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Sample records for active hair bundle

  1. Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise

    Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles(stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently, the amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, {\\bf 10}, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between non-identical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as inter-bundle coupling str...

  2. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. James

    2015-01-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps b...

  3. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2011-11-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This work reveals the mechanical characteristics originating from hair-bundle morphology and shows quantitatively how a hair bundle is adapted for sensitive mechanotransduction.

  4. Reaction–diffusion model of hair-bundle morphogenesis

    Jacobo, Adrian; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Our senses of hearing and balance rest upon the activity of hair cells, the ear’s sensory receptors. Each hair cell detects mechanical stimuli with its hair bundle, an organelle comprising 10–300 cylindrical, actin-filled stereocilia. A bundle’s structure is highly stereotyped: the stereocilia stand erect in a regular, hexagonal array and display a monotonic gradient in length along one axis. This precise organization is key to the operation of the hair bundle: mutations that disturb the morp...

  5. Hair-bundle friction from transduction channels' gating forces

    Bormuth, Volker; Barral, Jérémie; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Hearing starts when sound-evoked mechanical vibrations of the hair-cell bundle activate mechanosensitive ion channels, giving birth to an electrical signal. As for any mechanical system, friction impedes movements of the hair bundle and thus constrains the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of auditory transduction. We have shown recently that the opening and closing of the transduction channels produce internal frictional forces that can dominate viscous drag on the micrometer-sized hair bundle and thus provide a major source of damping [2]. We develop here a physical theory of passive hair-bundle mechanics that explains the origin of channel friction. We show that channel friction can be understood quantitatively by coupling the dynamics of the conformational change associated with channel gating to tip-link tension. As a result, varying channel properties affects friction, with faster channels producing smaller friction. The analysis emphasizes the dual role of transduction channels' gating forces, which affect both hair-bundle stiffness and drag. Friction originating from gating of ion channels is a general concept that is relevant to all mechanosensitive channels.

  6. Effectiveness of Hair Bundle Motility as the Cochlear Amplifier

    Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of hair bundle motility in mammalian and avian ears is studied by examining energy balance for a small sinusoidal displacement of the hair bundle. The condition that the energy generated by a hair bundle must be greater than energy loss due to the shear in the subtectorial gap per hair bundle leads to a limiting frequency that can be supported by hair-bundle motility. Limiting frequencies are obtained for two motile mechanisms for fast adaptation, the channel re-closure mode...

  7. Coupling a sensory hair-cell bundle to cyber clones enhances nonlinear amplification

    Barral, Jérémie; Dierkes, Kai; Lindner, Benjamin; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The vertebrate ear benefits from nonlinear mechanical amplification to operate over a vast range of sound intensities. The amplificatory process is thought to emerge from active force production by sensory hair cells. The mechano-sensory hair bundle that protrudes from the apical surface of each hair cell can oscillate spontaneously and function as a frequency-selective, nonlinear amplifier. Intrinsic fluctuations, however, jostle the response of a single hair bundle to weak stimuli and serio...

  8. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the

  9. Lateral mechanical coupling of stereocilia in cochlear hair bundles.

    Langer, M G; Fink, S; Koitschev, A; Rexhausen, U; Hörber, J K; Ruppersberg, J P

    2001-06-01

    For understanding the gating process of transduction channels in the inner ear it is essential to characterize and examine the functional properties of the ultrastructure of stereociliary bundles. There is strong evidence that transduction channels in hair cells are gated by directly pulling at the so-called tip links. In addition to these tip links a second class of filamentous structures was identified in the scanning and transmission electron microscope: the side-to-side links. These links laterally connect stereocilia of the same row of a hair bundle. This study concentrates on mechanical coupling of stereocilia of the tallest row connected by side-to-side links. Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate hair bundles of outer hair cells (OHCs) from postnatal rats (day 4). Although hair bundles of postnatal rats are still immature at day 4 and interconnecting cross-links do not show preferential direction yet, hair bundles of investigated OHCs already showed the characteristic V-shape of mature hair cells. In a first experiment, the stiffness of stereocilia was investigated scanning individual stereocilia with an AFM tip. The spring constant for the excitatory direction was 2.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3) N/m whereas a higher spring constant (3.1 +/- 1.5 x 10(-3) N/m) was observed in the inhibitory direction. In a second set of experiments, the force transmission between stereocilia of the tallest row was measured using AFM in combination with a thin glass fiber. This fiber locally displaced a stereocilium while the force laterally transmitted to the neighboring untouched taller stereocilia was measured by AFM. The results show a weak force interaction between tallest stereocilia of postnatal rats. The force exerted to an individual stereocilium declines to 36% at the nearest adjacent stereocilium of the same row not touched with the fiber. It is suggested that the amount of force transmitted from a taller stereocilium to an adjacent one of the same row depends

  10. Noise alters hair-bundle mechanics at the cochlear apex

    Strimbu, C. Elliott; Fridberger, Anders

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to loud sounds can lead to both permanent and short term changes in auditory sensitivity. Permanent hearing loss is often associated with gross changes in cochlear morphology including the loss of hair cells and auditory nerve fibers while the mechanisms of short term threshold shifts are much less well understood and may vary at different locations across the cochlea. Previous reports suggest that exposure to loud sounds leads to a decrease in the cochlear microphonic potential and in the stiffness of the organ of Corti. Because the cochlear microphonic reflects changes in the membrane potential of the hair cells, this suggests that hair-bundle motion should be reversibly altered following exposure to loud sounds. Using an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig temporal bone we investigate changes in the micro-mechanical response near the cochlear apex following a brief (up to 10 - 20 minutes) exposure to loud (˜ 120 dB) tones near the best frequency at this location. We use time-resolved confocal imaging to record the motion of outer hair cell bundles before and after acoustic overstimulation. We have also recorded larger-scale structural views of the organ of Corti before and after exposure to the loud sound. Conventional electrophysiological techniques are used measure the cochlear microphonic potential. As has been previously reported, following acoustic overexposure the cochlear microphonic declines in value and typically recovers on the order of 30 - 60 minutes. Hair-bundle trajectories are affected following the loud sound and typically recover on a somewhat faster time scale than the microphonic potential, although the results vary considerably across preparations. Preliminary results also suggest reversible changes in the hair cell's resting potential following the loud sound.

  11. Actin Filament Bundles in Drosophila Wing Hairs: Hairs and Bristles Use Different Strategies for Assembly

    Guild, Gregory M.; Connelly, Patricia S.; Ruggiero, Linda; Vranich, Kelly A.; Tilney, Lewis G.

    2005-01-01

    Actin filament bundles can shape cellular extensions into dramatically different forms. We examined cytoskeleton formation during wing hair morphogenesis using both confocal and electron microscopy. Hairs elongate with linear kinetics (∼1 μm/h) over the course of ∼18 h. The resulting structure is vividly asymmetric and shaped like a rose thorn—elongated in the distal direction, curved in two dimensions with an oval base and a round tip. High-resolution analysis shows that the cytoskeleton for...

  12. Lateral mechanical coupling of stereocilia in cochlear hair bundles.

    Langer, M G; Fink, S.; Koitschev, A; Rexhausen, U; Hörber, J K; Ruppersberg, J P

    2001-01-01

    For understanding the gating process of transduction channels in the inner ear it is essential to characterize and examine the functional properties of the ultrastructure of stereociliary bundles. There is strong evidence that transduction channels in hair cells are gated by directly pulling at the so-called tip links. In addition to these tip links a second class of filamentous structures was identified in the scanning and transmission electron microscope: the side-to-side links. These links...

  13. The Hair Bundle: Fluid-Structure Interaction in the Inner Ear

    Baumgart, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    A multitude of processes cooperate to produce the sensation of sound. The key initial step, the transformation from mechanical motion into an electrical signal, takes place in highly specialized mechanosensitive organelles that are called hair bundles due to their characteristic appearance. Each hair bundle comprises many apposed cylindrical stereocilia that are located in a liquid-filled compartment of the inner ear. The viscous liquid surrounding the hair bundle dissipates energy and dampen...

  14. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  15. Cadherin-23 May Be Dynamic in Hair Bundles of the Model Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis

    Pei-Ciao Tang; Watson, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    Cadherin 23 (CDH23), a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with anti...

  16. Two adaptation processes in auditory hair cells together can provide an active amplifier

    Vilfan, A; Vilfan, Andrej; Duke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear convert mechanical stimuli to electrical signals. Two adaptation mechanisms are known to modify the ionic current flowing through the transduction channels of the hair bundles: a rapid process involves calcium ions binding to the channels; and a slower adaptation is associated with the movement of myosin motors. We present a mathematical model of the hair cell which demonstrates that the combination of these two mechanisms can produce `self-tuned critical oscillations', i.e. maintain the hair bundle at the threshold of an oscillatory instability. The characteristic frequency depends on the geometry of the bundle and on the calcium dynamics, but is independent of channel kinetics. Poised on the verge of vibrating, the hair bundle acts as an active amplifier. However, if the hair cell is sufficiently perturbed, other dynamical regimes can occur. These include slow relaxation oscillations which resemble the hair bundle motion observed in some experimental preparations.

  17. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus. II. Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    Baird, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. Hair cells in whole-mount in vitro preparations of the utricular macula of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were selected according to their macular location and hair bundle morphology. The sensitivity and response dynamics of selected hair cells to natural stimulation were examined by recording their voltage responses to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements applied to their longest stereocilia. 2. The voltage responses of 31 hair cells to sinusoidal hair bundle displacements were characterized by their gains and phases, taken with respect to peak hair bundle displacement. The gains of Type B and Type C cells at both 0.5 and 5.0 Hz were markedly lower than those of Type F and Type E cells. Phases, with the exception of Type C cells, lagged hair bundle displacement at 0.5 Hz. Type C cells had phase leads of 25-40 degrees. At 5.0 Hz, response phases in all cells were phase lagged with respect to those at 0.5 Hz. Type C cells had larger gains and smaller phase leads at 5.0 Hz than at 0.5 Hz, suggesting the presence of low-frequency adaptation. 3. Displacement-response curves, derived from the voltage responses to 5.0-Hz sinusoids, were sigmoidal in shape and asymmetrical, with the depolarizing response having a greater magnitude and saturating less abruptly than the hyperpolarizing response. When normalized to their largest displacement the linear ranges of these curves varied from hair bundle to linear range and sensitivity were predicted from realistic models of utricular hair bundles created using morphological data obtained from light and electron microscopy. Three factors, including 1) the inverse ratio of the lengths of the kinocilium and longest stereocilia, representing the lever arm between kinociliary and stereociliary displacement; 2) tip link extension/linear displacement, largely a function of stereociliary height and separation; and 3) stereociliary number, an estimate of the number of transduction channels, were considered in this analysis

  18. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus. II. Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    Baird, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. Hair cells in whole-mount in vitro preparations of the utricular macula of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were selected according to their macular location and hair bundle morphology. The sensitivity and response dynamics of selected hair cells to natural stimulation were examined by recording their voltage responses to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements applied to their longest stereocilia. 2. The voltage responses of 31 hair cells to sinusoidal hair bundle displacements were characterized by their gains and phases, taken with respect to peak hair bundle displacement. The gains of Type B and Type C cells at both 0.5 and 5.0 Hz were markedly lower than those of Type F and Type E cells. Phases, with the exception of Type C cells, lagged hair bundle displacement at 0.5 Hz. Type C cells had phase leads of 25-40 degrees. At 5.0 Hz, response phases in all cells were phase lagged with respect to those at 0.5 Hz. Type C cells had larger gains and smaller phase leads at 5.0 Hz than at 0.5 Hz, suggesting the presence of low-frequency adaptation. 3. Displacement-response curves, derived from the voltage responses to 5.0-Hz sinusoids, were sigmoidal in shape and asymmetrical, with the depolarizing response having a greater magnitude and saturating less abruptly than the hyperpolarizing response. When normalized to their largest displacement the linear ranges of these curves varied from Sensitivity, defined as the slope of the normalized displacement-response curve, was inversely correlated with linear range. 4. The contribution of geometric factors associated with the hair bundle to linear range and sensitivity were predicted from realistic models of utricular hair bundles created using morphological data obtained from light and electron microscopy. Three factors, including 1) the inverse ratio of the lengths of the kinocilium and longest stereocilia, representing the lever arm between kinociliary and stereociliary displacement; 2) tip link extension

  19. Developmental regulation of planar cell polarity and hair-bundle morphogenesis in auditory hair cells: lessons from human and mouse genetics.

    Lu, Xiaowei; Sipe, Conor W

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common and costly sensory defect in humans and genetic causes underlie a significant proportion of affected individuals. In mammals, sound is detected by hair cells (HCs) housed in the cochlea of the inner ear, whose function depends on a highly specialized mechanotransduction organelle, the hair bundle. Understanding the factors that regulate the development and functional maturation of the hair bundle is crucial for understanding the pathophysiology of human deafness. Genetic analysis of deafness genes in animal models, together with complementary forward genetic screens and conditional knock-out mutations in essential genes, have provided great insights into the molecular machinery underpinning hair-bundle development and function. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of hair-bundle morphogenesis, with an emphasis on the molecular pathways governing hair-bundle polarity and orientation. We next discuss the proteins and structural elements important for hair-cell mechanotransduction as well as hair-bundle cohesion and maintenance. In addition, developmental signals thought to regulate tonotopic features of HCs are introduced. Finally, novel approaches that complement classic genetics for studying the molecular etiology of human deafness are presented. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:85-101. doi: 10.1002/wdev.202 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26265594

  20. LINKING DEAFNESS GENES TO HAIR-BUNDLE DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION

    Petit, Christine; Richardson, Guy P.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of genes underlying monogenic, early-onset forms of deafness in humans has provided unprecedented insight into the molecular mechanisms of hearing in the peripheral auditory system. The molecules involved in the development and function of the cochlea eluded characterization until recently due to the paucity of the principle cell types present in cochlear hair cells, yet a genetic approach has circumvented this problem and succeeded in identifying proteins and deciphering s...

  1. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    Holman, Holly A.; Tran, Vy M.; Nguyen, Lynn Y.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2015-12-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.

  2. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    Holman, Holly A.; Nguyen, Lynn Y. [Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Tran, Vy M.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam [Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Kuberan, Balagurunathan [Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Neuroscience Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Rabbitt, Richard D. [Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Neuroscience Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Otolaryngology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.

  3. Hair cell stereociliary bundle regeneration by espin gene transduction after aminoglycoside damage and hair cell induction by Notch inhibition.

    Taura, A; Taura, K; Koyama, Y; Yamamoto, N; Nakagawa, T; Ito, J; Ryan, A F

    2016-05-01

    Once inner ear hair cells (HCs) are damaged by drugs, noise or aging, their apical structures including the stereociliary arrays are frequently the first cellular feature to be lost. Although this can be followed by progressive loss of HC somata, a significant number of HC bodies often remain even after stereociliary loss. However, in the absence of stereocilia they are nonfunctional. HCs can sometimes be regenerated by Atoh1 transduction or Notch inhibition, but they also may lack stereociliary bundles. It is therefore important to develop methods for the regeneration of stereocilia, in order to achieve HC functional recovery. Espin is an actin-bundling protein known to participate in sterociliary elongation during development. We evaluated stereociliary array regeneration in damaged vestibular sensory epithelia in tissue culture, using viral vector transduction of two espin isoforms. Utricular HCs were damaged with aminoglycosides. The utricles were then treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor, followed by espin or control transduction and histochemistry. Although γ-secretase inhibition increased the number of HCs, few had stereociliary arrays. In contrast, 46 h after espin1 transduction, a significant increase in hair-bundle-like structures was observed. These were confirmed to be immature stereociliary arrays by scanning electron microscopy. Increased uptake of FM1-43 uptake provided evidence of stereociliary function. Espin4 transduction had no effect. The results demonstrate that espin1 gene therapy can restore stereocilia on damaged or regenerated HCs. PMID:26886463

  4. Amplifying effect of a release mechanism for fast adaptation in the hair bundle.

    Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H

    2009-07-01

    A "release" mechanism, which has been experimentally observed as the fast component in the hair bundle's response to mechanical stimulation, appears similar to common mechanical relaxation with a damping effect. This observation is puzzling because such a response is expected to have an amplifying role in the mechanoelectrical transduction process in hair cells. Here it is shown that a release mechanism can indeed have a role in amplification, if it is associated with negative stiffness due to the gating of the mechonoelectric transducer channel. PMID:19603855

  5. ACF7 Is a Hair-Bundle Antecedent, Positioned to Integrate Cuticular Plate Actin and Somatic Tubulin

    Antonellis, Patrick J.; Pollock, Lana M.; Chou, Shih-Wei; Hassan, Ahmed; Geng, Ruishuang; Chen, Xi; Fuchs, Elaine; Alagramam, Kumar N.; Auer, Manfred; McDermott, Brian M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The precise morphology of the mechanosensitive hair bundle requires seamless integration of actin and microtubule networks. Here, we identify Acf7a (actin crosslinking family protein 7a) as a protein positioned to bridge these distinct cytoskeletal networks in hair cells. By imaging Acf7a–Citrine fusion protein in zebrafish and immunolabeling of vestibular and cochlear mouse hair cells, we show that Acf7a and ACF7 circumscribe, underlie, and are interwoven into the cuticular plate (CP), and t...

  6. Fate of Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells and Stereocilia after Loss of the Stereocilia

    Jia, Shuping; Yang, Shiming; Guo, Weiwei; David Z Z He

    2009-01-01

    Cochlear hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical activity. The site of hair cell transduction is the hair bundle, an array of stereocilia with different height arranged in a staircase. Tip links connect the apex of each stereocilium to the side of its taller neighbor. The hair bundle and tip links of hair cells are susceptible to acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. It has been shown that hair cells in lower vertebrates and in the mammalian vestibular system may survive bundle ...

  7. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

    Jennifer Olt

    Full Text Available Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    As a part of IAEA research project, ''Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants'', a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentration in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and amoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. (author)

  9. A nano-microstructured artificial-hair-cell-type sensor based on topologically graded 3D carbon nanotube bundles

    Yilmazoglu, O.; Yadav, S.; Cicek, D.; Schneider, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    A design for a unique artificial-hair-cell-type sensor (AHCTS) based entirely on 3D-structured, vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles is introduced. Standard microfabrication techniques were used for the straightforward micro-nano integration of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays composed of low-layer multi-walled CNTs (two to six layers). The mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube bundles were intensively characterized with regard to various substrates and CNT morphology, e.g. bundle height. The CNT bundles display excellent flexibility and mechanical stability for lateral bending, showing high tear resistance. The integrated 3D CNT sensor can detect three-dimensional forces using the deflection or compression of a central CNT bundle which changes the contact resistance to the shorter neighboring bundles. The complete sensor system can be fabricated using a single chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process step. Moreover, sophisticated external contacts to the surroundings are not necessary for signal detection. No additional sensors or external bias for signal detection are required. This simplifies the miniaturization and the integration of these nanostructures for future microsystem set-ups. The new nanostructured sensor system exhibits an average sensitivity of 2100 ppm in the linear regime with the relative resistance change per micron (ppm μm‑1) of the individual CNT bundle tip deflection. Furthermore, experiments have shown highly sensitive piezoresistive behavior with an electrical resistance decrease of up to ∼11% at 50 μm mechanical deflection. The detection sensitivity is as low as 1 μm of deflection, and thus highly comparable with the tactile hair sensors of insects, having typical thresholds on the order of 30–50 μm. The AHCTS can easily be adapted and applied as a flow, tactile or acceleration sensor as well as a vibration sensor. Potential applications of the latter might come up in artificial cochlear systems. In

  10. Progressive hearing loss and gradual deterioration of sensory hair bundles in the ears of mice lacking the actin-binding protein Eps8L2

    Furness, David N.; Johnson, Stuart L.; Manor, Uri; Rüttiger, Lukas; Tocchetti, Arianna; Offenhauser, Nina; Olt, Jennifer; Goodyear, Richard J.; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Dai, Yuhai; Hackney, Carole M.; Franz, Christoph; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Masetto, Sergio; Jones, Sherri M.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanotransduction in the mammalian auditory system depends on mechanosensitive channels in the hair bundles that project from the apical surface of the sensory hair cells. Individual stereocilia within each bundle contain a core of tightly packed actin filaments, whose length is dynamically regulated during development and in the adult. We show that the actin-binding protein epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8)L2, a member of the Eps8-like protein family, is a newly i...

  11. Characterization of adaptation motors in saccular hair cells by fluctuation analysis.

    Frank, Jonathan E.; Markin, Vladislav; Jaramillo, Fernán

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical sensitivity of hair cells, the sensory receptors of the vestibular and auditory systems, is maintained by adaptation, which resets the transducer to cancel the effects of static stimuli. Adaptation motors in hair cells can be experimentally activated by externally applying a transduction channel blocker to the hair bundle, causing the hair bundle to move in the negative direction. We studied the variance in the position of the hair bundle during these displacements and found th...

  12. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Yunfei Li; Mingnuan Han; Pei Lin; Yanran He; Jie Yu; Ronghua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio,...

  13. Geometries and applications of active fiber bundles

    Giglmayr, Josef

    2001-10-01

    Active fiber bundles (FBs) are aimed to model photonic switching and processing in 3-D without the restrictions of the photonic technology. The 2-D photonic architectures are assumed to be implemented by networks of directional couplers (DCs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs), respectively. For the implementation several crucial problems are expected: (1) proper operation of the spatial couplers/switches (nonblocking interconnections) and (2) coupling in the interstage interconnection section mainly caused by parallel and crossing fibers/waveguides (WGs). For the design of proper operating switches (refinement of couplers) the application of decoupling concepts of modern control theory is proposed. The final goal is to translate the refined couplers into integrated photonic architectures rather than into additional lightwave circuits (LWCs) which simply would increase the coupling. The decoupling concepts are reviewed. The paper is an attempt to prepare for applying well-known system engineering concepts to the upcoming technology of photonics.

  14. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Yunfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP. Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00% than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%. However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression.

  15. Recovery of mechano-electrical transduction in rat cochlear hair bundles after postnatal destruction of the stereociliar cross-links.

    Ebert, J; Fink, S; Koitschev, A; Walther, P; Langer, M G; Lehmann-Horn, F

    2010-08-01

    Mechano-electrical transduction (MET) in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs) was studied in newborn Wistar rats using scanning electron microscopy to investigate the stereociliar cross-links, Nomarski laser differential interferometry to investigate stereociliar stiffness and by testing the functionality of the MET channels by recording the entry of fluorescent dye, FM1-43, into stereocilia. Preparations were taken from rats on their day of birth (P0) or 1-4 days later (P1-P4). Hair bundles developed from the base to the apex and from the inner to outer OHC rows. MET channel responses were detected in apical coil OHCs on P1. To study the possible recovery of MET after disrupting the cross-links, the same investigations were performed after the application of Ca(2+) chelator 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and allowing the treated samples to recover in culture medium for 0-20 h. We found that the structure and function were abolished by BAPTA. In P0-P1 samples, structural recovery was complete and the open probability of MET channels reached control values. In P3-P4 samples, complete recovery only occurred in OHCs of the outermost row. Although our results demonstrate an enormous recovery potential of OHCs in the postnatal period, the structural component restricts the potential for therapy in patients. PMID:20356889

  16. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    In an attempt to study the availability and limitation of analytical data of human hair as an indicator of environmental pollution and/or of human health effect, concentrations of elements in 202 scalp hair samples collected from local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The correlation coefficients between concentrations of 13 elements in each sex and in each age group were calculated and discussed. There were significant correlations between some pairs of elements, i.e. Na-K, Br-Cl, Ca-Zn and Ca-Mg, in all five age classes in both of male and female, indicating that the correlations were consistent. Ca was observed to be reversely correlated with Cl. No significant correlation was apparent between Hg and Se, when the correlation coefficient was calculated using logarithmic converted concentration data. (author)

  17. Neutron activation analysis of hair from breast cancer patients

    Hair samples from breast cancer patients were collected at the same time as tumour and normal tissues obtained during mastectomy, in order to determine elemental concentrations and investigate whether hair can act as an epidemiological monitor of the disease. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used and concentrations for Na, Mg, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Br, I, Sb, Ba, Au and Hg in the hair samples measured. No strong correlations were found between the concentrations of Cl, Cu, Zn and Br in hair and those in tumour tissues and in normal tissues. The level of Zn in the patients hair is low and that of Ca very high

  18. Human hair identification by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to be 104-106 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 time smaller than the standard deviation for individual's hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification. (author)

  19. Exploring the Role of Mechanotransduction Activation and Adaptation Kinetics in Hair Cell Filtering Using a Hodgkin-Huxley Approach

    Wells, Gregg B.; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2011-11-01

    In the auditory system, mechanotransduction occurs in the hair cell sensory hair bundle and is the first major step in the translation of mechanical energy into electrical. Tonotopic variations in the activation kinetics of this process are posited to provide a low pass filter to the input. An adaptation process, also associated with mechanotransduction, is postulated to provide a high pass filter to the input in a tonotopic manner. Together a bandpass filter is created at the hair cell input. Corresponding mechanical components to both activation and adaptation are also suggested to be involved in generating cochlear amplification. A paradox to this story is that hair cells where the mechanotransduction properties are most robust possess an intrinsic electrical resonance mechanism proposed to account for all required tuning and amplification. A simple Hodgkin-Huxley type model is presented to attempt to determine the role of the activation and adaptation kinetics in further tuning hair cells that exhibit electrical resonance. Results further support that steady state mechanotransduction properties are critical for setting the resting potential of the hair cell while the kinetics of activation and adaptation are important for sharpening tuning around the characteristic frequency of the hair cell.

  20. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    Satish Patel; Vikas Sharma; Nagendra Chauhan; Mayank Thakur; Vinod Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri ) extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like...

  1. Neutron activation analysis of organohalogens in Chinese human hair

    To effectively extract organohalogens from human hair, two factors, the extracting time and hair length on the extraction efficiency of organohalogens were studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in hair samples from angioma and control babies were also measured by the established method. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhlet-extraction time for EOX and EPOX in hair was from 8 to 11 hours, and the extraction efficiencies for organochlorine pesticides in hair were in the order of powder >2 mm>5 mm. Also, the mean levels of EOCl and EPOCl in hair of the angioma babies were significantly higher than those in the control babies (PEOClEPOCl<0.05), which implied the possible relationship between the environmental pollution and angioma. (author)

  2. The calcium-activated potassium channels of turtle hair cells

    1995-01-01

    A major factor determining the electrical resonant frequency of turtle cochlear hair cells is the time course of the Ca-activated K current (Art, J. J., and R. Fettiplace. 1987. Journal of Physiology. 385:207- 242). We have examined the notion that this time course is dictated by the K channel kinetics by recording single Ca-activated K channels in inside-out patches from isolated cells. A hair cell's resonant frequency was estimated from its known correlation with the dimensions of the hair ...

  3. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  4. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    Satish Patel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like follicular density,  anagen/telogen (A/T ratio and histological observation of animal skin sections. Finasteride solution was applied topically as standard. In vitro experiments were also performed to study the effect of extract on the activity of 5α-reductase enzyme Results: Groups treated with petroleum ether extract of plant showed hair re-growth as reflected by follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. Histopathology and morphologic observations of hair re-growth at shaved sites showed active follicular proliferation. In vitro experiments results showed inhibitory activity of petroleum  ether extract on type-2 5α-reductase enzyme and an increase in the amount of testosterone with increasing concentrations.  Conclusion: It could be concluded that petroleum ether extracts of P. niruri might be useful in the treatment of testosterone-induced alopecia in the experimental animal by inhibiting 5α-reductase enzyme.

  5. [Neutron activation analysis of human hair--multivariate analysis of factors influencing on trace element contents in hair-- (author's transl)].

    Imahori, A; Fukushima, I

    1980-06-01

    As a part of IAEA research project, "Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants", a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentrations in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and smoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. PMID:7208973

  6. Nondestructive multielementary analysis of human hair by neutron activation

    Various elements contained in human hair have been used for an index of environmental pollution effect of human body. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis was applied to hair samples on 61 inhabitants of a local district which was free from air pollution. At Rikkyo University hair samples were irradiated for 3 minutes or 15 hours (5 hours/day, 3 days) in a TRIGA Mark II Reactor with a neutron flux of 1.5x1012 n/cm2/sec. The activities were measured by a Ge(Li) detector. 18 elements could be determined: Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S and V with the 3 minute irradiation method, and As, Au, Cr, K, La, Sb and Zn with the 15 hour irradiation method. Concentration-distribution histograms, and differences in distribution patterns of these elements caused by permanent wave treatment, sex or age were discussed. (auth.)

  7. Recovery of mechano-electrical transduction in rat cochlear hair bundles after postnatal destruction of the stereociliar cross-links

    Ebert, J.; Fink, S.; Koitschev, A; P. Walther; Langer, M G; Lehmann-Horn, F.

    2010-01-01

    Mechano-electrical transduction (MET) in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs) was studied in newborn Wistar rats using scanning electron microscopy to investigate the stereociliar cross-links, Nomarski laser differential interferometry to investigate stereociliar stiffness and by testing the functionality of the MET channels by recording the entry of fluorescent dye, FM1-43, into stereocilia. Preparations were taken from rats on their day of birth (P0) or 1–4 days later (P1–P4). Hair bu...

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of fly ash, aerosols and hair

    Samples of coal, slag, emissions retained on the separating devices, fly ash, aerosols and hair taken in the area of coal-fired power plant were analyzed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. 13 to 23 elements were determined in the samples. The data obtained for emissions and aerosols were further evaluated by calculation of enrichment factors, correlation coefficients and by the ratio matching method. The concentrations of elements determined in the hair of the exposed group were compared with data of control and so called ''out control'' groups as well as with recent data found for hair in other countries. It can be seen from the results that arsenic is the most serious pollutant in the area. (author)

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of the hair of metallurgical workers

    Hair samples were collected from 20 metallurgical workers (10 males and 10 females) and from 59 control subjects (32 males and 27 females), whose jobs do not indicate a specific occupational exposure. The concentrations of ten minor and trace elements (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The statistical data distributions, the sex and age influences in these elemental concentrations and the average values obtained for the control group were compared with published data. The effect of occupational exposure to the metallic elements was reflected in elemental compositon of hair by significant higher concentration levels of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, V and Zn in the hair of the exposed group, when compared with the control group. (author)

  10. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration

    Tang, Yan; Luo, Binping; Deng, Zhili; Wang, Ben; Liu, Fangfen; Li, Jinmao; Shi, Wei; Xie, Hongfu; Hu, Xingwang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect hair regeneration has not been elaborated upon. Methods. We compared the difference in mitochondrial morphology and activity between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured to evaluate redox balance. In addition, the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were estimated to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial metabolism on regulating hair regeneration, hair growth was observed after application of a mitochondrial respiratory inhibitor upon hair plucking. Results. During HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria became elongated with more abundant organized cristae and showed higher activity in differentiated cells. SOD2 was enhanced for redox balance with relatively stable ROS levels in differentiated cells. PDK increased in HFSCs while differentiated cells showed enhanced PDH, indicating that respiration switched from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in differentiated hair follicle cells upon hair plucking repressed hair regeneration in vivo. Conclusions. Upon HFSCs differentiation, mitochondria are elongated with more abundant cristae and show higher activity, accompanying with activated aerobic respiration in differentiated cells for higher energy supply. Also, dysfunction of mitochondrial respiration delays hair

  11. New method in the criminalistics: neutron-activation analysis of the human hair

    The application of the neutron activation analysis for the examination of human hair for criminological purposes is discussed. Earlier Nal scintillation detector and 256-channels analyzer were used and only form trace elements could be detected in the hair. Recently using Ge/Li detector and a 1024-channels analyzer 11 trace elements were detected in the human hair. (H.E.)

  12. Selective activation of the versican promoter by epithelial– mesenchymal interactions during hair follicle development

    Kishimoto, Jiro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Wu, Lin; Jiang, Shuwei; Jiang, Nanyan; Burgeson, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Interaction between the epithelium and the mesenchyme is an essential feature of organogenesis, including hair follicle formation. The dermal papilla (DP), a dense aggregate of specialized dermis-derived stromal cells located at the bottom of the follicle, is a major component of hair that signals the follicular epithelial cells to prolong the hair growth process. However, little is known about DP-specific gene activation with regard to hair induction. In this study we demonstrate that a shor...

  13. Monitoring intracellular calcium ion dynamics in hair cell populations with Fluo-4 AM.

    Kateri J Spinelli

    Full Text Available We optimized Fluo-4 AM loading of chicken cochlea to report hair-bundle Ca(2+ signals in populations of hair cells. The bundle Ca(2+ signal reported the physiological state of the bundle and cell; extruding cells had very high bundle Fluo-4 fluorescence, cells with intact bundles and tip links had intermediate fluorescence, and damaged cells with broken tip links had low fluorescence. Moreover, Fluo-4 fluorescence in the bundle correlated with Ca(2+ entry through transduction channels; mechanically activating transduction channels increased the Fluo-4 signal, while breaking tip links with Ca(2+ chelators or blocking Ca(2+ entry through transduction channels each caused bundle and cell-body Fluo-4 fluorescence to decrease. These results show that when tip links break, bundle and soma Ca(2+ decrease, which could serve to stimulate the hair cell's tip-link regeneration process. Measurement of bundle Ca(2+ with Fluo-4 AM is therefore a simple method for assessing mechanotransduction in hair cells and permits an increased understanding of the interplay of tip links, transduction channels, and Ca(2+ signaling in the hair cell.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of human hair and health

    Full text: Periodically increasing and decreasing enthusiasm has accompanied the studies of medical significance of human hair elemental composition for at least two decades. In this field, nuclear analytical methods play an extremely important role, especially the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This paper tries to add some new knowledge to this problem. There were collected and analyzed hair samples from 2 500 practically healthy inhabitants of Uzbekistan. This allowed to estimate average concentrations of elements and intervals of concentration for normal population. Average data for 11 regions of Uzbekistan were compared with medical statistics data for these regions. There were found significant correlations for some diseases. In addition were found correlations in world wide scale. These data and previously obtained data in clinical conditions allowed to elaborate algorithm of estimation of health status according to human hair elemental composition. Reliability for many cases was very high. This allows to focus for more detailed diagnostic procedures and measures for the body elemental status correction

  15. Efferent control of the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus.

    Manuel Castellano-Muñoz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hair cells in the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line systems respond to mechanical stimulation and transmit information to afferent nerve fibers. The sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction is modulated by the efferent pathway, whose activity usually reduces the responsiveness of hair cells. The basis of this effect remains unknown. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed immunocytological, electrophysiological, and micromechanical approaches to characterize the anatomy of efferent innervation and the effect of efferent activity on the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus. We found that efferent fibers form extensive synaptic terminals on all macular and extramacular hair cells. Macular hair cells expressing the Ca(2+-buffering protein calretinin contain half as many synaptic ribbons and are innervated by twice as many efferent terminals as calretinin-negative hair cells. Efferent activity elicits inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in hair cells and thus inhibits their electrical resonance. In hair cells that exhibit spiking activity, efferent stimulation suppresses the generation of action potentials. Finally, efferent activity triggers a displacement of the hair bundle's resting position. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus receive a rich efferent innervation with the heaviest projection to calretinin-containing cells. Stimulation of efferent axons desensitizes the hair cells and suppresses their spiking activity. Although efferent activation influences mechanoelectrical transduction, the mechanical effects on hair bundles are inconsistent.

  16. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  17. Effect of voltage dynamics on response properties in a model of sensory hair cell

    Amro, Rami

    2012-01-01

    Sensory hair cells in auditory and vestibular organs rely on active mechanisms to achieve high sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Recent experimental studies have documented self-sustained oscillations in hair cells of lower vertebrates on two distinct levels. First, the hair bundle can undergo spontaneous mechanical oscillations. Second, somatic electric voltage oscillations across the baso-lateral membrane of the hair cell have been observed. We develop a biophysical model of the bullfrog's saccular hair cell consisting of two compartments, mechanical and electrical, to study how the mechanical and the voltage oscillations interact to produce coherent self-sustained oscillations and how this interaction contributes to the overall sensitivity and selectivity of the hair cell. The model incorporates nonlinear mechanical stochastic hair bundle system coupled bi-directionally to a Hodgkin-Huxley type system describing somatic ionic currents. We isolate regions of coherent spontaneous oscillations in the par...

  18. Epithelium-Mesenchyme Interactions Control the Activity of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ during Hair Follicle Development

    Di-Poï, Nicolas; Ng, Chuan Young; Tan, Nguan Soon; Yang, Zhongzhou; Hemmings, Brian A.; Desvergne, Béatrice; Michalik, Liliane; Wahli, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, which involves epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. We show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) and Akt1 are highly expressed in follicular keratinocytes throughout hair follicle development. Interestingly, PPARβ/δ- and Akt1-deficient mice exhibit similar retardation of postnatal hair follicle morphogenesis, particularly at the hair peg stage, revealing a new imp...

  19. Foxi3 Deficiency Compromises Hair Follicle Stem Cell Specification and Activation.

    Shirokova, Vera; Biggs, Leah C; Jussila, Maria; Ohyama, Takahiro; Groves, Andrew K; Mikkola, Marja L

    2016-07-01

    The hair follicle is an ideal system to study stem cell specification and homeostasis due to its well characterized morphogenesis and stereotypic cycles of stem cell activation upon each hair cycle to produce a new hair shaft. The adult hair follicle stem cell niche consists of two distinct populations, the bulge and the more activation-prone secondary hair germ (HG). Hair follicle stem cells are set aside during early stages of morphogenesis. This process is known to depend on the Sox9 transcription factor, but otherwise the establishment of the hair follicle stem cell niche is poorly understood. Here, we show that that mutation of Foxi3, a Forkhead family transcription factor mutated in several hairless dog breeds, compromises stem cell specification. Further, loss of Foxi3 impedes hair follicle downgrowth and progression of the hair cycle. Genome-wide profiling revealed a number of downstream effectors of Foxi3 including transcription factors with a recognized function in hair follicle stem cells such as Lhx2, Runx1, and Nfatc1, suggesting that the Foxi3 mutant phenotype results from simultaneous downregulation of several stem cell signature genes. We show that Foxi3 displays a highly dynamic expression pattern during hair morphogenesis and cycling, and identify Foxi3 as a novel secondary HG marker. Absence of Foxi3 results in poor hair regeneration upon hair plucking, and a sparse fur phenotype in unperturbed mice that exacerbates with age, caused by impaired secondary HG activation leading to progressive depletion of stem cells. Thus, Foxi3 regulates multiple aspects of hair follicle development and homeostasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1896-1908. PMID:26992132

  20. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. Methods After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the...

  1. Trace element analysis of human head hair by neutron activation technique

    28 elements in reference hair sample (HH-1) and 44 hair samples of Seoul, Korea have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical results of reference sample agreed well with those of the IAEA report within 10% deviation except those of some elements. For the 44 hair samples of Seoul, the range of content of each element is fallen in +-3σ from his mean value if rejecting one or two of the highest data. (author)

  2. Size Scaling and Bursting Activity in Thermally Activated Breakdown of Fiber Bundles

    Yoshioka, Naoki

    2008-10-03

    We study subcritical fracture driven by thermally activated damage accumulation in the framework of fiber bundle models. We show that in the presence of stress inhomogeneities, thermally activated cracking results in an anomalous size effect; i.e., the average lifetime tf decreases as a power law of the system size tf ∼L-z, where the exponent z depends on the external load σ and on the temperature T in the form z∼f(σ/T3/2). We propose a modified form of the Arrhenius law which provides a comprehensive description of thermally activated breakdown. Thermal fluctuations trigger bursts of breakings which have a power law size distribution. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of neonate and maternal hair sampled in areas with different levels of pollution

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with different levels of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair were found to be higher than in mothers' hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair samples in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher incidence of mental diseaes of children living in the exposed area. (author)

  4. Monitoring environmental pollution of arsenic and mercury through neutron activation analysis of human hair

    Hair samples from Chilean people have been analyzed using neutron activation analysis as a monitor of environmental pollution of arsenic and mercury. Water is considered to be an important means of transport of heavy metal pollution in this country. The absorption characteristics of hair for arsenic and mercury from aqueous solutions have been studied. Hair concentrates arsenic (about twofold) and mercury (about 100 fold) from water and therefore, is able to detect even low environmental levels of these elements. Arsenic and mercury are found to behave differently in their absorption behaviour along the length of the hair. (author)

  5. Evaluation of accuracy, precision and determination limit in the human hair analysis using neutron activation method

    The accuracy, precision and determination limit were evaluated for determination of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, V and Zn in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The precision was examined by analyzing human hair sample, and the results of relative standard deviations obtained ranged from 3.9 to 16.2%. The results accuracy was evaluated by using reference materials GBW 09101 Human Hair and NIES 5 Human Hair. Currie criterion was used for calculation of the determination limit. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Use of neutron activation analysis for determination of gold in some human scalp hair samples

    In the Egyptian society, it is usual until now that females wear extensively gold jewelry since their birth. The present work is carried out to determine gold content in scalp hair samples from some selected female donors of various ages. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, with gamma ray spectrometry was applied for this study. The obtained data are compared with the available published data for analysis of hair samples from other countries. The correlation between age and gold concentration in hair samples is discussed. Interpretation of the influence of other factors which possibly may affect the contents of gold in the analyzed hair samples is also presented. (author)

  7. Activation analysis of mercury in head hair of dentists

    Mercury contents in head hair of 58 dentists, working at the hospital of Nihon University School of Dentistry, were determined using neutron activation analysis. The values ranged from 2.47 ppm to 13.7 ppm. The frequency distribution of the mercury contents increased steeply at about 2 ppm to the maximum of 4 -- 5 ppm, and decreased to about 11 ppm, its distribution pattern followed a log-normal one with a median of 5.46 ppm. The dentists were divided into two groups and the mercury contents in head hair of them were compared with each other. The arithmetic and geometric means of the values for dentists who handled amalgam in dental practice were 5.66 ppm (SD +- 1.80) and 5.40 ppm (SD x/ 1.36), while those for the dentists who did not handle amalgam in dental practice were 5.96 ppm (SD +- 2.82) and 5.38 ppm (SD x/ 1.59). The values of them agreed well with each other. The arithmetic mean for all dentists was 5.79 ppm (SD +- 2.28) and the geometric mean of them was 5.40 ppm (SD x/ 1.46). They were much lower than the values reported by Suzuki, Miyazawa or Sairenji, et al. in the past year, and they agreed well to those for normal Japanese men with the same age. Therefore it is concluded that proper mercury handling might be established in the dental office. (author)

  8. Bundling in Telecommunications

    Begoña García-Mariñoso; Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Pau Olivella

    2008-01-01

    The paper offers an overview of the literature on bundling in the telecommunications sector and its application in the Spanish market. We argue that the use of bundling in the provision of services is associated to technological reasons. Therefore, there appears no need to regulate bundling activities. However, this is not to say that other related telecom markets should not be scrutinized and regulated, or that the regulator should not pay attention to other bundling-related anticompetitive ...

  9. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x1012 n cm-2 s-1 for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and non-dyed hair

  10. Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.

    Ying Shi

    Full Text Available Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge and lower (hair bulb segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.

  11. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration

    Plikus, M. V.; Mayer, J. A.; de La Cruz, D.; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, P.K.; Maxson, R.; Chuong, C M

    2008-01-01

    In the age of stem cell engineering it is critical to understand how stem cell activity is regulated during regeneration. Hairs are mini-organs that undergo cyclic regeneration throughout adult life1, and are an important model for organ regeneration. Hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge2 are regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche3. The activation of such stem cells is cyclic, involving periodic -catenin activity4, 5, 6, 7. In the adult mouse, regeneration occurs in ...

  12. Activated Notch Causes Deafness by Promoting a Supporting Cell Phenotype in Developing Auditory Hair Cells

    Grace Savoy-Burke; Felicia A Gilels; Wei Pan; Diana Pratt; Jianwen Que; Lin Gan; White, Patricia M.; Kiernan, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether activated Notch can promote a supporting cell fate during sensory cell differentiation in the inner ear. Methods An activated form of the Notch1 receptor (NICD) was expressed in early differentiating hair cells using a Gfi1-Cre mouse allele. To determine the effects of activated Notch on developing hair cells, Gfi1-NICD animals and their littermate controls were assessed at 5 weeks for hearing by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product...

  13. Magnetic Force Nanoprobe for Direct Observation of Audio Frequency Tonotopy of Hair Cells.

    Kim, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Ma, Ji-Hyun; Chung, Eunna; Choi, Hongsuh; Bok, Jinwoong; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2016-06-01

    Sound perception via mechano-sensation is a remarkably sensitive and fast transmission process, converting sound as a mechanical input to neural signals in a living organism. Although knowledge of auditory hair cell functions has advanced over the past decades, challenges remain in understanding their biomechanics, partly because of their biophysical complexity and the lack of appropriate probing tools. Most current studies of hair cells have been conducted in a relatively low-frequency range (perception of 20 kHz or higher. Here, we demonstrate that the magnetic force nanoprobe (MFN) has superb spatiotemporal capabilities to mechanically stimulate spatially-targeted individual hair cells with a temporal resolution of up to 9 μs, which is equivalent to approximately 50 kHz; therefore, it is possible to investigate avian hair cell biomechanics at different tonotopic regions of the cochlea covering a full hearing frequency range of 50 to 5000 Hz. We found that the variation of the stimulation frequency and amplitude of hair bundles creates distinct mechanical responsive features along the tonotopic axis, where the kinetics of the hair bundle recovery motion exhibits unique frequency-dependent characteristics: basal, middle, and apical hair bundles can effectively respond at their respective ranges of frequency. We revealed that such recovery kinetics possesses two different time constants that are closely related to the passive and active motilities of hair cells. The use of MFN is critical for the kinetics study of free-standing hair cells in a spatiotemporally distinct tonotopic organization. PMID:27215487

  14. Effect of photoperiod on reproductive activity and hair in mares.

    Kooistra, L H; Ginther, O J

    1975-10-01

    The effects of photoperiod on reproductive activity and hair changes in pony mares were studied in 2 experiments. In experiment I, the effect of a fixed daily photoperiod on the onset of the breeding season was studied in 36 mares from Nov 13, 1973, to June 13, 1974. The 4 treatment groups were as follows: daily photoperiod equivalent to the normal day length (control group); constant light 24 hours a day with no dark (L24:D0 group); 16-hour daily photoperiod with 8 hours of dark (L16:D8 group); and 9-hour daily photoperiod with 15 hours of dark (L9:D15 group). The intervals from beginning of experiment to 1st ovulation of breeding season, to shedding of hair in tufts, and to appearance of a smooth coat were shorter (P less than 0.05) for L16:D8 group (107.1 +/- 11.1, 56.0 +/- 0, and 145.8 +/- 4.0 days, respectively) than for control, L24:D0, and L9:D15 groups and were shorter (P less than 0.05) for L24:D0 group (less than 156.1 +/- 12.2, 99.5 +/- 9.5, and 173.9 +/- 9.9 days, respectively) than for control group (192.1 +/- 3.3, 134.9 +/- 8.9, and 205.0 +/- 0 days, respectively) or L9:D15 group (less than 200.3 +/- 5,8, 150.6 +/- 12.9, and 201.7 +/- 3.3 days, respectively). These intervals were not significantly different between the control group and the L9:D15 group, but fewer (P less than 0.05) mares in the L9:D15 group had at least 1 ovulation by termination of the project. In experiment II, the effect of photoperiod on onset of anestrus was studied in 3 groups of 7 mares each. Mares in group A, as part of a previous experiment, were induced to enter the breeding season earlier than normal by a gradual increase in daily photoperiod beginning on Oct 13, 1972. From Feb 16, 1973, to June 22, 1973, group A mares were maintained at a fixed daily photoperiod of 15 hours 23 minutes. Mares in group B, as part of a previous experiment, were kept under environmental conditions simulating normal conditions in southern Wisconsin. On June 22, 1973 (beginning of the present

  15. Bundled procurement

    Chen, Yongmin; Li, Jianpei

    2015-01-01

    When procuring multiple products from competing firms, a buyer may choose separate purchase, pure bundling, or mixed bundling. We show that pure bundling will generate higher buyer surplus than both separate purchase and mixed bundling, provided that trade for each good is likely to be efficient. Pure bundling is superior because it intensifies the competition between firms by reducing their cost asymmetry. Mixed bundling is inferior because it allows firms to coordinate to ...

  16. Tourist activated networks: Implications for dynamic bundling and en-route recommendations

    Zach, Florian; Gretzel, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses tourist-activated networks as a concept to inform technological applications supporting dynamic bundling and en route recommendations. Empirical data were collected from travelers who visited a regional destination in the US and then analyzed with respect to its network...... structure. The results indicate that the tourist-activated network for the destination is rather sparse and that there are clearly differences in core and peripheral nodes. The findings illustrate the structure of a tourist-activated network and provide implications for technology design and tourism...

  17. Activating β-catenin signaling in CD133-positive dermal papilla cells increases hair inductivity.

    Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Xu, Mingang; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E; Boyce, Steven; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering hair follicles using cells isolated from human tissue remains a difficult task. Dermal papilla (DP) cells are known to guide the growth and cycling activities of hair follicles by interacting with keratinocytes. However, DP cells quickly lose their inductivity during in vitro passaging. Rodent DP cell cultures need external addition of growth factors, including WNT and BMP molecules, to maintain the hair inductive property. CD133 is expressed by a subpopulation of DP cells that are capable of inducing hair follicle formation in vivo. We report here that expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin promoted clonal growth of CD133-positive (CD133+) DP cells in in vitro three-dimensional hydrogel culture while maintaining expression of DP markers, including alkaline phosphatase (AP), CD133, and integrin α8. After a 2-week in vitro culture, cultured CD133+ DP cells with up-regulated β-catenin activity led to an accelerated in vivo hair growth in reconstituted skin compared to control cells. Further analysis showed that matrix cell proliferation and differentiation were significantly promoted in hair follicles when β-catenin signaling was up-regulated in CD133+ DP cells. Our data highlight an important role for β-catenin signaling in promoting the inductive capability of CD133+ DP cells for in vitro expansion and in vivo hair follicle regeneration, which could potentially be applied to cultured human DP cells. PMID:27312243

  18. Determination of trace elements in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    F, Al, Cl, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag, I and Au have been determined in human hair with the aid of neutron activation analysis. In comparison to values given in literature the Se concentration of 0.3 ppm is low. Increased concentrations have been found of Cr and Mn in the hair of welders and of F in the hair of persons working with fluorine compounds. Women with mammary or thyroid carcinoma showed higher Zn values. In patients with goitre reduced concentrations of I have been determined. (author)

  19. Catching conditions of a disease with nondestructive activation analysis of hair

    The aim of this study was to recognize the body abnormalities through the determination of the metallic balance of hair. Multielement determination of the hair of a patient with acute chromium poisoning by burn from the worst clinical state to complete recovery was carried out. Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn were determined by nondestructive neutron activation analysis. Comparing the clinical findings and metallic balance of the patient's hair it was demonstrated that the metallic balance returned to the normal range with recovery from the sickness. (author) 6 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  20. Determination of trace elements in scalp hair of an elderly population by neutron activation analysis

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to assess trace elements concentrations in head hair from healthy elderly people living in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Se and, Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for dyed and non-dyed hair as well as for hair from females and males of two different age groups. The results were also compared with range values established by clinical laboratories and published data. (author)

  1. Comparison of elemental composition of hair between osteoporotic and normal women by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out on hair samples from a group of 20 patients undergoing a study of osteoporosis. Half of these were judged normal. Forteen elements were measured but only calcium was found to have a correlation with the disease state. Calcium levels in hair were significantly lower (99% level) in patients with osteoporosis. Conversely, calcium levels in the blood of osteoporotic patients were significantly higher (95% level) than those in normals. Though the group studied was small it is felt that levels of calcium in hair may be of value in diagnosing osteoporosis. (author)

  2. Comparison of elemental composition of hair between osteoporotic and normal women by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out on hair samples from a group of twenty patients undergoing a study of osteoporosis. Half of these were judged normal. Fourteen elements were measured but only calcium was found to have a correlation with the disease state. Calcium levels in hair were significantly lower (99% confidence level) in patients with osteoporosis. Conversely, calcium levels in the blood of osteoporotic patients were significantly higher (95% confidence level) than those in normals. Though the group studied was small it is felt that the levels of calcium in hair may be of value in diagnosing osteoporosis. (author) 14 refs

  3. Trace element exposure in man by instrumental neutron activation analysis of hair

    A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation technique was used to analyze human hair samples collected from people living in metropolitan and rural areas in Korea. Samples were also collected from factory workers and cancer patients. Hair from metropolitan area residents contain higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Br,Mn, I and S than rural area residents. Concentrations of I and S from cancer patients, Mg, Zn, Al, Na, Mn and As from glassware workers were relatively higher. The results show that the trace element concentrations of the hair are possibly related to the trace element concentrations in the body. (author)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of zinc, copper, manganese, and gold in human hair of infants

    In the hair of 41 normal newborn children the trace elements zinc, copper, manganese, and gold were followed up longitudinally by neutron activation analysis, the samples (whole length of hair)) being taken at the 1st day of life, between the 63th and 109th, the 200th and 240th, the 368th and 478th as well as between the 700th and 881th day of life. The trace element changes in the hair of babies resulted in the remarkable observation that within the first 3 months of life zinc, copper and gold contents show a considerable increase, followed by a decrease. (author)

  5. Study on trace element determination in human head hair using neutron activation analysis

    Trace element determination in human hair has become increasingly popular for monitoring environmental exposure, assessing nutritional status, evaluating intoxication and diagnosing diseases. However, there are controversies of this use due to the difficulty in the removal of only exogenous origin elements from the hair, the small correlation data between elements contents in the hair and other tissues and the poor quality of analytical results for certain elements. In this study, adequate experimental conditions have been established for human scalp hair analysis in order to obtain further reliable reference value ranges. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for the determination of fourteen trace elements. Irradiations were performed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Aliquots of samples from three individuals were analyzed and the results presented good reproducibility, indicating the sample homogeneity. The quality control of the results was assessed analyzing certified materials. The relative errors lower than 8% and relative standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 15% were obtained for most of elements in the reference materials analysis. Hair samples from voluntary donors from Sao Paulo State, aged from 15 to 60 years were studied and the results obtained indicate that As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se are present in the hair at a low level of 7g kg-1 and the elements Br, Ca, Fe, K, Na and Zn, at μg kg-1 level. There is a necessity of obtaining reliable reference values or intervals for hair trace elements for a defined healthy population. (author)

  6. Neutron activation analysis of children's hair from Ongudai district of Altai

    In the present study neutron activation analysis was used to determine short-lived isotopes (Na, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, V, Mn, Cu and I) in the hair of Altai children from four villages in Ongudai district of the Altai Republic. Data for 54 boys and 132 girls at the age of 7 to 17 were analyzed. Significantly higher content of sodium, aluminum and chlorine was observed in the hair of boys over girls. Concentrations of magnesium and calcium were significantly higher in the hair of girls. Iodine, copper, manganese and sulfur concentrations in the hair of boys and girls are close to each other, the differences between the sexes are not significant. Median concentrations of the studied elements in the hair of boys and girls were, respectively: Na - 75 and 50; Mg - 49 and 62; Al - 21 and 13; S - 41150 and 39850; Cl - 1020 and 390; Ca - 608 and 973; Mn - 1.1 and 0.82; Cu - 9; I - 0.2 g/g. It was shown that the high content of calcium and magnesium is observed in the hair of children living in rural areas with high hardness and salinity of drinking water. Iodine concentrations in the hair of studied cohort of children is low, especially in puberty

  7. In vivo Hair Growth Activity of Herbal Formulations

    M. Semalty; Semalty, A; Geeta P. Joshi; M. S. M Rawat

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of hair growth potential of three plants, Semecarpus anacardium, Trigonella foenumgraecum and Trigonella corniculata. Petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of all the plants were prepared. Aloe vera gel (prepared with fresh Aloe vera leaves) based herbal formulations were prepared with both types of extracts of each plant. The formulations were subjected to characterization of pH, texture, odour and toxicity studies. Hair growth activity of the for...

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of human hair and related radiotracer experiments on washing and leaching

    The work done under the IAEA-contract 2440/RB is summarized. The aim was to develop a fast and reliable system for the determination of tracer elements in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiotracer washing experiments. The standardized procedure for INAA was applied to hair samples collected by the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. The correlation between trace element contents is considered

  9. Neutron activation analysis of manganese in human hair and serum

    Objective and method of manganese determination in human hair and serum in toxicology are presented considering the occupational exposure of welders. The results are discussed in detail with regard to the frequency distribution and to the reliability of identification of welders and non-welders. (author)

  10. Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88□0.82 g gallic acid/100 g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15□1.58 mg cyaniding chloride/100 g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50 mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. PMID:23148028

  11. Forensic and environmental aspects of neutron activation analysis of single human hairs

    A new analytical procedure consisting of special washing step, irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 1014n cm-2s-1, and Ge(Li) spectrometry enabled to determine as many as 14 elements in a 3 cm segment of a single human hair by neutron activation analysis. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were studied using a new statistical criterion for elimination/identification and an appropriate computer program was constructed. Hair dimensions as measured microscopically were used as additional individualizing attributes. It was shown that despite the dif--ficulties originating from from a relatively large intrinsic variation of the trace element concentration over one head, elimination of most or nearly all of the ''suspects'' could be achieved in simulated cases. Distincly elevated levels of Au as well as Cu and Ag were found in hair of some groups of persons working under specific conditions thus confirming the importance of the environmental factor related to some kinds of occupation. (author)

  12. Determination of trace elements in human head hair by neutron activation analysis

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure concentrations of elements in hair samples from a group of patients of a medical clinic and from a control group. Elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, V and Zn were analyzed and comparisons were made between the results obtained for these two groups of individuals. Normal ranges for elemental hair by commercial laboratories are also presented, for comparison, with those results obtained for the control group of individuals living in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing NIES No. 5 Human Hair and SHINR GBW09101 Human Hair reference materials. (author)

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of hair for mercury determination in case of possible professional contamination. 1

    The results of neutron-activation determination of Hg in hair of the staff working with laboratory Hg-equipment are presented. The accuracy of the analysis has been tested including the possible Hg losses from phenol-formaldehyde resigns base standards in Al foils and from hair samples in polyethylene ampoules during their irradiation in water-filled nuclear reactor channel. The mean content of Hg in hair has been found to be 1.42+-0.42 (n=22) for the staff, and 1.05+-0.21 (n=10) μg for the controls. A staff group with a higher Hg content in hair (7.3+-3.0, n=10) has been singled out

  14. Neutron activation analysis of single human hairs and possible applications for forensic purposes

    A new analytical procedure that enables to determine more than 10 trace elements in single, 3 cm human hair segments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) was elaborated. Application of a special washing procedure of hair (before irradiation) made possible to lower sodium content by two orders of magnitude without affecting trace element content. After irradiation in the thermal neutron flux of about 1014n.cm-2.sec-1 the activity of hair was measured with 70 cm3Ge(Li) detector coupled to 4000 channel pulse height analyser. As an alternative method, a destructive version of NAA with ion exchange group separation of radionuclides was applied. It was found that sometimes high gradients of element concentration along the hair length exist and that there is without any doubt a distinct influence of environmental factor on the content of some trace elements in hair. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were also studied using new statistical criterion for elimination (identification). Both possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  15. Neutron activation and electron microscopy in the study of human hair and breast tissues

    Methods for the preparation of hair samples and soft tissue samples employed in instrumental neutron activation analysis and in electron probe microanalysis are given. Realistic values of detection limits for liver, muscle, hair and nail samples are found for different irradiation and counting conditions in both techniques. The variation of flux in the reactor core affects the intensity of the activity produced in the sample, so method and results of measurement of these variations were investigated and are presented. Hair and nail samples collected from a selected population group in Africa were analysed using the above described techniques, as were hair samples collected from breast cancer patients and both sets of results are given. The distribution of some elements along selected lines on the hair cross section were studied using the electron probe microanalyser, whereas the elemental content of microvolumes in both pigmented and matrix areas in the hair cross section were looked at using the transmission electron microscope with electron probe microanalyser. Cancerous and non-cancerous breast tissues were analysed for their elemental content. (author)

  16. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated 32P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a 32P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between 32P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The 32P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g-1)-1 at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. In this study, a method for measuring 32P changes activated by the neutron irradiation of hair samples of criticality accident victims was developed and tested. In addition, a dose conversion factor for two neutron mean energy spectra based on these measurement results was developed. These results agree well with measured absorbed doses from exposure to fast neutron fields. The advantage of the proposed activated hair analysis method based on liquid scintillation counting is that it enables the acquisition of dose information from victims in a short time and with relatively high detection efficiency. In addition, sampling of hair is simpler than it is for other biological samples, and, finally, the conversion factor the authors developed using hair analysis data will be useful for dose assessment in real cases. However, the relation between

  17. Intra- and extracellular calcium modulates stereocilia stiffness on chick cochlear hair cells.

    Pae, S S; Saunders, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Segments of the chick basilar papilla were isolated and maintained in culture medium. The sensory hair bundle of individual hair cells was observed with light microscopy and stimulated with a water microjet at 600 Hz. Hair bundle motion was slowed by illuminating the microscope with stroboscopic light, and water jet intensity was systematically varied in decibel (dB) steps until a visual detection level (VDL) threshold of hair bundle motion was achieved. The VDL threshold of many hair cells w...

  18. Cyclic dermal BMP signaling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration

    Plikus, Maksim V; Mayer, Julie; de la Cruz, Damon; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, Philip K.; Maxson, Robert; Chuong, Cheng-ming

    2008-01-01

    In the age of stem cell engineering, it is critical to understand how stem cell activity is regulated during regeneration. Hairs are mini-organs that undergo cyclic regeneration throughout adult life,1 and are an important model for organ regeneration. Hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge2 are regulated by the surrounding micro-environment, or niche3. The activation of such stem cells is cyclic, involving periodic β-catenin activity4–7. In adult mouse, regeneration occurs in waves in...

  19. Developmental and activity-dependent plasticity of filiform hair receptors in the locust

    HaraldWolf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A group of wind sensitive filiform hair receptors on the locust thorax and head makes contact onto a pair of identified interneuron, A4I1. The hair receptors’ central nervous projections exhibit pronounced structural dynamics during nymphal development, for example, by gradually eliminating their ipsilateral dendritic field while maintaining the contralateral one. These changes are dependent not only on hormones controlling development but on neuronal activity as well. The hair-to-interneuron system has remarkably high gain (close to 1 and makes contact to flight steering muscles. During stationary flight in front of a wind tunnel, interneuron A4I1 is active in the wing beat rhythm, and in addition it responds strongly to stimulation of sensory hairs in its receptive field. A role of the hair-to-interneuron in flight steering is thus suggested. This system appears suitable for further study of developmental and activity-dependent plasticity in a sensorimotor context with known connectivity patterns.

  20. Valproic acid induces hair regeneration in murine model and activates alkaline phosphatase activity in human dermal papilla cells.

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA, a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX, a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl(2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of trace metals in the hair and organs of small animals treated chronically with Hg and Mn

    For the purpose of studying the secretion of exogenous toxic metals into hair, the relation between their concenrations in hair and in organs, and the metal shift Hg or Mn was orally administered to Guinea pigs for protracted periods. The distributions of metals in hair and organs were examined by means of neutron activation analysis. It was found that the administration of Hg at high dose resulted in abnormally high Hg levels in hair from the 2nd dosing week and in organs after 25 weeks of dosing, and in a reduced motor activity after 25 weeks of administration. There occurred metal shifts in hair as well. Administration of Mn at high doses, on the other hand, showed no such biological influences, although a dose-dependent increase of Mn in hair was detected with time. (author)

  2. Activation of PI3K signaling prevents aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in the murine cochlea

    Azadeh Jadali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of sensory hair cells of the inner ear due to aminoglycoside exposure is a major cause of hearing loss. Using an immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP cell line, specific signaling pathways that promote otic cell survival were identified. Of the signaling pathways identified, the PI3K pathway emerged as a strong candidate for promoting hair cell survival. In aging animals, components for active PI3K signaling are present but decrease in hair cells. In this study, we determined whether activated PI3K signaling in hair cells promotes survival. To activate PI3K signaling in hair cells, we used a small molecule inhibitor of PTEN or genetically ablated PTEN using a conditional knockout animal. Hair cell survival was challenged by addition of gentamicin to cochlear cultures. Hair cells with activated PI3K signaling were more resistant to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. These results indicate that increased PI3K signaling in hair cells promote survival and the PI3K signaling pathway is a target for preventing aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.

  3. Activation analysis of human hair as a tool for environmental pollution monitoring

    Recent development and uses of neutron activation techniques for human hair analyses are reviewed. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) appears to have the potential to be used as a tool for environmental pollution monitoring. Principally, two types of NAA procedure are in use nowadays for multi-element analyses of human scalp hair. The more common of these is the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) consisting in a single short-term (3 to 10 hours) exposure of hair to a beam of neutrons in a nuclear reactor, followed by two measurements of gamma-ray spectra at 2 to 3 days and 3 to 4 weeks after the irradiation. The following microelements can be commonly determined by this type of activation procedure: As, Au, Br, Cu, K, La, Na, Sb, Sm, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. The other procedure involves the use of radiochemical separation techniques and is employed for quantitative determinations of elements that are not easily determined by INAA (Mo, Cd, Ni, etc.), or in cases where there is a need to achieve the lowest possible limits of analytical determination. The accuracy of NAA techniques is strongly dependent on the hair sampling and hair sample processing methods used. The analytical error of this method may vary within the range of 5 to 15%. Its applicability as a tool for monitoring the environmental pollution level is demonstrated on an example of groups of individuals living in areas differing by the degree of environmental pollution. The use of other biological materials, such as mammalian hair, for the purpose of environmental exposure monitoring is also considered. (author)

  4. A new neutron activation technique for simultaneous determination of inorganic and total mercury contents in human hair

    A simple method for simultaneous determination of inorganic and total mercury contents in human hair by neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been developed. The method is based on the selective extraction of methylmercury from hair by hydrochloric acid. Thus, the residual phase containing inorganic mercury can be determined by NAA. Further, the methylmercury contents in hair samples are easily calculated by subtracting the inorganic mercury contribution from the total Hg simultaneously given by INAA. Several reference materials of human hair, including IAEA hair RM 085 and 086, Chinese hair RMs GBW 09101 and 07601, were analyzed by this method. Our results show that the method is reliable. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Multielement neutron activation analysis of human scalp hair a local population survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    Applying instrumental neutron activation analysis, multielement analysis of human hair was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentrations in hair of local population in the Tokyo metropolitan area. 202 hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age groups. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were quantitatively analyzed. The method of analysis for data including samples under detection limit is discussed, assuming that the frequency distribution of trace element contents in hair is log-normal. (author)

  6. Activation of β-Catenin Signaling in CD133-Positive Dermal Papilla Cells Drives Postnatal Hair Growth

    Zhou, Linli; Xu, Mingang; Yang, Yongguang; Yang, Kun; Wickett, Randall R.; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) contains a unique prominin-1/CD133-positive (CD133+) cell subpopulation, which has been shown to possess hair follicle-inducing capability. By assaying for endogenous CD133 expression and performing lineage tracing using CD133-CreERT2; ZsGreen1 reporter mice, we find that CD133 is expressed in a subpopulation of DP cells during the growth phase of the murine hair cycle (anagen), but is absent at anagen onset. However, how CD133+ DP cells interact with keratinocytes to induce hair regenerative growth remains unclear. Wnt/β-catenin has long been recognized as a major signaling pathway required for hair follicle morphogenesis, development, and regeneration. Nuclear Wnt/β-catenin activity is observed in the DP during the hair growth phase. Here we show that induced expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin in CD133+ DP cells significantly accelerates spontaneous and depilation-induced hair growth. However, hair follicle regression is not affected in these mutants. Further analysis indicates that CD133+ DP-expressed β-catenin increases proliferation and differentiation of epithelial matrix keratinocytes. Upregulated Wnt/β-catenin activity in CD133+ DP cells also increases the number of proliferating DP cells in each anagen follicle. Our data demonstrate that β-catenin signaling potentiates the capability of CD133+ DP cells to promote postnatal hair growth. PMID:27472062

  7. Dosimetry of criticality accidents using activations of the blood and hair

    The radiation dose received by a person in a criticality accident can be determined with reasonable accuracy from the activity induced in the blood or in the hair. However, both of these methods require a knowledge of the neutron spectra and the exposure conditions. In this report we have compiled results from numerous criticality studies to serve as a guide for neutron dose evaluations based on blood and hair activation. A technique is described in which a combination of these blood and hair activations can be used to determine the neutron dose. This evaluation technique is independent of the person's orientation, shielding provided by walls, equipment, etc. (except for massive shielding by metals), and the neutron leakage spectra. The technique will improve the accuracy of the dose determination, especially if there is little information available on the exposure conditions. This estimate is normally accurate to within +-20 to 30%. This paper also discusses the gamma-to-neutron ratio and its use in establishing the gamma dose (if no gamma exposure data is available) or the neutron dose (if the gamma exposure is known). The use of a G-M instrument at the abdomen is discussed and curves are given to convert the G-M readings to neutron dose. A simplified counting procedure for hair activation is recommended. (author)

  8. Mitochondrial aerobic respiration is activated during hair follicle stem cell differentiation, and its dysfunction retards hair regeneration

    Tang, Yan; Luo, Binping; Deng, Zhili; Wang, Ben; Liu, Fangfen; Li, Jinmao; SHI, Wei; Xie, Hongfu; Hu, Xingwang; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emerging research revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis results in hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how they affect ...

  9. Characterization of Rat Hair Follicle Stem Cells Selected by Vario Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting System

    Hair follicle stem cells (HfSCs) play crucial roles in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair cycling. These stem cells are self-renewable and have the multi-lineage potential to generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicle. The separation and identification of hair follicle stem cells are important for further research in stem cell biology. In this study, we report on the successful enrichment of rat hair follicle stem cells through vario magnetic activated cell sorting (Vario MACS) and the biological characteristics of the stem cells. We chose the HfSCs positive surface markers CD34, α6-integrin and the negative marker CD71 to design four isolation strategies: positive selection with single marker of CD34, positive selection with single marker of α6-integrin, CD71 depletion followed by CD34 positive selection, and CD71 depletion followed by α6-integrin positive selection. The results of flow cytometry analysis showed that all four strategies had ideal effects. Specifically, we conducted a series of researches on HfSCs characterized by their high level of CD34, termed CD34bri cells, and low to undetectable expression of CD34, termed CD34dim cells. CD34bri cells had greater proliferative potential and higher colony-forming ability than CD34dim cells. Furthermore, CD34bri cells had some typical characteristics as progenitor cells, such as large nucleus, obvious nucleolus, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and few cytoplasmic organelles. Our findings clearly demonstrated that HfSCs with high purity and viability could be successfully enriched with Vario MACS

  10. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea

    Anna Kirjavainen; Maarja Laos; Tommi Anttonen; Ulla Pirvola

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC) of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubul...

  11. Activation of the OVOL1-OVOL2 Axis in the Hair Bulb and in Pilomatricoma.

    Ito, Takamichi; Tsuji, Gaku; Ohno, Fumitaka; Uchi, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu; Oda, Yoshinao; Furue, Masutaka

    2016-04-01

    OVOL1 and OVOL2, ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors in mammals, control epithelial cell proliferation, and differentiation, including those in skin. OVOL1 and OVOL2 expression is coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway, and OVOL1 negatively regulates OVOL2 expression in a transcriptional manner. Our previous study of OVOL1 expression in human skin revealed that OVOL1 is preferentially expressed in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis is involved in normal and neoplastic follicular differentiation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that OVOL1 and OVOL2 were strongly expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in the cytoplasm of inner root sheath cells and matrix cells, respectively, in normal follicles. OVOL2 was also expressed in pilomatricoma, with only partial expression of OVOL1. Cultured human keratinocytes expressed OVOL1 and OVOL2 on both the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of OVOL2 was higher in keratinocytes transfected with siRNA of OVOL1. Ketoconazole, a hair growth stimulant, up-regulated the expression of OVOL1 but did not affect OVOL2 expression. These results indicated that the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis may actively contribute to cell differentiation and proliferation in the hair bulb, suggesting that the OVOL1 and OVOL2 may be therapeutic targets of hair disorders, including alopecia, and play important roles in the tumorigenesis of pilomatricoma. PMID:26873447

  12. Use of hair cortisol analysis to detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinze, Kareen; Steudte, Susann; Foley, Paul; Tietze, Antje; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of cortisol levels in human hair has recently been suggested to provide a retrospective index of cumulative cortisol exposure over periods of up to 6 months. The current study examined the utility of hair cortisol analysis to retrospectively detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcoholics in acute withdrawal (n=23), the normalisation of cortisol output in abstinent alcoholics (n=25) and cortisol levels in age- and gender-matched controls (n=20). Scalp-near 3-cm hair segments were sampled and analysed for cortisol content. Results showed three to fourfold higher cortisol levels in hair samples of alcoholics in acute withdrawal than in those of abstinent alcoholics (p<.001) or controls (p<.001), with no differences between the latter two groups. The current hair cortisol findings closely mirror results of previous research using well-established measures of systemic cortisol secretion and thus provide further validation of this novel method. PMID:20727937

  13. Hair Care

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  14. Oily hair

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  15. The potentials and limitations of using neutron activation analysis data on human hair as a forensic evidence

    A survey of hair samples from a group of 300 vounteers, involving nearly 12 000 elemental analyses, indicates that while neutron-activation-analysis data have distinct potentials to develop useful forensic evidence, there are several limitations to its routine applications. The multi-elemental analyses of hair-wash samples were done using multiple neutron irradiation and high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. All neutron irradiations were performed in the Penn State TRIGA Reactor at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 1013nxcm-2xs-1. The gamma-ray spectrometric measurements utilized a 40 cm3 high resolution Ge(Li) detector. This detector, in association with a software oriented programmable multichannel analyzer with a 12 K core size, was used for gamma ray spectrometric measurements. The data were recorded on computer-compatible magnetic tape. The quantitative measurements of only 22 elements were reported from both the hair samples and the ''hair-wash''. These elements are Ti, I, Br, Mn, Cu, V, Cl, Al, Na, Ca, Se, Hg, Cr, Au, Sb, Ag, Sc, Zn, Co, Fe, and La. In expressing the analytical results of ''hair-wash'' samples, the weight of hair from which the hair-wash originated was used to calculate the results in terms of the weight of hair. (T.G.)

  16. Determination of mercury contents in head hair of dentists by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Mercury contents in head hair of 32 dentists and 30 controls were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The precision and accuracy of the analytical results were checked by independent analytical techniques comprising cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis combined with lead diethyldithiocarbamate as a preconcentrating agent. The normal range was from 1.91 to 5.44 ppm with an arithmetic mean of 3.90+-1.01 ppm, and the geometric mean of 3.76x:1.33 ppm. The range, arithmetic and geometric means of the values for dentists were 4.32-24.14 ppm, 11.68+-4.70 ppm, and 10.77x:4.04 ppm, resp. The mercury contents in the hair of the dentists are significantly higher than those of the controls. It indicates that dentists in Taiwan do not practice good mercury hygiene. However, the mercury contents are considerably below the toxicity level. (author)

  17. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration.

    Plikus, Maksim V; Mayer, Julie Ann; de la Cruz, Damon; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K; Maxson, Robert; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2008-01-17

    In the age of stem cell engineering it is critical to understand how stem cell activity is regulated during regeneration. Hairs are mini-organs that undergo cyclic regeneration throughout adult life, and are an important model for organ regeneration. Hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge are regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche. The activation of such stem cells is cyclic, involving periodic beta-catenin activity. In the adult mouse, regeneration occurs in waves in a follicle population, implying coordination among adjacent follicles and the extrafollicular environment. Here we show that unexpected periodic expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and Bmp4 in the dermis regulates this process. This BMP cycle is out of phase with the WNT/beta-catenin cycle, thus dividing the conventional telogen into new functional phases: one refractory and the other competent for hair regeneration, characterized by high and low BMP signalling, respectively. Overexpression of noggin, a BMP antagonist, in mouse skin resulted in a markedly shortened refractory phase and faster propagation of the regenerative wave. Transplantation of skin from this mutant onto a wild-type host showed that follicles in donor and host can affect their cycling behaviours mutually, with the outcome depending on the equilibrium of BMP activity in the dermis. Administration of BMP4 protein caused the competent region to become refractory. These results show that BMPs may be the long-sought 'chalone' inhibitors of hair growth postulated by classical experiments. Taken together, results presented in this study provide an example of hierarchical regulation of local organ stem cell homeostasis by the inter-organ macroenvironment. The expression of Bmp2 in subcutaneous adipocytes indicates physiological integration between these two thermo-regulatory organs. Our findings have practical importance for studies using mouse skin as a model for carcinogenesis, intra-cutaneous drug

  18. Determination of antimony in nail and hair by thermal neutron activation analysis

    The concentration of antimony in nail and hair was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Samples were collected from the workers of an antimony refinery, inhabitants near the refinery, and residents in control area. They were irradiated by Kyoto University 5000 kW Reactor for 1 h, and cooled for 30 to 100 days. After cooling, the concentration of Sb in nail and hair was estimated by measuring the intensity of γ-ray from 124Sb of the samples, then the samples were washed by 0.1 % aqueous solution of nonionic surface active agent in an ultrasonic cleaner. The γ-ray spectrometry was done again (after washing). The concentration of Sb in nail before washing was 730 ppm for the workers, 2.46 ppm for habitants near the refinery, and 0.19 ppm for the control; after washing, it became 230 ppm for the workers, 0.63 ppm for habitants, and 0.09 ppm for the control. The concentration of Sb in hair before and after washing was 222 ppm and 196 ppm for the workers, and 0.21 ppm and 0.15 ppm for the control, respectively. (author)

  19. New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences

    Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...

  20. Hair-zinc levels determination in Algerian psoriatics using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. Zinc has a positive impact on psoriasis. The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. 58 psoriatics and 31 normal controls of both genders were selected. Hair zinc levels were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA). Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA were applied. The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively. They are not significantly different (p>0.05). Zn concentration for males and females controls and patients were 171±27 μg/g, 151±37 μg/g and 145±59 μg/g, 178±58 μg/g respectively. However, for females we have observed a significant difference (p<0.05). - Highlights: ► Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. ► About 2–5% of global population in the world suffers from psoriasis. ► The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. ► The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively.

  1. Neutron, gamma and Roentgen fluorescent activation analysis of hair of children suffering from bronchial asthma

    The aim of present study was the multiparametric study of dangerous microelements content in the hair of children under school and primary school age which included 12 children ill with bronchial asthma and 11 control group persons in the town of Troitsk, Moscow Region. The hair specimens with weight 15-220 mg were analysed with the application of epithermal neutron activation analysis conducted at experimental installation REGATA and neutron source-unique Pulsed Fast Reactor IBR-2, with the application of combined gamma-neutron irradiation at Microtron MT-25 and with Roentgen Fluorescence Analysis device of JINR. The data of elements content in hair were obtained with solid state track detectors and semiconductor electronic spectrometers. The solid state track detectors provide the determination of U, Th, Bi and Be elements at the level of sensitivity up to 10-8-10-9 g/g. These data were compared with more representative information about dangerous microelements concentration obtained with NAA and RFA analyses. The obtained concentrations of most elements vary in a wide range, but in agreement with the known data. The highest degree of element dispersion was observed for U, Th, Pb, I, Br, Sb, Co, K and Be (the radiation coefficient was higher than 100-200%). The presented analysis of results shows that in the clinical picture there is some proved correlation between an increased content of some element in hair and symptoms of their accumulation in the organism of ill children, the revelation of which is the basic idea of our examination

  2. Radioactivation analysis of hair

    With the aim of indicating environmental pollution effects by heavy metals on humans using hair, nondestructive activation analysis was applied to 382 normal Japanese hair samples (background level). Elemental contents of hair could be determined for Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ti, V and Zn. As these elements in hair have wide concentration ranges, the differences in concentration distribution between groups (sex, age, permanent treatment and regional difference) are discussed. A method for hair sampling is presented. (author)

  3. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  4. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recur...

  5. Interactive user's application to Genie 2000 spectroscopy system for automation of hair neutron activation analysis

    Full text: In recent years lower plants such as mosses or lichens and for arid countries bark and leaves of tree have been used as biomonitors in environmental studies. Alongside with plants the trace elemental human hair composition also has been used as an indicator of pollution of natural and industrial environments. Because of convenience, easy access, nondestruction of sampling, and also preservation of information for a long time period, human hair even more often and widely used in various researches. In the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan hair trace element analysis in environment monitoring and mapping and in health status studies have been used. Scientist of activation analysis laboratory always has a lot of routine work on biological objects analysis, so they regularly improved applied nuclear techniques. At present one of such good work-out technique is consider a hair multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis using single comparator standard method. Since in frames of the 'Enhanced nuclear techniques for materials identification' STCU project, the Radioanalytical Center (RAC) was created in October 2004, for analysis such objects as metals and alloys, minerals and ores, hydrogeological samples, technological products, soils, fertilizers, biological samples, foodstuff, water, sediments, construction materials, as well as materials of unknown composition the unique equipment of RAC have been used. For example, human hair analysis has performed on the base of HP Ge-detector with high resolution gamma-spectrometer of Canberra Industries, Inc. Genie-2000 Spectroscopy System of Canberra spectrometers, represents the true state of the art in spectroscopy software platforms. Genie 2000 is a comprehensive set of capabilities for acquiring and analyzing spectra from Multichannel Analyzers (MCA). Its functions include MCA control, spectral display and manipulation, basic spectrum analysis and

  6. Hair transplant

    Hair restoration ... Avram MR, Keene SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 157. Fisher J. Hair restoration. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. ...

  7. Split-Cre complementation restores combination activity on transgene excision in hair roots of transgenic tobacco.

    Mengling Wen

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ''split-Cre'' fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (NCre of split-Cre protein was expressed, whereas recombination activity was obtained when the C-terminal (CCre or both NCre and CCre fragments were supplied. We have also determined the recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins which were co-expressed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco. No Cre recombination event was observed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco when the NCre or CCre genes were expressed alone. In contrast, an efficient recombination event was found in transgenic hairy roots co-expressing both inactive split-Cre genes. Moreover, the restored recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins fused with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS was higher than that of intact Cre in transgenic lines. Thus, DNA recombination mediated by split-Cre proteins provides an alternative method for spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in transgenic plants.

  8. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  9. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  10. Neutron activation analysis of mercury contents in head hair of dentists in Japan

    Mercury contents in head hair of 58 dentists employed at the NUSD hospital and 50 dentists employed at private hospitals or clinics were determined using neutron activation analysis. The arithmetic means were 5.8 ppm and 5.2 ppm, and geometric means were 5.4 ppm and 4.8 ppm, respectively. They were much lower than the values reported in the preceding year, and agreed well with those of normal Japanese persons of the same age. Therefore, it was concluded that the mercury pollution in the working environment of dentists might be practically negligible in Japan today. (author)

  11. Hair Follicle Pigmentation

    Slominski, Andrzej; Wortsman, Jacobo; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Schallreuter, Karin U.; Paus, Ralf; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2005-01-01

    Hair shaft melanin components (eu- or/and pheomelanin) are a long-lived record of precise interactions in the hair follicle pigmentary unit, e.g., between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. Follicular melanogenesis (FM) involves sequentially the melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melanin granules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hair shafts. This activity is in turn regulated by an array of...

  12. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2...

  13. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the product. ...

  14. STAT5 Activation in the Dermal Papilla Is Important for Hair Follicle Growth Phase Induction.

    Legrand, Julien M D; Roy, Edwige; Ellis, Jonathan J; Francois, Mathias; Brooks, Andrew J; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-09-01

    Hair follicles are skin appendages that undergo periods of growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and rest (telogen) regulated by their mesenchymal component, the dermal papilla (DP). On the basis of the reports of its specific expression in the DP, we investigated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5) activation during hair development and cycling. STAT5 activation in the DP began in late catagen, reaching a peak in early anagen before disappearing for the rest of the cycle. This was confirmed by the expression profile of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, a STAT5 target in the DP. This pattern of expression starts after the first postnatal hair cycle. Quantification of hair cycling using the Flash canonical Wnt signaling in vivo bioluminescence reporter found that conditional knockout of STAT5A/B in the DP targeted through Cre-recombinase under the control of the Sox18 promoter resulted in delayed anagen entry compared with control. Microarray analysis of STAT5 deletion versus control revealed key changes in tumor necrosis factor-α, Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor ligands, known for their role in inducing anagen entry. We conclude that STAT5 activation acts as a mesenchymal switch to trigger natural anagen entry in postdevelopmental hair follicle cycling. PMID:27131881

  15. Bundling biodiversity

    Heal, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Biodiversity provides essential services to human societies. Many of these services are provided as public goods, so that they will typically be underprovided both by market mechanisms (because of the impossibility of excluding non-payers from using the services) and by government-run systems (because of the free rider problem). I suggest here that in some cases the public goods provided by biodiversity conservation can be bundled with private goods and their value to consumers captured in th...

  16. Multielement analysis of human hair reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    A Human Hair (NIES No. 5) as an environmental reference material prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan (NIES) was analyzed by an instrumental neutron activation method. The human hair samples (ca. 200∼500 mg) were irradiated for 2 min or 5 h at Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor. The activated samples were measured by four gamma-ray spectrometories, namely a spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, anticoincidence and coincidence counting spectrometries using a coaxial Ge detector, and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector, and a low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) using a planer Ge detector, to determine as many trace elements as possible with high sensitivity. Concentrations of 43 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined by these measurements. The analyzed values of many elements except Sr were in good agreement with NIES certified values determined by nine different analytical methods. (author)

  17. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    Moser, Tobias; Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the ...

  18. Hair transplantation.

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484

  19. Self-Organization in Active Cytoskeletal Mixtures: Cilia-like Beating of Microtubule Bundles and Spontaneous Bulk Mixing

    Sanchez, Tim

    This thesis discusses circularization and supercoiling of actin biofilaments, as well as the various examples of self-organization observed in a simple non-equilibrium system of microtubules, motor clusters, and a depletion agent (PEG). When the ends of an actin filament approach each other, annealing can occur, resulting in the assumption of a circular conformation. In order to facilitate this experimentally, we dramatically reduce the space available for the ends to explore by confining the filaments to a quasi-2D region. This is accomplished through the use of a depletion attraction. In addition to the pronounced effects of this topological ring constraint on the statistical fluctuations of the filaments, we also observe a spontaneous supercoiling transition in fluorescently labeled actin rings that is directly driven by illumination. To better understand this transition in natural twist, we investigate real-time twist of a filament trapped between two beads, held by optical traps. The main focus of this graduate work was on the behavior of non-equilibrium in vitro mixtures of microtubules, kinesin motor clusters, and a depletion agent. We observed several striking and distinct examples of self-organization on near-macroscopic length scales, due to the interactions of very simple components. First we investigate the driving mechanism behind the beating of biological cilia and flagella, and find that this beating functionality can be reproduced in our vastly simpler system. This occurs only when minimalist components are reconstituted: motors, biofilaments, elastic links to hold the filaments together, and a basal attachment. Beyond the cooperativity of the motors to produce oscillatory beating in individual bundles, we also observe that active bundles in close proximity can synchronize their beating to produce stable, periodic metachronal waves that propagate along the bundle array. By changing only the length distribution of the microtubules in our system, we

  20. The preshaving protocol in body hair-to-scalp transplant to identify hair in anagen phase

    Poswal Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of body donor hair for transplanting to the bald scalp is termed body hair transplant. In recent times, robust body hair has been used as an adjunct to scalp donor hair to augment the donor hair supply. A large percentage of body hair are in telogen and, as single hair units. Aims: To devise a non invasive protocol to identify the body donor hair in anagen phase prior to extraction. Materials and Methods: Hairs are shaved flush with the skin, four days prior to extraction. On fourth day, the actively growing hair follicles as well as non growing hairs were extracted and phase of hair growth determined. Results: Nineteen out 22 extracted hair follicles in nongrowing phase were found to be the telogen phase. Conclusion: Preshaving the body donor areas is a simple non invasive method of isolating the hair in anagen phase.

  1. Premature graying of hair

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  2. The Growth of Human Hair.

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  3. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on hu...

  4. Trace element determination in fingernails, hair and blood serum in patients with Crohn's disease using neutron activation analysis

    The determination of trace elements and electrolyte concentrations in blood serum, hair and fingernails of 16 patients with Crohn's disease was carried out by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. In the serum a significant decline in the zinc content could be registered, while the remaining trace elements remained in the normal range. The parenteral nutrition also showed a zinc deficiency. There was, however, also an iron deficiency. The studies of the hair and fingernails gave the following results: Rubidium and antimony in the normal range; zinc, selenium, iron and cobalt below normal values. (orig./PW)

  5. Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

  6. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    Kučera, Jan; Kofronova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 3 (2011), s. 769-772. ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Instrumental neutron activation analysis * Hair * Arsenic poisoning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  7. Left bundle-branch block

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  8. Fuel bundle

    This patent describes a method of forming a fuel bundle of a nuclear reactor. The method consists of positioning the fuel rods in the bottom plate, positioning the tie rod in the bottom plate with the key passed through the receptacle to the underside of the bottom plate and, after the tie rod is so positioned, turning the tie rod so that the key is in engagement with the underside of the bottom plate. Thereafter mounting the top plate is mounted in engagement with the fuel rods with the upper end of the tie rod extending through the opening in the top plate and extending above the top plate, and the tie rod is secured to the upper side of sid top plate thus simultaneously securing the key to the underside of the bottom plate

  9. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in human hair by using a research reactor

    Recently, hair has been used for diagnosis of various diseases as well as blood and urine since hair is one of excretory tissues for various elements in humans. Many elements are excreted in hairs at higher concentrations than those in blood and urine. Therefore, it seems possible to estimate the effects of radiation exposure in the past. Here, the levels of elements in hairs were determined by radiation analysis using nuclear reactor. When mercury level was compared among the hairs from various countries of the world, the levels of Japanese and English were 4 ppm or more, significantly higher than around 2 ppm for the subjects in other countries. The levels were higher in cities than in the suburbs in any country, indicating that the differences might be due to air pollution. Furthermore, it was found that radioactive levels of some elements in hair were dependent on sex, especially for Ca, Cu etc. and on preexposure to a perm for Br, Ca, Mg etc. In addition, neutron analysis was indicated to be available for diagnosis of some diseases; the aluminum concentration in hairs was significantly lower in the patients with Alzheimer's disease than those with cerebrovascular diseases and the control subjects. The levels of As, Co, Cd and Hg in hairs were demonstrated to be several hundred fold higher in a woman named Otaki who died in nearly 1829 than those levels of the modern Japanese women, showing that various toxic materials such as cosmetics were used in those days. (M.N.)

  10. Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Dabelsteen, Sally;

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances are ingredients of more than two-thirds of oxidative (permanent) hair dyes currently used. Although PPD is a potent skin sensitizer in predictive assays, the extent to which permanent hair dyes sensitize humans has been questioned...... due to the in-use conditions, e.g. the presence of couplers in the hair dye gel and rapid oxidation using a developer. Objectives To study the skin sensitizing potential of permanent hair dyes in mice. Methods Two different permanent hair dye products containing PPD were studied in CBA mice using a...... modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph...

  11. Hair removal

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  12. Hair Removal

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  13. Hair Removal

    ... that's also found in your fingernails and toenails. Hair growth begins beneath the surface of your skin at ... provide cushioning and protection. In some cases, excess hair growth, called hirsutism (pronounced: hur -soo-tih-zum), may ...

  14. Hair Transplants

    ... Sweating Facial Redness Frown Lines and Forehead Furrows Hair Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider ... Sweating Facial Redness Frown Lines and Forehead Furrows Hair Loss Sagging Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider ...

  15. Hair cosmetics

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  16. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration. PMID:25609845

  17. Hair cosmetics

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  18. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  19. Hair Mercury Negatively Correlates with Calcium Pump Activity in Human Term Newborns and Their Mothers at Delivery

    Huel, Guy; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Debotte, Ginette; Oury, Jean-François; Takser, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    Background Calcium homeostasis is a known target of several environmental toxicants including lead and mercury. Objective Our goal was to determine the relationship between Hg exposure and erythrocyte Ca pump activity in women at delivery and in their newborns. Methods We determined total Hg as well as Pb concentrations in 81 hair and blood samples obtained at delivery. Basal and calmodulin-stimulated Ca pump activity was measured in red blood cells from cord blood and maternal erythrocyte pl...

  20. New activators and inhibitors in the hair cycle clock: targeting stem cells' state of competence.

    Plikus, Maksim V

    2012-05-01

    The timing mechanism of the hair cycle remains poorly understood. However, it has become increasingly clear that the telogen-to-anagen transition is controlled jointly by at least the bone morphogenic protein (BMP), WNT, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathways. New research shows that Fgf18 signaling in hair follicle stem cells synergizes BMP-mediated refractivity, whereas Tgf-β2 signaling counterbalances it. Loss of Fgf18 signaling markedly accelerates anagen initiation, whereas loss of Tgf-β2 signaling significantly delays it, supporting key roles for these pathways in hair cycle timekeeping. PMID:22499035

  1. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of glutamine synthetase in hair cells of Azolla.

    Uheda, Eiji; Maejima, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-15

    In the Azolla-Anabaena association, the host plant Azolla efficiently incorporates and assimilates ammonium ions that are released from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobiont, probably via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) in hair cells, which are specialized cells protruding into the leaf cavity. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanism underlying ammonium assimilation in the Azolla-Anabaena association, Azolla plants were grown under an argon environment (Ar), in which the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont was inhibited specifically and completely. The localization of GS in hair cells was determined by immunoelectron microscopy and quantitative analysis of immunogold labeling. Azolla plants grew healthily under Ar when nitrogen sources, such as NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+), were provided in the growth medium. Both the number of cyanobacterial cells per leaf and the heterocyst frequency of the plants under Ar were similar to those of plants in a nitrogen environment (N(2)). In hair cells of plants grown under Ar, regardless of the type of nitrogen source provided, only weak labeling of GS was observed in the cytoplasm and in chloroplasts. In contrast, in hair cells of plants grown under N(2), abundant labeling of GS was observed in both sites. These findings indicate that specific inhibition of the nitrogen-fixing activity of the cyanobiont affects the localization of GS isoenzymes. Ammonium fixed and released by the cyanobiont could stimulate GS synthesis in hair cells. Simultaneously, the abundant GS, probably GS1, in these cells, could assimilate ammonium rapidly. PMID:19464754

  2. Lis1 mediates planar polarity of auditory hair cells through regulation of microtubule organization

    Sipe, Conor W.; Liu, Lixia; Lee, Jianyi; Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia; Lu, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    The V-shaped hair bundles atop auditory hair cells and their uniform orientation are manifestations of epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP) required for proper perception of sound. PCP is regulated at the tissue level by a conserved core Wnt/PCP pathway. However, the hair cell-intrinsic polarity machinery is poorly understood. Recent findings implicate hair cell microtubules in planar polarization of hair cells. To elucidate the microtubule-mediated polarity pathway, we analyzed Lis1 functio...

  3. New activators and inhibitors in the hair cycle clock: targeting stem cells’ state of competence

    Plikus, Maksim V.

    2012-01-01

    The timing mechanism of the hair cycle remains poorly understood. However, it has become increasingly clear that the telogen-to-anagen transition is controlled jointly by at least the bone morphogenic protein (BMP), WNT, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathways. New research shows that Fgf18 signaling in hair follicle stem cells synergizes BMP-mediated refractivity, whereas Tgf-β2 signaling counterbalances it. Loss of Fgf18 signaling markedly a...

  4. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF Expression

    Shu-Mei Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  5. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression.

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  6. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  7. MicroRNA-214 controls skin and hair follicle development by modulating the activity of the Wnt pathway.

    Ahmed, Mohammed I; Alam, Majid; Emelianov, Vladimir U; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Patel, Ankit; Sharov, Andrey A; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2014-11-24

    Skin development is governed by complex programs of gene activation and silencing, including microRNA-dependent modulation of gene expression. Here, we show that miR-214 regulates skin morphogenesis and hair follicle (HF) cycling by targeting β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. miR-214 exhibits differential expression patterns in the skin epithelium, and its inducible overexpression in keratinocytes inhibited proliferation, which resulted in formation of fewer HFs with decreased hair bulb size and thinner hair production. The inhibitory effects of miR-214 on HF development and cycling were associated with altered activities of multiple signaling pathways, including decreased expression of key Wnt signaling mediators β-catenin and Lef-1, and were rescued by treatment with pharmacological Wnt activators. Finally, we identify β-catenin as one of the conserved miR-214 targets in keratinocytes. These data provide an important foundation for further analyses of miR-214 as a key regulator of Wnt pathway activity and stem cell functions during normal tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and aging. PMID:25422376

  8. MicroRNA-214 controls skin and hair follicle development by modulating the activity of the Wnt pathway

    Ahmed, Mohammed I.; Alam, Majid; Emelianov, Vladimir U.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Patel, Ankit; Sharov, Andrey A.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin development is governed by complex programs of gene activation and silencing, including microRNA-dependent modulation of gene expression. Here, we show that miR-214 regulates skin morphogenesis and hair follicle (HF) cycling by targeting β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. miR-214 exhibits differential expression patterns in the skin epithelium, and its inducible overexpression in keratinocytes inhibited proliferation, which resulted in formation of fewer HFs with de...

  9. Death mode-dependent reduction in succinate dehydrogenase activity in hair cells of aging rat cochleae

    YANG Wei-ping; HU Bo-hua; SUN Jian-he; ZHAI Suo-qiang; Donald Henderson

    2010-01-01

    Background Our previous studies have shown that both apoptosis and necrosis are involved in hair cell (HC) pathogenesis in aging cochleae. To better understand the biological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of HC death, we examined the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme, in the HCs of aging cochleae.Methods The auditory brainstem response thresholds elicited by tone bursts at 4, 10 and 20 kHz were measured in both young (2-3 months) and aging (22-23 months) Wistar rats. SDH activity was evaluated with a colorimetric assay using nitroblue tetrazolium monosodium salt. The SDH-labeled organs of Corti were double stained with propidium iodide, a DNA intercalating fluorescent probe for illustration of HC nuclei. All the specimens were examined with fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy.Results Aging rats exhibited a significant elevation of ABR thresholds with threshold shifts being 34 dB at 20 kHz, 28 dB at 10 kHz, and 25 dB at 4 kHz. Consistent with the reduction in the cochlear function, aging cochleae exhibited the reduction of SDH staining intensity in the apical and the basal ends of the cochleae, where a large number of apoptotic, necrotic, and missing HCs were evident. The reduction in SDH staining appeared in a cell-death-mode dependent fashion. Specifically, SDH labeling remained in apoptotic HCs. In contrast, SDH staining was markedly reduced or absent in necrotic HCs.Conclusions In the aging cochlea, SDH activity is preserved in HCs undergoing apoptosis, but is substantially reduced in necrosis. These results suggest that mitochondrial energetic function is involved in the regulation of cell death pathways in the pathogenesis of aging cochleae.

  10. Hair casts

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  11. Electron transfer activity of a de novo designed copper center in a three-helix bundle fold.

    Plegaria, Jefferson S; Herrero, Christian; Quaranta, Annamaria; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we characterized the intermolecular electron transfer (ET) properties of a de novo designed metallopeptide using laser-flash photolysis. α3D-CH3 is three helix bundle peptide that was designed to contain a copper ET site that is found in the β-barrel fold of native cupredoxins. The ET activity of Cuα3D-CH3 was determined using five different photosensitizers. By exhibiting a complete depletion of the photo-oxidant and the successive formation of a Cu(II) species at 400nm, the transient and generated spectra demonstrated an ET transfer reaction between the photo-oxidant and Cu(I)α3D-CH3. This observation illustrated our success in integrating an ET center within a de novo designed scaffold. From the kinetic traces at 400nm, first-order and bimolecular rate constants of 10(5)s(-1) and 10(8)M(-1)s(-1) were derived. Moreover, a Marcus equation analysis on the rate versus driving force study produced a reorganization energy of 1.1eV, demonstrating that the helical fold of α3D requires further structural optimization to efficiently perform ET. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics - the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26427552

  12. Hair cell regeneration in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs following aminoglycoside toxicity

    Baird, Richard A.; Torres, M. A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Adult bullfrogs were given single intraotic injections of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and sacrificed at postinjection times ranging from 0.5 to 9 days. The saccular and utricular maculae of normal and injected animals were examined in wholemount and cross-section. Intraotic 200 (mu) M gentamicin concentrations resulted in the uniform destruction of the hair bundles and, at later times, the cell bodies of saccular hair cells. In the utriculus, striolar hair cells were selectively damaged while extrastriolar hair cells were relatively unaffected. Regenerating hair cells, identified in sectioned material by their small cell bodies and short, well-formed hair bundles, were seen in the saccular and utricular maculae as early as 24-48 h postinjection. Immature versions of mature hair cell types in both otolith organs were recognized by the presence of absence of a bulbed kinocilia and the relative lengths of their kinocilia and longest sterocilia. Utricular hair cell types with kinocilia longer than their longest stereocilia were observed at earlier times than hair cell types with shorter kinocilia. In the same sacculus, the hair bundles of gentamicin-treated animals, even at 9 days postinjection, were significantly smaller than those of normal animals. The hair bundles of utricular hair cells, on the other hand, reached full maturity within the same time period.

  13. Multielemental hair composition of Brazilian Indian populational groups by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Multielemental composition of hair samples of Indian populations living in the Xingu Park Reservation, in the Brazilian Amazonic region has been determined for the first time, by INAA. Irradiations were carried out at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (Delft, The Netherlands) and, using a combination of different irradiation and decay times, about 40 elements could be determined in the hair. Previous analysis made at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission) of hair samples of a Brazilian control population allowed the determination of 20 elements, also by INAA. Comparison of the data obtained for the Indian populations and the controls showed very significant differences in elemental compositions for some elements, like Hg, Mn and Al while for others, like Cu and Zn, the concentrations were similar. A discussion of the differences found for other elements also is made. (author)

  14. Strategic Aspects of Bundling

    The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)

  15. Equivariant bundle gerbes

    Murray, Michael K; Stevenson, Danny; Vozzo, Raymond F

    2015-01-01

    We develop the theory of simplicial extensions for bundle gerbes and their characteristic classes. This formalism is used to study descent problems and equivariance for bundle gerbes. We consider in detail two examples: the basic bundle gerbe on a unitary group and a string structure for a principal bundle. We show that the basic bundle gerbe is equivariant for the conjugation action and calculate its characteristic class and that a string structure gives rise to a bundle gerbe which is equivariant for a natural action of the String 2-group.

  16. Analyses of regenerative wave patterns in adult hair follicle populations reveal macro-environmental regulation of stem cell activity

    Plikus, Maksim V; Widelitz, Randall B; Maxson, Rob; Chuong, Cheng-ming

    2009-01-01

    The control of hair growth in the adult mammalian coat is a fascinating topic which has just begun to be explored with molecular genetic tools. Complex hair cycle domains and regenerative hair waves are present in normal adult (> 2 month) mice, but more apparent in mutants with cyclic alopecia phenotypes. Each hair cycle domain consists of initiation site(s), a propagating wave and boundaries. By analyzing the dynamics of hair growth, time required for regeneration after plucking, in situ hyb...

  17. Hair Loss

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Trichotillomania Dealing With a Health Condition Taking Care of Your Hair Skin, Hair, and Nails Body Image and Self-Esteem Alopecia: Kayla's Story Dealing With Cancer Contact Us ...

  18. Wnt activation protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage in the mouse cochlea.

    Liu, L; Chen, Y; Qi, J; Zhang, Y; He, Y; Ni, W; Li, W; Zhang, S; Sun, S; Taketo, M M; Wang, L; Chai, R; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hair cell (HC) development, regeneration, and differentiation in the mouse cochlea; however, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HC protection remains unknown. In this study, we took advantage of transgenic mice to specifically knockout or overactivate the canonical Wnt signaling mediator β-catenin in HCs, which allowed us to investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in protecting HCs against neomycin-induced damage. We first showed that loss of β-catenin in HCs made them more vulnerable to neomycin-induced injury, while constitutive activation of β-catenin in HCs reduced HC loss both in vivo and in vitro. We then showed that loss of β-catenin in HCs increased caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by neomycin injury, while β-catenin overexpression inhibited caspase-mediated apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of β-catenin in HCs led to increased expression of forkhead box O3 transcription factor (Foxo3) and Bim along with decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes; thus, there were increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after neomycin treatment that might be responsible for the increased aminoglycoside sensitivity of HCs. In contrast, β-catenin overexpression reduced Foxo3 and Bim expression and ROS levels, suggesting that β-catenin is protective against neomycin-induced HC loss. Our findings demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling has an important role in protecting HCs against neomycin-induced HC loss and thus might be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of HC death. PMID:26962686

  19. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods

  20. Application of neutron activation analysis for mercury species determination in scalp hair samples from Malaysia, Libya and Jordan

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the levels of total mercury and methylmercury in hair samples obtained from 400 Malaysian (Kuala Lumpur), Libyan (Benghazi) and Jordanian (Amman) donors. Results show that the level of total mercury in hair samples of the Malaysian group (3.38 mg x kg-1) was significantly higher than those of Libyan (0.81 mg x kg-1) and Jordanian groups (0.69 mg x kg-1). Likewise, a significant difference was found between the level of methylmercury of the Malaysian group (1.13 mg x kg-1) and those of the Libyan (0.04 mg x kg-1) and Jordanian groups (0.13 mg x kg-1). This difference could be attributed to the variation in life habits especially fish diet and to the local environment of each population. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between the level of total mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of the Libyan and Jordanian residents. (author)

  1. Determination of uranium in human head hair of a Brazilian populational group by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    Hair analysis is extensively used in forensic sciences, assessment of occupational or environmental exposure and in some cases also for clinical and nutritional studies. Hair has a series of advantages in relation to other biomonitors, like blood and urine, since it is very easy to collect, very stable at room temperature and it represents not only instantaneous concentrations, but it can reveal the exposure along a given period of time. The assessment of environmental or occupational exposure to uranium is generally done by means of urine analysis, although a few papers have described attempts to use hair as a biomonitor. In the present work, epithermal neutron activation analysis has been used to establish base-line concentrations for a Brazilian populational group, living in Sao Paulo and not exposed to uranium, either environmentally or occupationally. For quality control, the reference materials Pine Needles NIST 1575 and Basalt USGS BCR-1 were used. The concentrations obtained for the control population studied up to now varied from about 2 to 50 ng x g-1. (author)

  2. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of committing suicide by the ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy, which was determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with proven accuracy was performed of another set of sectioned hair samples. Levels of As found by INAA in the range of 0.16-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 h after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results obtained by ICP-MS and INAA are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. (author)

  3. Neutron activation analysis of hair elements. Influence of residence, occupation and health status

    26 trace elements are determined in human head hair by n.a.a. in combination with a.a.s. and a.e.s. Mean values obtained are compared with literature data. For selected elements the influence of age in the first years of life, of residence, professional burden, hormones, and diseases was studied. (author)

  4. Immunocosmeceuticals: An emerging trend in repairing human hair damage

    Karthika Selvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is one of the most important portions for beauty care and in recent years grooming and cosmetic treatment of hair has drastically risen. Substantially, it may deteriorate and weaken the hair by modification of keratin protein. This makes the hair dry, brittle and split vend occurs due to loss of hair strength and the damage further increases with cosmetic treatments. The various poor ingredients are being used for repairing which have extremely poor compatibility with hair. Now the hair care products can be introduced with an active ingredient comprising a yolk derived anti-hair antibody immunoglobin obtained from egg of chickens immunized with damaged hair as antigen. This immuno-cosmeceuticals can repair the hair damage and imparts flexibility and smoothness to the hair. These effects are not lost by the ordinary shampooing. This article focuses on the characteristic of human hair, its damaging processes and the effects of immuno-cosmeceuticals for repairing the hair damage.

  5. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  6. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus. 1: Responses to intracellular current

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus are specifically adapted to sense small-amplitude, high-frequency linear accelerations. These hair cells display many properties that are undesirable or inappropriate for hair cells that must provide static gravity sensitivity. This study resulted in part due to an interest in seeing how the transduction mechanisms of hair cells in a gravity-sensing otolith endorgan would differ from those in the bullfrog sacculus. The bullfrog utriculus is an appropriate model for these studies, because its structure is representative of higher vertebrates in general and its function as a sensor of static gravity and dynamic linear acceleration is well known. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus, classifiable as Type 2 by cell body and synapse morphology, differ markedly in hair bundle morphology from those in the bullfrog sacculus. Moreover, the hair bundle morphologies of utricular hair cells, unlike those in the sacculus, differ in different membrane regions.

  7. Einstein Hair

    Kolyvaris, Theodoros; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Siopsis, George

    2011-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system of vanishing cosmological constant consisting of an electromagnetic field and a scalar field coupled to the Einstein tensor. A Reissner-Nordstr{\\o}m black hole undergoes a second-order phase transition to a hairy black hole of generally anisotropic hair at a certain critical temperature which we compute. The no-hair theorem is evaded due to the coupling between the scalar field and the Einstein tensor ("Einstein hair"). We calculate explicitly the properties of a hairy black hole configuration near the critical temperature and show that it is energetically favorable over the corresponding Reissner-Nordstr{\\o}m black hole.

  8. Automatic Hair Segmentation in the Wild

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour. Th...

  9. Hair cell recovery in mitotically blocked cultures of the bullfrog saccule

    Baird, R. A.; Burton, M. D.; Fashena, D. S.; Naeger, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Hair cells in many nonmammalian vertebrates are regenerated by the mitotic division of supporting cell progenitors and the differentiation of the resulting progeny into new hair cells and supporting cells. Recent studies have shown that nonmitotic hair cell recovery after aminoglycoside-induced damage can also occur in the vestibular organs. Using hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers, we have used confocal and electron microscopy to examine the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of immature hair cells after gentamicin treatment in mitotically blocked cultures of the bullfrog saccule. Extruding and fragmenting hair cells, which undergo apoptotic cell death, are replaced by scar formations. After losing their bundles, sublethally damaged hair cells remain in the sensory epithelium for prolonged periods, acquiring supporting cell-like morphology and immunoreactivity. These modes of damage appear to be mutually exclusive, implying that sublethally damaged hair cells repair their bundles. Transitional cells, coexpressing hair cell and supporting cell markers, are seen near scar formations created by the expansion of neighboring supporting cells. Most of these cells have morphology and immunoreactivity similar to that of sublethally damaged hair cells. Ultrastructural analysis also reveals that most immature hair cells had autophagic vacuoles, implying that they originated from damaged hair cells rather than supporting cells. Some transitional cells are supporting cells participating in scar formations. Supporting cells also decrease in number during hair cell recovery, supporting the conclusion that some supporting cells undergo phenotypic conversion into hair cells without an intervening mitotic event.

  10. Hair Loss

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  11. Your Hair

    ... warm and provides a little cushioning for your skull. Eyelashes protect your eyes by decreasing the amount ... Colors What kind of hair do you have — black and curly, blond and straight, or some other ...

  12. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling

    Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal...

  13. Activation of the pseudokinase MLKL unleashes the four-helix bundle domain to induce membrane localization and necroptotic cell death

    Hildebrand, Joanne M.; Tanzer, Maria C; Lucet, Isabelle S; Young, Samuel N.; Spall, Sukhdeep K; Sharma, Pooja; Pierotti, Catia; Garnier, Jean-Marc; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Andrew I Webb; Tripaydonis, Anne; Babon, Jeffrey J.; Mulcair, Mark D.; Scanlon, Martin J.; Alexander, Warren S

    2014-01-01

    The four-helix bundle (4HB) domain of Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like (MLKL) bears two clusters of residues that are required for cell death by necroptosis. Mutations within a cluster centered on the α4 helix of the 4HB domain of MLKL prevented its membrane translocation, oligomerization, and ability to induce necroptosis. This cluster is composed principally of acidic residues and therefore challenges the idea that the 4HB domain engages negatively charged phospholipid membranes via a conve...

  14. VEGF induces proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the strongest regulators of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), the primary receptor for VEGF, is thought to mediate major functional effects of VEGF. Previously, we have localized both VEGF and VEGFR-2 in human hair follicles. In this study, we further defined the expression and roles of VEGFR-2 on human hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) cells. The expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis separately, and localization of VEGFR-2 was defined by immunofluorescence. The effect of VEGF on DP cells was analyzed by MTT assays and specific inhibitors. Finally, the role of VEGF involved in the signaling pathways was investigated by Western blot. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells. Immunostaining for VEGFR-2 showed strong signal on cultured human DP cells in vitro. Exogenous VEGF165 stimulated proliferation of DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this stimulation was blocked by a VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody (MAB3571) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). VEGF165-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was abolished by MAB3571 and PD98059, while the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and AKT were not changed by VEGF165. Taken together, VEGFR-2 is expressed on primary human hair follicle DP cells and VEGF induces proliferation of DP cells through VEGFR-2/ERK pathway, but not p38, JNK or AKT signaling. -- Highlights: ► We examine the expression of VEGFR-2 on cultured human dermal papilla (DP) cells. ► VEGF165 stimulated proliferation of human DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. ► This stimulation was through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK.

  15. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Crespo, Juan M.; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  16. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Ivana A. Cavello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum’s supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p>0.05. These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  17. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  18. Removing Hair Safely

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... methods of hair removal. back to top Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  19. Both pre- and postsynaptic activity of Nsf prevents degeneration of hair-cell synapses.

    Weike Mo

    Full Text Available Vesicle fusion contributes to the maintenance of synapses in the nervous system by mediating synaptic transmission, release of neurotrophic factors, and trafficking of membrane receptors. N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF is indispensible for dissociation of the SNARE-complex following vesicle fusion. Although NSF function has been characterized extensively in vitro, the in vivo role of NSF in vertebrate synaptogenesis is relatively unexplored. Zebrafish possess two nsf genes, nsf and nsfb. Here, we examine the function of either Nsf or Nsfb in the pre- and postsynaptic cells of the zebrafish lateral line organ and demonstrate that Nsf, but not Nsfb, is required for maintenance of afferent synapses in hair cells. In addition to peripheral defects in nsf mutants, neurodegeneration of glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system also occurs in the absence of Nsf function. Expression of an nsf transgene in a null background indicates that stabilization of synapses requires Nsf function in both hair cells and afferent neurons. To identify potential targets of Nsf-mediated fusion, we examined the expression of genes implicated in stabilizing synapses and found that transcripts for multiple genes including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf were significantly reduced in nsf mutants. With regard to trafficking of BDNF, we observed a striking accumulation of BDNF in the neurites of nsf mutant afferent neurons. In addition, injection of recombinant BDNF protein partially rescued the degeneration of afferent synapses in nsf mutants. These results establish a role for Nsf in the maintenance of synaptic contacts between hair cells and afferent neurons, mediated in part via the secretion of trophic signaling factors.

  20. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Yong Miao

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  1. Bundling and Tying

    Nicholas Economides

    2014-01-01

    We discuss strategic ways that sellers can use tying and bundling with requirement conditions to extract consumer surplus. We analyze different types of tying and bundling creating (i) intra-product price discrimination; (ii) intra-consumer price discrimination; and (iii) inter-product price discrimination, and assess the antitrust liability that these practices may entail. We also discuss the impact on consumers and competition, as well as potential antitrust liability of bundling “incontest...

  2. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Jamie Rosen; Angelo Landriscina; Friedman, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic ...

  3. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method.

    Abugassa, I; Sarmani, S B; Samat, S B

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for. PMID:10355102

  4. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+α epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the γ-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for

  5. Contact fiber bundles

    Lerman, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    We define contact fiber bundles and investigate conditions for the existence of contact structures on the total space of such a bundle. The results are analogous to minimal coupling in symplectic geometry. The two applications are construction of K-contact manifolds generalizing Yamazaki's fiber join construction and a cross-section theorem for contact moment maps

  6. Principal noncommutative torus bundles

    Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve

    2008-01-01

    of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the...

  7. HCN channels are not required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

    Geoffrey C Horwitz

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of the hair cell transduction channel has not been identified. Here we explore the novel hypothesis that hair cell transduction channels include HCN subunits. The HCN family of ion channels includes four members, HCN1-4. They were originally identified as the molecular correlates of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels that carry currents known as If, IQ or Ih. However, based on recent evidence it has been suggested that HCN subunits may also be components of the elusive hair cell transduction channel. To investigate this hypothesis we examined expression of mRNA that encodes HCN1-4 in sensory epithelia of the mouse inner ear, immunolocalization of HCN subunits 1, 2 and 4, uptake of the transduction channel permeable dye, FM1-43 and electrophysiological measurement of mechanotransduction current. Dye uptake and transduction current were assayed in cochlear and vestibular hair cells of wildtype mice exposed to HCN channel blockers or a dominant-negative form of HCN2 that contained a pore mutation and in mutant mice that lacked HCN1, HCN2 or both. We found robust expression of HCNs 1, 2 and 4 but little evidence that localized HCN subunits in hair bundles, the site of mechanotransduction. Although high concentrations of the HCN antagonist, ZD7288, blocked 50-70% of the transduction current, we found no reduction of transduction current in either cochlear or vestibular hair cells of HCN1- or HCN2- deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice that lacked both HCN1 and HCN2 also had normal transduction currents. Lastly, we found that mice exposed to the dominant-negative mutant form of HCN2 had normal transduction currents as well. Taken together, the evidence suggests that HCN subunits are not required for mechanotransduction in hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

  8. "My hair or my health:" Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors.

    Huebschmann, Amy G; Campbell, Lucille Johnson; Brown, Candace S; Dunn, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity disparities among African American (AA) women may be related to sociocultural barriers, including difficulties with restyling hair after exercise. We sought to identify physical activity barriers and facilitators in AA women with a focus on sociocultural factors related to hairstyle maintenance. Participants (n = 51) were AA women aged 19-73 years who completed valid surveys and participated in structured focus groups, stratified by age and physical activity levels, from November 2012 to February 2013. The Constant Comparison method was used to develop qualitative themes for barriers and facilitators. The most frequently reported general physical activity barrier among exercisers was "lack of money" (27%) and among non-exercisers was "lack of self-discipline" (57%). A hairstyle-related barrier of "sweating out my hairstyle" was reported by 7% of exercisers and 29% of non-exercisers. This hairstyle-related barrier included the need for extra time and money to restyle hair due to perspiration. Hairstyle-related facilitators included: prioritizing health over hairstyle and high self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration. Participants were interested in resources to simplify hairstyle maintenance. AA women whose hairstyle is affected by perspiration may avoid physical activity due to time and financial burdens. Increasing self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration may help to overcome this barrier. PMID:26495938

  9. Preliminary Characterization of Voltage-Activated Whole-Cell Currents in Developing Human Vestibular Hair Cells and Calyx Afferent Terminals

    Lim, Rebecca; Drury, Hannah R.; Camp, Aaron J.; Tadros, Melissa A; Robert J Callister; Brichta, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary functional data from human vestibular hair cells and primary afferent calyx terminals during fetal development. Whole-cell recordings were obtained from hair cells or calyx terminals in semi-intact cristae prepared from human fetuses aged between 11 and 18 weeks gestation (WG). During early fetal development (11–14 WG), hair cells expressed whole-cell conductances that were qualitatively similar but quantitatively smaller than those observed previously in mature rodent ...

  10. Body Hair

    ... and uncomfortable. If you decide to use a hair-removal cream, make sure it says it’s gentle enough for the pubic area. Don’t put on any product that could sting, like aftershave lotion. To help avoid irritation, don’t use products with added dyes or fragrances. If you have more questions about ...

  11. Calbindin and parvalbumin are early markers of non-mitotically regenerating hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs

    Steyger, P. S.; Burton, M.; Hawkins, J. R.; Schuff, N. R.; Baird, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated hair cell regeneration in the absence of cell proliferation, and suggested that supporting cells could phenotypically convert into hair cells following hair cell loss. Because calcium-binding proteins are involved in gene up-regulation, cell growth, and cell differentiation, we wished to determine if these proteins were up-regulated in scar formations and regenerating hair cells following gentamicin treatment. Calbindin and parvalbumin immunolabeling was examined in control or gentamicin-treated (GT) bullfrog saccular and utricular explants cultured for 3 days in amphibian culture medium or amphibian culture medium supplemented with aphidicolin, a blocker of nuclear DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. In control cultures, calbindin and parvalbumin immunolabeled the hair bundles and, less intensely, the cell bodies of mature hair cells. In GT or mitotically-blocked GT (MBGT) cultures, calbindin and parvalbumin immunolabeling was also seen in the hair bundles, cuticular plates, and cell bodies of hair cells with immature hair bundles. Thus, these antigens were useful markers for both normal and regenerating hair cells. Supporting cell immunolabeling was not seen in control cultures nor in the majority of supporting cells in GT cultures. In MBGT cultures, calbindin and parvalbumin immunolabeling was up-regulated in the cytosol of single supporting cells participating in scar formations and in supporting cells with hair cell-like characteristics. These data provide further evidence that non-mitotic hair cell regeneration in cultures can be accomplished by the conversion of supporting cells into hair cells.

  12. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  13. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  14. Kif3a regulates planar polarization of auditory hair cells through both ciliary and non-ciliary mechanisms

    Sipe, Conor W.; Lu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Auditory hair cells represent one of the most prominent examples of epithelial planar polarity. In the auditory sensory epithelium, planar polarity of individual hair cells is defined by their V-shaped hair bundle, the mechanotransduction organelle located on the apical surface. At the tissue level, all hair cells display uniform planar polarity across the epithelium. Although it is known that tissue planar polarity is controlled by non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the ...

  15. Frequency locking in hair cells: Distinguishing between distinct resonant mechanisms

    Edri, Yuval; Yochelis, Arik

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays remarkable mechanical sensitivity and frequency discrimination. These attributes have been shown to rely on an amplification process, which requires biochemical feedback loops. In some systems, the active process was shown to lead to spontaneous oscillations of hair cell bundles. In the last decade, models that display proximity to an oscillatory onset (a.k.a. Hopf bifurcation) have gained increasing support due to many advantages in explaining the hearing phenomenology. Particularly, they exhibit resonant responses to distinct frequencies of incoming sound waves. Unlike previous studies, two types of driving forces are being examined: additive, in which the external forcing term does not couple directly on the systems observable (passive coupling), and parametric, in which the forcing term directly affects the observable and thus intrinsically modifies the systems properties (active coupling). By applying universal principles near the Hopf bifurcation onset, we find several funda...

  16. Hair care and dyeing.

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  17. Tunable N-doped or dual N, S-doped activated hydrothermal carbons derived from human hair and glucose for supercapacitor applications

    Graphical abstract: Tunable mono N- or dual N, S-doped microporous carbons with excellent capacitive performance are prepared from renewable human hair and glucose. -- Highlights: • Green hydrothermal carbonization procedure is used in this work. • Renewable human hair is firstly used to prepared heteroatom-doped carbon materials. • Tunable N-doping or dual N, S-doping could be achieved by controlling the dosage of hair additive. • The multi N, O, S-doped species exhibits synergistic enhancement effect on the whole capacitive performance. • The AHC-4 carbon showed a high capacitance of up to 264 F g−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte. -- Abstract: In this work, human hair was firstly used to prepared heteroatom-doped carbon materials. Tunable N-doped or dual N, S-doped microporous carbons were successful prepared using glucose and human hair as carbon precursors via a method of hydrothermal carbonization procedure and sequent KOH activation. The electrochemical capacitive performance of the prepared carbons was investigated in KOH electrolyte. The morphology, structure and surface properties of the carbon materials are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The N- or S-doping could be tuned by controlling the dosage of human hair additives. Due to the synergistic effect of multi N, O, S-doped species, the prepared carbons showed large pseudo-capacitance. The capacitance of AHC-4 could reach 264 F g−1 in KOH electrolyte. AHC-1 shows an acceptable cycle life with relatively high capacitance value of 154 F g−1 after 1000 cycles. The present preparation method is attractive and inspiring for preparation of tunable dual heteroatom-doped carbon materials with high surface area and capacitive performance using renewable biomass

  18. Preliminary report: NIF laser bundle review

    As requested in the guidance memo 1, this committe determined whether there are compelling reasons to recommend a change from the NIF CDR baseline laser. The baseline bundle design based on a tradeoff between cost and technical risk, which is replicated four times to create the required 192 beams. The baseline amplifier design uses bottom loading 1x4 slab and flashlamp cassettes for amplifier maintenance and large vacuum enclosures (2.5m high x 7m wide in cross-section for each of the two spatial filters in each of the four bundles. The laser beams are arranged in two laser bays configured in a u-shape around the target area. The entire bundle review effort was performed in a very short time (six weeks) and with limited resources (15 personnel part-time). This should be compared to the effort that produced the CDR design (12 months, 50 to 100 personnel). This committee considered three alternate bundle configurations (2x2, 4x2, and 4x4 bundles), and evaluated each bundle against the baseline design using the seven requested issues in the guidance memo: Cost; schedule; performance risk; maintainability/operability; hardware failure cost exposure; activation; and design flexibility. The issues were reviewed to identify differences between each alternate bundle configuration and the baseline

  19. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    ... distribution of melanin in the cortex of each hair (the same melanin that's found in the epidermis). Hair also contains ... red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have only a small amount of melanin in their hair. Hair becomes gray when people ...

  20. Restrictions of stable bundles

    Balaji, V

    2011-01-01

    The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.

  1. candu fuel bundle fabrication

    This paper describes works on CANDU fuel bundle fabrication in the Fuel Fabrication Development and Testing Section (FFDT) of AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. This work does not cover fuel design, pellet manufacturing, Zircaloy material manufacturing, but cover the joining of appendages to sheath tube, endcap preparation and welding, UO2 loading, end plate preparation and welding, and all inspections required in these steps. Materials used in the fabrication of CANDU fuel bundle are: 1)Ceramic UO2 Pellet 2)Zircaloy -4. Fuel Bundle Structural Material 3) Others (Zinc stearate, Colloidal graphite, Beryllium and Heium). Th fabrication of fuel element consist of three process: 1)pellet loading into the sheats, 2) endcap welding, and 3) the element profiling. Endcap welds is tested by metallography and He leak test. The endcaps of the elements are welded to the end plates to form the 37- element bundle assembly

  2. Hair cells use active zones with different voltage dependence of Ca2+ influx to decompose sounds into complementary neural codes.

    Ohn, Tzu-Lun; Rutherford, Mark A; Jing, Zhizi; Jung, Sangyong; Duque-Afonso, Carlos J; Hoch, Gerhard; Picher, Maria Magdalena; Scharinger, Anja; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    For sounds of a given frequency, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) with different thresholds and dynamic ranges collectively encode the wide range of audible sound pressures. Heterogeneity of synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and SGNs is an attractive candidate mechanism for generating complementary neural codes covering the entire dynamic range. Here, we quantified active zone (AZ) properties as a function of AZ position within mouse IHCs by combining patch clamp and imaging of presynaptic Ca(2+) influx and by immunohistochemistry. We report substantial AZ heterogeneity whereby the voltage of half-maximal activation of Ca(2+) influx ranged over ∼20 mV. Ca(2+) influx at AZs facing away from the ganglion activated at weaker depolarizations. Estimates of AZ size and Ca(2+) channel number were correlated and larger when AZs faced the ganglion. Disruption of the deafness gene GIPC3 in mice shifted the activation of presynaptic Ca(2+) influx to more hyperpolarized potentials and increased the spontaneous SGN discharge. Moreover, Gipc3 disruption enhanced Ca(2+) influx and exocytosis in IHCs, reversed the spatial gradient of maximal Ca(2+) influx in IHCs, and increased the maximal firing rate of SGNs at sound onset. We propose that IHCs diversify Ca(2+) channel properties among AZs and thereby contribute to decomposing auditory information into complementary representations in SGNs. PMID:27462107

  3. Trace analysis in human hair

    The hair has been used as a readily available tissue for the trace analysis. It can supply the medical diagnosis and environmental studied. Hair tissue is, potentially, a remarkable diagnostic tool to complement blood serum and urine analysis. The CDTN/CNEN-BH has a large experience on determining the elements within the various ranges of concentration in several kinds of matrices by using neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry. This experience has made possible the development of methods using hair so as to determine the detections limits of Al, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mn and Zn. (author)

  4. My oh my(osin): Insights into how auditory hair cells count, measure, and shape

    Pollock, Lana M.; Chou, Shih-Wei; McDermott, Brian M., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying mechanosensory hair bundle formation in auditory sensory cells are largely mysterious. In this issue, Lelli et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201509017) reveal that a pair of molecular motors, myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb, is involved in the hair bundle’s morphology and hearing.

  5. Validation of the instrumental neutron activation analysis method for mercury analysis in hair samples used for biomonitoring of mercury environmental contamination

    Environmental mercury contamination has lately become of widespread concern in Brazil owing to gold extraction activities in the Amazon region and also to industrial activities. It is estimated that tonnes of mercury are thrown in the rivers of the Amazon region annually or are evaporated into the open air owing to the amalgamation procedure employed in gold extraction. In the present work, as pail of an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP), three main population groups were studied: a control group of individuals with no suspicion of contamination by mercury; a group of people living near the Billings Dam, located in one of the most heavily industrialized parts of the country, and several Indian tribes living in Xingu Park, an Indian reservation located in the Amazon region. An important part of the CRP was the validation of the analytical methodology for die analysis of total mercury in the hair samples of the population groups studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was chosen for the analysis of mercury in these samples. It has the advantage of being non-destructive, which can be quite convenient when dealing with a large number of samples, which is the case in epidemiological studies. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiation of the hair samples in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and measurement of the gamma radioactivity of 197Hg. For the validation of the analytical methodology, the following reference materials (RMs) were analysed: IAEA MA-A-2/TM Fish Flesh Homogenate; SHINR GBW-9101 Chinese Human Hair and the candidate RMs IAEA-085 and IAEA-086 Human Hair. The recently acquired RM BCR CRM-397 was also analysed. The accuracy and precision of the INAA method for the analysis of these RMs is discussed, as well as the applicability of the method to the analysis of mercury in the hair of the population groups studied. (author)

  6. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  7. Hair spray poisoning

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint used to color hair. This article is for ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. ... aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene diamines ...

  9. Laser Hair Removal

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hair Removal, Laser A A A AFTER: Two laser hair removal treatments were performed. This picture is ... Procedure Overview With just the right type of laser or Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) technology, suitable hairs ...

  10. Changing Your Hair

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Changing Your Hair KidsHealth > For Kids > Changing Your Hair Print A ... straight when it's curly. Treatments That Can Damage Hair Are these treatments OK for kids? That's something ...

  11. Hair spray poisoning

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or into their eyes. ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  12. Live imaging the phagocytic activity of inner ear supporting cells in response to hair cell death.

    Monzack, E L; May, L A; Roy, S; Gale, J E; Cunningham, L L

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss and balance disorders affect millions of people worldwide. Sensory transduction in the inner ear requires both mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) and surrounding glia-like supporting cells (SCs). HCs are susceptible to death from aging, noise overexposure, and treatment with therapeutic drugs that have ototoxic side effects; these ototoxic drugs include the aminoglycoside antibiotics and the antineoplastic drug cisplatin. Although both classes of drugs are known to kill HCs, their effects on SCs are less well understood. Recent data indicate that SCs sense and respond to HC stress, and that their responses can influence HC death, survival, and phagocytosis. These responses to HC stress and death are critical to the health of the inner ear. Here we have used live confocal imaging of the adult mouse utricle, to examine the SC responses to HC death caused by aminoglycosides or cisplatin. Our data indicate that when HCs are killed by aminoglycosides, SCs efficiently remove HC corpses from the sensory epithelium in a process that includes constricting the apical portion of the HC after loss of membrane integrity. SCs then form a phagosome, which can completely engulf the remaining HC body, a phenomenon not previously reported in mammals. In contrast, cisplatin treatment results in accumulation of dead HCs in the sensory epithelium, accompanied by an increase in SC death. The surviving SCs constrict fewer HCs and display impaired phagocytosis. These data are supported by in vivo experiments, in which cochlear SCs show reduced capacity for scar formation in cisplatin-treated mice compared with those treated with aminoglycosides. Together, these data point to a broader defect in the ability of the cisplatin-treated SCs, to preserve tissue health in the mature mammalian inner ear. PMID:25929858

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  14. Subtleties Concerning Conformal Tractor Bundles

    Graham, C Robin

    2012-01-01

    The realization of tractor bundles as associated bundles in conformal geometry is studied. It is shown that different natural choices of principal bundle with normal Cartan connection corresponding to a given conformal manifold can give rise to topologically distinct associated tractor bundles for the same inducing representation. Consequences for homogeneous models and conformal holonomy are described. A careful presentation is made of background material concerning standard tractor bundles and equivalence between parabolic geometries and underlying structures.

  15. Mycophenolate antagonizes IFN-γ-induced catagen-like changes via β-catenin activation in human dermal papilla cells and hair follicles.

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Lee, Yonghee; Hyun, Moo Yeol; Choi, Sun Young; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Park, Young Min; Kang, Hoon; Park, Kui Young; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Johnson, Andrew; Song, Peter I; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various immunosuppressant drugs have been shown to induce hair growth in normal hair as well as in alopecia areata and androgenic alopecia; however, the responsible mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the influence of mycophenolate (MPA), an immunosuppressant, on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and on the growth of human hair follicles following catagen induction with interferon (IFN)-γ. IFN-γ was found to reduce β-catenin, an activator of hair follicle growth, and activate glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, and enhance expression of the Wnt inhibitor DKK-1 and catagen inducer transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2. IFN-γ inhibited expression of ALP and other dermal papillar cells (DPCs) markers such as Axin2, IGF-1, and FGF 7 and 10. MPA increased β-catenin in IFN-γ-treated hDPCs leading to its nuclear accumulation via inhibition of GSK3β and reduction of DKK-1. Furthermore, MPA significantly increased expression of ALP and other DPC marker genes but inhibited expression of TGF-β2. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that IFN-γ induces catagen-like changes in hDPCs and in hair follicles via inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and that MPA stabilizes β-catenin by inhibiting GSK3β leading to increased β-catenin target gene and DP signature gene expression, which may, in part, counteract IFN-γ-induced catagen in hDPCs. PMID:25247578

  16. Mycophenolate Antagonizes IFN-γ-Induced Catagen-Like Changes via β-Catenin Activation in Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Follicles

    Sunhyo Ryu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various immunosuppressant drugs have been shown to induce hair growth in normal hair as well as in alopecia areata and androgenic alopecia; however, the responsible mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the influence of mycophenolate (MPA, an immunosuppressant, on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs and on the growth of human hair follicles following catagen induction with interferon (IFN-γ. IFN-γ was found to reduce β-catenin, an activator of hair follicle growth, and activate glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β, and enhance expression of the Wnt inhibitor DKK-1 and catagen inducer transforming growth factor (TGF-β2. IFN-γ inhibited expression of ALP and other dermal papillar cells (DPCs markers such as Axin2, IGF-1, and FGF 7 and 10. MPA increased β-catenin in IFN-γ-treated hDPCs leading to its nuclear accumulation via inhibition of GSK3β and reduction of DKK-1. Furthermore, MPA significantly increased expression of ALP and other DPC marker genes but inhibited expression of TGF-β2. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that IFN-γ induces catagen-like changes in hDPCs and in hair follicles via inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and that MPA stabilizes β-catenin by inhibiting GSK3β leading to increased β-catenin target gene and DP signature gene expression, which may, in part, counteract IFN-γ-induced catagen in hDPCs.

  17. Auditory hair cell centrioles undergo confined Brownian motion throughout the developmental migration of the kinocilium.

    Lepelletier, Léa; de Monvel, Jacques Boutet; Buisson, Johanna; Desdouets, Chantal; Petit, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Planar polarization of the forming hair bundle, the mechanosensory antenna of auditory hair cells, depends on the poorly characterized center-to-edge displacement of a primary cilium, the kinocilium, at their apical surface. Taking advantage of the gradient of hair cell differentiation along the cochlea, we reconstituted a map of the kinocilia displacements in the mouse embryonic cochlea. We then developed a cochlear organotypic culture and video-microscopy approach to monitor the movements o...

  18. Solitary Hair Cells Are Distributed Throughout the Extramacular Epithelium in the Bullfrog's Saccule

    Gale, Jonathan E.; Meyers, Jason R.; Corwin, Jeffrey T.

    2000-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains eight sensory organs that provide sensitivities to auditory, vestibular, and ground-borne vibrational stimuli. The saccule in bullfrogs is responsible for detecting ground- and air-borne vibrations and is used for studies of hair cell physiology, development, and regeneration. Based on hair bundle morphology, a number of hair cell types have been defined in this organ. Using immunocytochemistry, vital labeling, and electron microscopy, we have characterized a new h...

  19. Shh is required for Tabby hair follicle development

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Kunisada, Makoto; Childress, Victoria; Michel, Marc; Schlessinger, David

    2011-01-01

    In embryonic Eda mutant (“Tabby”) mice, the development of one of the two major types of hair, “primary” hair fails, but other “secondary” hairs develop in normal numbers, though shorter and slightly aberrant. In Tabby mice, Shh is undetectable in skin early on, but is activated during secondary hair formation. We inferred that Shh may be involved in primary hair formation, activated normally by Eda, and also possibly in secondary hair formation, activated by an Eda-independent pathway. Varyi...

  20. Hair follicle dermal stem cells regenerate the dermal sheath, repopulate the dermal papilla, and modulate hair type.

    Rahmani, Waleed; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hagner, Andrew; Raharjo, Eko; Kumar, Ranjan; Hotta, Akitsu; Magness, Scott; Metzger, Daniel; Biernaskie, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) provide instructive signals required to activate epithelial progenitors and initiate hair follicle regeneration. DP cell numbers fluctuate over the hair cycle, and hair loss is associated with gradual depletion/atrophy of DP cells. How DP cell numbers are maintained in healthy follicles remains unclear. We performed in vivo fate mapping of adult hair follicle dermal sheath (DS) cells to determine their lineage relationship with DP and found that a subset of DS cells are retained following each hair cycle, exhibit self-renewal, and repopulate the DS and the DP with new cells. Ablating these hair follicle dermal stem cells and their progeny retarded hair regrowth and altered hair type specification, suggesting that they function to modulate normal DP function. This work identifies a bipotent stem cell within the adult hair follicle mesenchyme and has important implications toward restoration of hair growth after injury, disease, and aging. PMID:25465495

  1. Hair dye poisoning

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  2. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of heal...

  3. Assessment of protease activity in hydrolysed extracts from SSF of hair waste by and indigenous consortium of microorganisms.

    Yazid, Noraziah Abu; Barrena, Raquel; Sánchez, Antoni

    2016-03-01

    Hair wastes from the tannery industry were assessed for its suitability as substrates for protease production by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a pilot-batch mode operation and anaerobically digested sludge as co-substrate. Maximum protease activity (52,230±1601Ug(-1)DM) was observed at the 14th day of SSF. Single step purification resulted in 2 fold purification with 74% of recovery by ultrafiltration with 10kDa cut-off. The recovered enzyme was stable at a temperature of 30°C and pH 11; optimal conditions that were determined by a central composite full factorial experimental design. The enzyme activity was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, which indicates that it belongs to serine protease group. The remaining solid material after protease extraction could be easily stabilized to obtain a final good quality compost-like material as the final dynamic respiration index was lower than 1gO2kg(-1)OMh(-1). The lyophilized recovered enzymes were a good alternative in the process of cowhides dehairing with respect to the current chemical treatment, avoiding the production of solid wastes and highly polluted wastewaters. In conclusion, the entire process can be considered a low-cost sustainable technology for the dehairing process, closing the organic matter cycle in the form of value added product and a compost-like material from a waste. PMID:26856443

  4. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    Shu-Mei Lee; Yi-Shyan Chen; Chih-Chien Lin; Kuan-Hung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone ...

  5. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔHpp: 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  6. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam. Muell.-Arg. fruit hair extract for Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Hypnotic Activity

    Mayank Gangwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently we observed wound healing activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (MP fruit hairs extract (MPE. In several intestinal infections, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we evaluated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE in different rat experimental models. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan (acute and turpentine oil induced formalin (subacute induced paw oedema and while, granuloma pouch (subacute in rats. Analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE was undertaken by tail-flick, hot and ndash;plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests while pentobarbitone-induced hypnotic potentiation respectively in rats.\tMPE at a dose of 200 mg/kg at 3 hr after their administration showed inhibition of formalin-induced paw oedema by 41.60% (P<0.001 and carrageenan-induced paw oedema by 55.30% (P<0.001. After 7 days of treatments, MPE showed 38.0% (P<0.001 inhibition against formalin-induced paw oedema and reduced weight of turpentine-induced granuloma pouch by 29.6% (P<0.01 and volume of exudates by 26.1% (P<0.01 respectively. MPE (200 mg/kg showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 120 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail flick method and increased reaction time in hot-plate test while reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 45.7% (P<0.001. The pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis model showed potentiation, as defined by increased duration of sleep in treated group rats as compared to control. Thus, the study revealed MPE is effective in reducing acute and sub-acute inflammation and showed effective and similar analgesic activity. This seemed to be safe in the treatment of pain and inflammation. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 14-21

  7. Right bundle branch block

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  8. Principal -bundles on Nodal Curves

    Usha N Bhosle

    2001-08-01

    Let be a connected semisimple affine algebraic group defined over . We study the relation between stable, semistable -bundles on a nodal curve and representations of the fundamental group of . This study is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles to principal -bundles on the desingularization of and using the correspondence between them and principal -bundles on . We give an isomorphism of the stack of generalized parabolic bundles on with a quotient stack associated to loop groups. We show that if is simple and simply connected then the Picard group of the stack of principal -bundles on is isomorphic to ⊕ , being the number of components of .

  9. Too much of a good thing: Long-term treatment with salicylate strengthens outer hair cell function but impairs auditory neural activity

    Chen, Guang-Di; Kermany, Mohammad Habiby; D’Elia, Alessandra; Ralli, Massimo; Tanaka, Chiemi; Bielefeld, Eric C.; Ding, Dalian; Henderson, Donald; Salvi, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin has been extensively used in clinical settings. Its side effects on auditory function, including hearing loss and tinnitus, are considered as temporary. A recent promising finding is that chronic treatment with high-dose salicylate (the active ingredient of aspirin) for several weeks enhances expression of the outer hair cell (OHC) motor protein (prestin), resulting in strengthened OHC electromotility and enhanced distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). To follow up on these...

  10. Application of neutron activation analysis to evaluate the health status of equines by means of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn determinations in their hair

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to evaluate the clinical status of equines, belonging to the Military Police of Sao Paulo State, by means of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn determinations in their hair. Comparison of the results obtained in these analyses with reference values indicated Zn deficiency in the equines, Fe is in the minimum limit and the elements Cu and Mn are within the normal range. (author)

  11. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  12. Hair loss in women.

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  13. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better tr...

  14. Determination of as by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectional hair samples for forensic purposes. Chronic or acute poisoning?

    Complete text of publication follows. Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of having committed suicide by ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated. As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy (measured with ICP-MS) indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, INAA with proven accuracy of sectional hair samples obtained from a hair-brush from the left estate of the deceased person was performed. Levels of As found in this work in the range of 0.06-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 hours after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. A brief review is also presented of As determination in hair for forensic purposes, including supposed, and until now frequently discussed, poisoning of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  15. Hybrid bundle divertor design

    A hybrid bundle divertor design is presented that produces <0.3% magnetic ripple at the center of the plasma while providing adequate space for the coil shielding and structure for a tokamak fusion test reactor similar to the International Tokamak Reactor and the Engineering Test Facility (with R = 5 m, B = 5 T, and a /SUB wall/ = 1.5 m, in particular). This hybrid divertor consists of a set of quadrupole ''wing'' coils running tangent to the tokamak plasma on either side of a bundle divertor. The wing coils by themselves pull the edge of the plasma out 1.5 m and spread the thickness of the scrape-off layer from 0.1 to 0.7 m at the midplane. The clear aperture of the bundle divertor throat is 1.0 m high and 1.8 m wide. For maintenance or replacement, the hybrid divertor can be disassembled into three parts, with the bundle divertor part pulling straight out between toroidal field coils and the wing coils then sliding out through the same opening

  16. Dynamics of flagellar bundling

    Janssen, Pieter; Graham, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Flagella are long thin appendages of microscopic organisms used for propulsion in low-Reynolds environments. For E. coli the flagella are driven by a molecular motor, which rotates the flagella in a counter-clockwise motion (CCM). When in a forward swimming motion, all flagella bundle up. If a motor reverses rotation direction, the flagella unbundle and the cell makes a tumbling motion. When all motors turn in the same CC direction again, the flagella bundle up, and forward swimming continues. To investigate the bundling, we consider two flexible helices next to each other, as well as several flagella attached to a spherical body. Each helix is modeled as several prolate spheroids connected at the tips by springs. For hydrodynamic interactions, we consider the flagella to made up of point forces, while the finite size of the body is incorporated via Fax'en's laws. We show that synchronization occurs quickly relative to the bundling process. For flagella next to each other, the initial deflection is generated by rotlet interactions generated by the rotating helices. At longer times, simulations show the flagella only wrap once around each other, but only for flagella that are closer than about 4 helix radii. Finally, we show a run-and-tumble motion of the body with attached flagella.

  17. A search for arsenic in hair and nail remains of former President Zachary Taylor by neutron activation analysis (A historical perspective)

    In June of 1991 a collaborative investigation to determine the arsenic content of hair and nail remains of former president Zachary Taylor was established between the Analytical Chemistry Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Two samples of both hair and nail were irradiated and analyzed in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory at the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The results of these analyses were key in disproving a theory that the former president had been poisoned by the ingestion of arsenic. In this presentation the analysis procedure is described, results presented, and the series of events that led up to this investigation taking place at ORNL is explained from a historical perspective

  18. Trace rare earth element analysis of IAEA Hair (HH-1), Animal Bone (H-5) and other biological standards by radiochemical neutron activation

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a rare earth group separation scheme was used to measure ultratrace levels of rare earth elements (REE) in IAEA Human Hair (HH-1), IAEA Animal Bone (H-5), NBS Bovine Liver (SRM 1577), and NBS Orchard Leaf (SRM 1571) standards. The REE concentrations in Human Hair and Animal Bone range from 10-8 g/g to 10-11 g/g and their chondritic normalized REE patterns show a negative Eu anomaly and follow as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The REE patterns for NBS Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaf are identical except that their concentrations are higher. The similarity among the REE patterns suggest that the REE do not appear to be fractionated during the intake of biological materials by animals or humans. (author)

  19. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle

  20. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail: zsofi@atomki.hu; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2007-07-15

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  1. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  2. On framed quantum principal bundles

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A noncommutative-geometric formalism of framed principal bundles is sketched, in a special case of quantum bundles (over quantum spaces) possessing classical structure groups. Quantum counterparts of torsion operators and Levi-Civita type connections are analyzed. A construction of a natural differential calculus on framed bundles is described. Illustrative examples are presented.

  3. Gene Therapy Restores Hair Cell Stereocilia Morphology in Inner Ears of Deaf Whirler Mice.

    Chien, Wade W; Isgrig, Kevin; Roy, Soumen; Belyantseva, Inna A; Drummond, Meghan C; May, Lindsey A; Fitzgerald, Tracy S; Friedman, Thomas B; Cunningham, Lisa L

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary deafness is one of the most common disabilities affecting newborns. Many forms of hereditary deafness are caused by morphological defects of the stereocilia bundles on the apical surfaces of inner ear hair cells, which are responsible for sound detection. We explored the effectiveness of gene therapy in restoring the hair cell stereocilia architecture in the whirlin mouse model of human deafness, which is deaf due to dysmorphic, short stereocilia. Wild-type whirlin cDNA was delivered via adeno-associated virus (AAV8) by injection through the round window of the cochleas in neonatal whirler mice. Subsequently, whirlin expression was detected in infected hair cells (IHCs), and normal stereocilia length and bundle architecture were restored. Whirlin gene therapy also increased inner hair cell survival in the treated ears compared to the contralateral nontreated ears. These results indicate that a form of inherited deafness due to structural defects in cochlear hair cells is amenable to restoration through gene therapy. PMID:26307667

  4. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    that proper hair growth can be expected after about 9 months after transplantation. Preoperative laboratory studies to be performed include Hb%, blood counts including platelet count, bleeding and clotting time (or prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, blood chemistry profile including sugar. Methods : Follicular unit hair transplantation is the gold standard method of hair transplantation; it preserves the natural architecture of the hair units and gives natural results. Mini-micro-grafting is a method hair transplantation involving randomly assorted groups of hairs, with out consideration of their natural configuration of follicular units, under loupe or naked eye examination. Mini-grafts consist of 4-5-6 hairs while micro-grafts consist of 1-3 hairs. Punch gives ugly cosmetically unacceptable results and should no longer be used. Patient Selection : Hair transplantation can be performed in any person with pattern hair loss, with good donor area, in good general health and reasonable expectations. Caution should be exercised in, very young patients whose early alopecia is still evolving, patients with Norwood grade VI or VII with poor density, patients with unrealistic expectations, and patients with significant systemic health problems. Medical therapy: Most patients will need concurrent medical treatment since the process of pattern hair loss is progressive and may affect the remaining hairs. Manpower : Hair transplantation is a team effort. Particularly, performing large sessions, needs a well trained team of trained assistants. Anesthesia: 2% lignocaine with adrenaline is generally used for anesthesia; tumescent technique is preferred. Bupivacaine has been used by some authors in view of its prolonged duration of action. Donor dissection : Strip dissection by single blade is recommended for donor area. Steromicroscopic dissection is recommended for dissection of hair units in follicular unit transplantation; mini-micro-grafting does not need

  5. Determination of toxic and trace elements in human hair and sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis technique based-on the k-zero method

    The analysis of human hair can evaluate the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to human body, intakes of food and metabolism. Also, the analysis of sediment can aid in reconstructing the history of changes, understanding human impact on the ecosystem, and suggesting possible remedial strategies. The ko-standardization method of neutron activation analysis (ko-NAA) on research reactor is capable to play an important role as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multielement and routine for the sample object. Therefore, the project's aim is to build the ko-NAA procedures on the Dalat research reactor for the analysis of human hair and sediment samples. The Ko-NAA procedure on the Dalat research reactor is able to determine of multielement: Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in The human hair; and of multielement: As, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na Rb, Sb, Sc, Yb and Zn in the sediment. (author)

  6. Dkk4 and Eda regulate distinctive developmental mechanisms for subtypes of mouse hair.

    Chang-Yi Cui

    Full Text Available The mouse hair coat comprises protective "primary" and thermo-regulatory "secondary" hairs. Primary hair formation is ectodysplasin (Eda dependent, but it has been puzzling that Tabby (Eda(-/y mice still make secondary hair. We report that Dickkopf 4 (Dkk4, a Wnt antagonist, affects an auxiliary pathway for Eda-independent development of secondary hair. A Dkk4 transgene in wild-type mice had no effect on primary hair, but secondary hairs were severely malformed. Dkk4 action on secondary hair was further demonstrated when the transgene was introduced into Tabby mice: the usual secondary follicle induction was completely blocked. The Dkk4-regulated secondary hair pathway, like the Eda-dependent primary hair pathway, is further mediated by selective activation of Shh. The results thus reveal two complex molecular pathways that distinctly regulate subtype-based morphogenesis of hair follicles, and provide a resolution for the longstanding puzzle of hair formation in Tabby mice lacking Eda.

  7. Dkk4 and Eda regulate distinctive developmental mechanisms for subtypes of mouse hair.

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Kunisada, Makoto; Piao, Yulan; Childress, Victoria; Ko, Minoru S H; Schlessinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The mouse hair coat comprises protective "primary" and thermo-regulatory "secondary" hairs. Primary hair formation is ectodysplasin (Eda) dependent, but it has been puzzling that Tabby (Eda(-/y)) mice still make secondary hair. We report that Dickkopf 4 (Dkk4), a Wnt antagonist, affects an auxiliary pathway for Eda-independent development of secondary hair. A Dkk4 transgene in wild-type mice had no effect on primary hair, but secondary hairs were severely malformed. Dkk4 action on secondary hair was further demonstrated when the transgene was introduced into Tabby mice: the usual secondary follicle induction was completely blocked. The Dkk4-regulated secondary hair pathway, like the Eda-dependent primary hair pathway, is further mediated by selective activation of Shh. The results thus reveal two complex molecular pathways that distinctly regulate subtype-based morphogenesis of hair follicles, and provide a resolution for the longstanding puzzle of hair formation in Tabby mice lacking Eda. PMID:20386733

  8. Bundles of Banach algebras

    D. A. Robbins

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.

  9. Helices and vector bundles

    Rudakov, A N

    1990-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  10. Bundled monocapillary optics

    Hirsch, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    A plurality of glass or metal wires are precisely etched to form the desired shape of the individual channels of the final polycapillary optic. This shape is created by carefully controlling the withdrawal speed of a group of wires from an etchant bath. The etched wires undergo a subsequent operation to create an extremely smooth surface. This surface is coated with a layer of material which is selected to maximize the reflectivity of the radiation being used. This reflective surface may be a single layer of material, or a multilayer coating for optimizing the reflectivity in a narrower wavelength interval. The collection of individual wires is assembled into a close-packed multi-wire bundle, and the wires are bonded together in a manner which preserves the close-pack configuration, irrespective of the local wire diameter. The initial wires are then removed by either a chemical etching procedure or mechanical force. In the case of chemical etching, the bundle is generally segmented by cutting a series of etching slots. Prior to removing the wire, the capillary array is typically bonded to a support substrate. The result of the process is a bundle of precisely oriented radiation-reflecting hollow channels. The capillary optic is used for efficiently collecting and redirecting the radiation from a source of radiation which could be the anode of an x-ray tube, a plasma source, the fluorescent radiation from an electron microprobe, a synchrotron radiation source, a reactor or spallation source of neutrons, or some other source.

  11. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  12. Lhx2 Maintains Stem Cell Character in Hair Follicles

    Rhee, Horace; Polak, Lisa; Fuchs, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    During embryogenesis, stem cells are set aside to fuel the postnatal hair cycle and repair the epidermis after injury. To define how hair follicle stem cells are specified and maintained in an undifferentiated state, we developed a strategy to isolate and transcriptionally profile embryonic hair progenitors in mice. We identified Lhx2 as a transcription factor positioned downstream of signals necessary to specify hair follicle stem cells, but upstream from signals required to drive activated ...

  13. Cocaine contamination in pubic hair: Analysis of the decontamination method

    Guido Romano; Francesca Indorato; Giorgio Spadaro; Salvatore Barbera; Nunziata Barbera

    2014-01-01

    Even if pubic hair represents a reliable and widely accepted alternative hair matrix to identify drug abusers, it might produce false positive results due to external contamination. The aim of this study was to verify whether the external contamination of pubic hair with cocaine could influence the discrimination between active users and false positive subjects. The analysis was performed on in vivo and in vitro samples; the contamination was carried out by rubbing pubic hair with cocaine ...

  14. Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stres...

  15. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...

  16. Human hair radioactivity in the Chernobyl area

    Studies of recent decades have shown that the elemental composition of human hair can be considered as an indicator of both internal and external human body status. However, there are only a few studies on human hair radioactivity. The Chernobyl accident necessitated the study of the hair of various groups of inhabitants of the contaminated area. Data on hair radioactivity and elemental composition allowed us to draw the following conclusions. (1) When account is taken of the simplicity of sampling and measurements of human hair activity in polluted areas can be used as a monitor for fast detection of the scale and area of pollution. (2) Measurement of hair α and β activity is useful for preliminary body burden determination while the whole body counter is inapplicable. (3) Study of activity along the hair strand allows dating of contamination with an accuracy of about 10 days and gives information about the removal of radioactivity from the body. (4) Determination of uranium could give additional information about the distance of nuclear fuel transport from the damaged reactor. (5) Elemental composition of hair and profiles along the strand reflect the influence of medical treatment and can be used to study post-accident health status. ((orig.))

  17. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range. PMID:27249443

  18. Common Hair Problems

    ... the top of the head. Women may develop female pattern baldness in which the hair becomes thin over the ... is most commonly seen in children. Hair Loss, Female Pattern Baldness (Female Pattern Alopecia) Female pattern baldness (alopecia) is ...

  19. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    ... coloring/dye through my skin? Low levels of hair dye can be absorbed through the skin after application, ... am pregnant? There are very few studies of hair dye use during human pregnancy. In animal studies, at ...

  20. Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This ... scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is ...

  1. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    ... Eating disorder: When a person has an eating disorder, hair loss is common. Anorexia (not eating enough) and bulimia (vomiting after eating) can cause hair loss. Medicine Some prescription medicines can cause ...

  2. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    Vijender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi, Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa, Kattha (Acacia catechu, Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis, were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabicaand Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis were taken in the form of powder (# 40. Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair

  3. Hair-Normalized Cortisol Waking Response as a Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity following Acute Trauma: A Proof-of-Concept Study with Pilot Results

    David M. Walton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the development of persistent posttraumatic pain and disability remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that disordered stress-system pathway (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may be responsible for the genesis and maintenance of long-term sensory and emotional problems. However, confidence in current evidence is limited by the necessarily retrospective collection of data. Hair cortisol can serve as a calendar of HPA axis activity going back several months prior to injury. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility of using hair cortisol and hair-normalized salivary cortisol as biomarkers of distress following traumatic injuries of whiplash or distal radius fracture. Ten subjects provided complete data within 3 weeks of injury. Hair cortisol, cortisol waking response (CWR, and mean daily cortisol (MDC were captured at inception, as were self-report indicators of pain, disability, and pain catastrophizing. Pain and disability were also captured 3 months after injury. Results indicate that cortisol waking response may be a useful biomarker of current distress as measured using the pain catastrophizing scale, especially when normalized to 3-month hair cortisol (r=0.77 raw, 0.93 normalized. Hair-normalized CWR may also have predictive capacity, correlating with 3-month self-reported disability at r=0.70. While promising, the results must be viewed in light of the small sample.

  4. Decoction and Fermentation of Selected Medicinal Herbs Promote Hair Regrowth by Inducing Hair Follicle Growth in Conjunction with Wnts Signaling

    Jang, Su Kil; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Do Ik; Park, Jun Sub; Jo, Bo Ram; Park, Jung Youl; Heo, Jong; Joo, Seong Soo

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that regulating the hair follicle cycle in association with Wnt signaling is one of the most interesting targets for promoting hair regrowth. In this study, we examined whether selected herbal medicines processed by decoction and fermentation promote hair growth by upregulating the number and size of hair follicles and Wnt signaling, including activation of β-catenin and Akt in telogen-synchronized C57BL/6N mice. The results revealed that the fermented extract after deco...

  5. Bubble Hair and Other Acquired Hair Shaft Anomalies due to Hot Ironing on Wet Hair

    Savitha, AS; Sacchidanand, S; Revathy, TN

    2011-01-01

    Bubble hair is an acquired hair shaft abnormality characterized by multiple airfilled spaces within the hair shaft. It is a result of thermal injury. We report a classic case of 22-year-old female who complained of dry brittle hair of two-week duration. Patient had used hot iron on wet hair twice to straighten hair. Hair microscopy was diagnostic and showed multiple air-filled spaces within the hair shaft.

  6. Hair transplantation: Innovations, applications

    Ekrem Civaş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant improvement in hair transplantation techniques and results owing to hair transplant experience and the development of more suitable microsurgery equipment. In fact, almost natural looking results are beginning to be achieved. This article provides a general assessment of the indications of technical innovations of hair transplant techniques by elaborating the effects of latest hair transplant techniques on patient selection.

  7. Hair transplantation: Innovations, applications

    Ekrem Civaş

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant improvement in hair transplantation techniques and results owing to hair transplant experience and the development of more suitable microsurgery equipment. In fact, almost natural looking results are beginning to be achieved. This article provides a general assessment of the indications of technical innovations of hair transplant techniques by elaborating the effects of latest hair transplant techniques on patient selection.

  8. Hair tourniquet syndrome

    Bangroo A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequently unrecognized and potentially devastating form of penile strangulation is that caused by human hair. Hair tourniquet syndrome frequently occurs during the time period when post partum mothers are experiencing increased hair loss. The majority of cases are thought to be accidental, however possibility of child abuse should be considered in every case.

  9. Hair transplantation surgery

    Khanna Manoj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science.

  10. Hair transplantation update.

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. PMID:26176286

  11. Hair transplantation surgery

    Khanna Manoj

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science.

  12. Study of occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at an iron and steel complex by using neutron activation analysis of scalp hair

    The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken. (author)

  13. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Juan M. Crespo; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was...

  14. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  15. Conversion of the Nipple to Hair-Bearing Epithelia by Lowering Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway Activity at the Dermal-Epidermal Interface

    Mayer, Julie Ann; Foley, John; de la Cruz, Damon; Chuong, Cheng-ming; Widelitz, Randall

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial appendages, such as mammary glands and hair, arise as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important for hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling and are known to regulate a wide variety of developmental processes. For example, overexpression of BMPs inhibits hair follicle formation. We hypothesized that the down-regulation of the BMP signaling pathway in the basal epidermis expands regions that are competent to form hair follicles ...

  16. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  17. Kernel Bundle EPDiff

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads; Pennec, Xavier

    information to be automatically incorporated in registrations and promises to improve the standard framework in several aspects. We present the mathematical foundations of LDDKBM and derive the KB-EPDiff evolution equations, which provide optimal warps in this new framework. To illustrate the resulting......In the LDDMM framework, optimal warps for image registration are found as end-points of critical paths for an energy functional, and the EPDiff equations describe the evolution along such paths. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Kernel Bundle Mapping (LDDKBM) extension of LDDMM allows scale space...... diffeomorphism paths, we give examples showing the decoupled evolution across scales and how the method automatically incorporates deforma- tion at appropriate scales....

  18. Twists of symmetric bundles

    Cassou-Nogues, Ph.; Erez, B.; Taylor, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    We establish comparison results between the Hasse-Witt invariants w_t(E) of a symmetric bundle E over a scheme and the invariants of one of its twists E_{\\alpha}. For general twists we describe the difference between w_t(E) and w_t(E_{\\alpha}) up to terms of degree 3. Next we consider a special kind of twist, which has been studied by A. Fr\\"ohlich. This arises from twisting by a cocycle obtained from an orthogonal representation. We show how to explicitly describe the twist for representatio...

  19. TRIGA spent fuel bundles safe storage

    Negut, G.; Covaci, St. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Research Reactor Dept., Pitesti (Romania); Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, D. [Bucharest Univ. Politehnica, Power and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-07-01

    TRIGA-SSR is a steady state research and material test reactor that has been in operation since 1980. The original TRIGA fuel was HEU (highly enriched uranium) with a U{sup 235} enrichment of 93 per cent. Almost all TRIGA HEU fuel bundles are now burned-up. Part of the spent fuel was loaded and transferred to US, in a Romania - DOE arrangement. The rest of the TRIGA fuel bundles have to be temporarily stored in the TRIGA facility. As the storage conditions had to be established with caution, neutron and thermal hydraulic evaluations of the storage conditions were required. Some criticality evaluations were made based on the SAR (Safety Analysis Report) data. Fuel constant axial temperature approximation effect is usual for criticality computations. TRIGA-SSR fuel bundle geometry and materials model for SCALE5-CSAS module allows the introduction of a fuel temperature dependency for the entire fuel active height, using different materials for each fuel bundle region. Previous RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computations for an axial and radial power distribution in the TRIGA fuel pin were done. Fuel constant temperature approximation overestimates pin factors for every core operating at high temperatures. From the thermal hydraulic point of view the worst condition of the storage grid occurs when the transfer channel is accidentally emptied of water from the pool, or the bundle is handled accidentally to remain in air. All the residual heat from the bundles has to be removed without fuel overheating and clad failure. RELAP5 computer code for residual heat removal was used in the assessment of residual heat removal. We made a couple of evaluations of TRIGA bundle clad temperatures in air cooling conditions, with different residual heat levels. The criticality computations have shown that the spent TRIGA fuel bundles storage grid is strongly sub-critical with k(eff) = 0.5951. So, there is no danger for a criticality accident for this storage grid type. The assessment is done

  20. TRIGA spent fuel bundles safe storage

    TRIGA-SSR is a steady state research and material test reactor that has been in operation since 1980. The original TRIGA fuel was HEU (highly enriched uranium) with a U235 enrichment of 93 per cent. Almost all TRIGA HEU fuel bundles are now burned-up. Part of the spent fuel was loaded and transferred to US, in a Romania - DOE arrangement. The rest of the TRIGA fuel bundles have to be temporarily stored in the TRIGA facility. As the storage conditions had to be established with caution, neutron and thermal hydraulic evaluations of the storage conditions were required. Some criticality evaluations were made based on the SAR (Safety Analysis Report) data. Fuel constant axial temperature approximation effect is usual for criticality computations. TRIGA-SSR fuel bundle geometry and materials model for SCALE5-CSAS module allows the introduction of a fuel temperature dependency for the entire fuel active height, using different materials for each fuel bundle region. Previous RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computations for an axial and radial power distribution in the TRIGA fuel pin were done. Fuel constant temperature approximation overestimates pin factors for every core operating at high temperatures. From the thermal hydraulic point of view the worst condition of the storage grid occurs when the transfer channel is accidentally emptied of water from the pool, or the bundle is handled accidentally to remain in air. All the residual heat from the bundles has to be removed without fuel overheating and clad failure. RELAP5 computer code for residual heat removal was used in the assessment of residual heat removal. We made a couple of evaluations of TRIGA bundle clad temperatures in air cooling conditions, with different residual heat levels. The criticality computations have shown that the spent TRIGA fuel bundles storage grid is strongly sub-critical with k(eff) = 0.5951. So, there is no danger for a criticality accident for this storage grid type. The assessment is done for

  1. REBEKA bundle experiments

    This report is a summary of experimental investigations describing the fuel rod behavior in the refilling and reflooding phase of a loss-of-coolant accident of a PWR. The experiments were performed with 5x5 and 7x7 rod bundles, using indirectly electrically heated fuel rod simulators of full length with original PWR-KWU-geometry, original grid spacers and Zircaloy-4-claddings (Type Biblis B). The fuel rod simulators showed a cosine shaped axial power profile in 7 steps and continuous, respectively. The results describe the influence of the different parameters such as bundle size on the maximum coolant channel blockage, that of the cooling on the size of the circumferential strain of the cladding (azimuthal temperature distribution) a cold control rod guide thimble and the flow direction (axial temperature distribution) on the resulting coolant channel blockage. The rewetting behavior of different fuel rod simulators including ballooned and burst Zircaloy claddings is discussed as well as the influence of thermocouples on the cladding temperature history and the rewetting behavior. All results prove the coolability of a PWR in the case of a LOCA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ECC-criteria established by licensing authorities can be fulfilled. (orig./HP)

  2. Hair cell damage recruited Lgr5-expressing cells are hair cell progenitors in neonatal mouse utricle

    Jinchao Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Damage-activated stem/progenitor cells play important roles in regenerating lost cells and in tissue repair. Previous studies reported that the mouse utricle has limited hair cell regeneration ability after hair cell ablation. However, the potential progenitor cell population regenerating new hair cells remains undiscovered. In this study, we first found that Lgr5, a Wnt target gene that is not usually expressed in the neonatal mouse utricle, can be activated by 24 hour neomycin treatment in a sub-population of supporting cells in the striolar region of the neonatal mouse utricle. Lineage tracing demonstrated that these Lgr5-positive supporting cells could regenerate new hair cells in explant culture. We isolated the damage-activated Lgr5-positive cells with flow cytometry and found that these Lgr5-positive supporting cells could regenerate hair cells in vitro, and self-renew to form spheres, which maintained the capacity to differentiate into hair cells over seven generations of passages. Our results suggest that damage-activated Lgr5-positive supporting cells act as hair cell progenitors in the neonatal mouse utricle, which may help to uncover a potential route to regenerate hair cell in mammals.

  3. Biomechanical Analysis of a Filiform Mechanosensory Hair Socket of Crickets.

    Joshi, Kanishka; Mian, Ahsan; Miller, John

    2016-08-01

    Filiform mechanosensory hairs of crickets are of great interest to engineers because of the hairs' highly sensitive response to low-velocity air-currents. In this study, we analyze the biomechanical properties of filiform hairs of the cercal sensory system of a common house cricket. The cercal sensory system consists of two antennalike appendages called cerci that are situated at the rear of the cricket's abdomen. Each cercus is covered with 500-750 flow sensitive filiform mechanosensory hairs. Each hair is embedded in a complex viscoelastic socket that acts as a spring and dashpot system and guides the movement of the hair. When a hair deflects due to the drag force induced on its length by a moving air-current, the spiking activity of the neuron that innervates the hair changes and the combined spiking activity of all hairs is extracted by the cercal sensory system. Filiform hairs have been experimentally studied by researchers, though the basis for the hairs' biomechanical characteristics is not fully understood. The socket structure has not been analyzed experimentally or theoretically from a mechanical standpoint, and the characterization that exists is mathematical in nature and only provides a very rudimentary approximation of the socket's spring nature. This study aims to understand and physically characterize the socket's behavior and interaction with the filiform hair by examining hypotheses about the hair and socket biomechanics. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was first created using confocal microscopy images of the hair and socket structure of the cricket, and then finite-element analyses (FEAs) based on the physical conditions that the insect experiences were simulated. The results show that the socket can act like a spring; however, it has two-tier rotational spring constants during pre- and postcontacts of iris and hair bulge due to its constitutive nonstandard geometric shapes. PMID:27322099

  4. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  5. CANFLEX fuel bundle impact test

    This document outlines the test results for the impact test of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Impact test is performed to determine and verify the amount of general bundle shape distortion and defect of the pressure tube that may occur during refuelling. The test specification requires that the fuel bundles and the pressure tube retain their integrities after the impact test under the conservative conditions (10 stationary bundles with 31kg/s flow rate) considering the pressure tube creep. The refuelling simulator operating with pneumatic force and simulated shield plug were fabricated and the velocity/displacement transducer and the high speed camera were also used in this test. The characteristics of the moving bundle (velocity, displacement, impacting force) were measured and analyzed with the impact sensor and the high speed camera system. The important test procedures and measurement results were discussed as follows. 1) Test bundle measurements and the pressure tube inspections 2) Simulated shield plug, outlet flange installation and bundle loading 3) refuelling simulator, inlet flange installation and sensors, high speed camera installation 4) Perform the impact test with operating the refuelling simulator and measure the dynamic characteristics 5) Inspections of the fuel bundles and the pressure tube. (author). 8 refs., 23 tabs., 13 figs

  6. CANFLEX fuel bundle impact test

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Park, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the impact test of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Impact test is performed to determine and verify the amount of general bundle shape distortion and defect of the pressure tube that may occur during refuelling. The test specification requires that the fuel bundles and the pressure tube retain their integrities after the impact test under the conservative conditions (10 stationary bundles with 31kg/s flow rate) considering the pressure tube creep. The refuelling simulator operating with pneumatic force and simulated shield plug were fabricated and the velocity/displacement transducer and the high speed camera were also used in this test. The characteristics of the moving bundle (velocity, displacement, impacting force) were measured and analyzed with the impact sensor and the high speed camera system. The important test procedures and measurement results were discussed as follows. 1) Test bundle measurements and the pressure tube inspections 2) Simulated shield plug, outlet flange installation and bundle loading 3) refuelling simulator, inlet flange installation and sensors, high speed camera installation 4) Perform the impact test with operating the refuelling simulator and measure the dynamic characteristics 5) Inspections of the fuel bundles and the pressure tube. (author). 8 refs., 23 tabs., 13 figs.

  7. Fiber Bundles and Parseval Frames

    Agrawal, Devanshu; Knisley, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Continuous frames over a Hilbert space have a rich and sophisticated structure that can be represented in the form of a fiber bundle. The fiber bundle structure reveals the central importance of Parseval frames and the extent to which Parseval frames generalize the notion of an orthonormal basis.

  8. Formulasi Gel Hair Tonic Ekstrak Kulit Buah Apel (Malus pumila Mill.) Dan Uji Aktivitas Pertumbuhan Rambut Marmut

    Margaretha, Lidya

    2015-01-01

    Background : The function of hair are beutifying and making people more confident. Characteristic features of healthy hair are shiny and unwrinkled. Hair Tonic is a cosmetic which compound of chemicals or other ingredients used to strengthen and to improve growing. Apple’s rind contains procyanidin B-2 which is helpful for hair growth can improve hair follicle growth activity and stimulate hair cycle from telogen phase to anagen phase by lowering kinase C protein level inside cytocol. Purp...

  9. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror

    Ward, Benjamin G.

    2012-05-01

    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  10. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Ivan Kausz

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich’s and Vistoli’s twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  11. Taking Care of Your Hair

    ... or pulling them out without professional help can cause hair and scalp damage or even hair loss. Sometimes hair breakage and dry, brittle hair are signs of a medical problem, such as hypothyroidism or an eating disorder. If your hair is breaking even though you ...

  12. Identification of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in dermal papilla cells of human scalp hair follicles: TCF4 regulates the proliferation and secretory activity of dermal papilla cell.

    Xiong, Ya; Liu, Yi; Song, Zhiqiang; Hao, Fei; Yang, Xichuan

    2014-01-01

    It is clear that the dermal papilla cell (DPC), which is located at the bottom of the hair follicle, is a special mesenchymal component, and it plays a leading role in regulating hair follicle development and periodic regeneration. Recent studies showed that the Wnt signaling pathway through β-catenin (canonical Wnt signaling pathway) is an essential component in maintaining the hair-inducing activity of the dermal papilla and growth of hair papilla cells. However, the intrinsic pathways and regulating mechanism are largely unknown. In the previous work, we constructed a cDNA subtractive library of DPC and first found that the TCF4 gene, as a key factor of Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed as the upregulated gene of the hair follicle in low-passage DPC. This study was to explore the role of TCF4 in regulating the proliferation and secretory activity of DPC. We constructed a pcDNA3.0-TCF4 expression vector and transfected it into DPC to achieve stable expression by bangosome 2000. Furthermore, we used the method of chemosynthesis to synthesize three pairs of TCF4 siRNA and transfected them into DPC. Meanwhile, we compared the transfection group and non-transfection group. We first proposed that there was expression difference in TCF4 in DPC under different biological condition. This study may have a high impact on the molecular mechanism of follicular lesions and provide a new vision for the treatment of clinic diseases. PMID:24354472

  13. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub 0}-standardization method

    Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B. [Department of Nuclear Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Samat, S.B. [Department of Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k{sub 0} method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E{sup 1+{alpha}} epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the {gamma}-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for.

  14. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    Ming-Nuan Han; Jian-Mei Lu; Guang-Yuan Zhang; Jie Yu; Rong-Hua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical ...

  15. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea

    Anna Kirjavainen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and polarization of various cell types, and, thus, serves as a candidate regulator of hair cell polarity. We have here induced Cdc42 inactivation in the late-embryonic OC. We show the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of planar polarity of hair cells and in cellular patterning. Abnormal planar polarity was displayed as disturbances in hair bundle orientation and morphology and in kinocilium/basal body positioning. These defects were accompanied by a disorganized cell-surface microtubule network. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC, a putative Cdc42 effector, colocalized with Cdc42 at the hair cell apex, and aPKC expression was altered upon Cdc42 depletion. Our data suggest that Cdc42 together with aPKC is part of the machinery establishing hair cell planar polarity and that Cdc42 acts on polarity through the cell-surface microtubule network. The data also suggest that defects in apical polarization are influenced by disturbed cellular patterning in the OC. In addition, our data demonstrates that Cdc42 is required for stereociliogenesis in the immature cochlea.

  16. Hoxc13 is a crucial regulator of murine hair cycle.

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Tang, Hui; Yan, Hongtao; Wen, Xuhong; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Ranjing; Wang, Duan; Wu, Jinjin

    2016-04-01

    Hair follicles undergo cyclical growth and regression during postnatal life. Hair regression is an apoptosis-driven process strictly controlled by micro- and macro-environmental signals. However, how these signals are controlled remains largely unknown. Hoxc13, a member of the Hox gene family, is reported to play an important role in hair follicle differentiation. In the present study, we observed that Hoxc13 was highly expressed in the outer root sheath, matrix, medulla and inner root sheath of hair follicles in a hair cycle-dependent manner. We therefore investigated the role of Hoxc13 in hair follicle cycling. Injection of ShRNA (ShHoxc13) to suppress Hoxc13 in early anagen promoted premature catagen entry, shown by significantly decreased hair length and hair bulb size, increased percentage of catagen hair follicles, hair cycle score and TUNEL+ cells and inhibited proliferation. In contrast, local injection of recombinant Hoxc13 polypeptide (rhHoxc13) during the late anagen phase prolonged the anagen phase. Additionally, rhHoxc13 injections during the telogen phase significantly promoted hair growth and induced the anagen progression. At the molecular level, the expression of phosphorylated smad2 (p-smad2), a key factor of active TGF-β1 signaling, was up-regulated in the ShHoxc13-treated hair follicles and down-regulated in rhHoxc13-treated hair follicles, suggesting that Hoxc13 might block anagen-catagen transition by inhibiting the TGF-β1 signaling. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that Hoxc13 is a novel and crucial regulator of the hair cycle. This might also provide an understanding of the mechanism of the 'hair cycle clock' and the development of alopecia treatments. PMID:26553656

  17. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

  18. Female pattern hair loss

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  19. Female pattern hair loss

    İdil Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL) is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatm...

  20. Female pattern hair loss

    Archana Singal; Sidharth Sonthalia; Prashant Verma

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident...

  1. Mercury in human hair

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  2. Elasticity and capillarity: wet hairs and origami

    Roman, Benoit

    2008-03-01

    Capillary forces are responsible for a large range of everyday observations : the shape of rain droplets, the imbibition of a sponge, the clumping of wet hair into bundles. Although they are often negligible on macroscopic structures, surface capillary forces may overcome volume forces at small scales and deform compliant micro-structures. Capillary-induced sticking can indeed prevent the actuation of mobile elements in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), or even cause their collapse. Capillary forces also have important consequences in biology such as the buckling of the airway lumen induced by surface tension, which can eventually cause the lethal closure of lung airways (known as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome). We will review a few experimental situations where capillary forces are able to deform two types of objects: rods, and thin sheets. For instance, the nanotubes of a ``carbon nanotube carpet'' self-assemble into conical ``teepee'' structures after the evaporation of a solvent and can produce intriguing cellular patterns. Similarly, macroscopic wet hairs tend to assemble into bundles through a cascade of successive pairings. Comparing attracting capillary forces to bending elasticity, leads to a characteristic ``elasto-capillary'' length. The case of thin sheets is challenging because of geometrical constrains, which generally leads to singularities. Can a thin sheet spontaneously wrap around droplet? We will describe in detail this ``capillary origami'' experiment.

  3. Female hair restoration.

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  4. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  5. Tarantula hair keratitis.

    Mangat, Simran Singh; Newman, Bill

    2012-10-26

    We describe a 12-year-old boy in England with keratitis secondary to tarantula hairs embedded within the stroma of his cornea. Every attempt must be made to isolate these hairs at the first visit as they have a barbed nature and have a propensity to propagate through ocular tissues. A chronic keratitis requiring long-term steroid use may result if hairs persist in the cornea. Children who keep tarantulas as pets should be instructed on safe handling to prevent the tarantula from adopting defence mechanisms and shedding their hairs. PMID:23242405

  6. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk On This Page Why is ... over age 40 use some type of hair dye ( 1 ). Modern hair dyes are classified as permanent (or oxidative), semipermanent, ...

  7. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Zahide Eriş Eken; Banu Taşkın; Sibel Alper

    2014-01-01

    Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hai...

  8. Mycophenolate Antagonizes IFN-γ-Induced Catagen-Like Changes via β-Catenin Activation in Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Follicles

    Sunhyo Ryu; Yonghee Lee; Moo Yeol Hyun; Sun Young Choi; Kwan Ho Jeong; Young Min Park; Hoon Kang; Kui Young Park; Armstrong, Cheryl A.; Andrew Johnson; Peter I. Song; Beom Joon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various immunosuppressant drugs have been shown to induce hair growth in normal hair as well as in alopecia areata and androgenic alopecia; however, the responsible mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the influence of mycophenolate (MPA), an immunosuppressant, on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and on the growth of human hair follicles following catagen induction with interferon (IFN)-γ. IFN-γ was found to reduce β-caten...

  9. The Atiyah Bundle and Connections on a Principal Bundle

    Indranil Biswas

    2010-06-01

    Let be a ∞ manifold and a Lie a group. Let $E_G$ be a ∞ principal -bundle over . There is a fiber bundle $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ over whose smooth sections correspond to the connections on $E_G$. The pull back of $E_G$ to $\\mathcal{C}(E_G)$ has a tautological connection. We investigate the curvature of this tautological connection.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    Lipi Purwal; Surya Prakash B. N. Gupta; S. Milind Pande

    2008-01-01

    Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae), Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae), Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae), Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae), Trigonella foenu...

  11. Structural investigations of human hairs by spectrally resolved ellipsometry

    Schulz, Benjamin; Chan, D.; Ruebhausen, M.; Wessel, S.; Wepf, R.

    2006-03-01

    Human hair is a biological layered system composed of two major layers, the cortex and the cuticle. We show spectrally resolved ellipsometry measurements of the ellipsometric parameters ψ and δ of single human hairs. The spectra reflect the layered nature of hair and the optical anisotropy of the hair’s structure. In addition, measurements on strands of human hair show a high reproducibility of the ellipsometric parameters for different hair fiber bundles from the same person. Based on the measurements, we develop a model of the dielectric function of hair that explains the spectra. This model includes the dielectric properties of the cuticle and cortex as well as their associated layer thicknesses. In addition, surface roughness effects modelled by a roughness layer with an complex refractive index given by an effective medium approach can have a significant effect on the measurements. We derive values for the parameters of the cuticle surface roughness layer of the thickness dACu= 273-360 nm and the air inclusion fA= 0.6 -5.7%. [1] accepted for publication in J. Biomed Opt., 2005

  12. A different approach to hair analysis

    Hair samples from Canada, China, India and New Zealand were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Comparison of the percent manganese in the alkali-soluble fraction of hair with the total manganese concentrations shows that, within groups, the percent manganese concentrations is relatively constant whereas overall concentrations are not. For multiple sclerosis patients, from Canada and New Zealand, highly significant differences were observed between controls and patients for % Mn in the alkali-soluble fraction. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Anti-HIV-1 activity of cellulose acetate phthalate: Synergy with soluble CD4 and induction of "dead-end" gp41 six-helix bundles

    Li Yun-Yao

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP, a promising candidate microbicide for prevention of sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted disease (STD pathogens, was shown to inactivate HIV-1 and to block the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120. It did not interfere with virus binding to CD4. Since CD4 is the primary cellular receptor for HIV-1, it was of interest to study CAP binding to HIV-1 complexes with soluble CD4 (sCD4 and its consequences, including changes in the conformation of the envelope glycoprotein gp41 within virus particles. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used to study CAP binding to HIV-1-sCD4 complexes and to detect gp41 six-helix bundles accessible on virus particles using antibodies specific for the α-helical core domain of gp41. Results 1 Pretreatment of HIV-1 with sCD4 augments subsequent binding of CAP; 2 there is synergism between CAP and sCD4 for inhibition of HIV-1 infection; 3 treatment of HIV-1 with CAP induced the formation of gp41 six-helix bundles. Conclusions CAP and sCD4 bind to distinct sites on HIV-1 IIIB and BaL virions and their simultaneous binding has profound effects on virus structure and infectivity. The formation of gp41 six-helical bundles, induced by CAP, is known to render the virus incompetent for fusion with target cells thus preventing infection.

  14. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Dalgaard, Tommy; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services to...... form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  15. Structure of the acrosomal bundle.

    Schmid, Michael F; Sherman, Michael B; Matsudaira, Paul; Chiu, Wah

    2004-09-01

    In the unactivated Limulus sperm, a 60- micro m-long bundle of actin filaments crosslinked by the protein scruin is bent and twisted into a coil around the base of the nucleus. At fertilization, the bundle uncoils and fully extends in five seconds to support a finger of membrane known as the acrosomal process. This biological spring is powered by stored elastic energy and does not require the action of motor proteins or actin polymerization. In a 9.5-A electron cryomicroscopic structure of the extended bundle, we show that twist, tilt and rotation of actin-scruin subunits deviate widely from a 'standard' F-actin filament. This variability in structural organization allows filaments to pack into a highly ordered and rigid bundle in the extended state and suggests a mechanism for storing and releasing energy between coiled and extended states without disassembly. PMID:15343340

  16. Locking means for fuels bundles

    A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of fuel rods disposed between two end plates positioned by tie rods extending therebetween. The assembled bundle is secured by one or more locking forks which pass through slots in the tie rod ends. Springs mounted on the fuel rods and tie rods are compressed by assembling the bundle and forcing one end plate against the locking fork to maintain the fuel rods and tie rods in position between the end plates. Downward pressure on the end plate permits removal of the locking fork so that the end plates may be removed, thus giving access to the fuel rods. This construction facilitates disassembly of an irradiated fuel bundle under water

  17. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  18. Damage in Fiber Bundle Models

    Kun, Ferenc; Zapperi, Stefano; Herrmann, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a continuous damage fiber bundle model that gives rise to macroscopic plasticity and compare its behavior with that of dry fiber bundles. Several interesting constitutive behaviors are found in this model depending on the value of the damage parameter and on the form of the disorder distribution. In addition, we compare the behavior of global load transfer models with local load transfer models and study in detail the damage evolution before failure. We emphasize the analogies be...

  19. Holomorphic bundles over elliptic manifolds

    In this lecture we shall examine holomorphic bundles over compact elliptically fibered manifolds. We shall examine constructions of such bundles as well as (duality) relations between such bundles and other geometric objects, namely K3-surfaces and del Pezzo surfaces. We shall be dealing throughout with holomorphic principal bundles with structure group GC where G is a compact, simple (usually simply connected) Lie group and GC is the associated complex simple algebraic group. Of course, in the special case G = SU(n) and hence GC = SLn(C), we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant. In the other cases of classical groups, G SO(n) or G = Sympl(2n) we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant equipped with a non-degenerate symmetric, or skew symmetric pairing. In addition to these classical cases there are the finite number of exceptional groups. Amazingly enough, motivated by questions in physics, much interest centres around the group E8 and its subgroups. For these applications it does not suffice to consider only the classical groups. Thus, while often first doing the case of SU(n) or more generally of the classical groups, we shall extend our discussions to the general semi-simple group. Also, we shall spend a good deal of time considering elliptically fibered manifolds of the simplest type, namely, elliptic curves

  20. Client Provider Collaboration for Service Bundling

    LETIA, I. A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The key requirement for a service industry organization to reach competitive advantages through product diversification is the existence of a well defined method for building service bundles. Based on the idea that the quality of a service or its value is given by the difference between expectations and perceptions, we draw the main components of a frame that aims to support the client and the provider agent in an active collaboration meant to co-create service bundles. Following e3-value model, we structure the supporting knowledge around the relation between needs and satisfying services. We deal with different perspectives about quality through an ontological extension of Value Based Argumentation. The dialog between the client and the provider takes the form of a persuasion whose dynamic object is the current best configuration. Our approach for building service packages is a demand driven approach, allowing progressive disclosure of private knowledge.

  1. Does size matter? : disentangling consumers' bundling preferences

    Manoj K. Agarwal; Frambach, Ruud T.; Stremersch, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    Previous marketing literature has focused to a large extent on the effect of bundle characteristics on a consumer’s decision to buy a (fixed) bundle in a non-competitive setting. This study extends this narrow focus in four major ways. First, the authors address bundles that are customizable. Second, they distinguish between a consumer’s decision of whether to bundle (bundle choice) and the decision of how many goods or services to include in a bundle (bundle size). Third, they extend the foc...

  2. Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulations for Hair Growth Potential

    Vaishali Rathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an effort to formulate and evaluate hair growth promoting activity of three polyherbal formulations. Polyherbal formulations were prepared using extract of Cicer arietinum Linn., Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cyperus rotundus Linn. in various ratios to obtained the best formulation The extract incorporated into cream were applied topically on shaved skin of rats and primary skin irritation test, hair growth initiation time, completion time, hair length and diameter were recorded. The ratio of Cicer arietinum Linn., Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cyperus rotundus Linn. in 1:2:3 showed excellent hair growth activity comparable to standard.

  3. Activation of BK and SK channels by efferent synapses on outer hair cells in high-frequency regions of the rodent cochlea

    Rohmann, Kevin N; Wersinger, Eric; Braude, Jeremy P; Pyott, Sonja J; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the brainstem olivary complex project to and inhibit outer hair cells (OHCs), refining acoustic sensitivity of the mammalian cochlea. In all vertebrate hair cells studied to date, cholinergic inhibition results from the combined action of ionotropic acetylcholine receptors and

  4. Mechanical stimulation of individual stereocilia of living cochlear hair cells by atomic force microscopy.

    Langer, M G; Koitschev, A; Haase, H; Rexhausen, U; Hörber, J K; Ruppersberg, J P

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes the investigation of elastical properties and imaging of living cochlear hair bundles of inner (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC) on the level of individual stereocilia. A custom-made AFM-setup was used, allowing to scan the mechano-sensitive structures of the inner ear under direct control of an upright differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope with a water-immersion objective. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the identical hair bundles obtained after AFM investigation demonstrated that forces up to 1.5 nanonewton (nN) did not cause obvious damage of the surface morphology of the stereocilia. These are the first images of hair bundles of living sensory cells of the organ of Corti by AFM. They display the tips of individual stereocilia and the typical V-shape of ciliary bundles. Since line scans clearly show that slope and force interaction depend on the elastical properties of stereocilia, quantitative stiffness measurements and stimulation of single transduction channels are suggested. PMID:10741679

  5. Biology of human hair : know your hair to control it

    Araújo, Rita; Fernandes, Margarida M.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Gomes, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    Hair can be engineered at different levels—its structure and surface—through modification of its constituent molecules, in particular proteins, but also the hair follicle (HF) can be genetically altered, in particular with the advent of siRNA-based applications. General aspects of hair biology are reviewed, as well as the most recent contributions to understanding hair pigmentation and the regulation of hair development. Focus will also be placed on the techniques developed specifically for d...

  6. Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulations for Hair Growth Potential

    Vaishali Rathi; Jagdish Chandra Rathi; Sengodan Tamizharasi

    2009-01-01

    The present study is an effort to formulate and evaluate hair growth promoting activity of three polyherbal formulations. Polyherbal formulations were prepared using extract of Cicer arietinum Linn., Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cyperus rotundus Linn. in various ratios to obtained the best formulation The extract incorporated into cream were applied topically on shaved skin of rats and primary skin irritation test, hair growth initiation time, completion time, hair length and diameter were record...

  7. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth

    Harel, Sivan; Claire A Higgins; Jane E. Cerise; Dai, Zhenpeng; James C. Chen; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transc...

  8. Analysis of pollutants in human scalp hair in Cairo

    Scalp hair, urine and blood samples from volunteers selected from different areas surrounding Cairo were collected for study by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and conventional methods. The results for 14 elements in hair show some variation between the different regions. Qualitatively there is a slight difference of abundance of the investigated elements. Broadly speaking the presence of major elements is dominant. No relationship was observed between the elemental composition of hair and urine. (author)

  9. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    ... sun . The dark or light color of someone's hair depends on how much melanin each hair contains. As we get older, the pigment cells ... cells in a hair follicle, that strand of hair will no longer contain as much melanin and will become a more transparent color — like ...

  10. LSD1 is Required for Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish.

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Cai, Chengfu; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-05-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) plays an important role in complex cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. It has recently been demonstrated that during development, downregulation of LSD1 inhibits cell proliferation, modulates the expression of cell cycle regulators, and reduces hair cell formation in the zebrafish lateral line, which suggests that LSD1-mediated epigenetic regulation plays a key role in the development of hair cells. However, the role of LSD1 in hair cell regeneration after hair cell loss remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the effect of LSD1 on hair cell regeneration following neomycin-induced hair cell loss. We show that the LSD1 inhibitor trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA) significantly decreases the regeneration of hair cells in zebrafish after neomycin damage. In addition, immunofluorescent staining demonstrates that 2-PCPA administration suppresses supporting cell proliferation and alters cell cycle progression. Finally, in situ hybridization shows that 2-PCPA significantly downregulates the expression of genes related to Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf activation. Altogether, our data suggest that downregulation of LSD1 significantly decreases hair cell regeneration after neomycin-induced hair cell loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus, LSD1 plays a critical role in hair cell regeneration and might represent a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of hearing loss. PMID:26008620

  11. Advanced Fuel Bundles for PHWRS

    The fuel used by NPCIL presently is natural uranium dioxide in the form of 19- element fuel bundles for 220 MWe PHWRs and 37-element fuel bundles for the TAPP-3&4 540 MWe units. The new 700 MWe PHWRs also use 37-element fuel bundles. These bundles are of short 0.5 m length of circular geometry. The cladding is of collapsible type made of Zircaloy-4 material. PHWRs containing a string of short length fuel bundles and the on-power refueling permit flexibility in using different advanced fuel designs and in core fuel management schemes. Using this flexibility, alternative fuel concepts are tried in Indian PHWRs. The advances in PHWR fuel designs are governed by the desire to use resources other than uranium, improve fuel economics by increasing fuel burnup and reduce overall spent nuclear fuel waste and improve reactor safety. The rising uranium prices are leading to a relook into the Thorium based fuel designs and reprocessed Uranium based and Plutonium based MOX designs and are expected to play a major role in future. The requirement of synergism between different type of reactors also plays a role. Increase in fuel burnup beyond 15 000 MW∙d/TeU in PHWRs, using higher fissile content materials like slightly enriched uranium, Mixed Oxide and Thorium Oxide in place of natural uranium in fuel elements, was studied many PHWR operating countries. The work includes reactor physics studies and test irradiation in research reactors and power reactors. Due to higher fissile content these bundles will be capable of delivering higher burnup than the natural uranium bundles. In India the fuel cycle flexibility of PHWRs is demonstrated by converting this type of technical flexibility to the real economy by irradiating these different types of advanced fuel materials namely Thorium, MOX, SEU, etc. The paper gives a review of the different advanced fuel design concepts studied for Indian PHWRs. (author)

  12. Chiton integument: ultrastructure of the sensory hairs of Mopalia muscosa (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Leise, E M; Cloney, R A

    1982-01-01

    The dorsal integument of the girdle of the chiton Mopalia muscosa is covered by a chitinous cuticle about 0.1 mm in thickness. Within the cuticle are fusiform spicules composed of a central mass of pigment granules surrounded by a layer of calcium carbonate crystals. Tapered, curved chitinous hairs with a groove on the mesial surface pass through the cuticle and protrude above the surface. The spicules are produced by specialized groups of epidermal cells called spiniferous papillae and the hairs are produced by trichogenous papillae. Processes of pigment cells containing green granules are scattered among the cells of each type of papilla and among the common epidermal cells. The wall or cortex of each hair is composed of two layers. The cortex surrounds a central medulla that contains matrix material of low density and from 1 to 20 axial bundles of dendrites. The number of bundles within the medulla varies with the size of the hair. Each bundle contains from 1 to 25 dendrites ensheathed by processes of supporting cells. The dendrites and supporting sheath arise from epidermal cells of the central part of the papilla. At the base of each trichogenous papilla are several nerves that pass into the dermis. Two questions remain unresolved. The function of the hairs is unknown, and we have not determined whether the sensory cells are primary sensory neurons or secondary sensory cells. PMID:7066970

  13. Complications in hair restoration.

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. PMID:24200385

  14. The role of neprilysin in regulating the hair cycle.

    Naoko Morisaki

    Full Text Available In most mammals, each hair follicle undergoes a cyclic process of growing, regressing and resting phases (anagen, catagen, telogen, respectively called the hair cycle. Various biological factors have been reported to regulate or to synchronize with the hair cycle. Some factors involved in the extracellular matrix, which is a major component of skin tissue, are also thought to regulate the hair cycle. We have focused on an enzyme that degrades elastin, which is associated with skin elasticity. Since our previous study identified skin fibroblast elastase as neprilysin (NEP, we examined the fluctuation of NEP enzyme activity and its expression during the synchronized hair cycle of rats. NEP activity in the skin was elevated at early anagen, and decreased during catagen to telogen. The expression of NEP mRNA and protein levels was modulated similarly. Immunostaining showed changes in NEP localization throughout the hair cycle, from the follicular epithelium during early anagen to the dermal papilla during catagen. To determine whether NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle, we used a specific inhibitor of NEP (NPLT. NPLT was applied topically daily to the dorsal skin of C3H mice, which had been depilated in advance. Mice treated with NPLT had significantly suppressed hair growth. These data suggest that NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by its increased expression and activity in the follicular epithelium during early anagen.

  15. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  16. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

  17. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth

    Bernard, Bruno A.

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth contr...

  18. Computer-Generated Photorealistic Hair

    Lin, Alice J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for generating and rendering photorealistic hair in two dimensional pictures. The method consists of three major steps. Simulating an artist drawing is used to design the rough hair shape. A convolution based filter is then used to generate photorealistic hair patches. A refine procedure is finally used to blend the boundaries of the patches with surrounding areas. This method can be used to create all types of photorealistic human hair (head hair, faci...

  19. Three-dimensional architecture of hair-cell linkages as revealedby electron-microscopic tomography

    Auer, Manfred; Koster, Bram; Ziese, Ulrike; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Volkmann, Niels; Wang, Da Neng; Hudspeth, A. James

    2006-07-28

    The senses of hearing and balance rest upon mechanoelectrical transduction by the hair bundles of hair cells in the inner ear. Located at the apical cellular surface, each hair bundle comprises several tens of stereocilia and a single kinocilium that are interconnected by extracellular proteinaceous links. Using electron-microscopic tomography of bullfrog saccular sensory epithelia, we examined the three-dimensional structures of ankle or basal links, kinociliary links, and tip links. We observed clear differences in the dimensions and appearances of the three links. We found two distinct populations of tip links suggestive of the involvement of two proteins or splice variants. We noted auxiliary links connecting the upper portions of tip links to the taller stereocilia. Tip links and auxiliary links show a tendency to adopt a globular conformation when disconnected from the membrane surface.

  20. Mechanosensory hairs in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) detect weak electric fields.

    Sutton, Gregory P; Clarke, Dominic; Morley, Erica L; Robert, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use information from surrounding electric fields to make foraging decisions. Electroreception in air, a nonconductive medium, is a recently discovered sensory capacity of insects, yet the sensory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigate two putative electric field sensors: antennae and mechanosensory hairs. Examining their mechanical and neural response, we show that electric fields cause deflections in both antennae and hairs. Hairs respond with a greater median velocity, displacement, and angular displacement than antennae. Extracellular recordings from the antennae do not show any electrophysiological correlates to these mechanical deflections. In contrast, hair deflections in response to an electric field elicited neural activity. Mechanical deflections of both hairs and antennae increase with the electric charge carried by the bumblebee. From this evidence, we conclude that sensory hairs are a site of electroreception in the bumblebee. PMID:27247399

  1. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    ... desired professional counseling might be of help. Perms, dyes and other cosmetic options can be used to give a fuller appearance to hair. Contrary to common wisdom, shampooing doesn't increase ...

  2. Tips for Healthy Hair

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  3. Scurvy, corkscrew hair (image)

    Scurvy is a nutritional disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Pinpoint bleeding around hair follicles, and " ... this picture, can occur as a result of scurvy. Bleeding along the gums is common. This disease ...

  4. Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues.

    Gañán, Piedad; Zuluaga, Robin; Restrepo, Adriana; Labidi, Jalel; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2008-02-01

    Comestible fruit production from Musaceas plants is an important economical activity in developing countries like Colombia. However, it generates a large amount of agro-industrial residues. Some of them are a potential resource of natural fibres, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, a series of commercial plantain (Musa AAB, cv "Dominico Harton") fibre bundles extracted from pseudostem, leaf sheath and rachis agricultural wastes were analyzed. Mechanical decortication and biological retting processes were used during fiber extraction. No significant differences in composition of vascular bundles were observed for both extraction processes. Gross morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior have been evaluated. Conducting tissues with spiral-like arrangement are observed attached to fibre bundles. This fact suggests a big amount of these tissues in commercial plantain plants. Both used extraction methods are not enough to remove them. Pseudostem fibre bundles have higher specific strength and modulus and lower strain at break than leaf sheath and rachis fibre bundles, having values comparable to other lignocellulosic fibres bundles. PMID:17350832

  5. Cohomology of line bundles: Applications

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Jurke, Benjamin; Rahn, Thorsten; Roschy, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Massless modes of both heterotic and Type II string compactifications on compact manifolds are determined by vector bundle valued cohomology classes. Various applications of our recent algorithm for the computation of line bundle valued cohomology classes over toric varieties are presented. For the heterotic string, the prime examples are so-called monad constructions on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In the context of Type II orientifolds, one often needs to compute cohomology for line bundles on finite group action coset spaces, necessitating us to generalize our algorithm to this case. Moreover, we exemplify that the different terms in Batyrev's formula and its generalizations can be given a one-to-one cohomological interpretation. Furthermore, we derive a combinatorial closed form expression for two Hodge numbers of a codimension two Calabi-Yau fourfold.

  6. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type)...

  7. Principal bundles the classical case

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  8. PELE'S HAIR: case studies from Kilauea

    Cannata, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Pele’s hair are long, thin strands of basaltic volcanic glass formed when small drops of magma are spun or drawn out by the wind or streams of volcanic gas into long hair-like strands. Named for Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire, they are basically found in Hawaiian eruption deposits. Pele’s hair is deep yellow or gold and is commonly found downwind from active vents concentrated in hollows or other low energy ‘traps’. In literature the origin of these thin strands of glass have been linked to fountains from Hawaiian eruptions. Beside the high fountaining, Pele’s hair are actually found in other environments. In this work we investigated in detail the dimensions, surface textures and the nature of Pele’s hair, from four typical environment of formation at Hawaiian volcanoes: high fountaining, weak explosive activity, lava ocean entry and a lava skylight. Samples has been characterized in terms of textural and morphological features, in thin section and under the SEM. Pele’s hair consists of long strands of gold sideromelane, showing variable length, from an half mm to tens of mm, often without surface vesicles and sometimes including Pele’s tears inside or at the end. They are often found incomplete, since they are easily broken on landing or even during transport. Their surfaces are mostly rough, with ‘ploughs’ of different sizes and large cavities. Vesicles are visible in the cross sections of Pele’s hair. There are two mostly size population of bubbles: one elongated and central and parallel to the axis of elongation and the other one smaller, and rounded and dispersed across the cross section of the fibers. Pele’s hair often shows, in thin section, a single inner elongate vesicle in the middle of the fragment linked to bubble coalescence phenomena, along the entire length of the hair. Samples from the four volcanic environments show different features in terms of their shape, surface textures and micro-textures, pointing out that

  9. Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?

    Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study

  10. The effect of altering the activation sequence with right ventricular apical pacing. Evaluation of myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block

    Aim: Intraventricular conduction disturbances are associated with asynchrony of ventricular function and uncoordinated ventricular wall motion. Specifically, patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB), who have been studied the most, have revealed left ventricular dyssynergy, asymmetry of left ventricular thickness, abnormalities in glucose uptake and in myocardial perfusion even in the absence of coronary disease. The aim of the study was to investigate myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances and to detect any changes caused by alteration of the ventricular activation sequence as a result of right ventricular apical pacing. Materials-methods: We studied 20 patients (11 men, 9 women, age 65.16 ± 5.79 years) with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), while 15 healthy individuals served as controls. All patients underwent planar and myocardial tomography (SPECT) imaging after intravenous infusion of 5mCi 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) and a SPECT Thallium201 myocardial perfusion study before and 3 months after pacemaker implantation. Results: The heart to mediastinum ratio was calculated during the 123I-MIBG study in order to assess the global cardiac sympathetic activity and was significantly lower in patients than in controls (p 123I-MIBG study was performed in order to investigate the regional distribution of Adrenergic innervation. Patients with RBBB and LAFB revealed regional adrenergic innervation defects, mostly in the inferior and posterior walls. After a medium-term pacing period, a redistribution of 123I-MIBG uptake was detected, with aggravation of adrenergic innervation defects in the apical and posterior walls and amelioration in septal and anterior walls. Five patients showed perfusion defects that remained unchanged after pacing. Two others displayed mild myocardial perfusion defects that did not exist before pacing. Conclusions

  11. Decoction and Fermentation of Selected Medicinal Herbs Promote Hair Regrowth by Inducing Hair Follicle Growth in Conjunction with Wnts Signaling

    Su Kil Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that regulating the hair follicle cycle in association with Wnt signaling is one of the most interesting targets for promoting hair regrowth. In this study, we examined whether selected herbal medicines processed by decoction and fermentation promote hair growth by upregulating the number and size of hair follicles and Wnt signaling, including activation of β-catenin and Akt in telogen-synchronized C57BL/6N mice. The results revealed that the fermented extract after decoction (FDE more effectively promoted hair growth than that of a nonfermented extract (DE. Notably, FDE effectively enhanced formation of hair follicles with clearer differentiation between the inner and outer root sheath, which is observed during the anagen phase. Mechanistic evidence was found for increased β-catenin and Akt phosphorylation levels in dorsal skin tissue along with elevated expression of hair regrowth-related genes, such as Wnt3/10a/10b, Lef1, and fibroblast growth factor 7. In conclusion, our findings suggest that FDE plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by increasing expression of hair regrowth-related genes and activating downstream Wnt signaling targets.

  12. Decoction and Fermentation of Selected Medicinal Herbs Promote Hair Regrowth by Inducing Hair Follicle Growth in Conjunction with Wnts Signaling.

    Jang, Su Kil; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Do Ik; Park, Jun Sub; Jo, Bo Ram; Park, Jung Youl; Heo, Jong; Joo, Seong Soo

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that regulating the hair follicle cycle in association with Wnt signaling is one of the most interesting targets for promoting hair regrowth. In this study, we examined whether selected herbal medicines processed by decoction and fermentation promote hair growth by upregulating the number and size of hair follicles and Wnt signaling, including activation of β-catenin and Akt in telogen-synchronized C57BL/6N mice. The results revealed that the fermented extract after decoction (FDE) more effectively promoted hair growth than that of a nonfermented extract (DE). Notably, FDE effectively enhanced formation of hair follicles with clearer differentiation between the inner and outer root sheath, which is observed during the anagen phase. Mechanistic evidence was found for increased β-catenin and Akt phosphorylation levels in dorsal skin tissue along with elevated expression of hair regrowth-related genes, such as Wnt3/10a/10b, Lef1, and fibroblast growth factor 7. In conclusion, our findings suggest that FDE plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by increasing expression of hair regrowth-related genes and activating downstream Wnt signaling targets. PMID:27110266

  13. Hematological and hepatic effects of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) used to stimulate hair growth in an animal model

    Gnann, Laís Angelo; Castro, Rafael Ferreira; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Feder, David; Perazzo, Fabio Ferreira; Pereira, Edimar Cristiano; Rosa, Paulo César Pires; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Rocha, Katya Cristina; Machado, Carlos D’ Aparecida; Paschoal, Francisco Camargo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2013-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata is the hair loss usually reversible, in sharply defined areas. The treatment of alopecia using growth factors shows interesting activity in promoting hair growth. In this concept, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a marker of angiogenesis, stimulating hair growth by facilitating the supply of nutrients to the hair follicle, increasing follicular diameter. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a topical gel enriched with VEGF liposomes on the hair gr...

  14. Neutron activation analysis of hair in relation to geographical location and extent of industrialization. Part of a coordinated programme on health-related environmental research using nuclear techniques

    Analysis of scalp hair was used to determine population exposure to Cd, Hg and Pb. Hair was collected from a few rural and urban areas (including metropolitan Manila). Cd and Pb were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, and Hg by cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results for the 3 elements are comparable with those reported in the literature. These data also indicate that the contamination of the general population with the elements surveyed does not constitute a major concern at present

  15. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  16. UV Damage of the Hair

    Šebetić, Klaudija; Sjerobabski Masnec, Ines; Čavka, Vlatka; Biljan, Darko; Krolo, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Hair is a very important for our self-confidence as well as a very important part of appearance and self-concept. It reflects our personality and hair loss or hair damages are considered aesthetic imperfections and social handicap. Outward part of the hair is a »hair shaft« keratin fiber structure sensible to external effects whether they are mechanical, physical or chemical. Excessive sun exposition is the most frequent cause of hair shaft’s structural impairment. Photochemical i...

  17. Immunology of the hair follicle

    Sibel Doğan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair follicles are accepted as a component of skin in mammals. Considering the continuous contact with environment and microorganisms in the normal flora, it is crucial that various elements of immune system are necessary to reside within hair follicles. On the contrary, the protection of hair follicles from the intense anti-infective elements and autoimmunity is mandatory; hence some antigens are not expressed in hair follicle and construct an immune privileged area. In this review, immunologic functions of hair follicle and hair follicle immunology’s effect in pathogenesis of dermatological diseases are discussed in the light of recent studies.

  18. Aging hair follicles rejuvenated by transplantation to a young subcutaneous environment.

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tan, Yuying; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-04-17

    We demonstrate in the present study that young host mice rejuvenate aged hair follicles after transplantation. Young mice promote the hair shaft growth of transplanted old hair follicles, as well as young follicles, in contrast to old host mice, which did not support hair-shaft growth from transplanted old or young follicles. Nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells of transplanted old and young hair follicles remained active in young host nude mice. In contrast, the nestin-expressing HAP stem cells in young and old hair follicles transplanted to old nude mice were not as active as in young nude host mice. The present study shows that transplanted old hair follicles were rejuvenated by young host mice, suggesting that aging may be reversible. PMID:26940664

  19. Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…

  20. Bundled Discounts and EC Judicial Review

    Christian Roques

    2008-01-01

    The Community Courts' case law is rich with cases relating to tying or bundling practices in their classical economic form. However, the same cannot be said for the second acceptance of bundled discounts.

  1. Aging changes in hair and nails

    ... Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which hair follicles produce. Follicles are structures in the skin that make and grow hair. With aging, the follicles make less melanin, and this causes gray hair. Graying often begins ...

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  3. Failure properties of fiber bundle models

    Pradhan, Srutarshi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2003-01-01

    We study the failure properties of fiber bundles when continuous rupture goes on due to the application of external load on the bundles. We take the two extreme models: equal load sharing model (democratic fiber bundles) and local load sharing model. The strength of the fibers are assumed to be distributed randomly within a finite interval. The democratic fiber bundles show a solvable phase transition at a critical stress (load per fiber). The dynamic critical behavior is obtained analyticall...

  4. Bundling Information Goods: Pricing, Profits, and Efficiency

    Yannis Bakos; Erik Brynjolfsson

    1999-01-01

    We study the strategy of bundling a large number of information goods, such as those increasingly available on the Internet, and selling them for a fixed price. We analyze the optimal bundling strategies for a multiproduct monopolist, and we find that bundling very large numbers of unrelated information goods can be surprisingly profitable. The reason is that the law of large numbers makes it much easier to predict consumers' valuations for a bundle of goods than their valuations for the indi...

  5. Repeated exposure to hair dye induces regulatory T cells in mice

    Rubin, I M C; Dabelsteen, S; Nielsen, M M;

    2010-01-01

    We have recently shown that commercial p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dyes are potent immune activators that lead to severe contact hypersensitivity in an animal model. However, only a minority of people exposed to permanent hair dyes develops symptomatic contact hypersensitivity. This...... suggests that the majority of people exposed to hair dyes does not become sensitized or develop immunological tolerance....

  6. The biology of hair diversity.

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  7. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects. PMID:24754409

  8. The role of Lhx2 in hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration

    Törnqvist, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Hair is important for thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, seasonal camouflage and social interactions. Hair is produced in hair follicles (HFs), complex mini-organs in the skin devoted to this task. HFs are formed during embryonic development (morphogenesis) and new hair is continuously generated throughout life since the postnatal HF goes through cycles of regression (catagen), quiescence (telogen) and growth (anagen). The transcriptional regulation of this process is no...

  9. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A; Cerise, Jane E; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-10-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells. PMID:26601320

  10. Quantum principal bundles and corresponding gauge theories

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A generalization of classical gauge theory is presented, in the framework of a noncommutative-geometric formalism of quantum principal bundles over smooth manifolds. Quantum counterparts of classical gauge bundles, and classical gauge transformations, are introduced and investigated. A natural differential calculus on quantum gauge bundles is constructed and analyzed. Kinematical and dynamical properties of corresponding gauge theories are discussed.

  11. Strategic and welfare implications of bundling

    Martin, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A standard oligopoly model of bundling shows that bundling by a firm with a monopoly over one product has a strategic effect because it changes the substitution relationships between the goods among which consumers choose. Bundling in appropriate proportions is privately profitable, reduces rivals...

  12. On Volumes of Arithmetic Line Bundles

    Yuan, Xinyi

    2008-01-01

    We show an arithmetic generalization of the recent work of Lazarsfeld-Mustata which uses Okounkov bodies to study linear series of line bundles. As applications, we derive a log-concavity inequality on volumes of arithmetic line bundles and an arithmetic Fujita approximation theorem for big line bundles.

  13. Hair analysis using PIXE

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  14. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness) is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category) wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and ...

  15. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  16. Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158581.html Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss Black women who prefer scalp-pulling hairdos ... News) -- Black women who like to wear their hair pulled back tightly may be increasing their risk ...

  17. Simplicial principal bundles in parametrized spaces

    Roberts, David M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by recent interest in higher gauge theory, we prove that the fiberwise geometric realization functor takes a certain class of simplicial principal bundles in a suitable category of spaces over a fixed space $B$ to fiberwise principal bundles. As an application we show that the fiberwise geometric realization of the universal simplicial principal bundle for a simplicial group $G$ in the category of spaces over $B$ gives rise to a fiberwise principal bundle with structure group $|G|$. An application to classifying theory for fiberwise principal bundles is described.

  18. Multipath packet switch using packet bundling

    Berger, Michael Stubert

    The basic concept of packet bundling is to group smaller packets into larger packets based on, e.g., quality of service or destination within the packet switch. This paper presents novel applications of bundling in packet switching. The larger packets created by bundling are utilized to extend...... switching capacity by use of parallel switch planes. During the bundling operation, packets will experience a delay that depends on the actual implementation of the bundling and scheduling scheme. Analytical results for delay bounds and buffer size requirements are presented for a specific scheduling...

  19. Future horizons in hair restoration.

    Marshall, Bryan T; Ingraham, Chris A; Wu, Xunwei; Washenik, Ken

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the history of hair follicle regeneration from follicular fragments and dissociated cells. The challenges of trichogenic in vitro culture and subsequent delivery into the patient are discussed, as well as cosmetic acceptance, recent achievements on regeneration of human hair follicles, and new potential cell sources for hair regeneration. PMID:24017993

  20. Hair follicle targeting, penetration enhancement and Langerhans cell activation make cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping a promising delivery technique for transcutaneous immunization with large molecules and particle-based vaccines.

    Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Deckert, Iliane; Schmidt, Julia; Stroux, Andrea; Afraz, Zahra; Rancan, Fiorenza; Lademann, Jürgen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) requires targeting of a maximum number of skin antigen-presenting cells as non-invasive as possible on small skin areas. In two clinical trials, we introduced cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) as a safe method for TCI. Here, using ex vivo human skin, we demonstrate that one CSSS procedure removed only 30% of stratum corneum, but significantly increased the penetration of 200 nm polystyrene particles deep into vellus and intermediate hair follicles from where they could not been retrieved by conventional tape stripping. Two subsequent CSSS had no striking additional effect. CSSS increased particle penetration in superficial stratum corneum and induced Langerhans cell activation. Formulation in amphiphilic ointment or massage did not substantially influences the interfollicular penetration profiles. Hair follicle (HF) targeting by CSSS could become a highly effective tool for TCI when combined with carrier-based delivery and is gaining new attention as our understanding on the HF immune system increases. PMID:25382068

  1. Collective Behavior of Hair, and Ponytail Shape and Dynamics

    Ball, Robin

    I will discuss how we can build a mathematical model of the behaviour of a bundle of hair, comparing the results with experimental studies of the shape and dynamics of human ponytails. We treat the individual fibers as elastic filaments with random intrinsic curvature, in which the balance of bending elasticity, gravity, orientational disorder and inertia is recast as a differential equation for the envelope of the fibre bundle. The static elements of this work were first reported in R.E. Goldstein, P.B. Warren and R.C. Ball, Physical Review Letters 108, 078101 (2012). The compressibility of the bundle enters through an ``equation of state'' whose empirical form is shown to arise from a Confined Helix Model, in which the constraint of the surrounding hair is on a given fibre is represented as a confining cylinder. Using this model we find the ponytail shape is well fit with only one adjustable parameter, which is the degree to which the confining cylinders over fill space. The dynamics of driven vertical ponytail motion is well reproduced provided we introduce some damping, and we find the level of damping required is consistent with that arising from viscous drag of the lateral motion of the hair fibres through the interstitial air. Most of our match with experiment is achieved by approximating the fibre density of the ponytail to to be uniform across its cross-section, and to vary only length-wise. However we show that detail near the exit from a confining clamp (aka hairband) is only captured by computing the full cross-sectional variation. The work reported is joint with RE Goldstein (Cambridge UK) and PB Warren (Unilever Research).

  2. Complications in hair-restoration surgery.

    Konior, Raymond J

    2013-08-01

    Most complications associated with hair restoration are completely preventable and arise from variables that are directly controlled by the surgeon and the patient. Physicians who thoroughly grasp the nuances of modern surgical techniques and fully understand the physiologic dynamics of the balding process are least likely to generate a physician-controlled error. Highly motivated, well-educated patients who carefully follow instructions and take an active role in the postoperative recovery process minimize the chance of patient-controlled errors. This article discusses potential complications associated with surgical hair restoration, and the roles of the patient and physician in minimizing the risk of complications. PMID:24017992

  3. Analysis of standard substance human hair

    The human hair samples as standard substances were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) on the miniature neutron source reactor. 19 elements, i.e. Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn, were measured. The average content, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the detection limit under the present research conditions were given for each element, and the results showed that the measured values of the samples were in agreement with the recommended values, which indicated that NAA can be used to analyze standard substance human hair with a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  4. Anticancer properties of peptide fragments of hair proteins.

    Sergiusz Markowicz

    Full Text Available The primary function of hair and fur covering mammalian skin is to provide mechanical and thermal protection for the body. The proteins that constitute hair are extremely resistant to degradation by environmental factors. However, even durable materials can be slowly broken down by mechanical stresses, biodegradation mediated by endogenous enzymes in the skin or host microbes. We hypothesised that the biodegradation products of hair may possess bioprotective properties, which supplement their physical protective properties. Although evolutionary processes have led to a reduction in the amount of hair on the human body, it is possible that the bioprotective properties of hair biodegradation products have persisted. The human skin is exposed to various environmental carcinogenic factors. Therefore, we hypothesised that the potential bioprotective mechanisms of hair degradation products affect melanoma growth. We used pepsin to partially digest hair enzymatically, and this process produced a water-soluble lysate containing a mixture of peptides, including fragments of keratin and keratin-associated proteins. We found out that the mixtures of soluble peptides obtained from human hair inhibited the proliferation of human melanoma cells in vitro. Moreover, the hair-derived peptide mixtures also inhibited the proliferation of B lymphoma cells and urinary bladder cancer cells. Normal human cells varied in their susceptibility to the effects of the lysate; the hair-derived peptide mixtures modulated the proliferation of normal human fibroblasts but did not inhibit the proliferation of human mesenchymal cells derived from umbilical cord stromal cells. These results suggest that hair-derived peptides may represent a new class of anti-proliferative factors derived from basically structural proteins. Identification of active regulatory compounds and recognition of the mechanism of their action might pave the way to elaboration of new anticancer drugs.

  5. Model of turbine blades bundles

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    Prague : Institute of Thermomechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2013 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 467-477 ISBN 978-80-87012-47-5. ISSN 1805-8256. [Engineering Mechanics 2013 /19./. Svratka (CZ), 13.05.2013-16.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : free and forced vibrations * eigenmodes * mathematical model * bundle of blades Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  6. Model of turbine blades bundles

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    Praha : Insitute of Thermomechanics ASCR, v. v. i., 2013 - (Zolotarev, I.). s. 125-126 ISBN 978-80-87012-46-8. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2013 /19./. 13.05.2013-16.05.2013, Svratka] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : free and forced vibrations * eigenmodes * bundle of blades Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  7. Competitive nonlinear pricing and bundling

    Armstrong, Mark; Vickers, John

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of multiproduct nonlinear pricing on profit, consumer surplus and welfare in a duopoly. When consumers buy all their products from one firm (the one-stop shopping model), nonlinear pricing leads to higher profit and welfare, but often lower consumer surplus, than linear pricing. By contrast, in a unit-demand model where consumers may buy one product from one firm and another product from another firm, bundling generally acts to reduce profit and welfare and to boost cons...

  8. Quantum bundles and their symmetries

    Wave functions in the domain of observables such as the Hamiltonian are not always smooth functions on the classical configuration space Q. Rather, they are often best regarded as functions on a G bundle EG over Q or as sections of an associated bundle. If H is a classical group which acts on Q, its quantum version HG, which acts on EG, is not always H, but an extension of H by G. A powerful and physically transparent construction of EG and HG, where G = U(1) and H1(Q,Z) = 0, has been developed using the path space P. (P consists of paths on Q from a fixed point). In this paper the authors show how to construct EG and HG when G is U(1) or U(1) x π1(Q) and there is no restriction on H1(Q,Z). The method is illustrated with concrete examples, such as a system of charges and monopoles. The method is illustrated with concrete examples, such as a system of charges and monopoles. The authors argue also that P is a sort of superbundle from which a large variety of bundles can be obtained by imposing suitable equivalence relations

  9. Photonic bandgap fiber bundle spectrometer

    Hang, Qu; Syed, Imran; Guo, Ning; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber spectrometer consisting of a photonic bandgap fiber bundle and a black and white CCD camera. Photonic crystal fibers used in this work are the large solid core all-plastic Bragg fibers designed for operation in the visible spectral range and featuring bandgaps of 60nm - 180nm-wide. 100 Bragg fibers were chosen to have complimentary and partially overlapping bandgaps covering a 400nm-840nm spectral range. The fiber bundle used in our work is equivalent in its function to a set of 100 optical filters densely packed in the area of ~1cm2. Black and white CCD camera is then used to capture spectrally "binned" image of the incoming light at the output facet of a fiber bundle. To reconstruct the test spectrum from a single CCD image we developed an algorithm based on pseudo-inversion of the spectrometer transmission matrix. We then study resolution limit of this spectroscopic system by testing its performance using spectrally narrow test peaks (FWHM 5nm-25nm) centered at va...

  10. Post-irradiation examination of the 37M fuel bundle at Chalk River Laboratories (AECL)

    Armstrong, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Daniels, T. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Montin, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    The modified (-element (37M) fuel bundle was designed by Ontario Power Generation (OPG) to improve Critical Heat Flux (CHF) performance in ageing pressure tubes. A modification of the conventional 37-element fuel bundle design, the 37M fuel bundle allows more coolant flow through the interior sub-channels by way of a smaller central element. A demonstration irradiation (DI) of thirty-two fuel bundles was completed in 2011 at OPG's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station to confirm the suitability of the 37M fuel bundles for full core implementation. In support of the DI, fuel elements were examined in the Chalk River Laboratories Hot Cells. Inspection activities included: Bundle and element visual examination; Bundle and element dimensional measurements; Verification of bundle and element integrity; and Internal Gas Volume Measurements. The inspection results for 37M were comparable to that of conventional 37-element CANDU fuel. Fuel performance parameters of the 37M DI fuel bundle and fuel elements were within the range observed for similarly operated conventional 37-element CANDU fuel. Based on these Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) results, 37M fuel performed satisfactorily. (author)

  11. Development of an advanced LMR steam generator free from SWR with a double tube bundle configuration

    This paper describes the activities made at KAERI to develop an advanced LMR(Liquid Metal Reactor) steam generator which is free from SWR (Sodium Water Reaction) to resolve the concern of the SWR possibility and improve the economic feature of an LMR. The steam generator design houses two tube bundles that are functionally different and its tube bundle zone is radially or vertically divided into two regions. The SG is equipped with hot and cold fluid tube bundles, medium fluid and a pump. It prevents the occurrence of a sodium water reaction while sodium is still being used as the coolant for the primary heat transport system. The feasibility of using the SG with a double tube bundle for an actual use in a LMR plant is evaluated by setting up the skeleton of the NSSS for various possible configurations of the SG tube bundles. Analysis was made for various types of the new steam generator with a double tube bundle. Since the heat transfer in the SG is made among the three different fluids, it comes to have its unique heat transfer characteristics. The analysis showed the possibility for the occurrence of an undesirable reversed heat transfer not only in the integrated single-region bundle type but also in the integrated double-region bundle type. The performance analysis revealed practical performance characteristics for the various bundle configurations. Also the feasibility study for the various NSSS configurations with the new SG is described. (authors)

  12. A new LMR steam generator free from SWR with a double tube bundle configuration

    This paper describes the activities made at KAERI to develop an advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) steam generator which is free from a sodium water reaction (SWR) to resolve the concern of the SWR possibility and improve the economic features of the LMR. The steam generator design houses two tube bundles that are functionally different and its tube bundle region is radially or vertically divided into two. The SG is equipped with hot and cold fluid tube bundles, a medium fluid and a pump. It prevents the occurrence of the sodium water reaction while sodium is still used as the coolant for the primary heat transport system. The feasibility of using the SG with a double tube bundle for an actual use in a LMR plant is evaluated by setting up the skeleton of the NSSS for various possible configurations of the SG tube bundles. Analysis was made for various types of the new steam generator with a double tube bundle. Since the heat transfer in the SG is made among three different fluids, it has unique heat transfer characteristics. The analysis showed the possibility of the occurrence of an undesirable reversed heat transfer not only in the integrated single-region bundle type but also in the integrated double-region bundle type. The performance analysis revealed practical performance characteristics for the various bundle configurations. Also the feasibility study for the various NSSS configurations with the new SG is described

  13. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  14. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials. - Highlights: • Human hair contains sulfur. • Reaction 32S(n,p)32P can be used for dosimetry of fast neutrons. • Relation between 32P activity and neutron dose can be derived for a specific neutron spectrum

  15. Magnetic Propulsion of Microswimmers with DNA-Based Flagellar Bundles.

    Maier, Alexander M; Weig, Cornelius; Oswald, Peter; Frey, Erwin; Fischer, Peer; Liedl, Tim

    2016-02-10

    We show that DNA-based self-assembly can serve as a general and flexible tool to construct artificial flagella of several micrometers in length and only tens of nanometers in diameter. By attaching the DNA flagella to biocompatible magnetic microparticles, we provide a proof of concept demonstration of hybrid structures that, when rotated in an external magnetic field, propel by means of a flagellar bundle, similar to self-propelling peritrichous bacteria. Our theoretical analysis predicts that flagellar bundles that possess a length-dependent bending stiffness should exhibit a superior swimming speed compared to swimmers with a single appendage. The DNA self-assembly method permits the realization of these improved flagellar bundles in good agreement with our quantitative model. DNA flagella with well-controlled shape could fundamentally increase the functionality of fully biocompatible nanorobots and extend the scope and complexity of active materials. PMID:26821214

  16. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    ... for Authors Information for Reviewers Human & Animal Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ...

  17. Anacreon's pubic hair

    Giangrande, Giusseppe

    1995-01-01

    Un análisis de Anacr. 13 Gent. demuestra que allen tina del verso 8 se refiere al vello púbico del poeta. An analysis of Anacr. 13 Gent. demonstrates that ᾶλλην τινά in line 8 denotes the poets's pubic hair.

  18. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    ... children and adolescents may be teased, have low self esteem, anxiety or depression. Parents can become frustrated, as it is very difficult ... can’t simply stop pulling their hair. Neither parents nor children are to ... with self-esteem. In order to avoid punishment or embarrassment, children ...

  19. Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity

    Prieto, Pilar; Schiliro, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnoto...

  20. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production. PMID:26499883

  1. Hair as an indicator of multielement exposure of population groups

    Scalp hair is becoming well recognized as an invaluable tissue for monitoring human environmental exposure. Simultaneous determination of a number of metals in hair can be used to evaluate the total body accumulation due to exposure. In this laboratory, a nuclear method for multielement hair analysis has been developed by combining neutron and photon activation analyses to detect part per million concentrations of antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, sodium, zinc, and zirconium in hair. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb have been observed to be the most elevated among urban residents near two Pb smelters compared with residents in urban control and rural communities. Lead in hair has been studied in detail by analyzing more than 250 samples. The variation of Pb content with respect to color of hair and to age and sex of the donor are reported here. Children residing close to smelters, especially the boys, have been observed to show the most elevated hair Pb levels, some up to ten times normal and some of them have been treated for Pb poisoning. Further, by analyzing the sequential growth sections along the length of hair strands it has been possible to deduce the period of maximum exposure and some history of the exposure. (U.S.)

  2. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  3. Black hole's 1/N hair

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers

  4. Element profiles of mouse hair

    Element profile patterns of growth and nongrowth phase hair were obtained for the C57L/J male mouse using a proton microprobe. Growth phase hair profiles of Cl, S, K and P show that these elements are concentrating in regions of higher pigmentation. Calcium is restricted to the medulla region in the hair shaft. For nongrowth phase hair, the profiles of Cl and S are essentially unchanged, whereas K and P are depleted in the hair shaft and are concentrating in the cornified root sheath. The element patterns found for the nongrowth phase profiles of mouse hair show striking similarities to previously reported patterns for growth profiles of human hair. (author) 10 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Female pattern hair loss

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  6. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Complete text of publication follows. Hair follicle (HF) is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on the composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available concerning the distribution of elements in human hair follicle with various growth and cycling phases. In this study [1] we provided detailed quantitative elemental distribution of organ-cultured hair follicle in anagen and catagen growth phases using ion microscopy in order to reach a better understanding of the function, development, and cyclic activity of the hair follicle. The microprobe analysis was carried out at the scanning ion microprobe facilities at the ATOMKI Debrecen, and at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, using combined STIM and PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. Human anagen hair follicles were isolated from skin obtained from females undergoing face-lift surgery. Cultured anagen HFs were treated by either vehicle or by 10 μM capsaicin for 5 days. Elemental distributions and absolute concentrations were determined along 5 capsaicin treated (catagen), and 4 control (anagen) hair follicles. The investigated length varied between 1.5 and 2 mm. Average elemental concentration values of the whole sample and the different morphological parts were also determined. Concentrations for most of the elements were found to be the same in the corresponding parts of the anagen and the catagen hair follicles. However, significant differences were observed in the Ca concentration between the anagen and catagen HFs. With respect to the distribution of Ca, in anagen (control) HFs, the following concentrations were measured (given in μg/g dry weight): dermal papilla, ∼500; matrix of the bulb, 1000-1500; outer/ inner

  7. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-01-01

    Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair ...

  8. Distinct roles of Eps8 in the maturation of cochlear and vestibular hair cells.

    Tavazzani, Elisa; Spaiardi, Paolo; Zampini, Valeria; Contini, Donatella; Manca, Marco; Russo, Giancarlo; Prigioni, Ivo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2016-07-22

    Several genetic mutations affecting the development and function of mammalian hair cells have been shown to cause deafness but not vestibular defects, most likely because vestibular deficits are sometimes centrally compensated. The study of hair cell physiology is thus a powerful direct approach to ascertain the functional status of the vestibular end organs. Deletion of Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), a gene involved in actin remodeling, has been shown to cause deafness in mice. While both inner and outer hair cells from Eps8 knockout (KO) mice showed abnormally short stereocilia, inner hair cells (IHCs) also failed to acquire mature-type ion channels. Despite the fact that Eps8 is also expressed in vestibular hair cells, Eps8 KO mice show no vestibular deficits. In the present study we have investigated the properties of vestibular Type I and Type II hair cells in Eps8-KO mice and compared them to those of cochlear IHCs. In the absence of Eps8, vestibular hair cells show normally long kinocilia, significantly shorter stereocilia and a normal pattern of basolateral voltage-dependent ion channels. We have also found that while vestibular hair cells from Eps8 KO mice show normal voltage responses to injected sinusoidal currents, which were used to mimic the mechanoelectrical transducer current, IHCs lose their ability to synchronize their responses to the stimulus. We conclude that the absence of Eps8 produces a weaker phenotype in vestibular hair cells compared to cochlear IHCs, since it affects the hair bundle morphology but not the basolateral membrane currents. This difference is likely to explain the absence of obvious vestibular dysfunction in Eps8 KO mice. PMID:27132230

  9. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SHORT STATURE AND HAIR ELEMENTS.

    Tabatadze, T; Zhorzholiani, L; Kherkheulidze, M; Karseladze, R; Ivanashvili, T

    2015-10-01

    Aim - assessment of hair elemental status, determination of elemental imbalances and heavy metal concentration and evaluation its impact on child liner growth. Case-control study involves 112 children less than 5 years old (target group - 54 children with short stature, control - 58 children with normal physical development). Medical history, nutritional status, anthropological parameters were assessed. Patients with genetic and endocrine disorders, family short stature were excluded from the study. Child elemental status was detected in the hair, with roentgen-fluorescence spectrometer method. Statistical analysis was conduced using SPPS19. Assessment of the dietary history does not reveal any significant differences between the groups, the only exception was consumption of fish, that was statistically significantly lower than in control (pZr, Sb) have normal values. Some element deficiency (Fe, Mo, Se) was higher in study group but the difference was not significant. The study revealed high level of hair lead in both groups: all patients (100%) of target group have elevated level of hair lead, among them in 35,8% the content of lead was above so-called minimal allowed level (p<5,0 ppm) and in 64,5% the content of lead in the hair was above so-called maximal allowed level (p≥5,0 ppm). In the control group, lead in the hair was detected in 78% of cases, though the concentration was only in 2% of cases higher than so called maximum allowed. Our study clearly indicated deficiency of trace elements, particularly essential ones and high lead contamination in children with short stature. Our study proves, that analyzing of trace elements and heavy metals levels and evaluation of its influence on health and development have great importance especially during early years, in the critical period of active growth and development. PMID:26483369

  10. A function for Rac1 in the terminal differentiation and pigmentation of hair

    Behrendt, Kristina; Klatte, Jennifer; Pofahl, Ruth;

    2012-01-01

    loss. The resulting 'rescue' mice exhibited a hair coat throughout their lives. Therefore, expression of Rac1 activity in the keratin-14-positive compartment of the skin is sufficient for the formation of hair follicles and hair in normal quantities. The quality of hair formed in rescue mice was......The small GTPase Rac1 is ubiquitously expressed in proliferating and differentiating layers of the epidermis and hair follicles. Previously, Rac1 was shown to regulate stem cell behaviour in these compartments. We have asked whether Rac1 has, in addition, a specific, stem-cell-independent function...... in the regulation of terminal hair follicle differentiation. To address this, we have expressed a constitutively active mutant of Rac1, L61Rac1, only in the basal epidermal layer and outer root sheath of mice possessing an epidermis-specific deletion of endogenous Rac1, which experience severe hair...

  11. Nutritional factors and hair loss.

    Rushton, D H

    2002-07-01

    The literature reveals what little is known about nutritional factors and hair loss. What we do know emanates from studies in protein-energy malnutrition, starvation, and eating disorders. In otherwise healthy individuals, nutritional factors appear to play a role in subjects with persistent increased hair shedding. Hård, 40 years ago, demonstrated the importance of iron supplements in nonanaemic, iron-deficient women with hair loss. Serum ferritin concentrations provide a good assessment of an individual's iron status. Rushton et al. first published data showing that serum ferritin concentrations were a factor in female hair loss and, 10 years later, Kantor et al. confirmed this association. What level of serum ferritin to employ in subjects with increased hair shedding is yet to be definitively established but 70 micro g/L, with a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (factors affect the hair directly, one should not forget that they also affect the skin. In the management of subjects with hair loss, eliminating scaling problems is important as is good hair care advice and the need to explain fully the hair cycle. Many individuals reduced their shampooing frequency due to fear of losing more hair but this increases the amount seen in subsequent shampoos fuelling their fear of going bald and adversely affecting their quality of life. PMID:12190640

  12. Quadratic bundle and nonlinear equations

    The paper is aimed at giving an exhaustive description of the nonlinear evolution equations (NLEE), connected with the quadratic bundle (the spectral parameter lambda, which enters quadratically into the equations) and at describing Hamiltonian structure of these equations. The equations are solved through the inverse scattering method (ISM). The basic formulae for the scattering problem are given. The spectral expansion of the integrodifferential operator is used so that its eigenfunctions are the squared solutions of the equation. By using the notions of Hamiltonian structure hierarchy and gauge transformations it is shown how to single out physically interesting NLEE

  13. Static stress analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundles

    The static stress analysis of CANFLEX bundles is performed to evaluate the fuel structural integrity during the refuelling service. The structure analysis is carried out by predicting the drag force, stress and displacements of the fuel bundle. By the comparison of strength tests and analysis results, the displacement values are well agreed within 15%. The analysis shows that the CANFLEX fuel bundle keep its structural integrity. 24 figs., 6 tabs., 12 refs. (Author) .new

  14. Tying, Bundling, and Loyalty/Requirement Rebates

    Nicholas Economides

    2011-01-01

    I discuss the impact of tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates on consumer surplus in the affected markets. I show that the Chicago School Theory of a single monopoly surplus that justifies tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates on the basis of efficiency typically fails. Thus, tying, bundling, and loyalty/requirement rebates can be used to extract consumer surplus and enhance profit of firms with market power. I discuss the various setups when this occurs.

  15. Bundling and Competition on the Internet

    Yannis Bakos; Erik Brynjolfsson

    2000-01-01

    The Internet has signi.cantly reduced the marginal cost of producing and distributing digital information goods. It also coincides with the emergence of new competitive strategies such as large-scale bundling. In this paper, we show that bundling can create “economies of aggregation” for information goods if their marginal costs are very low, even in the absence of network externalities or economies of scale or scope. We extend the Bakos-Brynjolfsson bundling model (1999) to settings with sev...

  16. Bundling and joint marketing by rival firms

    Jeitschko, Thomas D.; Jung, Yeonjei; Kim, Jaesoo

    2014-01-01

    We study joint marketing arrangements by competing firms who engage in price discrimination between consumers who patronize only one firm (single purchasing) and those who purchase from both competitors (bundle purchasers). Two types of joint marketing are considered. Firms either commit to a component-price that applies to bundle-purchasers and then firms set stand-alone prices for single purchasers; or firms commit to a rebate off their stand alone price that will be applied to bundle-purch...

  17. CLIC5 Stabilizes Membrane-Actin Filament Linkages at the Base of Hair Cell Stereocilia in a Molecular Complex with Radixin, Taperin, and Myosin VI

    Salles, Felipe T.; Andrade, Leonardo R.; Tanda, Soichi; Grati, M’hamed; Plona, Kathleen L.; Gagnon, Leona H.; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Kachar, Bechara; Berryman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride intracellular channel 5 protein (CLIC5) was originally isolated from microvilli in complex with actin binding proteins including ezrin, a member of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) family of membrane-cytoskeletal linkers. CLIC5 concentrates at the base of hair cell stereocilia and is required for normal hearing and balance in mice, but its functional significance is poorly understood. This study investigated the role of CLIC5 in postnatal development and maintenance of hair bundles. Co...

  18. Complex hair cycle domain patterns and regenerative hair waves in living rodents

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Single hair follicles go through regeneration and involution cycles. In a population, hair follicles may affect each other during anagen re-entry, thus forming propagating regenerative hair waves. We review these regenerative hair waves and complex hair cycle domains which were recently reported in transgenic mice. Two non-invasive methods to track the propagating hair wave in large populations of hair follicles in vivo are described. We also reviewed early accounts of "hair growth patterns" ...

  19. Slimy hairs: Hair sensors made with slime mould

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large single cell visible by unaided eye. We design a slime mould implementation of a tactile hair, where the slime mould responds to repeated deflection of hair by an immediate high-amplitude spike and a prolonged increase in amplitude and width of its oscillation impulses. We demonstrate that signal-to-noise ratio of the Physarum tactile hair sensor averages near six for the immediate response and two for the prolonged response.

  20. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  1. Negative regulation of Shh levels by Kras and Fgfr2 during hair follicle development

    Mukhopadhyay, Anandaroop; Krishnaswami, Suguna Rani; Cowing-Zitron, Christopher; Hung, Nai-Jung; Reilly-Rhoten, Heather; Burns, Julianne; Yu, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene are associated with three related human syndromes, which vary in hair and skin phenotypes depending on the involved allele. How variations in RAS signals are interpreted during hair and skin development is unknown. In this study, we investigated the developmental and transcriptional response of skin and hair to changes in RAS activity, using mouse genetic models and microarray analysis. While activation of Kras (KrasG12D) in the skin had strong effect...

  2. Statistical Constitutive Equation of Aramid Fiber Bundles

    熊杰; 顾伯洪; 王善元

    2003-01-01

    Tensile impact tests of aramid (Twaron) fiber bundles were carried om under high strain rates with a wide range of 0. 01/s~1000/s by using MTS and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus. Based on the statistical constitutive model of fiber bundles, statistical constitutive equations of aramid fiber bundles are derived from statistical analysis of test data at different strain rates. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental data indicates statistical constitutive equations fit well with the experimental data, and statistical constitutive equations of fiber bundles at different strain rates are valid.

  3. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  4. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    Ming-Nuan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug, Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug, and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR.

  5. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying.

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR. PMID:26640791

  6. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  7. Hair removal on dermoscopy images.

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Delibasis, Kostantinos

    2015-08-01

    Digital Dermoscopy is a tool commonly used by dermatologists for assisting the diagnosis of skin lesions. The presence of hair in such dermoscopic images frequently occludes significant diagnostic information and reduces their value. In this work we propose algorithms that successfully identify and remove hair from the dermoscopic images. The proposed algorithms consist of two parts; the first deals with the identification of hair, while the second part concerns the image restoration using interpolation. For the evaluation of the algorithms we used ground truth images with synthetic hair and compared the results with the commonly used in the literature DullRazor tool. According to the experimental results the proposed hair removal algorithms can be used successfully in the detection and removal of both dark and light colored hair. PMID:26736913

  8. TRIGA modified bundle thermal hydraulic analysis

    Negut, G.; Mladin, M.; Preda, M. [Inst. for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    2001-07-01

    TRIGA 14 MW steady state reactor (SSR) has more than 20 years of operation experience. It was used as a material test reactor to accomplish full range of experiments of CANDU type fuel, tests on structure material as Zircaloy and stainless steel. We did, also, isotope production for industrial and medical use, neutronography, gamma prompt, neutron diffractometry and activation analysis. In order to optimize the core for a more homogenous burnup we did some experiments on a modified fuel bundle. The paper is dedicated to the computations done in order to validate the optimized core configuration. The analysis has shown no significant impact on the central fuel temperatures, to affect the core safety. (orig.)

  9. TRIGA modified bundle thermal hydraulic analysis

    TRIGA 14 MW steady state reactor (SSR) has more than 20 years of operation experience. It was used as a material test reactor to accomplish full range of experiments of CANDU type fuel, tests on structure material as Zircaloy and stainless steel. We did, also, isotope production for industrial and medical use, neutronography, gamma prompt, neutron diffractometry and activation analysis. In order to optimize the core for a more homogenous burnup we did some experiments on a modified fuel bundle. The paper is dedicated to the computations done in order to validate the optimized core configuration. The analysis has shown no significant impact on the central fuel temperatures, to affect the core safety. (orig.)

  10. Extension of holomorphic bundles to the disc (and Serre's Problem on Stein bundles)

    Rosay, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We show how to extend some holomorphic bundles with fifer C^2 and base an open set in C, to bundles on the Riemann Sphere, by an extremely simple technique. In particular, it applies to examples of non-Stein bundles constructed by Skoda and Demailly. It gives an example on C, with polynomial transition automorphisms.

  11. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair

    Autopsy samples from 22 clinically healthy human males between the ages of 20 to 52 were collected from Bulgaria for the investigation of possible correlations between trace elements in hair and body organs. Samples of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and hair were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to determine trace element concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data did not indicate any significant correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and internal organs, probably due to the limited number of available samples. However, lower than normal selenium concentrations were found in the organ samples, indicating possible selenium deficiency. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar; Tatiana Alexandra Vogel

    2016-01-01

    Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA) and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD), a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed....

  13. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that com...

  14. Realistic Hair from a Sketch

    Wither, Jamie; Bertails, Florence; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a sketch-based interface for quickly yet accurately creating visually realistic hair for virtual characters. Recently, physically-based models have proved successful for generating a wide variety of hair types, but they do not provide a straightforward method for designing target hairstyles. The contribution of this paper is to propose a user-friendly method for controlling such a physically-based model, requiring no specific knowledge of mechanics or hair styling: the use...

  15. Hair whorls in the horse

    Baxová, Edita

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This bachelor thesis is focused primaly on an assessment of hair whirls in the horses due to thein temperament, nature, behavior and movement mechanics. There is explained the biology of the hair growth, its structure, composition and pigmentation and its functions which are very important for the whole organism in the literature review. It is also explained how the hair whirls arise and why the breeders have long been showing interest and attach great importance to them....

  16. SKIN AND HAIR CHANGES AFTER FORTY

    Manisha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a continuous, dynamic, and an irreversible process. Direct exposure to ultra-violet radiations, skin is particularly prone to early aging, known as photo aging. Skin aging is particularly important because of its visibility and social impact. As women age we will notice changes to our skin and hair during the menopause. Dry, thinning, fragile, less tolerant and sagging skin are common complaints. The main reasons for the change in skin is the loss of estrogen, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA etc, 1, 2, 3 from the age of 35 onwards up to menopause, the more we have had long-term exposure to the elements, such as sun and wind the more this becomes evident. Estrogen is very involved in the normal function of the skin. It directly affects the function of key cells in the skin, like the fibroblast (produces collagen and elastin, keratinocyte (closely involved in skin protection and melanocytes (involved in evenness of skin color, etc.. It also helps regulate hair follicle function (hair production as well as sebaceous gland activity (producing skin oils. After the age of forty most of women enters menopause, during which estrogens levels decreases, which leads to different types of hair and skin changes which has been described in this article.

  17. Optical properties of human hair

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Ilyasov, Ildar K.; Prikhodko, Constantin V.

    1995-01-01

    Optical properties of human hair are the subject of great interest for the realization of any possible cosmetic applications. This paper represents the results of hair microstructure as an optical substance investigation, indicates melanin and keratin absorption spectra, and shows experimentally discovered anisotropia of optical properties of human hair. Radiation weakening coefficient value at the range from 450 up to 800 nm is estimated. Thresholds of hair destruction by Nd, Ho, Cu, and Er laser radiation are obtained. Perspectives of laser application for epilation and other medical purposes are evaluated.

  18. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 October 2015. + ... safety guidelines if you decide to remove pubic hair. Removing pubic hair is a personal preference. Some girls trim ...

  19. Auxin transport through non-hair cells sustains root-hair development

    Jones, Angharad R.; Kramer, Eric M.; Knox, Kirsten; Swarup, Ranjan; Bennett, Malcolm J; Lazarus, Colin M.; Leyser, H. M. Ottoline; Grierson, Claire S.

    2008-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin controls root epidermal cell development in a concentration-dependent manner 1-3. Root hairs are produced on a subset of epidermal cells as they increase in distance from the root tip. Auxin is required for their initiation 4-7 and continued growth 8-11, but little is known about its distribution in this region of the root. Counter to the expectation that hair cells might require active auxin influx to ensure auxin supply, we did not detect the auxin-influx transporter...

  20. Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil.

    Yoon, Jung In; Al-Reza, Sharif M; Kang, Sun Chul

    2010-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of essential oil from seeds of Zizyphus jujuba for its potential role on hair growth by in vivo method. Essential oil was applied at different concentrations (0.1%, 1% and 10%) over the shaved skin onto the backs of BALB/c mice and monitored for 21 days. After 21 days, mice treated with 1% and 10% of oil produced a greater effect on the length of hair which were measured to be 9.96 and 10.02 mm, respectively, as compared to the control (8.94 mm). We measured the weight of hair/cm(2) area of dorsal skin and also evaluated hair thickness and hair follicles microscopically after plucking the hair immediately from the shaved area of mice and found the best results for 1% of essential oil-treated mice. From this study, it is concluded that Z. jujuba essential oil possesses hair growth promoting activity. PMID:20206225

  1. Delineating immune-mediated mechanisms underlying hair follicle destruction in the mouse mutant defolliculated.

    Ruge, Fiona; Glavini, Aikaterini; Gallimore, Awen M; Richards, Hannah E; Thomas, Christopher P; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Philpott, Michael P; Porter, Rebecca M

    2011-03-01

    Defolliculated (Gsdma3(Dfl)/+) mice have a hair loss phenotype that involves an aberrant hair cycle, altered sebaceous gland differentiation with reduced sebum production, chronic inflammation, and ultimately the loss of the hair follicle. Hair loss in these mice is similar to that seen in primary cicatricial, or scarring alopecias in which immune targeting of hair follicle stem cells has been proposed as a key factor resulting in permanent hair follicle destruction. In this study we examine the mechanism of hair loss in GsdmA3(Dfl)/+ mice. Aberrant expression patterns of stem cell markers during the hair cycle, in addition to aberrant behavior of the melanocytes leading to ectopic pigmentation of the hair follicle and epidermis, indicated the stem cell niche was not maintained. An autoimmune mechanism was excluded by crossing the mice with rag1-/- mice. However, large numbers of macrophages and increased expression of ICAM-1 were still present and may be involved either directly or indirectly in the hair loss. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry of sebaceous gland differentiation markers revealed reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a potential cause of reduced sebum production, as well as the potential involvement of the innate immune system in the hair loss. As reduced PPARγ expression has recently been implicated as a cause for lichen planopilaris, these mice may be useful for testing therapies. PMID:21160494

  2. Woolly Hair with Systematized Epidermal Nevus

    Kalwaniya, Sarita; Morgaonkar, Manjaree; Jain, Suresh Kumar; Nyati, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Woolly hair is a hair shaft disorder characterized by fine and tightly curled hair. Woolly hair could be syndromic (associated with systemic disease) or non-syndromic (not associated with any systemic disease). Woolly hair is described in association with many skin, dental, ophthalmic and cardiac anomalies but association of woolly hair with bilateral systematized epidermal nevus described in our case is first of its kind.

  3. Hair follicle stem cells and intrafollicular homeostasis

    Alp Can

    2014-01-01

    A hair follicle is the primary unit that produces a single outgrowing visible hair shaft. All hair follicles have a regeneration cycle consisting growth, destruction and resting phase, all of which are controlled by several intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. All hair forming cell populations arise from hair follicle stem cells that are located in bulge and hair germ. Epithelial progenitors themselves surround a core cluster of mesenchymal cells, the dermal papilla, which is thought to provid...

  4. Review of hair follicle dermal cells

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Cotsarelis, George

    2010-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells in the epithelial bulge are responsible for the continual regeneration of the hair follicle during cycling. The bulge cells reside in a niche composed of dermal cells. The dermal compartment of the hair follicle consists of the dermal papilla and dermal sheath. Interactions between hair follicle epithelial and dermal cells are necessary for hair follicle morphogenesis during development and in hair reconstitution assays. Dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells express ...

  5. Principal Bundles on the Projective Line

    V B Mehta; S Subramanian

    2002-08-01

    We classify principal -bundles on the projective line over an arbitrary field of characteristic ≠ 2 or 3, where is a reductive group. If such a bundle is trivial at a -rational point, then the structure group can be reduced to a maximal torus.

  6. The Verlinde formula for Higgs bundles

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Pei, Du

    2016-01-01

    We propose and prove the Verlinde formula for the quantization of the Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks for any simple and simply-connected group. This generalizes the equivariant Verlinde formula for the case of $SU(n)$ proposed previously by the second and third author. We further establish a Verlinde formula for the quantization of parabolic Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks.

  7. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs

  9. k-Gerbes, Line Bundles and Anomalies

    Ekstrand, C

    2000-01-01

    We use sets of trivial line bundles for the realization of gerbes. For1-gerbes the structure arises naturally for the Weyl fermion vacuum bundle at afixed time. The Schwinger term is an obstruction in the triviality of a1-gerbe.

  10. k-Gerbes, Line Bundles and Anomalies

    We use sets of trivial line bundles for the realization of gerbes. For 1-gerbes the structure arises naturally for the Weyl fermion vacuum bundle at a fixed time. The Schwinger term is an obstruction in the triviality of a 1-gerbe. (author)

  11. k-Gerbes, Line Bundles and Anomalies

    Ekstrand, C.

    2000-01-01

    We use sets of trivial line bundles for the realization of gerbes. For 1-gerbes the structure arises naturally for the Weyl fermion vacuum bundle at a fixed time. The Schwinger term is an obstruction in the triviality of a 1-gerbe.

  12. Heights for line bundles on arithmetic surfaces

    Jahnel, Joerg

    1995-01-01

    For line bundles on arithmetic varieties we construct height functions using arithmetic intersection theory. In the case of an arithmetic surface, generically of genus g, for line bundles of degree g equivalence is shown to the height on the Jacobian defined by the Theta divisor.

  13. Fock modules and noncommutative line bundles

    Landi, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    To a line bundle over a noncommutative space there is naturally associated a Fock module. The algebra of corresponding creation and annihilation operators is the total space algebra of a principal U(1) -bundle over the noncommutative space. We describe the general construction and illustrate it with examples.

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through β-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    Wei-hong Lin; Li-Jun Xiang; Hong-Xue Shi; Jian Zhang; Li-ping Jiang; Ping-tao Cai; Zhen-Lang Lin; Bei-Bei Lin; Yan Huang; Hai-Lin Zhang; Xiao-Bing Fu; Ding-Jiong Guo; Xiao-Kun Li; Xiao-Jie Wang; Jian Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric ana...

  15. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    Chengfu Cai; Huawei Li

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, nonmammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in h...

  16. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in ...

  17. Detection of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome carriers: Analysis of hair roots for HPRT by agarose gel electrophoresis and autoradiography

    Flat agarose gel electrophoresis and autoradiography were used to analyze hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) activity in individual hair roots collected from the scalps of females to determine the presence of HPRT-deficient cells. Autoradiographs of hair-root lysates of normal homozygous females contained two well-separated dark zones representing HPRT and APRT activities. In contrast, some hair roots from carriers of HPRT deficiency contained two zones of activity with the same relative proportion of APRT and HPRT as hair roots of normal homozygotes, while others contained decreased amounts of HPRT activity. These hair roots consisted of HPRT+ and HPRT- cells. In addition, some hair roots from heterozygous carriers contained APRT but no HPRT activity. Such hair roots consisted of HPRT- cells only. (author)

  18. Dirac structures and Dixmier-Douady bundles

    Alekseev, A

    2009-01-01

    A Dirac structure on a vector bundle V is a maximal isotropic subbundle E of the direct sum of V with its dual. We show how to associate to any Dirac structure a Dixmier-Douady bundle A, that is, a Z/2Z-graded bundle of C*-algebras with typical fiber the compact operators on a Hilbert space. The construction has good functorial properties, relative to Morita morphisms of Dixmier-Douady bundles. As applications, we show that the `spin' Dixmier-Douady bundle over a compact, connected Lie group (as constructed by Atiyah-Segal) is multiplicative, and we obtain a canonical `twisted Spin-c-structure' on spaces with group valued moment maps.

  19. Bringing the CANFLEX fuel bundle to market

    CANFLEX is a 43-element CANDU fuel bundle, under joint development by AECL and KAERI, to facilitate the use of various advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors through the provision of enhanced operating margins. The bundle uses two element diameters (13.5 and 11.5 mm ) to reduce element ratings by 20%, and includes the use of critical-heat-flux (CHF) enhancing appendages to increase the minimum CHF ratio or dryout margin of the bundle. Test programs are underway to demonstrate: the irradiation behaviour, hydraulic characteristics and reactor physics properties of the bundle, along with a test program to demonstrate the ability of the bundle to be handled by CANDU-6 fuelling machines. A fuel design manual and safety analysis reports have been drafted, and both analyses, plus discussions with utilities are underway for a demonstration irradiation in a CANDU-6 reactor. (author)

  20. Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories

    Nibbelin, Stefan Groot; Ruehle, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    In heterotic string theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E8 × E8 or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic string theories and SO(16) × SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.

  1. CANDU fuel bundle skin friction factor

    Single-phase, incompressible fluid flow skin friction factor correlations, primarily for CANDU 37-rod fuel bundles, were reviewed. The correlations originated from curve-fits to flow test data, mostly with new fuel bundles in new pressure tubes (flow tubes), without internal heating. Skin friction in tubes containing fuel bundles (noncircular flow geometry) was compared to that in equivalent diameter smooth circular tubes. At Reynolds numbers typical of normal flows in CANDU fuel channels, the skin friction in tubes containing bundles is 8 to 15% higher than in equivalent diameter smooth circular tubes. Since the correlations are based on scattered results from measurements, the skin friction with bundles may be even higher than indicated above. The information permits over- or under-prediction of the skin friction, or choosing an intermediate value of friction, with allowance for surface roughnesses, in thermal-hydraulic analyses of CANDU heat transport systems. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs

  2. Line bundle embeddings for heterotic theories

    Nibbelink, Stefan Groot

    2016-01-01

    In heterotic theories consistency requires the introduction of a non-trivial vector bundle. This bundle breaks the original ten-dimensional gauge groups E_8 x E_8 or SO(32) for the supersymmetric heterotic theories and SO(16) x SO(16) for the non-supersymmetric tachyon-free theory to smaller subgroups. A vast number of MSSM-like models have been constructed up to now, most of which describe the vector bundle as a sum of line bundles. However, there are several different ways of describing these line bundles and their embedding in the ten-dimensional gauge group. We recall and extend these different descriptions and explain how they can be translated into each other.

  3. Canonical singular hermitian metrics on relative logcanonical bundles

    Tsuji, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    This supersedes 0704.0566. We prove the invariance of logarithmic plurigenera for a projective family of KLT pairs and the adjoint line bundle of KLT line bundles. The proof uses the canonical singular hermitian metrics on relative logcanonical bundles.

  4. On Harder–Narasimhan Reductions for Higgs Principal Bundles

    Arijit Dey; R Parthasarathi

    2005-05-01

    The existence and uniqueness of – reduction for the Higgs principal bundles over nonsingular projective variety is shown. We also extend the notion of – reduction for (, )-bundles and ramified -bundles over a smooth curve.

  5. Effect of bundle size on BWR fuel bundle critical power performance

    Effect of the bundle size on the BWR fuel bundle critical power performance was studied. For this purpose, critical power tests were conducted with both 6 x 6 (36 heater rods) and 12 x 12 (144 heater rods) size bundles in the GE ATLAS heat transfer test facility located in San Jose, California. All the bundle geometries such as rod diameter, rod pitch and rod space design are the same except size of flow channel. Two types of critical power tests were performed. One is the critical power test with uniform local peaking pattern for direct comparison of the small and large bundle critical power. Other is the critical power test for lattice positions in the bundle. In this test, power of a group of four rods (2 x 2 array) in a lattice region was peaked higher to probe the critical power of that lattice position in the bundle. In addition, the test data were compared to the COBRAG calculations. COBRAG is a detailed subchannel analysis code for BWR fuel bundle developed by GE Nuclear Energy. Based on these comparisons the subchannel model was refined to accurately predict the data obtained in this test program, thus validating the code capability of handling the effects of bundle size on bundle critical power for use in the study of the thermal hydraulic performance of the future advance BWR fuel bundle design. The author describes the experimental portion of the study program

  6. Gauge symmetries and fibre bundles

    The matter is organized as follows. After a brief introduction to the concept of gauge invariance and its relationship to determinism, we introduce in chapters 3 and 4 the notion of fibre bundles in the context of a discussion on spinning point particles and Dirac monopoles. Chapter 3 deals with a non relativistic treatment of the spinning particle. The non trivial extension to relativistic spinning particles is dealt with in Chapter 5. The free particle system as well as interactions with external electromagnetic and gravitational fields are discussed in detail. In chapter 5 we also elaborate on a remarkable relationship between the charge-monopole system and the system of a massless particle with spin. The classical description of Yang-Mills particles with internal degrees of freedom, such as isospin or colour, is given in chapter 6. We apply the above in a discussion of the classical scattering of particles off a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole. In chapter 7 we elaborate on a Kaluza-Klein description of particles with internal degrees of freedom. The canonical formalism and the quantization of most of the preceeding systems are discussed in chapter 8. The dynamical systems given in chapters 3-7 are formulated on group manifolds. The procedure for obtaining the extension to super-group manifolds is briefly discussed in chapter 9. In chapter 10, we show that if a system admits only local Lagrangians for a configuration space Q, then under certain conditions, it admits a global Lagrangian when Q is enlarged to a suitable U(1) bundle over Q. Conditions under which a symplectic form is derivable from a Lagrangian are also found. (orig./HSI)

  7. Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future

    Rubel, Edwin W.

    2005-04-01

    Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

  8. Hair loss in women.

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  9. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry. PMID:27319056

  10. Robotic hair restoration.

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  11. Mercury analysis in hair

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A;

    2015-01-01

    procedures has often limited the comparison of data at national and international level. The European-funded projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES developed and tested a harmonized European approach to Human Biomonitoring in response to the European Environment and Health Action Plan. Herein we describe the quality...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...

  12. Direct mechanical stimulation of tip links in hair cells through DNA tethers

    Basu, Aakash; Lagier, Samuel; Vologodskaia, Maria; Fabella, Brian A; Hudspeth, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Mechanoelectrical transduction by hair cells commences with hair-bundle deflection, which is postulated to tense filamentous tip links connected to transduction channels. Because direct mechanical stimulation of tip links has not been experimentally possible, this hypothesis has not been tested. We have engineered DNA tethers that link superparamagnetic beads to tip links and exert mechanical forces on the links when exposed to a magnetic-field gradient. By pulling directly on tip links of the bullfrog's sacculus we have evoked transduction currents from hair cells, confirming the hypothesis that tension in the tip links opens transduction channels. This demonstration of direct mechanical access to tip links additionally lays a foundation for experiments probing the mechanics of individual channels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16041.001 PMID:27331611

  13. Auditory hair cell defects as potential cause for sensorineural deafness in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    Mohi Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available WHSC1 is a histone methyltransferase (HMT that catalyses the addition of methyl groups to lysine 36 on histone 3. In humans, WHSC1 haploinsufficiency is associated with all known cases of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS. The cardinal feature of WHS is a craniofacial dysmorphism, which is accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss in 15% of individuals with WHS. Here, we show that WHSC1-deficient mice display craniofacial defects that overlap with WHS, including cochlea anomalies. Although auditory hair cells are specified normally, their stereocilia hair bundles required for sound perception fail to develop the appropriate morphology. Furthermore, the orientation and cellular organisation of cochlear hair cells and their innervation are defective. These findings identify, for the first time, the likely cause of sensorineural hearing loss in individuals with WHS.

  14. Hair regrowth after cancer therapy

    Florid scalp hair regrowth following the depilatory effects of both whole cranial radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy is described in a patient who simultaneously exhibited acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa in the head and neck region. The regrowth of more youthful and more senile scalp hair following cranial radiotherapy are exemplified in two further case reports. (author)

  15. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  16. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  17. Human Hair: An Educational Tool.

    Wells, John

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

  18. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    Keshavmurthy A Adya; Inamadar, Arun C.; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair.

  19. Compressive force generation by a bundle of living biofilaments

    Ramachandran, Sanoop; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2013-08-01

    To study the compressional forces exerted by a bundle of living stiff filaments pressing on a surface, akin to the case of an actin bundle in filopodia structures, we have performed particulate molecular dynamics simulations of a grafted bundle of parallel living (self-assembling) filaments, in chemical equilibrium with a solution of their constitutive monomers. Equilibrium is established as these filaments, grafted at one end to a wall of the simulation box, grow at their chemically active free end, and encounter the opposite confining wall of the simulation box. Further growth of filaments requires bending and thus energy, which automatically limit the populations of longer filaments. The resulting filament sizes distribution and the force exerted by the bundle on the obstacle are analyzed for different grafting densities and different sub- or supercritical conditions, these properties being compared with the predictions of the corresponding ideal confined bundle model. In this analysis, non-ideal effects due to interactions between filaments and confinement effects are singled out. For all state points considered at the same temperature and at the same gap width between the two surfaces, the force per filament exerted on the opposite wall appears to be a function of a rescaled free monomer density hat{ρ }_1^eff. This quantity can be estimated directly from the characteristic length of the exponential filament size distribution P observed in the size domain where these grafted filaments are not in direct contact with the wall. We also analyze the dynamics of the filament contour length fluctuations in terms of effective polymerization (U) and depolymerization (W) rates, where again it is possible to disentangle non-ideal and confinement effects.

  20. Androgen actions on the human hair follicle: perspectives.

    Inui, Shigeki; Itami, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Androgens stimulate beard growth but suppress hair growth in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This condition is known as 'androgen paradox'. Human pilosebaceous units possess enough enzymes to form the active androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. In hair follicles, 5α-reductase type 1 and 2, androgen receptors (AR) and AR coactivators can regulate androgen sensitivity of dermal papillae (DP). To regulate hair growth, androgens stimulate production of IGF-1 as positive mediators from beard DP cells and of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, dickkopf1 and IL-6 as negative mediators from balding DP cells. In addition, androgens enhance inducible nitric oxide synthase from occipital DP cells and stem cell factor for positive regulation of hair growth in beard and negative regulation of balding DP cells. Moreover, AGA involves crosstalk between androgen and Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Finally, recent data on susceptibility genes have provided us with the impetus to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of AGA. PMID:23016593