rise in unemployment than any other group in Europe. What particular barriers are they facing in (re-)entering the labour market? How can VET be used in active labour market policies to help overcome these barriers? How can training programmes be designed to address the particular needs of this…

  18. Labour market inclusion and labour market exclusion among youth in Sweden: What role does immigrant background play?

    Månsson, Jonas; Delander, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of human capital variables on the probability for young people of being included in and excluded from the labour market. Of special interest is to study the causal effects of having immigrant background, controlling for other individual characteristics such as age, sex, education, being breadwinner, parental income, and parental employment. The research questions are investigated by using data from Statistics Sweden on young people’s sources an...

  19. The Role of the OECD and the EU in the Development of Labour Market Policy in the Czech Republic

    Caroline Anne de la Porte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role of the OECD through its “Jobs Strategy” and the European Union (EU through the “European Employment Strategy” in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance accompanied by a supportive in-depth qualitative analysis, while the EU has a more contextualised analysis, which is also more politicised. However, the EU’s policy is partially supported by European structural funds, while the OECD has no comparable instrument. Despite some differences in policy model and inquisitive style, both the OECD and the EU have given the same major policy recommendations over time to the Czech Republic, although the OECD has insisted more on de-regulation, whereas the EU has also emphasised worker security and anti-discrimination. In macro-economic policy, de-regulation and increasing flexibility on the labour market, the Czech Republic conforms with OECD and EU policy models and recommendations. The PES has been developed institutionally to fit both models. However, activation, shifts in expenditure from passive to active labour market policy, training and placement of the PES have not changed substantially since the Czech Republic became member of the EU, suggesting that the real impact of the OECD and the EU has been weak.

  20. Bulgarian labour mobility during the transition to a market economy

    Iskra, Beleva

    2008-01-01

    The globalisation and the intensive economic and social integration incredibly activate people’s mobility. Bulgaria has been facing migration problems with the political, economical and social transformation since 1990, which completely changed the labour mobility environment. As a result, migration flows increase significantly. This fact raises new problems as well as a need for new policies.

  1. Workplace health promotion and labour market performance of employees.

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the average effects of firm-provided workplace health promotion measures on labour market outcomes of the firms' employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables and time-constant unobserved factors. While the effects of analysing sickness absenteeism appear to be rather limited, our results suggest that health circles/courses increase tenure and job stability across various age groups. A key finding is that health circles/courses strengthen the labour force attachment of elderly employees (51-60), implying potential cost savings for public transfer schemes such as unemployment insurance or early retirement schemes. PMID:26300489

  2. Recent Developments and Probable Future Scenarios Concerning Seafarer Labour Markets

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne; Poulsen, René Taudal

    2009-01-01

      During the past 25 years, demand for seafarers has changed a great deal, due to the creation of second registers in Western Europe as well as ship register adjustments in other flag states. Concurrently, supply patterns have shifted, with new supply centres emerging in especially Asia and Eastern...... for the maritime industries. In connection with this, the follow­ing issues are covered: the age and nationality structure of the coming seafaring workforce, future scenarios concerning the provision of seafaring education, and possible future reorgani­sation of broader shore-based maritime labour...... between nations, seen in the light of the seafaring labour market situation and education issues. In the paper, distinctions between OECD, transition econ­omy and developing countries are made, when relevant....

  3. Labour market cohesion and the optimal polycentric urban region size in Belgium

    Boussauw, Kobe; van Meeteren, Michiel; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A defining feature of the spatial extent of agglomeration economies is the size and mass of the urban labour market. A larger labour market logically entails a higher potential for specialization and thus we expect a more robust regional economic performance. In Western Europe, we frequently observe that formerly independent urban labour markets have coalesced in metropolitan polycentric regions. However, such a process of urban fusion is never unambiguous and therefore discussion is rampant ...

  4. Implementation of Labour Market Regulating Factors for Entrepreneurship Development in Latvia

    Ieva Brence

    2010-01-01

    Research hypothesis - changes in the set of labour market regulating factors would promote entrepreneurship development in Latvia, however entrepreneurs are not always ready to apply such changes. The first part of the doctoral thesis is theoretical. Analysis of conceptual fundamentals on labour market flexibility and labour market regulation factors and their influence on entrepreneurship development is included, by providing more detailed analysis of minimum wage, part-time employment, a...

  5. DISCRIMINATION OF WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MARKET OF SR AND MODELS OF DISCRIMINATION

    Ján Vravec; Radovan Baèík

    2012-01-01

    IThe paper deals with the problem of women’s discrimination in the labour market. Significant differences, among women and men in the labour market, are especially in unemployment rate in reward system, and high horizontal and vertical segregation of women. The aspects of discrimination arise despite of existing legislation, which gender discrimination strictly prohibits. An analysis of arguments, consequences and models of women’s discrimination in the labour market can significantly help to...

  6. This Time It's Different? Youth Labour Markets During 'The Great Recession'

    O'Higgins, Niall

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the effects of the 'Great Recession' on young people's labour market experiences in the European Union. The paper documents some of the key characteristics of young people's labour market experiences during the current recession and then seeks to provide some explanations of these applying both cross-section and time series rolling regression models in order, in particular, to better understand the role of labour market institutions as a determining factor of differing exp...

  7. Family, Social Networks And Gender Inequalities At The Labour Market In Serbia

    Mirjana Dokmanovic; Danica Drakulic

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore links and influences between patriarchal values of families as informal social networks and gender inequalities at the labour market in Serbia. The gender analysis of the labour market shows that it has been still under the strong influence of gender roles within a family. The high rate of exclusion of women from the labour market, particularly with low education, and from well-paid jobs, is largely a consequence of patriarchal patterns within a household....

  8. The deteriorating labour market conditions and crime: An analysis of Indian states during 2001-2008

    Abraham, Vinoj

    2011-01-01

    : Incidence of crime in India has been mounting at a fast pace , especially during the last decade. Moreover, crime on body seems to be increasing in comparison to crime on property. Economics and Sociology literature on crime attributes labour market as a transmitting institution for crime. This paper is an attempt to understand the issue of crime in India as a socio-economic problem with particular reference to the Indian labour market. I argue that the poor labour market conditions in the ...

  9. Regional labour market analysis and policy evaluation: Job insecurity, flexibility and complexity. Evidence from Switzerland

    Baruffini, Moreno; Maggi, Rico

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on labour market flexibility, security and complexity. The research is divided into three chapters: two of the chapters specifically relate to perceived security, flexibility and job satisfaction, using data from the longitudinal Swiss Household Panel (SHP), while the last investigates labour market programs and their impact on a regional labour market. The first essay analyses perceptions of economic insecurity in Switzerland, during the business cycle between 2008 an...

  10. Employer perceptions of skills deficiencies in the UK labour market: a subregional analysis

    Duncan Watson; Steve Johnson; Robert Webb

    2006-01-01

    Past research on labour-market skills shortages indicates that employers report skills shortages or hard-to-fill vacancies for a variety of different reasons. Nevertheless, there is some consensus that skills-shortages analysis needs to examine such shortages within the context of the local labour market in order to understand the labour-market dynamics and structural factors that affect the propensity for unemployed people to fill ‘skills shortage’ vacancies. The traditional approach has bee...

  11. Competence Indicators in Academic Education and Early Labour Market Success of Graduates in Health Sciences

    Semeijn, J.H.; van der Velden, R.K.W.; Heijke, J.A.M.; Van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Boshuizen, H. P. A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of several educational and non-educational indicators of (aspects of) competence on short-term labour market outcomes for university graduates are estimated. The research question we address is: To what extent do indications of specific and generic competence during the educational program predict labour market outcomes? Labour market outcomes in this study pertain to employment chances and quality of the job (having a job, academic level, matching occupational doma...

  12. Labour markets in transition: balancing flexibility and security in Central and Eastern Europe

    Sandrine Cazes; Alena Nesporova

    2004-01-01

    The article, based on a recent book by the two authors, attempts to give the answer to the question whether persistently high unemployment in Central and Eastern Europe is to be attributed to the rigidity of their labour markets. After defining the concept of labour market flexibility, the article discusses the incidence of flexible forms of employment in the region. The analysis shows that Central and Eastern European labour markets have increased their flexibility, but the forms of flexibil...

  13. The impact of labour market imbalances on regional disparities in the post-crisis context

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to examine how existing imbalances in the labour market influence regions’ future development and to formulate a series of recommendations that will allow that catching up process to be done in an sustainable manner. Basically, the objective refers to the integration of the development and restructuring strategy of the labour market policy to strengthen regional competitive advantage. Our intentions is to stress the fact that between labour market imbalances and regional dispar...

  14. Effects of foreign direct investment on the performance of local labour markets - The case of Hungary

    Fazekas, Karoly

    2003-01-01

    Post transitional labour markets of the CEE countries have been characterised by marked regional differences. Since labour market differences were mainly generated by demand side factors the paper will concentrate on the spatial pattern of job creation determined mostly by the allocation decisions of foreign investors. Thus, the success or failure of local economies or local labour markets were largely determined by the attractiveness of the individual regions towards FDI. Posttransitional wi...

  15. Why Labour Market Response Differed in the Great Recession: The Impact of Institutions and Policy

    Aiginger, Karl; Horvath, Thomas; Mahringer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of labour markets during the recent crisis for 28 industrialised countries, specifically the reaction of employment and unemployment indicators relative to output changes. We construct a composite indicator for output as well as labour market performance. The determinants of cross-country differences we chose are regulation, flexicurity elements and contracts. We find a robust positive impact of labour market regulation, while the impacts of flexicurity...

  16. The Models of Estimated Development of Labour Market in the Czech Republic up to 2050

    Ondřej Nývlt

    2013-01-01

    Population ageing will considerably influence economic and social structure of the population. The labour market will change completely. The lower number of persons in productive age and the rise of proportion of older age groups will speed up ageing after 2030. The future development of labour market will face a challenge of reduction of the negative initial demographic conditions. The main problem of the labour market in the Czech Republic is the exclusion of all groups of population due to...

  17. Nordic social risk management and the challenge of EU regulation:labour market parity at risk

    Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Roumpakis, Antonios

    2012-01-01

    There has been a long-standing consensus among the employer and employee representatives to decide upon management of social risks in the coordination of labour market institutions in the Nordic countries. This consensus has been built upon the idea of parity in collective bargaining, or labour market parity, which refers to the reciprocal recognition of interests between labour market representatives and to parity-based negotiations and agreements in which a consensus can be reached. In this...

  18. How did Immigrants fare in the Irish Labour Market over the Great Recession?

    Elish Kelly; Seamus McGuinness; Philip J O'Connell; Alberto González Pandiella; David Haugh

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been undertaken to study the effects of the Great Recession on overall labour market dynamics, but less is known about the impact on immigrants and how it has evolved over the business cycle. Understanding how immigrants were affected is particularly important for Ireland given the important role migrants play in the labour market. This paper attempts to fill this gap by identifying the labour market impact of the Great Recession on immigrants compared to natives and how thi...

  19. Relationships between young people and labour market: a difficult condition in the Southern Italy

    De Santis M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying individual and family features that represent advantage or disadvantage factors in the participation of young people to labour market. In particular, the difficult condition of the Southern Italy is analysed. First, we will compare the participation of young people to labour market in Italy to the one of the main European countries. The European Union and its main countries represent a natural benchmark for the conditions of labour market in our country. Subsequ...

  20. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-01-01

    The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activis...

  1. A matter of discretion; an essay on the US labour market.

    Korver, A.

    1989-01-01

    This a study on the labour market. More in particular it is a study on the supply of labour, the modes of its formation and its internal structure and dynamics. The avowed goal of the study is to elucidate a concept of labour power in which its commodity-status is played down and its status of s

  2. Child labour: is international activism the solution or the problem?

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Through actions like product boycotts or imposing international labour standards, governments and consumer groups in rich countries put pressure on poor countries to discourage the use of child labour. But the child-labour problem in developing countries shows no sign of abating. Our research suggests that international activism may be partially to blame, because it can thwart regulation of child labour within developing countries.

  3. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

    A. K. Dubovik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.

  4. The Evolution of French and British Labour Market Segmentation : 1982-2001

    Valette, Aline

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the modification of French and British labour market segmentation from years 1980's to 2000's. Based on a multiple correspondence analysis using national labour force surveys in 1982-83 and 2001, we bring to light the evolution from a ternary structure of these markets to a fourfold division of their labour market with the appearance of a working precarious segment. The resilience of segments on the labour market is exposed in addition with the existence of nationa...

  5. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-Off

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe;

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differ......This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment...

  6. "We are like the Poles": On the ambiguous labour market position of young Icelanders

    Margrét Einarsdóttir; Jónína Einarsdóttir; Guðbjörg Linda Rafnsdóttir

    2015-01-01

    Paid work is quite common amongst young people under the age of 18 in the Western world, although most undertake flexible part-time work. Nevertheless, studies on their labour market position are rare. The aim of this article is to examine the labour market position of young people in Iceland, a high-income Nordic country. We ask about: (i) young people’s general labour market rights regarding payslips and formal work contracts; (ii) their special labour market rights, safeguarded by child la...

  7. European Integration, Labour Market Dynamics and Migration Flows

    Martinoia, Michela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has two objectives. Firstly, we wish to evaluate whether a greater economic integration has effects, and of what type, on migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe (New Member States of the EU, NMS towards the fifteen countries of the European Union (EU-15. Secondly, we wish to understand what effect the migration flows from the NMS have on the labour market of the receiving countries in the EU-15. The most suitable theoretical context that seems to summarise European labour market characteristics is that of the insider/outsider model by Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. We have modified the above mentioned model by introducing two innovations. Firstly, we constructed three measures that act as a proxy for economic integration: the Intra Regional Trade Index (IRTI, Global Trade Index (GTI and Financial Market Integration (FMI. Then we placed the three indicators into the insider/outsider model to arrive at a modified version of Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. The second innovative contribution was the introduction of an equation modelling migration flows. The creation of this equation is inspired by the neo-classical approach to migration theory (Harris-Todaro, 1970. The theoretical model, based on rational expectations, has been solved to find the equilibrium solution and the impact multipliers. We then carried out an empirical analysis, which involved estimating a Structural Vector Autoregression Model (SVAR. The aim of this estimation was to evaluate, on the one hand, the effect that greater European integration (a positive shock to the integration indicators has on migration flows, and, on the other, to measure the type of effect that migration flows could have on the labour market of the EU-15 countries, considered as a single entity. The results of our empirical evidence show that economic integration does generate significant effects on migration flows from the enlargement countries

  8. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  9. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activists in Japan have adapted their strategies to the existing national and international institutions, and changed their strategies as the processes of globalization have altered the relative power of these institutions. Section B of the paper examines the lack of influence that women labour activists have traditionally had in party and trade union politics, and how changes in these institutions are affecting the way women engage with them. Section C looks at the alternative way campaigners for women's labour rights actually organize. Section D goes on to examine the way women's groups are increasingly directing action at international bodies, and sharing information and activities with activists overseas.

  10. The State of the Labour Market in South Africa after the First Decade of Democracy

    Rulof Burger; Ingrid Woolard

    2005-01-01

    While the political transition to democratic rule in South Africa was smooth and rapid, the economic transition has been slow and difficult. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the labour market. Job creation has not matched the growing labour supply and the unemployment rate continues to rise. This paper attempts to document and identify the key trends in labour force participation, unemployment and employment so as to better understand the factors that drive the performance of the labour ...

  11. Regularities of Formation of the Labour Reimbursement Institute in the Market Economy

    Povoroznyuk Inna M.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers theoretical issues of formation of the labour reimbursement institute in the market economy. It proves that functioning of the labour reimbursement institute identifies proportions of distribution of the total amount of expenditures on labour reimbursement between different professional and qualification groups of workers. Also, functioning of the labour reimbursement institute significantly influences proportions of distribution of income between owners of the means of ...

  12. The Effect of Emigration on the Hungarian Labour Market

    Bodnár, Katalin; Szabó, Lajos Tamás

    2014-01-01

    In our analysis, we examine the effects of emigration from Hungary on the labour market and its other economic implications. Since 2008 the number of emigrants has been rising significantly faster than the previous trend, and thus it is important to assess the possible consequences of higher mobility in the Hungarian economy. We focus primarily on the effects on wages, for which it is indispensable to give an overview of the productivity effects as well. To that end, we need to gain a deeper ...

  13. Estimating Workforce Disposal in the Italian Labour Market

    Contini, Bruno; Grand, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Italy's labour market suffers from a serious pathology, in addition to the increasing precariousness of the young workforce common to all EU member countries: flows from regular employment to non-employment are very often dead-ends. A vast number of young individuals who lose their job only a few months or years after their first hire enter the ranks of the long-term unemployed or leave the workforce altogether, never to regain regular employment even after as long as twenty years. Many join ...

  14. Labour Market and Monetary Policy in South Africa

    Vincent Dadam and Nicola Viegi

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the in‡fluence of the South African labour market on the conduct of monetary policy. Because of the weak response of wages to changes in employment, the South African Reserve Bank is confronted by an unfavourable short run unemployment-in‡flation trade off that complicates the implementation of the in‡flation targeting framework. First we provide some reduced form evidence by estimating a form of the traditional wage Phillips curve, showing the weak relationship between...

  15. Australian labour market flows over the business cycle

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the behaviour of Australian labour market transition rates. Since the early 1980s the job finding rate has been significantly more volatile and pro-cyclical than the job loss rate and is strongly pro-cyclical. The economic downturns in the early 1980s and early 1990s were associated with an up to 10 percentage point decline in the average job finding rate. In comparison, the recent economic downturn was associated with a less significant decline in the job finding rate....

  16. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during the experience of unemployment. Within a search and matching model, we show that all natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spillovers, inducing employment increases in the other sector. Discrimination may induce immigrants to train more or less than natives, depending on the sector where it is present. Welfare tends to be most negatively affected by discrimination among highproductivity workers....

  17. Unemployment duration, job search and labour market segmentation. Evidence from urban Ethiopia

    Serneels, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Although it is a common theoretical assumption that the chances to find a job fall with time in unemployment, this is not systematically confirmed by empirical evidence, and there is no evidence for developing countries. We develop a framework that allows us to test the four major explanations why we may observe non-negative duration dependence while genuine duration dependence is negative: financial support for the unemployed, active labour market policies, a change in the economy over time,...

  18. Explaining whistle blowing processes in the Norwegian labour market: Between individual power resources and institutional arrangements

    Skivenes, Marit; Trygstad, Sissel Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the explanatory forces of power resources and institutional factors on whistle blowing activity, its effectiveness and reactions. The authors analyse survey material of 6000 Norwegian employees across sectors and industries, and find that individual power resources have little impact, but the organizational power resources of positions, and institutional factors matter. Departing from a Norwegian labour market model, this is a result that encourages conti...

  19. The political logic of labour market reforms and popular images of target groups

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2008-01-01

    Even though the shift from ‘passive' to ‘active' labour market policy exhibit large cross-national variations, they all seem to share two common characteristics; 1) the first group exposed to the new policies and the group exposed to the harshest policies was young people on social assistance and...... theoretical explanation for the different popular images of target groups and 2) by showing - using a national Australian sample - that these general popular images influence the way the public wants ‘active' labour market policy to be conducted.......Even though the shift from ‘passive' to ‘active' labour market policy exhibit large cross-national variations, they all seem to share two common characteristics; 1) the first group exposed to the new policies and the group exposed to the harshest policies was young people on social assistance and 2......) as the target group gradually came to include ‘ordinary' unemployed, most countries made exceptions for the oldest unemployed. The article argues that this striking policy convergence has to do with the public perception of the target groups. The article substantiates this argument 1) by giving a...

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF THE LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA’S WEST REGION

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, the population of the West Region has experienced a decline, under the mixed influence of the different level of the natural growth, domestic migration flows and intense external migration. The demographic and economic effects of the reduced young population will be felt in time and will lead to changes in subpopulations (school population, fertile age population, employable population. The effects of the demographic aging process upon the development of the economic and social life have been felt after 2005, when the generations born after 1990 joined the employable population. The transition to the market economy has had a strong impact on the characteristics of the labour market, causing significant changes in the size and structure of the main labour force indicators (activity rate, employment rate, unemployment rate.

  1. THE ROLE OF WORK AND LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY IN WORKING LIFE PROLONGATION: CASE SLOVENIA

    Klemen, SIROK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the premise that the prolongation of working life presents an adequate approach to address the fast approaching challenges of population ageing, the paper presents labour market outcomes of older workers in Slovenia in order to explore the role of social system and labour market flexibility in retirement behaviour. By applying bivariate graphic analysis and series of logistic models, paper finds that decisions of older workers (aged 50 - 69 of whether to retire or to continue working up to legal retirement age is being predominately shaped by the pension system parameters. Economic activity beyond this age (or when retired on the other hand predominately correlates with flexible work arrangements and work motivation. Thus, the future policies in Slovenia aiming to prolong working careers within formal or informal sector should simultaneously do both; change pension system parameters and significantly expand the system flexibility stimulating willing and capable elderly to continue working within the formal sector.

  2. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective*

    Dr. Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is infl uenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs infl uence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the fi rst two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to countryspecifi c factors and can quantify the relative impact of specifi c socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  3. Sex inequality in an African urban labour market: the case of accra- tema.

    Date-Bah E

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper comprising a case study of unequal opportunity in the urban area labour market in Accra-Tema, Ghana, with particular reference to sex discrimination and woman worker labour market segmentation - examines the labour force participation of women, their occupational status, educational level, marital status, family size and background, child care arrangements, family planning, etc., and discusses management attitudes, employees attitudes and behaviour, and trade un...

  4. Labour Market Assimilation and Over Education: The Case of Immigrant Workers in Italy

    Dell'Aringa, C; Pagani, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the assimilation of immigrants into the Italian labour market by using over-education as an indicator of labour market performance. The analysis is based on data taken from the Italian Labour Force Survey (LFS) for the period between 2005 and 2007. Distinguishing between the effect of human capital acquired abroad and domestically on over-education, we aim at finding indirect evidence on the increase in skill transferability over time. We find that ...

  5. Effects of migration flows on the host country labour market following the 2004 EU enlargement

    Peković Drinka

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of migration flows on unemployment, employment probabilities and native wages. The analysis contains the evaluation of migration effects of labour from Central and Eastern European countries which became European Union member states in 2004, on old member's labour market. Particular emphasis was placed on evidence of the migration flows impact from the new EU member states on the labour market performances in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the countries ...

  6. Public Works as a Response to Labour Market Failure in South Africa

    Anna McCord

    2002-01-01

    Unemployment has been rising in South Africa for the last three decades, leading to official unemployment rates of 26.4% (37% if the broad definition is used). This implies a jobless total of 7 million, with more than 40% of the rural population unemployed, and the development of a growing pool of workers who are excluded from the labour market. The South African economy is facing labour market failure, with labour supply increasingly outstripping demand. If the economy continues on its curre...

  7. The scramble for Africans: demography, globalisation and Africa’s informal labour markets

    Meagher, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Images of an 'African Boom' have presented us with labour markets full of dynamic potential: a declining dependency ratio, low levels of unemployment, and a vibrant middle class. This buoyant view of African labour markets conceals a less encouraging reality of catastrophic youth unemployment and expanding informality, creating a 'youth bulge' that is more of a threat than an opportunity. How does the continent with the largest share of informal labour in the world become a beacon of prosperi...

  8. Labour Market Rigidities and Environmental Tax Reforms: Welfare Effects of Different Regimes

    Bye, Brita

    1998-01-01

    The working of the labour market is important for the total welfare effects of tax reforms. This paper analyses, by using a computable general equilibrium model for the Norwegian economy, how different assumptions about labour mobility between industries and wage formation influence the non-environmental welfare effects of an environmental tax reform. Three different alternatives are analysed; competitive labour market, immobility and wage rigidity, and wage formation through union wage barga...

  9. The Role of the OECD and the EU in the Development of Labour Market Policy in the Czech Republic

    Porte, Caroline de la

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES...... and inquisitive style, both the OECD and the EU have given the same major policy recommendations over time to the Czech Republic, although the OECD has insisted more on de-regulation, whereas the EU has also emphasised worker security and anti-discrimination. In macro-economic policy, de-regulation and increasing...

  10. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  11. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  12. Vocational Education and Training and Transitions into the Labour Market of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Fasching, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…

  13. Navigating Difficult Waters: Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions. Research Paper No 42

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…

  14. Labour Market Developments and Their Significance for VET in Germany: An Overview

    Ebner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The German labour market has seen substantial structural changes, especially over the past decades: there has been a major shift in labour market policy, the service industry is booming and skills requirements have changed dramatically. This article discusses these trends, offering an empirical analysis of the extent to which the German dual VET…

  15. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2009/10-2011/12 Service Plan Update

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…

  16. Learning to Adapt: Does Returning to Education Improve Labour Market Outcomes?

    Chesters, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The transition into a post-industrial economy changed the nature of the Australian labour market extinguishing jobs in traditional industries and creating jobs in new industries. Workers displaced from the manufacturing sector and women seeking to re-enter the labour market after taking time out for family reasons need to retrain in order to…

  17. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  18. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor

  19. Graduate Employability and Student Attitudes and Orientations to the Labour Market

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the way students, making the transition from higher education into the labour market, construct, understand and begin to manage their employability. It draws upon a qualitative study of 53 final-year undergraduates in a pre-1992 university in the UK. It firstly explores students' perceptions of the current labour market for…

  20. Social Predictors of Unsuccessful Entrance into the Labour Market--A Socialization Process Perspective

    Ek, Ellen; Sovio, Ulla; Remes, Jouko; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2005-01-01

    Social determinants over the life course, including childhood family characteristics, were studied in predicting unsuccessful entrance into the labour market at the age of 31 years. Among men, unsuccessful entrance into the labour market was predicted prospectively by the mother's receptive attitude towards receiving social aid and contentment…

  1. Ten years of applied labour market research at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences Groningen

    Lieshout, Harm van

    2014-01-01

    Opening chapter of the English version of the book 'Energieke Arbeid' published by the Centre of Applied Labour Market Research and Innovation (durch abbreviation: KCA) to celebrate the 10th anniversary of applied labour market research at Hanze University of Applied Sciences. This first chapter takes a brief look back at the development of KCA over the past ten years.

  2. Application of New Instruments to Increase Effectiveness of Implementation of Social Policies on Labour Market in Bulgaria

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, public employment services face a number of urgent tasks as raising the employment rate and reducing the number of vacant jobs for which is difficult to find enough qualified workers. New realities on labour market and dynamic environment require adequate actions, rational and timely decision making and optimization of work. Dynamic changes in social environment impacting labour markets and activities of public employment services impose various tasks which implementation should be carefully planned, organized and controlled. To achieve that public employment services should take a more comprehensive look at the demand and supply of labour, considering the numerous transitions taking place constantly on the labour market and people's personal development. Improving processes and the quality of the administrative services in the Bulgarian employment agency is seen as a prerequisite for effective implementation of employment policies. The study presents opportunities for improving the quality of services offered in the Directorates "Labour Office" in the Republic of Bulgaria by introducing a process model and improvements in the capacity and efficiency of work in the field of labour mediation.

  3. WHAT ARE THE FEMALE EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT PATTERNS ON THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET?

    ȘTELIAC NELA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges encountered by women in accessing and penetrating the labour market are undeniable realities of the present. One of the shortcomings of the labour market relates to gender differences. A significant part of these differences are caused by: the existence of a patriarchal social system; the segregation of the labour market; gender discrimination. This paper attempts to examine women’s employment and unemployment patterns on the Romanian labour market based on a series of statistical data that has been collected and reviewed, while highlighting the main factors that shape the current situation of the Romanian labour market. As regards the employment rate, the gender difference in Romania falls within the limits of that recorded for most EU countries (the employment rate is higher for the male than female population. On the contrary, the unemployment rate is reversed (higher unemployment rate in male than female population.

  4. A matter of discretion; an essay on the US labour market.

    Korver, A.

    1989-01-01

    This a study on the labour market. More in particular it is a study on the supply of labour, the modes of its formation and its internal structure and dynamics. The avowed goal of the study is to elucidate a concept of labour power in which its commodity-status is played down and its status of submission highlighted. In consequence, next to market forces as such, the quality of citizenship, the legal codification of the employee status, and the nature of the labour contract are treated as key...

  5. The Models of Estimated Development of Labour Market in the Czech Republic up to 2050

    Ondřej Nývlt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing will considerably influence economic and social structure of the population. The labour market will change completely. The lower number of persons in productive age and the rise of proportion of older age groups will speed up ageing after 2030. The future development of labour market will face a challenge of reduction of the negative initial demographic conditions. The main problem of the labour market in the Czech Republic is the exclusion of all groups of population due to the lack of flexible jobs, mainly part-time jobs (for example students, mothers with children and elderly people. The analysis shows a possible way of measuring these reserves on the labour market. The comparison with labour indicators (mainly specific em­ployment rates by gender and age of other European countries is the aim of this approach. This offers a pos­sibility to construct the scenarios of the future development in the Czech Republic.

  6. Effects of energy conservation measures on the German labour market

    In these times of rising unemployment, the effects of energy-political measures on the labour market should be scrutinized thoroughly. In addition, the structural effects on the various branches of economy ought to be investigated as well. This contribution first discusses the interdependences between energy conservation measures and the national economy in general. It then proceeds to investigate the model approaches which may be employed for an empirical analysis of these mechanisms. The fourth section investigates the economic effects of energy conservaton from an aggregated point of view and presents the empirical results of a comprehensive study. This is followed by a presentation of the sectoral effects based on the same study. The contribution closes by taking stock of the political conclusion that can be drawn from these analyses for improving energy conservation concepts. (orig)

  7. Labour market monitoring and employment policy : a study of Indonesia.

    Godfrey, M.

    1993-01-01

    Criticizes the standard international definition of unemployment as being too restrictive to measure accurately unemployment in labour- surplus economies. Using Indonesia as a basis, proposes a definition which is based on trends in real wages which aims to reflect the real extent of labour surplus. Using this latter definition recommends incentives-oriented employment strategies which are designed to increase the demand for labour or to affect labour supply. Focuses on the period from 1976 t...

  8. Labour Market in the Ústecký Region:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Ústecký Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  9. Labour Market in the Olomoucký Region:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Olomoucký Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  10. Labour Market in the Jihomoravský Region:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Jihomoravský Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  11. Labour Market in the Liberecký Region:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Liberecký Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  12. Labour Market in the Moravskoslezský Region:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Moravskoslezský Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  13. Labour Market in the Pardubický Region:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Pardubický Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  14. Labour Market in the Karlovarský Region:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Karlovarský Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  15. Labour Market in the Region Vysočina:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příleţitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Region Vysočina. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  16. Unionised Labour Market, Unemployment Allowances, Productive Public Expenditure and Endogenous Growth

    Bhattacharyya, Chandril; Gupta, Manash Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with special focus on the role of unionized labour market and on the interaction between the tax financed productive public expenditure and unemployment benefit policy of the government. We incorporate a ‘Managerial’ labour union in an otherwise identical Barro (1990) model; and use both ‘Efficient Bargaining’ model and ‘Right to Manage’ model to solve the negotiation problem between a labour union and an employers’ association. Proper...

  17. From a source of weakness to a tower of strength? The changing German labour market

    Herzog-Stein, Alexander; Lindner, Fabian; Sturn, Simon; van Treeck, Till

    2010-01-01

    Despite the biggest economic slump in Germany since the Second World War, employment did not decrease. In other European countries, which have even been hit less hard, employment started to decrease significantly. This 'employment miracle' is a result of the high internal flexibility of the German labour market, which resulted in a strong reduction of average working time in the downturn, and labour-hoarding by employers. Cyclical working time reduction saved some 1.1 million jobs, labour hoa...

  18. The impact of institutions on the employment performance in European labour markets

    Herbert S. Buscher; Dreger, Christian; Ramos, Raúl; Suriñach, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of institutions for labour market performance across European countries. As participation rates have been rather stable over the past, the unemployment problem is mainly caused by shortages in labour demand. Labour demand is expressed by its structural parameters, such as the elasticities of employment to output and factor prices. Institutional variables include employment protection legislation, the structure of wage bargaining, measures describing the tax an...

  19. Using Firm-Level Data to Assess Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Labour Market

    Borowczyk Martins, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. We identify and measure gender wage discrimination from firm-level data using a labour index decomposition pioneered by Hellerstein and Neumark (1995), which allows us to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender labour costs differential. We take advantage of the panel structure of the...

  20. The costs of climate policies in a second best world with labour market imperfections

    This article explores the critical role of labour market imperfections in climate stabilisation costs formation. To do so, we use a dynamic recursive energy-economy model that represents a second best world with market imperfections and short-run adjustments constraints along a long-term growth path. We show that the degree of rigidity of the labour markets is a central parameter and we conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis of the model results to this parameter. When labour markets are represented as highly flexible, the model results are in the usual range of existing literature, i.e. less than 2% GDP losses in 2030 for a stabilisation target at 450 ppm CO2 equivalent, But when labour markets rigidities are accounted for, mitigation costs increase dramatically. In a second time, the article identifies accompanying measures, namely labour subsidies, which guarantees against the risk of large stabilisation costs in the case of high rigidities of the labour markets. That vision complements the usual view that mitigation is a long-term matter that depends on technology, innovation, investment and behavioural change. Here we add the warning that mitigation is also a shorter-term issue and a matter of transition on the labour market. (authors)

  1. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia: Wage premiums and segmentation

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Peter Gibbon

    2014-01-01

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous sw...

  2. Youths on labour market.Features. Particularities. Pro-mobility factors for graduates. Elements of a balanced policy for labour migration

    Valentina VASILE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The youths’ labour market, and especially insertion employment has a series of particularities defined by aspects such as: flexibility, efficient employment, interest for career but also informal employment, external mobility, including brain drain, segmentation, employment precariousness, income disadvantages, etc. Therefore, also the labour market policy and particularly managing labour mobility especially through the economic and social effects that might be triggered on the local labour market in the origin country, presents a special importance under the conditions of the economic turnaround stage, by promoting new and sustainable jobs, based on knowledge and competences. In the present paper an analysis is made about the youths’ labour market features, and the outcomes of an empirical analysis about graduates’ migration propensity are presented. Suggestions are made for developing a balanced policy for youths’ labour mobility to the benefit of the country of origin.

  3. The Impact of the Reform of the Italian Higher Education System on the Labour Market for Young Graduates

    Potestio, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of a reform of the higher education system aimed at stimulating employability and faster access to the labour market for Italian graduates. Using the Taylor formula, the evolution of the employment rates has been followed through the movements and interaction of activity and unemployment rates. The progress…

  4. A network analytical approach to the study of labour market mobility

    Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    (RR), which enable us to identify clusters of inter-mobile categories. We apply the method to data of the labour market mobility in Denmark 2000-2007 and demonstrate how this new method can overcome some long standing obstacles to the advance of labour market segmentation theory: Instead of the...... typical theory driven definition of the labour market segments, the use of social network analysis enable a data driven definition of the segments based on the direct observation of mobility between job-positions, which reveals a number of new findings....

  5. The formation of a new transnational labour market: Polish labour migration to Vienna in the 1990s

    Kohlbacher, Josef; Reeger, Ursula

    1998-01-01

    After the fall of the Iron Curtain Austria's position within the framework of Europe's migration league table shifted from a marginal one to that of an appealing "Gateway to the Golden West" with a strong attraction for migrants. So it is not surprising that the inflow of labour force from Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary was growing during the 1990s. This has led to the formation of a new transnational labour market which includes the eastern regions of Austria and the countr...

  6. Exposure to Global Markets, Internal Labour Markets, and Worker Compensation: Evidence from Canadian Microdata

    Heather Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address two bodies of sociological research: the effects of globalization and theories of pay. Most sociological writings on globalization emphasize its negative consequences. Most sociological writings on pay allow no role for productivity but, rather, assert the importance of power in the production of labour market outcomes. In this paper we examine the effects of threeforms of globalization — exporting, foreign ownership, and outsourcing — and include in our analysis institutional features of organizations typically associated with worker power. Using the rich data available in the Workplace and Employee Survey we find: i pay tends to be higher in workplaces that export and are foreign owned; ii employees in more productive workplaces are paid more; iii pay is higher where internal labour markets are present; and iv treating productivityand power as alternative explanations for pay differentials is a mistake.

  7. The Relationship between Higher Education and Labour Market in Greece: The Weakest Link?

    Livanos, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    The high level of graduate unemployment, even though it is acknowledged as one of the most distinctive characteristics of the Greek labour market, it has not attracted enough attention in the academic literature. This paper utilizes micro-data from the Labour Force Survey in order to investigate how the employment situation of young (aged 35 and…

  8. Distribution of responsibility for social security and labour market policy. - Country report: The Netherlands

    T. Schils

    2007-01-01

    High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although the

  9. Distribution of responsibility for social security and labour market policy. - Country report: Belgium

    J. De Deken

    2007-01-01

    High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although the

  10. Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market

    Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…

  11. Exposure to Global Markets, Internal Labour Markets, and Worker Compensation: Evidence from Canadian Microdata

    Heather Zhang; Michael Smith

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address two bodies of sociological research: the effects of globalization and theories of pay. Most sociological writings on globalization emphasize its negative consequences. Most sociological writings on pay allow no role for productivity but, rather, assert the importance of power in the production of labour market outcomes. In this paper we examine the effects of threeforms of globalization — exporting, foreign ownership, and outsourcing — and include in our analysis inst...

  12. Migration in OECD countries: Labour Market Impact and Integration Issues. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 562

    Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…

  13. Analysis of the Level of Development of the Socio-labour Sphere of Ukrainian Regions

    Bibikova Viktoriia V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article is the study of the level of development of the socio-labour sphere of Ukrainian regions. In order to achieve the goal, the article develops a complex scorecard, which takes into account all elements of the socio-labour sphere (socio-labour relations, labour market system of labour reimbursement, social accompaniment of labour activity, professional development of economically active population, level and quality of labour life, safety and security of labour). On the b...

  14. Male and Female Graduates in the Canadian Labour Market.

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1992-01-01

    Explores differences in labor market experiences between male and female journalism graduates (from 1976, 1982, and 1986) in Canada. Investigates occupations entered after graduation, income, time spent in various labor market activities, and job and salary satisfaction. Finds minimal gender-based differences. (SR)

  15. The Impact of Ireland's Recession on the Labour Market Outcomes of its Immigrants

    Barrett, Alan; Kelly, Elish

    2010-01-01

    In the mid 2000s Ireland experienced a large inflow of immigrants, partly in response to strong economic growth but also in response to its decision to allow full access to its labour market when EU expansion occurred in May 2004. Between 2004 and 2007, the proportion of non-nationals living in Ireland almost doubled, increasing from 7.7 to 13.1 percent. Between 2008 and 2009, Ireland experienced one of the most acute downturns in economic activity in the industrialised world, with a cumulati...

  16. THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN EXPLAINING YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IMBALANCES IN CEE COUNTRIES

    DIMIAN, Gina Cristina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of youth labour market performances and their influence on the future economic and social development of a country. The objectives refer to the assessment of demographic and labour market trends for young people, the analysis of the factors responsible for increasing youth unemployment and for the differences between skilled and unskilled young people concerning unemployment rates. To achieve the paper’s objectives several statistical and econometric models (descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis have been used. The main interest was to look for the key driver of youth labour market sustainable performances. The degree of originality is given by our choice to analyse youth labour market dynamics from an interconnected perspective (demographic trends, youth unemployment, education and to apply the model for 10 CEE countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia in order to compare their performances.

  17. Crisis and recovery : labour market impact on women and men. Report on Ireland

    Barry, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    National Expert assessment of Crisis and Recovery in Ireland - Labour Market Impact on Women and Men commissioned by and presented to the EU Directorate General Employment and Social Affairs, Unit G1 “Equality between women and men”.

  18. The role of employment support centers of controlling local labour market

    SULTANOV JASUR AMINBAYEVICH; CHUPONOV SANAT OTANAZAROVICH

    2015-01-01

    In this issue there were analyzed the features and directions of controlling local labour market in Khorezm region of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the role of employment support centers at this process.

  19. Education System, Labour Market and Education System Graduates Employment in Romania

    Adina Popovici (Bărbulescu)

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our paper is to highlight and analyse certain aspects related to the education system, labour market and education system graduates employment in Romania. It starts by pointing out the importance of education and some of the transformations the Romanian education system has undertaken after 1989 and during the process of passage to the Bologna system. It then focuses on the Romanian labour market and education system graduates employment. We conclude that the education system...

  20. The emergence of new uses for rural spaces and interrelations of rural and urban labour markets

    Dax, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    38th Congress of the European Regional Science Association 28 August ? 1 September 1998 in Vienna Europe quo vadis? ? Regional question at the Turn of the Century Topic: E: Poverty, Labour Markets and Migrations The emergence of new uses for rural spaces and interrelations of rural and urban labour markets (Abstract) by Thomas Dax, Bundesanstalt fur Bergbauernfragen The former rural-urban dichotomy has been rejected be recent analyses of economic performance of rural areas. Much of this new r...

  1. THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CZECH LABOUR MARKET AFTER THE 2004 EU ENLARGEMENT

    Strielkowski Wadim; Hněvkovský Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether there has been a significant change in the performance of the Czech labour market after the Czech Republic’s EU Accession in May 2004. We analyse methodological changes of measuring unemployment caused by inevitable legislative adjustments and follow the development of the Czech labour market and the inflows of foreign workers to the Czech Republic over the past two decades. Our results show that the EU Accession resulted in simplifying foreigners’ access to ...

  2. The long-run labour market consequences of teenage motherhood in Britain

    Chevalier, Arnaud; Viitanen, Tarja K.

    2002-01-01

    Common wisdom states that teenage childbearing reduces schooling, labour market experience and adult wages. However, the decisions to be a teenage mother, to quit school, and be less attached to the labour market might all stem from some personal or family characteristics. Using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), we find that in Britain teenage childbearing decreases the probability of post-16 schooling by 12% to 24%. Employment experience is reduced by up to three years, and the ad...

  3. Labour market outcomes of education: Evidence for selected non-OECD countries

    Michaelowa, Katharina; Waller, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Based on recent data collected by the UNESCO Institute of Statistics and the OECD in the context of their joint World Education Indicators project, labour market outcomes of education can be reassessed for selected non-OECD countries (Brazil, Chile, Indonesia, Malaysia, Peru, Thailand and Uruguay) integrating particularly interesting characteristics of developing country labour markets such as high underemployment and informal sector employment. These specific data, available by level of educ...

  4. COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF GENDER EQUALITY ON THE LABOUR MARKETS OF ROMANIA AND EU28

    Daniela , PAŞNICU

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the employment target set in the Europe 2020 Strategy is necessary that women's potential and talent to be used optimally. Increasing employment for both men and women is the main way to achieve autonomy, financial independence and poverty reduction. This paper presents a comparative statistical analysis of gender equality on the labour markets of Romania and EU28 based on official statistics records and specific key labour market indicators. The aim was to highlight the gender gap...

  5. Heterogeneity across Immigrants in the Spanish Labour Market: Advantage and Disadvantage

    Catia Nicodemo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the diferences that immigrants have in the Spanish labour market. Immigrants in Spain come from a diversity of continents (Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, Asia, etc.), and there are substantial diferences in characteristics not only among continents but also among countries in each continent. Using a quantile regression method of decomposition we estimate these diferences that are reflected in the labour market and in particular are mirrored in t...

  6. Returns to Race: Labour Market Discrimination in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Rulof Burger; Rachel Jafta

    2006-01-01

    This paper empirically assesses the impact of post-1994 policy making on racial discrimination in the South African labour market. The post-apartheid government has implemented a series of remedial measures, including an ambitious set of black empowerment and affirmative action policies. The first part of the paper gives an overview of the South African labour market post-1994 and the most important legislation, regulations and other measures aimed at redressing the inequalities of the past. ...

  7. Information and communication technologies and skill upgrading: The role of internal vs. external labour markets

    Behaghel, Luc; Caroli, Eve; Walkowiak, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Following the adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT), firms are likely to face increasing skill requirements. They may react either by training or hiring the new skills, or by a combination of both. We first show that ICT are indeed skill biased and we then assess the relative importance of external and internal labour market strategies. We show that skill upgrading following ICT adoption takes place mostly through internal labour markets adjustments. The introduction of...

  8. Reverse assimilation? Immigrants in the Canadian labour market during the Great Depression

    Inwood, Kris; Minns, Chris; Summerfield, Fraser

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Canadian Census data from 1911 to 1931 to trace the labour market assimilation of immigrants up to the onset of the Great Depression. We find that substantial earnings convergence between 1911 and 1921 was reversed between 1921 and 1931, with immigrants from Continental Europe experiencing a sharp decline in earnings relative to the native-born. The effect of Depression labour market conditions were particularly pronounced among older immigrants with long tenures in Canada.

  9. Labour Market Flexibility and EMU Sustainability: The Effects of the French Law on Working Time Reduction

    Dennis Kredler

    2003-01-01

    Europe currently faces two major labour market issues relevant for EMU. Firstly, there is a need to bring down the relatively high unemployment rate to avoid a shift in the political preferences in some member countries away from price stability to employment-creating but inflationary monetary policy. Secondly, there is a need for greater flexibility in the labour markets, which national governments have been reluctant to introduce in the face of strong political opposition. Recent developmen...

  10. Youth labour markets in Spain: education, training and crowding-out

    Dolado, Juan José; Felgueroso, Florentino; Jimeno, Juan F.

    1999-01-01

    The stylised facts describing the poor performance of the youth labour market in Spain over the last two decades, entailing high unemployment rates for both higher and lower educated workers, over-education and low intensity of on-the-job training, are explained through a simple matching model where higher educated workers crowd-out lower educated ones from their traditional entry jobs. In this model, a combination of rigid labour market institutions and an increase in the relative supply of ...

  11. The influence of previous labour market experiences on subsequent job tenure

    José María Arranz; Carlos García-Serrano

    2004-01-01

    . The aim of this investigation is to analyse the influence of individual’s previous labour market experiences on the duration of subsequent job matches in the Spanish labour market. The study draws on a sample of workers extracted from a Spanish administrative dataset (covering the 1980s and the 1990s). We find evidence on the existence of a scarring effect: the longer the time spent in nonemployment since previous job separation, the shorter the duration of subsequent re-employment relation...

  12. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the United Kingdom's Labour Market: A Field Experiment

    Drydakis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Deviations from heteronormativity affect labour market dynamics. Hierarchies of sexual orientation can result in job dismissals, wage discrimination, and the failure to promote gay and lesbian individuals to top ranks. In this paper, I report on a field experiment (144 job-seekers and their correspondence with 5,549 firms) that tested the extent to which sexual orientation affects the labour market outcomes of gay and lesbian job-seekers in the United Kingdom. Their minority sexual orientatio...

  13. Effects of Immigration on Labour Markets and Government Budgets - An Overview

    Leibfritz, Willi; O'Brien, Paul; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides an overview on recent trends of immigration in OECD countries and on the possible effects of immigration on labour markets and government budgets. It also discusses migration policies from an economic point of view. By bringing together a bulk of international literature on labour market and fiscal effects of migration in a systematic way it provides a framework for assessing the economic effects of migration and improving the knowledge base for migration policies.

  14. Gender in entrepreneurship in the transformed CEE labour markets. The case of the Czech Republic

    Křížková, Alena

    Covilhã, Brussel: EIASM, 2008 - (Leitão, J.; Raposo, M.), s. 1-19 ISBN 978-989-654-001-2. [Research in entrepreneurship and small business. Covilhã (PT), 20.11.2008-21.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Gender in entrepreneurship * CEE labour market s * gender inequality in the labour market Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  15. Unequal itineraries for graduates : a typology of entrance into labour market

    Marques, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    In the transition from higher education to the labour market, the critical correspondence between qualification and first job, as well as precariousness and/ or unemployment experiences has been a crucial topic of understanding of labour market as one of the main facets of social and socio-economic insecurity and risks in contemporary European societies. In this paper we intend to contribute to the debate on unpredictable itineraries of professional integration of graduates from Higher Educat...

  16. Is the German apprenticeship system a panacea for the US labour market?

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Thomas J. Kane

    1995-01-01

    Advocates of apprenticeship programmes often argue as if it is simply a matter of historical accident that such investment by US firms has been hindered. This paper explores the structure of incentives underpinning the German system of apprenticeship training. First, we describe three characteristics of the German labour market that might lead firms to accept part of the cost of general training, even in the face of worker turnover. In the second part of the paper, we compare labour market ou...

  17. The impact of firing costs on turnover and unemployment: Evidence from the Colombian labour market reform

    Adriana D. Kugler

    1999-01-01

    Reductions in firing costs are often advocated as a way of increasing the dynamism of labour markets in both developed and less developed countries. Evidence from Europe and the U.S. on the impact of firing costs has, however, been mixed. Moreover, legislative changes both in Europe and the U.S. have been limited. This paper, instead, examines the impact of the Colombian Labour Market Reform of 1990, which substantially reduced dismissal costs. I estimate the incidence ...

  18. Firm-Sponsored General Training in Frictional Labour Markets : An Empirical Analysis for Switzerland

    Gerfin, Michael

    2004-01-01

    According to the classical human capital theory general training is entirely financed by workers. This prediction is at odds with the empirical evidence. This observation inspired new theoretical models of training in frictional labour market. These frictions create incentives for firms to invest in general training. This paper tries to identify the sources of frictions in the Swiss labour market. The results indicate that internal wage floors may play an important role, especially for traini...

  19. Peripheralizing Core Labour Markets?: The Case of the Canadian Meat Packing Industry

    Joel Novek

    1989-01-01

    Recent debates in the sociology of work and employment have drawn a pessimistic picture of the leading mass production industries in the advanced nations and the core labour markets they sustain. It has been claimed that such industries are in decline and that their workers face an assault on their jobs, wage levels and working conditions. The Canadian meat packing industry has been selected as a case study of a mass production industry and a core labour market under the stress of recessionar...

  20. Beyond marginality: exploring black women’s labour market participation in the Greater Vancouver Regional District

    Rudder, Alieka

    2008-01-01

    What have Black women’s labour market experiences been in the Greater Vancouver Regional District? How have education, family, and systemic barriers been perceived by and impacted Black women in the labour market? Utilizing qualitative methodological techniques, primarily open-ended interviewing, and centred in critical Black feminist and endarkened feminist epistemological approaches, as well as anti-racist or critical race theory, I explore these important questions. Historically and curren...

  1. Fiscal policy and the labour market: the effects of public sector employment and wages

    Gomes, Pedro Maia

    2011-01-01

    I build a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with search and matching frictions and two sectors in order to study the labour market effects of public sector employment and wages. Public sector wages plays an important role in achieving the efficient allocation. High wages induce too many unemployed to queue for public sector jobs, while if they are low, the government faces recruitment problems. The optimal steady-state wage premium depends mainly on the labour market friction param...

  2. Fiscal policy and the labour market: The effect of public sector employment and wages

    Gomes, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    I build a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with search and matching frictions and two sectors in order to study the labour market effects of public sector employment and wages. Public sector wages plays an important role in achieving the efficient allocation. High wages induce too many unemployed to queue for public sector jobs, while if they are low, the government faces recruitment problems. The optimal steady-state wage premium depends mainly on the labour market friction param...

  3. Career structures and training in internal labour markets in Britain - and comparisons with West Germany

    Marsden, David

    1982-01-01

    The article reports the findings of four UK organizational case studies of the structure of internal labour markets: in the financial sector, banking and insurance, and in process industries, coal mining and chemicals. It builds on the work of Doeringer and Piore (1971). The internal labour markets are found to comprise different subsystems with contrasted internal mobility patterns. In the financial sector, it identifies different career streams which lead to senior positions at different sp...

  4. Lyapunov stability in an evolutionary game theory model of the labour market

    Ricardo Azevedo Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the existence and stability of equilibriums in an evolutionary game theory model of the labour market is studied by using the Lyapunov method. The model displays multiple equilibriums and it is shown that the Nash equilibriums of the static game are evolutionary stable equilibrium in the game theory evolutionary set up. A complete characterization of the dynamics of an evolutionary model of the labour market is provided.

  5. Impression management in the workplace: A key to immigrant integration in the labour market

    Lau, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants’ inability to obtain mainstream jobs and lack of economic mobility in the labour market is attributed to the lack of human and social capital. In additional, they face institutional barriers such as the devaluation of foreign credentials and discrimination. In this paper, I address the implication of impression management techniques for immigrant integration in the labour market. This paper offers insight on how immigrants can minimize misguided perceptions a...

  6. Integration through adult and continuing education:integrating immigrants into Nordic labour markets

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Geiger, Tinne

    2011-01-01

    In the Nordic countries a large proportion of immigrants and descendants are excluded from the labour market and the group is overrepresented among the unemployed. International experience shows that adult education and training can be useful tools in providing immigrant groups a foothold in the labour market. To facilitate that process we need to know what factors motivate immigrants to participate in adult education and training and what the results and effects of different approaches are. ...

  7. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-off

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently skilled workers face different unemployment risks. We show that in such an environment, training programmes that are targeted to the unemployed complement passive transfers (UI benefits), unlike a general...

  8. Market-Based Initiatives to Combat Child Labour: Social Labelling Considerations and Policy Implications

    Subrata Sarkar

    2000-01-01

    Intense competition and a world-wide market have led to social evils, such as child labour in various industries. As the developed world's social conscience becomes more acute, marketing initiatives have been developed of which the most prominent is to affix appropriate labels to products, guaranteeing that child labour is not used or is used only under controlled conditions. This issue of social labelling with its modalities and consequences is studied in the article.

  9. Labour market regulation, industrial relations, and technological regimes: a tale of comparative advantage

    Bassanini, Andrea; Ernst, Ekkehard

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present comparative evidence from OECD countries concerning the impact of labour market institutions and regulations on technological specialisation. The interplay between the degree of labour market flexibility, the systems of industrial relations and the knowledge base of different industries determines the viability of different human resource strategies thereby shaping the patterns of comparative advantage. Our empirical results show that countries with coordinated indust...

  10. Crime and the Labour Market: Evidence from a Survey of Inmates

    Entorf, Horst

    2008-01-01

    In this paper data from a survey of 1,771 inmates conducted in 31 German prisons provide microeconometric evidence on the relationship between individual anticipated labour market opportunities and the perceived probability of future recidivism. Results show that inmates with poor labour market prospects expect a significantly higher rate of future recidivism. Having a closer look at subgroups of prisoners reveals that drug and alcohol addiction cause adverse effects. Thus, improving prisoner...

  11. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to Access the Labour Market

    MC Marumoagae

    2012-01-01

    Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which most employers are faced with in the South African labour market. Key among such challenges has also been employers' ability to ensure that persons with disabilities access the labour market. In this paper I highlight employment discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities in South African workplaces, which often prohibits them from accessing employment opportunities. I argue that employers...

  12. Survey-based Indicators of Regional Labour Markets and Interregional Migration in Norway

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    A rich set of regional labour market variables is utilised to explain interregional migration in Norway. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects in their resident municipality and the surroundings. Mean satisfaction with local job prospects reported by respondents in a region and related survey-based indicators have a positive and significant impact on net inmigration to the regio...

  13. Job satisfaction as a unified mechanism for agent behaviour on a labour market with referral hiring

    Tarvid, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Existing agent-based labour-market models include a very simplistic mechanism of choosing vacancies. This paper proposes to use job satisfaction as a unified mechanism for deciding on both starting to work on a particular job and quitting the current job. An enhanced job satisfaction mechanism consisting of monetary, social, content, and career components is proposed. As an illustrative context, a labour-market model with referral hiring and informal job search through own social networks is ...

  14. The performance of the finnish labour markets in the 1990s

    Heikkilä, Elli; Korhonen, Sirpa

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with performance of local labour markets in Finland. The gross-stream labour statistics provide useful tool for this analysis. The subject of the research is the working-aged population. The local labour markets are divided into three classes: major cities, regional centres and smaller centres. The periods of observation are years 1990-91 and 1996-97 in the stream data. During the former period Finland was sliding into depression, whilst in the latter period it was rising out ...

  15. Gender Inequalities and Labour Market Inclusion. An Integrated Approach to Vocational Training in Piedmont

    Falavigna Greta; Ragazzi Elena; Sella Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In the field of public policies there is a lot of interest in vocational training issues, because of spillovers in the labour market as well as on quality of life. Reports by the European Commission show that women are disadvantaged subjects in the labour market but, at the same time, they are more ambitious and achieve best results from an educational point of view. This paper aims to analyse Piedmont Region data on vocational training policies, focusing on the role of women in the labour ma...

  16. Recycling energy taxes. Impacts on a disaggregated labour market

    This paper analyses the impacts of energy taxes whose revenue is recycled to reduce gross wages and increase employment. The main novel feature of this paper, is the attempt to assess the effectiveness of this fiscal reform by using a labour market model in which both skilled and unskilled workers are used in the production process. This segmentation enables us to compare a policy which aims at reducing unskilled workers' wages, as in the original Delors' White book, with a policy in which the environmental fiscal revenue is used to reduce the gross wage of all workers. Moreover, two policy scenarios will be considered. A non-co-operative one in which each country determines the optimal domestic energy tax to achieve a given employment target and a co-operative one, in which the energy taxes are harmonised to equalise marginal abatement costs in the EU and in which the employment target is set for the EU. Our results show that: (1) an employment double dividend can be achieved in the short run only, even if a trade-off between environment and employment always exists; (2) the effect on employment is larger when the fiscal revenue is recycled into all workers' gross wages rather than into unskilled workers only; (3) a co-operative policy leads to even larger benefits in terms of employment provided that an adequate redistribution of fiscal revenues is adopted by EU countries

  17. Regularities of Formation of the Labour Reimbursement Institute in the Market Economy

    Povoroznyuk Inna M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical issues of formation of the labour reimbursement institute in the market economy. It proves that functioning of the labour reimbursement institute identifies proportions of distribution of the total amount of expenditures on labour reimbursement between different professional and qualification groups of workers. Also, functioning of the labour reimbursement institute significantly influences proportions of distribution of income between owners of the means of production and hired labour, although, to a big extent, this institute is adapted, on the one hand, to the existing in the society forms of resolution of contradictions, inherent in means of production ownership relations, and, on the other hand, to the situation in a relevant labour market segment. However, the labour reimbursement institute itself significantly influences realisation of interests of employees and employers. The article states that wages in the modern economy should be understood as an incomplete labour reimbursement – the entrepreneur spends on an employee not only the sum of wages, but also uses other forms of resource provision of the processes of acquisition of certain benefits by the enterprise employees.

  18. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood

    Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr;

    2013-01-01

    participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational...... occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born...... in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83%) completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour...

  19. Short and long-term labour market consequences of coronary heart disease

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Davidsen, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse to what extent individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) leave the labour market earlier than individuals without CHD and to discuss the implications for rehabilitation. DATA AND METHODS: Individuals with CHD were identified from the Danish...... National Cohort study and were followed from the year of their first hospital admission for CHD and onwards for up to 23 years. Individuals with CHD were individually matched with individuals without CHD. We analysed their short-term labour market participation and compared the long-term withdrawal risk...... their matched counterparts. This means that the individuals with CHD were on the labour market, on average, for 0.8 years less than the individuals without CHD. Stratified analyses showed that, in particular, individuals with CHD aged below 60 years and individuals employed as manual labour may benefit...

  20. Labour Market Distortions and University Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: Issues and Remedies

    Godwin E. Bassey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to appraise the existing gap between the demand for and supply of university graduates in the Nigerian labour market. The study emphasizes that serious distortions exist in the market for university graduates in Nigeria, giving rise to unacceptable high level of graduate unemployment. The phenomenon of rising graduate unemployment is bound to have serious adverse social and economic consequences on the Nigerian economy. The study traces the problem to the declining quality of education, resulting from inadequate funding, insufficient and outmoded learning materials, poorly trained staff, irrelevant curricula and inadequate information on job vacancies for job seekers in the market. The study recommends, among others, the establishment of labour market information system, a legal framework for labour market information management and improved funding of university education to effectively harness the products of the Nigerian universities for sustainable economic development.

  1. STUDY ON GRADUATES OF THE FACULTY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT OF GALATI WHO ENTERED THE LABOUR MARKET

    Iconomescu Teodora Mihaela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 90’s, graduates benefited of a high social status and living standards, currently the quality and value of a university degree is uncertain. Since the labour market has diversified significantly, an imbalance occurred between the labour market supply and demand. Therefore universities and faculties should establish a dialogue with the main beneficiaries on the labour market. Over the last years, this field of Physical Education and Sport has diversified considerably, at the same time the labour market demand has needed various other sport-related jobs whereas the Physical Education teacher job is no longer sought-after on the labour market. Consequently the degree programmes offered by faculties should be based on the demand from the labour market.

  2. The increasing impact of Europeanization and migrating labour on the Danish labour market

    Refslund, Bjarke

    agreements especially for low-skilled labour in sectors like agriculture and cleaning, that have high inflows. A large number of Eastern Europeans are working significantly below the de facto minimum wages negotiated between the social partners. This paper provides case study research from the agricultural...... though EU8/2 workers still only accounts for around three per cent of total Danish employment there may be more significant regulatory and institutional effects since employers use the labour inflow to put pressure on wage levels, working conditions and the general scope and range of the collective...... sector and cleaning, where large cohorts of workers now are Eastern European, on how e.g. collective bargaining and wage levels experiences high pressure. The outcome might be increasing dualisation between EU 8/2 workers and native workers and low-skilled Danish workers may be pushed out of the labour...

  3. Labour Market Institutions, Real Wages and Macroeconomic Outcomes

    Goyal, Ashima

    1998-01-01

    Labour institutions influence the outcome of macro policies. We postulate that, for India, nominal wages rise with average labour productivity and with the price of food, and discuss the macroeconomic consequences. As inflation is caused by sectoral supply constraints and productivity mismatches, a cut in demand need not work, and even if it does, it imposes a large cost. Stimulatory macro policies can actually lower the rate of inflation, and raise real wages, even in the face of a supply sh...

  4. Integrating the East: The Labour Market Effects of Immigration

    Bauer, Thomas; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper evaluates the potential gains from labour immigration for the European Union. After a review of the East-West migration problem and recent western migration policies, governmentally controlled labour immigration is studied in a framework with unions, unemployment and heterogenous workers. The model predicts a decline in wages with unskilled and skilled immigration if both types of workers are complements. Only skilled migration reduces unemployment, however. This disequilibrium fram...

  5. The labour market impact of the working families’ tax credit

    Richard Blundell; Alan Duncan; Julian McCrae; Costas Meghir

    2000-01-01

    In October 1999, the working families’ tax credit (WFTC) replaced family credit as the main package of in-work support for families with children. Among a range of stated aims, the WFTC is intended to ‘... improve work incentives, encouraging people without work to move into employment’. In this paper, we consider the impact of WFTC on hours and participation. To simulate labour supply responses, we use a discrete behavioural model of household labour supply with controls for fixed and childc...

  6. Changing labour market opportunities for young people in Italy and the role of the family of origin

    Gabriella Berloffa; Francesca Modena; Paola Villa

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the increased incidence of insecure job conditions for young individuals entering the Italian labour market and their chances of moving to a more secure job-condition after a reasonable period of time. In particular, we investigate empirically whether and how long-term changes in labour market institutions and conditions have modified the role of the family of origin for both labour market entry and subsequent transitions. We use the Italian Households Longitudinal Study ...

  7. Why do immigrant workers in Australia perform better than those in Canada? Is it the immigrants or their labour markets?

    Andrew Clarke; Mikal Skuterud

    2013-01-01

    Research comparing the labour market performance of recent cohorts of immigrants to Australia and Canada points to superior employment and earnings outcomes in Australia. Examining Australian and Canadian Census data between 1986 and 2006, we find that this performance advantage is not driven by differences in broader labour market conditions affecting all new labour market entrants. Rather, the results from comparing immigrants from a common source country either the U.K., India, or China su...

  8. Why do Immigrant Workers in Australia Perform Better than in Canada? Is it the Immigrants or their Labour Markets?

    Clarke, Andrew; Skuterud, Mikal

    2012-01-01

    Research comparing the labour market performance of recent cohorts of immigrants to Australia and Canada points to superior employment and earnings outcomes in Australia. Examining Australian and Canadian Census data between 1986 and 2006, we find that this performance advantage is not driven by differences in broader structural and macroeconomic labour market conditions affecting all new labour market entrants. Rather, the results from comparing immigrants from a common source country { eith...

  9. Segmentation and informality in Vietnam : a survey of the literature: country case study on labour market segmentation

    Cling, Jean-Pierre; Razafindrakoto, Mireille; Roubaud, François

    2014-01-01

    Labour market segmentation is usually defined as the division of the labour markets into separate sub-markets or segments, distinguished by different characteristics and behavioural rules (incomes, contracts, etc.). The economic debate on the segmentation issue has been focusing in developed countries, and especially in Europe, on contractual segmentation and dualism.

  10. Five essays on performance and structural rigidities in European labour markets

    Gilles Mourre

    2008-01-01

    This PhD thesis – made up of five empirical essays – looks into the role of structural rigidities in recent labour market performance in Europe from complementary angles and yields several results. First, the effect of institutions is complex owing to numerous interactions and their endogenous nature. Second, the level of labour utilisation in the EU15 is clearly lower than in the US, explaining two thirds of the EU15 gap in GDP per capita vis-à-vis the US. Labour underutilisation particularl...

  11. WP 142 - Skills and occupational needs: labour market forecasting systems in Italy

    Giovanni Castiglioni; Kea Tijdens

    2014-01-01

    The development of forecasting systems for occupational needs represents, for different actors, such as enterprises, employers’ associations, trade unions, an opportunity to receive information and to anticipate labour market trends. Also, this information could be used to develop an effective vocational and educational training system aimed to guarantee more employability, to address labour policies and manage industrial relations. Starting from this theoretical framework, the paper aims to ...

  12. The state, skilled labour markets, and immigration: the case of doctors in England

    Parvati Raghuram; Eleonore Kofman

    2002-01-01

    Most recent research on skilled migration focuses on those working in the financial sectors and there has been very little work in Europe on the migration of people in welfare sectors. In this paper we seek to explore some of the complexities of shifting labour markets and immigration regulations and their influence on the geography of migration of doctors to England. We argue that state regulations, both of immigration and those governing the medical labour force, have been altered to meet t...

  13. Working through Knowledge Pools: Labour Market Dynamics, the Transference of Knowledge and Ideas, and Industrial Clusters

    Dominic Power; Mats Lundmark

    2004-01-01

    This article explores a prominent cluster in the Swedish capital Stockholm and its surrounding region: the ICT (information and communications technology) cluster. In particular, the article focuses on the issue of the extent to which labour market and labour mobility are the most likely channels for local and extra-local sources of knowledge and ideas. Thus the article positions itself against a growing literature that focuses on rather diffuse and vague notions that knowledge and innovation...

  14. Labour market flows and unemployment dynamics by sex in Greece during the crisis

    Maria Karamessini; Franciscos Koutentakis

    2014-01-01

    Although, during the current Greek crisis, male employment retreated much more than female employment, the gender unemployment gap remained remarkably stable. To explain this outcome we have analysed labour market flows by sex using descriptive statistics and counterfactual techniques. Empirical findings suggest that while men experienced more dramatically the labour demand shock of the crisis because its impact was harder on male-dominated sectors, their falling participation rate mitigated ...

  15. Participation of Married Women in the Labour Market and the 'Added Worker Effect' in Europe

    Prieto-Rodríguez, Juan; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, César

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate labour participation equations for married women for eleven European countries, using data from the European Community Household Panel corresponding to the years 1994, 1995 and 1996. The main objective of our study is to test whether the 'added worker effect' holds. From our results it can be concluded that the labour market participation of the married woman basically depends on her personal and family characteristics, her non-wage income and her potential earnings...

  16. Education And Youth Labour Market Outcomes: The Added Value Of VET

    FLISI SARA; GOGLIO VALENTINA

    2015-01-01

    The systematic inclusion of information on orientation of study (vocational vs. general) in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) starting from 2014 will give the possibility to analyse the features and the labour market outcomes of individuals depending on the programme orientation of their qualification. One of the main purposes of this technical briefing is to investigate the possible impact of the addition of this information in the context of the Joint Assessment Framework (JAF) approach, in par...

  17. Sexual Identity, Earnings, and Labour Market Dynamics: New Evidence from Longitudinal Data in Australia

    Sabia, Joseph J.; Wooden, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using newly collected data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, this study presents new estimates of the earnings effects of sexual orientation in Australia and offers the first empirical investigation of the labour market trajectories of lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. Our results show that gay males are: (i) less likely to be continuously employed than their heterosexual counterparts, and (ii) face an earnings penalty of approximately 20 percent, dri...

  18. Unemployment, capital accumulation and labour market institutions in the Great Recession

    Engelbert Stockhammer; Alexander Guschanski; Karsten Kohler

    2014-01-01

    This paper restates the post-Keynesian view of unemployment within a NAIRU framework. In the short run, the private effective labour demand need not be downward sloping because of debt deflation and wage-led demand regimes. In the medium run, the NAIRU will be endogenous because of the social norm character of wage setting and the supply-side effects of capital accumulation. Capital investment rather than labour market institutions is the crucial variable that explains changes in unemployment...

  19. The Impact of Chernobyl on Health and Labour Market Performance in the Ukraine

    Lehmann, Hartmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. The variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a potential instrument to try to establish the causal impact of poor health on labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive associatio...

  20. Effective public policy which can reduce gender discrimination in the agricultural labour market: A theoretical investigation

    Kundu, AMIT

    2013-01-01

    Wage and employment differences between male and female agricultural labourers in the under developed countries including India is not new. With the help of a simple theoretical model it is here proved that public policy like implementation of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in the rural areas can reduce wage discrimination but fails to reduce employment discrimination in the agricultural labour market. It is also proved that implementation of NREGS not only reduces profita...