WorldWideScience

Sample records for active labour market

  1. Active Labour Market Programmes and Unemployment in a Dual Labour Market

    Fukushima, Yoshihiko

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the macroeconomic effects of active labour market programmes in a dual labour-market framework. The paper uses the Shapiro-Stiglitz efficiency-wage model. Active labour market programmes train unskilled labour and transfer them from a high-unemployment to a low-unemployment sector. Programmes have a direct labour-transfer effect which tends to reduce total unemployment. They also have effects on wages via expectations. The later effects were to a v...

  2. Labour market programmes and labour market outcomes: a study of the Swedish active labour market interventions

    Adda, Jérôme; Costa Dias, Mónica; Meghir, Costas; Sianesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of Swedish welfare-to-work programmes on labour market performance including wages, labour market status, unemployment duration and future welfare-to-work participation. We develop a structural dynamic model of labour supply which incorporates detailed institutional features of these policies and allows for selection on observables and unobservables. We estimate the model from a rich administrative panel data set and show that training programmes - which account...

  3. Underground Activities and Labour Market Performance

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a general equilibrium search and matching model where an underground economy co-exists along with the formal part of the economy. In analyzing how tax and punishment policies a¤ect labour market performance, we find that punishment of infor- mal sector activities induce workers and firms to reallocate towards the formal sector. However, more importantly, we find that this real- location tends to improve e¢ ciency in search, reduce the overall wage pres...

  4. Public works for Poland? Active labour market policies during transition

    Puhani, Patrick A.; Steiner, Viktor

    1996-01-01

    Following the predominance of macroeconomic stabilisation policies and passive income support schemes in the first phase of transition, active labour market policies (ALMPs) have now come to play a more important role in transition economies. This paper looks at the Polish experience and provides empirical evidence on the effectiveness of ALMPs. We use the Polish Labour Force Survey of August 1994 in combination with its Supplement on the Evaluation of Labour Market Policies together with dat...

  5. Costs and benefits of Danish active labour market programmes

    Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...

  6. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non...... concept of experimental evidence. Our results are highly relevant in a policy perspective, as optimal labour market policy design requires knowledge on the effectiveness of specific policy measures....

  7. FEATURES OF ACTIVE MEASURES OF LABOUR MARKET SUPPORT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Larisa PANTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Active labour market policy aims at rising labour force’s competitiveness to enhance adjustment between labour demand and supply. The measures of active labour market policy comprise vocational training and requalification, professional counseling, job search assistance etc. A special attention require active measures that increase labour force flexibility, i.e. its geographic and professional mobility. Present article has the goal to appreciate the efficiency of active measures in rising labour force employment in the Republic of Moldova.

  8. Labour market

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, Eskil

    2015-01-01

    Although employment participation of older workers and their timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual-level decision, the opportunities or late career employment, and restrictions that older workers potentially face, are largely shaped by labour market contextual factors. Thes

  9. Disability pensions and active labour market policy

    Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix

    2013-01-01

    Danish active labor market policy, under the headline of flexicurity, has received international attention due to its claimed ability to curb unemployment while boosting employment. A strong belief in the positive effects of activation, in policy as well as practice, has had consequences for all ...

  10. FEATURES OF ACTIVE MEASURES OF LABOUR MARKET SUPPORT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Larisa PANTEA

    2013-01-01

    Active labour market policy aims at rising labour force’s competitiveness to enhance adjustment between labour demand and supply. The measures of active labour market policy comprise vocational training and requalification, professional counseling, job search assistance etc. A special attention require active measures that increase labour force flexibility, i.e. its geographic and professional mobility. Present article has the goal to appreciate the efficiency of active measures in risin...

  11. The political economy of active labour market policy

    Bonoli, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Active labour market policies have developed significantly over the last two decades across OECD countries, with substantial cross-national differences in terms of both extent and overall orientation. The objective of this paper is to account for cross-national variation in this policy field. It starts by reviewing existing scholarship concerning political, institutional and ideational determinants of ALMPs. It then argues that ALMPs is too broad a category to be used analytically, and develo...

  12. Are they working? Market Orientation and the Effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programmes in Ireland

    Philip J O'Connell

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the first findings of a new study of the labour market impact of a range of active labour market programmes (ALMPs) in Ireland. The paper combines the results of two individual-level data sets to compare the employment outcomes of participants in ALMPs with a comparison group of non-participants over the 1994-1996 period. The analysis focuses on employment probabilities two years post-programme, and shows that programmes with strong linkages to the labour market are more l...

  13. The Design of Active Labour Market Policies. What Matters and What Doesn't ?

    Cockx, Bart

    1999-01-01

    A first objective of this paper is to emphasise the role of a correct diagnosis of unemployment persistence for the design of effective active labour market policies. A second is to stress the importance of adequate incentives for programme administrators of active labour market policies, and that this may well be more important than providing adequate incentives to the unemployed. To illustrate this, we summarise two case studies evaluating active labour market policies in Belgium. The first...

  14. Active Labour Market Policy in East Germany: Waiting for the Economy to take off

    Michael Lechner; Conny Wunsch

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the most important East German active labour market programmes on the labour market outcomes of their participants. The analysis is based on a large and informative individual database coming from administrative data sources. Using matching methods, we find that over a horizon of 2.5 years after programme start the programmes fail to increase the employment chances of their participants in the regular labour market. However, the programmes may have other effects ...

  15. Shadow Activity and Unemployment in a Depressed Labour Market

    Boeri, Tito; Garibaldi, Pietro

    2002-01-01

    This Paper studies the border between shadow employment and unemployment. It argues that the two macroeconomic phenomena are two faces of the same coin: any policy aimed at reducing the former will increase the latter. Theoretically, it proposes and solves a matching model of the labour market, where shadow employment emerges in equilibrium as the endogenous response of firms and workers who felt overburdened by taxes and regulations. While the model we propose neatly rationalizes the labour ...

  16. Denmark a Nordic Welfare State - Are the Active Labour Market Policy Withering Away?

    Greve, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Denmark has been portrayed as a country with a focus on full employment, gender equality and high level of participation on the labour market. It has historically further been built upon consensus and class-compromises and known for flexi-curity. The active labour market policy has focused on how...... to ensure not only a work-first approach, but that a constant upgrading of qualifications would guarantee that the individual citizen could have the qualification to enter and to stay on the labour market. A core question is whether the focus on flexi-curity including upgrading of skills and...... integration on the labour market has been withering away towards a sharper focus on a work first approach, where activation is used as a stick more than a carrot, also implying that rights’ as citizens has been increasingly reduced, and, thereby increased the role of citizens as labourer on the labour market...

  17. Active labour market policy effects for women in Europe: A survey

    Bergemann, Annette; van den Berg, Gerard J.

    2006-01-01

    We survey the recent literature on the effects of active labour market policies on individual labour market outcomes like employment and income, for adult female individuals without work in European countries. We consider skill-training programs, monitoring and sanctions, job search assistance, and employment subsidies. The results are remarkably uniform across studies. We relate the results to the relevant level of female labour force participation.

  18. Labour Market Performance in Iceland

    Ingi Rúnar Eðvarðsson

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the unique performance of the Icelandic labour market. It demonstrates, by using international statistics, that the activity rates of both sexes are very high in Iceland, the unemployment rate is low, a high proportion of the the labour force work part time, and labour legislation is unrestricted. Contrary to the competitive labour market–, and flexible models of neo– classic economic theory, the author argues for a historical and institutional explan...

  19. Labour market of bachue Brazil.

    Rato Mhc; Braganca SL

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on the labour market of Brazil - discusses theoretical aspects of labour market and labour law, effects of government's wage policy, minimum wage laws, underemployment, unemployment, labour market segmentation, labour demand and labour supply in the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, the number of self employed, labour mobility, etc. Diagram, references and statistical tables.

  20. Active labour market policy in the European Union

    Schömann, Klaus

    1995-01-01

    This report deals with Action 5 of the White Paper Follow-Up process and analyses feasible steps or improvements already undertaken by Member States and the Community at large to make better use of public funds for combating unemployment. Public funds devoted to labour market policies play a vital role in achieving employment intensive growth. The White Paper on Growth, Competitiveness and Employment of the Commission of the European Communities proposes a full-scale overhaul of employment po...

  1. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates the...

  2. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates the...

  3. Women on the European Labour Market

    Jan Baran; Atilla Bartha; Agnieszka Chlon-Dominczak; Olena Fedyuk; Agnieszka Kaminska; Piotr Lewandowski; Maciej Lis; Iga Magda; Monika Potoczna; Violetta Zentai

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief looks at the major developments in women's position on the European labour market over the past two decades, identifying several pathways to increased female labour market activity and obstacles to overcome.

  4. Domain: Labour market

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    2015-01-01

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual deci

  5. Before and after the Hartz reforms: the performance of active labour market policy in Germany

    Jacobi, Lena; Kluve, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    "Having faced high unemployment rates for more than a decade, the German government implemented a comprehensive set of labour market reforms during the period 2003-2005. This paper describes the economic and institutional context of the German labour market before and after these so-called Hartz reforms. Focussing on active policy measures, we delineate the rationale for reform and its main principles. As preliminary results of programme evaluation studies post-reform have become available ju...

  6. Adult Workers in Theory or Practice? : Lone Mothers’ Participation in Active Labour Market Programmes in Germany

    Cordula Zabel

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an ad...

  7. Labour Market Institutions and Labour Market Performance in the European Union

    Michal, Tvrdon

    2008-01-01

    The presented article deals with labour market institutions and labour market performance in the European Union. The first chapter is devoted to theoretical and methodological background of labour market performance. Theoretical literature has created a set of institutional aspects such as employment protection legislation, structure of wage bargaining, taxation of labour, active labour market policy, the system of unemployment and social benefits. All these aspects determine the institutiona...

  8. Disciplining Disability under Danish Active Labour Market Policy

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...

  9. OAPS’ ACTIVITY IN THE LABOUR MARKET IN THE CONTEXT OF SURVEY RESEARCH

    Władysława Łuczka-Bakuła

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years not merely to young people’s activity in the labour market, but also to the vocational involvement of elderly people. The traditional attitude towards the contemporary labour market results from the social and economic transformation, but also demographic changes and, the process of population ageing. It is thus a vital issue. A growing number of elderly people contributes to the increase in the number of beneficiaries, which is reflected in lower labour force participation and, consequently, may lead to a deterioration of production capacity of economy. On the one hand, higher pensions may be viewed as higher incomes of pensioners, but on the other hand, they constitute an extra burden for public expenses. Conversely, lower pensions may not merely result in increased activity in the labour market and higher incomes, but also be linked with an increase in social welfare expenditure. The article discusses the results of survey research conducted between 2009 and 2010 in a group of pensioners. The research shows that over a half of the surveyed OAPs were active in the labour market and their activity was mainly induced by their financial situation. 

  10. Dual labour markets: A survey

    Wapler, Rüdiger

    1999-01-01

    Whereas the standard modern theories of unemployment were developed in the context of a single sector labour market, this paper presents a survey of how these theories can be integrated into a dual labour market setting. This approach dichotomises the labour market into two sectors, a primary with high wages and high job security, and a secondary sector with lower wages and higher labour turnover. The survey consists of three main parts. Part one applies standard labour market theories to dua...

  11. Essays on Labour Markets

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian

    This book represents an eclectic combination of four independent, self-contained essays on various dimensions of the labour market. The main chapters focus on theoretically and empirically analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3), on...... modelling the arousal and persistence of occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social subgroups (chapter 4), and respectively on characterizing the link between the firms' health and safety work environment and their financial performance (chapter 5). Each of the essays contributes...... return to seniority", with seniority the position of the worker in the tenure hierarchy of her firm, this concept establishing parsimoniously but effectively the link between the worker's fate in the labour market and her firm's fate in the product market; if network referrals are relevant for job search...

  12. Decentralisation of active labour market policy: The case of Swedish local employment service committees

    Skedinger, Per; Lundin, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Decentralisation of decision-making in active labour market policy makes it possible to use local information to the fullest, but may also impinge on the fulfilment of national objectives, as suggested by principal-agent theory. The purpose of this study is to ex-amine the effects of a Swedish pilot programme in 1996, which strengthened the role of the local authorities in labour market policy in parts of the country. Survey evidence suggests a non-negligible divergence between the objectives...

  13. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-01-01

    The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilit...

  14. The Czech Labour Market: Historical, Structural and Policy Perspectives

    Jiří Večerník

    2007-01-01

    A proper picture of the Czech labour market emerges by focusing on its nuanced details from various perspectives. First we focus on the specific phases of the labour market as it developed in the 1990s. Second, we observe the changing composition of the labour force and labour mobility. Third, we examine the vulnerable categories of people. Policies, active labour market policies in particular, are described in the fourth section. Fifthly, we analyse the flexibility of the labour market in it...

  15. Activation and active labour market policies in OECD countries: stylized facts and evidence on their effectiveness

    John P. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Activation policies aimed at getting working-age people off benefits and into work have become a buzzword in labour market policies. Yet they are defined and implemented differently across OECD countries and their success rates vary too. The Great Recession has posed a severe stress test for these policies with some commentators arguing that they are at best 'fair weather' policies.  This paper sheds light on these issues mainly via the lens of recent OECD research.  It presents the sty...

  16. Wages in Labour Market Theories

    Kryńska Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Already classical economists took interest in the role of wages and wage formation mechanisms, as well as in their influence on other components of the labour market. This article aims to systematise contemporary approaches to wages as one of the labour market components that have been developed within major economic theories. The systemization will serve as a basis for identifying main interactions between wages and other labour market components, such as labour supply and demand and labour market disequilibrium. The article presents major concepts formulated within neo-classical and Keynesian theories, labour market segmentation theories, efficiency wage theory, rent-sharing and rent-extraction theories, theory of job search, and search-and-matching models. One of the conclusions arising from the discussion is that the evolution of contemporary labour markets is a challenge for researchers seeking wage formation models adequately describing the real-life circumstances.

  17. Labour market frictions and migration

    Cremers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The 4th contribution to the series INT-AR papers is dedicated to the methods of assessing labour market frictions. The paper provides a (brief) international comparison of the role of labour migration in solving these frictions.

  18. Labour market models in the EU

    Koster, F; McQuinn, J.; Siedschlag, I.; Vliet, van, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the European Union, the most important labour market models that have been proposed for labour market reform are flexicurity and the transitional labour market. In this position paper, we conceptualise the models of flexicurity and the transitional labour market, and we outline potentially relevant research questions. These research questions focus on explaining the variations in labour market policies across EU countries and the impact of labour market institutions on labour market outcom...

  19. Comparative social policy analysis and active labour market policy:Putting Quality before Quantity

    Clasen, Jochen; Clegg, Daniel; Goerne, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade active labour market policy (ALMP) has become a major topic in comparative social policy analysis, with scholars exploiting cross-national variation to seek to identify the determinants of policy development in this central area of the ‘new welfare state’. In this paper we argue that better integration of this policy field into social policy scholarship however requires rather more critical engagement with some considerable methodological, conceptual and theoretical challen...

  20. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work?

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  1. What works, who works? The impact of active labour market programmes on the employment prospects of young people in Ireland

    O'Connell, Philip J.; MacGinnity, Fran

    1996-01-01

    The international literature on active labour market programmes has generated inconsistent and confusing, but generally pessimistic, conclusions regarding their impact on the employment prospects of participants. This paper argues that much of this confusion is due to a general lack of attention to qualitative differences between programmes. The paper develops a typology of active labour market programmes, differentiating between training and employment measures on the basis of their orientat...

  2. Adult Workers in Theory or Practice? : Lone Mothers’ Participation in Active Labour Market Programmes in Germany

    Cordula Zabel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an adult worker model of the family is reflected in practical policy implemen- tations. Thus, lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes is studied empiri- cally here on the basis of large-scale administrative data, using event-history analysis. Findings are that lone mothers are treated as adult workers with respect to workfare and training pro- grammes even when their children are still quite young. As soon as their youngest child is 3 - 5 years old, lone mothers’ transition rates into these programmes are as high as for childless single women. In the case of programmes that provide more direct pathways into regular employment, like job subsidies and in-firm training programmes, however, participation rates for lone mothers of young children are substantially lower than for childless single women.

  3. Labour market performance of immigrants in the UK labour market

    Dustmann, C.; F. Fabbri; Preston, I; Wadsworth, J

    2003-01-01

    From executive summary: This document is a report commissioned by the Home Office to analyse the performance of immigrants in the UK labour market. It attempts to draw a comprehensive picture of the labour market performance of immigrants, and the process of adaptation relative to the UK-born white population. Four indicators of economic performance are investigated: (i) employment, (ii) labour force participation, (iii) self-employment, and (iv) wages. The analysis distinguishes bet...

  4. The Czech Labour Market and Flexicurity

    Potužáková Zuzana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity reflects the current basic trend within the EU in guaranteeing high employment levels and attainability of national fiscal systems. It was introduced in Denmark in 90ties and helped to reduce the (long-term unemployment levels significantly. The Czech labour market, despite the transformation process, has still a space for further improvement, especially in the time of economic slow-down. The aim of the paper is to describe the flexicurity elements in the Czech Republic. First of all, we describe the general economical background and compare it with other Central European economies and with situation in Denmark where the concept comes from. In other parts of the paper we analyze the particular elements of the so called golden triangle of flexicurity – flexible labour market, generous welfare system and active labour market policies. We also focus on the components of the flexicurity, which the Czech labour market still lacks and would be useful to implement them. Despite the fact that the previous period (years 2005-2008 was very successful, the period was not used effectively to reform the labour market deeper. The Czech labour market faces nowadays several crucial problems such as too high employment protection of the regular workers or small incentives for the long-term unemployed to re-enter the labour market. As a result of these features we can speak without doubt about dual labour market protecting part of labour force too generously and leaving too many people outside the market. Further the construction of the social system does not motivate the long-term unemployed to enter the labour market again or to get further qualification to boost their chances to get a job again. All these facts lead to the ineffective operation with the human capital in the Czech Republic and deepen the costs on social and relating policies.

  5. Social Interaction in Regional Labour Markets

    Lingens, Joerg; Heining, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    Social interaction, i.e. the interdependence of agents' behaviour via non-market activities, has recently become the focus of economic analysis. Social interaction has been used to explain various labour market outcomes. An important result arising from the literature is the proposition that labour markets are characterised by multiple equilibria. Thus, social interaction is used as an explanation for regional unemployment disparities. Building on this, we construct a Pissarides (2000) type s...

  6. The effects of active labour market policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark

    Heinesen, Eskil; Leif, Husted,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the effect of active labour-market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post-programme effects, and......, surprisingly, even most in-programme effects are positive. The effects are largest for subsidized employment programmes, but effects are also large and significant for direct employment programmes and other programmes. Effects are larger if programmes begin after six months of unemployment. Implications of our...

  7. The Labour Market during the 2008-2009 Downturn

    Michael Plumb; Mark Baker; Gareth Spence

    2010-01-01

    The Australian labour market has performed relatively well over the past two years or so, compared with its performance in the early 1980s and 1990s recessions and in a recent international context. This is partly explained by the milder downturn in economic activity, the earlier strength of the labour market, and greater labour market flexibility than in previous downturns.

  8. Labour Market Turnover and Mobility

    Patrick D’Arcy; Linus Gustafsson; Christine Lewis; Trent Wiltshire

    2012-01-01

    Labour mobility plays a role in allocating workers to suitable jobs and is important in helping the economy adjust to shocks and structural change. But there are also benefits from longer job tenure, and costs associated with workers changing jobs. This article presents some stylised facts about labour market movements and the role that labour mobility has played in facilitating economic adjustment over the past decade. While most worker turnover is associated with the normal process of worke...

  9. Narratives about labour market transitions

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system. On...... the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a...

  10. Labour Market Structure: A Brief Literature Survey

    Pillai, Rajasekharan

    2010-01-01

    Labour market is a multi-dimensional entity, with inexorable institutional affiliation. Therefore, the studies on labour market fail to evolve a logical framework to its structure with satisfactory consensus to the theoreticians in totality. It is very interesting to examine the various dimensions of labour market. This paper reviews certain research contributions on labour market structure, segmentation and vulnerability issues.

  11. Organization of the Labour Market

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the organization of the labour market in a general equilibrium model of a closed economy with two industries and two types of labour input. Workers are organized in industry- and skill-specific unions. The wage is set in cooperation either between identical labour types...... across industries or within industries across labour types. If the organization structure is endogenous, the result will be joint unions of homogenous groups; the structure with the highest employmenIn this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ...... with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from...

  12. German labour markets after unification

    Franz, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains a description and analysis of the labour market in East Germany and an econometric evaluation of some effects of German unification on the West German labour market. At the outset, recent developments of employment and unemployment in East Germany are summarized together with an attempt at evaluation of the sources of joblessness. Moreover,'wage determination and wage dynamics are discussed at some length. It is investigated to what extent wage theories can contribute to a...

  13. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  14. Labour markets, labour processes and economic development: some research issues.

    Rodgers G

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on employment policy implications of urban area labour market structures in developing countries - studies unemployment, underemployment, labour market segmentation and wage determination; examines the impact of poverty on labour force participation; emphasizes the need to consider economic structures and institutional framework when developing human resources planning models. Bibliography.

  15. Intergenerational Correlation of Labour Market Outcomes

    Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the correlation of labour market outcomes of parents and children and investigates whether education is an important factor in this correlation, allowing for its potential endogeneity. Based on the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) data, the multivariate analyses show that men's labour market outcomes are affected by their fathers' labour market outcomes. The results show no significant intergenerational correlation of labour market outcomes for ...

  16. Immigration, Education and Labour Market Institutions

    Christian Lumpe; Benjamin Weigert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effect of immigration on the labour market conditions for different skill groups. We develop a model of endogenous labour supply in which immigration affects educational decisions. We show how the skill premium changes with immigration of low skilled labour under flexible and rigid wages. Depending on the labour market institutions, immigration of low skilled labour is absorbed either by an increased skill premium or increased unemployment of low skilled labour. T...

  17. Labour market in South Sudan

    L. Guarcello; F. C. Rosati; Scott, L

    2011-01-01

    The report assesses labour market conditions in the new state of South Sudan (officially the Republic of South Sudan). It highlights a number of key challenges faced by the new country in ensuring adequate livelihood opportunites for its population. The overwhelmingly rural labour force is concentrated primarily in low productivity, non-wage employment. By far the largest share of workers remain in subsistance farming and animal husbandry. Levels of human capital in the work force are extreme...

  18. Homelessness in France: Labour market implications

    Arup Mitra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses homelessness in France with regard to three major mutually interacting sets of factors: labour-market strains, illegal migration and institutional inadequacy. Macroeconomic challenges have resulted in the loss of jobs and subsequent labour-market hardships, and these have tended to affect those without adequate skills. As a result, labour-market problems together with a lack of social capital and adequate housing at affordable prices, accompanied by insufficient institutional support, has resulted in increased homelessness. All of this indicates that there should be active government intervention in the housing market in order to create space for the relatively weaker section of the population in the growth process, which is often unequal. Another important issue is how to create jobs with positive growth in real wages because, without adequate purchasing power, simply providing housing would mean transferring poverty from one space to another.

  19. Do labour market institutions matter?

    Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the...... industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible intuitive reasons for why there may be differences in the impact of outsourcing across the three countries, based on labour market institutions. This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three...... European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible...

  20. Active Ageing Beyond the Labour Market: Evidence on Work Environment Motivations

    Catherine Pollak; Nicolas Sirven

    2012-01-01

    Active Ageing” strategies aim to foster the participation of seniors in the society. Although economic literature has extensively studied the incentives for seniors to increase their labour supply, little is known about the motivations for older people to complement labour with other forms of social participation. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this article provides empirical evidence of the motivational role of the work environment in the supply of fo...

  1. Do Labour Market Institutions Matter?

    Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the...... industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. Estimating the same specification on different data show that there are some interesting differences in the effect of outsourcing across countries. We discuss some possible reasons for these differences based on labour market institutions...

  2. Flexicurity - labour market performance in Denmark

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    automatically among them since the basic flexicurity properties were also in place during the 1970s and 1980s where high and persistent unemployment was prevalent. Labour market performance has changed due to a series of reforms during the 1990s, the main thrust of which were a shift from a passive focus of...... labour market policies to a more active focus on job search and employment. The policy tightened eligibility for unemployment benefits and their duration as well as introduced workfare elements into unemployment insurance and social policies in general. Thereby policy makers attempted to strengthen the...... incentive structure without taking resort to general benefit reductions. We argue that the workfare policies have played an important role running primarily via motivation/threat and wage effects. However, active labour market policies are resource demanding, and although the workfare reforms have improved...

  3. The Labour Market in CGE Models

    Boeters, Stefan; Savard, Luc

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews options of labour market modelling in a CGE framework. On the labour supply side, two principal modelling options are distinguished and discussed: aggregated, representative households and microsimulation based on individual household data. On the labour demand side, we focus on the substitution possibilities between different types of labour in production. With respect to labour market coordination, we discuss several wage-forming mechanisms and involuntary unemployment.

  4. Reforming Europe's Labour Market: Political Issues

    Saint-Paul, Gilles

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we study the political issues associated with reform in the European labour market. We first discuss the role played by labour market rigidities in European society, and argue that reform is a difficult task because many regulations and rigidities benefit the majority of the employed. We conclude by analysing possible strategies for successful labour market reform.

  5. What works and for whom: a review of OECD countries' experiences with active labour market policies

    Martin, John P.; Grubb, David

    2001-01-01

    Although rather discouraging in general, the evaluation literature indicates some measures that have been successful. Job-search assistance, wage subsidies in the private sector, and labour market training do work for some groups, even if the impacts are not large. Also, the evaluation literature focuses on the impacts of one-off programs. Regular interventions, such as job-search monitoring, intensive interviews, and referrals to vacant jobs, have rarely been evaluated rigorously. Recently, ...

  6. Global Trends in Labour Market Inequalities, Exclusion, Insecurity and Civic Activism

    Staveren, Irene; Hoeven, Rolph

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis background paper shows trends on economic inequalities, socio-economic exclusion and insecurity, and a civic dimension of democratization. Whereas most of these variables can be considered as measures of democratic performance, the last mentioned may be more suitably seen as a civic measure of legitimization of democratization. The inequalities concern income and other labour market inequality trends. The social measures, of exclusion and insecurity, assess the extent to whic...

  7. IMMIGRANTS’ LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Aurica-Iris ALEXE

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic con...

  8. IMMIGRANTS’ LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Aurica-Iris ALEXE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic consequences related to filling labour shortages by means of immigration and the how the labour immigration in Romania is taking shape as a result of employment policies and immigration regime. Furthermore, it reflects on the relevant legislative, institutional and policy developments that impact on the immigrants’ labour market integration in Romania. This research highlights how Romania makes use of the immigrant human capital and whether the characteristics and skills of the immigrant workforce represent a competitive resource on the national labour market.

  9. The Impact of Active Labour Market Policy on Post-Unemployment Outcomes:Evidence from a Social Experiment in Denmark

    Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While job search theory predicts that active labour market policies (ALMPs) can affect post-unemployment outcomes, empirical evaluations investigating transition rates have mostly focused on the impact of ALMPs on exit rates from the current unemployment spell. We use a social experiment, which was conducted in Denmark in 2005-6, to investigate the effects of a dramatic intensification of ALMPs on reemployment stability. We investigate the nature of this impact. We estimate a duration model w...

  10. Stochastic labour market shocks, labour market programmes, and human capital formation: a theoretical and empirical analysis

    Michael Lechner; Rosalia Vazquez-Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a life-cycle model of labour supply that captures endogenous human capital formation allowing for individual's heterogeneous responses to stochastic labour market shocks. The shocks determines conditions in the labour market and sort individuals into three labour market regimes; employment, unemployment with and unemployment without participation in labour market programmes. The structural model entails time independent stochastic shocks that have transitory ef...

  11. THE MAJOR TENDENCIES IN UKRAINES LABOUR MARKET

    Ostapa, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the current tendencies in Ukraines labour market and develops practical recommendations as to overcoming major disproportions and raising the demand for labour force.

  12. The Polish labour market in transition

    Steiner, Viktor; Kwiatkowski, Eugeniusz

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of labour force dynamics in Poland in the period 1992 - 1993. Transitions between employment, unemployment and non-participation in the labour force at the individual level are derived from panel data of the Polish Labour Force Survey. These transitions are related by means of a dynamic microeconometric model to various demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the labour force, labour market indicators and other structural variables. Based on ...

  13. Labour market segmentation: evidence from Cyprus.

    House WJ

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on labour market segmentation in Cyprus - discusses the segmentation process, labour immobility and wage differentials by sex, public sector, private sector and size of enterprise. References and statistical tables.

  14. Labour Market Matters - June 2014

    Tran, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    According to the standard economic model of crime, which assumes that individuals are rational decisions makers who consider the opportunity cost of crime and take into account the possibility of getting caught and punished; the concern that immigration can cause increases in crime is warranted, considering the fact that there is much empirical evidence that suggest the labour market does not provide as many good opportunities to immigrants than to native born. Indeed, previous studies have f...

  15. Dynamics and Performance of the Italian Labour Market

    Mussida Chiara; Lucarelli Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the dynamics and performance of the Italian labour market before and during the crisis using longitudinal 2004-2011 LFS data. To achieve an exhaustive picture of the labour marketwe propose investigation in two directions: we provide both a descriptive analysis and an econometric investigation by estimating probit models. We find that, at least as far as our analyses go, the labour market in Italy is quite active, and we confirm flaws in the conventional wisdom that the It...

  16. Euro area labour markets and the crisis

    Mulder, J.; M. Druant

    2012-01-01

    The article summarises the main findings of the Eurosystem’s 2012 Structural Issues Report (SIR) and highlights some specific aspects for Belgium. It describes the main developments on euro area labour markets since the start of the Great Recession and its impact on mismatches and long-term unemployment. The ensuing policy conclusions refer to detrimental factors like wage rigidities, hysteresis and labour market segmentation and aim at increasing labour market flexibility so as to facilitate...

  17. Local labour market performance through different activation rates, input and economic returns to human capital

    Stambol, Lasse Sigbjorn

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Efficient and instant matching of demand and supply of competent labour is one of the most important elements in territorial competitiveness. Well-functioning regions are expected to become net receivers of labour from other regions. In addition these regions are also expected to attract the most qualified labour and thus be the winners in the competition of the best human capital. On the other hand the most qualified labour expect to achieve as much returns to their human capital in...

  18. Imperfect competition in the labour market

    Manning, Alan

    2010-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that labour markets are pervasively imperfectly competitive, that there are rents to the employment relationship for both worker and employer. This chapter considers why it is sensible to think of labour markets as imperfectly competitive, reviews estimates on the size of rents, theories of and evidence on the distribution of rents between worker and employer, and the areas of labour economics where a perspective derived from imperfect competition makes a substan...

  19. Efficiency and Equality in the Labour Market

    Agell, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the costs and benefits of welfare state intervention in the labour market, and argues that many forms of intervention can be justified for efficiency reasons. The paper reviews recent evidence on income inequality and income mobility, and it discusses labour market reforms that may improve efficiency without violating European voters’ preference for equality.

  20. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND LABOUR MARKET IMPACTS

    Liana SON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to identify and analyse the impact of labour emigration on labour markets within the European Union. The analysis is based on developing double-log macroeconometric models that combine cross-section and time series in a panel structure, by using a set of indicators specific for the emigration process and labour market, as main explanatory variables. The results show that an intense emigration process has extremely negative effects on the size and structure of the labour force, generating its significant reduction, especially regarding the highly skilled labour. At the same time, we identified a relaxation of the labour market pressures generated by high unemployment, through a downsize of this rate and a slight increase in employment, mainly due to a general improvement of the local employment opportunities.

  1. Labour market policy and the reallocation of labour across sectors

    Jackman, Richard; Pauna, C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of labour market reallocation across broad industrial sectors in the transition economies of Eastern Europe since 1989. It offers various measures of the magnitude of labour misallocation and of the speed and efficiency of reallocation during the first half of the 1980s. It compares the performance of the economies of Eastern Europe with one another and with two Southern European economies, Greece and Portugal, which have also been experiencing substantial e...

  2. Gender inequality in the Serbian labour market

    Bošković Olgica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many positive changes have been implemented in Serbia since the beginning of the transition period, and while these improve the position of women in the labour market the main indicators still show significant gender differences. Women are the majority of the unemployed and there are significant differences between regions and districts, in fields of work, experience, and the length of time taken to find work. An analysis of trends in the labour market over the past decade shows a worsening of the position of women, with a lower participation in economic activity and employment, rising unemployment rates, and an increase in the average time to find work and the proportion of women in traditionally female occupations. Problems of gender inequality demand more attention in order to improve existing legislation and the implementation of economic policies in the labour market which will ensure higher participation of women with lower education, with special emphasis on increasing the motivation of these women to undergo continuing education and training.

  3. Labour Market Reform and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...

  4. Labour Market in Prague:2012

    Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad

    2013-01-01

    Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in Prague. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.

  5. Implications of Educational Attainment on Labour Market

    Claudia ŞERBAN

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between education and the labour force, now, when education is essential for any economy in order to increase and create value. This relation is reflected in an increasing supply of well-educated workers to promote economic development. Present education choices significantly affect labour market performance in the future, an assessment of the educational level of labour force being necessary in terms of changes ...

  6. Convergence in an Open Labour Market

    John Curtis; John FitzGerald

    1994-01-01

    This paper looks at how the Irish experience of integration has affected the labour market, bringing about convergence in labour costs between Ireland and the UK. A model of this process is developed and estimated which takes account of the fact that productive capacity and output are mobile within the EC economy and that integration affects the supply of labour through the potential for migration and changing expectations. The results indicate that changes In tax in the UK can affect the Iri...

  7. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading is equi.......JEL Classification: F15, J30, J50Keywords: trade frictions, wage formation, employment, welfare gains...

  8. Evaluating Innovation and Labour Market Relationships: The Case of Italy

    Luca Pieroni; Fabrizio Pompei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the link between labour market flexibility and innovation is analysed, paying particular attention to the different technological regimes of economic activities and the different geographical areas of the Italian economy. A dynamic panel data specification is used to assess the endogenous relationship between patents, included as a proxy of the innovation, and job turnover and wages which represent labour market indicators. The results show that higher job turnover only has a si...

  9. Implications of Educational Attainment on Labour Market

    Claudia ŞERBAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between education and the labour force, now, when education is essential for any economy in order to increase and create value. This relation is reflected in an increasing supply of well-educated workers to promote economic development. Present education choices significantly affect labour market performance in the future, an assessment of the educational level of labour force being necessary in terms of changes in occupational structure and labour demand and supply.

  10. Labour market institutions and labour market performance: A survey of the literature

    Alfonso Arpaia; Gilles Mourre

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a selective survey of the recent literature on labour market institutions. It describes the different empirical approaches used to explore the nexus between labour market institutions and labour market performance. It stresses that the effect of institutions is complex in both stock and flow models and that it is also crucial to take into account the interactions they generate among themselves and with macroeconomic shocks.

  11. Labour market integration and its effect on child labour

    Gärtner, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This note demonstrates that when developing countries remove barriers to migration and integrate their labour markets, children may be driven out of schools and into informal or paid employment in the comparatively rich countries. In industrialized countries, the same mechanism might force individuals or families to hold multiple jobs, into public welfare programs or into government-subsidized employment.

  12. Job-seeker as a Product of the Labour Market

    Chlumská, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis presents labour as a product of the labour market with the same marketing patterns like any other market. This thesis demonstrates that is possible to apply marketing tools, such as marketing mix on the labour market and labour force. It aims to describe and analyze factors which are affecting the exchange of the labour force. The work is divided into two main parts. First part deals with labour force as a product of the labour market in general. The second part is devoted...

  13. Labour Market Dynamics in Pakistan: Evidence from the Longitudinal Data

    G.M. Arif; M. F. Kiani; Khalid H. Sheikh

    2002-01-01

    The bulk of research on labour market conditions in Pakistan has concentrated on the economic activity rate, the number of employed persons, or the unemployment rate at a particular point in time. These stock measures of labour market situation are useful from a policy viewpoint as they give a broad indication of the dimension of the problem. For example, the recent labour force surveys show an increase in the level of open unemployment from 5.9 percent in 1997-98 to 7.8 percent in 1999-2000 ...

  14. LEARNING AS PRECONDITION TO STAY ACTIVE IN LABOUR MARKET FOR ELDER PEOPLE

    Rutkiene, Ausra; Lengvinienе, Silva

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays society is getting older in European countries. Technologies, speed of life requires higher level of abilities and competencies. People who are 55 and older are very experienced in their workplace but some of them cannot catch changes in their professional area. Quantitative research results demonstrate that learning is one of important factors which helps to stay active in labor market for longer time. People participate in different learning activities to get more professional comp...

  15. Immigrant Assimilation Pre and Post Labour Market Entry: Evidence from the UK Labour Force Survey

    Lindley, JK; Clark, K.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate models of employment an earnings for a sample of white and non-white male immigrants drawn from the Labour Force Survey between 1993 and 2004. Immigrants who arrived to enter the labour market (labour market entrants) are distinguished from those who arrived to complete their education (education entrants). Diverse patterns of labour market assimilation are found depending on ethnicity and immigrant type. Amongst labour market entrants, whites do better than non-whites, whilst amo...

  16. The labour market impact of immigration

    Dustmann, C.; Glitz, A.; Frattini, T.

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, we present a stylised model of the labour market impact of immigration. We then discuss mechanisms through which an economy can adjust to immigration: changes in factor prices, output mix and production technology. In the second part, we explain the problems of empirically estimating how immigration affects labour market outcomes of the resident population and review some strategies to address these. We then summarise some recent empirical studies for the UK a...

  17. Immigration and the UK Labour Market

    David Metcalf

    2012-01-01

    During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. Perceptions do not seem to line up with the existing academic evidence. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration in general and EU immigration in particular have still not, on average, materialised. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immig...

  18. Assessing Labour Market Vulnerability among Young People

    Theo Sparreboom; Lubna Shahnaz

    2007-01-01

    Labour market performance in Pakistan has improved markedly in recent years. This paper examines the extent to which young people have benefited from this improvement, using the labour market vulnerability framework that was recently introduced by the ILO. This framework can be used to assess the difficulties young people face on the road to decent employment, and may also serve as a basis for the development of appropriate policies and interventions. Drawing on empirical evidence from variou...

  19. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  20. Optimal tax progressivity in imperfect labour markets

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    All modern labour market theories capable of explaining involuntary unemployment as an equilibrium phenomenon imply that increased income tax progressivity reduces unemployment, but they also imply that higher progressivity tends to reduce work effort and labour productivity. This suggests that...... there may be an optimal degree of tax progressivity where the marginal welfare gain from reduced involuntary unemployment is just offset by the marginal welfare loss from lower productivity. This paper sets up four different models of an imperfect labour market in order to identify the degree of tax...

  1. Migration in a segmented labour market.

    Gordon, I

    1995-01-01

    "Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves." PMID:12157825

  2. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-off

    Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently skil...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training.......This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...

  3. EFFECTS OF INTEGRATION AND GLOBALISATION ON LABOUR MARKET

    Valentina Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The relationship economic globalization and labour market functionality is multidimensional and more and more complex. The factors of globalization generate effects that are at once favourable and unfavourable on the national labour market. Lifelong learning and labour force mobility are two essential factors of adjusting national labour market policies in the context of post-accession.

  4. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  5. The Major Tendencies in Ukraine’s Labour Market

    Oksana Ostapa

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the currenttendencies in Ukraine’s labour market and develops practical recommendations as to overcoming major disproportions and raisingthe demand for labour force. The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the currenttendencies in Ukraine’s labour market and develops practical recommendations a...

  6. ASPECTS REGARDING LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND OTHER EUROPEAN STATES

    Adrian TĂNASE; Tănase, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the main aspects related to the labour market. It starts by several theoretical aspects in relation with the human capital and labour market, and continues by the investigation of labour productiveness and of unemployment rate, revealing at the same time the correlation between the education level and the insertion to the labour market. Furthermore, a comparative survey is conducted regarding the efficiency of the labour market in Romania and in the other EU count...

  7. Labour market impacts from disability onset

    Cain Polidano; Ha Vu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the causal labour market impacts of disability onset up to four years after onset using longitudinal data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) survey and difference-in-difference propensity score matching techniques. We find lasting negative impacts on employment, especially full-time employment, which is linked more to reduced movement into full-time employment than to downshifting from full-time to part-time work. Longer-term, impacts on ...

  8. Migrant Educational Mismatch and the Labour Market

    Piracha, Matloob; Vadean, Florin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on educational mismatch of immigrants in the labour market of destination countries. It draws on the theoretical arguments postulated in the labour economics literature and discusses their extension in the analysis of the causes and effects of immigrants' educational mismatch in the destination country. Relevant empirical approaches have been presented which show that immigrants are in general more over-educated than natives and that the reasons for those ran...

  9. Illegal Immigration and Agrarian Labour Market

    Venancio Salcines

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the relation which exists between a landowner and the immigrant workers contracted illegally by this person. For this reason, a theoretical model is developed based on the interconnection between the illegal and legal labour market. The big landowner analysed exercises a monopolistic power in the contracting of illegal manual labour. The application of a tariff in two parts permits this big landowner to obtain a greater surplus from the worker.

  10. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries for...

  11. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    Andersen, Torben M.; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance* In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered how imperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goods trade. Easier goods trading is equivalent to increased mobility of employment across countries and thus a change in the trade-off between wages and employment faced by wage setters. While the effects of product mar...

  12. Labour market in the Catalan cotton textile sector: Employment and fertility (1850-1913)

    Camps Cura, Enriqueta

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals whit the dynamics of the Catalan textile labour market (the Spanish region that concentrated most of the industrial and factory activity during the 19 Century) and offers hypotheses and results on the impact it had on living standards and fertility levels. We observe the formation of an uneven labour market in which male supply for labour (excluding women and children) grew much faster than the demand. We stress the fact that labour supply is very dependant ...

  13. The rise (and fall) of labour market programmes: The role of global and domestic factors

    Gaston, Noel; Rajaguru, Gulasekaran

    2004-01-01

    We study the political economy of labour market policies. First, it is shown that tax and redistributive considerations lead inside workers to prefer spending on active labour market programmes to passive spending, e.g., on unemployment benefits. We also show that greater active spending may be a feature of globalising economies. In the empirical work, panel data for OECD countries are used to examine the relationship between active and passive labour market spending, various measures of glob...

  14. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries' ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore...

  15. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  16. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel the...... causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional on...

  17. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  18. Early labour market returns to college subject

    Pozzoli, Dario; Buonanno, Paolo

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  19. Labour Market Policies in International Trade

    Henriksen, Jonas Juul

    2014-01-01

    Within a frictional labour market, the unemployed workers endogenously determine their level of job search. The theoretical setting is a two-country international trade model with heterogeneous firms in line with Melitz (2003). The workers are homogeneous but can be in one of two states in the la......Within a frictional labour market, the unemployed workers endogenously determine their level of job search. The theoretical setting is a two-country international trade model with heterogeneous firms in line with Melitz (2003). The workers are homogeneous but can be in one of two states...

  20. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece of...... national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...... assistance for non-members. The first tier is basically state-run system, while the second tier is administered by the municipalities. As for the performance of the Danish labour market, participation rates are quite high and although unemployment rates are relatively high and differentiated across groups...

  1. Labour market institutions and their effect on labour market performance in the new EU member countries

    Fialová, Kamila; Schneider, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of labour market institutions in explaining different labour market developments in European countries, with a special attention to the new European Union member countries. This may allow us to analyse effects of various institutional setups and of their changes on major labour market indicators. We aim at complementing several studies from the late 1990’s by using more recent data that allow us to compare institutional setups from the mid 1990’s and early 200...

  2. Evaluating labour market flexibility in V4 countries

    Němec Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This contribution focuses on evaluation of labour market flexibility in the V4 countries. These countries have similar historical destiny but the economic transition led to new labour market institutions. Labour market outcomes are thus quite different in the last decades. Using a small closed DSGE model with search and matching frictions, the main structural labour market differences among these countries are revealed. These differences are related to the changes in separation rates, matchin...

  3. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  4. The Social Protection of Young People on the Labour Market

    Pobeda Loukanova

    2011-01-01

    The position of the young people on the Bulgarian labour market is presented in details, together with the possibilities for easy transfers to their first jobs. The stress is put on the increasing vulnerability of the youth employment in the period of recent crisis and on its specific problems in Bulgaria. The social protection of the young people in the field of education, and as active and passive policies on the labour market is examined from the point of view of the specific youth problem...

  5. Labour market transitions and job satisfaction

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); A. van Dijk (Bram); J. de Koning (Jaap)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction w

  6. Regional labour market research on participation rates

    Elhorst, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the methodology of 17 empirical studies in which the participation rate has been estimated with the help of regional data. After defining and pointing our the orientation of regional labour market research on participation rates, three methodological issues dominate the discussi

  7. Learning for career and labour market transitions

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Juul, Ida

    Presentation of the results of 21 narrative interviews with people in middle range positions in the Danish labour market focusing on learning and support during transitions. The narratives presented bring forth many paradoxes in the Danish model and education and training system. There seems to be...

  8. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…

  9. Global competition and the labour market

    Driffield, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    This study combines an industry level and a firm level analysis on the wage and employment effects of multinational companies. This has not been attempted in any previous work. In view of the results, important questions are raised regarding how global changes in the structure of production may affect labour markets and the organisation of work in the future.

  10. The Impact of Training-Intensive Labour Market Policies on Labour and Educational Prospects of NEETS: Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…

  11. Labour market segmentation in Britain: the decline of occupational labour markets and the spread of ‘entry tournaments'

    Marsden, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing pattern of labour market segmentation in Britain since the mid-1970s. In the early 1980s, industrial labour markets in Britain, along with Germany, could be characterised as dominated by occupational labour markets for skilled workers compared with the predominance of firm internal labour markets in France and Italy. These provided for structured entry paths into the relevant occupations and jobs. Britain’s position in this picture has changed as a result of th...

  12. Revisiting German labour market reform effects : a panel data analysis for occupational labour markets

    Stops, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion that centres on the German labour market reforms (2003- 2005) and the role of these reforms in boosting the German economy. Considering that one of the main objectives of the reforms was to improve the matching process on the labour market, I use rich, high-frequency, and recent administrative panel data to present new details regarding the development of job-matching performance before and after the reform years. The results show that matching productivity incr...

  13. Labour Market Progression of Canadian Immigrant Women

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether Canadian immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the labor market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit the profile of secondary workers, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by marrie...

  14. Graduates’ integration on the labour market

    Palade, A.; Constantin, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the st...

  15. Helping the Unemployed. Active Labour Market Policies in Britain and Germany.

    Disney, Richard; And Others

    Both Germany and Great Britain have recently experienced increases in unemployment. Both countries have developed substantial labor market programs. Germany offers full-time adult training and retraining courses for employed and unemployed persons. Great Britain has a system of youth training but, until recently, has done little for adults. It has…

  16. Social and occupational security and labour market flexibility in Sweden: the case of unemployment compensation

    Lindquist, Gabriella Sjögren; Wadensjö, Eskil

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish labour market and social policy is aimed at facilitating flexibility in the labour market. The active labour market policy and the design of the social security pension system are two frequently mentioned examples of that policy. This does not necessarily mean that all policy programs are in accordance with the goal of enhancing flexibility. In this paper we analyze one part of the social and occupational (collectively bargained) security system - the compensation at unemployment ...

  17. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    Nour S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics 2010 the Fifth Sudan Population and Housing Census 2008. We explain several stylized facts on the relation between the structure of the labour market and demographic structure, labour force, participation rates...

  18. Fiscal Multipliers and the Labour Market in the Open Economy

    Faia, Ester; Lechthaler, Wolfgang; Merkl, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Several contributions have recently assessed the size of fiscal multipliers both in RBC models and New Keynesian models. None of the studies considers a model with frictional labour markets which is a crucial element, particularly at times in which much of the fiscal stimulus has been directed toward labour market measures. We use an open economy model (more specifically, a currency area calibrated to the European Monetary Union) with labour market frictions in the form of labour turnover cos...

  19. Life-course health and labour market exit in thirteen European countries : results from SHARELIFE

    Avendano, Mauricio; Mackenbach, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Headlines Health and labour market participation Measuring labour market exits and health Illness over the life-course The impact of illness on labour market exit The role of public health and labour policies Conclusions

  20. Labour Market Issues in Pakistan: Unemployment, Working Conditions, and Child Labour

    Sabur Ghayur

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s labour market is showing its inability to continue the past trend of labour absorption. Generation of additional work opportunities commensurate with labour supplies, increasing by over 3 percent annually, has emerged as the most formidable challenge of the nineties. The labour market is presently confronted with the twin menace of unemployment and underemployment. Although, the rate of unemployment has not as yet assumed serious proportions, the worrying aspect of this 5 percent u...

  1. Shortages in the labour market: an analysis of employers' behaviour

    Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Remery, C.; Schippers, J.

    2008-01-01

    Different policies are being promoted to increase the labour supply in ageing labour markets. This article presents the results of a large-scale survey carried out among Dutch employers into their management of the constraints presented by a tight labour market. Organizations take different measures

  2. ASPECTS REGARDING LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND OTHER EUROPEAN STATES

    Adrian TĂNASE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the main aspects related to the labour market. It starts by several theoretical aspects in relation with the human capital and labour market, and continues by the investigation of labour productiveness and of unemployment rate, revealing at the same time the correlation between the education level and the insertion to the labour market. Furthermore, a comparative survey is conducted regarding the efficiency of the labour market in Romania and in the other EU countries. The paper ends by forwarding a series of conclusions related to the labour market in Romania, identifying several measures meant to boost the labour market competitiveness in our country. The methods used in the present paper are the interpretative method, the structural-systemic approach, as well as the epistemological method.

  3. The problems of the labour market in Romania

    Sabina Irimie; Virginia Băleanu; Petru Hodor

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence factors regarding the phenomenons and trends upon the labour market in order to remake informations for taking some decisions respecting the occupation of the labour force and fighting against unemployment by sundries measures.

  4. Tax policy, housing and the labour market

    Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen;

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing unit......, and a public pension system. We simulate the model to illustrate some macroeconomic, allocative and distributional effects of a policy experiment involving a 10% cut in the capital income tax rate......This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units...

  5. The Impact of Active Labour Market Policy on Post-Unemployment Outcomes

    Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael

    was conducted in Denmark in 2005-6, to investigate the effects of a dramatic intensification of ALMPs on reemployment stability. We investigate the nature of this impact. We estimate a duration model with lagged duration dependence to separately identify "indirect" (via shorter unemployment duration......) and "direct" (through a more efficient matching process) effects of ALMPs on subsequent employment duration. We find that overall intensive activation significantly reduces unemployment recurrence for men, but not for women. When we control for dynamic selection into employment and lagged duration dependence...

  6. Adapting to Globalised Product and Labour Markets

    Steedman, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    Rapidly changing labour markets in European countries are a challenge for young people seeking employment. While in many countries around half of all young people move into tertiary education, apprenticeship provides a recognised route to skill for some or all of those who seek to move directly into employment after school. The paper identifies two distinct models of apprenticeship in Europe, the well-established demand-driven model found in the German-speaking countries and in Denmark and th...

  7. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new...... ethnic group size on average increases the employment probability of refugees by 4 percentage points and earnings by 21 percent. I argue that in case of heterogeneous treatment effects, the estimated effects are local average treatment effects....

  8. Provincial labour market study : mould remediation industry

    Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention and

  9. Labour market transitions and job satisfaction

    Bijwaard, Govert; Van Dijk, Bram; Koning, Jaap de

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction with the job and discrepancies between the actual and the desired number of hours worked. Transitions can be changes in the hours worked, changes to a different job and/or employers, or combinations...

  10. Job quality and labour market performance

    Erhel, Christine; Guergoat-Larivière, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Job quality is a multidimensional concept, but the empirical analysis of job quality in Europe leads to three main types of result. First, it reveals important differences across countries, with four main regimes prevalent in Europe. Second, it supports the hypothesis that a higher level of job quality is associated with better labour market and economic performance. Finally, it emphasises the heterogeneity of quality across social groups, especially according to gender, age, and education.

  11. Labour market discrimination as an agency cost

    Méon, Pierre-Guillaume; Szafarz, Ariane

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies labour market discriminations as an agency problem. It sets up a principal-agent model of a firm, where the manager is a taste discriminator and has to make unobservable hiring decisions that determine the shareholder’s profits because workers differ in skills. The paper shows that performance-based contracts may moderate the manager’s propensity to discriminate, but that it is unlikely to fully eliminate discrimination.

  12. The labour market on the hypercube

    Araújo, Tanya; Weisbuch, Gérard

    2008-02-01

    Positions offered on a labour market and workers preferences are described here by bit strings representing individual traits. We study the co-evolution of workers and firms preferences modeled by such traits. Individual “size-like” properties are controlled by binary encounters whose outcomes depend upon a recognition process. Depending upon the parameter set-up, mutual selection of workers and positions results in different types of attractors, either an exclusive niches regime or a competition regime.

  13. Earnings Capacity and Labour Market Participation

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Fontein, P.F.; Euwals, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze models for individuals' labour market state.We distinguish between full-time and part-time work, but also between various types of economic inactivity, i.e. unemployment, disability, early retirement and working in the household.We consider the impact on the state probabilities of individual attributes, with emphasis on earnings capacity.We take account of the problem that only earnings of workers are observed, and of the potential endogeneity of earnings.We generalize the multinom...

  14. Trade, technical change, and labour market adjustment

    Heitger, Bernhard; Stehn, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    The paper empirically examines three possible reasons for the high and rising unemployment of low-skilled employees in Germany: (i) an upsurge in interindustry trade, (ii) a skill-biased technical change, and (iii) a failure of labour market adjustment. The empirical analyses indicate that an exogenous wage-setting process as well as a bundle of factors, including a skill-biased technical and structural change, have contributed to the decline in relative demand for low-skilled employees in Ge...

  15. Factor Complementarity and Labour Market Dynamics

    Federico di Pace; Stefania Villa

    2014-01-01

    We propose and estimate a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model featuring search and matching frictions, deep habits and a CES production function. The model successfully replicates the cyclical properties of labour market variables in the US economy for three main reasons. First, the endogenous mechanisms of the model – factor complementarity, deep habits and unemployment benefits – play a key role for explaining the amplification in unemployment and vacancies. Second, factor-bias...

  16. GRADUATES’ COMPETENCIES FOR THE INNOVATION LABOUR MARKET

    Natalia Shmatko

    2013-01-01

    The paper highlights key research questions that concern skills and abilities of highly qualified personnel who are employed in the innovation related professions in the labour market. Developing a national system of competencies which would allow selecting and training personnel capable of creating and applying innovations is a very challenging task. The solution implies first of all the construction of the relevant methodologies and tools for the assessment of competencies acquired during v...

  17. Informal production and labour market segmentation

    John Bennett

    2011-01-01

    An industry is modeled in which entrepreneurs, who are heterogeneous in ability, may produce formally or informally. Two cases are distinguished, with and without labour market segmentation, for which different patterns of formal/informal supply obtain. Without segmentation, informality may generate production where otherwise there would be none. Typically, however, a trade-off obtains: when informality makes output higher it cuts the profit of the most able entrepreneurs, potentially damagin...

  18. Labour Market Institutions and Employment Thresholds. An International Comparison

    Flaig, Gebhard; Rottmann, Horst

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects to labour market institutions on labour market performance. We analyse the employment threshold (the minimum growth rate necessaryto keep employment constant) which is an indicator for the labour intensity of production. We show for 17 OECD countries for the period 1971 to 2002 that the strictness of employment protection, the extent of wage bargaining co-ordination and the tax wedge reduce the labour intensity of production and raise the employment threshold.

  19. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET. MOBILITY, CAREER DEVELOPMENT, INCOMES. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Vasile Liviu; Vasile Valentina

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates) highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, pr...

  20. Labour Markets and Monetary Union: A Strategic Analysis

    Cukierman, Alex; Lippi, Francesco

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic consequences of the establishment of a monetary union in the presence of unionized labour markets. It is shown that the effects of the formation of a monetary union depend on several labour market features, such as the degree of centralization of wage bargaining, labour unions' inflation aversion and the degree of substitutability between the labour of different unions. In particular, the switch from national monetary policies to a unified monetary policy...

  1. Obesity and Labour Market Outcomes

    Greve, Jane

    This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined with...

  2. Measuring Inefficiency of the Czech Labour Market

    Němec Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the performance of the Czech regional labour markets and to reveal the most influential economic factors standing behind its dynamics in the last fifteen years. Investigated labour markets are described using matching function approach. The successful matches are treated as an output of production process, where the unemployed are paired with vacancies. Efficiency of this matching process plays an important role in determining unemployment outflows. Using stochastic frontier model approach, dynamics of quantified efficiency terms is revealed and differences among regions are evaluated. The model specification includes a fixed effect term, where individual effect terms and inefficiency terms are estimated jointly. The stochastic frontier is estimated using monthly and quarterly regional panel data of 77 districts for the period 1999-2014. Matching efficiency of the Czech regional labour markets is negatively influenced people who have been unemployed for a long time and by the unemployed aged over 50 years. Although all districts were able to operate at their stochastic frontiers of matching, an upward trend in the inefficiency has been found within the investigated period. These tendencies are accompanied by rising disparities among the regions. Low levels of estimated matching inefficiency do not necessary mean the low unemployment in the corresponding districts.

  3. Legislative and Institutional Framework for Controlling the Romanian Labour Market

    Dorina Niţă

    2007-01-01

    As soon as the transition to a new organization form was made, the changes from the Romanian economy (privatization, technological and organizational restructuring, the introduction of mechanisms characteristic for the market economy) have led to new coordinates of the labour market in our country. By knowing all the elements which characterize the labour market, one is able to outline the action coordinates in order to ensure an efficient management of the labour market – on regional level, ...

  4. Unemployment and labour market institutions : the failure of the empirical case for deregulation

    Baker, Dean; Glyn, Andrew; Howell, David; Schmitt, John

    2004-01-01

    Based on a survey of the literature, assesses the strength of the evidence regarding the effects of labour market institutions and regulations on unemployment. Considers the effects of employment protection, trade union density, bargaining coordination, unemployment benefits, the labour tax wedge and active labour market policies. Argues that empirical results are largely inconclusive and suggests that there is no single model that guarantees successful employment performance.

  5. Classification of labour markets in the Silesian Province (Poland

    Sitek Sławomir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to try to classify labour markets of the Silesian Province on the municipality level. The proposed solution of grouping labour markets is based on three criteria: the size of the labour market measured by a number of jobs, the weight of the labour market expressed with a proportion of the number of jobs to the size of the population and that scale of the impact that is a proportion of the commuters to the ones leaving for work. As a result of the assumed criteria the municipalities have been grouped according to their meaning on the labour market, at the same time identifying weaker and stronger labour markets. The first stage of the research was to divide the municipal labour markets according to the number of the employed. As a result territorial units were grouped into 4 classes (small, medium, big and huge including in total 9 subclasses. Then the municipal labour markets were sorted according to their weight and the scale of their impact, verifying their position in this way. The research pointed out that a lot of labour markets in the Katowice conurbation showed lower levels than the assumptions. Consequently, it suggests polarization of the labour market of this urban unit that is mainly focused on Katowice and Gliwice. Higher parameters than the assumed ones were reached by several municipalities that are small or medium labour markets. In many cases these are municipalities where there are huge businesses connected with coal mining. A beneficial situation was noted in the southern part of the province that has a relatively steady situation on the labour market. The presented classification of labour markets can support the management process of local and regional development.

  6. The Labour Market and Alumni

    Němečková, Adéla

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the issue of graduates applying for the job market. A particular attention is paid to the current structure of students and graduates, in addition the selected economic indicators and other areas of the given issue. The work interlinks the theoretical background of the society-wide phenomenon dealing with education and unemployment mainly focused on the specifics of the graduates. A part of the thesis is also a survey that describes the current situation within tertiary ...

  7. Does product market competition improve the labour market performance ?

    Cardullo, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I construct a general equilibrium model in which the labour market exhibits search frictions, whereas Cournot competition is assumed in the goods market. The properties of the long run free-entry equilibrium show that a more competitive product market raises employment, but it has ambiguous effects both on the real wage and on the utility of the employees. Moreover, from a normative viewpoint, the level of employment and the degree of competition may be ineffi...

  8. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications of the...... labourmarket reform effect of product market integration is achieved despitean increase in the wage level.JEL Classification: F15, J30, J50.Keywords: Trade frictions, wage formation, employment, welfaregains....

  9. Graduates’ integration on the labour market

    Palade, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the study programs’ curriculum, in order to build specific competences for students, which make them capable to obtain a better job position after graduation.

  10. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET. MOBILITY, CAREER DEVELOPMENT, INCOMES. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Vasile Liviu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, professional and personal satisfaction opportunities which are provided by the labour market at local level, in country and abroad. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are presented about Romanian youths' labour market within the European context during the transition period. The impact of the crisis on youths' labour market is analysed, highlighting the challenges and opportunities, the particularities of the newly created jobs and especially the knowledge, skills and competencies requirements (KSC. The authors propose both the improvement of the systems of indicators for defining the potential and presence of youth on the labour market, the economic and social impact of external mobility of young graduates and an integrated scheme of policy measures for promoting adaptability and performance integration on Romanian labour market of youth. Particular attention is paid to presenting policy instruments for halting/diminishing the brain drain and brain shopping phenomena by promoting an attractive (professionally and monetary supply for employment in Romania's local economy. The authors succeed in highlighting the functional links between the education market (labour force supply and labour market (employment demand of the business environment underpinning the requirement of integrated management of labour potential in the years preceding studies' finalization and up to the post-insertion years by multi-criteria analysis models and graduate career tracking

  11. Labour Market Matters - July 2013

    Tran, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    How does time off from work affect an individual’s job prospects? A study by CLSRN affiliates Kory Kroft (University of Toronto), Fabian Lange (McGill University) and Matthew J. Notowidigdo (University of Chicago) entitled “Duration Dependence and Labor Market Conditions: Theory and Evidence from a Field Experiment†(CLSRN Working Paper no. 101) examines the role of employer behavior in generating “negative duration dependence†– the adverse effect of a longer unemployment spell on ...

  12. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Tanase Diana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.

  13. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has been developed the lohn production system. The gross labour was among the most required in this area, the design and sales activities were often external customer's responsibility. The old factories were not able to adapt to the new conditions, so many of them reduced the activity. In the end it led to a major layoff of labour force both in light industry, as well as in associated areas. Only a part of it has managed to reintegrate in the new enterprises which were more adapted to current market conditions. Solving the problem of excess labour force, given its presence especially in rural areas and in mono-industrial towns, representative areas and the developing Region South-West Oltenia, also involves the relaunching of light industry. There is need to support the internal sources of supply of raw materials, as well as a new view related to the selling of products, based on creative activities and exploration of markets. These marks can lead to occupational integration of the excess labour force and to ensure the social balance in the areas affected by the restructuring of national economy.

  14. The Interdependence between Social Protection System and Labour Market

    Mihaela Cristina MOSTAVI

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of social policy impact over the labour market focuses on assessing the interdependence between the social protection system and the labour market, and performance of the social policies management, determinant factor in order to achieve simultaneous acceleration for social inclusion and social protection. The relationship of interdependence between the social protection system and the labour market was analysed through the main social protection, economic and social indicators a...

  15. HUMAN CAPITAL, INEQUALITIES AND LABOUR MARKET PARTICIPATION IN ROMANIA

    Ana-Maria ZAMFIR; Cristina MOCANU

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse characteristics of the labour market participation in Romania in order to highlight the existing inequalities in employment opportunities. Official statistics are analysed for providing an in-depth overview of the recent evolutions of the Romanian labour market. Special attention will be given to gender, rural-urban and age inequalities. The results show significant gaps in labour market participation for specific groups such as people living in rural areas, women a...

  16. Essays on labour market frictions and fiscal policy

    Obstbaum, Meri

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyzes labour market fluctuations and fiscal policy from the perspective of a small monetary union member state, namely Finland. The first essay identifies how frictions in the labour market shape the responses of the economy to government spending shocks. The nature of offsetting fiscal measures is found to be critical for the effects of fiscal stimulus, due to the different effects of different tax instruments on the labour market. Shifting the debt-stabilizing burden tow...

  17. BNew Developments in the Australian Labour Market in 2006

    O'Brien, Martin; Valadkhani, Abbas; Waring, Peter; Denniss, Richard

    2007-01-01

    2006 generally represented a solid year in terms of macroeconomic performance and labour market indicators, even under the threat of increasing inflation and interest rates. However, some favourable aggregate labour market indicators disguised major disparities at disaggregated regional, sectoral or demographic levels. The major development in the labour market was the implementation and operation of the WorkChoices legislation which will shape the industrial relations landscape in Australia ...

  18. New forms of labour market segmentation, insecurity and professional relations

    Lamotte, Bruno; Zubiri-Rey, Jon Bernat

    2008-01-01

    In the institutionalist analysis of labour markets, the segmentationist approaches are an interesting tool for understanding the employment models. In this paper we will try to show how these approaches must be adapted to the new labour market phenomena in France and what their impact on the French professional relations is. In the first part of this paper, we will show that the evolution of the internal labour markets question the traditional professional promotion and stabilisation in prima...

  19. Wages and Subjective Assessments of Regional Labour Market Pressure

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    We utilise a rich set of regional labour market variables to explain regional variation in Norwegian manufacturing wages. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects. We find that average reported satisfaction with local job prospects and other survey-based indicators perform better in regional wage equations than traditional labour market variables, including the regional unemploymen...

  20. Immigrant Labour Market Assimilation and Arrival Effects: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey

    Clark, K; Lindley, J.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate models of earnings and employment outcomes for a sample of white and non-white male immigrants drawn from the Labour Force Survey between 1993 and 2002. Two hypotheses are investigated: (i) whether immigrant outcomes assimilate towards those of natives and (ii) whether labour market conditions at time of entry to the UK labour market have a permanent impact on outcomes. We find positive earnings assimilation for all immigrant groups and strong employment assimilation for those imm...

  1. Labour Market Matters - January 2013

    Tran, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    As developed countries shift more toward knowledge-based economic activities, information, technology, and learning play an increasingly important role. The use and adoption of new technologies by firms and workers constitutes a critical component of the process of technological diffusion and advancement. A paper by CLSRN affiliates Craig Riddell (University of British Columbia) and Xueda Song (York University) entitled “The Role of Education in Technology Use and Adoption: Evidence from th...

  2. Addressing Gender Gaps in the Ugandan Labour Market

    Kasirye, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Four out of every five women in Uganda are employed in agriculture, according to the 2008 Gender and Productivity Survey (GPS) in Uganda (EPRC, 2009); and 42 percent of women in the labour force are unpaid family workers—receiving no income despite contributing the largest proportion of the agricultural labour. Gender discrimination in the labour market is a pervasive economic problem in developing countries.1 Discrimination based on sex can take many forms in the labour market—from restricte...

  3. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

  4. Cultural Diversity and Local Labour Markets

    Suedekum, Jens; Wolf, Katja; Blien, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade there have been marked changes in the composition of the non-native workforce in the German labour market. In particular there has been a notable increase in the diversity of nationalities of which the foreign workforce is composed. In this paper we investigate the effects of this diversity for native employees. Our analysis is conducted at the local level and uses a panel of 326 Western German regions over the time period 1995-2006. When considering high-skilled foreig...

  5. Immigrant earnings in the Italian labour market

    Antonio Accetturo; Luigi Infante

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between individual skills and labour market performance of immigrants residing in Lombardy during the period 2001-2005. We use a recent dataset collected by the NGO ISMU, which includes information on individual characteristics and the legal status of each immigrant. Our results show that returns on schooling are positive and range from 0.8 per cent to 0.9 per cent, a figure that is much lower than the one estimated for native Italians. This...

  6. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has bee...

  7. Liberalism versus interventionism to the labour market. The case of Poland as a transition country

    Waclaw Jarmolowicz; Katarzyna Szarzec

    2010-01-01

    An objective of a paper is to compare views of liberal economy and interventionism to a labour market and labour market policy. It is a ground for discussing a concept of labour market in a transition economy.

  8. Labour market transitions in policy and in everyday life

    Thomsen, Rie; Cort, Pia

    In a time where transitions between jobs and in and out of the labour market are likely to become more frequent the way we conceptualise and experience ‘ transitions’ becomes equally important. In EU policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of the flexicurity model and its...... the 1990s focus in the employment policy has shifted gradually and introduced the ideas of activation and the duty of the unemployed to pursue employment. Unemployment has been individualized as a problem and focus has moved from upskilling to rapid re-integration into the labour market, hereby...... discourse has effect on the micro level where at the same time citizens are struggling to make radical changes to their working life. Changes that could be supported by recognizing pauses as productive and in line with the ideas and values that flexicurity was built upon....

  9. Graduate Labour Market Mismatches: New Features Of An Older Matter

    Mihai KORKA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society progress depends on innovation, on the knowledge acquired through education, on the science put in practice with the purpose of improving the natural, economic, technical and social condition of human life. Universities are in that favoured position of keeping and creating science, of training through and for science. But, universities face today a series of challenges originated in their relation with the state, with the actors from the national and international extra-university environment, in particular with those active in the labour market. The article explores a variety of education mismatches in the graduate labour market: from over-education to skill mismatches and their impact on the employability. It also focuses on the expected improvement of quality management and of the shared responsibilities for the employability of graduates in the interaction between universities and employers.

  10. Urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe the competitiveness of urban and regional labour markets becomes an increasingly important task for regional and sector policies. Efficient matching of local demand and supply of labour at different qualification levels is considered to be an important prerequisite both for economic growth and social cohesion in every region. This study contains the main results of a research project analysing the urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway. The main purpose of the study...

  11. COMPETITIVENESS OF WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MARKET IN LATGALE

    Zvaigzne, Anda; Saulāja, Inese; Čerpinska, Aija

    2014-01-01

    Competitiveness in the labour market is a range of various factors that assist an employee in getting or retaining a job, while an employer can attract and maintain a labour force adequate to meet the employer’s needs. The research aim is to examine the competitiveness of women in the labour market in Latvia and to develop proposals for its improvement. The present research deals with employment trends, especially focusing on statistical data on women. The research also examines statistical d...

  12. Effects of Business Cycles on Labour Market Assimilation of Immigrants

    Abdurrahman Aydemir

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of macroeconomic conditions on the labour market outcomes of immigrants. It simultaneously identifies the separate effects of macro conditions at the time of entry to the labour market and at the time of the survey, while allowing for cohort effects. Also, for the first time in literature the impacts on labour force participation along with employment outcomes are explored. The study uses 19 annual cross-sections of the Survey of Consumer Finances covering the...

  13. De-Professionalization through managerialization in labour market policy

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Nørup, Iben

    2015-01-01

    Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications......Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications...

  14. Computing Careers and Irish Higher Education: A Labour Market Anomaly

    Stephens, Simon; O'Donnell, David; McCusker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of developments in the Irish economy and labour market on computing course development in the higher education (HE) sector. Extant computing courses change, or new courses are introduced, in attempts to match labour market demands. The conclusion reached here, however, is that Irish HE is producing insufficient…

  15. The increased labour market participation of Dutch students

    van der Meer, P; Wielers, R

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1980s students' labour market participation in the Netherlands has increased enormously. The first part of this article offers a description of the changed labour market position of students in the Netherlands. It demonstrates that this is the result both of changes in the

  16. Evaluating Labour's market reforms, 2002-10.

    Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show. PMID:22315473

  17. Labour Market Segmentation : a Comparison between France and the UK From the Eighties to nowadays

    Valette, Aline

    2004-01-01

    Regarding changes in French and British labour market as in their educational system since the Eighties, one may address the evolution of their labour market segmentation. Is the predominance of Internal Labour Market in France and Occupational Labour Market in Great Britain (Eyraud, Marsden, Silvestre,1990) still relevant ? We propose a more complex segmentation of labour market with four segments based on tenure, labour mobility and their wage return to account for nowadays situation. Empir...

  18. Labour Market Institutions Without Blinders: The Debate over Flexibility and Labour Market Performance

    Richard B. Freeman

    2005-01-01

    The debate over the influence of labour market flexibility on performance is unlikely to be settled by additional studies using aggregate data and making cross-country comparisons. While this approach holds little promise, micro-analysis of workers and firms and increased use of experimental methods represent a path forward. Steps along this path could help end the current 'lawyer's case' empiricism in which priors dominate evidence.

  19. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...... of the change seems to matter. The smaller share an old organisation constitutes of the new organisation, the larger the effect is on health outcomes for its employees.......This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...

  20. The transformation of the Irish labour market : 1980-2003.

    Walsh, Brendan M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally characterised as a labour-surplus economy, Ireland was transformed during the 1990s. An impressive rate of employment growth led to a reduction in the unemployment rate from 15.7% to 4% between 1988 and 2004. Over the same period, labour force participation rates rose markedly and emigration was replaced by a rising net inflow of population. The improvements in labour market outcomes were widely spread across regions, age groups, and educational levels. Employment...

  1. Real wage convergence in an open labour market

    Curtis, John; FitzGerald, John D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper looks at how the Irish experience of integration has affected the labour market, bringing about convergence in labour costs between Ireland and the UK. A model of this process is developed and estimated which takes account of the fact that productive capacity and output are mobile within the EU economy and that integration affects the supply of labour through the potential for migration and changing expectations. The results indicate that changes in tax rates in the U K can affe...

  2. An Alternative Approach to Testing Dual Labour Market Theory

    Launov, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we suggest an alternative approach to testing for the dual structure of the labour market. The novelty of the suggested approach is that rather than considering wage determination we concentrate on the turnover. To perform the test we suggest using a latent class count data framework, which allows modelling the turnover in the unobserved primary and secondary markets in the appropriate way. To illustrate the suggested approach we apply our methodology to the German labour market...

  3. Economic implications of ASEAN integration for Malaysia's labour market

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 on Malaysia’s labour market. The discussion centres on the nature of the structural change that Malaysia has experienced, especially since the 1980s, and how that has impacted on its labour market. Integration into ASEAN markets has obviously helped Malaysia enjoy the synergies of regional coordination. Although Malaysia’s economic growth has been steady...

  4. Labour Market And Corruption Issues In Chiang Rai, Thailand

    John WALSH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of application of the rule of law in Thailand has various negative impacts on labour market and business environment. Lax policing of minimum wage legislation and unknown numbers of migrant workers contribute to depression of wages as whole and reduced incentives to add value to production. Instead, short-term competitiveness through low labour-cost manufacturing is prioritized. Although individual transactions which may be deemed corrupt are small scale in nature, they appear to be repeated very regularly and therefore have a significant impact upon the income generating possibilities for local workers and for their future prospects, not to mention the overall competitiveness of the country. The corrupt activities also lead to lower levels of safety in the workplace and for such issues as collective bargaining and freedom of association. The paper attempts to identify the major issues involved and some possible solutions.

  5. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost......Public policy shapes the lives of individuals, and even more so if they depend on state support. In the case of unemployment, the financial situation is largely determined by cash transfers and daily routines depend on the involvement in active labour market policy measures. To what extent, however......, can subjective well-being differences of European unemployed be traced back to the national design and generosity of labour market policy? This article applies multilevel and panel estimation techniques to identify the moderating effect of unemployment benefit generosity and active labour market...

  6. PRESSURE OF AGEING ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT. CHALLENGES AND LIMITS FOR THE LABOUR MARKET

    Silvia\tPISICĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available sing official statistics, the paper aims to contribute to regional perspective of labour market challenges and limits and the increasing number of elderly people participating in economic activity. Regional level is considered for analysing the social productivity of labour in terms of GDP and employment. The employment is analysed from the perspective of share and structure of elderly people on the labour market. In this respect, activity rates, ageing index and economic dependency ratio are reviewed. In order to shape the determinants of employment of elderly people, poverty measures at NUTS 2 level are figured out.

  7. A FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKET POLICIES

    Graţiela Georgiana Carica

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse European labour market policies and their integrated guidelines, by highlighting various measures that need to be adopted in order to increase labour productivity, with positive effects on long-term economic development. The paper methodizes the main conditions complied by structural reforms in order to encourage labour employment and the policies that frame a more efficient unemployment insurance system crucial to increase security while encouraging the unemployed to look for a job and to accept a job offer, respectively on flexicurity policies. We found that employment rates are generally associated with large expenses on labour market policies and with an increased number of participants to programs developed within these types of policies. The degree of influence and strong dependence between outcome and labour market policies are illustrated in various ways and discussed within the paper.

  8. Particularities of youth unemployment and the labour market in Romania

    Gabriela RÎMBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Youth unemployment has become a priority for the European Union. The globalisation, the cyclical economic changes and the fast evolution of the labour market require new public policy and new approaches in order to stimulate integration of the young people into the labour market. This paper intends to highlight the effects and efficiency of the public policy that supports the labour market in the European Union and Romania. The conclusion is that Romania is adopting important measures for facilitating the employment of young people and decreasing unemployment, but the implemented measures and strategies have registered limited progress and more innovative solutions are needed.

  9. The Czech labour market: historical, structural and policy perspectives

    Večerník, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2007), s. 220-236. ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/05/2769 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : labour market * labour force * employment policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  10. Employment insecurity and life satisfaction: The moderating influence of labour market policies across Europe

    Carr, Ewan; Chung, Heejung

    2014-01-01

    This article tests whether the link between employment insecurity and life satisfaction is moderated by the generosity of labour market policies across Europe. Employment insecurity provokes anxieties about (a) the difficulties of finding a new job and (b) alternative sources of non-work income. These components can be related to active and passive labour market policies, respectively. Generous policy support is thus expected to buffer the negative consequences of employment insecurity by low...

  11. A labour market extension for WorldScan; modelling labour supply, wage bargaining and unemployment in a CGE framework

    Stefan Boeters; Nico van Leeuwen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a labour market extension for the CGE model "WorldScan". The labour market module features endogenous labour supply at two margins: participation and hours of work. Involuntary unemployment is captured through a collective bargaining ("right to manage") set-up. The paper explains how these two labour market mechanisms interact and how they are calibrated to empirical elasticities. Illustrative simulations that can be placed in the context of the "double dividend"...

  12. THE SPLITTING OF LABOUR MARKET AND EMPLOYMENT ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIES

    MARIANA CLAUDIA MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal structure of the labour market has a highly complex character, which enabled the formulation of conclusions as there is no a single scale labour market economy. Inside it is identify different sections. Market segmentation are represented by all splitting techniques of a population database and follow up a groups of components that satisfy a condition of classification, according to the criteria considered. Labour market segmentation is determined both by economic considerations, also the characteristics of the workforce (level of training, qualifications, job mobility and institutional issues (regulation of employment, level of union organization. As such, there is barriers to transition from one segment to another job mobility occurs mainly within each segment and limited, between different segments, and wages are not the result of market forces free event, being the effect of social factors, institutional policies with specific expression of each labour market segment. Actual labour market segments are highlighted and analyzed by using several criteria: type of ownership, firm size, degree of organization of labour supply, etc.

  13. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  14. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  15. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke;

    This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through a...... factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown that there is a...... significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....

  16. The impact of unskilled immigration on local labour markets

    Weigert, Benjamin; Lumpe, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In a search-theoretic two region model, we analyse the impact of unskilled immigration and skill biased technological change on native wages and unemployment in local labour markets. We show that a specific combination of number and skills of immigrants generates a technology adoption of firms leading to insignificant wage changes. Thus our models explains the observed phenomenon of skill biased technological change, wage inequality and high inflows of immigrants in local labour markets. Our ...

  17. Employment in Poland 2007: Security on flexible labour market

    Bukowski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Piotr; Koloch, Grzegorz; Baranowska, Anna; Magda, Iga; Szydlowski, Arkadiusz; Bober, Magda; Bieliński, Jacek; Zawistowski, Julian; Sarzalska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This Report is a third in the series Employment in Poland. It consists of four Parts, devoted to empirical analysis of the impact of macroeconomic shocks on EU New Member States labour markets‘ in 1996-2006; utilization of flexible forms of employment on Polish labor market, determinants of wages and wage inequalities in Poland; effectiveness of ALMP in Poland, respectively. In Part I, we present how the cyclical upturn propagated on Polish labour market in 2003-2007 and how the performan...

  18. The labour market and the economy 20 years reviewed

    Gareth Clancy

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly considers a few of thechanges in the labour market in the last20 years and how these adjustmentsrelate to the economy in the UK. Itacknowledges that, during 2008, thetiming of movements in output indicatorsand labour market statistics differed. Toexplore this, the economic backgroundto 2008 is discussed, by presentingaggregate economic indicators for aselection of international trade partnersand looking at other statistics producedby the Office for National Statistics.Fin...

  19. Estimation of Gender wage Discrimination in the Portuguese labour market

    Bastos, Amélia; Fernandes, Graça Leão; Passos, José

    2003-01-01

    Gender wage discrimination is a reality in the Portuguese labour markets although no study has been until now carried on to measure its dimension. We think that economists should contribute to the knowledge of the dimension and significance of this phenomenon by giving orientation for the definition of political measures towards its reduction. In this paper we measure the size of gender wage discrimination in the Portuguese labour market. Furthermore, we evaluate this measure for the five Por...

  20. Unemployment and vacancy in the Hong Kong labour market

    Tse, CY; Leung, CKY; Chan, WYF

    2002-01-01

    This paper combines unemployment and vacancy data to analyse the efficiency of the Hong Kong labour market for the period 1976 to 1997. It is confirmed that the negative relationship between unemployment and vacancy, commonly known as the Beveridge curve, applies to the Hong Kong labour market. There was an inward shift of the Beveridge curve around 1982, which implies falling match frictions since then. Systematic evidence is also found that Hong Kong has been close to full employment, for o...

  1. Labour market effects of public sector employment and wages

    Pedro Gomes

    2009-01-01

    I build a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with search and matching frictions and both public and private sectors, in order to study the labour market effects of public sector employment and wages. I discuss what is the public sector wage that achieves the social planner's solution and how it varies with different labour market parameters. Public sector wage and employment shocks have mixed effects on unemployment. A wage shock raises unemployment rate while a reduction in the sep...

  2. Immigration, the European union and the UK labour market

    Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration in general and EU immigration in particular have still not, on average, materialised. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immigrants, especially in recent years, tend to be younger and better educate...

  3. Labour Market Entry Conditions, Wages and Job Mobility

    Bachmann, Ronald; Bauer, Thomas K.; David, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Economic conditions at the time of labour market entry can induce wage differentials between workers entering the labour market at different points in time. While the existence and persistence of these entry wage differentials are well documented, little is known about their interaction with employees’ mobility behaviour. This paper contributes to this research area by analyzing the interaction between job mobility and entry wage differentials using German administrative data. The results sug...

  4. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector has positive spill-overs, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labour market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector ...

  5. The impact of immigration on Canada’s labour market

    Grady, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of recent immigrants in Canada's labour market and reviews some of the literature on the causes of their poor performance. The paper concludes that, using the existing selection system, it is not possible to admit annually as many as 250,000 immigrants who are capable of doing well in the Canadian labour market, despite 16 years of economic expansion, during which the unemployment rate dropped below 6%. It also speculates that The situation can only worsen...

  6. Patterns of women's participation to the labour market

    Bozzon Rossella

    2008-01-01

    This contribution considers the effects of specific characteristics of the individual, the family and the labour market on women's working trajectories. The main career patterns are traced for 3131 women surveyed by Longitudinal Survey of Italian Families (ILFI). Life history data allow the deployment of sequence analysis, which yields a significant classification of female participation to the labour market, accounting for the data's inner structure. This empirical typology is subsequently r...

  7. Labour market states, mobility and entrepreneurship in transition economies

    Mark Dutz; Celine Kauffmann; Serineh Najarian; Peter Sanfey; Ruslan Yemtsov

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the different strategies adopted by individuals in transition economies to cope with labour market restructuring. Using micro-data from seven countries at different stages of transition, we focus on “active” coping strategies, in particular mobility and entrepreneurship. Our results show that there is significant mobility across labour market states in most countries, but little inflow into entrepreneurship from unemployment or inactivity. Entrepreneurship is a high-reward...

  8. Applied General Equilibrium Modelling and Labour Market Forecasting

    G.A.Meagher; P. D. Adams; J.M. Horridge

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the MONASH CGE model to labour market forecasting in Australia. The method consists of solving a top-down sequence of models that proceeds from a macro scenario to the CGE model to various labour market extensions. The extensions involve ex post processing of the MONASH results based on employment data from the census and a number of large sample surveys. Their purpose is to greatly increase the amount of information furnished by the simulations at mode...

  9. Mexico: commercialisation and the growth of a migratory labour market.

    Astorga Lira E

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the relationship between commercial farming and growth of a seasonal worker labour market in the agricultural sector in Mexico - briefly discusses trends (1950-1980) in urbanization, agricultural policy, agricultural production, agricultural employment, farm size, etc.; outlines the structure of the migrant worker labour market, recruitment and characteristics of the peasant farmer agricultural worker and impact on regional disparities. References.

  10. The labour market impact of immigration : theory and evidence

    Lumpe, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In this survey, we compare the history and status of immigration of a traditional immigration county (the US) with the experiences of a new immigration country (Germany). This reveals differences in the immigration policy as in the immigration population in the respective countries. We resume the theoretical model implications which the existing immigration should have had on the labour market outcome of natives. This takes into account the differing labour market institutions in both countri...

  11. SKILL MISMATCH OF GRADUATES IN A LOCAL LABOUR MARKET

    Enrico Marelli; Dario Sciulli; Marcello Signorelli

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we first review the (potential and actual) role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education) in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial) labour market in order to...

  12. Wage Formation, Regional Migration and Local Labour Market Tightness

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre; Røed, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that local labour market tightness affects local wage setting as well as individuals' migration decisions. But how should we measure local labour market tightness? In this paper we show that the common practice of using the local rate of unemployment as the tightness indicator may be misplaced. Instead, we propose a human capital adjusted outflow rate from unemployment that can be computed on the basis of micro register data. This outflow rate performs better than tra...

  13. Inflation Dynamics in the Presence of Informal Labour Markets

    Paul Castillo B.; Carlos Montoro Ll.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effects of informal labour markets on the dynamics of inflation and on the transmission of aggregate demand and supply shocks. In doing so, we incorporate the informal sector in a modified New Keynesian model with labour market frictions as in the Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model. Our main results show that the informal economy generates a "buffer" effect that diminishes the pressure of demand shocks on inflation. This finding is consistent with the empirical li...

  14. Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?

    Gandhi Kingdon, Geeta

    1997-01-01

    Labour market discrimination against women and parental discrimination against daughters are two of the most commonly cited explanations of the gender gap in education in developing countries. This study empirically tests the labour market explanation for India using household survey data collected in urban Uttar Pradesh in 1995. It estimates workforce participation functions and selectivity-corrected earnings fluctuations, and calculates the rates of return to education for the two sexes. Us...

  15. The Performance of the 1990s Canadian Labour Market

    Picot, Garnett; Heisz, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    There is a general sense that the 1990s labour market was unique. It has been characterized by notions such as "downsizing", "technological revolution", "the knowledge-based economy", "rising job instability", and so on. This paper provides an extensive overview of the performance of the 1990s labour market, and asks just how different it was from the 1980s. It goes on to ask if the facts are consistent with many common beliefs and explanations. The paper focuses on (a) macro-level labour mar...

  16. A PROPOSAL OF MODEL OF ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO ACTIVE LIFE OF ECONOMISTS BASED ON INTER-REGIONAL LABOUR MARKET PARTNERSHIP. STUDY CASE OF PRACTEAM PROJECT

    Chirila Lavinia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the integration of young people into the labour market has become more difficult, being accomplished in a gradual, complex and less uniform way comparatively to the years prior to the crises. The rate of youth employment is much lower than among other categories of population, and the insertion of young people on the labour market has become a difficult process, both in Romania and in the European Union, process that is characterised especially through raising the period of time passed from the moment of graduating from school to the moment of finding the first ‘significant’ workplace (for at least six months and with a length of at least 20 hours of work per week, preferably, from qualitative point of view, in accordance to the qualification obtained. In this context, in order to analyse the way in which the integration of young people into the labour market is done in Romania, the present paper makes, in the first part, a short theoretic incursion regarding the main theories referring to youth employment, transition from school to active life and, more specific, transition from higher education to employment, the main determinants of the transition from school to active life and the way in which the process is affected by the tendencies on the labour market, the ways of measurement and evaluation used up to the present etc. In the second part, the paper tries to propose a research methodology of the transition from higher education in the field of economics to employment, analyse that will be carried out in the project called „The practice of economist students. An inter-regional partnership on the labour market between universities and the business environment" (PRACTeam in the purpose of creating policy and strategy recommendations for diminishing the difficulties felt by young people in the process of transition from school to active life.

  17. Social exclusion of the young from the labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Tomić Velinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina is confronted with many challenges - economic, institutional and social. The participation of young people in education drops significantly after they turn 18, while entry into the labour market happens around 20 years of age. Unemployment mostly affects people with lower education levels, such as those with a secondary school degree or qualified workers. The youth unemployment rate, the most commonly used indicator of the disadvantages faced by young people in the labour market, is very high in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The single most significant factor affecting the labour market experiences of young people is the extensive informal economy in the country. Active Labour Market Policy for young people attempts to reduce the problems faced by young people in their attempts to find decent work once they enter the labour market. They attempt to remedy failures of the educational system and to improve the efficiency of labour market matching. The percentage of unemployed youth is of great importance because the youth are in the age when the ability and motivation for work are at their peak. Any society that excludes half of its population from the sphere of work acts against public interest.

  18. A Critique and Reframing of Personality in Labour Market Theory: Locus of Control and Labour Market Outcomes

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the theoretical arguments that underlie the literature linking personality traits to economic outcomes and provides empirical evidence indicating that labour market outcomes influence personality outcomes. Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we investigated the extent to which gender differences occur in the processes by which highly positive and negative labour market outcomes are determined and in the processes underlying the development of o...

  19. A contemporary overview labour market of Kazakhstan

    Ayhan Gençler; Recep Seymen; Arif Akbaş

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the structure of Kazakhstan's labor market and workforce development are examined in this context. Kazakhstan is rich in resources, and active because of the potential mobility of labor is a country in the world. Country gained its independence in the 90’s from the social and economic change / transformed. At the end of this process rather than the central state's economy, albeit a relatively free market economy, privatization and structural reforms are adopted and have b...

  20. Ife labour market: a Nigerian case study.

    Adeokun LA; Adepoju A; Ilori FA; Adewuyi AA

    1984-01-01

    Working paper on labour force participation of the women workers in Ife, Nigeria. Covers sex discrimination in employment, cultural factors, educational level and management attitudes. Discusses the time budget of the working mother. Bibliography and tables.

  1. Labour market specific institutions and the working conditions of labour migrants:

    Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions of...... Polish and Danish workers, it is shown that labour market institutional arrangements provide a better explanation for the differences found between the two groups than differences in individual characteristics of the migrants and the Danish workforce. In addition, the article argues that factors such as...... institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market....

  2. Women on the Arab labour market. Option becoming reality

    Górak-Sosnowska, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    The key potential of Arab economies, currently rather turning into their curse, is the human capital. According to the Arab Human Development Report 2002 there are approximately 6 million entrants yearly to the Arab labour market (UNDP 2002: 10) and the labour force is expected to grow in the next 10 years to 3,4% yearly―twice as much as in other developing regions (World Bank 2003: 3). The ‘demographic gift’―the growing number of labour force and decreasing dependency ratio, might lead to ec...

  3. Contemporary Labour Market Policy and Poverty in South Africa

    Muzi Maziya

    1999-01-01

    The This paper outlines the recent labour market reforms in South Africa and discusses their likely impact on poverty and the working poor. Gauteng, South Africa's economic powerhouse, has long been dependent on immigration to supply its labour requirements, a phenomenon deeply rooted in the provinces early economic history and the development of mining and heavy industry. As far as possible, the analysis compared in-migrants to non-migrants and intra-Gauteng migrants in order to provide insi...

  4. Labour Market Segmentation: An Investigation into the Dutch Hospitality Industry

    Bispo, A

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality industry. The work force is a significant element in this industry for generating turnover. It is therefore vital to focus attention on the various aspects of labour to work towards a sustainable b...

  5. The Impact of Chernobyl on Health and Labour Market Performance

    Hartmut Lehmann; Jonathan Wadsworth

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. The variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive ass...

  6. LABOUR MARKET AND CORRUPTION ISSUES IN CHIANG RAI, THAILAND

    Walsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Lack of application of the rule of law in Thailand has various negative impacts on labour market and business environment. Lax policing of minimum wage legislation and unknown numbers of migrant workers contribute to depression of wages as whole and reduced incentives to add value to production. Instead, short-term competitiveness through low labour-cost manufacturing is prioritized. Although individual transactions which may be deemed corrupt are small scale in nature, they appear to be repe...

  7. Labour Market Institutions in Germany : Current Status and Ongoing Reforms

    Bothfeld, Silke

    2007-01-01

    "Although all economists agree that a major precondition for employment creation is sustainable economic growth of at least 2% per annum, they disagree about the effects of the institutional framework on the labour market: Optimistic observers stress the high performance of external trade and the highly specialized small and medium-sized companies operating at high potential. These have a well-qualified workforce, which relies on the existence of a highly differentiated system of labour marke...

  8. Skills and occupational needs: labour market forecasting systems in Italy

    CASTIGLIONI, C.; Tijdens, K.

    2014-01-01

    The development of forecasting systems for occupational needs represents, for different actors, such as enterprises, employers’ associations, trade unions, an opportunity to receive information and to anticipate labour market trends. Also, this information could be used to develop an effective vocational and educational training system aimed to guarantee more employability, to address labour policies and manage industrial relations. Starting from this theoretical framework, the paper aims to ...

  9. Women in the South African Labour Market, 1995 - 2005

    Carlene van der Westhuizen; Sumayya Goga; Morne Oosthuizen

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has found that changing policies and attitudes and improved economic performance have impacted on the labour market dynamics for women and the increased feminisation of the South African labour force since the mid-1990s has been well documented. While employment has increased more rapidly for women than for men over the period, it has been suggested that women are overrepresented in low-income, less secure employment. In addition, insufficient jobs were created to absorb the a...

  10. Rising house prices in an open labour market

    Duffy, David,; FitzGerald, John D.; Kearney, Ida

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the consequences of the recent steep rise in house prices for the openness of the Irish labour market. Specifically we look at the possible effect rising house prices may have on the migration decision. Since many immigrants are in the household formation age group, and tend to be highly skilled, we argue that the boom in house prices, by reducing the attractiveness of Ireland for potential immigrants, could reduce labour supply. Thus housing emerges as an important i...