Sample records for active fault isolation

  1. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated......Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...

  2. Structural Analysis Extended with Active Fault Isolation - Methods and Algorithms

    Gelso, Esteban R.; Blanke, Mogens


    Isolability of faults is a key issue in fault diagnosis whether the aim is maintenance or active fault-tolerant control. It is often encountered that while faults are detectable, they are only group-wise isolable from a usual diagnostic point of view. However, active injection of test signals on...... system inputs can considerably enhance fault isolability. This paper investigates this possibility of active fault isolation from a structural point of view. While such extension of the structural analysis approach was suggested earlier, algorithms and case studies were needed to explore this theory. The...

  3. Model-based fault detection and isolation for intermittently active faults with application to motion-based thruster fault detection and isolation for spacecraft

    Wilson, Edward (Inventor)


    The present invention is a method for detecting and isolating fault modes in a system having a model describing its behavior and regularly sampled measurements. The models are used to calculate past and present deviations from measurements that would result with no faults present, as well as with one or more potential fault modes present. Algorithms that calculate and store these deviations, along with memory of when said faults, if present, would have an effect on the said actual measurements, are used to detect when a fault is present. Related algorithms are used to exonerate false fault modes and finally to isolate the true fault mode. This invention is presented with application to detection and isolation of thruster faults for a thruster-controlled spacecraft. As a supporting aspect of the invention, a novel, effective, and efficient filtering method for estimating the derivative of a noisy signal is presented.

  4. Active Fault Detection and Isolation for Hybrid Systems

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Bak, Thomas;


    An algorithm for active fault detection and isolation is proposed. In order to observe the failure hidden due to the normal operation of the controllers or the systems, an optimization problem based on minimization of test signal is used. The optimization based method imposes the normal and faulty...... models predicted outputs such that their discrepancies are observable by passive fault diagnosis technique. Isolation of different faults is done by implementation a bank of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) where the convergence criterion for EKF is confirmed by Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method is applied...

  5. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  6. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob


    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... can occur simultaneously, whereas faults belonging to different fault sets appear disjoint in time. The proposed fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme consists of three steps. A fault detection (FD) step is followed by a fault set isolation (FSI) step. Here the fault set is isolated wherein the...... faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step....

  7. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam


    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe...

  8. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics of the...... satellite. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach to achieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithms are discussed....

  9. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    Shakeri, M.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Raghavan, V.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Iverson, David L.


    We consider the problem of sequencing tests to isolate multiple faults in redundant (fault-tolerant) systems with minimum expected testing cost (time). It can be shown that single faults and minimal faults, i.e., minimum number of failures with a failure signature different from the union of failure signatures of individual failures, together with their failure signatures, constitute the necessary information for fault diagnosis in redundant systems. In this paper, we develop an algorithm to find all the minimal faults and their failure signatures. Then, we extend the Sure diagnostic strategies [1] of our previous work to diagnose multiple faults in redundant systems. The proposed algorithms and strategies are illustrated using several examples.

  10. Sequential Test Strategies for Multiple Fault Isolation

    Shakeri, M.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Raghavan, V.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Kell, T.


    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing near optimal test sequencing algorithms for diagnosing multiple faults in redundant (fault-tolerant) systems. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and Lagrangian relaxation, we present several static and dynamic (on-line or interactive) test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem that provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a static diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a static diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. Computational results based on real-world systems indicate that the size of a static multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system, and that the use of an on-line multiple fault strategy can diagnose faults in systems with as many as 10,000 failure sources.

  11. Fault Detection and Isolation using Eigenstructure Assignment

    Jørgensen, R.B.; Patton, R.J.; Chen, J.


    The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer.......The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer....

  12. Early-stage fault isolation based on frequency response fitted by small-size samples for cryogenic cold compressors with active magnetic bearings.

    Arpaia, Pasquale; De Vito, Luca; Girone, Mario; Pezzetti, Marco


    A model-based method for fault detection and early-stage isolation, applicable when unfaulty conditions can be identified only by a reduced number of trials (even only one), is presented. The basic idea is to model analytically the uncertainty of the unfaulty frequency response and express the fault condition in terms of the noise power variance. A preliminary fault isolation is carried out by sensitivity analysis in order to identify the most influencing model parameters and assess their influence on the estimated noise. Then, during maintenance tests, the noise power is checked to detect the faulty condition. This technique is conceived to check the quality of a critical component in an experimental installation (fault detection and early-stage isolation), as well as to detect its faulty dynamic behaviors over a long horizon maintenance test campaign (condition monitoring). The method was applied to four cold compressors with active magnetic bearings at CERN by proving to be able to detect an actual faulty condition in one of such compressors. PMID:26827354

  13. Fault Isolation in Object Oriented Control Systems

    Larsson, Magnus; Klein, Inger; Lawesson, Dan; Nilsson, Ulf


    This article addresses the problem of fault propagation between software modules in a large-scale control system with object oriented architecture. There exists a conflict between object-oriented design goals such as encapsulation and modularity, and the possibility to suppress propagating error conditions. The propagation manifests itself as many irrelevant error messages, and hence causes problems for system operators and service personnel when attempting to isolate the real fault. We propo...

  14. Fault detection, isolation and reconfiguration in FTMP Methods and experimental results. [fault tolerant multiprocessor

    Lala, J. H.


    The Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor (FTMP) is a highly reliable computer designed to meet a goal of 10 to the -10th failures per hour and built with the objective of flying an active-control transport aircraft. Fault detection, identification, and recovery software is described, and experimental results obtained by injecting faults in the pin level in the FTMP are presented. Over 21,000 faults were injected in the CPU, memory, bus interface circuits, and error detection, masking, and error reporting circuits of one LRU of the multiprocessor. Detection, isolation, and reconfiguration times were recorded for each fault, and the results were found to agree well with earlier assumptions made in reliability modeling.

  15. Observer-based Fault Detection and Isolation for Nonlinear Systems

    Lootsma, T.F.


    With the rise in automation the increase in fault detectionand isolation & reconfiguration is inevitable. Interest in fault detection and isolation (FDI) for nonlinear systems has grown significantly in recent years. The design of FDI is motivated by the need for knowledge about occurring faults in fault-tolerant control systems (FTC systems). The idea of FTC systems is to detect, isolate, and handle faults in such a way that the systems can still perform in a required manner. One prefers...

  16. Multi-thresholds for fault isolation in the presence of uncertainties.

    Touati, Youcef; Mellal, Mohamed Arezki; Benazzouz, Djamel


    Monitoring of the faults is an important task in mechatronics. It involves the detection and isolation of faults which are performed by using the residuals. These residuals represent numerical values that define certain intervals called thresholds. In fact, the fault is detected if the residuals exceed the thresholds. In addition, each considered fault must activate a unique set of residuals to be isolated. However, in the presence of uncertainties, false decisions can occur due to the low sensitivity of certain residuals towards faults. In this paper, an efficient approach to make decision on fault isolation in the presence of uncertainties is proposed. Based on the bond graph tool, the approach is developed in order to generate systematically the relations between residuals and faults. The generated relations allow the estimation of the minimum detectable and isolable fault values. The latter is used to calculate the thresholds of isolation for each residual. PMID:26928518

  17. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    Bramon, Christopher; Inman, Sharon K.; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Tuttle, Loraine


    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discrete programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as testability of the integrated flight vehicle especially problematic. The cost of fully automated diagnostics can be completely justified for a large fleet, but not so for a single flight vehicle. Fault detection is mandatory to assure the vehicle is capable of a safe launch, but fault isolation is another issue. SLS has considered various methods for fault isolation which can provide a reasonable balance between adequacy, timeliness and cost. This paper will address the analyses and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate risk while providing a reasonable testability solution for fault isolation.

  18. Fault Detection and Isolation in Centrifugal Pumps

    Kallesøe, Carsten

    Centrifugal pumps are used in a variety of different applications, such as water supply, wastewater, and different industrial applications. Some pump installations are crucial for the applications to work. Failures can lead to substantial economic losses and can influence the life of many people...... when they occur. Therefore, detection of faults, if possible in an early stage, and isolation of their causes are of great interest. Especially fault detection, which can be used for predictive maintenance, can decrease working expenses and increase the reliability of the application in which the pump...... is placed. The topic of this work is Fault Detection and Identification in centrifugal pumps. Different approaches are developed with special focus on robustness. Robustness with respect to disturbances, unknown parts of the system, and parameter variations are considered. All developed algorithms...

  19. Robust Fault Detection and Isolation for Stochastic Systems

    George, Jemin; Gregory, Irene M.


    This paper outlines the formulation of a robust fault detection and isolation scheme that can precisely detect and isolate simultaneous actuator and sensor faults for uncertain linear stochastic systems. The given robust fault detection scheme based on the discontinuous robust observer approach would be able to distinguish between model uncertainties and actuator failures and therefore eliminate the problem of false alarms. Since the proposed approach involves precise reconstruction of sensor faults, it can also be used for sensor fault identification and the reconstruction of true outputs from faulty sensor outputs. Simulation results presented here validate the effectiveness of the robust fault detection and isolation system.

  20. Machine learning techniques for fault isolation and sensor placement

    Carnes, James R.; Fisher, Douglas H.


    Fault isolation and sensor placement are vital for monitoring and diagnosis. A sensor conveys information about a system's state that guides troubleshooting if problems arise. We are using machine learning methods to uncover behavioral patterns over snapshots of system simulations that will aid fault isolation and sensor placement, with an eye towards minimality, fault coverage, and noise tolerance.

  1. Observer-based Fault Detection and Isolation for Nonlinear Systems

    Lootsma, T.F.

    -tolerance can be applied to ordinary industrial processes that are not categorized as high risk applications, but where high availability is desirable. The quality of fault-tolerant control is totally dependent on the quality of the underlying algorithms. They detect possible faults, and later reconfigure......With the rise in automation the increase in fault detectionand isolation & reconfiguration is inevitable. Interest in fault detection and isolation (FDI) for nonlinear systems has grown significantly in recent years. The design of FDI is motivated by the need for knowledge about occurring faults in...... fault-tolerant control systems (FTC systems). The idea of FTC systems is to detect, isolate, and handle faults in such a way that the systems can still perform in a required manner. One prefers reduced performance after occurrence of a fault to the shut down of (sub-) systems. Hence, the idea of fault...

  2. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Functional Fault Models For Fault Isolation Project

    Perotti, Jose M. (Compiler)


    This project implements functional fault models (FFM) to automate the isolation of failures during ground systems operations. FFMs will also be used to recommend sensor placement to improve fault isolation capabilities. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators.

  3. Fault isolation in parallel coupled wind turbine converters

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Thøgersen, Paul Bach; Stoustrup, Jakob


    Parallel converters in wind turbine give a number advantages, such as fault tolerance due to the redundant converters. However, it might be difficult to isolate gain faults in one of the converters if only a combined power measurement is available. In this paper a scheme using orthogonal power...... references to the converters is proposed. Simulations on a wind turbine with 5 parallel converters show a clear potential of this scheme for isolation of this gain fault to the correct converter in which the fault occurs....

  4. Major earthquakes occur regularly on an isolated plate boundary fault.

    Berryman, Kelvin R; Cochran, Ursula A; Clark, Kate J; Biasi, Glenn P; Langridge, Robert M; Villamor, Pilar


    The scarcity of long geological records of major earthquakes, on different types of faults, makes testing hypotheses of regular versus random or clustered earthquake recurrence behavior difficult. We provide a fault-proximal major earthquake record spanning 8000 years on the strike-slip Alpine Fault in New Zealand. Cyclic stratigraphy at Hokuri Creek suggests that the fault ruptured to the surface 24 times, and event ages yield a 0.33 coefficient of variation in recurrence interval. We associate this near-regular earthquake recurrence with a geometrically simple strike-slip fault, with high slip rate, accommodating a high proportion of plate boundary motion that works in isolation from other faults. We propose that it is valid to apply time-dependent earthquake recurrence models for seismic hazard estimation to similar faults worldwide. PMID:22745426

  5. Evaluation of Wind Farm Controller based Fault Detection and Isolation

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan


    detection and isolation and fault tolerant control has previously been proposed. Based on this model, and international competition on wind farm FDI was organized. The contributions were presented at the IFAC World Congress 2014. In this paper the top three contributions to this competition are shortly......In the process of lowering cost of energy of power generated by wind turbines, some focus has been drawn towards fault detection and isolation and as well as fault tolerant control of wind turbines with the purpose of increasing reliability and availability of the wind turbines. Most modern wind...

  6. A weighted dissimilarity index to isolate faults during alarm floods

    Charbonnier, S; Gayet, P


    A fault-isolation method based on pattern matching using the alarm lists raised by the SCADA system during an alarm flood is proposed. A training set composed of faults is used to create fault templates. Alarm vectors generated by unknown faults are classified by comparing them with the fault templates using an original weighted dissimilarity index that increases the influence of the few alarms relevant to diagnose the fault. Different decision strategies are proposed to support the operator in his decision making. The performances are evaluated on two sets of data: an artificial set and a set obtained from a highly realistic simulator of the CERN Large Hadron Collider process connected to the real CERN SCADA system.

  7. Illuminating Northern California's Active Faults

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Furlong, Kevin P.; Phillips, David A.


    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google Earth™ and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal ( Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2).

  8. Fault diagnosis and isolation of the componentand sensor for aircraft engine

    QIU Xiao-jie; HUANG Jin-quan; LU Feng; LIU Nan


    Aircraft engine component and sensor fault detection and isolation approach was proposed,which included fault type detection module and component-sensor simultaneous fault isolation module.The approach can not only distinguish among sensor fault,component fault and component-sensor simultaneous fault,but also isolate and locate sensor fault and the type of engine component fault when the engine component fault and the sensor faults occur simultaneously.The double-threshold mechanism has been proposed,in which the fault diagnostic threshold changed with the sensor type and the engine condition,and it greatly improved the accuracy and robustness of sensor fault diagnosis system.Simulation results show that the approach proposed can diagnose and isolate the sensor and engine component fault with improved accuracy.It effectively improves the fault diagnosis ability of aircraft engine.

  9. Integration Techniques of Fault Detection and Isolation Using Interval Observers

    Meseguer Amela, Jordi


    An interval observer has been illustrated to be a suitable approach to detect and isolate faults affecting complex dynamical industrial systems. Concerning fault detection, interval observation is an appropriate passive robust strategy to generate an adaptive threshold to be used in residual evaluation when model uncertainty is located in parameters (interval model). In such approach, the observer gain is a key parameter since it determines the time evolution of the residual sensitiv...

  10. Fault detection and isolation in processes involving induction machines

    Zell, K.; Medvedev, A. [Control Engineering Group, Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden)


    A model-based technique for fault detection and isolation in electro-mechanical systems comprising induction machines is introduced. Two coupled state observers, one for the induction machine and another for the mechanical load, are used to detect and recognize fault-specific behaviors (fault signatures) from the real-time measurements of the rotor angular velocity and terminal voltages and currents. Practical applicability of the method is verified in full-scale experiments with a conveyor belt drive at SSAB, Luleaa Works. (orig.) 3 refs.

  11. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    from auxiliary input to residual outputs. The analysis is based on a singular value decomposition of these transfer functions Based on this analysis, it is possible to design auxiliary input as well as design of the associated residual vector with respect to every single parametric fault in the system......The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...

  12. Functional Fault Modeling of a Cryogenic System for Real-Time Fault Detection and Isolation

    Ferrell, Bob; Lewis, Mark; Perotti, Jose; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Brown, Barbara


    The purpose of this paper is to present the model development process used to create a Functional Fault Model (FFM) of a liquid hydrogen (L H2) system that will be used for realtime fault isolation in a Fault Detection, Isolation and Recover (FDIR) system. The paper explains th e steps in the model development process and the data products required at each step, including examples of how the steps were performed fo r the LH2 system. It also shows the relationship between the FDIR req uirements and steps in the model development process. The paper concl udes with a description of a demonstration of the LH2 model developed using the process and future steps for integrating the model in a live operational environment.

  13. Functional Fault Modeling Conventions and Practices for Real-Time Fault Isolation

    Ferrell, Bob; Lewis, Mark; Perotti, Jose; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Brown, Barbara


    The purpose of this paper is to present the conventions, best practices, and processes that were established based on the prototype development of a Functional Fault Model (FFM) for a Cryogenic System that would be used for real-time Fault Isolation in a Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) system. The FDIR system is envisioned to perform health management functions for both a launch vehicle and the ground systems that support the vehicle during checkout and launch countdown by using a suite of complimentary software tools that alert operators to anomalies and failures in real-time. The FFMs were created offline but would eventually be used by a real-time reasoner to isolate faults in a Cryogenic System. Through their development and review, a set of modeling conventions and best practices were established. The prototype FFM development also provided a pathfinder for future FFM development processes. This paper documents the rationale and considerations for robust FFMs that can easily be transitioned to a real-time operating environment.

  14. Fault Detection and Isolation and Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines Using Set-Valued Observers

    Casau, Pedro; Rosa, Paulo Andre Nobre; Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba;


    account process disturbances, uncertainty and sensor noise. The FTC strategy takes advantage of the proposed FDI algorithm, enabling the controller reconfiguration shortly after fault events. Additionally, a robust controller is designed so as to increase the wind turbine's performance during low severity......Research on wind turbine Operations & Maintenance (O&M) procedures is critical to the expansion of Wind Energy Conversion systems (WEC). In order to reduce O&M costs and increase the lifespan of the turbine, we study the application of Set-Valued Observers (SVO) to the problem of Fault Detection...... and Isolation (FDI) and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) of wind turbines, by taking advantage of the recent advances in SVO theory for model invalidation. A simple wind turbine model is presented along with possible faulty scenarios. The FDI algorithm is built on top of the described model, taking into...

  15. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator

  16. Fault Detection and Isolation in Multiple MEMS-IMUs Configurations

    Guerrier, Stéphane; Waegli, Adrian; Skaloud, Jan; Victoria-Feser, Maria-Pia


    This research presents methods for detecting and isolating faults in multiple MEMS-IMU configurations. First, geometric configurations with n sensor triads are investigated. It is proofed that the relative orientation between sensor triads is irrelevant to system optimality in the absence of failures. Then, the impact of sensor failure or decreased performance is investigated. Three FDI approaches (i.e. the parity space method, Mahalanobis distance method and its direct robustification) are r...

  17. Nonlinear observer based fault detection and isolation for a momentum wheel

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for a momentum wheel. The Fault Detection and Isolation is based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, which states which faults might occur and can be detected. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach...... toachieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithm are discussed....

  18. Controller modification applied for active fault detection

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    This paper is focusing on active fault detection (AFD) for parametric faults in closed-loop systems. This auxiliary input applied for the fault detection will also disturb the external output and consequently reduce the performance of the controller. Therefore, only small auxiliary inputs are used...... modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the external output in the fault free case. Further, in the faulty case, the signature of the auxiliary input can be optimized. This is obtained by using a band-pass filter for the YJBK parameter that is only effective in a small frequency range where...... the frequency for the auxiliary input is selected. This gives that it is possible to apply an auxiliary input with a reduced amplitude. An example is included to show the results....

  19. InSAR measurements around active faults: creeping Philippine Fault and un-creeping Alpine Fault

    Fukushima, Y.


    Recently, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series analyses have been frequently applied to measure the time-series of small and quasi-steady displacements in wide areas. Large efforts in the methodological developments have been made to pursue higher temporal and spatial resolutions by using frequently acquired SAR images and detecting more pixels that exhibit phase stability. While such a high resolution is indispensable for tracking displacements of man-made and other small-scale structures, it is not necessarily needed and can be unnecessarily computer-intensive for measuring the crustal deformation associated with active faults and volcanic activities. I apply a simple and efficient method to measure the deformation around the Alpine Fault in the South Island of New Zealand, and the Philippine Fault in the Leyte Island. I use a small-baseline subset (SBAS) analysis approach (Berardino, et al., 2002). Generally, the more we average the pixel values, the more coherent the signals are. Considering that, for the deformation around active faults, the spatial resolution can be as coarse as a few hundred meters, we can severely 'multi-look' the interferograms. The two applied cases in this study benefited from this approach; I could obtain the mean velocity maps on practically the entire area without discarding decorrelated areas. The signals could have been only partially obtained by standard persistent scatterer or single-look small-baseline approaches that are much more computer-intensive. In order to further increase the signal detection capability, it is sometimes effective to introduce a processing algorithm adapted to the signal of interest. In an InSAR time-series processing, one usually needs to set the reference point because interferograms are all relative measurements. It is difficult, however, to fix the reference point when one aims to measure long-wavelength deformation signals that span the whole analysis area. This problem can be

  20. Remarks on Urban Active Fault Exploration and Assessment of Fault Activity

    Deng Qidong; Lu Zaoxun; Yang Zhu'en


    According to the practice of urban active fault exploration and associated fault activity assessment conducted in recent years, this paper summarizes the problems encountered in geological, geomorphological, geochemical and geophysical surveys, and proposes the following means and suggestions to solve these problems. To determine the most recent faults or fault zones, emphasis should be placed on identifying the youngest active faults and offset geomorphology. To understand the history of faulting and to discover the latest offset event, it is suggested that geophysical prospecting, drilling and trenching be conducted on one profile.Because of significant uncertainties in late Quaternary dating, we advise systematic sampling and the use of multiple dating methods. Shallow seismic reflection has been proven to be the most useful method in urban active fault exploration. However, there is a pressing need to increase the quality of data acquisition and processing to obtain high resolution images so as to enhance our ability to identify active faults. The combination of seismic P-wave reflection and S-wave reflection methods is proved to be a powerful means to investigate the tectonic environments of the deep crust.

  1. Nonlinear observer based fault detection and isolation for a momentum wheel

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for a momentum wheel. The Fault Detection and Isolation is based on a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, which states which faults might occur and can be detected. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach...

  2. Active fault traces along Bhuj Fault and Katrol Hill Fault, and trenching survey at Wandhay, Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Michio Morino; Javed N Malik; Prashant Mishra; Chandrashekhar Bhuiyan; Fumio Kaneko


    Several new active fault traces were identified along Katrol Hill Fault (KHF).A new fault (named as Bhuj Fault,BF)that extends into the Bhuj Plain was also identified.These fault traces were identified based on satellite photo interpretation and field survey.Trenches were excavated to identify the paleoseismic events,pattern of faulting and the nature of deformation.New active fault traces were recognized about 1 km north of the topographic boundary between the Katrol Hill and the plain area.The fault exposure along the left bank of Khari River with 10 m wide shear zone in the Mesozoic rocks and showing displacement of the overlying Quaternary deposits is indicative of continued tectonic activity along the ancient fault.The E-W trending active fault traces along the KHF in the western part changes to NE-SW or ENE-WSW near Wandhay village. Trenching survey across a low scarp near Wandhay village reveals three major fault strands F1, F2,and F3.These fault strands displaced the older terrace deposits comprising Sand,Silt and Gravel units along with overlying younger deposits from units 1 to 5 made of gravel,sand and silt. Stratigraphic relationship indicates at least three large magnitude earthquakes along KHF during Late Holocene or recent historic past.

  3. Active tectonics of Himalayan Frontal Fault system

    Thakur, V. C.


    In the Sub-Himalayan zone, the frontal Siwalik range abuts against the alluvial plain with an abrupt physiographic break along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT), defining the present-day tectonic boundary between the Indian plate and the Himalayan orogenic prism. The frontal Siwalik range is characterized by large active anticline structures, which were developed as fault propagation and fault-bend folds in the hanging wall of the HFT. Fault scarps showing surface ruptures and offsets observed in excavated trenches indicate that the HFT is active. South of the HFT, the piedmont zone shows incipient growth of structures, drainage modification, and 2-3 geomorphic depositional surfaces. In the hinterland between the HFT and the MBT, reactivation and out-of-sequence faulting displace Late Quaternary-Holocene sediments. Geodetic measurements across the Himalaya indicate a ~100-km-wide zone, underlain by the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), between the HFT and the main microseismicity belt to north is locked. The bulk of shortening, 15-20 mm/year, is consumed aseismically at mid-crustal depth through ductile by creep. Assuming the wedge model, reactivation of the hinterland faults may represent deformation prior to wedge attaining critical taper. The earthquake surface ruptures, ≥240 km in length, interpreted on the Himalayan mountain front through paleoseismology imply reactivation of the HFT and may suggest foreland propagation of the thrust belt.

  4. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    Abe, S.


    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  5. Active Faulting and Quaternary Landforms Deformation Related to the Nain Fault

    Abolghasem Gourabi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Landforms developed across terrain defining boundary the Nain fault have imprints of recent tectonic activity in the west region of Central Iran. Depositional landforms such as alluvial fans bear signatures of later phases of tectonic activity in the form of faulting of alluvial fan deposits and development of fault traces and scarps within 100 km long and a NW-SE-trending zone, 1000-2000 m wide. Approach: We are addressing the neotectonic landforms based on detailed field work carried out in the Nain exposed active fault segments which brought forward some outstanding morphtectonic evidence of quaternary tectonically activities. Tectonic geomorphology applied to the Nain fault suggests recent subsurface activity along the Nain fault and an interconnecting faulting network of roughly NW-SE-trending, right-lateral, strike-slip segments and mostly NW-SE-oriented, transtensional to normal faults. Results: Evidence for recent activity is provided by faulted Pleistocene-Holocene deposits, fresh scarps in Late Quaternary deposits, 8-15 m lateral offsets locally affecting the drainage pattern of the area, ground creeping, aligning of series of spring faults, deflected streams and fault trace over recent alluvial fans. The existences of strike-slip faults system in the Nain area can be implications for seismic hazard. Conclusion: Motion along these structures suggests, in fact, that cumulative displacements include normal, transtensional and strike-slip components. Based on all evidence of active tectonics, earthquake risk and occurrence area is significant.

  6. Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin

    冯希杰; 戴王强


    Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin is a popular phenomenon and its characteristics are also typical.Taking the activity migrations of Wangshun Mountain piedmont fault toward Lishan piedmont fault and Weinan platform front fault, Dabaopi-Niujiaojian fault toward Shenyusi-Xiaojiazhai fault, among a serial of NE-trending faults from Baoji city to Jingyang County as examples, their migration time and process are analyzed and discussed in the present paper. It is useful for further understanding the structure development and physiognomy evolution history of Weihe basin.

  7. Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin

    Feng, Xi-Jie; Dai, Wang-Qiang


    Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin is a popular phenomenon and its characteristics are also typical. Taking the activity migrations of Wangshun Mountain piedmont fault toward Lishan piedmont fault and Weinan platform front fault, Dabaopi-Niujiaojian fault toward Shenyusi-Xiaojiazhai fault, among a serial of NE-trending faults from Baoji city to Jingyang County as examples, their migration time and process are analyzed and discussed in the present paper. It is useful for further understanding the structure development and physiognomy evolution history of Weihe basin.

  8. Seismic Responses of Asymmetric Base-Isolated Structures under Near-Fault Ground Motion

    YE Kun; LI Li; FANG Qin-han


    An inter-story shear model of asymmetric base-isolated structures incorporating deformation of each isolation bearing was built, and a method to simultaneously simulate bi-directional near-fault and far-field ground motions was proposed. A comparative study on the dynamic responses of asymmetric base-isolated structures under near-fault and far-field ground motions were conducted to investigate the effects of eccentricity in the isolation system and in the superstructures, the ratio of the uncoupled torsional to lateral frequency of the superstructure and the pulse period of near-fault ground motions on the nonlinear seismic response of asymmetric base-isolated structures. Numerical results show that eccentricity in the isolation system makes asymmetric base-isolated structure more sensitive to near-fault ground motions, and the pulse period of near-fault ground motions plays an import role in governing the seismic responses of asymmetric base-isolated structures.

  9. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part One

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.;


    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Kalman Filter (KF) technique for a supermarket refrigeration system is explored. Four types of sensor fault scenarios, namely drift, offset, freeze and hard-over, are considered for two temperature sensors, and one type of parametric fault scenario...

  10. Analytical Model-based Fault Detection and Isolation in Control Systems

    Vukic, Z.; Ozbolt, H.; Blanke, M.


    The paper gives an introduction and an overview of the field of fault detection and isolation for control systems. The summary of analytical (quantitative model-based) methodds and their implementation are presented. The focus is given to mthe analytical model-based fault-detection and fault...

  11. Geophysical characterization of buried active faults: the Concud Fault (Iberian Chain, NE Spain)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Óscar; Lafuente, Paloma; Arlegui, Luis; Liesa, Carlos L.; Simón, José L.


    The Concud Fault is a ~14-km-long active fault that extends close to Teruel, a city with about 35,000 inhabitants in the Iberian Range (NE Spain). It shows evidence of recurrent activity during Late Pleistocene time, posing a significant seismic hazard in an area of moderate-to-low tectonic rates. A geophysical survey was carried out along the mapped trace of the southern branch of the Concud Fault to evaluate the geophysical signature from the fault and the location of paleoseismic trenches. The survey identified a lineation of inverse magnetic dipoles at residual and vertical magnetic gradient, a local increase in apparent conductivity, and interruptions of the underground sediment structure along GPR profiles. The origin of these anomalies is due to lateral contrast between both fault blocks and the geophysical signature of Quaternary materials located above and directly south of the fault. The spatial distribution of anomalies was successfully used to locate suitable trench sites and to map non-exposed segments of the fault. The geophysical anomalies are related to the sedimentological characteristics and permeability differences of the deposits and to deformation related to fault activity. The results illustrate the usefulness of geophysics to detect and map non-exposed faults in areas of moderate-to-low tectonic activity where faults are often covered by recent pediments that obscure geological evidence of the most recent earthquakes. The results also highlight the importance of applying multiple geophysical techniques in defining the location of buried faults.

  12. Fault Detection and Isolation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems using Recurrent Neural Networks

    N. Talebi; M.A. Sadrnia; A. Darabi


    Reliability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECSs) is greatly important regarding to extract the maximum amount of available wind energy. In order to accurately study WECSs during occurrence of faults and to explore the impact of faults on each component of WECSs, a detailed model is required in which mechanical and electrical parts of WECSs are properly involved. In addition, a Fault Detection and Isolation System (FDIS) is required by which occurred faults can be diagnosed at the appropr...

  13. Model-based fault detection and isolation of a PWR nuclear power plant using neural networks

    The proper and timely fault detection and isolation of industrial plant is of premier importance to guarantee the safe and reliable operation of industrial plants. The paper presents application of a neural networks-based scheme for fault detection and isolation, for the pressurizer of a PWR nuclear power plant. The scheme is constituted by 2 components: residual generation and fault isolation. The first component generates residuals via the discrepancy between measurements coming from the plant and a nominal model. The neutral network estimator is trained with healthy data collected from a full-scale simulator. For the second component detection thresholds are used to encode the residuals as bipolar vectors which represent fault patterns. These patterns are stored in an associative memory based on a recurrent neutral network. The proposed fault diagnosis tool is evaluated on-line via a full-scale simulator detected and isolate the main faults appearing in the pressurizer of a PWR. (orig.)

  14. Onboard Nonlinear Engine Sensor and Component Fault Diagnosis and Isolation Scheme

    Tang, Liang; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Xiaodong


    A method detects and isolates in-flight sensor, actuator, and component faults for advanced propulsion systems. In sharp contrast to many conventional methods, which deal with either sensor fault or component fault, but not both, this method considers sensor fault, actuator fault, and component fault under one systemic and unified framework. The proposed solution consists of two main components: a bank of real-time, nonlinear adaptive fault diagnostic estimators for residual generation, and a residual evaluation module that includes adaptive thresholds and a Transferable Belief Model (TBM)-based residual evaluation scheme. By employing a nonlinear adaptive learning architecture, the developed approach is capable of directly dealing with nonlinear engine models and nonlinear faults without the need of linearization. Software modules have been developed and evaluated with the NASA C-MAPSS engine model. Several typical engine-fault modes, including a subset of sensor/actuator/components faults, were tested with a mild transient operation scenario. The simulation results demonstrated that the algorithm was able to successfully detect and isolate all simulated faults as long as the fault magnitudes were larger than the minimum detectable/isolable sizes, and no misdiagnosis occurred

  15. ASCS Online Fault Detection and Isolation Based on an Improved MPCA

    PENG Jianxin; LIU Haiou; HU Yuhui; XI Junqiang; CHEN Huiyan


    Multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) has received considerable attention and been widely used in process monitoring. A traditional MPCA algorithm unfolds multiple batches of historical data into a two-dimensional matrix and cut the matrix along the time axis to form subspaces. However, low efficiency of subspaces and difficult fault isolation are the common disadvantages for the principal component model. This paper presents a new subspace construction method based on kernel density estimation function that can effectively reduce the storage amount of the subspace information. The MPCA model and the knowledge base are built based on the new subspace. Then, fault detection and isolation with the squared prediction error (SPE) statistic and the Hotelling (T2) statistic are also realized in process monitoring. When a fault occurs, fault isolation based on the SPE statistic is achieved by residual contribution analysis of different variables. For fault isolation of subspace based on the T2 statistic, the relationship between the statistic indicator and state variables is constructed, and the constraint conditions are presented to check the validity of fault isolation. Then, to improve the robustness of fault isolation to unexpected disturbances, the statistic method is adopted to set the relation between single subspace and multiple subspaces to increase the corrective rate of fault isolation. Finally fault detection and isolation based on the improved MPCA is used to monitor the automatic shift control system (ASCS) to prove the correctness and effectiveness of the algorithm. The research proposes a new subspace construction method to reduce the required storage capacity and to prove the robustness of the principal component model, and sets the relationship between the state variables and fault detection indicators for fault isolation.

  16. Application of a Fault Detection and Isolation System on a Rotary Machine

    Silvia M. Zanoli


    Full Text Available The paper illustrates the design and the implementation of a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI system to a rotary machine like a multishaft centrifugal compressor. A model-free approach, that is, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA, has been employed to solve the fault detection issue. For the fault isolation purpose structured residuals have been adopted while an adaptive threshold has been designed in order to detect and to isolate the faults. To prove the goodness of the proposed FDI system, historical data of a nitrogen centrifugal compressor employed in a refinery plant are considered. Tests results show that detection and isolation of single as well as multiple faults are successfully achieved.

  17. Active Fault Characterization in the Urban Area of Vienna

    Decker, Kurt; Grupe, Sabine; Hintersberger, Esther


    The identification of active faults that lie beneath a city is of key importance for seismic hazard assessment. Fault mapping and characterization in built-up areas with strong anthropogenic overprint is, however, a challenging task. Our study of Quaternary faults in the city of Vienna starts from the re-assessment of a borehole database of the municipality containing several tens of thousands of shallow boreholes. Data provide tight constraints on the geometry of Quaternary deposits and highlight several locations with fault-delimited Middle to Late Pleistocene terrace sediments of the Danube River. Additional information is obtained from geological descriptions of historical outcrops which partly date back to about 1900. The latter were found to be particularly valuable by providing unprejudiced descriptions of Quaternary faults, sometimes with stunning detail. The along-strike continuations of some of the identified faults are further imaged by industrial 2D/3D seismic acquired outside the city limits. The interpretation and the assessment of faults identified within the city benefit from a very well constrained tectonic model of the active Vienna Basin fault system which derived from data obtained outside the city limits. This data suggests that the urban faults are part of a system of normal faults compensating fault-normal extension at a releasing bend of the sinistral Vienna Basin Transfer Fault. Slip rates estimated for the faults in the city are in the range of several hundredths of millimetres per year and match the slip rates of normal faults that were trenched outside the city. The lengths/areas of individual faults estimated from maps and seismic reach up to almost 700 km² suggesting that all of the identified faults are capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes M>6, some with magnitudes up to M~6.7.

  18. Dynamic Output Feedback Based Active Decentralized Fault-Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator with Concurrent Failures

    Yuanchun Li


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to describe an active decentralized fault-tolerant control (ADFTC strategy based on dynamic output feedback for reconfigurable manipulators with concurrent actuator and sensor failures. Consider each joint module of the reconfigurable manipulator as a subsystem, and treat the fault as the unknown input of the subsystem. Firstly, by virtue of linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, the decentralized proportional-integral observer (DPIO is designed to estimate and compensate the sensor fault online; hereafter, the compensated system model could be derived. Then, the actuator fault is estimated similarly by another DPIO using LMI as well, and the sufficient condition of the existence of H∞ fault-tolerant controller in the dynamic output feedback is presented for the compensated system model. Furthermore, the dynamic output feedback controller is presented based on the estimation of actuator fault to realize active fault-tolerant control. Finally, two 3-DOF reconfigurable manipulators with different configurations are employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in simulation. The main advantages of the proposed scheme lie in that it can handle the concurrent faults act on the actuator and sensor on the same joint module, as well as there is no requirement of fault detection and isolation process; moreover, it is more feasible to the modularity of the reconfigurable manipulator.

  19. Fault isolation through no-overhead link level CRC

    Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.


    A fault isolation technique for checking the accuracy of data packets transmitted between nodes of a parallel processor. An independent crc is kept of all data sent from one processor to another, and received from one processor to another. At the end of each checkpoint, the crcs are compared. If they do not match, there was an error. The crcs may be cleared and restarted at each checkpoint. In the preferred embodiment, the basic functionality is to calculate a CRC of all packet data that has been successfully transmitted across a given link. This CRC is done on both ends of the link, thereby allowing an independent check on all data believed to have been correctly transmitted. Preferably, all links have this CRC coverage, and the CRC used in this link level check is different from that used in the packet transfer protocol. This independent check, if successfully passed, virtually eliminates the possibility that any data errors were missed during the previous transfer period.

  20. Uranium groundwater anomalies and active normal faulting

    The ability to predict earthquakes is one of the greatest challenges for Earth Sciences. Radon has been suggested as one possible precursor, and its groundwater anomalies associated with earthquakes and water-rock interactions were proposed in several seismogenic areas worldwide as due to possible transport of radon through microfractures, or due to crustal gas fluxes along active faults. However, the use of radon as a possible earthquake's precursor is not clearly linked to crustal deformation. It is shown in this paper that uranium groundwater anomalies, which were observed in cataclastic rocks crossing the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, can be used as a possible strain meter in domains where continental lithosphere is subducted. Measurements evidence clear, sharp anomalies from July, 2008 to the end of March, 2009, related to a preparation phase of the seismic swarm, which occurred near L'Aquila, Italy, from October, 2008 to April, 2009. On April 6th, 2009 an earthquake (Mw = 6.3) occurred at 01:33 UT in the same area, with normal faulting on a NW-SE oriented structure about 15 km long, dipping toward SW. In the framework of the geophysical and geochemical models of the area, these measurements indicate that uranium may be used as a possible strain meter in extensional tectonic settings similar to those where the L'Aquila earthquake occurred. (author)

  1. A fault detection and isolation scheme for industrial systems based on multiple operating models

    Rodrigues, Mickael; THEILLIOL, DIDIER; Adam Medina, Manuel; Sauter, Dominique


    In this paper, a fault diagnosis method is developed for systems described by multi- models. The main contribution consists in the design of a new Fault Detection and Isolation scheme (FDI) through an adaptive filter for such systems. Based on the assumption that dynamic behavior of the process is described by a multi-model approach around different operating points, a set of residual is established in order to generate weighting functions robust to faults. These robust weighting functions ar...

  2. Fault Detection and Isolation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems using Recurrent Neural Networks

    N. Talebi


    Full Text Available Reliability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECSs is greatly important regarding to extract the maximum amount of available wind energy. In order to accurately study WECSs during occurrence of faults and to explore the impact of faults on each component of WECSs, a detailed model is required in which mechanical and electrical parts of WECSs are properly involved. In addition, a Fault Detection and Isolation System (FDIS is required by which occurred faults can be diagnosed at the appropriate time in order to ensure safe system operation and avoid heavy economic losses. This can be performed by subsequent actions through fast and accurate detection and isolation of faults. In this paper, by utilizing a comprehensive dynamic model of the WECS, an FDIS is presented using dynamic recurrent neural networks. In industrial processes, dynamic neural networks are known as a good mathematical tool for fault detection. Simulation results show that the proposed FDIS detects faults of the generator's angular velocity sensor, pitch angle sensors and pitch actuators appropriately. The suggested FDIS is capable to detect and isolate the faults shortly while owing very low false alarms rate. The presented FDIS scheme can be used to identify faults in other parts of the WECS.

  3. Active Fault Diagnosis for Hybrid Systems Based on Sensitivity Analysis and EKF

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Bak, Thomas


    An active fault diagnosis approach for different kinds of faults is proposed. The input of the approach is designed off-line based on sensitivity analysis such that the maximum sensitivity for each individual system parameter is obtained. Using maximum sensitivity, results in a better precision in...... the estimation of the corresponding parameter. The fault detection and isolation is done by comparing the nominal parameters with those estimated by Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). In study, Gaussian noise is used as the input disturbance as well as the measurement noise for simulation. The method is...

  4. Active faults of the Baikal depression

    Levi, K.G.; Miroshnichenko, A.I.; San'kov, V. A.; Babushkin, S.M.; Larkin, G.V.; Badardinov, A.A.; Wong, H.K.; Colman, S.; Delvaux, D.


    The Baikal depression occupies a central position in the system of the basins of the Baikal Rift Zone and corresponds to the nucleus from which the continental lithosphere began to open. For different reasons, the internal structure of the Lake Baikal basin remained unknown for a long time. In this article, we present for the first time a synthesis of the data concerning the structure of the sedimentary section beneath Lake Baikal, which were obtained by complex seismic and structural investigations, conducted mainly from 1989 to 1992. We make a brief description of the most interesting seismic profiles which provide a rough idea of a sedimentary unit structure, present a detailed structural interpretation and show the relationship between active faults in the lake, heat flow anomalies and recent hydrothermalism.

  5. Fault mirrors in seismically active fault zones: A fossil of small earthquakes at shallow depths

    Kuo, Li-Wei; Song, Sheng-Rong; Suppe, John; Yeh, En-Chao


    Fault mirrors (FMs) are naturally polished and glossy fault slip surfaces that can record seismic deformation at shallow depths. They are important for investigating the processes controlling dynamic fault slip. We characterize FMs in borehole samples from the hanging wall damage zone of the active Hsiaotungshi reverse fault, Taiwan. Here we report the first documented occurrence of the combination of silica gel and melt patches coating FMs, with the silica gel resembling those observed on experimentally formed FMs that were cataclastically generated. In addition, the melt patches, which are unambiguous indicators of coseismic slip, suggest that the natural FMs were produced at seismic rates, presumably resulting from flash heating at asperities on the slip surfaces. Since flash heating is efficient at small slip, we propose that these natural FMs represent fossils of small earthquakes, formed in either coseismic faulting and folding or aftershock deformation in the active Taiwan fold-and-thrust belt.

  6. Diesel Engine Actuator Fault Isolation using Multiple Models Hypothesis Tests

    Bøgh, S.A.


    Detection of current faults in a D.C. motor with unknown load torques is not feasible with linear methods and threshold logic......Detection of current faults in a D.C. motor with unknown load torques is not feasible with linear methods and threshold logic...

  7. Lessons Learned on Implementing Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) in a Ground Launch Environment

    Ferell, Bob; Lewis, Mark; Perotti, Jose; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Goerz, Jesse; Brown, Barbara


    This paper's main purpose is to detail issues and lessons learned regarding designing, integrating, and implementing Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) for Constellation Exploration Program (CxP) Ground Operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  8. Framework for the Design and Implementation of Fault Detection and Isolation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SySense, Inc. proposes to develop a framework for the design and implementation of fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems. The framework will include protocols...

  9. Fault Detection and Isolation of Satellite Formations using a Ground Station Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development a fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm for a formation of satellites but processed at a ground station. The algorithm...

  10. Active Fault Exploration and Seismic Hazard Assessment in Fuzhou City

    Zhu Jinfang; Han Zhujun; Huang Zonglin; Xu Xiwei; Zheng Rongzhang; Fang Shengmin; Bai Denghai; Wang Guangcai; Min Wei; Wen Xueze


    It has been proven by a number of earthquake case studies that an active fault-induced earthquake beneath a city can be devastating. It is an urgent issue for seismic hazard reduction to explore the distribution of active faults beneath the urban area and identify the seismic source and the risks underneath. As a pilot project of active fault exploration in China, the project, entitled "Active fault exploration and seismic hazard assessment in Fuzhou City",started in early 2001 and passed the check before acceptance of China Earthquake Administration in August 2004. The project was aimed to solve a series of scientific issues such as fault location, dating, movement nature, deep settings, seismic risk and hazard,preparedness of earthquake prevention and disaster reduction, and etc. by means of exploration and assessment of active faults by stages, i.e., the preliminary survey and identification of active faults in target area, the exploration of deep seismotectonic settings, the risk evaluation of active seismogenic faults, the construction of geographic information system of active faults, and so on. A lot of exploration methods were employed in the project such as the detection of absorbed mercury, free mercury and radon in soil, the geological radar,multi-channel DC electrical method, tsansient electromagnetic method, shallow seismic refraction and reflection, effect contrast of explored sources, and various sounding experiments, to establish the buried Quaternary standard section of the Fuzhou basin. By summing up, the above explorations and experiments have achieved the following results and conclusions:(1) The results of the synthetic pilot project of active fault exploration in Fuzhou City demonstrate that, on the basis of sufficient collection, sorting out and analysis of geological,geophysical and borehole data, the best method for active fault exploration (location) and seismic risk assessnent (dating and characterizing) in urban area is the combination

  11. Enhanced Fault Detection and Isolation in Modern Flight Actuators

    Ossmann, Daniel


    Due to their central location in the control system, actuation systems of primary control surfaces in modern, augmented aircraft must show an increased reliability. A traditional approach is based on hardware redundancy. In this way, modern actuation systems of one single control surface consist of up to two actuators and three sensors. These different dynamic subsystems are all prone to faults themselves and can be monitored. This paper presents the setup of a fault detection and diagnosis (...

  12. Model Based Fault Isolation for Object-Oriented Control Systems

    Larsson, Magnus; Klein, Inger; Lawesson, Dan; Nilsson, Ulf


    This report addresses the problem of fault propagation between software modules in a large industrial control system with anobject oriented architecture. There exists a conflict between object-oriented design goals such as encapsulation and modularity, and the possibility to suppress propagating error conditions. When an object detects an error condition, it is not desirable toperform the extensive querying of other objects that would be necessary to decide how close to the real fault the obj...

  13. Fault detection and isolation for self powered neutron detectors based on Principal Component Analysis

    Highlights: • The methodology of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is utilized to detect faults occurred in self powered neutron detectors. • The square prediction error based on the PCA model is employed to detect the SPND fault. • The Detector Validity Index (DVI) based on the reconstruction is employed to isolate the faulty SPND. • The fault detection and isolation scheme is validated with four types of simulated SPND faults. - Abstract: The self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) play an important role in nuclear reactor monitoring. The 3-D power distribution and parameters used to evaluate the operation condition of reactor and the margin of safety can be determined using the measurement of SPNDs through power mapping procedure. Faulty SPNDs that are either completely or partially failed (hard fault or soft fault) provide incorrect information for monitoring. Correct detection and isolation of the faulty SPNDs are of primary importance to the efficient operation and management of the nuclear reactor. In this study, the methodology of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is utilized to construct the mathematical models among various detectors at different axial location within the same string. The data used to build the mathematical models are generated by advanced neutronics code SMART rather than measurements. The square prediction error based on the model and the Detector Validity Index (DVI) based on the reconstruction are employed, respectively, to detect the SPND fault and to isolate the faulty SPNDs. The fault detection and isolation scheme is validated with four types of simulated SPND faults, i.e. bias, drifting, precision degradation and complete failure. The simulation results show that the proposed PCA based method can be used in the nuclear reactor to ensure that faulty SPNDs can be detected quickly

  14. Model-Based Fault Detection and Isolation of a Liquid-Cooled Frequency Converter on a Wind Turbine

    Li, Peng; Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob;


    advanced fault detection and isolation schemes. In this paper, an observer-based fault detection and isolation method for the cooling system in a liquid-cooled frequency converter on a wind turbine which is built up in a scalar version in the laboratory is presented. A dynamic model of the scale cooling...... system is derived based on energy balance equation. A fault analysis is conducted to determine the severity and occurrence rate of possible component faults and their end effects in the cooling system. A method using unknown input observer is developed in order to detect and isolate the faults based on...... the developed dynamical model. The designed fault detection and isolation algorithm is applied on a set of measured experiment data in which different faults are artificially introduced to the scaled cooling system. The experimental results conclude that the different faults are successfully detected...

  15. Faults

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  16. A geometric approach for fault detection and isolation of stator short circuit failure in a single asynchronous machine

    Khelouat, Samir


    This paper deals with the problem of detection and isolation of stator short-circuit failure in a single asynchronous machine using a geometric approach. After recalling the basis of the geometric approach for fault detection and isolation in nonlinear systems, we will study some structural properties which are fault detectability and isolation fault filter existence. We will then design filters for residual generation. We will consider two approaches: a two-filters structure and a single filter structure, both aiming at generating residuals which are sensitive to one fault and insensitive to the other faults. Some numerical tests will be presented to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  17. Techniques for Surveying Urban Active Faults by Seismic Methods

    Xu Mingcai; Gao Jinghua; Liu Jianxun; Rong Lixin


    Using the seismic method to detect active faults directly below cities is an irreplaceable prospecting technique. The seismic method can precisely determine the fault position. Seismic method itself can hardly determine the geological age of fault. However, by considering in connection with the borehole data and the standard geological cross-section of the surveyed area, the geological age of reflected wave group can be qualitatively (or semi-quantitatively)determined from the seismic depth profile. To determine the upper terminal point of active faults directly below city, it is necessary to use the high-resolution seismic reflection technique.To effectively determine the geometric feature of deep faults, especially to determine the relation between deep and shallow fracture structures, the seismic reflection method is better than the seismic refraction method.

  18. Quaternary seismo-tectonic activity of the Polochic Fault, Guatemala

    Authemayou, Christine; Brocard, Gilles; TEYSSIER, Christian; Suski, Barbara; Cosenza, Beatriz; Moran-Ical, Sergio; Gonzalez-Veliz, Claussen Walther; Aguilar-Hengstenberg, Miguel Angel; Holliger, Klaus


    The Polochic-Motagua fault system is part of the sinistral transform boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala and the associated seismic activity poses a threat to ∼70% of the country's population. The aim of this study is to constrain the Late Quaternary activity of the Polochic fault by determining the active structure geometry and quantifying recent displacement rates as well as paleo-seismic events. Slip rates have been estimated from offsets of Quaternary vol...

  19. Development and Test of Methods for Fault Detection and Isolation

    Jørgensen, R.B.

    Almost all industrial systemns are automated to ensure optimal production both in relation to energy consumtion and safety to equipment and humans. All working parts are individually subject to faults. This can lead to unacceptable economic loss or injury to people. This thesis deals with a...

  20. Fault Isolation and quality assessment for shipboard monitoring

    Lajic, Zoran; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Blanke, Mogens


    In this paper a new approach for increasing the overall reliability of a monitoring and decision support system will be explained. The focus is on systems used for ship operator guidance with respect to, say, speed and heading. The basic idea is to convert the given system into a fault tolerant s...

  1. Optimal Threshold Functions for Fault Detection and Isolation

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.; Harbo, Anders La-Cour


    Fault diagnosis systems usually comprises two parts: a filtering part and a decision part, the latter typically based on threshold functions. In this paper, systematic ways to choose the threshold values are proposed. Two different test functions for the filtered signals are discussed and a method...

  2. Short-circuit fault analysis and isolation strategy for matrix converters

    王莉娜; L De Lillo; C Brunson; L Empringham; P Wheeler


    The behavior of matrix converter (MC) drive systems under the condition of MC short-circuit faults is comprehensively investigated. Two isolation strategies using semiconductors and high speed fuses (HSFs) for MC short-circuit faults are examined and their performances are compared. The behavior of MC drive systems during the fuse action time under different operating conditions is explored. The feasibility of fault-tolerant operation during the fuse action time is also studied. The basic selection laws for the HSFs and the requirements for the passive components of the MC drive system from the point view of short-circuit faults are also discussed. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed isolation strategies.

  3. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems


    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  4. Study on Fault and Isolated Condition in Two Circuit Configurations of PV-ESS Hybrid System

    Myo Htaik; Ryoichi Hara; Hiroyuki Kita


    Most photovoltaic (PV) generation systems are connected with a utility grid and recognized as supplemental generation resources; but in some applications such as microgrid concept, a PV system works as a main resource. To improve the availability of PV systems, technological development for higher less output fluctuation in normal condition, higher fault tolerance in fault occurrence, and power demand and supply balancing in isolated condition are required. For these reasons, hybridization of...

  5. Consideration of Gyroscopic Effect in Fault Detection and Isolation for Unbalance Excited Rotor Systems

    Zhentao Wang; Arne Wahrburg; Stephan Rinderknecht


    Fault detection and isolation (FDI) in rotor systems often faces the problem that the system dynamics is dependent on the rotor rotary frequency because of the gyroscopic effect. In unbalance excited rotor systems, the continuously distributed unbalances are hard to be determined or estimated accurately. The unbalance forces as disturbances make fault detection more complicated. The aim of this paper is to develop linear time invariant (LTI) FDI methods (i.e., with constant parameters) for ro...

  6. Evidence against Late Quaternary activity along the Northern Karakoram Fault

    Robinson, A. C.; Owen, L. A.; Hedrick, K.; Blisniuk, K.; Sharp, W. D.; Chen, J.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Imrecke, D. B.; Yuan, Z.; Li, W.


    Although the entire 1000 km long Karakoram fault has long been interpreted to be active, recent work based primarily on interpretation of satellite imagery suggests that the northern end of the fault, where it enters the Pamir mountains, is inactive. We present field observations and geochronologic data from the southern end of the Tashkurgan valley, in the Pamir, on the Karakoram fault where it splits into two identifiable strands; an eastern strand which is the main trace of the Karakoram fault, and a western strand called the Achiehkopai fault. These results support the interpretation that the northern Karakoram fault is currently inactive, and has been for at least 200 ka: 1) Near the village of Dabudaer in the southern Tashkurgan valley the main trace of the Karakoram fault is orthogonally cut by a narrow incised valley with no observed lateral offset across the fault. Within this valley, a strath terrace ~50 m above the active drainage which overlies the main trace of the Karakoram fault which is capped by a carbonate cemented conglomerate. U-series analyses of carbonate cement from a correlative deposit located several km away yields a minimum depositional age of 76±12 ka. This age is coeval with the local Tashkurgan glacial stage we dated using Be-10 surface exposure dating (66±10 ka; Owen et al., 2012, Quaternary Science Reviews) suggesting both the conglomerate and strath terrace formed during this glacial stage. 2) ~25 km south of Dabudar, the main trace of the Karakoram projects beneath Tashkurgan glacial stage moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits which similarly show no evidence of disturbance by strike-slip deformation. Both of the above results demonstrate the main trace of the Karakoram fault has been inactive since at least ~70 ka. 3) Both the Karakoram and Achiehkopai faults are overlain by older Dabudaer glacial stage moraine deposits which are interpreted to be at least as old as the penultimate glacial, but may be >200 ka based on our Be-10

  7. Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection

    JIN Xuexiang; ZHANG Yi; LI Li; HU Jianming


    One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from abnor-mal traffic flow patterns caused by accidents and loop detector faults. This approach gives an effective traffic flow data pre-processing method to reduce the human effort in finding potential loop detector faults. The method can also be used to further investigate the causes of the abnormality.

  8. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of self-validating multifunctional sensors

    Yang, Jing-li; Chen, Yin-sheng; Zhang, Li-li; Sun, Zhen


    A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy for self-validating multifunctional sensors is presented in this paper. The sparse non-negative matrix factorization-based method can effectively detect faults by using the squared prediction error (SPE) statistic, and the variables contribution plots based on SPE statistic can help to locate and isolate the faulty sensitive units. The complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition is employed to decompose the fault signals to a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The sample entropy (SampEn)-weighted energy values of each IMFs and the residual are estimated to represent the characteristics of the fault signals. Multi-class support vector machine is introduced to identify the fault mode with the purpose of diagnosing status of the faulty sensitive units. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other fault detection strategies such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and fault diagnosis strategies such as empirical mode decomposition coupled with support vector machine. The proposed strategy is fully evaluated in a real self-validating multifunctional sensors experimental system, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID research topic of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

  9. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil


    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  10. Can cosmic ray exposure dating reveal the normal faulting activity of the Cordillera Blanca Fault, Peru?

    L.L. Siame


    Full Text Available The build-up of in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be within bedrock scarps and escarpments associated to the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, Peru, was measured to evaluate, through Cosmic Ray Exposure dating, its normal faulting activity. The highest mountain peaks in Peru belong to the 210 km-long, NW- striking, Cordillera Blanca. Along its western border, the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault is responsible for a vertical relief over 4.4 km, whose prominent 2 km high escarpment is characterized by ~1 km-high triangular facets corresponding to vertical displacements cumulated during the last 1-2 million years. At a more detailed scale, this fault system exhibits continuous geomorphic evidence of repeated displacements, underlined by 2 to 70 m-high scarps, corresponding to vertical displacements cumulated since Late Pleistocene and Holocene periods. Although microseismicity occurs along the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, no major historical or instrumental earthquake has been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish settlement in the 16th century. To evaluate the vertical slip rate along the major 90 km-long central segment of the Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault, the Quaternary fault escarpment (i.e., triangular facet, as well as the bedrock fault scarp, have been sampled for 10Be Cosmic Ray Exposure dating. Even if the uppermost part of the triangular facets have been resurfaced by the Last Glacial Maximum glaciers, our results allow to estimate a vertical slip-rate of 3±1 mm/yr, and suggest at least 2 seismic events during the last 3000 years.

  11. Towards an operational fault isolation expert system for French telecommunication satellite Telecom 2

    Haziza, M.


    The DIAMS satellite fault isolation expert system shell concept is described. The project, initiated in 1985, has led to the development of a prototype Expert System (ES) dedicated to the Telecom 1 attitude and orbit control system. The prototype ES has been installed in the Telecom 1 satellite control center and evaluated by Telecom 1 operations. The development of a fault isolation ES covering a whole spacecraft (the French telecommunication satellite Telecom 2) is currently being undertaken. Full scale industrial applications raise stringent requirements in terms of knowledge management and software development methodology. The approach used by MATRA ESPACE to face this challenge is outlined.

  12. Sensor fault detection and isolation in doubly-fed induction generators accounting for parameter variations

    Galvez-Carrillo, Manuel; Kinnaert, Michel [Dept. of Control Engineering and System Analysis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, CP 165/55, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    A fault detection and isolation (FDI) system for monitoring rotor current sensors in a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) for wind turbine applications is presented. The FDI system is designed so that the effect of parameter variations (resistances and inductances) is minimized. The residual generation is based on the generalized observer scheme (GOS) including parameter estimation. A decision system made of a combination of vector CUSUM (Cumulative sum) algorithms is used to process the residual vector and to achieve detection and isolation of incipient (small magnitude) faults. The approach is validated using signals obtained from a simulated vector-controlled DFIG. (author)

  13. Spatial radon anomalies on active faults in California

    Radon emanation has been observed to be anomalously high along active faults in many parts of the world. We tested this relationship by conducting and repeating soil-air radon surveys with a portable radon meter across several faults in California. The results confirm the existence of fault-associated radon anomalies, which show characteristic features that may be related to fault structures but vary in time due to other environmental changes, such as rainfall. Across two creeping faults in San Juan Bautista and Hollister, the radon anomalies showed prominent double peaks straddling the fault-gouge zone during dry summers, but the peak-to-background ratios diminished after significant rain fall during winter. Across a locked segment of the San Andreas fault near Olema, the anomaly has a single peak located several meters southwest of the slip zone associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Across two fault segments that ruptured during the magnitude 7.5 Landers earthquake in 1992, anomalously high radon concentration was found in the fractures three weeks after the earthquake. We attribute the fault-related anomalies to a slow vertical gas flow in or near the fault zones. Radon generated locally in subsurface soil has a concentration profile that increases three orders of magnitude from the surface to a depth of several meters; thus an upward flow that brings up deeper and radon-richer soil air to the detection level can cause a significantly higher concentration reading. This explanation is consistent with concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen, measured in soil-air samples collected during one of the surveys. (Author)

  14. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These...... inputs are disturbance inputs, reference inputs and auxilary inputs. The diagnosis of the system is derived by an evaluation of the signature from the inputs in the residual outputs. The changes of the signatures form the external inputs are used for detection and isolation of the parametric faults....

  15. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These...... inputs are disturbance inputs, reference inputs and auxilary inputs. The diagnosis of the system is derived by an evaluation of the signature from the inputs in the residual outputs. The changes of the signatures form the external inputs are used for detection and isolation of the parametric faults....

  16. Active Fault Tolerant Control of Livestock Stable Ventilation System

    Gholami, Mehdi


    of the hybrid model are estimated by a recursive estimation algorithm, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), using experimental data which was provided by an equipped laboratory. Two methods for active fault diagnosis are proposed. The AFD methods excite the system by injecting a so-called excitation...... degraded performance even in the faulty case. In this thesis, we have designed such controllers for climate control systems for livestock buildings in three steps: Deriving a model for the climate control system of a pig-stable. Designing a active fault diagnosis (AFD) algorithm for different kinds of...... fault. Designing a fault tolerant control scheme for the climate control system. In the first step, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live-stock building is derived. The model is a nonlinear hybrid model. Hybrid systems contain both discrete and continuous components. The parameters...

  17. Quaternary seismo-tectonic activity of the Polochic Fault, Guatemala

    Authemayou, Christine; Brocard, Gilles; Teyssier, Christian; Suski, Barbara; Cosenza, Beatriz; MoráN-Ical, Sergio; GonzáLez-VéLiz, Claussen Walther; Aguilar-Hengstenberg, Miguel Angel; Holliger, Klaus


    The Polochic-Motagua fault system is part of the sinistral transform boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala and the associated seismic activity poses a threat to ˜70% of the country's population. The aim of this study is to constrain the Late Quaternary activity of the Polochic fault by determining the active structure geometry and quantifying recent displacement rates as well as paleo-seismic events. Slip rates have been estimated from offsets of Quaternary volcanic markers and alluvial fan using in situ cosmogenic 36Cl exposure dating. Holocene left-lateral slip rate and Mid-Pleistocene vertical slip rate have been estimated to 4.8 ± 2.3 mm/y and 0.3 ± 0.06 mm/y, respectively, on the central part of the Polochic fault. The horizontal slip rate is within the range of longer-term geological slip rates and short-term GPS-based estimates. In addition, the non-negligible vertical motion participates in the uplift of the block north of the fault and seems to be a manifestation of the regional, far-field stress regime. We excavated the first trench for paleo-seismological study on the Polochic fault in which we distinguish four large paleo-seismic events since 17 ky during which the Polochic fault ruptured the ground surface.

  18. Fault Detection and Isolation for a Supermarket Refrigeration System - Part Two

    Yang, Zhenyu; Rasmussen, Karsten B.; Kieu, Anh T.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    The Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) using the Unknown Input Observer (UIO) for a supermarket refrigeration system is investigated. The original system's state $T_{goods}$ (temp. of the goods) is regarded as a system unknown input in this study, so that the FDI decision is not disturbed by the...... system uncertainties relevant to this state dynamic and the original system disturbance $Q_{airload}$ (the thermal feature of the air). It has been observed that a single UIO has a very good detection capability for concerned sensor and parametric faults. However, only the parametric fault can be...... isolated by using a bank of UIOs. Thereby, a complete FDI approach is proposed by combining the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) and UIO methods, after an extensive comparison of KF-, EKF- and UIO-based FDI methods is carried out. The simulation tests show that the complete FDI approach has a good and...

  19. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY


    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  20. A New Adaptive Kalman Estimator for Detection and Isolation of Multiple Faults Integrated in a Fault Tolerant Control

    H. Jamouli


    Full Text Available For sequential jumps detection, isolation, and estimation in discrete-time stochastic linear systems, Willsky and Jones (1976 have developed the Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR test. After each detection and isolation of one jump, the treatment of another possible jump is obtained by a direct state estimate and covariance incrementation of the Kalman filter originally designed on the jump-free system. This paper proposes to extend this approach from a state estimator designed on a reference model directly sensitive to system changes. We will show that the obtained passive GLR test can be easily integrated in a Fault Tolerant Control System (FTCS via a control law designed in order to asymptotically reject the effect of sequential jumps.

  1. The Lake Edgar Fault: an active fault in Southwestern Tasmania, Australia, with repeated displacement in the Quaternary

    Jensen, V; Gibson, G; R. Van Dissen; McCue, K.; Boreham, B.


    The Lake Edgar Fault in Western Tasmania, Australia is marked by a prominent fault scarp and is a recently reactivated fault initially of Cambrian age. The scarp has a northerly trend and passes through the western abutment of the Edgar Dam, a saddle dam on Lake Pedder. The active fault segment displaces geologically young river and glacial deposits. It is 29 ± 4 km long, and dips to the west. Movement on the fault has ruptured the ground surface at least twice within the ...

  2. A PC based time domain reflectometer for space station cable fault isolation

    Pham, Michael; McClean, Marty; Hossain, Sabbir; Vo, Peter; Kouns, Ken


    Significant problems are faced by astronauts on orbit in the Space Station when trying to locate electrical faults in multi-segment avionics and communication cables. These problems necessitate the development of an automated portable device that will detect and locate cable faults using the pulse-echo technique known as Time Domain Reflectometry. A breadboard time domain reflectometer (TDR) circuit board was designed and developed at the NASA-JSC. The TDR board works in conjunction with a GRiD lap-top computer to automate the fault detection and isolation process. A software program was written to automatically display the nature and location of any possible faults. The breadboard system can isolate open circuit and short circuit faults within two feet in a typical space station cable configuration. Follow-on efforts planned for 1994 will produce a compact, portable prototype Space Station TDR capable of automated switching in multi-conductor cables for high fidelity evaluation. This device has many possible commercial applications, including commercial and military aircraft avionics, cable TV, telephone, communication, information and computer network systems. This paper describes the principle of time domain reflectometry and the methodology for on-orbit avionics utility distribution system repair, utilizing the newly developed device called the Space Station Time Domain Reflectometer (SSTDR).

  3. Active tectonics west of New Zealand's Alpine Fault: South Westland Fault Zone activity shows Australian Plate instability

    De Pascale, Gregory P.; Chandler-Yates, Nicholas; Dela Pena, Federico; Wilson, Pam; May, Elijah; Twiss, Amber; Cheng, Che


    The 300 km long South Westland Fault Zone (SWFZ) is within the footwall of the Central Alpine Fault (<20 km away) and has 3500 m of dip-slip displacement, but it has been unknown if the fault is active. Here the first evidence for SWFZ thrust faulting in the "stable" Australian Plate is shown with cumulative dip-slip displacements up to 5.9 m (with 3 m throw) on Pleistocene and Holocene sediments and gentle hanging wall anticlinal folding. Cone penetration test (CPT) stratigraphy shows repeated sequences within the fault scarp (consistent with thrusting). Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating constrains the most recent rupture post-12.1 ± 1.7 ka with evidence for three to four events during earthquakes of at least Mw 6.8. This study shows significant deformation is accommodated on poorly characterized Australian Plate structures northwest of the Alpine Fault and demonstrates that major active and seismogenic structures remain uncharacterized in densely forested regions on Earth.

  4. Numerical simulation of fractal interface effect of mining-caused activation of fault

    Xie Heping; Zhao Jianfeng; Yu Guangming


    Mining-caused activation of fault is an important research subject in mining science. In the past, the influences of geometrical morphology of fault surface on the activation have not been revealed. In view of the fractal character of fault surface, the self-affine fractal curves and geological-mining models with these kinds of fractal fault surface are constructed in order to numerically simulate the mining-caused activation phenomenon of fractal fault surface, and the law of influence of fr...

  5. Sliding mode fault detection and fault-tolerant control of smart dampers in semi-active control of building structures

    Yeganeh Fallah, Arash; Taghikhany, Touraj


    Recent decades have witnessed much interest in the application of active and semi-active control strategies for seismic protection of civil infrastructures. However, the reliability of these systems is still in doubt as there remains the possibility of malfunctioning of their critical components (i.e. actuators and sensors) during an earthquake. This paper focuses on the application of the sliding mode method due to the inherent robustness of its fault detection observer and fault-tolerant control. The robust sliding mode observer estimates the state of the system and reconstructs the actuators’ faults which are used for calculating a fault distribution matrix. Then the fault-tolerant sliding mode controller reconfigures itself by the fault distribution matrix and accommodates the fault effect on the system. Numerical simulation of a three-story structure with magneto-rheological dampers demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control system. It was shown that the fault-tolerant control system maintains the performance of the structure at an acceptable level in the post-fault case.

  6. High Frequency Monitoring of the Aigion Fault Activity

    Cornet, Francois; Bourouis, Seid


    In 2007, a high frequency monitoring system was deployed in the 1000 m deep AIG10 well that intersects the Aigion fault at a depth of 760 m. This active 15 km long fault is located on the south shore of the Corinth rift, some 40 km east from Patras, in western central Greece. The borehole intersects quaternary sediments down to 495 m, then cretaceous and tertiary heavily tectonized deposits from the Pindos nappe. Below the fault encountered at 760 m, the borehole remains within karstic limestone of the Gavrovo Tripolitza nappe. The monitoring system involved two geophones located some 15 m above the fault, and two hydrophones located respectively at depths equal to 500 m and 250 m. The frequency domain for the data acquisition system ranged from a few Hz to 2500 Hz. The seismic velocity structure close to the borehole was determined through both sonic logs and vertical seismic profiles. This monitoring system has been active during slightly over six months and has recorded signals from microseismic events that occurred in the rift, the location of which was determined thanks to the local 11 stations, three components, short period (2 Hz), monitoring system. In addition, the borehole monitoring system has recorded more than 1000 events not identified with the regional network. Events were precisely correlated with pressure variations associated with two human interventions. These extremely low magnitude events occurred at distances that reached at least up to 1500 m from the well. They were associated, some ten days later, with some local rift activity. A tentative model is proposed that associates local short slip instabilities in the upper part of the fault close to the well, with a longer duration pore pressure diffusion process. Results demonstrate that the Aigion fault is continuously creeping down to a depth at least equal to 5 km but probably deeper.

  7. Active Fault Diagnosis in Sampled-data Systems

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    The focus in this paper is on active fault diagnosis (AFD) in closed-loop sampleddata systems. Applying the same AFD architecture as for continuous-time systems does not directly result in the same set of closed-loop matrix transfer functions. For continuous-time systems, the LFT (linear fractional...

  8. Computation of a Reference Model for Robust Fault Detection and Isolation Residual Generation

    Emmanuel Mazars


    Full Text Available This paper considers matrix inequality procedures to address the robust fault detection and isolation (FDI problem for linear time-invariant systems subject to disturbances, faults, and polytopic or norm-bounded uncertainties. We propose a design procedure for an FDI filter that aims to minimize a weighted combination of the sensitivity of the residual signal to disturbances and modeling errors, and the deviation of the faults to residual dynamics from a fault to residual reference model, using the ℋ∞-norm as a measure. A key step in our procedure is the design of an optimal fault reference model. We show that the optimal design requires the solution of a quadratic matrix inequality (QMI optimization problem. Since the solution of the optimal problem is intractable, we propose a linearization technique to derive a numerically tractable suboptimal design procedure that requires the solution of a linear matrix inequality (LMI optimization. A jet engine example is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Analysis on fault current limiting and recovery characteristics of a flux-lock type SFCL with an isolated transformer

    Highlights: ► Countermeasure to reduce the power burden of HTSC element consisting of the flux-lock type SFCL was studied. ► The power burden of HTSC element could be decreased by using the isolated transformer. ► The SFCL designed with the additive polarity winding could be confirmed to cause less power burden of the HTSC element. -- Abstract: The flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) can quickly limit the fault current shortly after the short circuit occurs and recover the superconducting state after the fault removes. However, the superconducting element comprising the flux-lock type SFCL can be destructed when the high fault current passes through the SFCL. Therefore, the countermeasure to control the fault current and protect the superconducting element is required. In this paper, the flux-lock type SFCL with an isolated transformer, which consists of two parallel connected coils on an iron core and the isolated transformer connected in series with one of two coils, was proposed and the short-circuit experimental device to analyze the fault current limiting and the recovery characteristics of the flux-lock type SFCL with the isolated transformer were constructed. Through the short-circuit tests, the flux-lock type SFCL with the isolated transformer was confirmed to perform more effective fault current limiting and recovery operation compared to the flux-lock type SFCL without the isolated transformer from the viewpoint of the quench occurrence and the recovery time of the SFCL

  10. Analysis of Space Shuttle Ground Support System Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Processes and Resources

    Gross, Anthony R.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael; Trent, Robert P.


    As part of the FDIR (Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery) Project for the Constellation Program, a task was designed within the context of the Constellation Program FDIR project called the Legacy Benchmarking Task to document as accurately as possible the FDIR processes and resources that were used by the Space Shuttle ground support equipment (GSE) during the Shuttle flight program. These results served as a comparison with results obtained from the new FDIR capability. The task team assessed Shuttle and EELV (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle) historical data for GSE-related launch delays to identify expected benefits and impact. This analysis included a study of complex fault isolation situations that required a lengthy troubleshooting process. Specifically, four elements of that system were considered: LH2 (liquid hydrogen), LO2 (liquid oxygen), hydraulic test, and ground special power.

  11. Analysis Of Seismic Performance Of Fps Base Isolated Structures Subjected To Near Fault Events

    Luigi Petti


    Full Text Available The paper examines the seismic behaviour of base isolated structures with friction pendulum slide bearing devices subjected to near fault events characterized by significant vertical ground motion components. In particular, in order to evaluate the effects of the mass eccentricity, of the ratio between the superstructure mass and the overall mass system, of the bearing radius of curvature and of the friction on the seismic response, non-linear dynamic analysis, carried out by using MDOF numerical model, have been performed by considering two near-fault seismic events, L’Aquila 2009 and Emilia Romagna 2012. The results obtained show that mass eccentricity do not influence significantly the main seismic response parameters, while the mass ratio, the friction coefficient and the radius strongly affect the seismic behaviour of the base isolated structures.

  12. Fault Detection and Isolation in Industrial Systems Based on Spectral Analysis Diagnosis

    Attia Daoudi; Mouloud Guemana; Ahmed Hafaifa


    The diagnoses in industrial systems represent an important economic objective in process industrial automation area. To guarantee the safety and the continuity in production exploitation and to record the useful events with the feedback experience for the curative maintenance. We propose in this work to examine and illustrate the application ability of the spectral analysis approach, in the area of fault detection and isolation industrial systems. In this work, we use a combined analysis dia...

  13. Exhumation history of an active fault to constrain a fault-based seismic hazard scenario: the Pizzalto fault (central Apennines, Italy) example.

    Tesson, Jim; Pace, Bruno; Benedetti, Lucilla; Visini, Francesco; Delli Rocioli, Mattia; Didier, Bourles; Karim, keddadouche; Gorges, Aumaitre


    A prerequisite to constrain fault-based and time-dependent earthquake rupture forecast models is to acquire data on the past large earthquake frequency on an individual seismogenic source and to compare all the recorded occurrences in the active fault-system. We investigated the Holocene seismic history of the Pizzalto normal fault, a 13 km long fault segment belonging to the Pizzalto-Rotella-Aremogna fault system in the Apennines (Italy). We collected 44 samples on the Holocene exhumed Pizzalto fault plane and analyzed their 36Cl and rare earth elements content. Conjointly used, the 36Cl and REE concentrations show that at least 6 events have exhumed 4.4 m of the fault scarp between 3 and 1 ka BP, the slip per event ranging from 0.3 to 1.2 m. No major events have been detected over the last 1 ka. The Rotella-Aremogna-Pizzalto fault system has a clustered earthquake behaviour with a mean recurrence time of 1.2 ka and a low to moderate probability (ranging from 4% to 26%) of earthquake occurrence over the next 50 years. We observed similarities between seismic histories of several faults belonging to two adjacent fault systems. This could again attest that non-random processes occurring in the release of the strain accumulated on faults, commonly referred to as fault interactions and leading to apparent synchronization. If these processes were determined as being the main parameter controlling the occurrence of earthquakes, it would be crucial to take them into account in seismic hazard models.

  14. Correlating hardware fault detection information from distributed control systems to isolate and diagnose a fault in pressurised water reactors

    Cilliers, Anthonie Christoffel


    Early fault identification systems enable detecting and diagnosing early onset faults or fault causes which allow maintenance planning on the equipment showing signs of deterioration or failure. This includes valve and leaks and small cracks in steam generator tubes usually detected by means of ultrasonic inspection. We have shown (Cilliers and Mulder, 2012) that detecting faults early during transient operation in NPPs is possible when coupled with a reliable reference to compare plant measu...

  15. A Proposition for Geodetic Recording of Active Fault Zones

    Ladislav Placer; Božo Koler


    Establishing recent displacements along faults is an important and delicate task. Larger faults are accompanied by broader fault zones that require a specific approach to geodetic measurements of fault block displacements. The vector of fault block displacements, or resultant, is a vector sum of differential displacements within the fault zone. For the purposes of recording the displacements we propose the stabilization of a geodetic network of points positioned in fault blocks...

  16. Finding Active Faults in a Glaciated and Forested Landscape: the Southern Whidbey Island Fault, Washington

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.


    The Puget Lowland, Washington, lies within the Cascadia forearc and is underlain by at least six seismically active and regionally significant crustal faults that together accommodate several mm/yr of net north-south shortening. The surface expression of pre-15-ka slip on Puget Lowland faults has been largely scoured away or covered by glacial deposits, and younger fault geomorphology is often concealed by vegetation and urban development. High-resolution aeromagnetic and lidar surveys, followed by geologic site investigations, have identified and confirmed late Holocene deformation on each of these mostly concealed but potentially hazardous faults. Most geomorphic features identified in lidar data are closely associated with linear magnetic anomalies that reflect the underlying basement structure of the fault and help map its full extent. The southern Whidbey Island fault (SWIF) is a case in point. The northwest-striking SWIF was mapped previously using borehole data and potential-field anomalies on Whidbey Island and marine seismic-reflection surveys beneath surrounding waterways. Gravity inversions and aeromagnetic mapping suggest that the SWIF extends at least 50 km southeast, from Vancouver Island to the Washington mainland, and transitions along its length from northeast-side-down beneath Puget Sound to northeast-side-up on the mainland. Abrupt subsidence at a coastal marsh on south-central Whidbey Island suggests that the SWIF experienced a MW 6.5 to 7.0 earthquake about 3 ka. Southeast of Whidbey Island, a hypothesized southeastward projection of the SWIF makes landfall between the cities of Seattle and Everett. Linear, northwest-striking magnetic anomalies in this mainland region do coincide with this hypothesized projection, are low in amplitude, and are best illuminated in residual magnetic fields. The most prominent of the residual magnetic anomalies extends at least 16 km, lies approximately on strike with the SWIF on Whidbey Island, and passes within

  17. A proposal of surveying and evaluating system of active faults for earthquake assessment

    1. Paleoseismology of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line active fault system: We investigated co-seismic faulting activity of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line active fault system (ISTL) to clarify behavioral segmentation of long and massive faults. Geomorphologic and geologic surveys, trench excavation, and seismic reflection survey in the southern to central parts of ISTL revealed paleoseismologic faulting events occurred in the last thousands years and characteristics of geometric, structural, and geomorphologic segments. Each paleoseismic event, co-seismic displacement of deposit, average slip rate, and recurrence intervals suggest that the latest paleo-earthquake occurred in 1700 cal y BP and involved multiple segments in the Okaya to the Shimotsuburai faults. The estimated surface rupture length for this event is up to 77 km or possibly up to 94 km long. The another latest event occurred after 1200 cal y BP at the Ichinose fault and adjacent active faults. In addition, ca. 1200 cal y BP event at the Gofukuji fault occurred and involved multiple segments in the northern ISTL. Behavioral boundaries of these distinctive paleoseismic events were present in segment boundaries of geometric characters and slip rate variation. In the ISTL, geometric segmentation and slip-rate variation likely coincide with the estimated behavioral segmentation. Therefore, this finding suggests that geometric segment and slip-rate variation play an important role to determine the size of the maximum behavioral segment. 2. Active fault study on the 1999 Taiwan Chichi Earthquake area: The earthquake fault was appeared along the Chelungpu Fault while the 1999 Chichi Earthquake has occurred. The N-S striking fault has been recognized as an active fault, however E-W direction earthquake fault has not been described before the earthquake as an active fault. The later fault appeared just beneath the Shihkang Dam and the dam was destroyed by the fault. This study revealed that the E

  18. Correlating hardware fault detection information from distributed control systems to isolate and diagnose a fault in pressurised water reactors

    Highlights: ► Attempt was to use available resources at a nuclear plant in a value added fashion. ► Includes plant measurement data and plant training and engineering simulator capabilities. ► Correlating fault detection data for systems to develop of a deterministic fault identifications system. ► After implementing a host of data manipulation algorithms, the results provided more information on the fault than expected. - Abstract: Early fault identification systems enable detecting and diagnosing early onset faults or fault causes which allow maintenance planning on the equipment showing signs of deterioration or failure. This includes valve and leaks and small cracks in steam generator tubes usually detected by means of ultrasonic inspection. We have shown (Cilliers and Mulder, 2012) that detecting faults early during transient operation in NPPs is possible when coupled with a reliable reference to compare plant measurements with during transients. The problem introduced by the distributed application of control systems operating independently to keep the plant operating within the safe operating boundaries was solved by re-introducing the fault information it into the measurement data, thereby improving plant diagnostic performance. This paper introduces the use of improved fault detection information received from all distributed systems in the plant control system and correlating the information to not only detect the fault but also to diagnose it based on the location and magnitude of the fault cause

  19. Palaeoseismology of the L'Aquila faults (central Italy, 2009, Mw 6.3 earthquake): implications for active fault linkage

    Galli, Paolo A. C.; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Peronace, Edoardo; Zuppi, Giovanni Maria


    Urgent urban-planning problems related to the 2009 April, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila earthquake prompted immediate excavation of palaeoseismological trenches across the active faults bordering the Aterno river valley; namely, the Mt. Marine, Mt. Pettino and Paganica faults. Cross-cutting correlations amongst existing and new trenches that were strengthened by radiocarbon ages and archaeological constraints show unambiguously that these three investigated structures have been active since the Last Glacial Maximum period, as seen by the metric offset that affected the whole slope/alluvial sedimentary succession up to the historical deposits. Moreover, in agreement with both 18th century accounts and previous palaeoseismological data, we can affirm now that these faults were responsible for the catastrophic 1703 February 2, earthquake (Mw 6.7). The data indicate that the Paganica-San Demetrio fault system has ruptured in the past both together with the conterminous Mt. Pettino-Mt. Marine fault system, along more than 30 km and causing an Mw 6.7 earthquake, and on its own, along ca. 19 km, as in the recent 2009 event and in the similar 1461 AD event. This behaviour of the L'Aquila faults has important implications in terms of seismic hazard assessment, while it also casts new light on the ongoing fault linkage processes amongst these L'Aquila faults.

  20. Nuclear Activity In Isolated Galaxies

    Hernandez-Ibarra, Francisco; Krongold, Yair; Del Olmo, Ascencion; Perea, Jaime; Gonzalez, Jesus


    We present a spectroscopic study of the incidence of AGN nuclear activity in two samples of isolated galaxies (Karachentseva, V.E. & Varela, J.). Our results show that the incidence of non-thermal nuclear activity is about 43% and 31% for galaxies with emission lines and for the total sample 40% and 27% respectively. For the first time we have a large number of bona-fide isolated galaxies (513 objects), with statistically significant number of all types. We find a clear relation between bulge mass and the incidence of nuclear activity in the sample with emission lines. This relation becomes flatter when we take into account the complete sample with no emission line galaxies. A large fration ($\\sim$70%) of elliptical galaxies or early type spirals have an active galactic nucleus and $\\sim$70% of them are LINERs. Only 3% of the AGN show the presence of broad lines (a not a single one can be classified as type 1 AGN). This is a remarkable result which is completely at odds with the unified model even if we c...

  1. Fault Diagnosis in a Centrifugal Pump Using Active Magnetic Bearings

    Nordmann Rainer; Aenis Martin


    The number of rotors running in active magnetic bearings (AMBs) has increased over the last few years. These systems offer a great variety of advantages compared to conventional systems. The aim of this article is to use the AMBs together with a developed built-in software for identification, fault detection, and diagnosis in a centrifugal pump. A single-stage pump representing the turbomachines is investigated. During full operation of the pump, the AMBs are used as actuators to generate def...

  2. Consideration of Gyroscopic Effect in Fault Detection and Isolation for Unbalance Excited Rotor Systems

    Zhentao Wang


    Full Text Available Fault detection and isolation (FDI in rotor systems often faces the problem that the system dynamics is dependent on the rotor rotary frequency because of the gyroscopic effect. In unbalance excited rotor systems, the continuously distributed unbalances are hard to be determined or estimated accurately. The unbalance forces as disturbances make fault detection more complicated. The aim of this paper is to develop linear time invariant (LTI FDI methods (i.e., with constant parameters for rotor systems under consideration of gyroscopic effect and disturbances. Two approaches to describe the gyroscopic effect, that is, as unknown inputs and as model uncertainties, are investigated. Based on these two approaches, FDI methods are developed and the results are compared regarding the resulting FDI performances. Results are obtained by the application in a rotor test rig. Restrictions for the application of these methods are discussed.

  3. A Robust Fault Detection and Isolation Scheme Based on Unknown Input Observers for Discrete Time-delay System with Disturbance

    WANG Hong-yu; TIAN Zuo-hua; SHI Song-jiao; WENG Zheng-xin


    This paper proposes a robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme for discrete time-delay system with disturbance. The FDI scheme can not only detect but also isolate the faults. The lifting method is exploited to transform the discrete time-delay system into the non-time-delay form. A generalized structured residual set is designed based on the unknown input observer (UIO). For each residual generator, one of the system input signals together with the corresponding actuator fault and the disturbance signals are treated as an unknown input term. The residual signals can not only be robust against the disturbance, but also be of the capacity to isolate the actuator faults. The proposed method has been verified by a numerical example.

  4. A Fault Detection and Isolation Scheme Based on Parity Space Method for Discrete Time-delay System

    WANG Hong-yu; TIAN Zuo-hua; SHI Song-jiao; WENG Zheng-xin


    A Fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme for discrete time-delay system is proposed in this paper, which can not only detect but also isolate the faults. A time delay operator ▽ is introduced to resolve the problem brought by the time-delay system. The design and computation for the FDI system is carried by computer math tool Maple, which can easily deal with the symbolic computation. Residuals in the form of parity space can be deduced from the recursion of the system equations. Further mote, a generalized residual set is created using the freedom of the parity space redundancy. Thus, both fault detection and fault isolation have been accomplished. The proposed method has been verified by a numerical example.

  5. A first approach on fault detection and isolation for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    Diaz Ledezma, F.


    In this paper, we use an extended version of the cardiovascular system\\'s state space model presented by [1] and propose a fault detection and isolation methodology to study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can originate from variations in physiological parameters and deviations in the performance of the heart\\'s mitral and aortic valves. An observer-based approach is discussed as the basis of the method. The approach contemplates a bank of Extended Kalman Filters to achieve joint estimation of the model\\'s states and parameters and to detect malfunctions in the valves\\' performance. © 2015 American Automatic Control Council.

  6. Active faults and related Late Quaternary deformation along the Northwestern Himalayan Frontal Zone, India

    T. Nakata


    Full Text Available Numerous newly-identified traces of active faults in the Himalayan foothill zone along the HFF around Chandigarh, in Pinjore Dun, along the piedmont zone of the Lower Siwalik hill front and within the Lower Tertiary hill range reveal the pattern of thrust and strike-slip faulting, striking parallel to the principal structural trend (NNW-SSE of the orogenic belt. The active Chandigarh Fault, Pinjore Garden Fault and Barsar thrust have vertically dislocated, warped and backtilted fluvial and alluvial-fan surfaces made up of Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments. West- and southwest-facing fault scarplets with heights ranging from 12 to 50 m along these faults suggest continued tectonic movement through Late Pleistocene to recent times. Gentle warping and backtilting of the terraces on the hanging wall sides of the faults indicate fault-bend folding. These active faults are the manifestation of north-dipping imbricated thrust faults branching out from the major fault systems like the Main Boundary Fault (MBF and Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF, probably merging down northward into a décollement. The Taksal Fault, striking NNW-SSE, shows prominent right-lateral movement marked by lateral offset of streams and younger Quaternary terraces and occupies a narrow deep linear valley along the fault trace. Right stepping along this fault has resulted in formation of a small pull-apart basin. Fault scarplets facing ENE and WSW are the manifestation of dip-slip movement. This fault is an example of slip-partitioning between the strike-slip and thrust faults, suggesting ongoing oblique convergence of the Indian plate and northward migration of a tectonic sliver. Slip rate along the Taksal Fault has been calculated as 2.8 mm/yr. Preliminary trench investigation at the base of the Chandigarh Fault Scarp has revealed total displacement of 3.5 m along a low angle thrust fault with variable dip of 20° to 46° due northeast, possibly the result of one

  7. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    Boukhnifer, Moussa


    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  8. Continuous monitoring of an active fault in a plate suture zone: a creepmeter study of the Chihshang Fault, eastern Taiwan

    Lee, J.-C.; Angelier, J.; Chu, H.-T.; Hu, J.-C.; Jeng, F.-S.


    Data from continuously monitored creepmeters across the active Chihshang Fault in eastern Taiwan are presented. The Chihshang Fault is an active segment of the Longitudinal Valley Fault, the main suture between the converging Philippine and Eurasian plates in Taiwan. Since the 1951 earthquake (Mw=7.0), no earthquake larger than magnitude 6.0 occurred in the Chihshang area. At least during the last 20 years, the Chihshang Fault underwent a steady creep movement, resulting in numerous fractures at the surface. Five creepmeters were installed in 1998 at two sites, Tapo and Chinyuan, within the Chihshang active fault zone. One-year results (from August 1998 to July 1999) show a horizontal shortening of 19.4±0.3 mm and 17.3±0.7 mm, at Tapo and Chinyuan, respectively. These annual shortening rates are in a good agreement with other estimates of strain rate independently obtained from geodetic measurements and geological site investigation. The creepmeter measurements were made on a daily basis, providing accurate information on the previously unknown evolution of creep during the year. The records of fault creep at the Tapo site thus revealed close seasonal correlation with average rainfall: the period of high creep rate coincides with the wet season, whereas that of low creep rate coincides with the dry season. Also, in comparison with the Tapo site, the creep behaviour as a function of time is complex at the Chinyuan site. Possible factors of irregularity are under investigation (thermal effect acting on the concrete basement of the creepmeters, earth tide effect, water table variations in a nearby rice field, and rainfall). The comparison between GPS measurements across the Longitudinal Valley (31 mm/year of horizontal displacement) and the creepmeter measurement across the Chihshang Fault zone (17-19 mm/year of horizontal displacement) suggests that there exists other shortening deformation across the active fault zone in addition to those we have measured from the

  9. Feasibility of Orion Crew Module Entry on Half of Available Propellant Due to Tank Isolation Fault

    Moen, Marina M.


    The fuel tank isolation as a result of leak or rupture can leave an Orion Crew Module with only half of the loaded propellant for ISS return atmospheric entry. To assess the feasibility of returning under this condition, an analysis of various entry control options with deliberate degradation of control performance was performed. The study determined that a ballistic entry without a raise burn, a steeper flight path trajectory, relaxed atmospheric pitch/yaw rate damping, and degraded touchdown control could achieve 2-sigma requirements compliance with a 2-sigma fuel usage that is less than half of the liftoff propellant loading. The results of this analysis indicate that an entry with only half the nominal propellant load is feasible following a tank isolation fault.

  10. Fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis of status self-validating gas sensor arrays

    Chen, Yin-sheng; Xu, Yong-hui; Yang, Jing-li; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Shou-da; Wang, Qi


    The traditional gas sensor array has been viewed as a simple apparatus for information acquisition in chemosensory systems. Gas sensor arrays frequently undergo impairments in the form of sensor failures that cause significant deterioration of the performance of previously trained pattern recognition models. Reliability monitoring of gas sensor arrays is a challenging and critical issue in the chemosensory system. Because of its importance, we design and implement a status self-validating gas sensor array prototype to enhance the reliability of its measurements. A novel fault detection, isolation, and diagnosis (FDID) strategy is presented in this paper. The principal component analysis-based multivariate statistical process monitoring model can effectively perform fault detection by using the squared prediction error statistic and can locate the faulty sensor in the gas sensor array by using the variables contribution plot. The signal features of gas sensor arrays for different fault modes are extracted by using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) coupled with sample entropy (SampEn). The EEMD is applied to adaptively decompose the original gas sensor signals into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual. The SampEn values of each IMF and the residual are calculated to reveal the multi-scale intrinsic characteristics of the faulty sensor signals. Sparse representation-based classification is introduced to identify the sensor fault type for the purpose of diagnosing deterioration in the gas sensor array. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other different diagnostic approaches, and it is fully evaluated in a real status self-validating gas sensor array experimental system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed strategy provides an excellent solution to the FDID of status self-validating gas sensor arrays.

  11. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the 'cautiousness' of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the 'precaution faults' having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a 'precaution fault'. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  12. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Kakimi, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the `cautiousness` of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the `precaution faults` having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a `precaution fault`. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  13. A Proposition for Geodetic Recording of Active Fault Zones

    Ladislav Placer


    Full Text Available Establishing recent displacements along faults is an important and delicate task. Larger faults are accompanied by broader fault zones that require a specificapproachtogeodeticmeasurements of fault block displacements. The vector of fault block displacements, or resultant, is a vector sum of differential displacements within the fault zone. For the purposes of recording the displacements we propose the stabilization of a geodetic network of points positioned in fault blocks outside the fault zone, whereby the displacements would be manifested in the deformation of the network. The resultant displacement vector can then be derived from the latter deformation, and from that, the dip and strike of the fault zone as well as the extent of the displacement.

  14. A Hamiltonian Approach to Fault Isolation in a Planar Vertical Take–Off and Landing Aircraft Model

    Rodriguez-Alfaro Luis H.


    Full Text Available The problem of fault detection and isolation in a class of nonlinear systems having a Hamiltonian representation is considered. In particular, a model of a planar vertical take-off and landing aircraft with sensor and actuator faults is studied. A Hamiltonian representation is derived from an Euler-Lagrange representation of the system model considered. In this form, nonlinear decoupling is applied in order to obtain subsystems with (as much as possible specific fault sensitivity properties. The resulting decoupled subsystem is represented as a Hamiltonian system and observer-based residual generators are designed. The results are presented through simulations to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Offshore active faults of the Mikata fault zone in Fukui, Japan, revealed by high-resolution seismic profiles

    Inoue, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sakamoto, I.; Takino, Y.; Murakami, F.; Hosoya, T.; Usami, T.


    The Mikata fault zone are located in coastal and shallow sea area off Fukui Prefecture, West Japan. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and Tokai University conducted, as part of MEXT 2013 nearshore active fault survey project, a high-resolution multi-channel seismic survey using Boomer and a 12-channel streamer cable, acoustic profiling survey using parametric sub-bottom profiler and shallow-sea offshore drilling, in order to clarify distribution and activity of the Mikata fault zone. The seismic reflection surveys identified four reflection surfaces as vertical displacement markers in the post-glacial deposits at a depth ranging from ca. 4.5m to ca. 17m below the sea bottom on the downthrown side. We estimated the age of each marker reflection surface by using the C14 age and others from 4m-long core obtained on the downthrown side of fault and the sea level change in the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene around Japan. The results of these surveys have revealed that the fault system was reactivated three times since the latest Pleistocene. The vertical slip rate and average recurrence interval of the fault system are estimated at ca. 0.8-1.0 m/ky and 2,000-3,800 years, respectively.

  16. Fault-tolerant permanent-magnet synchronous machine drives: fault detection and isolation, control reconfiguration and design considerations

    MEINGUET, Fabien


    The need for efficiency, reliability and continuous operation has lead over the years to the development of fault-tolerant electrical drives for various industrial purposes and for transport applications. Permanent-magnet synchronous machines have also been gaining interest due to their high torque-to-mass ratio and high efficiency, which make them a very good candidate to reduce the weight and volume of the equipment.In this work, a multidisciplinary approach for the design of fault-tolerant...

  17. Bond graph to digraph conversion: A sensor placement optimization for fault detection and isolation by a structural approach

    Alem Saïd; Benazzouz Djamel


    In this paper, we consider the optimal sensors placement problem for faults detection and isolation using a novel structural and qualitative approach. This approach is based on the conversion of Bond Graph to Digraph representation of a structural system. When the fault detection and isolation of an existing system’s sensors are impossible or uncertain, a reconfiguration sensor placement of this system should be reconsidered. This paper proposes how this reconfiguration takes place by recovering all missing or redundant parts of the system. This novel approach is illustrated over a thermo-fluid application.


    Nemser, E.S.; Cabral, J.; Terrinha, P.; Vilanova, S.; Besana-Ostman, G.M.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Borges, J. F.; Brum da Silveira, A.; Carvalho, J.; R.P. Dias; P. M. Figueiredo; Fonseca, J.; Lopes, F.C.; J. Madeira; L. Matias


    To estimate where future earthquakes are likely to occur, it is essential to combine information about past earthquakes with knowledge about the location and seismogenic properties of active faults. For this reason, robust probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) integrates seismicity and active fault data. Existing seismic hazard assessments for Portugal rely exclusively on seismicity data and do not incorporate data on active faults. Project SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe...

  19. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey


    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  20. Modeling, control and fault diagnosis of an isolated wind energy conversion system with a self-excited induction generator subject to electrical faults

    Highlights: • A new model of the SEIG is developed to simulate both the rotor and stator faults. • This model takes iron loss, main flux and cross flux saturation into account. • A new control strategy based on Fractional-Order Controller (FOC) is proposed. • The control strategy is developed for the control of the wind turbine speed. • An on-line diagnostic procedure based on the stator currents analysis is presented. - Abstract: In this paper, a contribution to modeling and fault diagnosis of rotor and stator faults of a Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) in an Isolated Wind Energy Conversion System (IWECS) is proposed. In order to control the speed of the wind turbine, while basing on the linear model of wind turbine system about a specified operating point, a new Fractional-Order Controller (FOC) with a simple and practical design method is proposed. The FOC ensures the stability of the nonlinear system in both healthy and faulty conditions. Furthermore, in order to detect the stator and rotor faults in the squirrel-cage self-excited induction generator, an on-line fault diagnostic technique based on the spectral analysis of stator currents of the squirrel-cage SEIG by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is used. Additionally, a generalized model of the squirrel-cage SEIG is developed to simulate both the rotor and stator faults taking iron loss, main flux and cross flux saturation into account. The efficiencies of generalized model, control strategy and diagnostic procedure are illustrated with simulation results

  1. Estimation of active faulting in a slow deformation area: Culoz fault as a case study (Jura-Western Alps junction).

    de La Taille, Camille; Jouanne, Francois; Crouzet, Christian; Jomard, Hervé; Beck, Christian; de Rycker, Koen; van Daele, Maarten; Lebourg, Thomas


    The north-western Alps foreland is considered as still experiencing distal effects of Alpine collision, resulting in both horizontal and vertical relative displacements. Based on seismological and geodetic surveys, detailed patterns of active faulting (including subsurface décollements, blind ramps and deeper crustal thrusts have been proposed (Thouvenot et al., 1998), underlining the importance of NW-SE left-lateral strike-slip offsets as along the Vuache and Culoz faults (cf. the 1996 Epagny event: M=5.4; Thouvenot et al., 1998 and the 1822 Culoz event I=VII-VIII; Vogt, 1979). In parallel to this tectonic evolution, the last glaciation-deglaciation cycles contributed to develop large and over-deepened lacustrine basins, such as Lake Le Bourget (Perrier, 1980). The fine grain, post LGM (ie post 18 ky), sedimentary infill gives a good opportunity to evidence late quaternary tectonic deformations. This study focuses on the Culoz fault, extending from the Jura to the West, to the Chautagne swamp and through the Lake Le Bourget to the East. Historical earthquakes are known nearby this fault as ie the 1822 Culoz event. The precise location and geometry of the main fault is illustrated but its Eastern termination still needs to be determined. High resolution seismic sections and side-scan sonar images performed in the 90's (Chapron et al., 1996) showed that the Col du Chat and Culoz faults have locally deformed the quaternary sedimentary infill of the lake. These studies, mainly devoted to paleo-climate analysis were not able to determine neither the geometry of the fault, or to quantify the observed deformations. A new campaign devoted to highlight the fault geometry and associated deformation, has been performed in October 2013. Very tight profiles were performed during this high resolution seismic survey using seistec boomer and sparker sources. In several places the rupture reaches the most recent seismic reflectors underlying that these faults were active during

  2. A Comprehensive Investigation of an Offshore Active Fault in the Western Sagami Bay, Central Japan

    吴时国; 坂本泉; 徐纪人; 黄孝健


    Offshore active faults, especially those in the deep sea, are very difficult to study because of the waterand sedimentary cover. To characterize the nature and geometry of offshore active faults, a combination of methods mustbe employed. Generally, seismic profiling is used to map these faults, but often only fault-related folds rather thanfracture planes are imaged. Multi-beam swath bathymetry provides information on the structure and growth history of afault because movements of an active fault are reflected in the bottom morphology. Submersible and deep-tow surveysallow direct observations of deformations on the seafloor (including fracture zones and microstructures). In the deep sea,linearly aligned cold seep communities provide indirect evidence for active faults and the spatial migration of theiractivities.The Western Sagami Bay fault (WSBF) in the western Sagami Bay off central Japan is an active fault that has beenstudied in detail using the above methods. The bottom morphology, fractured breccias directly observed andphotographed, seismic profiles, as well as distribution and migration of cold seep communities provide evidence for thenature and geometry of the fault. Focal mechanism solutions of selected earthquakes in the western Sagami Bay duringthe period from 1900 to 1995 show that the maximum compression trends NW-SE and the minimum stress axis strikesNE-SW, a stress pattern indicating a left-lateral strike-slip fault.

  3. An ensemble of dynamic neural network identifiers for fault detection and isolation of gas turbine engines.

    Amozegar, M; Khorasani, K


    In this paper, a new approach for Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) of gas turbine engines is proposed by developing an ensemble of dynamic neural network identifiers. For health monitoring of the gas turbine engine, its dynamics is first identified by constructing three separate or individual dynamic neural network architectures. Specifically, a dynamic multi-layer perceptron (MLP), a dynamic radial-basis function (RBF) neural network, and a dynamic support vector machine (SVM) are trained to individually identify and represent the gas turbine engine dynamics. Next, three ensemble-based techniques are developed to represent the gas turbine engine dynamics, namely, two heterogeneous ensemble models and one homogeneous ensemble model. It is first shown that all ensemble approaches do significantly improve the overall performance and accuracy of the developed system identification scheme when compared to each of the stand-alone solutions. The best selected stand-alone model (i.e., the dynamic RBF network) and the best selected ensemble architecture (i.e., the heterogeneous ensemble) in terms of their performances in achieving an accurate system identification are then selected for solving the FDI task. The required residual signals are generated by using both a single model-based solution and an ensemble-based solution under various gas turbine engine health conditions. Our extensive simulation studies demonstrate that the fault detection and isolation task achieved by using the residuals that are obtained from the dynamic ensemble scheme results in a significantly more accurate and reliable performance as illustrated through detailed quantitative confusion matrix analysis and comparative studies. PMID:26881999

  4. Response of Seismically Isolated Steel Frame Buildings with Sustainable Lead-Rubber Bearing (LRB) Isolator Devices Subjected to Near-Fault (NF) Ground Motions

    Jong Wan Hu


    Base isolation has been used as one of the most wildly accepted seismic protection systems that should substantially dissociate a superstructure from its substructure resting on a shaking ground, thereby sustainably preserving entire structures against earthquake forces as well as inside non-structural integrities. Base isolation devices can operate very effectively against near-fault (NF) ground motions with large velocity pulses and permanent ground displacements. In this study, comparative...

  5. Relative tectonic activity assessment along the East Anatolian strike-slip fault, Eastern Turkey

    Khalifa, Abdelrahman


    The East Anatolian transform fault is a morphologically distinct and seismically active left-lateral strike-slip fault that extends for ~ 500 km from Karlıova to the Maraş defining the boundary between the Anatolian Block and Syrian Foreland. Deformed landforms along the East Anatolian fault provide important insights into the nature of landscape development within an intra-continental strike-slip fault system. Geomorphic analysis of the East Anatolian fault using geomorphic indices including mountain front sinuosity, stream length-gradient index, drainage density, hypsometric integral, and the valley-width to valley height ratio helped differentiate the faulting into segments of differing degrees of the tectonic and geomorphic activity. Watershed maps for the East Anatolian fault showing the relative relief, incision, and maturity of basins along the fault zone help define segments of the higher seismic risk and help evaluate the regional seismic hazard. The results of the geomorphic indices show a high degree of activity, reveal each segment along the fault is active and represent a higher seismic hazard along the entire fault.

  6. Measurements of soil gas radon in active fault systems: A case study along the North and East anatolian fault systems in Turkey

    We have used solid-state nuclear track detectors (CR-39) in order to determine the profile of the soil radon in district areas of the North and East Anatolian active fault systems in Turkey. It has been shown that the radon anomalies among the fault zones are relatively high in the fault line while dramatically decreases by going away from the lines. Radon concentrations in both active fault systems ranged from 4.3 to 9.8kBqm-3. The average radon concentration levels in the North Anatolian Fault System are relatively higher than the East Anatolian Fault System. Radon measurement technique is proved to be a good tool for detection and mapping of the active fault zone, and also in the case of continuous monitoring of radon anomalies connected with earthquake events

  7. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander


    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just

  8. Characteristics of Late Quaternary Activity of the Luhuatai Buried Fault Revealed by Drilling

    Lei Qiyun; Chai Chizhang; Du Peng; Wang Yin; Meng Guangkui


    The Luhuatai fault is one of the important buried tectonics in the Yinchuan basin. Based on the results of shallow seismic exploration, we conducted composite drilling section exploration and dating of the samples from boreholes. Some useful data was obtained, such as the depth of the upper breaking point, the latest activity age, displacement in the late Quaternary, and slip rates, etc. This study shows that the activity is different between the north and south segment along the Luhuatai fault. The north segment is a Holocene fault, while the south segment is a late mid-Pleistocene fault. From north to south along the north segment of Luhuatai fault, the activity has been enhanced, and the faulting is stronger in late Pleistocene than Holocene.

  9. Fault and graben growth along active magmatic divergent plate boundaries in Iceland and Ethiopia

    Trippanera, D.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, J.; Abebe, B.


    Recent studies highlight the importance of annual-scale dike-induced rifting episodes in developing normal faults and graben along the active axis of magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB). However, the longer-term (102-105 years) role of diking on the cumulative surface deformation and evolution of MDPB is not yet well understood. To better understand the longer-term normal faults and graben along the axis of MDPB, we analyze fissure swarms in Iceland and Ethiopia. We first focus on the simplest case of immature fissure swarms, with single dike-fed eruptive fissures; these consist of a dike-fed eruptive fissures. We then consider the lateral termination of normal faults along these grabens to detect their upward or downward propagation. Most faults terminate as open fractures on flat surface, suggesting downward fault propagation; this is consistent with recent experiments showing dike-induced normal faults propagating downward from the surface. However, some normal faults also terminate as open fractures on monoclines, which resemble fault propagation folds; this suggests upward propagation of reactivated buried faults, promoted by diking. These results suggest that fault growth and graben development, as well as the longer-term evolution of the axis of MDPB, may be explained only through dike emplacement and that any amagmatic faulting is not necessary.

  10. The Acquisition High-resolution the Prospecting Technique of Seismic Data for of Active Faults

    Zhao Chengbin; Liu Baojin; Ji Jifa


    The high-resolution shallow seismic technique can be used for more accurately prospecting the position and property of faults and for the preliminary study of fault activity. The author obtains many high quality stack time sections through the prospecting methods of different seismic sources, different group intervals and different observation systems on the Xiadian fault. These sections clearly display the stratum structure and the structure characteristics from several meters to several hundred meters of the Xiadian fault. The resolutions of the different seismic sources, different group intervals and different observing systems are obtained. The prospecting methods and work parameters applicable for goal stratum of different depths and different accuracy requirements are proposed through the analysis of the stack time sections. This lays a good foundation for raising the prospecting resolution of the fault position and the latest active time of the fault.

  11. Active tectonics of the Ganzi-Yushu fault in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Shi, Feng; He, Honglin; Densmore, Alexander L.; Li, An; Yang, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiwei


    The ongoing convergence between India and Eurasia apparently is accommodated not merely by crustal shortening in Tibet, instead also by motions along strike slip faults which are usually boundaries between tectonic blocks, especially in the Tibetan Plateau. Quantification of this strike slip faulting is fundamental for understanding the collision between India and Eurasia. Here, we use a variety of geomorphic observations to place constraints on the late Quaternary kinematics and slip rates of the Ganzi-Yushu fault, one of the significant strike-slip faults in eastern Tibet. The Ganzi-Yushu fault is an active, dominantly left-lateral strike-slip structure that can be traced continuously for up to 500 km along the northern boundary of the clockwise-rotating southeastern block of the Tibetan Plateau. We analyse geomorphic evidence for deformation, and calculate the late Quaternary slip rates at four sites along the eastern portion of the fault trace. The latest Quaternary apparent throw rates are variable along strike but are typically ~ 1 mm/a. Rates of strike-slip displacement are likely to be an order of magnitude higher, 8-11 mm/a. Trenching at two locations suggests that the active fault behaviour is dominated by strike-slip faulting and reveals several earthquake events with refined information of timing. The 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu earthquake, which occurred on the northwestern segment of the Ganzi-Yushu fault zone, provides additional evidence for fault activity. These observations agree with GPS-derived estimates, and show that late Quaternary slip rates on the Ganzi-Yushu fault are comparable to those on other major active strike-slip faults in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Upper Pleistocene - Holocene activity of the Carrascoy Fault (Murcia, SE Spain): preliminary results from paleoseismological research.

    Martin-Banda, Raquel; Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Salazar, Angel; Rodriguez-Escudero, Emilio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Herrero, Maria J.; Medialdea, Alicia


    The Carrascoy Fault is located in the Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera (Southern Spain). In particular, the Carrascoy Fault is one of the major faults forming the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, the main structure accommodating the convergence between Nubian and Eurasian plates in the westernmost Mediterranean. So far, the Carrascoy Fault has been defined as a left-lateral strike-slip fault. It extends for at least 31 km in a NE-SW trend from the village of Zeneta (Murcia) at its northeastern tip, to the Cañaricos village, controlling the northern edge of the Carrascoy Range and its linkage to the Guadalentin Depression towards the southwest. This is an area of moderate seismic activity, but densely populated, the capital of the region, Murcia, being settled very close to the fault. Hence, the knowledge of the structure and kinematics of the Carrascoy Fault is essential for assessing reliably the seismic hazard of the region. We present a detailed-scale geological and geomorphological map along the fault zone created from a LIDAR DEM combined with fieldwork, and geological and geophysical information. Furthermore, a number of trenches have been dug across the fault at different locations providing insights in the fault most recent activity as well as paleoseismic data. Preliminary results suggest that the Cararscoy Fault has recently changed its kinematic showing a near pure reverse motion. According to this, the fault can be divided into two distinct segments, the eastern one: Zeneta - Fuensanta, and the western one: Fuensanta - Cañaricos, each one having its own characteristic style and geodynamics. Some new active strands of the fault locate at the foot of the very first relief towards the North of the older strand, forming the current southern border of the Guadalentin Depression. These new faults show an increasingly reverse component westwards, so that the Fuensanta - Cañaricos segment is constituted by thrusts, which are blind at its western end

  13. Prediction of near-field strong ground motions for scenario earthquakes on active fault

    Wang Haiyun; Xie Lili; Tao Xiaxin; Li Jie


    A method to predict near-field strong ground motions for scenario earthquakes on active faults is proposed. First,macro-source parameters characterizing the entire source area, i.e., global source parameters, including fault length, fault width,rupture area, average slip on the fault plane, etc., are estimated by seismogeology survey, seismicity and seismic scaling laws.Second, slip distributions characterizing heterogeneity or roughness on the fault plane, i.e., local source parameters, are reproduced/evaluated by the hybrid slip model. Finally, the finite fault source model, developed from both the global and local source parameters, is combined with the stochastically synthetic technique of ground motion using the dynamic corner frequency based on seismology. The proposed method is applied to simulate the acceleration time histories on three base-rock stations during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Comparisons between the predicted and recorded acceleration time histories show that the method is feasible and practicable.

  14. A Multi-level Approach for Complex Fault Isolation Based on Structured Residuals%复杂故障判定的基于结构化残差的多层次分析法

    叶鲁彬; 石向荣; 梁军


    In industrial processes, there exist faults that have complex effect on process variables. Complex and simple faults are defined according to their effect dimensions. The conventional approaches based on structured residuals cannot isolate complex faults. This paper presents a multi-level strategy for complex fault isolation. An extraction procedure is employed to reduce the complex faults to simple ones and assign them to several levels. On each level, faults are isolated by their different responses in the structured residuals. Each residual is obtained insensitive to one fault but more sensitive to others. The faults on different levels are verified to have different residual responses and will not be confused. An entire incidence matrix containing residual response characteristics of all faults is obtained, based on which faults can be isolated. The proposed method is applied in the Tennessee Eastman process example, and the effectiveness and advantage are demonstrated.

  15. Beyond the Motagua and Polochic faults: Active strike-slip faulting along the Western North America-Caribbean plate boundary zone

    Guzmán-Speziale, Marco


    I investigate the role of two strike-slip faults in the tectonics of the western North America-Caribbean plate margin. The Ixcan fault, located in Guatemala north of the Polochic fault, is seismically active, with earthquakes of magnitude up to 5.7 reported recently. Fault-plane solutions along this curvilinear but generally E-W trending fault indicate left-lateral, strike-slip displacement. Several historic earthquakes appear to have taken place along the Ixcan fault since 1728, the largest one being the 1816 event ( M = 7.5). The NW-SE trending Concordia fault in southeastern Mexico appears to be the site of the great ( M = 7.6) earthquake of 1902. Isoseismals for this event suggest shallow, left-lateral strike-slip faulting. I propose a seismotectonic model in which both faults are part of the deformation associated to the North America-Caribbean plate boundary zone. Transpressive structures are found in the fault steps between strike-slip fault systems.

  16. Determination of paleoseismic activity over a large time-scale: Fault scarp dating with 36Cl

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Sümer, Ökmen; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Uzel, Bora; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki


    Bedrock fault scarps are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct seismic activity in a large time-scale using cosmogenic 36Cl dating if built in carbonates. For this method, a surface along the fault scarp with a minimum amount of erosion is required to be chosen as an ideal target point. The section of the fault selected for sampling should cover at least two meters of the fault surface from the lower part of the scarp, where intersects with colluvium wedge. Ideally, sampling should be performed on a continuous strip along the direction of the fault slip direction. First, samples of 10 cm high and 15 cm wide are marked on the fault surface. Then, they are collected using cutters, hammer and chisel in a thickness of 3 cm. The main geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are also measured. Topographic shielding in the sampling spot is important to be estimated as well. Moreover, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are calculated. The physical and chemical preparations are carried in laboratory for AMS and chemical analysis of the samples. A Matlab® code is used for modelling of seismically active periods based on increasing production rate of 36Cl following each rupture, when a buried section of a fault is exposed. Therefore, by measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height, the timing of major ruptures and their offsets are determined. In our study, Manastır, Mugırtepe and Rahmiye faults in Gediz graben, Priene-Sazlı, Kalafat and Yavansu faults in Büyük Menderes graben and Ören fault in Gökava half-graben have been examined in the seismically active region of Western Turkey. Our results reconstruct at least five periods of high seismic activity during the Holocene time, three of which reveal seismic ruptures beyond the historical pre-existing data.

  17. Finding concealed active faults: Extending the southern Whidbey Island fault across the Puget Lowland, Washington

    Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Weaver, Craig S.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Liberty, Lee; Meagher, Karen L.; Pape, Kristin


    The southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIF), as previously mapped using borehole data, potential field anomalies, and marine seismic reflection surveys, consists of three subparallel, northwest trending strands extending ˜100 km from near Vancouver Island to the northern Puget Lowland. East of Puget Sound, the SWIF makes landfall between the cities of Seattle and Everett but is concealed beneath a thick mantle of young glacial deposits and vegetation. A ˜20-km-wide, northwest trending swath of subparallel, low-amplitude aeromagnetic anomalies crosses this region of the Puget Lowland and is on strike with the SWIF. The most prominent aeromagnetic anomaly, the Cottage Lake lineament, extends at least 18 km and lies approximately on strike with the SWIF on Whidbey Island. Subtle scarps and topographic lineaments on Pleistocene surfaces, visible on high-resolution lidar topography at a number of locations along the SWIF, lie on or near these magnetic anomalies. In the field, scarps exhibit northeast-side-up and vertical relief of 1 to 5 m. Excavations across several lidar scarps lying on or near magnetic anomalies show evidence for multiple folding and faulting events since deglaciation, most likely above buried reverse/oblique faults. Excavations in areas away from magnetic anomalies do not show evidence of tectonic deformation. In total, paleoseismological evidence suggests that the SWIF produced at least four earthquakes since deglaciation about 16,400 years ago, the most recent less than 2700 years ago.

  18. Active fault tolerant control of piecewise affine systems with reference tracking and input constraints

    Gholami, M.; Cocquempot, V.; Schiøler, H.; Bak, Thomas


    An active fault tolerant control (AFTC) method is proposed for discrete-time piecewise affine (PWA) systems. Only actuator faults are considered. The AFTC framework contains a supervisory scheme, which selects a suitable controller in a set of controllers such that the stability and an acceptable...

  19. Active Fault Diagnosis and Assessment for Aircraft Health Management Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA LaRC need for innovative methods and tools for the diagnosis of aircraft faults and failures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to...

  20. Seismic design considerations for active faulting at Yucca Mountain, NV

    This paper explores the seismic hazard concerns at Yucca Mountain, NV that implicitly results from near field vibratory ground motion, fault displacement within the proposed repository block and the complexity that these two issues add to the siting and licensing process. Three major zones or belts of contemporary regional seismicity intersect in the Yucca Mountain, NV area, the proposed site for the nation's first high-level radioactive waste repository. Within a 1,000 sq. km area of the Yucca Mountain site, there are 32 known faults with demonstrated or suggested Quaternary displacements. Holocene displacement is evident on three of the faults. The maximum magnitude earthquake for the site is estimated to be somewhere between M 6.5--7.0. Free field peak ground acceleration from a maximum magnitude earthquake is estimated to range from 0.4--1.0 g. The maximum magnitude earthquake and resultant acceleration from movement on surface faults within the proposed repository block or on buried faults beneath the site without clear surface expression are estimated to be in the same range or larger. Due to the paucity of historical strong motion data recorded for near field earthquakes, estimate of potential ground motion and fault displacement effects within the repository block are extremely speculative

  1. Structural Design of Systems with Safe Behavior under Single and Multiple Faults

    Blanke, Mogens; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    Handling of multiple simultaneous faults is a complex issue in fault-tolerant control. The design task is particularly made difficult by to the numerous different cases that need be analyzed. Aiming at safe fault-handling, this paper shows how structural analysis can be applied to find the...... structural analysis to disclose which faults could be isolated from a structural point of view using active fault isolation. Results from application on a marine control system illustrate the concepts....

  2. Sonobuoy array measurements of active faulting on the Gorda Ridge

    Jones, P.R.; Johnson, S.H.


    The observed mismatch between the topography and the epicenter pattern associated with the Gorda Ridge spreading center was studied with two small arrays of four sonobuoys each deployed over the rift valley at 42/sup 0/37'N and 43/sup 0/N. Observed microearthquake activity originates from the crestal region and supports earlier suggestions of systematic mislocation of teleseismically determined epicenters on the Gorda Ridge. The observed seismic activity, which includes swarm events, averaged 3.5 events per hour over a total array recording time of 19.3 hours. Located microearthquakes originated from the median valley floor, valley walls, and crestal mountains. Other events, whose location could not be computed, appeared to originate from the surrounding crestal mountains with a predominance of events from west of the intersection of the Gorda Ridge and the Blanco fracture zone. Of 69 events detected, 5 were suitable fro the calculation of focal depth. Focal depths at the intersection of the Gorda Ridge and Blanco fracture zone are 6.5-10 km below a 3.5-km datum, while those farther to the south at a linear portion of the ridge range in depth from 2.5 to 6.5 km below datum. This may imply more rapid cooling near the fracture zone. A composite fault plane solution for three events on the eastern valley wall indicates movement on a high angle, with the inner wall moving upward with respect to the crestal mountains. This is the first direct evidence for uplift of median valley walls, a process which must occur if median valleys are steady state features of slowly spreading ridges.

  3. Active fault, fault growth and segment linkage along the Janauri anticline (frontal foreland fold), NW Himalaya, India

    Malik, Javed N.; Shah, Afroz A.; Sahoo, Ajit K.; Puhan, B.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Shinde, Dattatraya P.; Juyal, Navin; Singhvi, Ashok K.; Rath, Shishir K.


    The 100 km long frontal foreland fold — the Janauri anticline in NW Himalayan foothills represents a single segment formed due to inter-linking of the southern (JS1) and the northern (JS2) Janauri segments. This anticline is a product of the fault related fold growth that facilitated lateral propagation by acquiring more length and linkage of smaller segments giving rise to a single large segment. The linked portion marked by flat-uplifted surface in the central portion represents the paleo-water gap of the Sutlej River. This area is comparatively more active in terms of tectonic activity, well justified by the occurrence of fault scarps along the forelimb and backlimb of the anticline. Occurrence of active fault scarps on either side of the anticline suggests that the slip accommodated in the frontal part is partitioned between the main frontal thrust i.e. the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) and associated back-thrust. The uplift in the piedmont zone along southern portion of Janauri anticline marked by dissected younger hill range suggests fore-landward propagation of tectonic activity along newly developed Frontal Piedmont Thrust (FPT), an imbricated emergent thrust branching out from the HFT system. We suggests that this happened because the southern segment JS1 does not linked-up with the northwestern end of Chandigarh anticline segment (CS). In the northwestern end of the Janauri anticline, due to no structural asperity the tectonic activity on HFT was taken-up by two (HF1 — in the frontal part and HF2 — towards the hinterland side) newly developed parallel active faults ( Hajipur Fault) branched from the main JS2 segment. The lateral propagation and movements along HF1 and HF2 resulted in uplift of the floodplain as well as responsible for the northward shift of the Beas River. GPR and trench investigations suggest that earthquakes during the recent past were accompanied with surface rupture. OSL (optical stimulated luminescence) dates from the trench

  4. Fault and graben growth along active magmatic divergent plate boundaries in Iceland and Ethiopia

    Trippanera, D.


    Recent studies highlight the importance of annual-scale dike-induced rifting episodes in developing normal faults and graben along the active axis of magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB). However, the longer-term (102-105 years) role of diking on the cumulative surface deformation and evolution of MDPB is not yet well understood. To better understand the longer-term normal faults and graben along the axis of MDPB, we analyze fissure swarms in Iceland and Ethiopia. We first focus on the simplest case of immature fissure swarms, with single dike-fed eruptive fissures; these consist of a <1 km wide graben bordered by normal faults with displacement up to a few meters, consistent with theoretical models and geodetic data. A similar structural pattern is found, with asymmetric and multiple graben, within wider mature fissure swarms, formed by several dike-fed eruptive fissures. We then consider the lateral termination of normal faults along these graben, to detect their upward or downward propagation. Most faults terminate as open fractures on flat surface, suggesting downward fault propagation; this is consistent with recent experiments showing dike-induced normal faults propagating downward from the surface. However, some normal faults also terminate as open fractures on monoclines, which resemble fault propagation folds; this suggests upward propagation of reactivated buried faults, promoted by diking. These results suggest that fault growth and graben development, as well as the longer-term evolution of the axis of MDPB, may be explained only through dike emplacement and that any amagmatic faulting is not necessary.

  5. Fault detection and isolation of a dual spool gas turbine engine using dynamic neural networks and multiple model approach

    Sadough Vanini, Z.N.; K Khorasani; Meskin, N.


    In this paper, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme for an aircraft jet engine is developed. The proposed FDI system is based on the multiple model approach and utilizes dynamic neural networks (DNNs) to accomplish this goal. Towards this end, multiple DNNs are constructed to learn the nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft jet engine. Each DNN corresponds to a specific operating mode of the healthy engine or the faulty condition of the jet engine. Using residuals obtained by comparing ea...

  6. Geological isolation of radioactive waste in clay formations: fractures and faults as possible pathways for radionuclide migration

    Long-term isolation of radioactive waste can be provided by a combination of natural and man-made barriers. Geological formations of different types have been proposed as suitable natural barriers for radioactive waste isolation. Argillaceous formations can have very favourable characteristics such as: low permeability, high sorption capacity, high plasticity. The retention properties and the low intrinsic permeability can guarantee waste isolation as long as the rock is homogeneous and integer. The presence of undetected fractures, or fractures formed after waste emplacement, can seriously compromise the efficiency of the barrier. In general terms clay formations are expected to respond in a plastic way to external stresses, thus fault and fracture formation should be a rare phenomenon in such media. This plastic behaviour seems supported by mathematical models applied to both conceptual and specific cases. Nevertheless, faults and fractures have been observed in clay outcrops, in quarries and in relatively deep tunnels. In some quarries, fissures surrounded by oxidation zones 1 or 2 cm thick have been seen. The mechanisms of fault and fracture formation in clays must be investigated and the possibility that they can act as pathways of enhanced water and radionuclide migration must be evaluated. (Auth.)

  7. Geomorphic features of active faults around the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, and no evidence of surface rupture associated with the 2015 Gorkha earthquake along the faults

    Kumahara, Yasuhiro; Chamlagain, Deepak; Upreti, Bishal Nath


    The M7.8 April 25, 2015, Gorkha earthquake in Nepal was produced by a slip on the low-angle Main Himalayan Thrust, a décollement below the Himalaya that emerges at the surface in the south as the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). The analysis of the SAR interferograms led to the interpretations that the event was a blind thrust and did not produce surface ruptures associated with the seismogenic fault. We conducted a quick field survey along four active faults near the epicentral area around the Kathmandu Valley (the Jhiku Khola fault, Chitlang fault, Kulekhani fault, Malagiri fault and Kolphu Khola fault) from July 18-22, 2015. Those faults are located in the Lesser Himalaya on the hanging side of the HFT. Based on our field survey carried out in the area where most typical tectonic landforms are developed, we confirmed with local inhabitants the lack of any new surface ruptures along these faults. Our observations along the Jhiku Khola fault showed that the fault had some definite activities during the Holocene times. Though in the past it was recognized as a low-activity thrust fault, our present survey has revealed that it has been active with a predominantly right-lateral strike-slip with thrust component. A stream dissecting a talus surface shows approximately 7-m right-lateral offset, and a charcoal sample collected from the upper part of the talus deposit yielded an age of 870 ± 30 y.B.P, implying that the talus surface formed close to 870 y.B.P. Accordingly, a single or multiple events of the fault must have occurred during the last 900 years, and the slip rate we estimate roughly is around 8 mm/year. The fault may play a role to recent right-lateral strike-slip tectonic zone across the Himalayan range. Since none of the above faults showed any relationship corresponding to the April 25 Gorkha earthquake, it is possibility that a potential risk of occurrence of large earthquakes does exist close to the Kathmandu Valley due to movements of these active

  8. Results From NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Nicaragua, Central American Volcanic Arc

    Funk, J.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K.; Wulf, S.; Dull, R.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.


    In May of 2006 we used a chartered ferry boat to collect 520 km of seismic data, 886 km of 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler data, and 35 cores from Lake Nicaragua. The lake covers an area of 7700 km2 within the active Central American volcanic arc, forms the largest lake in Central America, ranks as the twentieth largest freshwater lake in the world, and has never been previously surveyed or cored in a systematic manner. Two large stratovolcanoes occupy the central part of the lake: Concepcion is presently active, Maderas was last active less than 2000 years ago. Four zones of active faulting and doming of the lake floor were mapped with seismic and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiling. Two of the zones consist of 3-5-km-wide, 20-30-km-long asymmetric rift structures that trend towards the inactive cone of Maderas Volcano in a radial manner. The northeastern rift forms a 20-27-m deep depression on the lake bottom that is controlled by a north-dipping normal fault. The southwestern rift forms a 25-35-m deep depression controlled by a northeast-dipping normal fault. Both depressions contain mound-like features inferred to be hydrothermal deposits. Two zones of active faulting are associated with the active Concepcion stratovolcano. A 600-m-wide and 6-km-long fault bounded horst block extends westward beneath the lake from a promontory on the west side of the volcano. Like the two radial rift features of Maderas, the horst points roughly towards the active caldera of Concepcion. A second north-south zone of active faulting, which also forms a high, extends off the north coast of Concepcion and corresponds to a localized zone of folding and faulting mapped by previous workers and inferred by them to have formed by gravitational spreading of the flank of the volcano. The close spatial relation of these faults to the two volcanic cones in the lake suggests that the mechanism for faulting is a result of either crustal movements related to magma intrusion or gravitational sliding and is

  9. Correlation between the spatial distribution of radon anomalies and fault activity in the northern margin of West Qinling Fault Zone, Central China

    The spatial variations of soil gas in the northern edge of West Qinling Fault were investigated based on the field measurement of radon concentration. Radon concentrations highlighted a decreasing gradient from the middle segment to NW and SE along the fault and the fault zone was divided into three segments. We observed that the measured radon data showed a moderate positive correlation with relative fault activity. The hazard segment area was marked according to the relationship between the spatial concentration anomaly values of soil-gas radon and the seismotectonic background. (author)

  10. Guaranteed Cost Active Fault-tolerant Control of Networked Control System with Packet Dropout and Transmission Delay

    Xiao-Yuan Luo; Mei-Jie Shang; Cai-Lian Chen; Xin-Ping Guan


    The problem of guaranteed cost active fault-tolerant controller (AFTC) design for networked control systems (NCSs)with both packet dropout and transmission delay is studied in this paper.Considering the packet dropout and transmission delay,a piecewise constant controller is adopted.With a guaranteed cost function,optimal controllers whose number is equal to the number of actuators are designed,and the design process is formulated as a convex optimal problem that can be solved by existing software.The control strategy is proposed as follows:when actuator failures appear,the fault detection and isolation unit sends out the information to the controller choosing strategy,and then the optimal stabilizing controller with the smallest guaranteed cost value is chosen.Two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.By comparing with the existing methods,it can be seen that our method has a better performance.

  11. 222Rn activity in soil gas across selected fault segments in the Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain

    222Rn activity in soil gas was measured across fault segments of the seismic active Ventaniella Fault and the seismic inactive Sabero-Gordón Fault in the Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain, in order to investigate the variability of the 222Rn concentration. The sampling took place in summer and autumn 2010. During the autumn measurement program, an additional 222Rn soil gas mapping was carried out in the Sabero-Gordón research area. Zones of elevated 222Rn activity in the soil gas were identified by background 222Rn values of the geological formations used for mapping and local background values from 222Rn values outside the elevated 222Rn activity zones. Unexpectedly, the Sabero-Gordón Fault showed higher 222Rn activity, up to 441 kBqm−3, compared to the 222Rn activity of the Ventaniella Fault which had a maximum of 106 kBqm−3. Comparison of the results shows that the values measured in summer are about 5 times higher than the autumn values. This difference is not reflected in petrophysical soil parameters or meteorological conditions documented during the field measurements. Based on the results of our work we conclude that the magnitude of 222Rn concentration in soil gas is not an indicator of local seismic activity of the investigated faults. For the studied segment of the aseismic Sabero-Gordón Fault we suggest active genesis of pathways for gas migration driven by aseismic fault slip causing the elevated 222Rn activity in soil gas.

  12. Zipper Faults

    Platt, J. P.; Passchier, C. W.


    Intersecting simultaneously active pairs of faults with different orientations and opposing slip sense ("conjugate faults") present geometrical and kinematic problems. Such faults rarely offset each other, even when they have displacements of many km. A simple solution to the problem is that the two faults merge, either zippering up or unzippering, depending on the relationship between the angle of intersection and the slip senses. A widely recognized example of this is the so-called blind front developed in some thrust belts, where a backthrust branches off a decollement surface at depth. The decollement progressively unzippers, so that its hanging wall becomes the hanging wall of the backthrust, and its footwall becomes the footwall of the active decollement. The opposite situation commonly arises in core complexes, where conjugate low-angle normal faults merge to form a single detachment; in this case the two faults zipper up. Analogous situations may arise for conjugate pairs of strike-slip faults. We present kinematic and geometrical analyses of the Garlock and San Andreas faults in California, the Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia, the North and East Anatolian faults, the Karakoram and Altyn Tagh faults in Tibet, and the Tonale and Guidicarie faults in the southern Alps, all of which appear to have undergone zippering over distances of several tens to hundreds of km. The zippering process may produce complex and significant patterns of strain and rotation in the surrounding rocks, particularly if the angle between the zippered faults is large. A zippering fault may be inactive during active movement on the intersecting faults, or it may have a slip rate that differs from either fault. Intersecting conjugate ductile shear zones behave in the same way on outcrop and micro-scales.

  13. Response of Seismically Isolated Steel Frame Buildings with Sustainable Lead-Rubber Bearing (LRB Isolator Devices Subjected to Near-Fault (NF Ground Motions

    Jong Wan Hu


    Full Text Available Base isolation has been used as one of the most wildly accepted seismic protection systems that should substantially dissociate a superstructure from its substructure resting on a shaking ground, thereby sustainably preserving entire structures against earthquake forces as well as inside non-structural integrities. Base isolation devices can operate very effectively against near-fault (NF ground motions with large velocity pulses and permanent ground displacements. In this study, comparative advantages for using lead-rubber bearing (LRB isolation systems are mainly investigated by performing nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses with NF ground motions. The seismic responses with respects to base shears and inter-story drifts are compared according to the installation of LRB isolation systems in the frame building. The main function of the base LRB isolator is to extend the period of structural vibration by increasing lateral flexibility in the frame structure, and thus ground accelerations transferred into the superstructure can dramatically decrease. Therefore, these base isolation systems are able to achieve notable mitigation in the base shear. In addition, they make a significant contribution to reducing inter-story drifts distributed over the upper floors. Finally, the fact that seismic performance can be improved by installing isolation devices in the frame structure is emphasized herein through the results of nonlinear dynamic analyses.

  14. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A


    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (pwhey protein isolate has an

  15. Active fault creep variations at Chihshang, Taiwan, revealed by creep meter monitoring, 1998-2001

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Angelier, Jacques; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Jeng, Fu-Shu; Rau, Ruey-Juin


    The daily creep meter data recorded at Chihshang in 1998-2001 are presented. The Chihshang creep meter experiment was set up across the Chihshang thrust fault, the most active segment of the Longitudinal Valley Fault, which is the present-day plate suture between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates in eastern Taiwan. Near-continuous data recording at two sites revealed different surface fault motions yet similar annual shortening rates: 16.2 mm at the Tapo site (comprising two connected creep meters) and 15.0 mm at the Chinyuan site (three creep meters straddling parallel fault branches). Four of the five creep meters showed a seasonal variation, with the fault moving steadily during the rainy season from April to October, and remaining quiescent during the rest of the year. The only exception was recorded by the creep meter located on a mélange-composed hillslope, where local gravitational landsliding played an additional role other than tectonic faulting. Through comparison with daily precipitation data, we inferred that moderate rainfall suffices to trigger or facilitate slippage on the surface fault, during the transition period of the dry/wet season. During the observation period from 1998 to 2001, the subsurface seismicity exhibited clusters of microearthquakes on the Chihshang Fault at depths of 10-25 km. Recurrent earthquakes occurred regardless of whether the season was wet or dry, indicating that the stress relaxation associated with seismicity in the seismogenic zone did not transfer immediately up to the surface. The accumulated strain on the Chihshang Fault at shallow surface levels was released through creep during the wet season. In addition to these short-term seasonal variations, an apparent decrease in the annual slipping rate on the Chihshang Fault during the last few years deserves further investigation in order to mitigate against seismic hazard.

  16. Holocene activities of the Taigu fault zone,Shanxi Province, and their relations with the 1303 Hongdong M=8 earthquake

    谢新生; 江娃利; 王焕贞; 冯西英


    The Taigu fault zone is one of the major 12 active boundary faults of the Shanxi fault-depression system, locatedon the eastern boundary of the Jinzhong basin. As the latest investigation indicated, the fault zone had dislocatedgully terrace of the f1rst order, forming fault-scarp in front of the loess mesa. It has been discovered in many placesin ground surface and trenches that Holocene deposits were dislocated. The latest activity was the 1303 Hongdongearthquake M=8, the fault appeared as right-lateral strike-slip with normal faulting. During that earthquake, theTaigu fault together with the Mianshan western-side fault on the Lingshi upheaval and the Huoshan pediment faulton the eastern boundary of the Linfen basin was being active, forming a surface rupture belt of 160 km in length.Moreover, the Taigu fault were active in the mid-stage of Holocene and near 7 700 aB.P. From these we learnt that,in Shanxi fault-depression system, the run-through activity of two boundary faults of depression-basins mightgenerate great earthquake with M=8.

  17. An active viscoelastic metamaterial for isolation applications

    Reynolds, M.; Daley, S.


    Metamaterials are of interest due to their ability to produce novel acoustic behaviour beyond that seen in naturally occurring media. Of particular interest is the appearance of band gaps which lead to very high levels of attenuation within narrow frequency ranges. Resonant elements within metamaterials allow band gaps to form within the long wavelength limit at low frequencies where traditional passive isolation solutions suffer poor performance. Hence metamaterials may provide a path to high performance, low frequency isolation. Two metamaterials are presented here. An acoustic material consisting of an array of split hollow spheres is developed, and its performance is validated experimentally. The application of an acoustic/mechanical analogy allows the development of an elastodynamic metamaterial that could be employed as a high performance vibration isolator at low frequencies. A prototype isolator is manufactured, and its performance is measured. The passively occurring band gap is enhanced using an active control architecture. The use of the active control system in conjunction with the natural passive behaviour of the metamaterial enables high levels of isolation across a broad frequency range. An eventual goal of the work is to produce such materials on a small scale, and as such the metamaterials developed are designed for, and produced using, additive layer manufacturing techniques.

  18. An active viscoelastic metamaterial for isolation applications

    Metamaterials are of interest due to their ability to produce novel acoustic behaviour beyond that seen in naturally occurring media. Of particular interest is the appearance of band gaps which lead to very high levels of attenuation within narrow frequency ranges. Resonant elements within metamaterials allow band gaps to form within the long wavelength limit at low frequencies where traditional passive isolation solutions suffer poor performance. Hence metamaterials may provide a path to high performance, low frequency isolation. Two metamaterials are presented here. An acoustic material consisting of an array of split hollow spheres is developed, and its performance is validated experimentally. The application of an acoustic/mechanical analogy allows the development of an elastodynamic metamaterial that could be employed as a high performance vibration isolator at low frequencies. A prototype isolator is manufactured, and its performance is measured. The passively occurring band gap is enhanced using an active control architecture. The use of the active control system in conjunction with the natural passive behaviour of the metamaterial enables high levels of isolation across a broad frequency range. An eventual goal of the work is to produce such materials on a small scale, and as such the metamaterials developed are designed for, and produced using, additive layer manufacturing techniques. (paper)

  19. Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation of LTI systems by modified Youla parameterization

    Minupriya A


    Full Text Available In this paper an Active Fault Tolerant Control (FTC scheme is proposed for Linear Time Invariant (LTI systems, which achieves fault diagnosis followed by fault accommodation. The fault diagnosis scheme is carried out in two steps; Fault detection followed by Fault isolation. Fault detection filter use the sensor measurements to generate residuals, which have a unique static pattern in response to each fault. Distortion in these static patterns generates the probability of the presence of fault. The fault accommodation scheme is carried out using the Generalized Internal Model Control (GIMC architecture, also known as modified Youla parameterization. In addition, performance indices are also evaluated to indicate that the resulting fault tolerant scheme can detect, identify and accommodate actuator and sensor faults under additive faults. The DC motor example is considered for the demonstration of the proposed scheme.

  20. Triggered tremors beneath the seismogenic zone of an active fault zone, Kyushu, Japan

    Miyazaki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Shimizu, Hiroshi


    Non-volcanic tremors were induced by the surface waves of the 2012 Sumatra earthquake around the Hinagu fault zone in Kyushu, Japan. We inferred from dense seismic observation data that the hypocenters of these tremors were located beneath the seismogenic zone of the Hinagu fault. Focal mechanisms of the tremors were estimated using S-wave polarization angles. The estimated focal mechanisms show similarities to those of shallow earthquakes in this region. In addition, one of the nodal planes of the focal mechanisms is almost parallel to the strike direction of the Hinagu fault. These observations suggest that the tremors were triggered at the deeper extension of the active fault zone under stress conditions similar to those in the shallower seismogenic region. A low-velocity anomaly beneath the hypocentral area of the tremors might be related to the tremor activity.

  1. Connecting the Yakima fold and thrust belt to active faults in the Puget Lowland, Washington

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wells, Ray E.; Rohay, Alan C.; Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Knepprath, Nichole E.


    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys of the Cascade Range and Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB), Washington, provide insights on tectonic connections between forearc and back-arc regions of the Cascadia convergent margin. Magnetic surveys were measured at a nominal altitude of 250 m above terrain and along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Upper crustal rocks in this region have diverse magnetic properties, ranging from highly magnetic rocks of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group to weakly magnetic sedimentary rocks of various ages. These distinctive magnetic properties permit mapping of important faults and folds from exposures to covered areas. Magnetic lineaments correspond with mapped Quaternary faults and with scarps identified in lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic data and aerial photography. A two-dimensional model of the northwest striking Umtanum Ridge fault zone, based on magnetic and gravity data and constrained by geologic mapping and three deep wells, suggests that thrust faults extend through the Tertiary section and into underlying pre-Tertiary basement. Excavation of two trenches across a prominent scarp at the base of Umtanum Ridge uncovered evidence for bending moment faulting possibly caused by a blind thrust. Using aeromagnetic, gravity, and paleoseismic evidence, we postulate possible tectonic connections between the YFTB in eastern Washington and active faults of the Puget Lowland. We suggest that faults and folds of Umtanum Ridge extend northwestward through the Cascade Range and merge with the Southern Whidbey Island and Seattle faults near Snoqualmie Pass 35 km east of Seattle. Recent earthquakes (MW ≤ 5.3) suggest that this confluence of faults may be seismically active today.

  2. Active Crustal Faults in the Forearc Region, Guerrero Sector of the Mexican Subduction Zone

    Gaidzik, Krzysztof; Ramírez-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Kostoglodov, Vladimir


    This work explores the characteristics and the seismogenic potential of crustal faults on the overriding plate in an area of high seismic hazard associated with the occurrence of subduction earthquakes and shallow earthquakes of the overriding plate. We present the results of geomorphic, structural, and fault kinematic analyses conducted on the convergent margin between the Cocos plate and the forearc region of the overriding North American plate, within the Guerrero sector of the Mexican subduction zone. We aim to determine the active tectonic processes in the forearc region of the subduction zone, using the river network pattern, topography, and structural data. We suggest that in the studied forearc region, both strike-slip and normal crustal faults sub-parallel to the subduction zone show evidence of activity. The left-lateral offsets of the main stream courses of the largest river basins, GPS measurements, and obliquity of plate convergence along the Cocos subduction zone in the Guerrero sector suggest the activity of sub-latitudinal left-lateral strike-slip faults. Notably, the regional left-lateral strike-slip fault that offsets the Papagayo River near the town of La Venta named "La Venta Fault" shows evidence of recent activity, corroborated also by GPS measurements (4-5 mm/year of sinistral motion). Assuming that during a probable earthquake the whole mapped length of this fault would rupture, it would produce an event of maximum moment magnitude Mw = 7.7. Even though only a few focal mechanism solutions indicate a stress regime relevant for reactivation of these strike-slip structures, we hypothesize that these faults are active and suggest two probable explanations: (1) these faults are characterized by long recurrence period, i.e., beyond the instrumental record, or (2) they experience slow slip events and/or associated fault creep. The analysis of focal mechanism solutions of small magnitude earthquakes in the upper plate, for the period between 1995

  3. Antioxidant activity directed isolations form punica granatum

    The extracts derived from pomegranate juice following antioxidant activity directed isolation were screened for their antioxidant activity through their ability to scavenge 2,2- diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Only fractions which exhibited >50/0 DPPH scavenging effect at each step of isolation were selected for further purification and their ability to reduce peroxide formation (peroxide value) in heated com oil. Phytochemical analysis of the pure compounds finally obtained, revealed the presence of pelargonidin-3- galactose (Pg-3-galactose), cyanidin-3-glucose (Cy-3-Glucose), gallic acid, quercetin and myricetin in the fractions exhibiting >50% DPPH scavenging potential. The order of antioxidant activity of these pure compounds by DPPH method was found to be gallic acid> quercetin> myricetin> Cy-3-galactose> Pg-3-Glucose while order with respect to reduction in peroxide value (PV) was the reverse of DPPH. (author)

  4. The Best Combination Methods and Applied Research of Seismic Prospecting for Active Faults in Urban Areas


    This paper introduces briefly the basic principles of various seismic prospecting techniques and working methods according to nationwide practices of seismic prospecting of active faults beneath big cities in recent years. Furthermore, it analyzes the application range of different seismic prospecting methods, main achievements and solved problems, and discusses the best combination of seismic exploration methods for detecting crustal structures and locating the faults used in the present stage, that is, to trace faults which are at depths of hundred of meters underground using shallow seismic investigation, to detect the faults which are above basement (at a depth of kilometers) using high resolution refraction sounding, and the deep crustal faults using combined seismic prospecting methods of reflection seismic sounding and wide-angle reflection/refraction sounding, and furthermore, to use the 3-D deep seismic sounding method to obtain 3-D velocity structures beneath urban areas. Thus, we can get information about fault attitude and distribution at different depths and a complete image of faults from their shallow part to deep part using the combined seismic exploration method. Some application examples are presented in the article.

  5. Evidence of multistage late Quaternary strong earthquakes on typical segments of Longmenshan Active Fault Zone in Sichuan, China


    Investigation of offset landforms and trench excavation are important means to acquire the evidence of multistage activities of active faults. Here we present the result of fault trough investigation in Beichuan County and the Pingtong Town of Pingwu County along the Longmenshan Central Fault Belt, as well as the result from trench excavation at the platform foreslope in Hanwang Town of Mianzhu County on the Longmenshan Front Range Fault Belt. These results show that at least three fault activity events, including the Wenchuan earthquake, occurred in the Beichuan fault trough, at least two, including the Wenchuan earthquake, at Pingtong fault trough, and 2-3 paleoearthquakes in the Hanwang trench. Among these three localities, the times of the last strong earthquake prior to Wenchuan earthquake at Beichuan fault trough and Hanwang trench are close, approximately 6000 years ago, i.e., greater than 5.8 ka and smaller than 6.63 ka ago. This provides the evidence of synchronous activity of the Central Fault Belt and the Front Range Fault Belt of the Longmenshan Active Fault Zone during the previous strong earthquake activities prior to Wenchuan earthquake.

  6. Evidence of multistage late Quaternary strong earthquakes on typical segments of Longrnenshan Active Fault Zone in Sichuan,China

    JIANG WaLi; XIE XinSheng; ZHANG JinFa; SUN ChangBin; HUANG Wei; SHENG Qiang; FENG XiYing


    Investigation of offset landforms and trench excavation are important means to acquire the evidence of multistage activities of active faults.Here we present the result of fault trough investigation in Beichuan County and the Pingtong Town of Pingwu County along the Longmenshan Central Fault Belt,as well as the result from trench excavation at the platform foreslope in Hanwang Town of Mianzhu County on the Longmenshan Front Range Fault Belt.These results show that at least three fault activity events,including the Wenchuan earthquake,occurred in the Beichuan fault trough,at least two,including the Wenchuan earthquake,at Pingtong fault trough,and 2-3 paleoearthquakes in the Hanwang trench.Among these three localities,the times of the last strong earthquake prior to Wenchuan earthquake at Beichuan fault trough and Hanwang trench are close,approximately 6000 years ago,i.e.,greater than 5.8 ka and smaller than 6.63 ka ago.This provides the evidence of synchronous activity of the Central Fault Belt and the Front Range Fault Belt of the Longmenshan Active Fault Zone during the previous strong earthquake activities prior to Wenchuan earthquake.

  7. The determination of age of the fault activities of Shougou Hill, Guangzhou by thermoluminescence dating and nuclear fission track dating

    The age of the fault activities had been determined by TL dating and nuclear fission track dating. The results show that the fault of Shougou Hill had large and intense activities in mid-cenozoic era, however, intense activities still occurred in early pleistocene and mid-pleistocene. The last activity of the fault occurred 430 000 years ago. The data of TL dating are conformable with data of nuclear fission track dating

  8. Testable Subsystems Generation for Fault Detection and Isolation Using a Structural Matching Rank Algorithm Testability of an Electrical Circuit

    Benazzouz Djamel


    Full Text Available In this study, an advanced way of dealing with testable subsystems and residual generation for fault detection and isolation based on structural analysis is presented. The developed technique considers execution issues; therefore, it has a more realistic point of view compared to classical structural approaches available in the literature. First, theoretical aspects of structural analysis are considered and introduced. Then the way of incorporating them to test the structural proprieties is explained. Finally, we show how the proposed (upgraded matching rank algorithm can be used in order to choose the most suited matching that leads to computational sequences and detection tests. The method is demonstrated using an electrical circuit.

  9. Analysis of an Active Fault Geometry Using Satellite Sensor and DEM Data: Gaziköy-Saros Segment (NAFZ), Turkey

    Sinasi Kaya


    In this study, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT HRV Panchromatic data were analysed to determine the geometry of an active fault segment (the Ganos segment) in Gazikoy-Saros region, west of Marmara Sea, Turkey. Gazikoy-Saros/Ganos segment is a part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). North-Anatolian fault is considered to be one of the most important active strike-slip faults in the world. Thus far in relevant researches based on Gazikoy-Saros segment a single straight fault line rep...

  10. Thermal activation of OSL as a geothermometer for quartz grain heating during fault movements

    In discussions of ESR dating of fault movements, there has been much debate whether zeroing of ESR signals is a mechanical shearing effect or caused by frictional heating. The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) sensitivity of quartz is known to increase after heating. This thermal activation of dose response of the OSL in quartz should be useful as a geothermometer to test whether quartz particles in fault gouge had been heated. We tested the OSL sensitivities of quartz from fault gouge, and from a control (quartz grains from sandstone) and were able to show heat-induced enhancement of OSL sensitivity to a test dose. We observed that relative enhancement of OSL dose response (ratio of heated to unheated single aliquots) is significantly less for the finest grains (45-75 and 100-150 μm) compared with coarser grains (150-250 μm). These data are consistent with a model of zeroing of the quartz grains during faulting, by frictional heating localized to the grain boundaries, which would be expected to affect smaller grains more than large ones. This argues against a zeroing model in which the entire fault gouge is heated by friction. Higher laboratory preheating of sandstone quartz reduces between-aliquot variability of OSL dose response in the unheated grains to nearly zero. Unheated coarsest fault gouge grains displayed virtually no among-aliquot variability, whereas fine grains showed much larger between-aliquot variability; as with the quartz sand, variability dropped to near zero after laboratory heating, suggesting that fine grains in fault gouge have experienced a wide range of natural thermal histories during faulting. This may present a problem for ESR dating of fault gouge using the plateau method

  11. Fault Isolation by Partial Dynamic Principal Component Analysis in Dynamic Process%基于部分DPCA的动态系统故障隔离

    李荣雨; 荣冈


    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool in process fault detection, but offers little support on fault isolation. In this article, structured residual with strong isolation property is introduced. Although it is easy to get the residual by transformation matrix in static process, unfortunately, it becomes hard in dynamic process under control loop. Therefore, partial dynamic PCA(PDPCA) is proposed to obtain structured residual and enhance the isolation ability of dynamic process monitoring, and a compound statistic is introduced to resolve the problem resulting from independent variables in every variable subset. Simulations on continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei


    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  13. Recurrence characteristics of late-quaternary strong earthquakes on the major active faults along the northern border of Ordos block

    RAN; Yongkang; (冉勇康); CHEN; Lichun; (陈立春); YANG; Xiaoping; (杨晓平); HAN; Zhujun; (韩竹军)


    Through study on trenches, analysis of recurrence characteristics and recurrence interval cluster/gap of strong earthquakes along the major active faults on the northern border of Ordos block, we found 62 paleoearthquakes that occurred in the late Quaternary, including 33 earthquakes occurring in the Holocene. The recurrence characteristics of the paleoearthquakes are different at three levels, segments, faults, and fault zones. The strong seismic sequence on the independent segments is mostly characterized by long- and short-interval recurrences, while that on the faults and in fault zone is characterized clearly by random and cluster recurrences. Results of the moving window test indicate that the probabilities of "temporal cluster or gap", caused by random coincidence as opposed to intersegment contagion, are 64% and 70% for the Serteng piedmont fault and for the south-border fault of Wula Mountains, respectively, no clear interaction among the segments of each fault; while the probability is 26.8% for the whole fault zone, suggesting a clear interaction among the faults of this fault zone. These recurrence characteristics may imply an effect of the entire block motion on the recurrence of strong earthquakes. Moreover, the elapsed time for the Wujumeng Pass-Dongfeng Village segment of Serteng piedmont fault and the Tuzuo Banner-Wusutu and the Hohhot segments of Daqingshan piedmont fault has exceeded the average recurrence interval, hence these three segments may be the possible places for future strong earthquakes.

  14. Voltage Quality Enhancement and Fault Current Limiting with Z-Source based Series Active Filter

    F. Gharedaghi


    Full Text Available In this study, series active filter or dynamic voltage restorer application is proposed for reduction of downstream fault current in addition to voltage quality enhancement. Recently, the application of Z-source inverter is proposed in order to optimize DVR operation. This inverter makes DVR to operate appropriately when the energy storage device’s voltage level severely falls. Here, the Z-source inverter based DVR is proposed to compensate voltage disturbance at the PCC and to reduce the fault current in downstream of DVR. By calculating instantaneous current magnitude in synchronous frame, control system recognizes if the fault exists or not, and determines whether DVR should compensate voltage disturbance or try to reduce the fault current. The proposed system is simulated under voltage sag and swell and short circuit conditions. The simulation results show that the system operates correctly under voltage sag and short circuit conditions.

  15. Active faulting in northern Chile: ramp stacking and lateral decoupling along a subduction plate boundary?

    Armijo, Rolando; Thiele, Ricardo


    Two large features parallel to the coastline of northern Chile have long been suspected to be the sites of young or active deformation: (1) The 700-km long Coastal Scarp, with average height (above sea level) of about 1000 m; (2) The Atacama Fault zone, that stretches linearly for about 1100 km at an average distance of 30-50 km from the coastline. New field observations combined with extensive analysis of aerial photographs demonstrate that both the Coastal Scarp and the Atacama Fault are zones of Quaternary and current fault activity. Little-degraded surface breaks observed in the field indicate that these fault zones have recently generated large earthquakes ( M = 7-8). Normal fault offsets observed in marine terraces in the Coastal Scarp (at Mejillones Peninsula) require tectonic extension roughly orthogonal to the compressional plate boundary. Strike-slip offsets of drainage observed along the Salar del Carmen and Cerro Moreno faults (Atacama Fault system) imply left-lateral displacements nearly parallel to the plate boundary. The left-lateral movement observed along the Atacama Fault zone may be a local consequence of E-W extension along the Coastal Scarp. But if also found everywhere along strike, left-lateral decoupling along the Atacama Fault zone would be in contradiction with the right lateral component of Nazca-South America motion predicted by models of present plate kinematics. Clockwise rotation with left-lateral slicing of the Andean orogen south of the Arica bend is one way to resolve this contradiction. The Coastal Scarp and the Atacama Fault zone are the most prominent features with clear traces of activity within the leading edge of continental South America. The great length and parallelism of these features with the subduction zone suggest that they may interact with the subduction interface at depth. We interpret the Coastal Scarp to be a west-dipping normal fault or flexure and propose that it is located over an east-dipping ramp stack at

  16. Active faults and historical earthquakes in the Messina Straits area (Ionian Sea

    A. Polonia


    Full Text Available The Calabrian Arc (CA subduction complex is located at the toe of the Eurasian Plate in the Ionian Sea, where sediments resting on the lower plate have been scraped off and piled up in the accretionary wedge due to the African/Eurasian plate convergence and back arc extension. The CA has been struck repeatedly by destructive historical earthquakes, but knowledge of active faults and source parameters is relatively poor, particularly for seismogenic structures extending offshore. We analysed the fine structure of major tectonic features likely to have been sources of past earthquakes: (i the NNW–SSE trending Malta STEP (Slab Transfer Edge Propagator fault system, representing a lateral tear of the subduction system; (ii the out-of-sequence thrusts (splay faults at the rear of the salt-bearing Messinian accretionary wedge; and (iii the Messina Straits fault system, part of the wide deformation zone separating the western and eastern lobes of the accretionary wedge.

    Our findings have implications for seismic hazard in southern Italy, as we compile an inventory of first order active faults that may have produced past seismic events such as the 1908, 1693 and 1169 earthquakes. These faults are likely to be source regions for future large magnitude events as they are long, deep and bound sectors of the margin characterized by different deformation and coupling rates on the plate interface.

  17. Active faults paragenesis and the state of crustal stresses in the Late Cenozoic in Central Mongolia

    V. A. Sankov


    Full Text Available Active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy tectonic saddle region in Central Mongolia are studied by space images interpretation, relief analysis, structural methods and tectonic stress reconstruction. The study results show that faults activation during the Late Cenozoic stage was selective, and a cluster pattern of active faults is typical for the study region. Morphological and genetic types and the kinematics of faults in the Hangay-Hentiy saddle region are related the direction of the ancient inherited structural heterogeneities. Latitudinal and WNW trending faults are left lateral strike-slips with reverse or thrust component (Dzhargalantgol and North Burd faults. NW trending faults are reverse faults or thrusts with left lateral horizontal component. NNW trending faults have right lateral horizontal component. The horizontal component of the displacements, as a rule, exceeds the vertical one. Brittle deformations in fault zones do not conform with the Pliocene and, for the most part, Pleistocene topography. With some caution it may be concluded that the last phase of revitalization of strike slip and reverse movements along the faults commenced in the Late Pleistocene. NE trending disjunctives are normal faults distributed mainly within the Hangay uplift. Their features are more early activation within the Late Cenozoic and the lack of relation to large linear structures of the previous tectonic stages. According to the stress tensor reconstructions of the last phase of deformation in zones of active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy saddle using data on tectonic fractures and fault displacements, it is revealed that conditions of compression and strike-slip with NNE direction of the axis of maximum compression were dominant. Stress tensors of extensional type with NNW direction of minimum compression are reconstructed for the Orkhon graben. It is concluded that the activation of faults in Central Mongolia in the Pleistocene-Holocene, as well as

  18. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    Jiangrong Li; Yueming Jiang


    The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindi...

  19. Design of a multi-model observer-based estimator for Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) strategy: application to a chemical reactor

    Y. Chetouani


    This study presents a FDI strategy for nonlinear dynamic systems. It shows a methodology of tackling the fault detection and isolation issue by combining a technique based on the residuals signal and a technique using the multiple Kalman filters. The usefulness of this combination is the on-line implementation of the set of models, which represents the normal mode and all dynamics of faults, if the statistical decision threshold on the residuals exceeds a fixed value. In other cases, one Exte...

  20. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission: Fault Management Design Analyses

    Meakin, Peter; Weitl, Raquel


    As a general trend, the complexities of modern spacecraft are increasing to include more ambitious mission goals with tighter timing requirements and on-board autonomy. As a byproduct, the protective features that monitor the performance of these systems have also increased in scope and complexity. Given cost and schedule pressures, there is an increasing emphasis on understanding the behavior of the system at design time. Formal test-driven verification and validation (V&V) is rarely able to test the significant combinatorics of states, and often finds problems late in the development cycle forcing design changes that can be costly. This paper describes the approach the SMAP Fault Protection team has taken to address some of the above-mentioned issues.


    Utkarsha S. Shivsharan


    Full Text Available Micro-organisms have tendency to produce antimicrobial substances which show biological activity against other kind of micro-organisms. This phenomenon of bacterial antagonism is observed in lactic acid bacteria with competitive advantages. The lactic acid bacteria are commonly present in many fermented products, fruits and milk products. The variety of antimicrobial substances produced by lactic acid bacteria showing good inhibition capacity include production of lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide, diacetyl and bacteriocin. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of intense research because of their antimicrobial activity against food born bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum and several others .Bacteriocins may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal with narrow or broad range of activity. The main of the study was to study the antimicrobial activity of such lactic acid bacterial isolates.

  2. Evaluating knickpoint recession along an active fault for paleoseismological analysis: The Huoshan Piedmont, Eastern China

    Wei, Zhanyu; Bi, Lisi; Xu, Yueren; He, Honglin


    Ground-rupturing earthquakes can generate tectonic knickpoints within upstream reaches of streams across active fault zones. These knickpoints are characteristic of upstream propagation of time-related process once generated by an earthquake, so analysis of knickpoint series in streams which cross fault zones can be used to infer paleoearthquake events. We studied the knickpoints along the Huoshan Piedmont Fault (HPF), which is an active normal fault in the Shanxi Faulted Basin zone, China, and demonstrate that analysis of knickpoints shows evidence for two paleoearthquakes in the HPF. First, we identified knickpoints in bedrock reaches upstream of the HPF using high-resolution DEMs derived from IRS-P5 stereo images and the stream-gradient method. After excluding non-faulting knickpoints, 47 knickpoints were identified in 23 bedrock reaches upstream from the HPF. Analysis of the most recent knickpoints caused by the 1303 CE Hongdong Earthquake allowed for local calibration of the retreat rates. Applying these retreat rates across the study area allows for the estimation of the age of other knickpoints, and constrains the age ranges of two knickpoint groups to be 2269-3336 a BP and 4504-5618 a BP. These ages constrain the ages of two paleoearthquake events at 2710 ± 102 and 4980 ± 646 a BP. The knickpoints along the HPF obey the parallel retreating model in which knickpoint morphology was roughly maintained during retreat, so the heights of knickpoints represent the coseismic vertical displacements generated by the earthquakes along the HPF. The vertical offsets for these three earthquake events are similar and are approximately 4 m, which indicates that the ruptures on the HPF obey a characteristic slip model with a similar slip distribution for several successive earthquakes. These results provide additional evidence of paleoearthquakes on the HPF and show that analysis of knickpoint recession along an active fault is a valuable tool for paleoseismology.

  3. Application of the Common Offset Seismic Reflection Method to Urban Active Fault Surveys

    Liu Baojin; Ji Jifa; Xu Zhaofan; Yuan Hongke; Liao Xu; Bai Yun; Wan Bo


    The method and principle of common offset seismic surveys as well as the field data gathering and processing technique were introduced briefly. Through two urban active fault survey examples in Fuzhou and Shenyang, the efficiency and limitation of using the common offset seismic reflection technique to carry out urban active fault surveys were probed. The results show that this technique has the properties of high resolving power, better reconstruction of subsurface structures, and real-time analyzing and interpretation of investigation results on site. This method can be used to quickly locate objects under investigation accurately in the areas with thinner Quaternary overburdens and strong bedrock interface fluctuations.

  4. Radial Basis Neural Networks Based Fault Detection and Isolation Scheme for Pneumatic Actuator

    K. Prabakaran; S, Kaushik; R, Mouleeshuwarapprabu


    Fault diagnosis is an ongoing significant research field due to the constantly increasing need for maintainability, reliability and safety of industrial plants. The pneumatic actuators are installed in harsh environment: high temperature, pressure, aggressive media and vibration, etc. This influenced the pneumatic actuator predicted life time. The failures in pneumatic actuator cause forces the installation shut down and may also determine the final quality of the product. A Radial Basis Neur...

  5. Bond Graph Modelling for Fault Detection and Isolation of an Ultrasonic Linear Motor

    Mabrouk KHEMLICHE


    Full Text Available In this paper Bond Graph modeling, simulation and monitoring of ultrasonic linear motors are presented. Only the vibration of piezoelectric ceramics and stator will be taken into account. Contact problems between stator and rotor are not treated here. So, standing and travelling waves will be briefly presented since the majority of the motors use another wave type to generate the stator vibration and thus obtain the elliptic trajectory of the points on the surface of the stator in the first time. Then, electric equivalent circuit will be presented with the aim for giving a general idea of another way of graphical modelling of the vibrator introduced and developed. The simulations of an ultrasonic linear motor are then performed and experimental results on a prototype built at the laboratory are presented. Finally, validation of the Bond Graph method for modelling is carried out, comparing both simulation and experiment results. This paper describes the application of the FDI approach to an electrical system. We demonstrate the FDI effectiveness with real data collected from our automotive test. We introduce the analysis of the problem involved in the faults localization in this process. We propose a method of fault detection applied to the diagnosis and to determine the gravity of a detected fault. We show the possibilities of application of the new approaches to the complex system control.

  6. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey for Disaster Management

    Haluk Ozener


    Full Text Available Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  7. High resolution seismic imaging of an active normal fault in the Agri Valley, Southern Apennines, Italy

    Improta, L.; Bruno, P.; di Fiore, V.; Mariani, S.


    The Agri Valley is an intermontane basin located in the Southern Apennine seismic belt (Italy) whose formation in tied to large NW-trending trastensional and extensional faults active since Early Pleistocene. Recent faulting activity in the area is documented by faulted paleosoils and suggested by a M7 earthquake that struck the basin in 1857. On the contrary, present-day background seismicity in the area is extremely low. Despite intense geomorphic investigations, the identification of the source responsible for this historical event and of further large seismogenic faults in the area is still a matter of debate. A new NW trending normal faulting system has been recently recognized based on subtle geomorphic expressions on the ridge bounding the basin westward. Recent faulting activity along this structure is locally documented by a trench. Aimed at yielding new information about the shallow structure of the fault, we conducted a high resolution seismic experiment in a small lacustrine basin, located 4 km south of the trench, in which the presence of the fault is inferred by a linear surface warping but trench excavation is impractical. Both multi-fold wide-angle data and multichannel near vertical reflection data have been collected along a 220-m-long profile in order to obtain an accurate model of the basin combining seismic velocity and reflectivity images. About 3600 first arrival traveltimes picked on 36 wide-angle record sections have been inverted by a non-linear tomographic technique that is specially designed to image complex structures. The tomographic inversion provides a high-resolution velocity model of the basin down to 60 m depth. The model is strongly heterogeneous and displays sharp lateral velocity variations. Seismic reflection processing has been applied to both data sets. Data have been edited for trace quality and first (refracted and direct) arrivals have been muted. A following FK dip filtering on the shot gathers reduced the energy

  8. The active Nea Anchialos Fault System (Central Greece: comparison of geological, morphotectonic, archaeological and seismological data

    R. Caputo


    Full Text Available The Nea Anchialos Fault System has been studied integrating geological, morphological, structural, archaeological and seismic data. This fault system forms the northern boundary of the Almyros Basin which is one of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonic basins of Thessaly. Specific structural and geomorphological mapping were carried out and fault-slip data analysis allowed the Late Quaternary palaeo-stress field to be estimated. The resulting N-S trending purely extensional regime is consistent with the direction of the T-axes computed from the focal mechanisms of the summer 1980, Volos seismic sequence and the April 30, 1985 Almyros earthquake. A minor set of structural data indicates a WNW-ESE extension which has been interpreted as due to a local and second order stress field occurring during the N-S regional extension. Furthermore, new archaeological data, discovered by the author, have improved morphology and tectonics of the area also allowing a tentative estimate of the historic (III-IV century AD. to Present fault slip rate. Several topographic profiles across the major E- W topographic escarpment as well as along the streams, have emphasised scarps and knick-points, further supporting the occurrence of very recent morphogenic activity. In the last section, the structural, morphological and archaeological data are compared with the already existing seismological data and their integrated analysis indicates that the Nea Anchialos Fault System has been active since Lower(?-Middle Pleistocene.

  9. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures

  10. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.


    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least

  11. GPS-derived slip rates of active faults in eastern Venezuela, along the southeastern Caribbean PBZ

    Audemard, F. A.; Beck, C.; Jouanne, F.; Reinoza, C. E.; Fegag


    For over 20 years, GPS campaign measurements have been performed in eastern Venezuela, as well as in other areas of the country, by different scientific groups and in the frame of different either national or international efforts and/or projects, essentially aiming at the estimation of the rate of motion along the major Quaternary faults (i.e., Boconó, San Sebastián and El Pilar faults) composing the plate boundary zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean and South America, along onshore northern and western Venezuela. The slip rates and sense of slip of those major faults derived from the comparison of several GPS campaigns carried out through the years have confirmed the slip data (fault kinematics) previously derived from geologic data, through comprehensive neotectonic and paleoseismic studies mainly made by the FUNVISIS' Earth Sciences Dpt. staff. In a rough way, we could conclude that those faults are dextrally moving at a rate in the order of 10-12 mm/a. More recently, it has been shown that the El Pilar fault has a locking depth close to 10 km deep and that about half of the PBZ dextral motion is accommodated as creep, reducing the seismic hazard for northeastern Venezuela almost by half. On the contrary, in the near past, very little attention has been paid to the secondary active faulting in eastern Venezuela. In that sense, FUNVISIS, in collaboration with the Université de Savoie, started the monitoring of these secondary features by installing 36 brass benchmarks on bedrock in that region in 2003, which have been occupied 3 times, in late 2003 and 2005 and in early 2013. The comparison between the 2003 and 2005 occupations shows promising results, such as: a) The Charagato fault on Cubagua island is left-lateral with a slip rate of about 2 mm/a; b) slip vectors across the El Pilar fault tend to head to the ESE, suggesting that the tectonic regime is compressive transcurrent to transcurrent compressional (transpressional); c) The NW-SE-trending San Francisco

  12. Active faulting induced by the slip partitioning in the Lesser Antilles arc

    Leclerc, Frédérique; Feuillet, Nathalie


    AGUADOMAR marine cruise data acquired 11 years ago allowed us to identified and map two main sets of active faults within the Lesser Antilles arc (Feuillet et al., 2002; 2004). The faults belonging to the first set, such as Morne-Piton in Guadeloupe, bound up to 100km-long and 50km-wide arc-perpendicular graben or half graben that disrupt the fore-arc reef platforms. The faults of the second set form right-stepping en echelon arrays, accommodating left-lateral slip along the inner, volcanic islands. The two fault systems form a sinistral horsetail east of the tip of the left-lateral Puerto Rico fault zone that takes up the trench-parallel component of convergence between the North-American and Caribbean plates west of the Anegada passage. In other words, they together accommodate large-scale slip partitioning along the northeastern arc, consistent with recent GPS measurements (Lopez et al., 2006). These intraplate faults are responsible for a part of the shallow seismicity in the arc and have produce damaging historical earthquakes. Two magnitude 6.3 events occurred in the last 25 years along the inner en echelon faults, the last one on November 21 2004 in Les Saintes in the Guadeloupe archipelago. To better constrain the seismic hazard related to the inner arc faults and image the ruptures and effects on the seafloor of Les Saintes 2004 earthquake, we acquired new marine data between 23 February and 25 March 2009 aboard the French R/V le Suroît during the GWADASEIS cruise. We present here the data (high-resolution 72 channel and very high-resolution chirp 3.5 khz seismic reflection profiles, EM300 multibeam bathymetry, Küllenberg coring and SAR imagery) and the first results. We identified, mapped and characterized in detail several normal to oblique fault systems between Martinique and Saba. They offset the seafloor by several hundred meters and crosscut all active volcanoes, among them Nevis Peak, Soufriere Hills, Soufriere de Guadeloupe and Montagne Pel

  13. Vertical slip rates of active faults of southern Albania inferred from river terraces

    Oswaldo Guzmán


    Full Text Available Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece are studied in order to quantify the vertical slip rates of the large active faults of the Dinaric-Albanic-Hellenic Alpine fold belt. The spatial and temporal variations of the incision rates along these rivers were estimated from the geomorphological mapping of the Quaternary sediments, the geometry and the dating of the terraces. Eleven terraces levels were identified in Albania from 68 geochronological ages already published or acquired for this work. The five lower terraces of the four studied rivers are well dated (10 new and 23 already published ages. These terraces are younger than 30 ka and their remnants are numerous. Their restoration allows estimating the regional trend of incision rate and the identification of local shifts. We argue that these shifts are linked to the active tectonics when they coincide with the faults already mapped by previous authors. Vertical slip rates for eight active faults in southern Albania are thus estimated for the last 19 ka and vary from ~0.1 to ~2 mm/a. The Lushnje Tepelene Thrust, that extends more than 120 kilometers, has a throw rate that varies from 0.2 to 0.8 mm/a, whereas the active faults of the extensional domain are segmented but are very active, with throw rates reaching locally 2 mm/a.

  14. Identification of active faults in Abruzzo area (central Italy) through the analysis of geological, seismological and gravimetric data

    Luiso, Paola; Paoletti, Valeria; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio


    Identification of active faults in abruzzo area (central italy) through the analysis of geological, seismological and gravimetric data The aim of this study is to identify and constrain the geometry of the seismogenic structures (active, outcropping and buried fault systems) of the Abruzzo area (central Italy), through an integrated analysis of geo-structural, seismic and gravimetric data. We generated three thematic: "faults", "earthquakes" and "gravimetric" data: i) The fault dataset consists of data extracted from the available structural and geological maps (ITHACA catalogue; the "Neotectonic Map of Italy" 1:500.000; several geological sheets 1:50.000 from ISPRA CARG project; the Geological Map 1:100.000 Sheet 1), and many geological studies. ii) The earthquakes datasets was created by merging the data from historical and instrumental Catalogues (CPTI04 and CPTI11; ISIDE - INGV). iii) The gravimetric datasets consists in the Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) of the Bouguer anomaly map of the area, whose maxima show the presence of density lineaments. The merge of these datasets in GIS environment, highlighted four possible scenarios of correlation between faults, earthquakes and MDA maxima: 1) the existence of active faults, revealed by a strong correlation between epicentral location of seismic clusters, fault positions and MDA maxima; 2) the existence of buried active faults, highlighted by a good correlation between MDA maxima and epicentral positions, without correspondence with faults known from geological data; 3) the existence of inactive or silent faults, detected by the presence of faults reported in the geological datasets and literature which are associated with MDA maxima, without correlation of earthquakes; 4) the existence of faults not correlated with MDA maxima; this could be due to faults putting in contact two lithologies with a similar density. A comparison between seismic hypocentral locations and the fault geometry retrieved by DEXP

  15. Active tectonic deformation along rejuvenated faults in tropical Borneo: Inferences obtained from tectono-geomorphic evaluation

    Mathew, Manoj Joseph; Menier, David; Siddiqui, Numair; Kumar, Shashi Gaurav; Authemayou, Christine


    The island of Borneo is enveloped by tropical rainforests and hostile terrain characterized by high denudation rates. Owing to such conditions, studies pertaining to neotectonics and consequent geomorphic expressions with regard to surface processes and landscape evolution are inadequately constrained. Here we demonstrate the first systematic tectono-geomorphic evaluation of north Borneo through quantitative and qualitative morphotectonic analysis at sub-catchment scale, for two large drainage basins located in Sarawak: the Rajang and Baram basins. The extraction of morphometric parameters utilizing digital elevation models arranged within a GIS environment focuses on hypsometric curve analysis, distribution of hypsometric integrals through spatial autocorrelation statistics, relative uplift values, the asymmetry factor and the normalized channel steepness index. Hypsometric analysis suggests a young topography adjusting to changes in tectonic boundary conditions. Autocorrelation statistics show clusters of high values of hypsometric integrals as prominent hotspots that are associated with less eroded, young topography situated in the fold and thrust belts of the Interior Highlands of Borneo. High channel steepness and gradients (> 200 m0.9) are observed in zones corresponding to the hotspots. Relative uplift values reveal the presence of tectonically uplifted blocks together with relatively subsided or lesser uplifted zones along known faults. Sub-catchments of both basins display asymmetry indicating tectonic tilting. Stream longitudinal profiles demonstrate the presence of anomalies in the form of knickzones without apparent lithological controls along their channel reaches. Surfaces represented by cold spots of low HI values and low channel gradients observed in the high elevation headwaters of both basins are linked to isolated erosional planation surfaces that could be remnants of piracy processes. The implication of our results is that Borneo experiences

  16. Thermal and Thermomineral springs related to the seismotectonic activity of faults in the Republic of Macedonia

    Petrov, Gose; Mircovski, Vojo; Delipetrov, Todor


    The aim of the paper is to present the correlation dependence of geothermal energy present as active thermal and geothermal springs and the seismicity in the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. In that regard, analysis has been carried out on existing data for geothermal occurrences and anticipated seismicity of fault structures (mostly geotectonic).

  17. Robust sensor fault detection and isolation of gas turbine engines subjected to time-varying parameter uncertainties

    Pourbabaee, Bahareh; Meskin, Nader; Khorasani, Khashayar


    In this paper, a novel robust sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) strategy using the multiple model-based (MM) approach is proposed that remains robust with respect to both time-varying parameter uncertainties and process and measurement noise in all the channels. The scheme is composed of robust Kalman filters (RKF) that are constructed for multiple piecewise linear (PWL) models that are constructed at various operating points of an uncertain nonlinear system. The parameter uncertainty is modeled by using a time-varying norm bounded admissible structure that affects all the PWL state space matrices. The robust Kalman filter gain matrices are designed by solving two algebraic Riccati equations (AREs) that are expressed as two linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility conditions. The proposed multiple RKF-based FDI scheme is simulated for a single spool gas turbine engine to diagnose various sensor faults despite the presence of parameter uncertainties, process and measurement noise. Our comparative studies confirm the superiority of our proposed FDI method when compared to the methods that are available in the literature.

  18. Performance of the geometric approach to fault detection and isolation in SISO, MISO, SIMO and MIMO systems


    In this paper, a geometric approach to fault detection and isolation (FDI) is applied to a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) model of a frame and the FDI results are compared to the ones obtained in the Single-Input Single-Output (SISO), Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO), and Single-Input Multiple-Output (SIMO) cases. A proper distance function based on parameters obtained from parametric system identification method is used in the geometric approach. ARX (Auto Regressive with eXogenous input) and VARX (Vector ARX) models with 12 parameters are used in all of the above-mentioned models. The obtained results reveal that by increasing the number of inputs, the classification errors reduce, even in the case of applying only one of the inputs in the computations. Furthermore, increasing the number of measured outputs in the FDI scheme results in decreasing classification errors. Also, it is shown that by using probabilistic space in the distance function, fault diagnosis scheme has better performance in comparison with the deterministic one.

  19. Robust fault-tolerant H∞ control of active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint

    Wang, Rongrong; Jing, Hui; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Chen, Nan


    In this paper, the robust fault-tolerant (FT) H∞ control problem of active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint is investigated. A full-car model is employed in the controller design such that the heave, pitch and roll motions can be simultaneously controlled. Both the actuator faults and external disturbances are considered in the controller synthesis. As the human body is more sensitive to the vertical vibration in 4-8 Hz, robust H∞ control with this finite-frequency constraint is designed. Other performances such as suspension deflection and actuator saturation are also considered. As some of the states such as the sprung mass pitch and roll angles are hard to measure, a robust H∞ dynamic output-feedback controller with fault tolerant ability is proposed. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed controller.

  20. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Wang Xingjian


    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  1. Crust-mantle structure feature and the seismic activity of the main tectonic units in the North Tanlu fault zone


    Using recent data of geoscience transaction in Northeast China, the author analyses and studies the crust-upper mantle structure feature of the North Tanlu fault zone. The result shows the crust-mantle structure are obvious difference at both sides of the North Tanlu fault zone. The fault activity and segmentation are closely related with abruptly change zone of the crust-upper mantle structure. There is a clear mirror image relationship between the big geomorphic shape and asthenosphere undulate, the former restricts tectonic stability and tectonic style of different crustal units. The significantly strengthening seismicity of north set and south set in the North Tanlu fault zone just correspond to the low-velocity and high conductivity layer of crust-upper mantle. In the North Tanlu fault zone, the main controlling structure of the mid-strong seismic generally consists of the active fault sectors, whose crust-mantle structure is more complicated in rigidity massif.

  2. Unique mechanization to fault isolate failures of an electron tube Radio Frequency (RF) amplifier and its high voltage power supply

    Miller, D. G.


    An electronics circuit for improving the fault isolation of failures between an electron tube radio frequency (RF) amplifier and its high voltage power supply is disclosed. High voltage power supplies control their output voltage by comparing a feedback voltage against a reference. This comparison is used to develop an error voltage which, in turn, drives a pulsewidth modulator that corrects the feedback voltage to the reference. The output of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is used as the reference voltage. The DAC is driven by a counter which would count to the correct reference voltage represented by a specific count. The final count is determined by a comparator which compares the counter output to the desired final counter and stops the counter when it is reached.

  3. An active footwall shortcut thrust revealed by seismic reflection profiling: a case study of the Futaba fault, northern Honshu, Japan

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Higashinaka, Motonori; Kurashimo, Eiji; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu


    The Futaba fault is located along the Pacific cast of southern part of Northern Honshu and continues at least 100 km. Based on tectonic morphological research, its central part show the active tectonic features. Due to the effect of M9 Tohoku Oki earthquake 2011, the evaluation of Coulomb stress changes on the fault surface is concerned for the assess of seismic hazards. To investigate the deep geometry of seismogenic source fault and basic crustal structure, we performed deep seismic reflection profiling along the 58-km-long seismic line across the Futaba fault. The seismic data were obtained using four vibroseis trucks and 1164 channel recorders. The seismic section portrays the half graben filled by 1000-m-thick lower Miocene fluvial sediments, suggesting that the Futaba fault reactivated as a west dipping normal fault during the early Miocene associated with opening of the Sea of Japan. On the hanging wall of the Miocene normal fault, Mesozoic metamorphic rocks are cropping out forming a narrow range parallel to the fault. On the footwall of this range, footwall shortcut thrust is clearly identified by the deformation of Plio-Pleistocene sediments on the seismic section. The deeper extension of the Futaba fault can be traced down to 4.5 seconds (TWT) and sub-horizontal reflectors are developed around 6-7 seconds (TWT). The dip angle of the Futaba fault in the seismogenic zone is about 45 degrees. The footwall shortcut thrust was formed at the shallow high-angle part of the Futaba fault as a low-angle (30 degrees) reverse fault. The formation of half graben is limited along the northern part of this fault system. The footwall shortcut thrust was developed along a 40-km-long segment only accompanied with the Miocene half graben. The southern segment of the surface trace of the Futaba fault suggests a straight geometry may represent a change in dip angle.

  4. 40Ar/39Ar age evidence for Altyn fault tectonic activities in western China

    LIU Yongjiang; J. Genser; GE Xiaohong; F. Neubauer; G. Friedl; CHANG Lihua; REN Shoumai; R. Handler


    Four 40Ar/39Ar age groups of mica, hornblende and K-feldspar were obtained from Proterozoic and early Paleozoic metamorphic rocks in the Aksay-Dangjin Pass area, western China. The samples away from the middle shear zone of the Altyn fault belt yield two plateau age groups in the range of 461-445.2 Ma and 414.9-342.8 Ma, respectively. They represent the tectono-thermal events that had been recorded in the rocks that were displaced by the Altyn strike-slip fault in late Ordovician-early Silurian and Devonian, respectively. These two age groups should be related to the closures of Northern and Southern Qilian Oceans. The deformed granitic gneiss from the northern belt gives a plateau age group of 178.4-137.5 Ma, which is interpreted as the active age of the Altyn fault in the middle-late Jurassic- early Cretaceous and should be related to the accretion of Lhasa block to the north. The sample from the middle shear zone of the Altyn fault belt yields two plateau ages of 36.4 and 26.3 Ma, respectively, suggesting the strike-slip movement with strong metamorphism at greenschist facies along the Altyn fault in the late Eocene. This event occurred in the most areas of the northern Tibet Plateau and should be in response in the north to the collision between Indian and Eurasian continents. The present study demonstrates that the Altyn fault is characterized by multiple pulse-style activities under the tectonic setting of convergence between the Indian and Eurasian continents.

  5. Analysis of microseismic activity in rock mass controlled by fault in deep metal mine

    Liu Jianpo; Liu Zhaosheng; Wang Shaoquan; Shi Changyan; Li Yuanhui


    Aiming at evaluating the stability of a rock mass near a fault, a microseismic (MS) monitoring system was established in Hongtoushan copper mine. The distribution of displacement and log(EI), the relationship between MS activity and the exploitation process, and the stability of the rock mass controlled by a fault were studied. The results obtained from microseismic data showed that MS events were mainly concentrated at the footwall of the fault. When the distance to the fault exceeded 20 m, the rock mass reached a relatively stable state. MS activity is closely related to the mining process. Under the strong disturbance from blasting, the initiation and propagation of cracks is much faster. MS activity belongs in the category of aftershocks after large scale excavation. The displacement and log(EI) obtained from MS events can reflect the difference in physical and mechanical behavior of different areas within the rock mass, which is useful in judging the integrity and degradation of the rock mass.

  6. A novel active T-type three-level converter with open-circuit fault-tolerant control

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    This paper proposes a novel active T-type three-level converter concept with fault-tolerant control. With the proposed topology, the converter can be operated continuously under open-circuit faults. It is shown that the proposed topology not only can keep its outputs under open-circuit fault......-point devices have the highest thermal stresses. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed topology concept are verified by the simulation results....

  7. Geophysical prospecting of a slow active fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment, NW Germany

    Streich, R.; Strecker, M.; Lück, E.; Scherbaum, F.; Schäbitz, F.; Spangenberg, U.


    The Lower Rhine embayment, Germany, is currently one of the most active sectors of the Cenozoic rift system of western and central Europe. Historical records denote at least 21 earthquakes with epicentral intensities >=7, and instrumental records show a concentration of seismicity at the major bounding Peel Boundary, Erft, Feldbiss and Rurrand faults. Many fault segments were active in the recent past and formed numerous morphologic scarps. However, fault scarps are poorly preserved since low displacement rates are opposed to interference of fluvioglacial with tectonic processes, a dense vegetation cover, high precipitation rates, and human landscape modification. This makes it difficult to determine the exact location, size and geometry of active fault segments in this region and hampers estimation of long-term displacement rates and fault activity. To overcome these difficulties, we applied a combination of morphologic, geophysical, and geological methods. We carried out detailed studies at the Hemmerich site located in the Erft fault system, SE Lower Rhine embayment (6.918oE, 50.758oN). The site is characterized by a topographic scarp, 4 m high and several km long. We placed special emphasis on testing the applicability of fast and simple geophysical prospecting techniques to fault assessment, and on evaluating the scarp as a potential site to excavate the suspected fault. The geophysical methods applied comprise resistivity and chargeability tomography, ground penetrating radar, and shallow seismic reflection, all carried out along profiles perpendicular to the topographic scarp. In addition, electromagnetic and magnetic maps were acquired. Beside geophysical prospecting, we conducted microtopographic levelling and coring. We detected a major break in a shallow radar reflector, and a steep seismic velocity contrast discernible both by seismic refraction tomography and dispersion analysis. These features are in good spatial correlation with each other and with

  8. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    Yueming Jiang


    Full Text Available The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindin-3-rutinside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinosde and quercetin-3-glucoside are identified as the important anthocyanins. Litchi flavanols and anthocyanins exhibit good potential antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of procyanidin B2 are greater than those of procyanidin B4 and epicatechin, while epicatechin has the highest α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH· scavenging activity. In addition to the antioxidant activity, LFP extract displays a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on human breast cancer, which could be attributed, in part, to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through upregulation and down-regulation of multiple genes. Furthermore, various anticancer activities are observed for epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction of LFP tissue extracts. Procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction show a stronger inhibitory effect on HELF than MCF-7 proliferation, while epicatechin and procyanidin B2 have lower cytotoxicities towards MCF-7 and HELF than paclitaxel. It is therefore suggested that flavonoids from LFP might be potentially useful components for functional foods and/or anti-breast cancer drugs.

  9. Tectonic and gravity-induced deformation along the active Talas-Fergana Fault, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Rust, D.; Bonali, F. L.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Oppizzi, P.; Bonzanigo, L.


    This paper shows, by field palaeoseismological data, the Holocene activity of the central segment of the intracontinental Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF), and the relevance of possible future seismic shaking on slope stability around a large water reservoir. The fault, striking NW-SE, is marked by a continuous series of scarps, deflected streams and water divides, and prehistoric earthquakes that offset substrate and Holocene deposits. Fault movements are characterised by right-lateral strike-slip kinematics with a subordinate component of uplift of the NE block. Structural, geological and geomorphological field data indicate that shallow and deep landslides are aligned along the TFF, and some of them are active. Where the TFF runs close to the reservoir, the fault trace is obscured by a series of landslides, affecting rock and soil materials and ranging in size from small slope instabilities to deep-seated gravity-induced slope deformations (DGSDs). The largest of these, which does not show clear evidence of present-day activity, involves a volume of about 1 km3 and is associated with smaller but active landslides in its lower part, with volumes in the order of 2.5 × 104 m3 to 1 × 106 m3. Based on the spatial and temporal relations between landslides and faults, we argue that at least some of these slope failures may have a coseismic character. Stability analyses by means of limit equilibrium methods (LEMs), and stress-strain analysis by finite difference numerical modelling (FDM), were carried out to evaluate different hazard scenarios linked to these slope instabilities. The results indicate concern for the different threats posed, ranging from the possible disruption of the M-41 highway, the main transportation route in central Asia, to the possible collapse of huge rock masses into the reservoir, possibly generating a tsunami.

  10. Results from NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Managua,Central American Volcanic arc

    McIntosh, K.; Funk, J.; Mann, P.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.


    Lake Managua covers an area of 1,035 km2 of the Central American volcanic arc and is enclosed by three major stratovolcanoes: Momotombo to the northwest was last active in AD 1905, Apoyeque in the center on the Chiltepe Peninsula was last active ca. 4600 years BP, and Masaya to the southeast was last active in AD 2003. A much smaller volcano in the lake (Momotombito) is thought to have been active <4500 yrs B.P. In May of 2006, we used a chartered barge to collect 330 km of 3.5 kHz profiler data along with coincident 274 km of sidescan sonar and 27 km of seismic reflection data. These data identify three zones of faulting on the lake floor: 1) A zone of north-northeast-striking faults in the shallow (2.5-7.5 m deep) eastern part of the lake that extends from the capital city of Managua, which was severely damaged by shallow, left-lateral strike-slip displacements on two of these faults in 1931 (M 5.6) and 1972 (M 6.2): these faults exhibit a horst and graben character and include possible offsets on drowned river valleys 2) a semicircular rift zone that is 1 km wide and can be traced over a distance of 30 km in the central part of the lake; the rift structure defines the deepest parts of the lake ranging from 12 to 18 m deep and is concentric about the Apoyeque stratocone/Chiltepe Peninsula; and 3) a zone of fault scarps defining the northwestern lake shore that may correlate to the northwestern extension of the Mateare fault zone, a major scarp-forming fault that separates the Managua lowlands from the highlands south and west of the city. Following previous workers, we interpret the northeast- trending group of faults in the eastern part of the lake as part of a 15-km-long discontinuity where the trend of the volcanic arc is offset in a right-lateral sense. The semi-circular pattern of the rift zone that is centered on Chiltepe Peninsula appears to have formed as a distal effect of either magma intrusion or withdrawal from beneath this volcanic complex. The

  11. Heterogeneity in friction strength of an active fault by incorporation of fragments of the surrounding host rock

    Kato, Naoki; Hirono, Tetsuro


    To understand the correlation between the mesoscale structure and the frictional strength of an active fault, we performed a field investigation of the Atera fault at Tase, central Japan, and made laboratory-based determinations of its mineral assemblages and friction coefficients. The fault zone contains a light gray fault gouge, a brown fault gouge, and a black fault breccia. Samples of the two gouges contained large amounts of clay minerals such as smectite and had low friction coefficients of approximately 0.2-0.4 under the condition of 0.01 m s-1 slip velocity and 0.5-2.5 MP confining pressure, whereas the breccia contained large amounts of angular quartz and feldspar and had a friction coefficient of 0.7 under the same condition. Because the fault breccia closely resembles the granitic rock of the hangingwall in composition, texture, and friction coefficient, we interpret the breccia as having originated from this protolith. If the mechanical incorporation of wall rocks of high friction coefficient into fault zones is widespread at the mesoscale, it causes the heterogeneity in friction strength of fault zones and might contribute to the evolution of fault-zone architectures.

  12. CMOS active pixel sensor for fault tolerance and background illumination subtraction

    Cheung, Yu Hin (Desmond)


    As the CMOS active pixel sensor evolves, its weaknesses are being overcome and its strengths start to surpass that of the charge-coupled device. This thesis discusses two novel APS designs. The first novel APS design was a Fault Tolerance Active Pixel Sensor (FTAPS) to increase a pixel's tolerance to defects. By dividing a regular APS pixel into two halves, the reliability of the pixel is increased, resulting in higher fabrication yield, longer pixel life time, and reduction in cost. Photodio...

  13. Relief evolution along the escarpments of active normal faults: observations, experimental and numerical modelling

    Strak, Vincent


    Relief evolution in active tectonic areas is controlled by the interactions between tectonics and surface processes (erosion, transport and sedimentation). These interactions lead to the formation of geomorphologic markers that remain stable during the equilibrium reached on the long-term between erosion and tectonics. In the context of footwalls of active normal faults, these geomorphologic markers are river-long profiles and triangular facets. Previous numerical models and numerous measurem...

  14. Geomorphic evidence of active faults growth in the Norcia seismic area (central Apennines, Italy)

    Materazzi, Marco; Aringoli, Domenico; Farabollini, Piero; Giacopetti, Marco; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Tondi, Emanuele; Troiani, Francesco


    Fault-growth by segment linkage is one of the fundamental processes controlling the evolution, in both time and the space, of fault systems. In fact, step-like trajectories shown by length-displacement diagrams for individual fault arrays suggest that the development of evolved structures result by the linkage of single fault segments. The type of interaction between faults and the rate at which faults reactivate not only control the long term tectonic evolution of an area, but also influence the seismic hazard, as earthquake recurrence intervals tend to decrease as fault slip rate increase. The use of Geomorphological investigations represents an important tool to constrain the latest history of active faults. In this case, attention has to be given to recognize morphostructural, historical, environmental features at the surface, since they record the long-term seismic behavior due to the fault growth processes (Tondi and Cello, 2003). The aim of this work is to investigate the long term morphotectonic evolution of a well know seismic area in the central Apennines: the Norcia intramontane basin (Aringoli et al., 2005). The activity of the Norcia seismic area is characterized by moderate events and by strong earthquakes with maximum intensities of X-XI degrees MCS and equivalent magnitudes around 6.5±7.0 (CPTI, 2004). Based on the morphostructural features as well as on the historical seismicity of the area, we may divide the Norcia seismic area into three minor basins roughly NW-SE oriented: the Preci sub-basin in the north; the S. Scolastica and the Castel S. Maria sub-basins in the south. The wider basin (S. Scolastica) is separated from the other two by ridges transversally oriented with respect the basins themselves; they are the geomorphological response to the tectonic deformation which characterizes the whole area. Other geomorphological evidences of tectonic activity are represented by deformation of old summit erosional surfaces, hydrographic network

  15. On infinite horizon active fault diagnosis for a class of non-linear non-Gaussian systems

    Punčochár Ivo


    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of active fault diagnosis for discrete-time stochastic systems over an infinite time horizon. It is assumed that the switching between a fault-free and finitely many faulty conditions can be modelled by a finite-state Markov chain and the continuous dynamics of the observed system can be described for the fault-free and each faulty condition by non-linear non-Gaussian models with a fully observed continuous state. The design of an optimal active fault detector that generates decisions and inputs improving the quality of detection is formulated as a dynamic optimization problem. As the optimal solution obtained by dynamic programming requires solving the Bellman functional equation, approximate techniques are employed to obtain a suboptimal active fault detector.

  16. Late Quaternary activity along the Scorciabuoi Fault (Southern Italy as inferred from electrical resistivity tomographies

    A. Loperte


    Full Text Available The Scorciabuoi Fault is one of the major tectonic structures affecting the Southern Apennines, Italy. Across its central sector, we performed several electrical resistivity tomographies with different electrode spacing (5 and 10 m and using a multielectrode system with 32 electrodes. All tomographies were acquired with two different arrays, the dipole-dipole and the Wenner-Schlumberger. We also tested the different sensitivity of the two arrays with respect to the specific geological conditions and research goals. Detailed geological mapping and two boreholes were used to calibrate the electrical stratigraphy. In all but one tomography (purposely performed off the fault trace, we could recognise an abrupt subvertical lateral variation of the main sedimentary bodies showing the displacement and sharp thickening of the two youngest alluvial bodies in the hanging-wall block. These features are interpreted as evidence of synsedimentary activity of the Scorciabuoi Fault during Late Pleistocene and possibly as recently as Holocene and allow accurate location of the fault trace within the Sauro alluvial plain.

  17. Thermal activation of OSL as a geothermometer for quartz grain heating during fault movements

    Rink, W J; Rees-Jones, J; Schwarcz, H P


    In discussions of ESR dating of fault movements, there has been much debate whether zeroing of ESR signals is a mechanical shearing effect or caused by frictional heating. The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) sensitivity of quartz is known to increase after heating. This thermal activation of dose response of the OSL in quartz should be useful as a geothermometer to test whether quartz particles in fault gouge had been heated. We tested the OSL sensitivities of quartz from fault gouge, and from a control (quartz grains from sandstone) and were able to show heat-induced enhancement of OSL sensitivity to a test dose. We observed that relative enhancement of OSL dose response (ratio of heated to unheated single aliquots) is significantly less for the finest grains (45-75 and 100-150 mu m) compared with coarser grains (150-250 mu m). These data are consistent with a model of zeroing of the quartz grains during faulting, by frictional heating localized to the grain boundaries, which would be expected to aff...

  18. Evidence for an active fault below the northwestern Alpine foreland of Switzerland

    Kastrup, U.; Deichmann, N.; Fröhlich, A.; Giardini, D.


    This study is devoted to the analysis of a prominent concentration of earthquakes whose epicenters delineate an active 20-30 km long N-S trending tectonic feature near the town of Fribourg, in the Molasse Basin of western Switzerland. This feature coincides with the possible southward continuation of the NNE-SSW trending Rhine Graben located approximately 80 km further north. In addition these epicenters are located in the vicinity of the Fribourg Syncline and the Alterswil Culmination, whose structural axes are oriented N-S in this area, instead of being aligned with the predominant regional NE-SW structural trend. Most of the earthquakes belong to one of three series of events that occurred over a time span of 2-4 months in 1987, 1995 and 1999. They include four events with magnitudes between 3 and 4 and one with a magnitude of 4.3. Focal depths, constrained by modelling sPMP-PMP traveltime differences with synthetic seismograms, are around 2 km, which places these events in the sedimentary cover. Fault plane solutions correspond to almost pure strike-slip mechanisms with nearly N-S and E-W oriented nodal planes. High-precision relative locations of individual events within the different earthquake clusters as well as of the relative locations of the clusters to each other show that these earthquakes are associated with left lateral motion along a N-S trending fault system. Deep reaching large scale flower structures in the Mesozoic and Tertiary overburden are observed on interpreted seismic profiles, close to the hypocenters. The unusual N-S trend of the Fribourg Syncline can be attributed to movements along these faults during Oligocene and Miocene times. Also magnetic data support the assumption of a N-S striking fault system in the Fribourg area, possibly related to a Permo-Carboniferous trough. Though the direct link between the fault traces in the overburden and the active fault system at depth could not be established in this study, their similar

  19. Performance based fault diagnosis

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  20. Active faults on the eastern flank of Etna volcano (Italy) monitored through soil radon measurements

    Neri, M.; Giammanco, S.; Ferrera, E.; Patanè, G.; Zanon, V.


    This study concerns measurements of radon and thoron emissions from soil carried out in 2004 on the unstable eastern flank of Mt. Etna, in a zone characterized by the presence of numerous seismogenic and aseismic faults. The statistical treatment of the geochemical data allowed recognizing anomaly thresholds for both parameters and producing distribution maps that highlighted a significant spatial correlation between soil gas anomalies and tectonic lineaments. In particular, the highest anomalies were found at the intersection between WNW-ESE and NW-SE -running faults. The seismic activity occurring in and around the study area during 2004 was analyzed, producing maps of hypocentral depth and released seismic energy. These maps revealed a progressive deepening of hypocenters from NW to SE, with the exception of a narrow zone in the central part of the area, with a roughly WNW-ESE direction. Also, the highest values of seismic energy were released during events in the southern and northwestern sectors of the area. Both radon and thoron anomalies were located in areas affected by relatively deep (5-10 km depth) seismic activity, while less evident correlation was found between soil gas anomalies and the released seismic energy. This study confirms that mapping the distribution of radon and thoron in soil gas can reveal hidden faults buried by recent soil cover or faults that are not clearly visible at the surface. The correlation between soil gas data and earthquake depth and intensity can give some hints on the source of gas and/or on fault dynamics. Lastly, an important spin-off of this study is the recognition of some areas where radon activity was so high (>50000 Bq/m3) that it may represent a potential hazard to the local population. In fact, radon is the leading cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoke for long exposures and, due to its molecular weight, it accumulates in underground rooms or in low ground, particularly where air circulation is low or absent

  1. Vertical slip rates of active faults of southern Albania inferred from river terraces

    Oswaldo Guzmán; Jean-Louis Mugnier; Riccardo Vassallo; Rexhep Koçi; François Jouanne


    Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece) are studied in order to quantify the vertical slip rates of the large active faults of the Dinaric-Albanic-Hellenic Alpine fold belt. The spatial and temporal variations of the incision rates along these rivers were estimated from the geomorphological mapping of the Quaternary sediments, the geometry and the dating of the terraces. Eleven terraces levels were identified in Albania from 68 ge...

  2. Do Active Transverse Faults Exist on the Southern Coast of Corinth Rift?

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten: EAGE, 2014, Tu PA2 06/1-Tu PA2 06/5. ISBN 978-94-6282-027-2. [Near Surface Geoscience 2014 - 20th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Athens (GR), 14.09.2014-18.09.2014] Grant ostatní: European Commission(XE) 5FP Project NNE5-2001-00501 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : active faults * Gulf of Corinth * gravity survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  3. Enhancing sensitivity for Active Pixel Sensors with fault tolerance and demosaicing

    La Haye, Michelle Lorraine


    A key advantage to the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) over the traditional charge coupled device (CCD) is the ability to integrate electronics on chip. As image sensors become larger the number of defective pixels increases. In this thesis, a fault tolerant APS design is investigated that functions even in the presence of defects typical for image sensors, focusing on its sensitivity and a noise analysis with defects. The design has nearly twice the sensitivity and the signal-to-noise ratio only d...

  4. Active faults and historical earthquakes in the Messina Straits area (Ionian Sea)

    Polonia, A.; L. TORELLI; L. Gasperini; Mussoni, P.


    The Calabrian Arc (CA) subduction complex is located at the toe of the Eurasian Plate in the Ionian Sea, where sediments resting on the lower plate have been scraped off and piled up in the accretionary wedge due to the African/Eurasian plate convergence and back arc extension. The CA has been struck repeatedly by destructive historical earthquakes, but knowledge of active faults and source parameters is relatively poor, particularly for seismogenic structures extending offshore. We analysed ...

  5. A study on transient enhancement for fault diagnosis based on an active noise control system

    Tian, X.; Gu, Fengshou; Zhen, Dong; Tran, Tung; Ball, Andrew


    Active noise control (ANC) is a more effective technique used for acoustic noise cancelation in comparison with passive approaches which are difficult and expensive to implement, especially for cancelling the noise in the low frequency range. In the ANC system, an anti-noise signal is introduced to suppress the primary noise to produce a residual which is used for updating the adaptive filter coefficients. In this paper, a method of transient content enhancement for fault detection and diagno...

  6. Late Quaternary Activity and Seismogenic Potential of the Gonave Microplate: Plantain Garden Strike-Slip Fault Zone of Eastern Jamaica

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.; King, W.; Demets, C.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.; Benford, B.


    At the longitude of Jamaica, Caribbean (Carib)-North America (Noam) plate motion of 19 ± 2 mm/a is carried by two parallel, left-lateral strike-slip faults, the Oriente fault zone, immediately south of Cuba, and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ), which lies 100-150 km further south. It has been postulated that the lithosphere between these faults constitutes an independent Gonave microplate that has formed in response to the ongoing collision between the leading edge of Carib in Hispaniola and the Bahama carbonate platform. GPS measurements in Jamaica and Hispanola is supportive of the microplate hypothesis and indicates that roughly half of Carib-Noam plate motion (8-14 mm/a) is carried by the EPGFZ of southern Hispaniola and eastern Jamaica. This study applies geomorphic and paleoseismic methods as a direct test of the activity and amount of microplate motion carried on the Plantain Garden fault segment of eastern Hispaniola and how this motion is distributed across a large restraining bend that has formed the island of Jamaica since the late Miocene. The EPFZ curves gently to the northeast and forming a steep mountain front to the Blue Mountains restraining bend with elevations up to 2200 m. Geomorphic fault-related features along the mountain front fault zone include left-laterally deflected rivers and streams, but no small scale features indicative of Holocene activity. River and stream deflections range from 0.1 to 0.5 km. We identified and trenched the most active trace of the mountain front fault at the Morant River where the fault is characterized by a 1.5-m-wide sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and fault Cretaceous basement rocks This section is overlain by a 6-m-thick fluvial terrace. Trenching in the unfaulted terrace immediately overlying the fault trace revealed radiocarbon and OSL ages ranging from 20 to 21 ka that are consistent with a prominent unfaulted alluvial fan along the projection of this fault 1.5 km to

  7. Active faulting in the Inner California Borderlands: new constraints from high-resolution multichannel seismic and multibeam bathymetric data.

    Bormann, J. M.; Holmes, J. J.; Sahakian, V. J.; Klotsko, S.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Wesnousky, S. G.


    Geodetic data indicate that faults offshore of Southern California accommodate 6-8 mm/yr of dextral Pacific-North American relative plate motion. In the Inner California Borderlands (ICB), modern strike-slip deformation is overprinted on topography formed during plate boundary reorganization 30-15 Ma. Despite its proximity to urban Southern California, the hazard posed by active faults in the ICB remains poorly understood. We acquired a 4000-line-km regional grid of high-resolution, 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data and multibeam bathymetry to examine the fault architecture and tectonic evolution of the ICB. We interpret the MCS data using a sequence stratigraphic approach to establish a chronostratigraphy and identify discrete episodes of deformation. We present our results in a regional fault model that distinguishes active deformation from older structures. Significant differences exist between our model of ICB deformation and existing models. Mounting evidence suggests a westward temporal migration of slip between faults in the ICB. In the eastern ICB, slip on the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault and the neighboring Coronado Bank fault (CBF) diminishes to the north and appears to decrease over time. Undeformed Late Pliocene sediments overlie the northern extent of the CBF and the breakaway zone of the purported Oceanside Blind Thrust. Therefore, CBF slip rate estimates based on linkage with the Palos Verdes fault to the north are unwarranted. Deformation along the San Mateo, San Onofre, and Carlsbad trends is best explained as localized deformation resulting from geometrical complexities in a dextral strike-slip fault system. In the western ICB, the San Diego Trough fault (SDTF) offsets young sediments between the US/Mexico border and the eastern margin of Avalon Knoll, where the fault is spatially coincident with the San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF). Farther west, the San Clemente fault (SCF) has a strong linear bathymetric expression. The length

  8. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Gülaçtı Topçu


    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  9. Fault recovery characteristics of the fault tolerant multi-processor

    Padilla, Peter A.


    The fault handling performance of the fault tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) was investigated. Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles byzantine or lying faults. It is pointed out that these weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good LRU (line replaceable unit) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software. It is concluded that fault injection can help detect and analyze the behavior of a system in the ultra-reliable regime. Although fault injection testing cannot be exhaustive, it has been demonstrated that it provides a unique capability to unmask problems and to characterize the behavior of a fault-tolerant system.

  10. Geomorphic signal of active faulting at the northern edge of Lut Block: Insights on the kinematic scenario of Central Iran

    Calzolari, Gabriele; Della Seta, Marta; Rossetti, Federico; Nozaem, Reza; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Cosentino, Domenico; Faccenna, Claudio


    Recent works documented Neogene to Quaternary dextral strike-slip tectonics along the Kuh-e-Sarhangi and Kuh-e-Faghan intraplate strike-slip faults at the northern edge of the Lut Block of Central Iran, previously thought to be dominated by sinistral strike-slip deformation. This work focuses on the evidence of Quaternary activity of one of these fault systems, in order to provide new spatiotemporal constraints on their role in the active regional kinematic scenario. Through geomorphological and structural investigation, integrated with optically stimulated luminescence dating of three generations of alluvial fans and fluvial terraces (at ~53, ~25, and ~6 ka), this study documents (i) the topographic inheritance of the long-term (Myr) punctuated history of fault nucleation, propagation, and exhumation along the northern edge of Lut Block; (ii) the tectonic control on drainage network evolution, pediment formation, fluvial terraces, and alluvial fan architecture; (iii) the minimum Holocene age of Quaternary dextral strike-slip faulting; and (iv) the evidence of Late Quaternary fault-related uplift localized along the different fault strands. The documented spatial and temporal constraints on the active dextral strike-slip tectonics at the northern edge of Lut Block provide new insights on the kinematic model for active faulting in Central Iran, which has been reinterpreted in an escape tectonic scenario.

  11. Measurement Testing of Radon Gas for Fault Activity Detection in Rahtawu Muria, Pati

    The radon surface can be used to investigates not only for environment but also to be develop in an earth application. The investigation is carried out at the Rahtawu fault, that includes, to the Pati regency which is located 40 km South of ULA. The objective of study to measure the radon released from the fracture zone activities. RDA equipment is being used to measure the radon gas released. The result shown that the high value of radon is 311 cpm with the background of 18 cpm, whereas the low value falls at 0 cpm. The tattoo value are influenced by the soil condition, tattoo time, hardness, weather, soil/stone porosity and fault possession. (author)

  12. A "Kanes's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    Hampton, R. David; Beech, Geoffrey


    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state-space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop an state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  13. Discussion on the Abnormally Low Active Fault Slip Rate of the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Fu Zhengxiang; Lü Xiaojian; Jin Xueshen; Dai Yinghua; Shao Huicheng; Hao Ping


    Based on the collection of active fault slip rate data of large intra-continental shallow thrust earthquakes occurring in the triangular seismic region of the East Asia continent,a preliminary analysis has been performed with results showing that the Wenchuan,Sichuan,China earthquake(Ms=8.0)of May 12,2008 occurred on the Longmenshan Mountain active fault with an abnormally low slip rate.

  14. Planning a Preliminary program for Earthquake Loss Estimation and Emergency Operation by Three-dimensional Structural Model of Active Faults

    Ke, M. C.


    Large scale earthquakes often cause serious economic losses and a lot of deaths. Because the seismic magnitude, the occurring time and the occurring location of earthquakes are still unable to predict now. The pre-disaster risk modeling and post-disaster operation are really important works of reducing earthquake damages. In order to understanding disaster risk of earthquakes, people usually use the technology of Earthquake simulation to build the earthquake scenarios. Therefore, Point source, fault line source and fault plane source are the models which often are used as a seismic source of scenarios. The assessment results made from different models used on risk assessment and emergency operation of earthquakes are well, but the accuracy of the assessment results could still be upgrade. This program invites experts and scholars from Taiwan University, National Central University, and National Cheng Kung University, and tries using historical records of earthquakes, geological data and geophysical data to build underground three-dimensional structure planes of active faults. It is a purpose to replace projection fault planes by underground fault planes as similar true. The analysis accuracy of earthquake prevention efforts can be upgraded by this database. Then these three-dimensional data will be applied to different stages of disaster prevention. For pre-disaster, results of earthquake risk analysis obtained by the three-dimensional data of the fault plane are closer to real damage. For disaster, three-dimensional data of the fault plane can be help to speculate that aftershocks distributed and serious damage area. The program has been used 14 geological profiles to build the three dimensional data of Hsinchu fault and HisnCheng faults in 2015. Other active faults will be completed in 2018 and be actually applied on earthquake disaster prevention.

  15. Comparison of {gamma}-ray profile across active normal and reverse faults; Seidansogata to gyakudansogata katsudanso ni okeru hoshano tansa kekka no hikaku

    Iwata, A.; Wada, N.; Sumi, H. [Shimada Technical Consultants, Ltd., Shimane (Japan); Yamauchi, S.; Iga, T. [Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan)


    Active faults confirmed at trench and outcrop were surveyed by the {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The active fault found at trench is a normal fault, and that found at outcrop is a reverse fault. The {gamma}-ray spectral characteristics of these two types of faults were compared to each other. The normal fault is named as Asagane fault located in Aimi-machi, Saihaku-gun, Tottori prefecture. The reverse fault is named as Yokota reverse fault located in Yokota-cho, Nita-gun, Shimane prefecture. Rises of radon gas indicating the existence of opening cracks were confirmed above the fault for the normal fault, and at the side of thrust block for the reverse fault. It was considered that such characteristics were caused by the difference of fault formation in the tensile stress field and in the compressive stress field. It was also reconfirmed that much more information as to faults can be obtained by the combined exploration method using the total counting method and the spectral method. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Antifungal activity of triterpenoid isolated from Azima tetracantha leaves.

    Duraipandiyan, V; M Gnanasekar; S Ignacimuthu


    The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) against fungi. Antifungal activity was carried out using broth microdilution method and fractions were collected using (silica gel) column chromatography. The antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha crude extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Hexane extract showed some antifungal activity. The compound also exh...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim


    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties. PMID:24689302

  18. Studies on neotectonic activity in central and northern Sweden. Investigation of air-photos and interpretation of recent faults

    Several fault-lines of presumed late-glacial age in northern Sweden are described. The faults have been identified and investigated mainly by means of air-photo interpretation. Morphologically the fault scarps are very conspicious and can be traced over long distances. The faults are all developed in the Precambrian. The amount of displacement on the dislocations is of the order of up to about 30 metres and the most extensive fault-line is about 150 km long. The syncronism between the deglaciation of the region and the fracturing offers a natural explanation of the phenomena. The direct reason for the close connection between deglaciation and tectonic movements may have been that the deglaciation proceeded rapidly. The regional connection between the neotectonic structures and the recent seismic pattern within the area is obvious. This indicates that the forces which produced the faulting are still active. Nevertheless it is evident that the faulting was more active in late-glacial times than today. (author)

  19. Active faults in the deformation zone off Noto Peninsula, Japan, revealed by high- resolution seismic profiles

    Inoue, T.; Okamura, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kimura, H.; Ikehara, K.


    Recently, a lot of earthquakes occur in Japan. The deformation zone which many faults and folds have concentrated exists on the Japan Sea side of Japan. The 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake (MJMA 6.9) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (MJMA 6.8) were caused by activity of parts of faults in this deformation zone. The Noto Hanto Earthquake occurred on 25 March, 2007 under the northwestern coast of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. This earthquake is located in Quaternary deformation zone that is continued from northern margin of Noto Peninsula to southeast direction (Okamura, 2007a). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) carried out high-resolution seismic survey using Boomer and 12 channels short streamer cable in the northern part off Noto Peninsula, in order to clarify distribution and activities of active faults in the deformation zone. A twelve channels short streamer cable with 2.5 meter channel spacing developed by AIST and private corporation is designed to get high resolution seismic profiles in shallow sea area. The multi-channel system is possible to equip on a small fishing boat, because the data acquisition system is based on PC and the length of the cable is short and easy to handle. Moreover, because the channel spacing is short, this cable is very effective for a high- resolution seismic profiling survey in the shallow sea, and seismic data obtained by multi-channel cable can be improved by velocity analysis and CDP stack. In the northern part off Noto Peninsula, seismic profiles depicting geologic structure up to 100 meters deep under sea floor were obtained. The most remarkable reflection surface recognized in the seismic profiles is erosion surface at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the western part, sediments about 30 meters (40 msec) thick cover the erosional surface that is distributed under the shelf shallower than 100m in depth and the sediments thin toward offshore and east. Flexures like deformation in

  20. Active thrust faulting offshore Boumerdes, Algeria, and its relations to the 2003 Mw 6.9 earthquake

    Déverchère, J.; Yelles, K.; Domzig, A.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Bouillin, J.-P.; Gaullier, V.; Bracène, R.; Calais, E.; Savoye, B.; Kherroubi, A.; Le Roy, P.; Pauc, H.; Dan, G.


    We investigate the active seismogenic fault system in the area of the 2003 Mw 6.9 Boumerdes earthquake, Algeria, from a high-resolution swath bathymetry and seismic survey. A series of 5 main fault-propagation folds ~20-35 km long leave prominent cumulative escarpments on the steep slope and in the deep basin. Fault activity creates Plio-Quaternary growth strata within uplifted areas such as a rollover basin on the slope and piggyback basins in the deep ocean. Most thrusts turn to fault-propagation folds at the sub-surface and depict ramp-flat trajectories. We find that the two main slip patches of the 2003 Mw 6.9 Boumerdes earthquake are spatially correlated to two segmented cumulative scarps recognized on the slope and at the foot of the margin. The overall geometry indicates the predominance of back thrusts implying underthrusting of the Neogene oceanic crust.

  1. Study on Integrated Recurrence Behaviors of Strong Earthquakes Along Entire Active Fault Zones in the Sichuan-Yunnan Region, China

    Yi Guixi; Wen Xueze; Xu Xiwei


    Based on historical earthquake data, we use statistical methods to study integrated recurrencebehaviors of strong earthquakes along 7 selected active fault zones in the Sichuan-Yunnanregion. The results show that recurrences of strong earthquakes in the 7 fault zones displaynear-random, random and clustering behaviors. The recurrence processes are never quasi-periodic, and are neither strength-time nor time-strength dependent. The more independentsegments for strong earthquake rupturing a fault zone has, the more complicated thecorresponding recurrence process is. And relatively active periods and quiescent periods forearthquake activity occur alternatively. Within the active periods, the distribution ofrecurrence time intervals between earthquakes has relatively large discretion, and can bemodelled well by a Weibull distribution. The time distribution of the quiescent periods hasrelatively small discretion, and can be approximately described by some distributions as thenormal. Both the durations of the active periods and the numbers of strong earthquakes withinthe active periods vary obviously cycle by cycle, leading to the relatively active periods havingnever repeated quasi-periodically. Therefore, the prohabilistic assessment for middle- and long-term seismic hazard for entireties of active fault zones based on data of historical strongearthquakes on the fault zones still faces difficulty.

  2. Linking Slope Sedimentation, Gradient, Morphology, and Active Faulting: An Integrated Example from the Palos Verdes Slope, Southern California Borderland

    Maier, K. L.; Brothers, D. S.; Paull, C. K.; McGann, M.; Caress, D. W.; Conrad, J. E.


    Seafloor gradient variations associated with restraining and releasing bends along the active (1.6-1.9 mm/yr) right-lateral Palos Verdes Fault appear to control Holocene sediment thickness, depositional environment, and morphodynamic processes along a section of the continental slope offshore Los Angeles, California. Autonomous underwater mapping vehicle (AUV), remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and shipboard methods were used to acquire a dense grid of high-resolution chirp profiles (150 m line spacing; 11 cm vertical resolution), multibeam bathymetry (2 m grid), and targeted sediment core samples (<2 m length). Detailed interpretation of Holocene deposits in the chirp profiles combined with radiocarbon dating and laser particle-size analyses allow correlation of Holocene sediment thickness and seafloor gradient with sediment gravity flow deposits. Holocene down-slope flows appear to have been generated by mass wasting processes, primarily on the upper slope (~100-200 m water depth) where shipboard multibeam bathymetry reveals submarine landslide headwall scarps in a region that has been isolated from terrigenous sediment sources throughout the Holocene. Submarine landslides appear to have transformed into sandy and organic-rich turbidity currents that created up-slope migrating sediment waves, a low relief (<5 m) fault-bounded channel, and a series of depocenters. A down-slope gradient profile and a Holocene isopach down-slope profile show that the primary depocenter occurs within a small pull-apart basin associated with a decrease in seafloor gradient of ~1.5°. Holocene sediment-flow deposits vary in number, thickness, and character with subtle changes in seabed gradient (<0.5°) and depositional environment. These results help quantify morphodynamic sensitivity to seafloor gradients and have implications for down-slope flow dynamics, deep-water depositional architecture, Holocene sediment, nutrient, and contaminant transport, and turbidite paleoseismology along

  3. An active viscoelastic metamaterial for isolation applications

    Reynolds, Matthew; Daley, Stephen


    Metamaterials are of interest due to their ability to produce novel acoustic behaviour beyond that seen in naturally occurring media. Of particular interest is the appearance of band gaps which lead to very high levels of attenuation within narrow frequency ranges. Resonant elements within metamaterials allow band gaps to form within the long wavelength limit at low frequencies where traditional passive isolation solutions suffer poor performance. Hence metamaterials may provide a path to hig...

  4. Correlations between radon in soil gas and the activity of seismogenic faults in the Tangshan area, North China

    The spatial variation of soil gas radon values were correlated with the seismogenic faults and earthquakes in the Tangshan area (north China). Radon concentrations were measured at 756 sites in an area about 2500 km2 from April to May 2010. The background and anomaly threshold values calculated were 4730.4 Bq/m3 and 8294.1 Bq/m3, respectively. Radon concentrations highlight a decreasing gradient from NE to SW in the area. Higher values mostly distributed in the NE sector of the Tangshan fault and the Luanxian fault where the Tangshan (Ms 7.8), and Luanxian (MS 7.1) earthquakes occurred in 1976 and 17 earthquakes with MS = 3.0 occurred in this area since 2005. Radon values illustrated a close relation with the shallow fault trace and earthquake activity in the area. The active fault zones and the associated fractures formed by the larger earthquakes, act as paths for radon migration. - Highlights: • Radon concentrations at 756 sites were attained in the Tangshan area. • The background value and anomaly threshold of Rn were calculated out. • Radon concentration decreasing from NE to SW in the study area. • Rn value has a close relation with the fault and earthquake activity


    К. Zh. Seminsky


    Full Text Available Radon concentrations in soil air are variable depending on factors that are considered external (planetary and internal (geodynamic relative to the Earth. In active fault zones, variations of gas emanations are most intense. A permanent monitoring station was established near Tyrgan settlement in Western Pribaikalie to study temporal variations of soil radon concentration, Q, in the faults of the Baikal rift, East Siberia. This station is located in the zone of the Primorsky normal fault that is the largest in the region. The station is equipped with radon radiometer PPA01M03 that records Q values every 85 minutes and also monitors a number of meteorological parameters, including atmospheric pressure, humidity, and air temperature.We analysed records of two measurement sessions (148 and 66 days covering a part of the year during which field measurement of Q are possible in the cold climate conditions of the area under study. According to the available monitoring data, variations of radon concentrations in the Primorsky fault zone may vary by more than one order of magnitude through a springsummerautumn period, and such variations are oscillatory. Significant changes of permeability in time occur due to intensive changes in the state of stresses of the rock massives under the impacts of the planetary and geodynamic factors. The influence of the first group of factors, i.e. planetary ones, is manifested by synchronous oscillations of radon concentrations and atmospheric pressure, which phases of occurrence are opposed. Domination of daily and fourday periods gives evidence that the state of stresses of the rock massives is impacted by the lunar tides and cyclonic phenomena associated with the interaction between the Earth and the Sun. The influence of the second group of factors, i.e. geodynamic ones, is suggested by an evident relation between radon emanations and seismic events, including the catastrophic earthquake in Japan (March 11, 2011, M=9

  6. Screening of Azotobacter isolates for PGP properties and antifungal activity

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.


    Full Text Available Аmong 50 bacterial isolates obtained from maize rhizospherе, 13 isolates belonged to the genus Azotobacter. Isolates were biochemically characterized and estimated for pH and halo tolerance ability and antibiotic resistance. According to characterization, the six representative isolates were selected and further screened in vitro for plant growth promoting properties: production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, exopolysaccharides, phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity (vs. Helminthosporium sp., Macrophomina sp., Fusarium sp.. Beside HCN production, PGP properties were detected for all isolates except Azt7. All isolates produced IAA in the medium without L-tryptophan and the amount of produced IAA increased with concentration of precursor in medium. The highest amount of IAA was produced by isolates Azt4 (37.69 and 45.86 μg ml-1 and Azt5 (29.44 and 50.38 μg ml-1 in the medium with addition of L-tryptophan (2.5 and 5 mM. The isolates showed the highest antifungal activity against Helminthosporium sp. and the smallest antagonistic effect on Macrophomina sp. Radial Growth Inhibition (RGI obtained by the confrontation of isolates with tested phytopathogenic fungi, ranged from 10 to 48%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31073

  7. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.;


    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... with the strongest antifungal activity were examined by the milk agar plate method with three different mould strains isolated from spoiled dairy products as target microorganisms and were compared with the antifungal effectiveness of standard antifungal strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1 and Lb...... Lb. fermentum ST 41, was comparable to or slightly higher than that of standard strains. By use of both ST 41, was comparable to or slightly higher than that of standard strains. By use of both phenotypic and genotypic methods (REP-PCR, 16S rDNA), four out of seven antifungally active isolates were...

  8. Antifungal activity of triterpenoid isolated from Azima tetracantha leaves

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) against fungi. Antifungal activity was carried out using broth micro dilution method and fractions were collected using (silica gel) column chromatography. The antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha crude extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Hexane extract showed some antifungal activity. The compound also exhibited antifungal activity against tested fungi. The lowest MIC against Trichophyton rubrum (296) was 62.5 micro g/ml and the MIC for Curvularia lunata was 62.5 micro g/ml. These results suggest that Friedelin is a promising antifungal agent. (authors)

  9. Early (pre–8 Ma) fault activity and temporal strain accumulation in the central Indian Ocean

    Krishna, K.S.; Bull, J.M.; Scrutton, R.A.

    The diffuse deformation zone in the central Indian Ocean is the classical example of distributed deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, where shortening between the Indian and Capricorn plates is manifest as reverse faulting (5-10-km-spaced faults...

  10. Lahars in and around the Taipei basin: Implications for the activity of the Shanchiao fault

    Song, Sheng-Rong; Chen, Tsu-Mo; Tsao, Shuhjong; Chen, Huei-Fen; Liu, Huan-Chi


    In the last decade, more than 21 deep geological cores have been drilled in the Taipei basin to obtain a firmer grasp of its basic geology and engineering properties prior to the construction of new infrastructure. Thirteen of those cores contain lahar deposits, with the number of layers varying from one to three and the thickness of each layer varying from several to over 100 m. Based on their occurrence, petrology and geochemistry, it has been determined that the deposits originated from the southern slope of the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG). K-Ar age dating has shown that the lower layer of lahars was deposited less than 0.4 Ma, and this is clearly correlated to outcrops in the Kauntu, Chengtzeliao and Shihtzutao areas. These findings may well suggest that the Taipei basin has been formed in last 0.4 Ma and that the Shanchiao normal fault commenced its activity within this period. The surface trace and the activity of the Shanchiao normal fault have also been inferred and subsequently defined from stratigraphic data derived from these cores.

  11. Soil radon survey for tracing active fault: a case study along Qena-Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    High concentrations of radon are often used as a geophysical tool for uranium exploration, earthquake and volcanic activity predication, and fault zones confirmation. The aim of this study was to assure the suitability of this method in the study of fault zones. For this purpose, a portable AlphaGUARD PQ 2000 device was used to detect the fracture zones along Qena-Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Radon soil gas anomalies were found to be linearly distributed along NW-SE and NE-SW trends. Such directions agree well with the directions of the active fault deduced from earlier studies. Radon concentration in soil along the repeated three profiles was anomalously high in all fault zones by a factor of 3-6 above background values. In the profiles studied, the peaks recorded on the fault trace were found to be higher than the background. The analysis of the water samples collected from a well in the studied area showed that the HCO3 contents exceeded 1000 ppm, providing an additional evidence that the area under study is likely to be included within a major seismic belt. This study confirms strongly that radon gas and hydrochemical studies are a good tool for fault zones detection in similar areas

  12. Soil radon survey for tracing active fault: a case study along Qena-Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Moussa, M.M.; El Arabi, A.M. E-mail:


    High concentrations of radon are often used as a geophysical tool for uranium exploration, earthquake and volcanic activity predication, and fault zones confirmation. The aim of this study was to assure the suitability of this method in the study of fault zones. For this purpose, a portable AlphaGUARD PQ 2000 device was used to detect the fracture zones along Qena-Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Radon soil gas anomalies were found to be linearly distributed along NW-SE and NE-SW trends. Such directions agree well with the directions of the active fault deduced from earlier studies. Radon concentration in soil along the repeated three profiles was anomalously high in all fault zones by a factor of 3-6 above background values. In the profiles studied, the peaks recorded on the fault trace were found to be higher than the background. The analysis of the water samples collected from a well in the studied area showed that the HCO{sub 3} contents exceeded 1000 ppm, providing an additional evidence that the area under study is likely to be included within a major seismic belt. This study confirms strongly that radon gas and hydrochemical studies are a good tool for fault zones detection in similar areas.

  13. Influence of active fault on the evolution of landscape and drainage: Evidence from lateral propagation of a branching out fault along Himalayan front and deflection of Dabka River, Kumaun Himalayas

    Shah, A.; Malik, J.; Lohani, B.


    Ongoing tectonic activity along the Central Kumaun Himalaya is well revealed by the occurrence of moderate to large magnitude earthquakes as well as by the existence of the prominent tectonically controlled geomorphic indicators. Shaded-relief images created from the digital elevation models (DEMs) are helpful in indentifying faults in mountains terrains. Coupled with the detailed and high resolution CORONA and Google images, a number of active faults were mapped. These faults branch out from the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the vicinity of Nainital foot hills. The compelling evidence of uplifted gravel deposits of recent alluvial fan surfaces together with the changing pattern of streams suggest that these faults are actively propagating and therefore, modifies drainage patterns. These faults are located close the major towns of Ramnagar and Kotabagh region of Nainital foothills, which are populated areas. Thus, the earthquake hazard in this region is to be reassessed.

  14. Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn

    Pandey, Nidhi; Tripathi, Yamini B.


    Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone). Its anti...

  15. An underwater landslide or slump on an active submarine fault - a possible source of a devastating tsunami?

    Matsumoto, T.


    A Mw 7.7 earthquake and subsequent large-scale tsunami occurred on 17th July 2006 off the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. A maximum of 7.7 m inundation height was recorded in Pangandaran on the southern coast of Java, according to the field survey just after the tsunami (Tsuji et al., 2006). However, since there are few residents who noticed the earthquake tremors, the earthquake may possibility be so-called "tsunami earthquake". The aftershocks from July to September occurred on the fore-arc area and their CMT solution suggests the predominant north-south tensile stress. R/V MIRAI passed the aftershock area in 2004 and 2005 with continuous multibeam bathymetric survey. The processed topographic map shows a lot of amphitheatres with the scale of 8-20 km along the fault scarps. Convexity landforms are located below the footwall of the amphitheatres, apparently the relics of an underwater landslide, and their relative elevation exceeds 1000 m in maximum. This area is characterised by the southeastern extension of Mentawai Fault and its associated minor faults ranging from the Sumatra fore-arc area. The observed amphitheatres and relics of underwater landslides are located along the active faults. Considering that the tsunami wave height distribution is concentrated on a specific narrow area compared with the scale of the mainshock, the mainshock possibly triggered underwater landslides on these amphitheatres and the slides generated a large-scale tsunami. The Ryukyu district was attacked by a M7-class earthquake followed by a devastating tsunami in 1771. 'The East Ishigaki Fault,' one of the across-arc active normal faults in this area was studied precisely by multibeam echo sounding. The study revealed a slump on the segmented active fault. The slump itself may generate a tsunami with the wave height of several meters and might cause the 1771 tsunami together with the faulting itself. Some recent geohazards also show that a landslide or a slump is

  16. Design of a multi-model observer-based estimator for Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI strategy: application to a chemical reactor

    Y. Chetouani


    Full Text Available This study presents a FDI strategy for nonlinear dynamic systems. It shows a methodology of tackling the fault detection and isolation issue by combining a technique based on the residuals signal and a technique using the multiple Kalman filters. The usefulness of this combination is the on-line implementation of the set of models, which represents the normal mode and all dynamics of faults, if the statistical decision threshold on the residuals exceeds a fixed value. In other cases, one Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is enough to estimate the process state. After describing the system architecture and the proposed FDI methodology, we present a realistic application in order to show the technique's potential. An algorithm is described and applied to a chemical process like a perfectly stirred chemical reactor functioning in a semi-batch mode. The chemical reaction used is an oxido reduction one, the oxidation of sodium thiosulfate by hydrogen peroxide.

  17. The use of radon gas techniques in water and soil for monitoring the tectonics and fault activities in Syria 1991

    Radon, Rn222, is continuously emanated from the earth crust as an intermediate decay product of U238 radioactive series. The amount of radon that generated from the crustal rocks into atmosphere is normally very small. However, radon emission is known to be anomalously large on active faults and possibly nearby seismic activities. This report presents the possibility of using radon technique for monitoring tectonics and localizing geological faults in Syria. A network of ten sampling stations were set up along the north-south trend Al-Ghab transform fault, which lies within the most active seismic zone in the country. In addition, five stations were set up in parallel to the Palmyride fold belt which extends in SW-NE direction along the central part of Syria. Monthly radon variations were measured in both groundwater and soil gases. Radon data that obtained from this study reveals that the method of radon monitoring over faults seems to be quite useful and successful in identifying geological faults. A correlation between seismic activities, in the region, and radon data has been investigated, and the result shows a fairly good association between radon variations and earthquakes of magnitude (Md > 3). (author). 8 refs., 13 figs., 24 tabs

  18. Self healing of open circuit faults: With active re-configurability and mimicry of synaptic plasticity

    Yaswant, Vaddi; Kumar, Amit; Sambandan, Sanjiv


    We discuss the self-repair of open faults in circuits using electrically conductive particles dispersed in an insulating fluid. The repair is triggered by the electric field developed across the open circuit in a current carrying interconnect and results in the formation of a bridge of particles across the gap. We illustrate and model the dynamics of the resistance of the self-healed route, Rb, in low field conditions. Furthermore, active control of Rb and active re-wiring are also demonstrated. Considering Rb to be akin to weights between nodes, the formation and re-wiring of routes and the control of Rb mimic synaptic plasticity in biological systems and open interesting possibilities for computing.

  19. 3D Modelling of Seismically Active Parts of Underground Faults via Seismic Data Mining

    Frantzeskakis, Theofanis; Konstantaras, Anthony


    During the last few years rapid steps have been taken towards drilling for oil in the western Mediterranean sea. Since most of the countries in the region benefit mainly from tourism and considering that the Mediterranean is a closed sea only replenishing its water once every ninety years careful measures are being taken to ensure safe drilling. In that concept this research work attempts to derive a three dimensional model of the seismically active parts of the underlying underground faults in areas of petroleum interest. For that purpose seismic spatio-temporal clustering has been applied to seismic data to identify potential distinct seismic regions in the area of interest. Results have been coalesced with two dimensional maps of underground faults from past surveys and seismic epicentres, having followed careful reallocation processing, have been used to provide information regarding the vertical extent of multiple underground faults in the region of interest. The end product is a three dimensional map of the possible underground location and extent of the seismically active parts of underground faults. Indexing terms: underground faults modelling, seismic data mining, 3D visualisation, active seismic source mapping, seismic hazard evaluation, dangerous phenomena modelling Acknowledgment This research work is supported by the ESPA Operational Programme, Education and Life Long Learning, Students Practical Placement Initiative. References [1] Alves, T.M., Kokinou, E. and Zodiatis, G.: 'A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: The South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins', Marine Pollution Bulletin, In Press, 2014 [2] Ciappa, A., Costabile, S.: 'Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea)', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 84 (1-2), pp. 44-55, 2014 [3] Ganas, A., Karastathis, V., Moshou, A., Valkaniotis, S., Mouzakiotis

  20. Microseismicity Induced by Fault Activation During the Fracture Process of a Crown Pillar

    Zhang, Penghai; Yang, Tianhong; Yu, Qinglei; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Wancheng; Liu, Honglei; Zhou, Jingren; Zhao, Yongchuan


    Shirengou iron mine in Hebei Province, China is now under transition from open pit to underground mining. During this process, the unstable failure risk of crown pillar is growing as a result of underground mining, fault activation and water seepage. To monitor the stability of the crown pillar, a microseismic monitoring system was equipped in 2006. Based on temporal and spatial distribution of microseismic events and deformation mechanism, it was found that it is the propagation of the buried fault F15 that causes the failure of the crown pillar, resulting in increased water seeping into the underground drifts. By analyzing the temporal changes in multiple microseismic parameters during the fracture process of the crown pillar, it was found that several distinct abnormalities in the microseismic data such as a rapid decrease in the b value, a sharp increase in energy release, an abnormal increase in apparent stress and a low dominant frequency, could be judged as the signal of an increasing risk. Therefore, the microseismic monitoring has been proven to be a suitable method for understanding damage and fracture process of the crown pillar during the transition from open pit to underground mining.

  1. Basalt waste isolation project institutional activities

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) was established in 1976 as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program, and characterization studies to evaluate the Hanford Site have been ongoing since that time. In early 1983, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) became law and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, which includes the BWIP as part of that program. This paper describes the interaction process required by the NWPA and has been ongoing for the past 3 to 4 yr with the State of Washington, Yakima Indian Nation, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Nez Perce Tribe, other federal agencies, city and county governments, the public and news media, and many other organizations. It identifies the issues that the state and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have noted during the consultation and cooperation (C and C) process. In addition, this paper covers the site recommendation/nomination process for the first repository, including number of sites, location, and types of media being investigated. It covers the site recommendation/nomination process for the second repository, including types of media and where those investigations are being performed. Discussion covering the OCRWM program strategy, which includes documentation being prepared for site recommendation/nomination, site investigations required to determine site suitability, the licensing process for the first repository, etc., are provided

  2. Seismicity, fault plane solutions, depth of faulting, and active tectonics of the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and southern Colombia

    Suarez, G.; Molnar, P.; Burchfiel, B. C.


    The long-period P waveforms observed for 17 earthquakes in the Peruvian Andes during 1963-1976 are compared with synthetic waveforms to obtain fault-plane solutions and focal depths. The morphological units of the Peruvian Andes are characterized: coastal plains, Cordillera Occidental, altiplano and central high plateau, Cordillera Oriental, and sub-Andes. The data base and analysis methodology are discussed, and the results are presented in tables, diagrams, graphs, maps, and photographs illustrating typical formations. Most of the earthquakes are shown to occur in the transition zone from the sub-Andes to the Cordillera Oriental under formations of about 1 km elevation at focal depths of 10-38 km. It is suggested that the sub-Andean earthquakes reflect hinterland deformation of a detached fold and thrust belt, perhaps like that which occurred in parts of the Canadian Rockies. From the total crustal shortening evident in Andean morphology and the shortening rate of the recent earthquakes it is estimated that the topography and crustal root of the Andes have been formed during the last 90-135 Myr.

  3. Rn, He and CO2 soil gas geochemistry for the study of active and inactive faults

    Two Italian areas, characterized by different seismological histories, were investigated to enhance the basic knowledge of gas migration mechanisms during earthquakes. Sharp variations occur in the movement and concentration of some gaseous species due to the evolution of the local stress regime. The first area (Colpasquale) is located in the central Italian region of Marche and provided a good location to study gas migration in a seismically active region. The area was devastated by a sequence of shallow earthquakes over a 3 month-long period (September-December, 1997). The occurrence of this catastrophic event, as well as the long duration of the 'seismic sequence', presented a unique opportunity to study gas migration in a zone undergoing active displacement. Soil gas surveys were performed 1 day, 1 week, 1 year and 2 years after the main shock (Ms 5.6) in the Colpasquale area. In particular, results highlight a change in the Rn distribution during the three monitoring years indicating a variation of gas migration that may be linked to the evolution of the stress regime. The second study area is located in the Campidano Graben (southern part of Sardinia Island). This area is characterized by seismic quiescence, displaying an almost complete lack of historical earthquakes and instrumentally recorded seismicity. The consistently low values observed for all analyzed gases suggest that the studied area is likely characterized by sealed, non-active faults that prevent significant gas migration. The comparison of data from both studied areas indicate that soil gas geochemistry is useful to locate tectonic discontinuities even when they intersect non-cohesive clastic rocks near the surface and thus are not visible (i.e., 'blind faults').

  4. Ceftaroline versus isolates from animal bite wounds: comparative in vitro activities against 243 isolates, including 156 Pasteurella species isolates.

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L


    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  5. Modeling of fluid injection and withdrawal induced fault activation using discrete element based hydro-mechanical and dynamic coupled simulator

    Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Zang, Arno; Zimmermann, Günter; Stephansson, Ove


    Operation of fluid injection into and withdrawal from the subsurface for various purposes has been known to induce earthquakes. Such operations include hydraulic fracturing for shale gas extraction, hydraulic stimulation for Enhanced Geothermal System development and waste water disposal. Among these, several damaging earthquakes have been reported in the USA in particular in the areas of high-rate massive amount of wastewater injection [1] mostly with natural fault systems. Oil and gas production have been known to induce earthquake where pore fluid pressure decreases in some cases by several tens of Mega Pascal. One recent seismic event occurred in November 2013 near Azle, Texas where a series of earthquakes began along a mapped ancient fault system [2]. It was studied that a combination of brine production and waste water injection near the fault generated subsurface pressures sufficient to induced earthquakes on near-critically stressed faults. This numerical study aims at investigating the occurrence mechanisms of such earthquakes induced by fluid injection [3] and withdrawal by using hydro-geomechanical coupled dynamic simulator (Itasca's Particle Flow Code 2D). Generic models are setup to investigate the sensitivity of several parameters which include fault orientation, frictional properties, distance from the injection well to the fault, amount of fluid withdrawal around the injection well, to the response of the fault systems and the activation magnitude. Fault slip movement over time in relation to the diffusion of pore pressure is analyzed in detail. Moreover, correlations between the spatial distribution of pore pressure change and the locations of induced seismic events and fault slip rate are investigated. References [1] Keranen KM, Weingarten M, Albers GA, Bekins BA, Ge S, 2014. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection, Science 345, 448, DOI: 10.1126/science.1255802. [2] Hornbach MJ, DeShon HR

  6. Modelling Active Faults in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) with OpenQuake: Definition, Design and Experience

    Weatherill, Graeme; Garcia, Julio; Poggi, Valerio; Chen, Yen-Shin; Pagani, Marco


    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) has, since its inception in 2009, made many contributions to the practice of seismic hazard modeling in different regions of the globe. The OpenQuake-engine (hereafter referred to simply as OpenQuake), GEM's open-source software for calculation of earthquake hazard and risk, has found application in many countries, spanning a diversity of tectonic environments. GEM itself has produced a database of national and regional seismic hazard models, harmonizing into OpenQuake's own definition the varied seismogenic sources found therein. The characterization of active faults in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is at the centre of this process, motivating many of the developments in OpenQuake and presenting hazard modellers with the challenge of reconciling seismological, geological and geodetic information for the different regions of the world. Faced with these challenges, and from the experience gained in the process of harmonizing existing models of seismic hazard, four critical issues are addressed. The challenge GEM has faced in the development of software is how to define a representation of an active fault (both in terms of geometry and earthquake behaviour) that is sufficiently flexible to adapt to different tectonic conditions and levels of data completeness. By exploring the different fault typologies supported by OpenQuake we illustrate how seismic hazard calculations can, and do, take into account complexities such as geometrical irregularity of faults in the prediction of ground motion, highlighting some of the potential pitfalls and inconsistencies that can arise. This exploration leads to the second main challenge in active fault modeling, what elements of the fault source model impact most upon the hazard at a site, and when does this matter? Through a series of sensitivity studies we show how different configurations of fault geometry, and the corresponding characterisation of near-fault phenomena (including

  7. The 2013 earthquake swarm in Helike, Greece: seismic activity at the root of old normal faults

    Kapetanidis, V.; Deschamps, A.; Papadimitriou, P.; Matrullo, E.; Karakonstantis, A.; Bozionelos, G.; Kaviris, G.; Serpetsidaki, A.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Voulgaris, N.; Bernard, P.; Sokos, E.; Makropoulos, K.


    The Corinth Rift in Central Greece has been studied extensively during the past decades, as it is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe. It is characterized by normal faulting and extension rates between 6 and 15 mm yr-1 in an approximately N10E° direction. On 2013 May 21, an earthquake swarm was initiated with a series of small events 4 km southeast of Aigion city. In the next days, the seismic activity became more intense, with outbursts of several stronger events of magnitude between 3.3 and 3.7. The seismicity migrated towards the east during June, followed by a sudden activation of the western part of the swarm on July 15th. More than 1500 events have been detected and manually analysed during the period between 2013 May 21 and August 31, using over 15 local stations in epicentral distances up to 30 km and a local velocity model determined by an error minimization method. Waveform similarity-based analysis was performed, revealing several distinct multiplets within the earthquake swarm. High-resolution relocation was applied using the double-difference algorithm HypoDD, incorporating both catalogue and cross-correlation differential traveltime data, which managed to separate the initial seismic cloud into several smaller, densely concentrated spatial clusters of strongly correlated events. Focal mechanism solutions for over 170 events were determined using P-wave first motion polarities, while regional waveform modelling was applied for the calculation of moment tensors for the 18 largest events of the sequence. Selected events belonging to common spatial groups were considered for the calculation of composite mechanisms to characterize different parts of the swarm. The solutions are mainly in agreement with the regional NNE-SSW extension, representing typical normal faulting on 30-50° north-dipping planes, while a few exhibit slip in an NNE-SSW direction, on a roughly subhorizontal plane. Moment magnitudes were calculated by spectral analysis

  8. In vitro activity of difloxacin against canine bacterial isolates

    Hoven, van den J.R.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Walker, R.D.


    The in vitro activity of difloxacin against canine bacterial isolates from clinical cases was studied in the United States and The Netherlands. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the postantibiotic effect, the effect of pH on antimicrobial activity, and the bacterial killing rate tests were de

  9. Study on the application of active balancing device to solve the vibration problem for the rotor with bending fault

    He Lidong; Shen Wei; Gao Jinji; Zhou Weihua


    The rotor with bending faults that occurrs on the rotating machinery usually vibrates seriously. This paper investigates to apply the active balancing device on a flexible rotor with bending faults to solve the vibration problem. Two problems are studied by finite element method firstly: Where the balance actuator is fixed on the shaft and how much the balancing capacity of the active balancing device is needed. The experiment is then carried out on the test rig, which consists of a flexible rotor with bending faults. The test results indicate that the bending rotor peak vibration response can be decreased from 550μm to 40μm below by using the active balancing device. The peak vibration response decreases approximately by 93%. The synchronous vibration due to the rotor bending faults can be controlled effectively by using active balancing device. The active balancing device is especially adapted to solve the problem caused by thermal distortion with time-variation and randomness, which is varied with working conditions, thus it has good practical value in practice.

  10. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Cuspidaria pulchra and isolated compounds.

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; Bertanha, Camila S; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Tavares, Denise C; Gimenez, Valéria M M; Silva, Márcio L A; Cunha, Wilson R; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M


    This work evaluated the in vitro inhibitory activity of the crude ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of Cuspidaria pulchra (Cham.) L.G. Lohmann against 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). The bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-butanol fraction, which displayed the highest activity, led to the isolation of three compounds: caffeoylcalleryanin (1), verbascoside (2) and 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (3). Assessment of the ability of the isolated compounds to inhibit 15-LOX revealed that compounds 1, 2 and 3 exerted strong 15-LOX inhibitory activity; IC50 values were 1.59, 1.76 and 2.35 μM respectively. The XTT assay showed that none of the isolated compounds seemed to be significantly toxic. PMID:25428032

  11. Increased dopaminergic activity in socially isolated rats: an electrophysiological study

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders;


    The development of animal models mimicking symptoms associated with schizophrenia has been a critical step in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disease. Long-term social isolation from weaning in rodents, a model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia......, has been suggested to mimic some of the deficits seen in schizophrenic patients. We confirm in the present study that socially isolated rats display an increase in both spontaneous and d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, as well as deficits in sensorimotor gating as assessed in a pre......-pulse inhibition paradigm. In addition, in vivo electrophysiological studies revealed changes in dopaminergic cell firing activity in the ventral tegmental area of isolated rats when compared to group-housed controls. These alterations include an increase in the number of spontaneously active dopaminergic neurons...

  12. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

    Peternel Špela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  13. Geological and geophysical evidences of late Quaternary activity of the range-front fault along the mid-segment of the Longmen Shan thrust belt

    Ren, J.; Xu, X.; Sun, X.; Tan, X.; Li, K.; Kang, W.; Liu, B.


    The Longmen Shan fault zone consists of three main Longmen Shan faults and the blind fault in the Chengdu Basin. Along the range front of the middle segment of the Longmen Shan, there is the lithological border in published geological maps. The existence and the latest active time of the range-front fault along the mid-segment of the Longmen Shan thrust belts are controversial for a long period. Petroleum seismic reflection and high-resolution shallow seismic reflection profile discovered the existence of the range-front fault and the fault offset the Quaternary strata. Based on detailed field observation, we found that there is an obvious linear feature along the mid-segment of the Longmen Shan front and the range-front fault displaced the late Quaternary fluvial terrace. Trench log indicates that a surface-rupture event occurred before ~1500a along the range-front fault. Differential GPS surveying and dating of fluvial terrace show that the range-front fault during late Quaternary underwent a vertical slip rate of bigger than 0.36mm/a, approximately equivalent to that along the main faults of the longmen Shan thrust belts, which demonstrates that the range-front fault also took an important role in accommodating the deformation of the Longmen Shan thrust zone. This study not only provides the fundamental data for seismic hazard assessment of the Chengdu Plain, but is helpful for the overall understanding of uplift mechanism of east Tibet.

  14. Status report on activities on seismic isolation in Italy

    The development of seismic isolation and its application to structures other than bridges were started in Italy in 1988. Considerable efforts are being devoted to this technique, both because it can already be widely used in civil buildings (where it is particularly attractive for constructions that are critical for emergency and disaster planning), and due to the very promising perspectives for application to the industrial plants. In particular, ENEA is also quite interested in verifying the applicability of seismic isolation to the high risk plants, including the innovative nuclear reactors. The correct development of seismic isolation, for a future wide use in all the domains of interest - including high risk and other industrial plants - requires that a sufficient number of applications to civil buildings is -undertaken, so as to improve the knowledge on the design and behaviour of isolated structures. It also requires seismic monitoring of isolated constructions. This is the reason why all the ongoing studies in Italy - including those of ENEA and ENEL - are based at present on applications to civil buildings. To the aforesaid aims, R and D work is also needed: such a work, together with the experience acquired on actual isolated buildings, is essential to set up adequate design rules. On the other hand, development of design rules must be carried out in parallel, in order to determine the features of the necessary research activities. Until now, our development work has been focussed on the high damping steel-laminated rubber bearings, which have been adopted for most isolated buildings in Italy. It consists of: [a] the set-up of proposals for design rules and guidelines; [b] experiments on bearing materials, individual bearings, isolated structure mock-ups, and actual isolated buildings; [c] development and validation of simplified and detailed numerical models of bearings and structures. Furthermore, support is being provided to the designers of isolated

  15. Study on Anti-Disturbance and High-Resolution Shallow Seismic Exploration of Active Faults in Urban Regions

    Pan Jishun; Zhang Xiankang; Liu Baojin; Fan Shengming; Wang Fuyun; Duan Yonghong; Zhang Hongqiang


    The significance of detection of urban active faults and the general situation concerning detection of urban active faults in the world are briefly introduced. In a brief description of the basic principles of anti-disturbance and high-resolution shallow seismic exploration, the stress is put on the excitation of seismic sources, the performance of digital seismographs, receiving mode and conditions, geometry as well as data acquisition, processing and interpretation in the anti-disturbance and high-resolution shallow seismic exploration of urban active faults. The study indicates that a controlled seismic source with a linear or nonlinear frequency-conversion scanning function and the relevant seismographs must be used in data acquisition, as well as working methods for small group interval, small offset, multi-channel receiving, short-array and high-frequency detectors for receiving are used. Attention should be paid to the application of techniques for static correction of refraction, noise suppressing, high-precision analysis of velocity, wavelet compressing, zero-phasing of wavelet and pre-stacking migration to data processing and interpretation. Finally, some cases of anti-disturbance and high-resolution shallow seismic exploration of urban active faults are present in the paper.

  16. Active faulting on the Ninetyeast Ridge and its relation to deformation of the Indo-Australian plate

    Sager, W.W.; Bull, J.M.; Krishna, K.S.

    extents are poorly defined. New multichannel seismic reflection profiles image active faults along the entire length of the NER and show spatial changes in the style of deformation along the ridge. The northern NER (0°N–5°N) displays transpressional motion...

  17. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław


    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  18. Active faulting and transpression tectonics along the plate boundary in North Africa

    Mustapha Meghraoui


    Full Text Available We present a synthesis of the active tectonics of the northern Atlas Mountains, and suggest a kinematic model of transpression and block rotation that illustrates the mechanics of this section of the Africa–Eurasia plate boundary. Neotectonic structures and significant shallow seismicity (with Mw >5.0 indicate that coeval E-W-trending, right-lateral faulting and NE-SW, thrust-related folding result from oblique convergence at the plate boundary, which forms a transpressional system. The strain distribution obtained from fault–fold structures and P axes of focal mechanism solutions, and the geodetic (NUVEL-1 and GPS convergence show that the shortening and convergence directions are not coaxial. The transpressional strain is partitioned along the strike and the quantitative description of the displacement field yields a compression-to-transcurrence ratio varying from 33% near Gibraltar, to 50% along the Tunisian Atlas. Shortening directions oriented NNE and NNW for the Pliocene and Quaternary, respectively, and the S shape of the Quaternary anticline axes, are in agreement with the 2.24˚/Myr to 3.9˚/Myr modeled clockwise rotation of the small tectonic blocks and with the paleomagnetic data. The convergence between Africa and Eurasia is absorbed along the Atlas Mountains at the upper crustal level, by means of thrusting above decollement systems, which are controlled by subdued transcurrent faults. The Tell Atlas of northwest Algeria, which has experienced numerous large earthquakes with respect to the other regions, is interpreted as a restraining bend that localizes the strain distribution along the plate boundary.

  19. Earthquake Activities Along the Strike-Slip Fault System on the Thailand-Myanmar Border

    Santi Pailoplee


    Full Text Available This study investigates the present-day seismicity along the strike-slip fault system on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Using the earthquake catalogue the earthquake parameters representing seismic activities were evaluated in terms of the possible maximum magnitude, return period and earthquake occurrence probabilities. Three different hazardous areas could be distinguished from the obtained results. The most seismic-prone area was located along the northern segment of the fault system and can generate earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 5.8, and 6.8 mb in the next 5, 10, and 50 years, respectively. The second most-prone area was the southern segment where earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 mb might be generated every 18, 60, and 300 years, respectively. For the central segment, there was less than 30 and 10% probability that 6.0- and 7.0-mb earthquakes will be generated in the next 50 years. With regards to the significant infrastructures (dams in the vicinity, the operational Wachiralongkorn dam is situated in a low seismic hazard area with a return period of around 30 - 3000 years for a 5.0 - 7.0 mb earthquake. In contrast, the Hut Gyi, Srinakarin and Tha Thung Na dams are seismically at risk for earthquakes of mb 6.4 - 6.5 being generated in the next 50 years. Plans for a seismic-retrofit should therefore be completed and implemented while seismic monitoring in this region is indispensable.

  20. Variation of radon flux along active fault zones in association with earthquake occurrence

    Radon flux measurements were carried out at three radon stations along an active fault zone in the Langadas basin, Northern Greece by various techniques for earthquake prediction studies. Specially made devices with alpha track-etch detectors (ATDs) were installed by using LR-115, type II, non-strippable cellulose nitrate films (integrating method of measurements). Continuous monitoring of radon gas exhaling from the ground was also performed by using silicon diode detectors, Barasol and Clipperton type, in association with various probes and sensors including simultaneously registration of the meteorological parameters, such as precipitation height (rainfall events), temperature and barometric pressure. The obtained radon data were studied in parallel with the data of seismic events, such as the magnitude, ML of earthquakes, the epicentral distance, the hypocentral distance and the energy released during the earthquake event occurred at the fault zone during the period of measurements to find out any association between the rad on flux and the meteorological and seismological parameters. Seismic events with magnitude ML ≥ 4.0 appeared to be preceded by large precursory signals produced a well-defined 'anomaly' (peak) of radon flux prior to the event. In the results, the radon peaks in the obtained spectra appeared to be sharp and narrow. The rise time of a radon peak, that is the time period from the onset of a radon peak until the time of radon flux maximum is about a week, while the after time, that is the time interval between the time of radon flux maximum and the time of a seismic event ranges from about 3 weeks or more.

  1. Multi-phase inversion tectonics related to the Hendijan-Nowrooz-Khafji Fault activity, Zagros Mountains, SW Iran

    Kazem Shiroodi, Sadjad; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Faghih, Ali; Ghanadian, Mostafa; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Hafezi Moghadas, Naser


    Distinctive characteristics of inverted structures make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles of folded belts. The interpretation of 3D seismic reflection and well data sheds new light on the structural evolution and age of inverted structures associated to the Hendijan-Nowrooz-Khafji Fault within the Persian Gulf Basin and northeastern margin of Afro-Arabian plate. Analysis of thickness variations of growth strata using "T-Z plot" (thickness versus throw plot) method revealed the kinematics of the fault. Obtained results show that the fault has experienced a multi-phase evolutionary history over six different extension and compression deformation events (i.e. positive and negative inversion) between 252.2 and 11.62 Ma. This cyclic activity of the growth fault was resulted from alteration of sedimentary processes during continuous fault slip. The structural development of the study area both during positive and negative inversion geometry styles was ultimately controlled by the relative motion between the Afro-Arabian and Central-Iranian plates.

  2. Influence of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter on the transient stability of power system

    Chen, L.; Tang, Y. J.; Shi, J.; Chen, N.; Song, M.; Cheng, S. J.; Hu, Y.; Chen, X. S.


    We have proposed a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). In this paper, the influence of the SFCL on the transient stability of power system is investigated. For the typical one-machine infinite-bus system, the power-angle characteristics of generator with SFCL are studied in different working conditions, and the transient physical process is analyzed. Using MATLAB SIMULINK, the power-angle swing curves are simulated under different current-limiting modes, fault types and fault clearance times. The results show that the proposed SFCL can effectively reduce the transient swing amplitude of rotor and extend the critical clearance time under mode 1, compared with mode 2 and mode 3 having few effects on enhancing the transient stability.

  3. Influence of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter on the transient stability of power system

    Chen, L., E-mail: [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Y.J.; Shi, J.; Chen, N.; Song, M.; Cheng, S.J. [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Y.; Chen, X.S. [State Grid Electric Power Research Institute, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    We have proposed a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). In this paper, the influence of the SFCL on the transient stability of power system is investigated. For the typical one-machine infinite-bus system, the power-angle characteristics of generator with SFCL are studied in different working conditions, and the transient physical process is analyzed. Using MATLAB SIMULINK, the power-angle swing curves are simulated under different current-limiting modes, fault types and fault clearance times. The results show that the proposed SFCL can effectively reduce the transient swing amplitude of rotor and extend the critical clearance time under mode 1, compared with mode 2 and mode 3 having few effects on enhancing the transient stability.

  4. Influence of a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter on the transient stability of power system

    We have proposed a voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). In this paper, the influence of the SFCL on the transient stability of power system is investigated. For the typical one-machine infinite-bus system, the power-angle characteristics of generator with SFCL are studied in different working conditions, and the transient physical process is analyzed. Using MATLAB SIMULINK, the power-angle swing curves are simulated under different current-limiting modes, fault types and fault clearance times. The results show that the proposed SFCL can effectively reduce the transient swing amplitude of rotor and extend the critical clearance time under mode 1, compared with mode 2 and mode 3 having few effects on enhancing the transient stability.

  5. Characterization of active fault scarps from medium to high resolution DEM: case studies from Central and Southern Apennines (Italy)

    Brunori, C.; Cinti, F. R.; Ventura, G.


    We identify geo-morphometric features of active fault scarps in Italy through a semiautomatic processing using GIS. Medium to high resolution DEM was used to characterize the geometry, structural, and erosive elements of two seismogenic normal faults in Central and Southern Apennines. The Pettino fault in L'Aquila area was detected using a 1 m pixel DEM derived from airborne LiDAR survey (Friuli Venezia Giulia Civil Protection). For the Castrovillari fault in northern Calabria region was used a 4 m pixel DEM (Regional Cartography Office of Regione Calabria). Scarp segments are region of planar discontinuities identified by selected values of DEM-derived Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). These planar discontinuities corresponds to landscape features such as, river terraces, roads scarps, and other natural or human features. The discrimination between these features have been accomplished overlaying extracted features on aerial photograph, geological and geomorphologic maps and in situ survey. After that, we perform the quantitative and statistical analysis of these areas identified as "fault scarps". The identification of elements relative to the scarps (e.g. base, crest, slope) is then obtained to derive the estimate of parameters describing the fault: altitude, height of the scarp, length, slope and aspect, Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). The spatial distribution of the extracted values was obtained through their statistical analysis. We analyze scarp parameters variations along the whole scarp extent, such as strike value from aspect variations, slope and profile curvature differences as indicators of tectonic and/or erosion activity. The combined analysis of the DEM-derived parameters allows us to (a) define aspects of three-dimensional scarp geometry, (b) decipher its geomorphological significance, and (c) estimate the long-term slip rate.

  6. Experiments on active precision isolation with a smart conical adapter

    Li, H.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Tzou, H. S.


    Based on a conical shell adaptor, an active vibration isolator for vibration control of precision payload is designed and tested in this study. Flexible piezoelectric sensors and actuators are bonded on the adaptor surface for active vibration monitoring and control. The mathematical model of a piezoelectric laminated conical shell is derived and then optimal design of the actuators is performed for the first axial vibration mode of the isolation system. A scaled conical adaptor is manufactured with four MFC actuators laminating on its outer surface. Active vibration isolation efficiency is then evaluated on a vibration shaker. The control model is built in Matlab/Simulink and programmed into the dSPACE control board. Experimental results show that, the proposed active isolator is effective in vibration suppression of payloads with the negative velocity feedback control. In contrast, the amplitude responses increase with positive feedback control. Furthermore, the amplitude responses increases when time delay is added into the control signals, and gets the maximum when the delay is close to one quarter of one cycle time.

  7. Antileishmanial activity of piceatannol isolated from Euphorbia lagascae seeds

    Duarte, Noelia; Kayser, Oliver; Abreu, Pedro; Ferreira, Maria-Jose U.


    In the search for biologically active compounds from Euphorbia lagascae Spreng, an herbaceous plant native to southeast of Iberic Peninsula, a stilbene, two coumarins and two 1-2-deoxyphorbol diterpene esters were isolated by chromatographic methods, from the methanol extracts of its defatted seeds.

  8. Xanthone isolated from Securidaca longependunculata with activity against erectile dysfunction.

    Rakuambo, N C; Meyer, J J M; Hussein, A


    1,7-Dimethoxy-2-hydroxy-xanthone and 1,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-xanthone isolated from Securidaca longependunculata were tested for their activity on rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro. Only the former relaxed the corpus cavernosum by 63% at 1.8 x 10(-5) mg/ml. PMID:15261388

  9. Antimicrobial activity in vitro of plumbagin isolated from Plumbago species

    Selma Ribeiro de Paiva; Maria Raquel Figueiredo; Tânia Verônica Aragão; Maria Auxiliadora Coelho Kaplan


    Plumbagin is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone isolated from roots of Plumbago scandens. The plant was collected at the Campus of Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. P. scandens is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The antimicrobial activity of plumbagin was evaluated using the macrodilution method. The compound exhibited relatively specific activity against bacteria and yeast. The minimum inhibitory concentration test showed the growth inhibi...

  10. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Simay Çıkrıkçı; Erkan Mozioğlu; Hasibe Yılmaz


    Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  11. Random isolation of gene activator elements from the human genome.

    Hamada, H


    Long-range-acting gene activator elements were randomly isolated from the human genome by functional selection. HeLa cells were transfected with an enhancer trap, a plasmid containing an enhancerless xanthine-guanosine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene transcribed from the simian virus 40 early promoter, and stably transformed GPT+ cells were selected. From several transformants, human DNA sequences flanking the enhancer trap were cloned. Two gene activators (GA1 and GA2) were found in the...

  12. Leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities of acetogenins isolated from Annona glauca

    Waechter, A.I.; Yaluff, G. (Gloria); Inchausti, A.; Rojas de Arias, A.; Hocquemiller, R; Cavé, A.; Fournet, Alain


    The dichloromethane extract of seeds of #Annona glauca$ (#Annonaceae$) was active against three strains of #Leishmania$ species. Nine know acetogenins were isolated and identified and then evaluated in vitro against #Leishmania$ species and the bloodstream forms of #Trypanosoma cruzi$. Annonacin A and goniothalamicin showed activity against #Trypanosoma cruzi$ reducing the parasites by 78%, 67%, 71% and 85%, respectively. (Résumé d'auteur)


    Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI


    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt of numerical description of the active vibration isolation system of railway passenger car. Computer simulations were performed for different speeds of the passenger car riding along the same track. Formal basis to solve the formulated research problem was achieved by using the law and the principles of mechanics and control theory. Model results clearly indicate that the use of active vibration reduction systems in rail transport can significantly increase comfort

  14. An Example From Kırşehir For Travertine Cones Grown up Along Active Fault Lines

    Hayriye SAYHAN


    Full Text Available Kırşehir city takes place in a tectonic depression. The main direction of the Kırşehir fault system which formed this tectonic depression is extends in direction of NW-SE. But there are many second faults which cutting this main fault system in N-S, E-W and NE-SW direction. Travertine cone takes place in Kuşdili quarter that is in the south-west of Kırşehir centrum.It has grown up over one of the N-S directed faults parallel to Kırşehir stream in this locality.There are two big caves in the center, one of which is contains water and the other is waterless. The height of the cone is about 11 meter from the surface of the thermal pool at the bottom of the watery cave. The diameter of the thermal pool is about 10 meter and its depth is about 70-80 cm. It has been formed inside the quaternary. Thermal water which firstly appeared as lineer on the active fault line, had first formed a travertine dome. The fissure, which provides the thermal water coming out as lineer on thefault line, had firstly formed a travertine dome.The cracks and/or fissures on the fault line contributing the discharge of the thermal water were blocked as a result of the acumulation of travertine. And then the discharge continued along the crackes and fissures.The travertine formation has been formed due to the fact that the water containing calcium bicarbonate acumulated at the latest phase of travertine cone formation.

  15. Characteristics of the active Luoshan Fault since Late Pleistocene, North Central China

    M. Fengying


    Full Text Available The Luoshan Fault located at the northeastern margin of Tibet plateau strikes roughly N-S, and is composed of six left-stepping sections with a total length of 60 km. Much evidence suggests that the Luoshan Fault is a reverse right-lateral strike-slip fault. The largest right-lateral strike-slip displacement and the most abundant dextral offset phenomena are located along the central section. Based on the right-lateral strike-slip offsets of the oldest alluvial fan, and of a gully and on the average displacement of the same order of gullies, the minimum slip-rate has been 2.15 ± 0.2 mm/yr since Late Pleistocene. Many surface rupture phenomena, such as fault scarps with fresh free-face, ground fissures, displacements of very young gullies, imply that a recent earthquake occurred along this fault. Combining the historical catalogue and our results, we believe that the 1561 A.D. earthquake was produced by the Luoshan Fault. Three paleoearthquakes were determined by means of paleoseismic studies along the Luoshan Fault: they occurred after 8200 ± 600 years BP, between 3130 ± 240 years BP and 4150 ± ± 120 years C.BP, and before 2230 ± 170 years BP, respectively.

  16. Screening on Gibberellic Acid Producing Activity of Azospirillum Isolates

    Six strains of Azopirillum spp were isolated from rice, sugarcane, corn, maize, sunflower and pepper roots and screened the gibberellic acid productivity. Only three strains of Azospirillum species showed the activity and were indentified by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity patterns. Among them,one strain isolated from rice root can produce microbial gibberellic acid. It showed greenish yellow colour in chromatogram under UV absorption. This screening method was studied from 1 to 14 days incubation. Qualitative measurement of GA productivity was determined by thin layer chromatography.

  17. Experiment of exploration using the active-faults exploration system; Katsudanso tansa system wo mochiita chika tansa jikken

    Mikada, H.; Sato, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Hirata, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute; Ikeda, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ikawa, T.; Kawabe, Y.; Aoki, Y. [JAPEX Geoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    A system for exploration of active-faults by seismic reflection profiling method was introduced at Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. A test-run was conducted to check the performance of this system at Ranzan, Saitama Prefecture. This paper describes the confirmed performance of mini-VIB as a wide band frequency seismic source, the quality of data obtained using a digital data acquisition system, and problems for data processing of fault exploration in the future. For the test-run at Ranzan, two-dimensional exploration was conducted by the quasi-three-dimensional data acquisition method using three geophones of 8 Hz, 28 Hz, and 40 Hz, simply arranged in parallel on the measurement line. Using an active seismic vibrator, mini-VIB, data acquisition of faults in the wide band frequency was achieved, which would result in the highly accurate imaging. Operation of data acquisition and processing systems is easy, and the system can be also used as a kind of black box. The existing methods are to be used sufficiently as a tool for imaging of faults. Further research for accumulating experience may become necessary toward the extension of the system expected in the future. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Isotopic evidence (B, C, O) of deep fluid processes in fault rocks from the active Woodlark Basin detachment zone

    Kopf, Achim; Behrmann, Jan H.; Deyhle, Annette; Roller, Sybille; Erlenkeuser, Helmut


    We report results from boron, carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses of faulted and veined rocks recovered by scientific ocean drilling during ODP Leg 180 in the western Woodlark Basin, off Papua New Guinea. In this area of active continental extension, crustal break-up and incipient seafloor spreading, a shallow-dipping, seismically active detachment fault accommodates strain, defining a zone of mylonites and cataclasites, vein formation and fluid infiltration. Syntectonic microstructures and vein-fill mineralogy suggest frictional heating during slip during extension and exhumation of Moresby Seamount. Low carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of calcite veins indicate precipitation from hydrothermal fluids (δ 13C PDB down to -17‰; δ 18O PDB down to -22‰) formed by both dehydration and decarbonation. Boron contents are low (parent solutions to calcite vein fills) are low when compared to deep-seated waters in other tectonic environments, likely reflecting preferential loss of 11B during low-grade metamorphism at depth. Pervasive devolatilization and flux of CO 2-rich fluids are evident from similar vein cement geochemistry in the detachment fault zone and splays further updip. Multiple rupture-and-healing history of the veins suggests that precipitation may be an important player in fluid pressure evolution and, hence, seismogenic fault movement.


    L.Ashokkumar; Balagurunathan, R.; P. Palanivel; D. Jegadeeshkumar


    A total of five different actinomycete isolates were recovered from mine soil samples collected from Salem, Tamilnadu. These were then assessed for their antibacterial activity against five multidrug resistance bacterial wound isolates. All five isolates of actinomycete exhibited antagonistic activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 11-25 mm. Among the 5 isolates of actinomycetes A5 isolate has highest antibacterial activity against S.aureus and E.coli. Out of five bacterial isolates P...

  20. Characteristics of the active Luoshan Fault since Late Pleistocene, North Central China

    M. Fengying; Z. Peizhen; C. Chizhang; J. Decheng; M. Wei


    The Luoshan Fault located at the northeastern margin of Tibet plateau strikes roughly N-S, and is composed of six left-stepping sections with a total length of 60 km. Much evidence suggests that the Luoshan Fault is a reverse right-lateral strike-slip fault. The largest right-lateral strike-slip displacement and the most abundant dextral offset phenomena are located along the central section. Based on the right-lateral strike-slip offsets of the oldest alluvial fan, and of...

  1. Active fault tolerant control research for nuclear power plant based on BP neural network

    In view of the sensor fault of nuclear power plant, the sensor was trained by adopting improved back propagation (BP) neural network method, and the dynamic model bank in different states was set up. The system was detected by using BP neural network in real time. When the sensor goes wrong, it will be controlled by reconstruction. Taking pressurizer as the case, a simulation experiment was performed on the nuclear power plant simulator. The results show that the proposed method is valid for the fault tolerant control of sensor faults in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  2. Study on active faults and weekly observation around them using cellurose nitrate film for the earthquake prediction research program

    The track etch method, which is one of the geochemical survey methods for the mapping and detection of active faults and evaluation of their activities, has been applied to many sites for the purpose of the earth-quake prediction research program. The method conventionally measures relative radon concentration in the soil gas by counting the track density (tracks per recorded on a piece of cellurose nitrate film (2 x 3 cm) which is sensitive to α particles. Weekly observation to monitor radon concentration changes in the soil gas using it has been carried on, on the several active faults since 1978, as a part of the earthquake prediction research program. (author)

  3. Development of a geo-information system for the evaluation of active faults

    Hwang, Sang Gi; Lee, G. B.; Kim, H. J. [Paichai Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    This project aims to assist the participants of the active fault project by computerizing the field and laboratory data of the study area. The geo-information system, therefore, not only contributes to the participants while they are organizing and analyzing their data but also gathers detailed information in digital form. A geological database can be established by organizing the gathered digital information from the participants, and the database can easily be sheared among specialists. In such purpose, a field system, which can be used by the project participants, has been attempting to be developed during the first project year. The field system contains not only a software but also available topographic and geological maps of the study area. The field system is coded by visual basic, and the mapobject component of ESRI and the TrueDBGrid OCX are also utilized. Major functions of the system are tools for vector and raster form topographic maps, database design and application, geological symbol plot, and the database search for the plotted geological symbol.

  4. Development of a geo-information system for the evaluation of active faults

    This project aims to assist the participants of the active fault project by computerizing the field and laboratory data of the study area. The geo-information system, therefore, not only contributes to the participants while they are organizing and analyzing their data but also gathers detailed information in digital form. A geological database can be established by organizing the gathered digital information from the participants, and the database can easily be sheared among specialists. In such purpose, a field system, which can be used by the project participants, has been attempting to be developed during the first project year. The field system contains not only a software but also available topographic and geological maps of the study area. The field system is coded by visual basic, and the mapobject component of ESRI and the TrueDBGrid OCX are also utilized. Major functions of the system are tools for vector and raster form topographic maps, database design and application, geological symbol plot, and the database search for the plotted geological symbol

  5. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; El-Mahdy, Areej M.; Shokralla, Shadi


    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1–V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti

  6. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae

    Liang Hanqiao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Methods Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC and fermentation broth (FB were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. Results A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. Conclusion The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  7. The Herbicidal Activity of Mutant Isolates from Botrytis cinerea

    ZHANG Jin-lin; ZHANG Li-hui; LIU Ying-chao; MA Juan; LI Chuan; DONG Jin-gao


    Fifteen mutant isolates were obtained by ultraviolet mutation from parent isolate Botrytis cinerea BC-4. Among them three mutant isolates, BC4-1, BC4-2, and BC4-15, showed strong herbicidal activity. BC4-1 showed maximum herbicidal activity for inhibition of germination and growth of Digitaria sanguinalis L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L. The results also showed that herbicidal activity was influenced by differing pH of PD media, with pH value of 4.0 being the optimum.The crude toxin was extracted using chloroform, petroleum ether, and ethyl acetate, respectively, and the ethyl acetate extracts showed the strongest inhibitory activity on the germination and growth of D. sanguinalis L. and A. retroflexus L.Using HPLC, one fraction with an absorption peak at 271 nm was separated from the crude toxin. This fraction could strongly inhibit the growth of D. sanguinalis L. at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 and could completely inhibit the seed germination of D. sanguinalis L. and A. retroflexus L. at a concentration of 50 mg L-1.

  8. Dynamic fracturing by successive coseismic loadings leads to pulverization in active fault zones

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M.-L.; Mitchell, T. M.; Toussaint, R.; Reuschlé, T.; Fondriest, M.; Gratier, J.-P.; Renard, F.


    Previous studies show that pulverized rocks observed along large faults can be created by single high-strain rate loadings in the laboratory, provided that the strain rate is higher than a certain pulverization threshold. Such loadings are analogous to large seismic events. In reality, pulverized rocks have been subject to numerous seismic events rather than one single event. Therefore, the effect of successive "milder" high-strain rate loadings on the pulverization threshold is investigated by applying loading conditions below the initial pulverization threshold. Single and successive loading experiments were performed on quartz-monzonite using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. Damage-dependent petrophysical properties and elastic moduli were monitored by applying incremental strains. Furthermore, it is shown that the pulverization threshold can be reduced by successive "milder" dynamic loadings from strain rates of ~180 s-1 to ~90 s-1. To do so, it is imperative that the rock experiences dynamic fracturing during the successive loadings prior to pulverization. Combined with loading conditions during an earthquake rupture event, the following generalized fault damage zone structure perpendicular to the fault will develop: furthest from the fault plane, there is a stationary outer boundary that bounds a zone of dynamically fractured rocks. Closer to the fault, a pulverization boundary delimits a band of pulverized rock. Consecutive seismic events will cause progressive broadening of the band of pulverized rocks, eventually creating a wider damage zone observed in mature faults.

  9. LiDAR-Assisted identification of an active fault near Truckee, California

    Hunter, L.E.; Howle, J.F.; Rose, R.S.; Bawden, G.W.


    We use high-resolution (1.5-2.4 points/m2) bare-earth airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) imagery to identify, map, constrain, and visualize fault-related geomorphology in densely vegetated terrain surrounding Martis Creek Dam near Truckee, California. Bare-earth LiDAR imagery reveals a previously unrecognized and apparently youthful right-lateral strike-slip fault that exhibits laterally continuous tectonic geomorphic features over a 35-km-long zone. If these interpretations are correct, the fault, herein named the Polaris fault, may represent a significant seismic hazard to the greater Truckee-Lake Tahoe and Reno-Carson City regions. Three-dimensional modeling of an offset late Quaternary terrace riser indicates a minimum tectonic slip rate of 0.4 ?? 0.1 mm/yr.Mapped fault patterns are fairly typical of regional patterns elsewhere in the northern Walker Lane and are in strong coherence with moderate magnitude historical seismicity of the immediate area, as well as the current regional stress regime. Based on a range of surface-rupture lengths and depths to the base of the seismogenic zone, we estimate a maximum earthquake magnitude (M) for the Polaris fault to be between 6.4 and 6.9.

  10. Exact, almost and delayed fault detection

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.;


    Considers the problem of fault detection and isolation while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detection and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability conditions are given for the formulated design problems. The...... l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems....

  11. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae)

    Dorothe Dinangayi Tshilanda; Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana; Damase Nguwo Vele Onyamboko; Blaise Mavinga Mbala; Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua; Damien Sha Tshibey Tshibangu; Matthieu Kokengo Bokolo; Kalulu Muzele Taba; Teddy Kabeya Kasonga


    Objective: To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. Methods:The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). Results: The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. Conclusions:The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.

  12. Abnormal fault-recovery characteristics of the fault-tolerant multiprocessor uncovered using a new fault-injection methodology

    Padilla, Peter A.


    An investigation was made in AIRLAB of the fault handling performance of the Fault Tolerant MultiProcessor (FTMP). Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once in every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles Byzantine or lying faults. Byzantine faults behave such that the faulted unit points to a working unit as the source of errors. The design's problems involve: (1) the design and interface between the simplex error detection hardware and the error processing software, (2) the functional capabilities of the FTMP system bus, and (3) the communication requirements of a multiprocessor architecture. These weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good line replacement unit (LRU) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software.

  13. Optical method of recording electrical activity in isolated rabbit hearts

    Amanna, Ashwin E


    A recently developed optical method utilizes a single, implantable, optical fiber to record electrical activity from isolated hearts stained with voltage-sensitive dyes. This optical technique generates recordings of transmembrane potential from excitable myocardial tissue, and remain free from stimulus artifacts that accompany electro stimulation and hinder all standard electrode recording methods during the application of high-voltage electrical shocks. The fiber optic system...

  14. Fault detection and fault-tolerant control using sliding modes

    Alwi, Halim; Tan, Chee Pin


    ""Fault Detection and Fault-tolerant Control Using Sliding Modes"" is the first text dedicated to showing the latest developments in the use of sliding-mode concepts for fault detection and isolation (FDI) and fault-tolerant control in dynamical engineering systems. It begins with an introduction to the basic concepts of sliding modes to provide a background to the field. This is followed by chapters that describe the use and design of sliding-mode observers for FDI using robust fault reconstruction. The development of a class of sliding-mode observers is described from first principles throug

  15. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan


    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  16. The Activity of Major Faults and the Hydrothermal Alteration Zone at Tianchi Volcano of Changbaishan

    Liu Mingjun; Gu Menglin; Sun Zhenguo; Wei Haiquan; Jin Bolu


    It is found by field investigation that the near horizontal top surface of the brown or brick-red hydrothermal alteration zone varies obviously in elevation at different sections of the same layer on the caldera's inner wall of Tianchi, with that at the north section near the Tianwen Peak about 110 m higher than that at the south near the Jiangjun Peak in Korea. The top surface of the hydrothermal alteration zone can be taken as key horizon to tectonic movement. The difference indicates that the total uplift height of the NW wall of the Liudaogou-TianchiJingfengshan fault, the principal fault trending NE at Tianchi, is bigger than that of the SE wall ever since the occurrence of hydrothermal alteration. This also explains why the topography in the northwest side of Tianchi is steeper and with more developed river system than in the southeast. The uplifting of the northeastern wall is bigger than that of the southwest along the principal NW-trend fault, namely, the Baishanzhen-Tianchi-Jince fault. It is observed from characters of hydrothermal alteration and the palaeoresiduum, that the recent vertical movement rate along the principal NE-trend fault is larger than that of the principal NW-trend fault. The two faults intersect at Tianchi, dividing the volcano into 4 blocks, with the uplift magnitudes decreasing successively in the order of the north, the west, the east and the south block. The biggest uplift of the north block corresponds well to the shallow magma batch in the north of Tianchi observed by DSS and telluric electromagnetic sounding, and etc.and they may be related with the causes.

  17. Modeling fault diagnosis as the activation and use of a frame system. [for pilot problem-solving rating

    Smith, Philip J.; Giffin, Walter C.; Rockwell, Thomas H.; Thomas, Mark


    Twenty pilots with instrument flight ratings were asked to perform a fault-diagnosis task for which they had relevant domain knowledge. The pilots were asked to think out loud as they requested and interpreted information. Performances were then modeled as the activation and use of a frame system. Cognitive biases, memory distortions and losses, and failures to correctly diagnose the problem were studied in the context of this frame system model.

  18. Paleoseismologic and geomorphic constraints to the deformation style and activity of the Cittanova Fault (southern Calabria, Italy)

    Peronace, Edoardo; Della Seta, Marta; Fredi, Paola; Galli, Paolo; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Troiani, Francesco


    The western side of Southern Calabria is the epicentral region of the strongest earthquakes of Italy. These are mainly generated by extensional faults which are still poorly investigated and/or parameterized. In this study, we explore the potential of the combined analysis of geomorphic markers, stream network morphometry and paleosimological investigations, aimed at identifying and time-constraining the surface effects of the Calabrian seismogenic faults. In this perspective, we presents results from i) plano-altimetric analysis of geomorphic markers related to active tectonics (such as marine and fluvial terraces), ii) paleoseismological investigations, and iii) time-dependent river basin and long-profile metrics of the Cittanova Fault (CF). The CF, responsible for the catastrophic Mw 7.0 earthquake of 5 February 1783, is a N220° striking, 30 km-long normal fault that downthrows the crystalline-metamorphic basement of the Aspromonte massif (~1000 m asl) below the Gioia Tauro Plain, to elevations of ~500-800 m bsl. Radiocarbon dating allowed us to ascribe the depostion of a major terraced alluvial fan (Cittanova-Taurianova terrace, TAC) to the early Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and to date the avulsion of the depositional top surface of TAC to 28 ka. As we have found remnants of the TAC also in the CF footwall offset by 12-17 m, we estimate a vertical slip rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the past 28 ka. Paleoseismological data across the fault scarp evidenced at least three surface ruptures associated to ~Mw 7.0 paleoearthquakes prior to the 1783 event. The recurrence time (~3.2 kyr) is rather longer than other Apennine normal faults (0.3-2.4 kyr), whereas it is consistent with the low slip rate of CF for the late Upper Pleistocene (0.6 mm/yr). On a longer time scale, the spatial configuration of river basin morphometry evidenced the morphodynamic rensponse to the higher slip in the central sector of CF. Furthermore, long-profile metrics, and in particular the spatial

  19. Natural Radiation for Identification and Evaluation of Risk Zones for Affectation of Activated Faults in Aquifer Overexploited.

    Ramos-Leal, J.; Lopez-Loera, H.; Carbajal-Perez, N.


    In basins as Mexico, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Queretaro, Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi, the existence of faults and fractures have affected the urban infrastructure, lines of conduction of drinkable water, pipelines, etc., that when not being identified and considered, they don't reflect the real impact that these cause also to the aquifer system, modifying the permeability of the means and in occasions they work as preferential conduits that communicate hydraulically potentially to the aquifer with substances pollutants (metals, fertilizers, hydrocarbons, waste waters, etc.) located in the surface. In the Valley of San Luis Potosi, Villa of Reyes, Arista, Ahualulco and recently The Huizache-Matehuala is being strongly affected by faulting and supposedly due cracking to subsidence, however, the regional tectonic could also be the origin of this phenomenon. To know the origin of the faults and affectation to the vulnerability of the aquifer few works they have been carried out in the area. A preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible that a tectonic component is affecting the area and that the vulnerability of the aquifer in that area you this increasing. Before such a situation, it is necessary to carry out the isotopic study of the same one, for this way to know among other things, isotopic characterization, recharge places and addresses of flow of the groundwater; quality of waters and the behavior hydrochemistry with relationship to the faults. High radon values were measured in San Luis Potosi Valley, the natural source of radon could be the riolites and however, these are located to almost a once thousand meters deep for what the migration of the gas is not very probable. The anomalies radiometrics was not correlation with the faults in this case. In some areas like the Valley of Celaya, the origin of the structures and the tectonic activity in the area was confirmed, identifying the structural arrangement of the faulting, the space relationships

  20. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Simay Çıkrıkçı


    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  1. Enzyme Activity of Cenococcum geophilum Isolates on Enzyme-specific Solid Media

    Obase, Keisuke; Lee, Sang Yong; Chun, Kun Woo; Lee, Jong Kyu


    Enzyme activities of Cenococcum geophilum isolates were examined on enzyme-specific solid media. Deoxyribonuclease, phosphatase, and urease were detected in all isolates, whereas cellulase was not detected in any of the isolates. Variations in enzyme activities of amylase, caseinolysis, gelatinase, lipase, and ribonuclease were observed among isolates.

  2. Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic activities of anaerobic gut fungi isolated from wild and domestic ruminants.

    Paul, Shyam S; Kamra, Devki N; Sastry, Vadali R B


    Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic enzyme activities of anaerobic gut fungi from wild (17 isolates) and domestic ruminants (15 isolates) were examined. In a medium containing 0.5% wheat straw and 0.02% cellobiose as energy source, activities of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase, acetyl esterase and protease produced by the fungal isolates were investigated. Average activity of CMCase (17.4 vs. 8.25 mIU ml(-1)), acetyl esterase (134 vs. 57 mIU ml(-1)) and protease (4400 vs. 1683 mIU ml(-1)) were significantly higher in isolates from wild ruminants than those from domestic ruminants. Xylanase and avicelase activities were comparable. When compared irrespective of source, fungal isolates having monocentric growth pattern produced more fibrolytic enzymes than isolates having polycentric growth pattern. CMCase, xylanase, avicelase activities were highest in Neocallimastix isolates. Acetyl esterase activity was highest in Piromyces and Neocallimastix isolates. Protease activity was highest in Piromyces isolates followed closely by Neocallimastix isolates. Between isolates from wild and domestic ruminants few differences were observed in pattern of carbohydrate utilisation and end products of fermentation. Inter-strain differences in the end product formation were apparent. All of the isolates produced acetate, lactate and formate; only a few isolates produced succinate. For isolation of superior fibrolytic isolates of anaerobic fungi, greater emphasis should be given to the screening of enzyme activities of isolates of genera Neocallimastix and Piromyces. PMID:20722299

  3. Evolution of earthquake rupture potential along active faults, inferred from seismicity rates and size distributions

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Enescu, Bogdan; Woessner, Jochen


    One of the major unresolved questions in seismology is the evolution in time and space of the earthquake rupture potential and thus time-dependent hazard along active faults. What happens after a major event: is the potential for further large events reduced as predicted from elastic rebound, or increased as proposed by current-state short-term clustering models? How does the rupture potential distribute in space, i.e. does it reveal imprints of stress transfer? Based on the rich earthquake record from the Pacific Plate along the Japanese coastline we investigate what information on spatial distributions and temporal changes of a normalized rupture potential (NRP) for different magnitudes can be derived from time-varying, local statistical characteristics of well and frequently observed small-to-moderate seismicity. Seismicity records show strong spatio-temporal variability in both activity rates and size distribution. We analyze 18 years of seismicity, including the massive 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake and its aftermath. We show that the size distribution of earthquakes has significantly changed before (increased fraction of larger magnitudes) and after that mainshock (increased fraction of smaller magnitudes), strongest in areas of highest coseismic slip. Remarkably, a rapid recovery of this effect is observed within only few years. We combine this significant temporal variability in earthquake size distributions with local activity rates and infer the evolution of NRP distributions. We study complex spatial patterns and how they evolve, and more detailed temporal characteristics in a simplified spatial selection, i.e. inside and outside the high slip zone of the M9 earthquake. We resolve an immediate and strong NRP increase for large events prior to the Tohoku event in the subsequent high slip patch and a very rapid decrease inside this high-stress-release area, coupled with a lasting increase of NRP in the immediate surroundings. Even in the center of the Tohoku

  4. Quaternary tectonic activity of the Carboneras Fault in the La Serrata range (SE Iberia): Geomorphological and chronological constraints

    Moreno, Ximena; Masana, Eulàlia; Pallàs, Raimon; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Rodés, Ángel; Bordonau, Jaume


    The Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ) in Southern Iberia is known to accommodate part of the 4-5 mm/yr convergence between Africa and Iberia, but its seismic hazard is not sufficiently understood for an accurate risk assessment. One of the main structures of the EBSZ, the left-lateral 150 km-long Carboneras Fault, displays no clear instrumental and historical activity despite being morphologically expressive. Detailed geomorphological mapping, geochronological analysis, and structural observation on the La Serrata segment of the Carboneras Fault were designed to investigate its recent evolution. Quaternary sediments and geomorphic features were targeted and 42 new numerical ages were obtained based on 66 samples (thermoluminescence, U-series, 14C, 10Be). The chronological framework of La Serrata was constructed by combining these numerical ages with a conceptual model previously developed in the region, which assumes that alluvial fan aggradation was produced during cold and dry periods (glacials and stadials), whereas stability and phases of calcrete formation were favored during warm and wetter periods (interglacials and interstadials). The spatial distribution of dated alluvial fans suggests an early phase of uplift that probably occurred between 1 Ma and 56.6 ka in the northeastern portion of the study area, whereas in the southwest sector the main uplift phase occurred later than 110.3 ka. A decline in fault activity would have taken place after 30.8 ka. Vertically offset dated units indicate minimum dip-slip rates of 0.05 mm/yr and 0.18 mm/yr, averaged for the last 1 Ma and the last 110.3 ka, respectively. Deflected channels and associated dated units yield a minimum left-lateral strike-slip rate of 1.31 mm/yr, averaged for the last 110.3 ka. The most recent fault movement of the fault could be younger than AD 637. Our results suggest therefore that the Carboneras Fault is among the fastest in Iberia, and should be considered in future hazard analyses.

  5. Isolation, purification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa.

    Chen, Gui-tang; Ma, Xue-mei; Liu, Sheng-to; Liao, Yan-li; Zhao, Guo-qang


    The crude polysaccharides (GFP) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography in that order. Three main fractions, GFP-1, GFP-2 and GFP-3, were obtained through the isolation and purification steps. Then the antioxidant activities of these three fractions were investigated in vitro. The results showed that GFP-1, GFP-2 and GFP-3 possessed significant inhibitory effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical; their reducing power, ferrous ions chelating effect and the inhibition ability of the rat liver lipid oxidation where also strong. These results suggest that G. frondosa polysaccharides could be a suitable natural antioxidant and may be the functional foods for humans. PMID:24750604

  6. Active thrust faulting offshore Boumerdes, Algeria, and its relations to the 2003 Mw 6.9 earthquake - art. no. L043111

    Deverchere, Jacques; Yelles, K.; Domzig, Anne; Mercier de Lepinay, B.; Bouillin, J.p.; Gaullier, V.; Bracene, R.; Calais, E.; Savoye, Bruno; A. Kherroubi; Le Roy, P.; Pauc, H; Dan, Gabriela


    [1] We investigate the active seismogenic fault system in the area of the 2003 Mw 6.9 Boumerdes earthquake, Algeria, from a high-resolution swath bathymetry and seismic survey. A series of 5 main fault-propagation folds similar to20-35 km long leave prominent cumulative escarpments on the steep slope and in the deep basin. Fault activity creates Plio-Quaternary growth strata within uplifted areas such as a rollover basin on the slope and piggyback basins in the deep ocean. Most thrusts turn t...

  7. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Akram Astani


    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  8. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul


    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  9. Cenozoic Tectonic Activity of the "Passive" North America Margin: Evidence for Cenozoic Activity on Mesozoic or Paleozoic Faults

    Nedorub, O. I.; Knapp, C. C.


    The tectonic history of the Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) incorporates two cycles of continental assembly, multiple pulses of orogeny, rifting, and post-rift geodynamic evolution. This is reflected in the heterogeneous lithosphere of the ENAM which contains fault structures originated in Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras. The South Georgia Rift basin is probably the largest Mesozoic graben within its boundaries that is associated with the breakup of Pangea. It is composed of smaller sub-basins which appear to be bounded by high-angle normal faults, some of which may have been inverted in late Cretaceous and Cenozoic eras. Paleozoic structures may have been reactivated in Cenozoic time as well. The ENAM is characterized by N-NE maximum horizontal compressive stress direction. This maximum compressional stress field is sub-parallel to the strike of the Atlantic Coast province fault systems. Camden, Augusta, Allendale, and Pen Branch faults are four of the many such reactivated faults along the southern part of ENAM. These faults are now buried under the 0-400 m of loosely consolidated Cretaceous and Cenozoic age sediments and thus are either only partially mapped or currently not recognized. Some of the objectives of this study are to map the subsurface expression and geometry of these faults and to investigate the post Cretaceous deformation and possible causes of fault reactivation on a passive margin. This study employs an integrated geophysical approach to investigate the upper 200 m of identified locations of the above mentioned faults. 2-D high-resolution shallow seismic reflection and refraction methods, gravity surveys, GPR, 2-D electrical resistivity and well data are used for analyses and interpretation. Preliminary results suggest that Camden fault shows signs of Cenozoic reactivation through an approximately 30 m offset NW side up mainly along a steeply dipping fault zone in the basal contact of Coastal Plain sediments with the Carolina Piedmont. Drill

  10. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  11. Fracture-zone conditions on a recently active fault: insights from mineralogical and geochemical analyses of the Hirabayashi NIED drill core on the Nojima fault, southwest Japan, which ruptured in the 1995 Kobe earthquake

    Matsuda, Tatsuo; Omura, Kentaro; Ikeda, Ryuji; Arai, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kenta; Shimada, Koji; Tanaka, Hidemi; Tomita, Tomoaki; Hirano, Satoshi


    An 1800-m-deep borehole into the Nojima fault zone was drilled at Nojima-Hirabayashi, Japan, after the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. Three possible fracture zones were detected at depths of about 1140, 1300, and 1800 m. To assess these fracture zones in this recently active fault, we analyzed the distributions of fault rocks, minerals, and chemical elements in these zones. The central fault plane in the shallowest fracture zone was identified by foliated blue-gray gouge at a depth of 1140 m. The degree of fracturing was evidently greater in the hanging wall than in the footwall. Minerals detected in this zone were quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase, and biotite, as in the parent rock (granodiorite), and also kaolinite, smectite, laumontite, stilbite, calcite, ankerite, and siderite, which are related to hydrothermal alteration. Biotite was absent in both the hanging wall and footwall across the central fault plane, but it was absent over a greater distance from the central fault plane in the hanging wall than in the footwall. Major element compositions across this zone suggested that hydrothermal alteration minerals such as kaolinite and smectite occurred across the central fault plane for a greater distance in the hanging wall than in the footwall. Similarly, H 2O+ and CO 2 had higher concentrations in the hanging wall than in the footwall. This asymmetrical distribution pattern is probably due to the greater degree of wall-rock fracturing and associated alteration in the hanging wall. We attributed the characteristics of this zone to fault activity and fluid-rock interactions. We analyzed the other fracture zones along this fault in the same way. In the fracture zone at about 1300 m depth, we detected the same kinds of hydrothermal alteration minerals as in the shallower zone, but they were in fewer samples. We detected relatively little H 2O+ and CO 2, and little evidence for movement of the major chemical elements, indicating little past fluid

  12. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Garbacki, Nancy; Tits, Monique; Bailleul, Francois


    The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurrence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare. PMID:11849848

  13. The Control of Transmitted Power in an Active Isolation System

    Elliott, S.J.; Gardonio, P.; Pinnington, R.J.;


    more practical control strategy appears to be to minimise the weighted sum of squared forces and velocities below the mounts, which gives near-optimal performance in simulations. These theoretical results are supported by experiments with a real-time control system. The actuator and sensor requirements...... distributed active mounts, and these models can be connected together to produce an overall theoretical description of a realistic active isolation system. Total transmitted power has been found to be an excellent criterion to quantify the effect of various control strategies in this model in which the...... contributions to the transmitted power in the various degrees of freedom can be clearly understood. It has also been found, however, that an active control system which minimises a practical estimate of transmitted power, calculated from the product of the axial forces and velocities under the mounts, can give...

  14. Seismic attribute detection of faults and fluid pathways within an active strike-slip shear zone: New insights from high-resolution 3D P-Cable™ seismic data along the Hosgri Fault, offshore California

    Kluesner, Jared; Brothers, Daniel


    Poststack data conditioning and neural-network seismic attribute workflows are used to detect and visualize faulting and fluid migration pathways within a 13.7 km2 13.7 km2 3D P-Cable™ seismic volume located along the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California. The high-resolution 3D volume used in this study was collected in 2012 as part of Pacific Gas and Electric’s Central California Seismic Imaging Project. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data were acquired using a triple-plate boomer source (1.75 kJ) and a short-offset, 14-streamer, P-Cable system. The high-resolution seismic data were processed into a prestack time-migrated 3D volume and publically released in 2014. Postprocessing, we employed dip-steering (dip and azimuth) and structural filtering to enhance laterally continuous events and remove random noise and acquisition artifacts. In addition, the structural filtering was used to enhance laterally continuous edges, such as faults. Following data conditioning, neural-network based meta-attribute workflows were used to detect and visualize faults and probable fluid-migration pathways within the 3D seismic volume. The workflow used in this study clearly illustrates the utility of advanced attribute analysis applied to high-resolution 3D P-Cable data. For example, results from the fault attribute workflow reveal a network of splayed and convergent fault strands within an approximately 1.3 km wide shear zone that is characterized by distinctive sections of transpressional and transtensional dominance. Neural-network chimney attribute calculations indicate that fluids are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones. These results provide high-resolution, 3D constraints on the relationships between strike-slip fault mechanics, substrate deformation, and fluid migration along an active

  15. Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn

    Pandey Nidhi


    Full Text Available Abstract Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT Leguminosae (Fabaceae has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone. Its antioxidant capacity was determined and compared with alcoholic extract as EC50 value for scavenging potential towards pre-generated monocation ABTS* radical, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, metal chelation property and on lipid peroxidation. Further, rat peritoneal macrophages were isolated, cultured and the attached macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS with different concentrations of tuberosin (pretreatment for 30 min. After 17 h the released NO content, in culture supernatant, was indirectly estimated as accumulated nitrite by Griess reagent. To understand the mechanism of action, the extent of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase genes, the iNOS protein was assessed in macrophage lysate by using its antibody on western blot analysis. Tuberosin significantly scavenged all the species of FRs, described above and it also inhibited the LPS induced release of NO and amount of iNOS protein in macrophages. All the changes were significant and concentration dependent. Thus it could be suggested that tuberosin, is one of the active principles of Pueraria tuberose, which directly scavenges various species of Free radicals (FRs and also inhibits LPS induced inflammatory changes in macrophages.

  16. Fault Estimation

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.


    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis prob-lems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem setup introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis pr...... problems can be solved by standard optimization tech-niques. The proposed methods include: (1) fault diagnosis (fault estimation, (FE)) for systems with model uncertainties; (2) FE for systems with parametric faults, and (3) FE for a class of nonlinear systems....

  17. Antimicrobial activities of isothiocyanates against Campylobacter jejuni isolates

    Virginie eDufour


    Full Text Available Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes.We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC and benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC, against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176.Both AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 2.5 to 5 g mL-1 compared to AITC (MIC of 50 to 200 g mL-1. Interestingly, the 24 C. jejuni isolates could be classified in 3 groups according to their sensitivity levels to both compounds, suggesting that AITC and BITC shared identical activity mechanisms and consequently faced similar resistance processes in bacterial cells.The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni strains against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (-Glutamyl Transpeptidase encoding gene in the genome nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to WT when exposed to ITC.

  18. Activation of Fault Structures South of the La Habra Earthquake Rupture As Evidenced By UAVSAR Imaging

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Hauksson, E.


    The 28 March, 2014 M 5.2 La Habra earthquake occurred on a northeast striking, northwest dipping left-lateral oblique thrust fault at the northeastern margin of the LA Basin, where regional right-lateral shear is accommodated by major northwest trending faults of the Peninsular Ranges, and north-south shortening is accommodated by north-dipping thrust faults and east-west trending folds of the Transverse Ranges. The La Habra mainshock location and focal mechanism is northwest of but sub-parallel to the Puente Hills thrust fault. Relocated seismicity highlights a northeast-trending rupture plane consistent with the magnitude and focal mechanism of the event. NASA's UAVSAR L-Band radar instrument was flown for north and south looking lines before the earthquake on 22 January 2014. The north looking line was reflown three days after the earthquake on 31 March, 2014, and the south looking line was reflown a week later on 4 April 2014. The UAVSAR Repeat Pass Interferogram (RPI) products show deformation consistent with the location of the mainshock beneath the town of La Habra. The results also show considerable aseismic northward horizontal deformation with minor uplift in the West Coyote Hills, south of the relocated seismicity. Inversion of the combined interferograms is consistent with south dipping low-angle (7°) shallow slip that corresponds to bedding plane attitudes and a mapped unconformity. The entire West Coyote Hills show 37 mm of modeled northward slip with an additional 34 mm of modeled slip concentrated near the Coyote Hills Park northeast of the intersection of Rosecrans Avenue and North Gilbert Street. A narrow band of shortening was also observed with UAVSAR, and confirmed with on-the-ground field observations, at the Trojan Way Kink Band, nearly one fault dimension southwest of the main rupture.

  19. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of vaginal lactobacillus isolate

    Zavišić Gordana


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic potential of bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli strain Lactobacillus plantarum G2 isolated from the vaginal mucus of healthy women. The antimicrobial effect of G2 was confirmed in the mixed culture with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while bacteriocine activity was detected against S. aureus and S. abony only. The strain showed an excellent survival rate in low pH and in the presence of bile salts. The percentage of adhered cells of L. plantarum G2 to hexadecane was 63.85±2.0 indicating the intermediate hydrophobicity.

  20. In vitro evaluation of nematophagous activity of fungal isolates.

    Nicola, Lidia; Tosi, Solveig; Savini, Dario


    Four filamentous fungi associated with nematodes were isolated and identified from litter samples collected in the Integral Natural Reserve "Bosco Siro Negri" (PV, Italy): Arthrobotrys dactyloides, Arthrobotrys oligospora var. oligospora, Pochonia bulbillosa, and Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata. Their capacity to break down the nematode population was evaluated in vitro by means of simple and reproducible multiwell plates method. All fungal strains were able to cause a death-rate significantly different from the controls (p traps. On the contrary P. bulbillosa and P. chlamydosporia, known to attack mainly the nematode life stage of cysts, showed lower activity against adult nematodes. PMID:23553775

  1. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob


    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind...... farm control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three...... relevant fault scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  2. Trypanocidal activity of flavonoids and limonoids isolated from Myrsinaceae and Meliaceae active plant extracts

    Ana C. Leite; Artur Placeres Neto; Alessandra R. P. Ambrozin; João B. Fernandes; Paulo C. Vieira; Maria F. das G. F. da Silva; Sérgio de Albuquerque


    The activity of crude extracts of three Rapanea species (Myrsinaceae) and Cipadessa fruticosa (Meliaceae) was evaluated in vitro against the trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Thirty-three extracts from different organs of these species were assayed and eleven of them showed significant activity (lysis % >50). The fractionation of an active extract from branches of R. lancifolia (99.5%) led to the isolation of two flavonoids: quercetin and taxifolin, which have weak trypanocidal activ...

  3. Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights

    Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang


    The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the

  4. Fault Tolerant Control for Civil Structures Based on LMI Approach

    Chunxu Qu


    Full Text Available The control system may lose the performance to suppress the structural vibration due to the faults in sensors or actuators. This paper designs the filter to perform the fault detection and isolation (FDI and then reforms the control strategy to achieve the fault tolerant control (FTC. The dynamic equation of the structure with active mass damper (AMD is first formulated. Then, an estimated system is built to transform the FDI filter design problem to the static gain optimization problem. The gain is designed to minimize the gap between the estimated system and the practical system, which can be calculated by linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The FDI filter is finally used to isolate the sensor faults and reform the FTC strategy. The efficiency of FDI and FTC is validated by the numerical simulation of a three-story structure with AMD system with the consideration of sensor faults. The results show that the proposed FDI filter can detect the sensor faults and FTC controller can effectively tolerate the faults and suppress the structural vibration.

  5. Knickpoint series of gullies along the Luoyunshan Piedmont and its relation with fault activity since late Pleistocene

    Sun, Changbin; Wan, Tianfeng; Xie, Xinsheng; Shen, Xiaoming; Liang, Kuan


    The authors surveyed the longitudinal profiles of 28 gullies across the Luoyunshan Piedmont fault (LPF) by differential GPS and dating of sediments well preserved in the typical terraces and obtained 6-level knickpoint series of the gullies along the Luoyunshan Piedmont. The authors compared it with previous studies on the paleo-earthquakes of the LPF revealed by trenches and found that the paleo-earthquake events from knickpoint and trench studies are in good agreement in terms of the time of occurrence and vertical displacement of the fault. It shows studying the paleo-earthquake events of the fault by knickpoint series is feasible. At last, the authors established a more complete paleo-earthquake sequence of the LPF supported by geomorphologic and sedimentary evidence, i.e., six paleo-earthquake events happened on the LPF from about 28,000 years ago; the LPF has the characteristic of quasi-periodic recurrence and the average recurrence interval is 4585 years. The vertical displacement of the paleo-earthquake events is 2.4-3.0 m; according to the empirical equations between co-seismic displacement and earthquake magnitude the magnitude of these events is Ms 7.0-7.5. This study aims to complement and improve the traditional trenching method, provide theoretical and methodological support for the research of active tectonics, and contribute important information for the seismic hazard assessment of the densely populated Linfen area.

  6. Submarine earthquake rupture, active faulting and volcanism along the major Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone and implications for seismic hazard assessment in the Patagonian Andes Ruptura sísmica submarina, tectónica y volcanismo activo a lo largo de la Falla Liquiñe-Ofqui e implicancias para el peligro sísmico en los Andes patagónicos

    Gabriel Vargas; Sofía Rebolledo; Sergio A Sepúlveda; Alfredo Lahsen; Ricardo Thiele; Brian Townley; Cristóbal Padilla; Rodrigo Rauld; Maria José Herrera; Marisol Lara


    The Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone (LOFZ) in the Patagonian Andes is an active major transpressional intra-arc fault system along which Quaternary faulting and volcanism develop. Subaerial and submarine geomorphologic and structural characterization of latest Pleistocene-Holocene faults and monogenetic volcanoes allows us to assess geological cartography of active faults and the kinematic model for recent tectonics during postglacial times, since 12,000 cal. years BP. This allows increasing the bas...

  7. Voice Coil Actuator for Active Vibration Isolation in Microgravity

    Brusa, E.; Carabelli, S.; Genta, G.; Maddaleno, F.; Silvagni, M.; Tonoli, A.


    Many microgravity experiments require very low levels of acceleration which cannot be achieved on the International Space Station due to the residual vibration. A vibration isolation system is then usually devised between the experiment and the space station to obtain the desired accelerations at the experiment level. The very low frequency threshold required by the isolation specifications makes passive solutions for the isolation difficult to implement. This is mainly due to the practical impossibility of achieving high values of compliance of the elastic suspension. Furthermore, the unavoidable connections of uncertain characteristics between the experiment and the space station makes the problem even more difficult to be addressed. Disturbance reduction can be performed by means of active vibration isolation, based on magnetic suspension technology acting both at rack and at scientific experiment levels. The stiffness and damping of the active suspension can be tuned by the control loop to minimise the acceleration of the payload. The mechatronic design of an active magnetic suspension for vibration isolation in microgravity has been performed by resorting to the so-called voice-coil configuration, after a preliminary trade-off analysis of the available magnetic actuators and materials. The optimisation of the actuator layout was developed with respect to the design airgap and force density (N/kg of actuator) and force resolution requirements, by demonstrating that the configuration based on Lorentz magnetic force is more suitable for the above application in terms of stability, bi- directionality of the actuation, cross coupling effects and linearity of the force. The aim of the design was the maximisation of the actuation force/mass ratio. The FEM analysis of the voice coil allowed to investigate the flux leakage and the cross coupling effects between the actuation forces along the three principal directions of the active device. A procedure for the numerical

  8. Trypanocidal activity of flavonoids and limonoids isolated from Myrsinaceae and Meliaceae active plant extracts

    Ana C. Leite


    Full Text Available The activity of crude extracts of three Rapanea species (Myrsinaceae and Cipadessa fruticosa (Meliaceae was evaluated in vitro against the trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Thirty-three extracts from different organs of these species were assayed and eleven of them showed significant activity (lysis % >50. The fractionation of an active extract from branches of R. lancifolia (99.5% led to the isolation of two flavonoids: quercetin and taxifolin, which have weak trypanocidal activity. Additionally, one active extract from fruits of C. fruticosa (97.7% afforded mexicanolide limonoids: cipadesin, mexicanolide, febrifugin and cipadesin A, that were slightly active on T. cruzi. Moreover, other two flavonoids (flavone and 7-methoxyflavone, previously assayed against T. cruzi, were isolated from the hexane extract from branches of C. fruticosa (100%. The results presented here suggest that the plants evaluated could be a source of new active compounds against T. cruzi.

  9. Active emergent thrust associated with a detachment fold: A case study of the eastern boundary fault of Takada plain, central Japan

    Kato, N.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.; Saito, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Abe, S.


    To estimate seismic hazards, understanding the relationship between active fault and seismic source fault is crucial. Along the Japan Sea coast of Northern Honshu, Japan, thick sediments, deposited in the Miocene rift-grabens, formed fold-and-thrust belt, due to the shortening deformation since the Pliocene time. Most of the thrusts are active and show clear geomorphological evidences. Some of the thrusts are secondary faults, produced by the folding of competent layers. To elucidate the relationship between an emergent thrust and deep-sited seismogenic source fault, we performed shallow high-resolution seismic reflection profiling across the eastern boundary fault of the Takada plain, central Japan. Based on the moropho-tectonic data, the vertical slip rate of the Eastern boundary fault of the Takada plain is 0.9 mm/y and has potential to produce M7.2 earthquake (AIST, 2006). For shallow structure, we obtained CMP-seismic reflection data from a 7-km-long seismic line, using 541 channels of off-line recorders. Seismic source was an Envirovibe (IVI). Receiver and shot intervals are 12.5 m and seismic signals were recorded by fixed channels. Shallow seismic data were acquired as a piggy-bag project of 70 km-long onshore-offshore deep seismic profiling. High-resolution seismic section portrays the emergent thrust, dipping to the east at about 30 degrees. The hanging wall consist Pliocene interbedded mudstone and sandstone and deeper extension of the thrust can be traced down to the Miocene mudstone of the Teradoamri Formation as a low-angle fault. In the Niigata basin, the lower part of the Teradomari Formation is known as over pressured mudstone and shallow detachments are commonly developed in this unit. Based on the deep seismic section, including velocity profile obtained by refraction tomography, deep sited fault does not connect to the shallow active fault directly.

  10. Brittle Faults

    Caine, J.; Choudhuri, M.; Bose, N.; Mukherjee, S.; Misra, A.A.; Mathew, G.; Salvi, D.; Toro, B.; Pratt, B.R.; Dasgupta, S.; Nováková, Lucie

    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015 - (Mukherjee, S.), s. 79-106 ISBN 978-0-12-420152-1 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : brittle shear zone * brittle tectonics * conjugate faults * faults * kinematic indicators Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  11. Exploring the shallow structure of the San Ramón thrust fault in Santiago, Chile (∼33.5° S, using active seismic and electric methods

    D. Díaz


    Full Text Available The crustal-scale west-vergent San Ramón thrust fault system at the foot of the main Andean Cordillera in central Chile is a geologically active structure with Quaternary manifestations of complex surface rupture along fault segments in the eastern border of Santiago city. From the comparison of geophysical and geological observations, we assessed the subsurface structure pattern affecting sedimentary cover and rock-substratum topography across fault scarps, which is critic for evaluating structural modeling and associated seismic hazard along this kind of faults. We performed seismic profiles with an average length of 250 m, using an array of twenty-four geophones (GEODE, and 25 shots per profile, supporting high-resolution seismic tomography for interpreting impedance changes associated to deformed sedimentary cover. The recorded traveltime refractions and reflections were jointly inverted by using a 2-D tomographic approach, which resulted in variations across the scarp axis in both velocities and reflections interpreted as the sedimentary cover-rock substratum topography. Seismic anisotropy observed from tomographic profiles is consistent with sediment deformation triggered by west-vergent thrust tectonics along the fault. Electrical soundings crossing two fault scarps supported subsurface resistivity tomographic profiles, which revealed systematic differences between lower resistivity values in the hanging wall with respect to the footwall of the geological structure, clearly limited by well-defined east-dipping resistivity boundaries. The latter can be interpreted in terms of structurally driven fluid content-change between the hanging wall and the footwall of a permeability boundary associated with the San Ramón fault. The overall results are consistent with a west-vergent thrust structure dipping ∼55° E at subsurface levels in piedmont sediments, with local complexities being probably associated to fault surface rupture propagation


    Chonthicha Naphong


    Full Text Available Miliusa plants belonging to the family Annonaceae are found in Thailand and have been used as Thai traditional medicines. There have been a few previously reports on the chemical constituents of plants in this genus, describing the presence of aporphine alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, styrylpyrones, bis-styryls and homogentisic acid derivatives. Miliusa smithiae, a new species for Thailand and world, has not been studied chemical composition. The present study described phytochemical study of the leaves and twigs of M. smithiae together with their cytotoxicity. The M. smithiae was selected and percolated with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The extracts were purified and elucidated chemical structures. The constituent of ethyl acetate extract of M. smithiae has been investigated. We isolated and identified two flavonoid derivatives, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimetoxyflavone (1 and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimetoxyflavone (2. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Studies on ethyl acetate extract of M. smithiae has now resulted the isolation and structural characterization of two flavonoids. Their anticancer activities were evaluated using SRB assays. In this method, compound 2 showed potential activity in cell lines.

  13. Antimicrobial activity in vitro of plumbagin isolated from Plumbago species

    Selma Ribeiro de Paiva


    Full Text Available Plumbagin is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone isolated from roots of Plumbago scandens. The plant was collected at the Campus of Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. P. scandens is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The antimicrobial activity of plumbagin was evaluated using the macrodilution method. The compound exhibited relatively specific activity against bacteria and yeast. The minimum inhibitory concentration test showed the growth inhibiton of Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 1.56 µg/ml and of Candida albicans at a concentration of 0.78 µg/ml. These results suggest the naphthoquinone plumbagin as a promising antimicrobial agent.




    Full Text Available A total of five different actinomycete isolates were recovered from mine soil samples collected from Salem, Tamilnadu. These were then assessed for their antibacterial activity against five multidrug resistance bacterial wound isolates. All five isolates of actinomycete exhibited antagonistic activity. The zone of inhibition ranged between 11-25 mm. Among the 5 isolates of actinomycetes A5 isolate has highest antibacterial activity against S.aureus and E.coli. Out of five bacterial isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly suppressed by actinomycetes followed by E.coli. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed on 14th day incubation. The result of primary screening reveals that most of the active actinomycetes isolates were active against gram positive bacteria (S.aureus than gram negative bacteria. The antibiotic profile of these isolates underlined their potential as a source of novel antibiotics.

  15. A revisit to vityaz transform fault area, Central Indian Ridge: Isotopic evidence of probable hydrothermal activity.

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Banerjee, R.; Xiao, Y.K.

    water column at Vema (VM3: 10o 43.23’S and 66o 36.5’E) and Vityaz, (VT4: 5 o 39.55’S and 68o 03.77’E and VT6: 5 o 38.83’S and 67o 27.39’E) transform fault areas in the Central Indian Ridge showed significant variations below 300 m water depth at VT6...

  16. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH14CO3 solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases 14CO3 which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 ± 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 ± 1.9 and 2.8 ± 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 ± 14.7 and 2.8 ± 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity

  17. Possible triggering of solar activity to big earthquakes (Ms ≥ 8) in faults with near west-east strike in China

    HAN; Yanben; GUO; Zengjian; WU; Jinbing; MA; Lihua


    This paper studies the relationship between solar activity and big earthquakes (Ms≥8) that occurred in China and western Mongolia. It is discovered that the occurrence dates of most of the big earthquakes in and near faults with west-east strike are close to the maximum years of sunspot numbers, whereas dates of some big earthquakes which are not in such faults are not close to the maximum years. We consider that it is possibly because of the appearance of many magnetic storms in the maximum years of solar activity. The magnetic storms result in anomalies of geomagnetic field and then produce eddy current in the faults gestating earthquake with near west-east strike. Perhaps the gestated big earthquakes occur easily since the eddy current heats the rocks in the faults and therefore decreases the shear resistant intensity and the static friction limit of the rocks.

  18. Evaluating Antimutagenic Activity of Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products

    R Kazemi Darsanki


    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Probiotic bacteria are microbial nutrition supplements which have useful effects on human health by maintaining of bowel microbial balance. There are many studies that have been suggested the use of probiotic products as cancer risk reducer. The aim of this study, is isolation and detection of probiotic agents from yoghurt and probiotical tablet and evaluation of their abilities to decrease some effects of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents.


    Methods: In this study, probiotic bacteria were isolated from yogurt and probiotic tablet by using MRS in anaerobic condition (5% Co2 and gas peck and temperature of 37°c. Then, they were detected by using biochemical tests. Their anti mutagenic effects of supernatant culture were evaluated against mutagenic agents of azid Sodium and Potassium Permanganate by ames test (Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in presence and absence of S9.


    Results: Six probiotic bacteria were isolated from yogurt and probiotic tablet. Their anti mutagenic activity results based on ames test showed they can inhibit mutagenic agents more than 40% in some species, which is considered as a good result.


    Conclusion: The results of this study show that the use of probiotic bacteria found in different products such as yogurt and probiotic tablets, have proper anti mutagenic and anti carcinogenic effects. They change the micro flora of bowel and, as a result, reduce absorption of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents and help to maintain human health.


  19. Seismic cycle and seismic risk of an active faults network: the Corinth rift case (Greece)

    The Corinth rift (Greece) is one of the regions with the highest strain rates (16 mm/y extension rate) in the Euro-Mediterranean area and as such it has long been identified as a site of major importance for earthquake studies in Europe (20 years of research by the Corinth Rift Laboratory and 4 years of in-depth studies by the ANR-SISCOR project). This enhanced knowledge, acquired in particular, in the western part of the Gulf of Corinth (CRL region), an area about 50 by 40 km2, between the city of Patras to the west and the city of Aigion to the east, provides an excellent opportunity to compare fault-based (FB) and classical seismo-tectonic (ST) approaches currently used in seismic hazard assessment studies. An homogeneous earthquake catalogue was thus constructed for the purpose of this study along with a comprehensive database of all relevant geological, geodetic and geophysical information available in the literature and recently collected within the ANR-SISCOR project. The homogenized Mw earthquake catalogue is composed of data from the National Observatory of Athens and from the university of Thessaloniki as well as data acquired through historical and instrumental work performed within the ANR-SISCOR group for the CRL region. A frequency magnitude analysis confirms that seismicity rates are governed by Gutenberg-Richter (GR) statistic for 1.2=6 earthquakes were computed for the region of study. Time dependent models (Brownian Passage time and Weibull probability distributions) were also explored. The probability (normalized by area) of a M≥6.0 earthquake is found to be greater in the CRL region compared to the eastern part of the Corinth rift. Probability estimates corresponding to the 16. and 84. percentile are also provided, as a means of representing the range of uncertainties in the results. Probability estimates based on the ST-approach are then compared to those based on the FB approach approach. In general ST tends to overestimate probabilities of

  20. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    Li, Yong Xin


    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  1. Hemolytic activity of dermatophytes species isolated from clinical specimens.

    Aktas, E; Yıgıt, N


    Hemolytic activity was recently reported for several pathogenic fungal species, such as Aspergillus, Candida, Trichophyton, Penicillium and Fusarium. Based on a number of mechanistic and characterization studies, several fungal hemolysins have been proposed as virulence factors. Hemolysins lyse red blood cells resulting in the release of iron, an important growth factor for microbes especially during infection. The requirement of iron in fungal growth is necessary for metabolic processes and as a catalyst for various biochemical processes. Expression of a hemolytic protein with capabilities to lyse red blood cells has also been suggested to provide a survival strategy for fungi during opportunistic infections. The aims of this study were to investigate the hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Hair, skin and nail samples of patients were examined with direct microscopy using potassium hydroxide and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. To determine hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species, they were subcultured on Columbia Agar with 5% sheep blood and incubated for 7-14 days at 25°C in aerobic conditions. Media which displayed hemolysis were further incubated for 1-5 days at 37°C to increase hemolytic activity. In this study, 66 dermatophytes strains were isolated from clinical specimens and were identified by six different species: 43 (65.1%) Trichophyton rubrum, 7 (10.7%) Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 5 (7.6%) Microsporum canis, 5 (7.6%) Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 (6.0%) Epidermophyton floccosum and 2 (3.0%) Trichophyton violaceum. Twenty-one T. rubrum strains showed incomplete (alpha) hemolysis and nine T. rubrum strains showed complete (beta) hemolysis, whereas hemolysis was absent in 13 T. rubrum strains. Four T. mentagrophytes strains showed complete hemolysis and three T. tonsurans strains showed incomplete hemolysis. However, M. canis, E. floccosum and T. violaceum species had

  2. High and Low Temperature Oceanic Detachment Faults

    Titarenko, Sofya; McCaig, Andrew


    geometry and timing of deformation; if the fault zone forms within a large semi-molten gabbro body it will be isolated from hydrothermal fluid, whereas if a series of small melt bodies collect in the footwall of a permeable detachment fault, they will cool rapidly. A corollary of our model is that at slow spreading ridges the depth of melt lenses and hence the dyke gabbro transition is determined not by spreading rate (as has been suggested at fast spreading ridges) but by the effective depth of high permeability and hence hydrothermal circulation. In actively faulting environments permeability can exist to greater depths, and magma can only easily rise above these depths as dykes or volcanics. The type of detachment fault formed may depend on whether detachment faults nucleate in a robust magmatic system where they can root into a melt zone, or if magma collects in the footwall of an active fault.

  3. Definition and Paleoseismology of the Active, Left-Lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault Zone Based on High-Resolution Chirp Profiles: Lakes Azuey and Mirogoane, Haiti

    Wang, J.; Mann, P.; von Lignau, A. V.


    In July 2014, we obtained a total of 94 km of high-resolution Chirp profiles from the 129 km2, brackish Lake Azuey and 37 km of profiles from the 14 km2, fresh water Lake Mirogoane that both straddle the active trace of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) of Haiti. 80% of the grid on Azuey and 85% on Mirogoane was dedicated to north-south profiles of the EPGFZ. In Azuey we defined the linear and east-west-striking fault trace in deformed Holocene sediments along with its landfalls west of Lake Azuey in Haiti and east of Lake Azuey in the Dominican Republic. All profiles showed the fault to be a sub-vertical flower structure whose active traces could be traced on Chirp data to a depth of 30 m below the lake floor. Previous workers have suggested that this fault ruptured during a large November, 1751, earthquake with a parallel and elongate felt zone. We hypothesize the most recent break of the fault several meters below the lake floor to have formed during the 1751 event but plan a coring program to precisely constrain the timing of historical and prehistorical events based on syn-faulting colluvial wedges observed on Chirp profiles. Our survey of Mirogoane confirmed its rhomboidal pull-apart structure with the basin center at a depth of 42-8 m making this basin the deepest lake in the Caribbean region. Deformational features include active folds at the lake bottom, large oblique-slip normal faults at an angle to the bounding east-west faults, and 30 m of recognizable stratigraphy. The 7 m of Holocene cored in the basin center in 1988 is observed to be highly deformed and locally folded and overlies with angular unconformity a well stratified and more folded lower basinal unit. Historical events are proposed to have ruptured on or near this segment of the EPGFZ in 1701 and 1770.

  4. Structural Analysis of Recent and Active Faults and Regional State of Stress in the Epicentral Area of the 1978 Thessaloniki Earthquakes (northern Greece)

    Mercier, Jacques-Louis; Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Mouyaris, Nicolas; Simeakis, Konstantinos; Roundoyannis, Theodora; Anghelidhis, Christos


    During spring and summer 1978, Macedonia (Greece) suffered damaging seismic activity. During the two main shocks which occurred on May 23 (Mb = 5.7) and June 20 (Mb = 6.1), seismic open cracks and faults were formed in the epicentral area, 25 km NNE from Thessaloniki. They have been mapped and their kinematics analyzed. These studies have shown that they result from the reactivation of existing faults of Pleistocene, Recent, and historical age and that the crust is stretching along a N-S to NNE-SSW direction in that part of the North Aegean. Principal stress directions have been computed from the slip vectors measured on recent neotectonic faults and seismic cracks and faults, this computation utilizing a simple mechanical model (homogeneous deformation through the addition of small and independent displacements of rigid blocks in a highly fractured body). A striking feature of this analysis is that the tensional directions σ3 deduced from seismic faulting and from recent neotectonic faulting are nearly the same. They are compatible with the regional tension axis deduced from focal mechanisms of North Aegean and with the focal mechanisms of the 1978 Thessaloniki main shocks. They are also compatible with in situ stress measurements in this region. Studies of superficial seismic faulting strongly support previous assumptions proposed from aftershock distribution: the 1978 Thessaloniki earthquakes resulted from reactivation of several different faults situated within the same NE dipping fault zone of Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene age (and older) separating the Serbo-Macedonian Massif from the Peonias (East Vardar) zone.

  5. Insights into the 3D architecture of an active caldera ring-fault at Tendürek volcano through modeling of geodetic data

    Vasyura-Bathke, Hannes


    The three-dimensional assessment of ring-fault geometries and kinematics at active caldera volcanoes is typically limited by sparse field, geodetic or seismological data, or by only partial ring-fault rupture or slip. Here we use a novel combination of spatially dense InSAR time-series data, numerical models and sand-box experiments to determine the three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of a sub-surface ring-fault at Tendürek volcano in Turkey. The InSAR data reveal that the area within the ring-fault not only subsides, but also shows substantial westward-directed lateral movement. The models and experiments explain this as a consequence of a ‘sliding-trapdoor’ ring-fault architecture that is mostly composed of outward-inclined reverse segments, most markedly so on the volcano\\'s western flanks but includes inward-inclined normal segments on its eastern flanks. Furthermore, the model ring-fault exhibits dextral and sinistral strike-slip components that are roughly bilaterally distributed onto its northern and southern segments, respectively. Our more complex numerical model describes the deformation at Tendürek better than an analytical solution for a single rectangular dislocation in a half-space. Comparison to ring-faults defined at Glen Coe, Fernandina and Bárðarbunga calderas suggests that ‘sliding-trapdoor’ ring-fault geometries may be common in nature and should therefore be considered in geological and geophysical interpretations of ring-faults at different scales worldwide.

  6. Anticancer activity of flavane gallates isolated from Plicosepalus curviflorus

    Ghada Ahmed Fawzy


    Full Text Available Background: Previous investigation of the methanol extract of Plicosepalus curviflorus leaves led to the isolation of two new flavane gallates (1, 2, together with other compounds including quercetin (3. The stems of P. curviflorus are used traditionally for the treatment of cancer in Yemen. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of the plant methanol extract as well as isolated compounds (1-3. Materials and Methods: The human cancer cell lines used were; MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116, Hep-2, HeLa and normal, Vero cell line using the Crystal Violet Staining method (CVS. Results: Quercetin (3 possessed the highest anticancer effect against all five cell lines (IC 50 ranging from 3.6 to 16.2 μg/ml. It was followed by 2S, 3R-3, 3′, 4′, 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavane-5-O-gallate (1 , with IC 50 ranging from 11.6 to 38.8 μg/ml. The weakest anticancer activity was given by 2S, 3R-3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavane-3′,5-di-O-gallate (2 with IC 50 ranging from 39.8 to above 50 μg/ml, compared to vinblastine sulphate as reference drug. Colon, liver and breast cell lines seemed to be more sensitive to the tested compounds than the cervical and laryngeal cell lines. Concerning the cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line, the pentahydroxyflavane-5-O-gallate (1 showed the highest IC 50 ( 138.2 μg/ml, while quercetin exhibited the lowest IC 50 to Vero cells (30.5 μg/ml, compared to vinblastine sulphate as reference drug (IC 50: 39.7 μg/ml. Conclusion: The results suggest the possible use of compounds 1 and 3 as anticancer drugs especially against colon and liver cancers.

  7. Anticholinesterase activity of 7-methoxyflavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Sawasdee, Pattara; Sabphon, Chalisa; Sitthiwongwanit, Duangporn; Kokpol, Udom


    The rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora or kra-chai-dum (in Thai) is used traditionally as a folk medicine. The preliminary cholinesterase inhibitory screening of this plant extract exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. Thirteen known methoxyflavones (1-13) were isolated and their structures were completely elucidated based on NMR analysis and compared with literature reports. Minor compounds 12-13 were reported for the first time from this species. The cholinesterase inhibitory test results showed that the highest potential inhibitors toward AChE and BChE were 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6) and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (7), respectively, with the percentage inhibitory activity varying over 43-85%. The structure-activity relationship study led to the conclusion that compounds bearing 5,7-dimethoxy groups and a free substituent at C-3 had a significant inhibitory effect at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, but those bearing a 5-hydroxyl group reduced the inhibitory potency. On the other hand, flavones bearing a 3'- or 5'-methoxy group did not influence the inhibitory effect. Interestingly, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (7) exhibited strong selectivity for BChE over AChE which may be of great interest to modify as a treatment agent for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19548291

  8. Immunostimulating activity of polyhydric alcohol isolated from Taxus cuspidata.

    Lee, Choon Guen; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Da Gyung; Kim, Joo Won; Alnaeeli, Mawadda; Park, Yong Il; Park, Jae Kweon


    A polyhydric alcohol (PAL) was isolated from Taxus cuspidata and its immunostimulatory activities were assessed. The primary monosaccharide composition of the PAL was determined to be glucose, where HPAEC analysis showed no significant amount of any other sugars. However, glycerol and xylitol were identified as the main sugar alcohols. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the purified PAL is a complex glycitol, which structurally contains significant amount of hydroxyl groups. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy also demonstrated that PAL is a complex glycitol built in hexose polymerization. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed that the PAL stimulates the release of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with PAL for 24h remarkably increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK, p38 and JNK in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the total protein levels of ERK (t-ERK), p38 (t-p38) and JNK (t-JNK) remained unchanged. These results clearly demonstrate that PAL stimulates the immune response in RAW 264.7 cells through the activation of MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) signaling pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the primary structure and immune-stimulating activities of PAL from the fruit of T. cuspidata. PMID:26791584

  9. Characterization of recent Lake Tahoe fault activity: Combining Sub-Meter Resolution Seismic Imagery with AMS C-14 Dated Submerged Paleo-Surfaces.

    Dingler, J. A.; Kent, G. M.; Babcock, J. A.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Gayes, P. T.; Karlin, B.; Morgan, C. W.; Heyvaert, A.; Richards, B. C.


    Deformational strain within the Lake Tahoe Basin was mapped during previous campaigns using a combination of high resolution seismic CHIRP, multi-beam swath bathymetry, and airborne laser altimetry. These previous campaigns identified submerged paleo-shorelines of Pleistocene to early Holocene age, which act as a tectonic strain marker due to fault related disruptions of this once flat surface, as well as significantly offset fault scarps. Building upon this previous work, specific sites were selected for additional investigation with seismic CHIRP and AMS C-14 dated vibra and piston cores. The combination of these three techniques is ideally suited for quantifying recent fault activity through the correlation of paleo-surfaces and accurate age determinations. Initial analysis of seismic CHIRP and piston coring conducted in Emerald Bay shows a complex normal fault system with a sedimentation rate much higher than other parts of the lake. Seismic CHIRP conducted near Zephyr Cove was able to image multiple paleo-shorelines. Vibra coring of these same surfaces recovered sands of the same consistency as beach sand. Additional piston cores were collected at various lake locations below 400 m depth, including two cores taken across the Stateline Fault. Core analysis and AMS C-14 dating combined with site-specific seismic CHIRP, and previous mapping, will improve chronological control on the fault activity within the Lake Tahoe Basin.

  10. Geometric and kinematic variations along the active Pernicana fault: Implication for the dynamics of Mount Etna NE flank (Italy)

    Bonforte, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Branca, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Palano, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia


    Geological and structural analyses and ground deformation measurements performed along the eastern portion of the Pernicana fault system and its splay segments allow the structural setting and the kinematic behaviour of the fault to be defined. In addition, the interrelationship between the deformation style of fault segments and the variations of the volcanic pile thickness along the fault strike are investigated using detailed sedimentary basement data. Brittle deformation dominate...

  11. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    Subramanion L. Jothy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Lai Ngit Shin; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Yee Ling Lau; Yeng Chen; Zuraini Zakaria


    Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary...

  12. Preliminary Results on the Mechanics of the Active Mai'iu Low Angle Normal Fault (Dayman Dome), Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea

    Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.; Mizera, M.; Webber, S. M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Wallace, L. M.; Biemiller, J.


    Rapid slip on the Mai'iu low-angle normal fault (LANF) has exhumed a smooth, corrugated fault surface contiguous for >24 km up-dip, rising from near sea level to ~2900 m. The fault emerges from the ground dipping ~21° N and flattens over the crest of the dome to dip south. Geomorphic analysis reveals a progressive back-tilting of the surface during exhumation accompanied by cross-cutting antithetic-sense high-angle faults—features that we attribute to "rolling-hinge" deformation of a once more steeply-dipping fault. Near the scarp base, the footwall exposes mafic mylonites that deformed at ~400-450°C. The younger Mai'iu fault cross-cuts this ductile mylonite zone, with most brittle slip being localized into a ~20 cm-thick, gouge-filled core. Near the range front, active faults bite across both the hangingwall and footwall of the Mai'iu fault and record overprinting across a dying, shallow (oriented, steeper faults. Such depth-dependent locking up of the fault suggests it weakens primarily by friction reduction rather than cohesion loss. Outcrop-scale fractures in the exhumed footwall reflect formation in an Andersonian stress regime. Previous campaign GPS data suggest the fault slips at up to ~1 cm/yr. To improve resolution and test for aseismic creep, we installed 12 GPS sites across the fault trace in 2015. Quantitative XRD indicates the gouges were derived primarily from mafic footwall, containing up to 65% corrensite and saponite. Hydrothermal friction experiments on two gouges from a relict LANF strand were done at varying normal stresses (30-120 MPa), temperatures (50-200oC), and sliding velocities (0.3-100 μm/s). Results reveal very weak frictional strength (μ=0.13-0.15 and 0.20-0.28) and velocity-strengthening behavior conducive to fault creep. At the highest temperatures (T≥150oC) and lowest sliding velocities (<3 μm/s), a transition to velocity-weakening behavior indicates the potential for unstable slip.

  13. Soft Computing Approaches To Fault Tolerant Systems

    Neeraj Prakash Srivastava


    Full Text Available We present in this paper as an introduction to soft computing techniques for fault tolerant systems and the terminology with different ways of achieving fault tolerance. The paper focuses on the problem of fault tolerance using soft computing techniques. The fundamentals of soft computing approaches and its type with introduction of fault tolerance are discussed. The main objective is to show how to implement soft computing approaches for fault detection, isolation and identification. The paper contains details about soft computing application with an application of wireless sensor network as fault tolerant system.

  14. Development of active vibration isolation system for precision machines

    Li, H. Z.; Lin, W. J.; Yang, G. L.


    It is a common understanding by manufacturers of precision machines that vibrations are a potentially disastrous threat to precision and throughput. To satisfy the quest for more stable processes and tighter critical dimension control in the microelectronics manufacturing industry, active vibration control becomes increasingly important for high-precision equipment developers. This paper introduced the development of an active vibration isolation system for precision machines. Innovative mechatronic approaches are investigated that can effectively suppress both environmental and payload-generated vibration. In this system, accelerometers are used as the feedback sensor, voice coil motors are used to generate the counter force, and a TI DSP controller is used to couple sensor measurements to actuator forces via specially designed control algorithms in real-time to counteract the vibration disturbances. Experimental results by using the developed AVI prototype showed promising performance on vibration attenuation. It demonstrated a reduction of the settling time from 2s to 0.1s under impulsive disturbances; and a vibration attenuation level of more than 20dB for harmonic disturbances. The technology can be used to suppress vibration for a wide range of precision machines to achieve fast settling time and higher accuracy.

  15. Integrated analysis of seismological, gravimetric and structural data for identification of active faults geometries in Abruzzo and Molise areas (Italy)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana; Porfido, Sabina; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni


    This paper deals with an interdisciplinary research that has been carried out for more constraining the active faults and their geometry of Abruzzo - Molise areas (Central-Southern Apennines), two of the most active areas from a geodynamic point of view of the Italian Apennines, characterized by the occurrence of intense and widely spread seismic activity. An integrated analysis of structural, seismic and gravimetric (Gaudiosi et al., 2012) data of the area has been carried out through the Geographic Information System (GIS) which has provided the capability for storing and managing large amount of spatial data from different sources. In particular, the analysis has consisted of these main steps: (a) collection and acquisition of aerial photos, numeric cartography, Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data, geophysical data; (b) generation of the vector cartographic database and alpha-numerical data; c) image processing and features classification; d) cartographic restitution and multi-layers representation. In detail three thematic data sets have been generated "fault", "earthquake" and "gravimetric" data sets. The fault Dataset has been compiled by examining and merging the available structural maps, and many recent geological and geophysical papers of literature. The earthquake Dataset has been implemented collecting seismic data by the available historical and instrumental Catalogues and new precise earthquake locations for better constraining existence and activity of some outcropping and buried tectonic structures. Seismic data have been standardized in the same format into the GIS and merged in a final catalogue. For the gravimetric Dataset, the Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) of the gravity field of the area has been performed, relying on the good resolution properties of the Enhanced Horizontal Derivative (EHD) (Fedi et al., 2005). MDA of gravity data has allowed localization of several trends identifying anomaly sources whose presence was not previously

  16. Late Quaternary Activity of the Sudetic Marginal Fault in the Czech Republic: A signal of Ice Loading?

    Štěpančíková, Petra; Rockwell, T.; Hartvich, Filip; Tábořík, Petr; Stemberk, Jakub; Ortuno, M.; Wechsler, N.

    Aachen : Grützner & Reicherter Geosolutions UG, 2013 - (Grützner, C.; Rudersdorf, A.; Pérez-López, R.; Reicherter, K.), s. 259-262 ISBN 978-3-00-042796-1. [International INQUA Meeting on Paleoseismology, Active Tectonics and Archeoseismology - PATA /4./. Aachen (DE), 09.10.2013-15.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573; GA MŠk LH12078 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : paleoseismology * active tectonics * trenching * Sudetic Marginal Fault Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy https://www. dropbox .com/s/wv4q79mu4sjitfh/PATA%20Days%202013%20conference%20volume.pdf

  17. Present-day Block Motions and Strain Accumulation on Active Faults in the Caribbean

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.


    The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left and right lateral strike-slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip between major plates. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling at the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. We used the block modeling approach described in Meade and Loveless (2009) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solved for angular velocities for each block/plate and strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region. Then we calculated the variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries using the accumulated strain rates. We tested 11 different block geometries; they are all based on geological evidences unless they are suggested by discrepancies within the GPS and seismological data or by previously published results. We confirm the existence of the micro Gonave plate. The boundary between the Micro-Gonave plate and the Hispaniola crustal block is better suited along the Haitian-Thrust-Belt instead of the Neiba-Matheux fault. The interseismic GPS velocities do not show evidence for a distinct North Lesser Antilles block. We found a totally uncoupled section of the subduction starting from the Puerto-Rico trench to the end of the Lesser Antilles section. All the relative motion of the Caribbean block is lost aseismically along the boundary of that portion of the subduction. While we found strong coupling along the northern Hispaniola section, most of the deformation on this region is being accumulated along intrablock faults with very low strain (~2mm/yr) along the intraplate subduction interface. We also

  18. Sedimentary record of coseismic subsidence in Hersek coastal lagoon (Izmit Bay, Turkey) and the late Holocene activity of the North Anatolian Fault

    Bertrand, Sébastien; Doner, Lisa; Akçer Ön, Sena; Sancar, Ummuhan; Schudack, Ulla; Mischke, Steffen; Ćagatay, M. Namik; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.


    The late Holocene activity of a restraining bend of the northern strand of the North Anatolian Fault in Izmit Bay was investigated by a sedimentological, geochemical, and paleoecological analysis of sediment cores from Hersek coastal lagoon, NW Turkey. The sediment cores show a succession of sedimentary sequences composed of three units separated by gradual transitions. The first unit is composed of a thin layer of shell debris-rich sediment in abrupt contact with the underlying organic-rich deposits. This unit is overlain by a thick foraminifera-rich mud deposit, and the sequences are capped by an organic-rich mud unit. These sequences are interpreted as silting up, shallowing upward deposits, typical of a lagoon becoming isolated from the sea. We suggest that they represent the sedimentary signature of coseismic subsidence, which was caused by reverse slip at the Hersek bend, and tsunamis in Izmit Bay. Our radiocarbon-dated paleoseismological record indicates (1) the atypical collapse of the hanging wall during the 740 earthquake and (2) subsidence of the footwall during the 987, 1509, and 1719 earthquakes. This study contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of restraining bends, and it highlights the potential of coastal sediments for reconstructing past earthquakes and tsunamis in regions dominated by strike-slip deformations.

  19. U-series dating of co-seismic gypsum and submarine paleoseismology of active faults in Northern Chile (23°S)

    Vargas, Gabriel; Palacios, Carlos; Reich, Martin; Luo, Shangde; Shen, Chuan-Chou; González, Gabriel; Wu, Yi-Chen


    The convergence of the Nazca and South American plates along the subduction margin of the central Andes results in large subduction earthquakes and tectonic activity along major fault systems. Despite its relevance, the paleoseismic record of this region is scarce, hampering our understanding about the relationship between the Andes building and earthquake occurrence. In this study, we used the U-series disequilibrium method to obtain absolute ages of paleoearthquake events associated with normal displacements along the active Mejillones and Salar del Carmen faults in the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. The 230Th- 234U disequilibrium ages in co-seismic gypsum salts sampled along the fault traces together with marine evidences indicate that earthquakes occurred at ca. 29.7 ± 1.7 ka, 11 ± 4 ka and 2.4 ± 0.8 ka. When coupled with paleoseismic marine and radiocarbon ( 14C) records in the nearby Mejillones Bay evidencing large dislocations along the Mejillones Fault, the geochronological dataset presented here is consistent with the notion that gypsum salts formed during large earthquakes as a result of co-seismic dilatancy pumping of saline waters along the major faults. Based on maximum observed cumulative vertical offsets in the studied faults, this phenomena could have occurred episodically at a rate in the order of 1:40 to 1:50 with respect to the very large subduction earthquakes during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene period. The results presented here reveal that the U-series disequilibrium method can be successfully applied to date the gypsum salts deposited along faults during seismic events, and therefore directly constrain the age of large paleoearthquakes in hyperarid and seismically active zones.

  20. Identifying Active Faults by Improving Earthquake Locations with InSAR Data and Bayesian Estimation: The 2004 Tabuk (Saudi Arabia) Earthquake Sequence

    Xu, Wenbin


    A sequence of shallow earthquakes of magnitudes ≤5.1 took place in 2004 on the eastern flank of the Red Sea rift, near the city of Tabuk in northwestern Saudi Arabia. The earthquakes could not be well located due to the sparse distribution of seismic stations in the region, making it difficult to associate the activity with one of the many mapped faults in the area and thus to improve the assessment of seismic hazard in the region. We used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from the European Space Agency’s Envisat and ERS‐2 satellites to improve the location and source parameters of the largest event of the sequence (Mw 5.1), which occurred on 22 June 2004. The mainshock caused a small but distinct ∼2.7  cm displacement signal in the InSAR data, which reveals where the earthquake took place and shows that seismic reports mislocated it by 3–16 km. With Bayesian estimation, we modeled the InSAR data using a finite‐fault model in a homogeneous elastic half‐space and found the mainshock activated a normal fault, roughly 70 km southeast of the city of Tabuk. The southwest‐dipping fault has a strike that is roughly parallel to the Red Sea rift, and we estimate the centroid depth of the earthquake to be ∼3.2  km. Projection of the fault model uncertainties to the surface indicates that one of the west‐dipping normal faults located in the area and oriented parallel to the Red Sea is a likely source for the mainshock. The results demonstrate how InSAR can be used to improve locations of moderate‐size earthquakes and thus to identify currently active faults.

  1. Antipoliovirus Activity of the Organic Extract of Eupatorium buniifolium: Isolation of Euparin as an Active Compound

    Muschietti, Liliana V.; Lucía V. Cavallaro; Martino, Virginia S.; María Florencia Visintini Jaime; Campos, Rodolfo H.


    The antiviral activity of the organic extract (OE) of Eupatorium buniifolium against poliovirus type 1 was determined by in vitro assays with an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 23.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the OE allowed the isolation of an active principle that was identified by spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-NMR, EI-MS, UV, and IR spectroscopy) as the benzofuran euparin. The plaque reduction assay in Vero cells was used to assess the antiviral activity of eupa...

  2. In vitro anticancer activity of microbial isolates from diverse habitats

    Angel Treasa Thomas


    Full Text Available Extracts from natural products, especially microorganisms, have served as a valuable source of diverse molecules in many drug discovery efforts and led to the discovery of several important drugs. Identification of microbial strains having promising biological activities and purifying the bio-molecules responsible for the activities, have led to the discovery of many bioactive molecules. Extracellular, as well as intracellular, extracts of the metabolites of thirty-six bacterial and twenty-four fungal isolates, grown under unusual conditions such as high temperature, high salt and low sugar concentrations, were in vitro tested for their cytotoxic potential on various cancer cell lines. The extracts were screened on HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines to study the cytotoxic potential. Nuclear staining and flow cytometric studies were carried out to assess the potential of the extracts in arresting the cell cycle. The crude ethylacetate extract of isolate F-21 showed promising results by MTT assay with IC50 as low as 20.37±0.36 µg/mL on HeLa, and 44.75±0.81 µg/mL on MCF-7 cells, comparable with Cisplatin. The isolate F-21 was identified as Aspergillus sp. Promising results were also obtained with B-2C and B-4E strains. Morphological studies, biochemical tests and preliminary chemical investigation of the extracts were also carried out.Extratos de produtos naturais, especialmente de microrganismos, constituíram-se em fonte valiosa de diversas moléculas em muitas descobertas de fármacos e levaram à descoberta de fármacos importantes. A identificação de espécies microbianas que apresentam atividade biológica e a purificação de biomoléculas responsáveis pelas atividades levou à descoberta de muitas moléculas bioativas. Extratos extracelulares tanto quanto intracelulares de metabólitos de 36 isolados de bactérias e 24 isolados de fungos, que cresceram sob condições não usuais, como alta temperatura, alta concentração de sal e baixa

  3. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis.

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia


    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1-5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6-9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5-30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  4. Rock mechanics activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    The application of rock mechanics at nuclear waste repositories is a true multidisciplinary effort. A description and historical summary of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented. Rock mechanics programs at the WIPP are outlined, and the current rock mechanics modeling philosophy of the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division is discussed

  5. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando


    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  6. Using 10Be cosmogenic surface exposure dating to determine the evolution of the Purgatorio active fault in the Andean forearc, southern Peru

    Carlos, Benavente; Swann, Zerathe; Laurence, Audin; Fabrizio, Delgado; Marianne, Saillard; Sarah, Hall R.; Aster Team


    Active transpressive deformation has been occurring along the Andean hyperarid forearc for the last 3 Myrs but many of these faults are still not described even if able to produce large damaging earthquakes. Active faulting along the northern part of the Arica Bend can be recognized due to the presence of well-preserved and sharp fault scarps indicating recent surface slip. During the Mio-Pliocene, deposition within the forearc continental basins resulted in the formation of vast fan deposits and conglomerates of the Moquegua Formation, which can be considered as bedrock in this exposure study (~45-4 Ma; Tosdal et al., 1984; Sebrier et al., 1988a; Roperch et al., 2006). The typical vertical Purgatorio fault scarps offset both the Moquegua bedrock and several younger geomorphic features associated with formation outcroping vertically along the fault scarp. These samples are well-suited to the application of in situ produced cosmogenic radionuclides for surface exposure dating, as the hyperarid region has extremely low erosion rates. We sampled the scarp away from any significant drainage so as to avoid possibly disturbed areas. The sampling did involve extracting quarzite conglomeratic material along the bedrock scarp and on the upper surrounding crests. The aim has been to measure Berylium-20 TCN (Terrestrial in situ Cosmogenic Nuclides) concentrations to determine exposure age as a function of height on the scarp. This has been successfully employed on one scarp in Italy based on Chlorine-36 TCN (Palumbo et al., 2004). However, slow faults behaviour remains unclear and more contributions are needed. Quaternary activity of the Purgatorio fault system was evidenced by Hall et al. (2008). They highlighted a vertical offset of about ~100 m for a pediment surface intercepted by the fault, and dated at ~280 ka. Considering that the pediment surface is horizontal, this would gave a maximum of ~0.3 mm/yr of vertical deformation since 280 ka. Our new data provide evidences

  7. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    shahla pashapour; Hossein besharati; Mahmoud rezazadeh; Ahmad Alimadadi; Nadergholi Ebrahimi


    Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens), which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) r...

  8. Allelopathic activity among Cyanobacteria and microalgae isolated from Florida freshwater habitats

    Gantar, Miroslav; John P. Berry; Thomas, Serge; Wang, Minglei; Perez, Roberto; Rein, Kathleen S.


    We evaluated allelopathic interactions between strains of Cyanobacteria and green algae isolated from south and central Florida. Allelopathy, including inhibition or stimulation of growth, was assessed by cocultivation of each of the isolated strains, as well as by evaluation of extracts prepared from the isolates. All of the strains of Cyanobacteria, and four of the six isolates of green algae, showed some allelopathic activity (i.e. inhibition or stimulation of the growth of other strains)....

  9. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial and proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Zlatar cheese

    Topisirović Ljubiša


    Full Text Available Traditional artisan Zlatar cheese belongs to the group of white, semi hard home-made cheeses, which are produced from no pasteurized cow's milk, without addition of any known bacterial starter culture. In total, 253 Gram-positive and catalase negative lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated. Results showed that 70 out of 253 analyzed isolates produced antimicrobial compounds known as bacteriocins. Most isolates from genera Lactococcus and Enterococcus, and isolates belonging to species Lactobacillus plantarum and Lb. brevis, do not synthesize extracellular proteinase. In contrast, isolates from subspecies Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei showed very good proteolytic activity. It was observed that good proteolytic activity of isolates was not in correlation with their good antimicrobial activity in the most of isolates.

  10. Fuzzy sliding mode controller of a pneumatic active isolating system using negative stiffness structure

    A novel active vibration isolation system using negative stiffness structure (active system with NSS) for low excitation frequency ranges (< 5 Hz) is developed successfully. Here, the negative stiffness structure (NSS) is used to minimize the attraction of vibration. Then, the fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) is designed to improve the vibration isolation performance of the active system with NSS. Based on Lyapunov stability theorem, the fuzzy control rules are constructed. Next, the experimental apparatus is built for evaluating the isolation efficiency of the proposed system controlled by the FSMC corresponding to various excitation conditions. In addition, the isolation performance of the active system with NSS, the active system without NSS and the passive the system with NSS is compared. The experimental results confirmed that the active system with NSS gives better isolation efficiency than the active system without NSS and the passive system with NSS in low excitation frequency areas

  11. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

    Hotam S Chaudhary


    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  12. Isolation of actinomycetes from mangrove and estuarine sediments of Cochin and screening for antimicrobial activity

    Emilda Rosmine


    Objective:To isolate and screen actinomycetes for antimicrobial activity from mangroves and estuarine soil samples of Cochin. Methods: In the present study, sediment samples collected from mangroves and various stations of Cochin estuary were pretreated and actinomycetes were isolated on different selective media. The isolates were screened for antibiotic activity by following disc diffusion assay (Kirby-Bauer method) against human pathogens, fish pathogens and Gram-positive bacteria. The isolates were identified based on their morphology. Results:Only 2 actinomycete isolates (ER7and ER10) of the 50 isolates screened had antimicrobial activities against one or more pathogens tested. ER7 isolate showed higher antimicrobial activity as compared to that of ER10 isolate. The maximum inhibition zone of crude extract from ER7 was 16.7 mm. The methanol extract of ER7 showed antimicrobial activity against all the pathogens tested with a maximum zone of 21.0 mm. The isolates with antimicrobial activity were found to belong to the genusStreptomyces. Conclusions:There is no significant report on bioactive actinomycetes from the present study areas. Potent antibiotics from the selected isolates could contribute to fight against several human and fish diseases. Further purification, structural elucidation and characterization are recommended to know the quality, novelty and commercial value of these antibiotics. Hence, the mangroves and estuary of Kochi show great promise for the discovery of bioactive actinomycetes.

  13. Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim


    Amy Eisses, Annie Kell, Graham Kent, Neal Driscoll, Robert Karlin, Rob Baskin, John Louie, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada: Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 35, 7 pp. Preprint at The Pyramid Lake fault zone lies within a vitally important area of the northern Walker Lane where not only can transtension can be studied through a complex arrangement of strike-slip and normal faults but also geothermal activity can be examined in the extensional regime for productivity. This study used advanced and economical seismic methods in attempt to develop the Paiute Tribe’s geothermal reservoir and to expand upon the tectonics and earthquake hazard knowledge of the area. 500 line-kilometers of marine CHIRP data were collected on Pyramid Lake combined with 27 kilometers of vibrator seismic on-land data from the northwest side of the basin were collected in 2010 that highlighted two distinct phases of faulting. Preliminary results suggest that the geothermal fluids in the area are controlled by the late Pleistoceneto Holocene-aged faults and not through the mid-Miocene-aged conduits as originally hypothesized.

  14. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe


    How can be univocally inferred the genesis of a linear surface scarp as the result of an active and capable fault (FAC) in tectonically active regions? Or, conversely, how it is possible to exclude that a scarp is the result of a capable fault activation? Trying to unravel this open questions, we show two ambiguous case studies about the problem of the identification of active and capable faults in a tectonically active area just based on the presence of supposed fault scarps at surface. The selected cases are located in the area comprised between the Middle Aterno Valley Fault (MAVF) and the Campo Imperatore Plain (Abruzzi Region, central Apennines), nearby the epicentral area of the April 6th, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. In particular, the two case studies analysed are located in a region characterized by a widespread Quaternary faults and by several linear scarps: the case studies of (i) Prata D'Ansidonia area and (ii) Santo Stefano di Sessanio area. To assess the origin and the state of activity of the investigated geomorphic features, we applied a classical geological and geomorphological approach, based on the analysis of the available literature, the interpretation of the aerial photographs, field surveying and classical paleoseismological approach, the latter consisting in digging excavations across the analysed scarps. These analysis were then integrated by morphometrical analyses. As for case (i), we focused on determining the geomorphic "meaning" of linear scarps carved onto fluvial-deltaic conglomerates (dated to the Early Pleistocene; Bertini and Bosi, 1993), up to 3 meters high and up to 1,5 km long, that border a narrow, elongated and flat-bottom depressions, filled by colluvial deposits. These features groove the paleo-landsurface of Valle Daria (Bosi and Bertini, 1970), wide landsurface located between Barisciano and Prata D'Ansidonia. Entwining paleoseismological trenching with geophysical analyses (GPR, ERT and microgravimetrical prospections), it

  15. Active faulting south of the Himalayan Front: Establishing a new plate boundary

    Yeats, Robert S.; Thakur, V. C.


    New tectonic uplifts south of the Salt Range Thrust and Himalayan Front Thrust (HFT) represent an outward step of the plate boundary from the principal tectonic displacement zone into the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Pakistan, the Lilla Anticline deforms fine-grained overbank deposits of the Jhelum River floodplain 15 km south of the Salt Range. The anticline is overpressured in Eocambrian non-marine strata. In northwest India south of Dehra Dun, the Piedmont Fault (PF) lies 15 km south of the HFT. Coalescing fans derived from the Himalaya form a piedmont (Old Piedmont Zone) 15-20 km wide east of the Yamuna River. This zone is uplifted as much as 15-20 m near the PF, and bedding is tilted 5-7° northeast. Holocene thermoluminescence-optically-stimulated luminescence dates for sediments in the Old Piedmont Zone suggest that the uplift rate might be as high as several mm/a. The Old Piedmont Zone is traced northwest 200 km and southeast another 200 km to the Nepal border. These structures, analogous to protothrusts in subduction zones, indicate that the Himalayan plate boundary is not a single structure but a series of structures across strike, including reactivated parts of the Main Boundary Thrust north of the range front, the HFT sensu stricto, and stepout structures on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Displacement rates on all these structures must be added to determine the local India-Himalaya convergence rate.

  16. Halotolerant Ability and α-Amylase Activity of Some Saltwater Fungal Isolates

    Niknejad, Farhad; Moshfegh, Mahsa; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Houbraken, Jos; Rezaei, Shahla; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran


    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and α-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the β-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (isolate U1; CBS 132820), Fusarium incarnatum (isolate U2; CBS 132821), and Penicillium polonicum (isolate U3; CBS 132822, and isolate U4; CBS 132823). The growth of these isolates was determined by measuring the colony diameter and mycelia dry weight in Sabouraud dextrose agar and yeast nitrogen base medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl. Isolate U4 showed a growth up in 15% NaCl and U1 was the only isolate that could grow in 20% KCl. None of the strains grew in a media containing LiCl. The salt supplemented medium did not increase the size of colony diameter in all isolates (p > 0.05). The ability of the selected isolates for amylase production was quantitatively tested and showed that P. polonicum isolate U4 was the most potent producer of amylase with a yield of 260.9 U/L after 60 h, whereas P. polonicum isolate U3 was the lowest one with a production level of 97.9 U/L after 48 h. P. polonicum isolate U4 could be a suitable candidate for production of amylase on an industrial scale after optimization. PMID:24250679

  17. Earthquake Analysis of Structure by Base Isolation Technique in SAP

    T. Subramani; J. Jothi


    This paper presents an overview of the present state of base isolation techniques with special emphasis and a brief on other techniques developed world over for mitigating earthquake forces on the structures. The dynamic analysis procedure for isolated structures is briefly explained. The provisions of FEMA 450 for base isolated structures are highlighted. The effects of base isolation on structures located on soft soils and near active faults are given in brief. Simple case s...

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Smriti Singh; Pramod Kumar; N Gopalan; Bhuvnesh Shrivastava; RC Kuhad; Hotam Singh Chaudhary


    Objective: To isolate strains of Actinomycetes from different locations of Gwalior to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic strains. Method: Soil samples collected from different niche habitats of Gwalior were serially diluted and plated on selective media. Potential colonies were further purified and stored in agar slants and glycerol stocks. Isolates were biochemically characterized and purified isolates were test against pathogenic microorganisms for screening. Isolates with antagonistic properties were inoculated in production media and secondary metabolites or antimicrobial products were extracted. Result: The seven actinomycetes strains showing maximum antibacterial activity were isolated further characterized based on their colony characteristics and biochemical analyses. The isolates were screened for their secondary metabolites activity on three human pathogenic bacteria are Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Discussion: The strain MITS 1005 was found to be more active against the test bacteria.

  19. An Overview of Transmission Line Protection by Artificial Neural Network: Fault Detection, Fault Classification, Fault Location, and Fault Direction Discrimination

    Anamika Yadav


    Full Text Available Contemporary power systems are associated with serious issues of faults on high voltage transmission lines. Instant isolation of fault is necessary to maintain the system stability. Protective relay utilizes current and voltage signals to detect, classify, and locate the fault in transmission line. A trip signal will be sent by the relay to a circuit breaker with the purpose of disconnecting the faulted line from the rest of the system in case of a disturbance for maintaining the stability of the remaining healthy system. This paper focuses on the studies of fault detection, fault classification, fault location, fault phase selection, and fault direction discrimination by using artificial neural networks approach. Artificial neural networks are valuable for power system applications as they can be trained with offline data. Efforts have been made in this study to incorporate and review approximately all important techniques and philosophies of transmission line protection reported in the literature till June 2014. This comprehensive and exhaustive survey will reduce the difficulty of new researchers to evaluate different ANN based techniques with a set of references of all concerned contributions.

  20. Biological activity of some bacterial isolates against soil borne pathogenic fungi

    The antagonistic activity of three bacterial isolates namely Micro bacterium terregens, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was evaluated through direct confrontation method and filtrates culture against the growth of Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthra cactorum. All bacterial isolates showed the inhibition of the mycelia growth of the isolated fungi as resulting to confrontation methods except R. solani with C. cellulans that showed no inhibitory effect and energized the low activity with B. amyloliquefaciens. Culture filtrate of different bacterial isolates after different incubation periods revealed that the highest antifungal activity between 3-10 days

  1. A Blast Shock Isolation System with MRFD and Its Semi-Active Control Analysis

    LIU Jingbo; WANG Libin; DU Yixin; WANG Yan


    To effectively reduce the damage to people and devices in civil defense engineering subjected to blast shock,a blast shock isolation system with magnetorheological fluid dampers (MRFD) is proposed.MRFD can provide continuously adjustable Coulomb friction and has many advantages for semi-active control.Numerical simulation of this isolation system is finished using Matlab simulink toolbox.General semi-active control algorithms are consided based on instantaneous optimal active control algorithm.And the results indicate that the shock isolation system can work efficiently,decreasing about 93% of the peak acceleration of the isolation floor.

  2. Ornithinimicrobium pekingense sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge.

    Liu, Xing-Yu; Wang, Bao-Jun; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Liu, Shuang-Jiang


    The bacterial strain LW6(T) was isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment bioreactor. Cells of strain LW6(T) are Gram-positive, irregular, short rods and cocci, 0.5-0.8x1.0-1.6 microm. Colonies are light-yellow, smooth, circular and 0.2-1.0 mm in diameter after 3 days incubation. Strain LW6(T) is aerobic and heterotrophic. It grows at a temperature range of 26-38 degrees C and pH range of 6-9, with optimal growth at 33-37 degrees C and pH 7.8-8.2. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain LW6(T) are iso-C(15:0) (38.9%) and iso-C(17:1)omega9c (18.8%). Strain LW6(T) has the major respiratory menaquinones MK-8(H(4)) and MK-8(H(2)) and polar lipids phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and unknown glycolipid/phospholipids. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain LW6(T) contained the amino acids ornithine, lysine, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and aspartic acid. Its molar DNA G+C content is 69 mol% (T(m)). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LW6(T) was related phylogenetically to members of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, with similarities ranging from 98.3 to 98.7%. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain LW6(T) to Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum DSM 12362(T) and Ornithinimicrobium kibberense K22-20(T) was respectively 31.5 and 15.2%. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain LW6(T) represents a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which the name Ornithinimicrobium pekingense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain LW6(T) (=CGMCC 1.5362(T) =JCM 14001(T)). PMID:18175694

  3. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    Subramanion L. Jothy


    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant seed revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in four steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of mass spectrometry data. One compound was identified is roseanone. Conclusions: The MS analysis on the active fraction from seed extract of C. fistula confirmed the presence of roseanone with antiyeast activity.

  4. Research of Air-Magnet Active Vibration Isolation System Based on H∞ Control

    Wen Xianglong


    Full Text Available Considering the uncertainty of air-magnet active vibration isolation system (AMAVIS, passive vibration isolation was combined with active vibration isolation, which adopted H∞ control strategies. System identification method was used to get the channel model. By adopting mixed sensitivity design strategy, weighting functions were chosen and H∞ controller was designed. Both simulation results and experimental results show AMAVIS based on H∞ control had satisfying effect of vibration reduction in assigned frequency band.

  5. 3D modelling of the active normal fault network in the Apulian Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean Sea): Integration of seismic and bathymetric data with implicit surface methods

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Pellegrini, Caludio; Savini, Alessandra; Marchese, Fabio


    The Apulian ridge (North-eastern Ionian Sea, Mediterranean), interposed between the facing Apennines and Hellenides subduction zones (to the west and east respectively), is characterized by thick cretaceous carbonatic sequences and discontinuous tertiary deposits crosscut by a penetrative network of NNW-SSE normal faults. These are exposed onshore in Puglia, and are well represented offshore in a dataset composed of 2D seismics and wells collected by oil companies from the '60s to the '80s, more recent seismics collected during research projects in the '90s, recent very high resolution seismics (VHRS - Sparker and Chirp-sonar data), multibeam echosounder bathymetry, and sedimentological and geo-chronological analyses of sediment samples collected on the seabed. Faults are evident in 2D seismics at all scales, and their along-strike geometry and continuity can be characterized with multibeam bathymetric data, which show continuous fault scarps on the seabed (only partly reworked by currents and covered by landslides). Fault scarps also reveal the finite displacement accumulated in the Holocene-Pleistocene. We reconstructed a 3D model of the fault network and suitable geological boundaries (mainly unconformities due to the discontinuous distribution of quaternary and tertiary sediments) with implicit surface methods implemented in SKUA/GOCAD. This approach can be considered very effective and allowed reconstructing in details complex structures, like the frequent relay zones that are particularly well imaged by seafloor geomorphology. Mutual cross-cutting relationships have been recognized between fault scarps and submarine mass-wasting deposits (Holocene-Pleistocene), indicating that, at least in places, these features are coeval, hence the fault network should be considered active. At the regional scale, the 3D model allowed measuring the horizontal WSW-ENE stretching, which can be associated to the bending moment applied to the Apulian Plate by the combined effect

  6. Vipava fault (Slovenia

    Ladislav Placer


    Full Text Available During mapping of the already accomplished Razdrto – Senožeče section of motorway and geologic surveying of construction operations of the trunk road between Razdrto and Vipava in northwestern part of External Dinarides on the southwestern slope of Mt. Nanos, called Rebrnice, a steep NW-SE striking fault was recognized, situated between the Predjama and the Ra{a faults. The fault was named Vipava fault after the Vipava town. An analysis of subrecent gravitational slips at Rebrnice indicates that they were probably associated with the activity of this fault. Unpublished results of a repeated levelling line along the regional road passing across the Vipava fault zone suggest its possible present activity. It would be meaningful to verify this by appropriate geodetic measurements, and to study the actual gravitational slips at Rebrnice. The association between tectonics and gravitational slips in this and in similar extreme cases in the areas of Alps and Dinarides points at the need of complex studying of geologic proceses.

  7. Progress of Italian experimental activities on seismic isolation

    Detailed studies have been performed in Italy since 1988 to verify the applicability of seismic isolation to high risk structures such as nuclear plants. These include experiments, development and validation of numerical models, and design guidelines development. This paper deals with the first item. In particular, information is provided as to the most recent progress concerning static and dynamic tests of high damping rubber specimens and bearings, and shake table tests of isolated structures. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs

  8. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    shahla pashapour


    Full Text Available Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens, which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa rhizosphere and root nodules grown around Zanjan. Materials and methods: These bacteria were isolated from alfalfa roots grown around Zinc industries in Zanjan province. After bacterial isolation and purification from root and soil samples, isolates were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits such as IAA (Indole Acetic Acid, ACC- deaminase (Amino Cyclopropan Carboxylate, HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide, siderophore, chitinase production and mineral and organic phosphate solubilization activities. Results: The results indicated that 43 bacterial isolates produced IAA (4.04- 4.95 μg/ml and 15 isolates produced ACC- deaminase (0.23- 1.05 μg/ml. Only one isolate (Rm66 produced high amount of HCN. Qualitative siderophore production was observed in 9 isolates. None of the isolates produced chitinase. Solubilization of mineral phosphate was commonly detected in 19 isolates (4.33- 5.86 μg/ml, and 15 isolates solubilized organic phosphate (1.66- 144.28 μg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: This study shows that most of the bacterial strains which isolated from alfalfa cultivated lands had PGP activities and also a good potential to increase plant growth after inoculation with to seeds as eco- friendly fertilizers.

  9. Active tectonics research using trenching technique on the south-eastern section of the Sudetic Marginal Fault (NE Bohemian Massif, central Europe)

    Štěpančíková, Petra; Hók, J.; Nývlt, D.; Dohnal, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Stemberk, Josef


    Roč. 485, 1-4 (2010), s. 269-282. ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : Sudetic Marginal Fault * active tectonics * paleoearthquake Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2010

  10. Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim


    Amy Eisses, Annie Kell, Graham Kent, Neal Driscoll, Robert Karlin, Rob Baskin, John Louie, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic imaging of mid-Miocene to Holocene-aged faulting near geothermal prospects at Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting, San Diego, Oct. 23-26.

  11. Active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system for precision measurements

    Wu, Kang; Li, Gang; Hu, Hua; Wang, Lijun


    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise. Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed. However, few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility. An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument, the Super Spring, is designed and implemented. The system, which is simple and compact, consists of two stages: a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion, and a simple spring-mass system. The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented, including terms erroneously ignored before. By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control, the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz, a reduction by a factor of more than 75. The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter, where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5. The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system, making it particularly suitable for precision experiments. The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems. An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed, providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Trichoderma spp. for Antagonistic Activity Against Root Rot and Foliar Pathogens.

    Kumar, Krishna; Amaresan, N; Bhagat, S; Madhuri, K; Srivastava, R C


    Trichoderma, soil-borne filamentous fungi, are capable of parasitising several plant pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from different locations of South Andaman were characterized for their cultural, morphological and antagonistic activity against soil borne and foliar borne pathogens. The sequencing of these isolates showed seven different species. The isolates revealed differential reaction patterns against the test pathogens viz., Sclerotium rolfsii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici. However, the isolates, TND1, TWN1, TWC1, TGD1 and TSD1 were most effective in percentage inhibition of mycelial growth of test pathogens. Significant chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities of all Trichoderma isolates has been recorded in growth medium. T. viride was found with highest chitinase whereas T. harzianum was recorded with highest β-1,3-glucanase activities. PMID:23729873

  13. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel


    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  14. 16ch high-resolution seismic reflection surveys on the active fault of upper fore-arc slope off Okinawa Island, central Ryukyu Island Arc, Southwest Japan

    Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Sato, T.; Tuzino, T.


    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH08 (from 28th July to 29th August 2008) and GH09 (from 16th July to 17th August 2009) were carried out around Okinawa Island, which is located on the central Ryukyu Island Arc. More than 4,500 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these two cruises by the GI-gun (355cu. inch) or the Cluster-gun (30+30 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. Survey area in the southeast off Okinawa Island is located on the upper fore-arc slope. Seismic reflections of the upper fore-arc slope show a distinct reflector which may represent erosional unconformable surface. The distinct reflector had tilted southeastward and was overlain by the stratified sediments. No obvious deformation such as the fold and faults parallel to the Ryukyu Trench axis was found under the upper slope. In contrast, some active faults which were perpendicular to the Ryukyu Trench axis (NW-SE direction) were observed. The most conspicuous normal fault was found on north off Okinawa Island. The fault with 70-80°dipping toward northeast has been active since the early Pleistocene inferred from seismic stratigraphy and calcareous nannofossil biochronology. The maximum displacement reaches to 0.7 s two way travel time in depth. An average of maximum vertical displace component of the normal fault may reach up to ten cm/1000 years. Seismic profiles indicate that the tilting of Ryukyu Island Arc forward to the Ryukyu Trench plays the important role of formation of the fault in a NW-SE direction.

  15. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René


    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba. PMID:22017108

  16. Software fault tree analysis of an automated control system device written in Ada

    Winter, Mathias William.


    Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) is a technique used to analyze software for faults that could lead to hazardous conditions in systems which contain software components. Previous thesis works have developed three Ada-based, semi-automated software analysis tools, the Automated Code Translation Tool (ACm) an Ada statement template generator, the Fault Tree Editor (Fm) a graphical fault tree editor, and the Fault Isolator (Fl) an automated software fault tree isolator. These previous works d...

  17. Determination of the cellulolytic activities of microorganisms isolated from poultry litter for sawdust degradation

    Akpomie O.OF; Ubogun M.


    Cellulolytic activities of bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from poultry droppings were determined using the ability of each isolate to produce clear zones on Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose Agar plates. The bacterial isolates were Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Celulomonas, Escherichia coli and Micrococus species. The cellulolytic counts ranged from 5.02 x 104 + 3.42 to 7.20 x 109 + 6.12 cfu/g. The cellulolytic activities of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.04 to 0.26 iu/m with Cellulomonas...

  18. Apatite fission-track data from upper Cretaceous formations in the Yuan'an Graben (China): Constraints on the timing of synsedimentary fault activity

    Apatite fission-track signatures of upper Cretaceous Formations in the Yuan'an Graben are made to constraint on the timing of the Yuan'an and Tongchenghe synsedimentary fault activity. The apatite fission-track ages range from 102.0 ± 14.6 to 84.1 ± 3.7 Ma with P(χ2) >0.05; the mean confined track lengths of 14.18 ± 0.09 and 14.16 ± 0.08 μm with mean Dpar values of 2.25 ± 0.02 and 2.26 ± 0.03 μm, respectively. These data are interpreted as dating their source-area exhumation, recording the exhumation and cooling of the footwall during major normal faulting. The results indicate that the timing of the Yuan'an and Tongchenghe synsedimentary fault activity occurred at 117–82 Ma and the intensive movement at 100–82 Ma; the onset time of extension in Jianghan Basin is ca. 117 Ma, which is related to the lithospheric extension associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Asian Plate. - Highlights: ► Apatite fission-track dating is used to constraint on the timing of fault activity. ► The onset time of extension in Jianghan Basin is ca. 117 Ma. ► Combination of AFT and ESR to determine a Graben evolution

  19. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.


    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  20. Fault Diagnosis in Process Control Valve Using Artificial Neural Network

    K. Prabakaran; T. Uma Mageshwari; Prakash, D.; A. Suguna


    As modern process industries become more complex, the importance to detect and identify the faulty operation of pneumatic process control valves is increasing rapidly. The prior detection of faults leads to avoiding the system shutdown, breakdown, raw material damage and etc. The proposed approach for fault diagnosis comprises of two processes such as fault detection and fault isolation. In fault diagnosis, the difference between the system outputs and model outputs called as residuals are us...

  1. Residual Generation Methods for Fault Diagnosis with Automotive Applications

    Svärd, Carl


    The problem of fault diagnosis consists of detecting and isolating faults present in a system. As technical systems become more and more complex and the demands for safety, reliability and environmental friendliness are rising, fault diagnosis is becoming increasingly important. One example is automotive systems, where fault diagnosis is a necessity for low emissions, high safety, high vehicle uptime, and efficient repair and maintenance. One approach to fault diagnosis, providing potentially...

  2. Design of active whole-spacecraft vibration isolation based on voice-coil motor

    Chi, Weichao; Cao, Dengqing; Huang, Wenhu


    In the launching process of a spacecraft, the dynamic environment is very complex, so a vibration isolator is widely used for preventing the spacecraft from being damaged. This paper focused on a whole-spacecraft vibration isolation platform with the purpose of isolating the shock and noise transmitting directly to the spacecraft in the process of launching. The isolator is designed based on a model of circular payload adapter fitting. A voice-coil motor is designed and optimized as the active control actuator to provide proper feedback force to reduce the amplitude of the vibration, and is fixed in the whole-spacecraft vibration isolation platform, with sensors collocated on one side of the voice-coil motor in the vertical direction. The LQR control strategy is designed for the preliminary model of the isolation system in the vertical direction. Numerical simulation results are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed isolation unit consisted of the voicecoil actuators.

  3. Fault-based PSHA of an active tectonic region characterized by low deformation rates: the case of the Lower Rhine Graben

    Vanneste, Kris; Vleminckx, Bart; Camelbeeck, Thierry


    The Lower Rhine Graben (LRG) is one of the few regions in intraplate NW Europe where seismic activity can be linked to active faults, yet probabilistic seismic hazard assessments of this region have hitherto been based on area-source models, in which the LRG is modeled as a single or a small number of seismotectonic zones with uniform seismicity. While fault-based PSHA has become common practice in more active regions of the world (e.g., California, Japan, New Zealand, Italy), knowledge of active faults has been lagging behind in other regions, due to incomplete tectonic inventory, low level of seismicity, lack of systematic fault parameterization, or a combination thereof. The past few years, efforts are increasingly being directed to the inclusion of fault sources in PSHA in these regions as well, in order to predict hazard on a more physically sound basis. In Europe, the EC project SHARE ("Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe", represented an important step forward in this regard. In the frame of this project, we previously compiled the first parameterized fault model for the LRG that can be applied in PSHA. We defined 15 fault sources based on major stepovers, bifurcations, gaps, and important changes in strike, dip direction or slip rate. Based on the available data, we were able to place reasonable bounds on the parameters required for time-independent PSHA: length, width, strike, dip, rake, slip rate, and maximum magnitude. With long-term slip rates remaining below 0.1 mm/yr, the LRG can be classified as a low-deformation-rate structure. Information on recurrence interval and elapsed time since the last major earthquake is lacking for most faults, impeding time-dependent PSHA. We consider different models to construct the magnitude-frequency distribution (MFD) of each fault: a slip-rate constrained form of the classical truncated Gutenberg-Richter MFD (Anderson & Luco, 1983) versus a characteristic MFD following Youngs

  4. Active-Threaded Algorithms for Provenance Cognition in the Cloud preserving Low Overhead and Fault Tolerance

    Imran, Asif; Dey, Emon Kumar; Sakib, Kazi


    Provenance is the derivation history of information about the origin of data and processes. For a highly dynamic system such as the cloud, provenance must be effectively detected to be used as proves to ensure accountability during digital forensic investigations. This paper proposes active-threaded provenance cognition algorithms that ensure effective and high speed detection of provenance information in the activity layer of the cloud. The algorithms also support encapsulation of the proven...

  5. Semi-active variable stiffness vibration control of vehicle seat suspension using an MR elastomer isolator

    This paper presents a study on continuously variable stiffness control of vehicle seat suspension using a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator. A concept design for an MRE isolator is proposed in the paper and its behavior is experimentally evaluated. An integrated seat suspension model, which includes a quarter-car suspension and a seat suspension with a driver body model, is used to design a sub-optimal H∞ controller for an active isolator. The desired control force generated by this active isolator is then emulated by the MRE isolator through its continuously variable stiffness property when the actuating condition is met. The vibration control effect of the MRE isolator is evaluated in terms of driver body acceleration responses under both bump and random road conditions. The results show that the proposed control strategy achieves better vibration reduction performance than conventional on–off control

  6. Active Vibration Isolation System for Sub-microultra-precision Turning Machine


    Now vibration isolation of ultra-precision machine tool is usually achieved through air-springs systems. As far as HCM-I sub-micro turning machine developed by HIT, an active vibration isolation system that consists of air-springs and electro-magnetic actuators was presented. The primary function of air-springs is to support the turning machine and to isolate the high-frequency vibration. The electro-magnetic actuators controlled by fuzzy-neural networks isolate the low-frequency vibration. The experiment indicates that active vibration isolation system isolates base-vibration effectively in all the frequency range. So the vibration of the machine bed is controlled under 10-6g and the surface roughness is improved.

  7. Late Quaternary Range-Front Fault Scarps in the Western Sierra El Mayor, Baja California, Mexico: A Geomorphologic Expression of Slip Across an Active Low-Angle Normal Fault

    Spelz, R. M.; Fletcher, J.; Owen, L.


    The western margin of the Sierra El Mayor (SEM), in northeastern Baja California, is controlled by an active, top-to-the-west, low-angle normal fault named the Canada David detachment (CDD) that accommodates part of the extensional component of shearing between the Pacific and North American plates. The CDD has a length of 60 km and shows a curvilinear trace with two major antiformal and synformal megamullion pairs. Late Quaternary slip has produced a broad array of Quaternary scarps cutting alluvial fans along nearly the entire length of the CDD. Detailed mapping reveals eight regional strath terraces distinguished by surface weathering characteristics, soil profile development and relative elevation. Relative height between terraces increases in domains where the CDD and basin deposits are being uplifted due to either the basinward migration of faulting (e.g., rolling hinge) or flexural uplift in antiformal megamullion domains. Linear diffusion analysis of 46 synthetic fault scarps, with a calculated angle of repose Θo = 28.75°, reveal fault scarp domains exhibiting both multi-modal and unimodal distribution of diffusion ages (kt). Uni-modal domains are typically younger, but there is no systematic variation in scarp age with distance along the CDD. Scarps yielding negative kt ages (i.e. scarps steeper than Θo) are common in the north, near inferred locations of important historic seismic events. Microseismicity drops off significantly adjacent to these very young scarp arrays, which likely reflects a recent post-seismic stress drop. Domains of high seismic risk are identified by high microseismicity and lack of young scarps. Minimum estimates of the diffusivity constant (k) are calculated by coupling scarp diffusion ages and 10Be surface exposure ages of the faulted deposits. In the southernmost SEM a Q6 terrace with a minimum surface exposure age t = 233±6.6 ky (weighted mean of six rock samples) is cut by scarps with an average kt = 11.25±9.31 m2, which

  8. Antiviral Activity of Liquorice Powder Extract against Varicella Zoster Virus Isolated from Egyptian Patients

    Aly F. Mohamed


    Full Text Available Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV is the etiologic agent of two diseases, varicella (chicken pox and zoster (shingles. Varicella is a self- limited infection, while zoster is mainly a disease of adults. The present study was conducted to isolate VZV from clinically diagnosed children using cell cultures and compare the activity of liquorice powder extract, an alternative herbal antiviral agent, with acyclovir and interferon alpha 2a (IFN-α2a against the isolated virus.Methods: Forty-eight VZV specimens, 26 from vesicular aspirates and 22 from vesicular swabs, from children clinically diagnosed with varicella were isolated on the Vero cell line. Isolates were propagated and identified with specific antiserum using indirect immunofluorescence and immunodot blotting assays.The growth kinetics of the viral isolates was studied. The antiviral activity of liquorice powder extract, acyclovir (ACV and IFN-α2a was evaluated against the isolated virus.Results: VZV was successfully isolated in 4 of the 48 specimens, all from vesicular aspirates. The growth kinetics of the viral isolates was time dependent. The inhibitory activity of liquorice powder extract (containing 125 µg/ml glycyrrhizin when compared to ACV (250 µg/ml and IFN-α2a is the lowest.Conclusions: VZV isolates were successfully isolated and propagated using Vero cells. Isolates were identified using indirect immunofluorescent and immunodot blotting techniques. Growth kinetics of the isolates revealed an increase in the viral infectivity titer relative to time. Glycyrrhizin in the crude form has low antiviral activity against VZV compared with acyclovir and interferon.

  9. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts From Marine Streptomyces Isolated From Mangrove Sediments of Tanzania

    Eva Mathias Sosovele; Thomas Jacob Lyimo; Ken Matengo Hosea


    This study was undertaken to isolate Actinomycetes from mangrove sediments of Tanzania and evaluate their potential for production of bioactive metabolites. Starch cacein agar medium was used to isolate the actinomycetes. Extraction of Actinomycetes using ethyl acetate (1:1), afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity test. A total of three isolates (ACTN 1, ACTN 2 and ACTN 3) were obtained by using culture medium selective for Actinom...

  10. Peroxidase Activity in Poplar Inoculated with Compatible and Incompetent Isolates of Paxillus involutus



    Peroxidase activity of the hybrid poplar Populus x canescens (Ait.) Sm. (= P. tremula L. x P. alba L.) inoculated with compatible and incompetent isolates of Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. was investigated. Screening of the ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates was initiated with exploration of mycelial growth characteristics and mycorrhizal ability in vitro with poplar. Both traits varied within the fungus although they did not seem to be genetically correlated. While isolates SCO1, NAU, and 031...

  11. Isolation and characterization of marine-derived actinomycetes with cytotoxic activity from the Red Sea coast

    Mohamed Saleh Abdelfattah; Mohammed Ismail Youssef Elmallah; Usama Wahid Hawas; Lamia Taha Abou El-Kassema; Mennat Allah Gamal Eid


    Objective: To isolate and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of different actinomycetes species isolated from the Red Sea coast in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. Methods: Forty actinomycetes strains were isolated from different sediments and seawater samples collected from the Red Sea coast in Egypt. Actinomycetes were recognized by morphological and microscopic examinations. Cell viability and cytotoxicity induced by the crude extracts on breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 were assessed using meth...

  12. Recent results of seismic isolation study in CRIEPI: Numerical activities

    Development of detailed numerical models of a bearing and the related isolation system Is necessary for establishing the rational design of the bearing and the system. The developed numerical models should be validated regarding the physical parameters and the basic assumption by comparing the experimental results with the numerical ones. The numerical work being conducted in CRIEPI consists of the following items: (1) Simple modeling of the behavior of the bearings capable of approximating the tests on bearings, and the validation of the model for the bearing by comparing the numerical results adopting the models with the shaking table tests results; (2) Detailed three-dimensional modeling of single bearings with finite-element codes, and the experimental validation of the model; (3)Simple and detailed three-dimensional modeling of isolation buildings and experimental validation

  13. A stimulus-activated conductance in isolated taste epithelial membranes.

    Teeter, J H; Brand, J. G.; Kumazawa, T.


    Membrane vesicles isolated from the cutaneous taste epithelium of the catfish were incorporated into phospholipid bilayers on the tips of patch pipettes. Voltage-dependent conductances were observed in approximately 50% of the bilayers and single-channel currents having conductances from 8 to greater than 250 pS were recorded. In 40% of the bilayers displaying no voltage-dependent conductances, micromolar concentrations of L-arginine, a potent stimulus for one class of catfish amino acid tast...

  14. Isolation and characterization of some moderately halophilic bacteria with lipase activity.

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Kazemi, A; Zarrinic, G; Morowvat, M H; Kargar, M


    Lipases are an important class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides and constitute the most prominent group ofbiocatalysts for biotechnological applications. There are a number of lipases, produced by some halophilic microorganisms. In this study, some lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu salt lake located in south of Iran were isolated. All isolates were screened for true lipase activity on plates containing olive oil. The lipase activity was measured using titrimetric methods. Among thirty three isolates, thirteen strains demonstrating orange zone around colonies under UV light, were selected for identification using the molecular methods and some morphological characteristics. The bacterium Bacillus vallismortis BCCS 007 with 3.41 +/- 0.14 U/mL lipase activity was selected as the highest lipase producing isolate. This is the first report of isolation and molecular identification of lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu lake. PMID:22073547

  15. Interaction between slip events, erosion and sedimentation along an active strike-slip fault: Insights from analog models

    Chatton, M.; Malavieille, J.; Dominguez, S.; Manighetti, I.; Romano, C.; Beauprêtre, S.; Garembois, S.; Larroque, C.


    Recovering information on past (i.e., last 102-104 yrs) large earthquakes on faults is a challenge. The classical approach -especially used on strike-slip faults- consists in searching morphological markers such as river channels, streams, alluvial fans, ridges or terrace risers, etc, that would be offset by the fault, and measure these offsets by reconstructing the original position and shape of the markers. Combined with the dating of the offset markers, this morphotectonic paleoseismological approach may provide information on the slips and ages of the most recent earthquakes on the fault under study. Yet, the approach is complex as it depends on the recognition of unambiguous paired markers on either side of the fault. And our capability to recognize similar markers on either side of a fault in turn greatly depends on the 'evolution' that these markers may have sustained subsequently to their very first slip disruption. Did the repeating earthquake slip events modify their surface appearance? Did their morphology and position (ex: burying, destruction, modification, etc) evolve with the sedimentation and erosion that might have occurred during the fault history? Etc. These questions have rarely been approached for they are difficult to address in natural settings. And as we are unable to answer them in the natural cases that we study, the slip reconstructions that we provide are generally uncertain as they are likely based on an incomplete or biased record of the past fault slips. Therefore, the objective of our work is to contribute to better understand and document the nature and 'evolution' of the morphological markers that are commonly used in morphotectonic and paleoseismological analyses, especially along strike-slip faults. We approach these questions experimentally. We have developed an original experimental set-up made to simulate repeated slip events on a strike-slip fault placed in a wet environment sustaining sedimentation and erosion. The fault

  16. Isolation, identification, and activity in vitro of killer yeasts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from tropical fruits.

    de Lima, Jaqueline Rabelo; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros; Brandão, Luciana Rocha; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Viana, Francisco Marto Pinto


    A total of 580 yeasts strains, isolated from Ceara State of Brasil, were evaluated for their ability to produce killer toxin. Of these strains, 29 tested positive for the killer phenotype and were further evaluated for their ability to control Colletotrichum gloeosporioides germination in vitro. All yeast strains that expressed the killer phenotype were characterized by sequencing the D1/D2 regions of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Five yeast strains provided a significant reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides in vitro, especially Meyerozyma guilliermondii, which was able to reduce the fungal mycelial growth on solid medium (potato dextrose agar (PDA)) by 60% and block 100% of conidia germination in liquid media (potato dextrose broth (PDB)). Filtering and autoclaving the liquid cultures had no effect on the growth of the pathogen. These results indicate the potential use of antagonist yeasts isolated from tropical fruits in the control of anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides in papaya. Further elucidation of main mechanisms involved on anthracnose control by these yeasts could be helpful for the development of biocontrol techniques related to the management of this disease in tropical fruits. PMID:22915228

  17. Halotolerant ability and α-amylase activity of some saltwater fungal isolates

    Niknejad, F.; Moshfegh, M.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Houbraken, J.; Rezaei, S.; Zarrini, G.; Faramarzi, M.A.; Nafissi-Varcheh, N.


    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and α-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the β-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (iso

  18. Formation of MOS-transistors with isolation of active elements by oxiden porous silicon

    Novosyadlyi S. P.


    Full Text Available The superthin functional layers of MOS-transistors require qualitative isolation of active elements. The new method of formation of epitaksial structures for technology «silicon - on-isolator» is offered on the basis of porous silicon. It will allow to form three kinds of transistors — bipolar, SМОS, DМОS.

  19. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups.

    Hrv, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna; Kandi, Venkataramana


    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  20. Molecular characterization and antiviral activity test of common drugs against echovirus 18 isolated in Korea

    Park KwiSung; Yeo SangGu; Baek KyoungAh; Cheon DooSung; Choi YoungJin; Park JoonSoo; Lee SooJin


    Abstract Genetic diversity and antiviral activity for five common antiviral drugs of echovirus (ECV) 5 isolated in Korea have been described. The present study extended these tests to a Korean ECV 18 isolate. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis caused by the ECV 18 isolate was reported in Korea in 2005, marking the first time this virus had been identified in the country since enterovirus surveillance began in 1993. Using a sample isolated from stool specimen of a 5-year-old male patient with a...

  1. Isolation and characterization of pigmented bacteria showing antimicrobial activity from Malaysian marine environment

    Ahmad, A.


    Full Text Available Aims: Natural products play a prominent role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs in the treatment ofhuman diseases. Much of nature remains to be explored, especially marine and microbial environments.Methodology and results: Fifty-five pigmented marine bacteria were isolated from sponges, seawater, mangrovesediment, sea cucumber and mussel from different coastal area of Malaysia. The antimicrobial activities of thesebacteria were investigated by disk diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria. Out of 55 isolates, 18 isolates exhibitedantimicrobial activity, which based on morphological characterization, 53% of them were Gram positive and 47% wereGram negative. All active isolates were able to tolerate more than 4% NaCl in the nutrient agar medium that indicatedthey were autochthonous to marine environment and moderate salt tolerant in nature. Molecular identification of isolatesby the strong antimicrobial activities indicates that isolates WPRA3 (JX020764 and SM11-3j belong to genus Serratiaand isolate SDPM1 (JQ083392 belongs to genus Zooshikella.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of present study revealed that the active isolates arepotential producer of antimicrobial secondary metabolites and might be utilized as drug candidate.

  2. Structural design of active seismic isolation floor with a charging function

    Nakakoji, Hayato; Miura, Nanako


    This study shows an optimum structure of a seismic isolation floor against horizontal ground motions. Although a seismic isolation floor is effective with vibration reduction, the response of the floor becomes larger when excited by long-period ground motions. It is shown that caster equipment move and suffer damage in a seismic isolation structure by an experiment. Moreover, the permissible displacement of the floor is limited. Therefore, the focus is on an active seismic isolation. About active control, the system cannot operate without power supply. To solve these problems an energy regeneration is considered in our previous study. These studies only analyze simple model and did not choose the suitable structure for active control and energy regeneration. This research propose a new structure which has regenerated energy exceeds the energy required for the active control by numerical simulation.

  3. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Halina Borecka


    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  4. Shallow subsurface imaging of the Piano di Pezza active normal fault (central Italy) by high-resolution refraction and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time-domain electromagnetic data

    Villani, Fabio; Tulliani, Valerio; Sapia, Vincenzo; Fierro, Elisa; Civico, Riccardo; Pantosti, Daniela


    The Piano di Pezza fault is the central section of the 35 km long L'Aquila-Celano active normal fault-system in the central Apennines of Italy. Although palaeoseismic data document high Holocene vertical slip rates (˜1 mm yr-1) and a remarkable seismogenic potential of this fault, its subsurface setting and Pleistocene cumulative displacement are still poorly known. We investigated for the first time the shallow subsurface of a key section of the main Piano di Pezza fault splay by means of high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time-domain electromagnetic soundings (TDEM). Our surveys cross a ˜5-m-high fault scarp that was generated by repeated surface-rupturing earthquakes displacing Holocene alluvial fans. We provide 2-D Vp and resistivity images, which show significant details of the fault structure and the geometry of the shallow basin infill material down to 50 m depth. Our data indicate that the upper fault termination has a sub-vertical attitude, in agreement with palaeoseismological trench evidence, whereas it dips ˜50° to the southwest in the deeper part. We recognize some low-velocity/low-resistivity regions in the fault hangingwall that we relate to packages of colluvial wedges derived from scarp degradation, which may represent the record of some Holocene palaeo-earthquakes. We estimate a ˜13-15 m throw of this fault splay since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (˜18 ka), leading to a 0.7-0.8 mm yr-1 throw rate that is quite in accordance with previous palaeoseismic estimation of Holocene vertical slip rates. The 1-D resistivity models from TDEM soundings collected along the trace of the electrical profile significantly match with 2-D resistivity images. Moreover, they indicate that in the fault hangingwall, ˜200 m away from the surface fault trace, the pre-Quaternary carbonate basement is at ˜90-100 m depth. We therefore provide a minimal ˜150-160 m estimate of the cumulative throw of the Piano di Pezza

  5. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic Myrothecium spp. isolated from Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella.

    Ruma, Karmakar; Sunil, Kumar; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy


    Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella, medicinal plants are endemic to Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Sixteen Myrothecium isolates were obtained from the tissues of bark and twigs of these plants. The purpose of this study was to explore the antimicrobial activity and genetic variability of the endophytic Myrothecium isolates. The antimicrobial activity as well as the genetic diversity of endophytic Myrothecium species was investigated through RAPD, ISSR and ITS sequence analysis. Myrothecium isolates were genotypically compared by RAPD and ISSR techniques, 510 and 189 reproducible polymorphic bands were obtained using 20 RAPD and ten ISSR primers respectively. The isolates grouped into four main clades and subgroups using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis. rDNA ITS sequence analysis presented better resolution for characterising the isolates of Myrothecium spp. The clustering patterns of the isolates were almost similar when compared with RAPD and ISSR dendograms. The results signify that RAPD, ISSR and ITS analysis can be employed to distinguish the genetic diversity of the Myrothecium species. The endophytic and pathogenic strains were compared by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour joining methods. One isolate (JX862206) amongst the 16 Myrothecium isolates exhibited potent antibacterial and as well as anti-Candida activity. PMID:26409457

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Cell Free Supernatant of Irradiated Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolates

    Attempts were made to isolate bio preservatives using food wastes with no value and low cost. Whey is the raw material achieved that value. Whey and many other food wastes are used in our study to isolate Lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Cell free supernatants (CFS) of isolates are used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains. CFS-9 isolate from whey has the highest inhibitory activity compared to all other isolates. The inhibitory activity of CFS-9, Nisin (400 IU / ml) and the standard Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. Lactis ATCC 11454 (Lacto) were determined. Furthermore, isolate-9 and Lacto strains were exposed to irradiation at different doses. The inhibition zones of; control isolate-9 (non-irradiated) showed the highest values against all indicator strains, CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 250 Gy was the highest value against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli compared to other irradiation treatments, CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 100 Gy was the highest value against Staph aureus, while the inhibition zone was in the highest value in CFS of irradiated Lacto at dose 500 Gy against Salmonella typhimurium. Nisin (400 IU / ml) was significantly higher than all CFS of irradiated isolate-9 while, the inhibition zones of all CFS-Lacto (irradiated and nonirradiated) are better and higher than nisin-400

  7. Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.

    Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P


    From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup. PMID:19150368

  8. The role of active efflux in antibiotic - resistance of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    Falsafi T


    Full Text Available Purpose: In gram-negative bacteria, active efflux pumps that excrete drugs can confer resistance to antibiotics however, in Helicobacter pylori this role is not well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of active efflux in resistance of H. pylori isolates to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Twelve multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR isolates resistant to at least four antibiotics, including β-lactams, metronidazole, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin; three resistant to only β-lactams, and two hyper-susceptible isolates, were obtained from screening of 96 clinical isolates of H. pylori . Their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for antibiotics and ethidium-bromide (EtBr were compared in the presence- and absence of a proton-conductor, carbonyl cyanide-m chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP using agar-dilution and disc diffusion. Drug accumulation studies for EtBr and antibiotics were assessed in the presence and absence of CCCP using spectrofluorometry. Results: MIC of EtBr for eight MAR-isolates was decreased two- to four-folds in the presence of CCCP, of which five showed reduced MICs for β-lactam, metronidazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin with CCCP. Accumulation of EtBr by the MAR-isolates was rapid and not dependant on the pattern of multiple resistance. Antibiotic accumulation assay confirmed the presence of energy-dependant efflux of β-lactam, metronidazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin, but no erythromycin in five MAR isolates. Energy-dependant efflux of EtBr or antibiotics was not observed for four MAR-isolates, and three isolates were resistant only to β-lactams. Conclusion: Energy-dependant efflux plays a role in the resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates to structurally unrelated antibiotics in a broadly specific multidrug efflux manner. Difference in the efflux potential of MAR isolates may be related to the presence or absence of functional efflux-pumps in diverse H. pylori

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated From the Fruits of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth

    AT Tchinda; GA Agbor; DE Tsala; AJG Yaya; EN Nga; Talla, E.; J-N Wauters; M Frédérich


    The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the different flavonoids of the fruits of Xylopia parviflora used in Cameroon as spice in common traditional dishes. The fruits were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. The isolation of flavonoids was guided by the DPPH-TLC technique. The methanol crude extract and isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using DPPH radical-scavenging, β-carotene/linoleic acid and ferric reducin...

  10. Isolation of a New Mexican Strain of Bacillus subtilis with Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities

    M. G. L. Basurto-Cadena; M. Vázquez-Arista; García-Jiménez, J.; Salcedo-Hernández, R.; Bideshi, D. K.; Barboza-Corona, J. E.


    Although several strains of B. subtilis with antifungal activity have been isolated worldwide, to date there are no published reports regarding the isolation of a native B. subtilis strain from strawberry plants in Mexico. A native bacterium (Bacillus subtilis 21) demonstrated in vitro antagonistic activity against different plant pathogenic fungi. Under greenhouse conditions, it was shown that plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium verticillioides and treated with B. subtilis 2...

  11. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    Seung-Bae Lee


    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV) and sweet bee venom (SBV) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed by ...

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Twenty Iranian Plant Extracts Against Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    Farahnaz Nariman; Fereshteh Eftekhar; Zohreh Habibi; Sadegh Massarrat; Reza Malekzadeh


    Objective(s)Due to increasing emergence of drug-resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates, traditional plants arepotentially valuable sources of novel anti-H. pylori agents. In this research, anti-H. pylori activity of theorganic extracts of twenty native Iranian plants was determined against ten clinical isolates of H. pylori.Materials and MethodsDisc diffusion was used to determine the biological activity of 20 plant extracts as well as 8 antibioticscommonly used to treat H. pylori infecti...

  13. Novel Antibacterial Activity of Lactococcus Lactis Subspecies Lactis Z11 Isolated from Zabady

    Enan, Gamal; Abdel-Shafi, Seham; Ouda, Sahar; Negm, Sally


    The purpose of this study was to select and characterize a probiotic bacterium with distinctive antimicrobial activities. In this respect, Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis Z11 (L. lactis Z11) isolated from Zabady (Arabian yoghurt) inhibited other strains of lactic acid bacteria and some food-born pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of cell free supernatant (CFS) of L. lactis Z11 isolated from zabady was lost by pro...

  14. Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn

    Pandey Nidhi; Tripathi Yamini B


    Abstract Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone)....

  15. Fault trees

    Fault trees are a method of deductive analysis and a means of graphic representation of the reliability and security of systems. The principles of the method are set out and the main points illustrated by many examples of electrical systems, fluids, and mechanical systems as well as everyday occurrences. In addition, some advice is given on the use of the method

  16. Machine Fault Signature Analysis

    Mulchandani, K. B.; A.K. Wadhwani; Pratesh Jayaswal


    The objective of this paper is to present recent developments in the field of machine fault signature analysis with particular regard to vibration analysis. The different types of faults that can be identified from the vibration signature analysis are, for example, gear fault, rolling contact bearing fault, journal bearing fault, flexible coupling faults, and electrical machine fault. It is not the intention of the authors to attempt to provide a detailed coverage of all the faults while deta...

  17. Shifts of the head of Zhengguo canal dug in Qin dynasty and recent activity of the fault on north margin of the Weihe downfaulted basin

    Yi, Xuefa; Shi, Yaqin


    Vertical differential movement rates of the fault on north margin of the Weihe downfaulted basin in recent 2000 years are analyzed by using the data of shifts of the head of Zhengguo canal, dug in Qin dynasty and the data of burial depths of historical relics and the data of levelling. The results show that in Ming dynasty this fault experienced the highest differential up-and-down movement, about 6.6 mm/a, while the rate became lower since Qing dynasty, about 2.6 mm/a. The high rate activity coincided with the period of high seismic activity in the Weihe downfaulted basin in the 15 16th centuries.

  18. Antimicrobial and antileishmanial activities of diterpenoids isolated from the roots of Salvia deserta

    Four diterpenes with biological activity were isolated from Salvia deserta roots. Taxodione was considered leishmanicidal, with IC50 value of 0.46 µg/mL against Leishimania donovani and also exhibited antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Ferruginol displayed the greatest activity (24-h IC50 1.29...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of extracellular metabolites from antagonistic bacteria isolated from potato (Solanum phureja) crops

    Sinar David Granada García; Antoni Rueda Lorza; Carlos Alberto Peláez


    Microorganisms for biological control are capable of producing active compounds that inhibit the development of phytopathogens, constituting a promising tool toob tain active principles that could replace synthetic pesticides. This study evaluatedtheability of severalpotentialbiocontrol microorganismsto produce active extracellular metabolites. In vitro antagonistic capability of 50 bacterial isolates from rhizospheric soils of "criolla" potato (Solanum phureja) was tested through dual cultur...

  20. Norm based design of fault detectors

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the...

  1. InSAR Evidence for an active shallow thrust fault beneath the city of Spokane Washington, USA

    Wicks, Charles W., Jr.; Weaver, Craig S.; Bodin, Paul; Sherrod, Brian


    In 2001, a nearly five month long sequence of shallow, mostly small magnitude earthquakes occurred beneath the city of Spokane, a city with a population of about 200,000, in the state of Washington. During most of the sequence, the earthquakes were not well located because seismic instrumentation was sparse. Despite poor-quality locations, the earthquake hypocenters were likely very shallow, because residents near the city center both heard and felt many of the earthquakes. The combination of poor earthquake locations and a lack of known surface faults with recent movement make assessing the seismic hazards related to the earthquake swarm difficult. However, the potential for destruction from a shallow moderate-sized earthquake is high, for example Christchurch New Zealand in 2011, so assessing the hazard potential of a seismic structure involved in the Spokane earthquake sequence is important. Using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the European Space Agency ERS2 and ENVISAT satellites and the Canadian Space Agency RADARSAT-1, satellite we are able to show that slip on a shallow previously unknown thrust fault, which we name the Spokane Fault, is the source of the earthquake sequence. The part of the Spokane Fault that slipped during the 2001 earthquake sequence underlies the north part of the city, and slip on the fault was concentrated between ~0.3 and 2 km depth. Projecting the buried fault plane to the surface gives a possible surface trace for the Spokane Fault that strikes northeast from the city center into north Spokane.

  2. Quorum Sensing Activity of Hafnia alvei Isolated from Packed Food

    Jia-Yi Tan


    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1 from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei.

  3. Quorum Sensing Activity of Enterobacter asburiae Isolated from Lettuce Leaves

    Kok-Gan Chan


    Full Text Available Bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS is achieved via sensing of QS signaling molecules consisting of oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL in most Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Batavia lettuce were screened for AHL production. Enterobacter asburiae, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS was found to produce short chain AHLs. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis of the E. asburiae spent supernatant confirmed the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL and N–hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL production by E. asburiae.

  4. Fault deformation mechanisms and fault rocks in micritic limestones: Examples from Corinth rift normal faults

    Bussolotto, M.; Benedicto, A.; Moen-Maurel, L.; Invernizzi, C.


    A multidisciplinary study investigates the influence of different parameters on fault rock architecture development along normal faults affecting non-porous carbonates of the Corinth rift southern margin. Here, some fault systems cut the same carbonate unit (Pindus), and the gradual and fast uplift since the initiation of the rift led to the exhumation of deep parts of the older faults. This exceptional context allows superficial active fault zones and old exhumed fault zones to be compared. Our approach includes field studies, micro-structural (optical microscope and cathodoluminescence), geochemical analyses (δ13C, δ18O, trace elements) and fluid inclusions microthermometry of calcite sin-kinematic cements. Our main results, in a depth-window ranging from 0 m to about 2500 m, are: i) all cements precipitated from meteoric fluids in a close or open circulation system depending on depth; ii) depth (in terms of P/T condition) determines the development of some structures and their sealing; iii) lithology (marly levels) influences the type of structures and its cohesive/non-cohesive nature; iv) early distributed rather than final total displacement along the main fault plane is the responsible for the fault zone architecture; v) petrophysical properties of each fault zone depend on the variable combination of these factors.

  5. Characterization and lytic activity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA phages isolated from NICU

    Golnar Rahimzadeh


    Full Text Available Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a well-known pathogen that causes serious diseases in humans. As part of the efforts to control this pathogen, an isolated bacteriophage, Siphoviridae, which specifically targets Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, was characterized. Aims The objective of this study was to characterize of a virulent bacteriophage (Siphoviridae isolated from a NICU bathroom sink. Methods The MRSA strain was isolated from patient blood. The isolated strain was confirmed as MRSA using conventional methods. Phages were isolated from a NICU bathroom sink and activity was lytic as determined by spot test. Titer phage lysate was measured by the Double Layer Agar (DLA technique. The morphology was found with electron microscopy. The single-step growth curve was plotted. Results Electron microscopy showed the phage as a member of the family Siphoviridae, serogroup A and F. The isolated phage was capable of lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain as shown by spot test. By DLA, the titre of the phages was determined to be 10×108PFU/ml. The single-step growth curve showed that the latent period of the isolated bacteriophage was 30 min and the total number of viable progeny per infected host, burst size, was 2600 PFU/infected host. Conclusion In this study, two phages were isolated and characterized from a NICU bathroom sink, from the Siphoviridae family, which specifically targetsmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

  6. Tectonic Geomorphology and 36Cl geochronology of the Camardi Alluvial Fan Complex, Central Anatolia: Implications for Neotectonic activity of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ)

    Higgins, M.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Gosse, J. C.


    Situated between an extensional province to the west and younger, compressional forces to the east, the significance of internal deformation within Central Anatolia, and particularly the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, remains poorly understood. The CAFZ, which records approximately 70+/- 10km of Cenozoic sinistral displacement, was initially described as an active, NE trending, 700km long, major intra-plate shear zone. However, the Cenozoic evolution of the CAFZ and its relevance to the modern tectonic setting of Anatolia are the subject of debate, and the kinematics, geometry and activity levels of the CAFZ remain both poorly documented and understood. The aim of this study is to constrain the extrusion related, neotectonic portion of this total displacement using methods unavailable to previous studies of the area: Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide (TCN) geochronology and newly acquired high-resolution satellite imagery. Focusing on a tectonically offset alluvial fan complex, we apply In situ TCN 36Cl exposure dating to produce new geochronologically constrained quaternary slip rates for the southern, Ecemis Segment of the CAFZ. A combination of field observations, high precision GPS based fault scarp profiles and mapping on high-resolution satellite images are used to document offset geomorphic markers including: deflected streams, terrace edges and shutter ridges. These features show sinistral and normal displacement of 60 and 18 m respectively in the older alluvial surface. Determining the ages of this faulted surface, as well as a younger un-deformed alluvial surface using TCN, will yield a minimum quaternary slip-rate. Additionally, morphological characteristics of 25 drainage basins along the Ecemis Fault are determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM)data. Key geomorphic indices include: hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry and the valley width-to-height ratio (Vf). The results suggest the morphology of these drainage basins is influenced by the recent

  7. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Paul Schnitzler; Jürgen Reichling; Akram Astani


    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infectio...

  8. Lantibiotics biosynthesis genes and bacteriocinogenic activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from raw milk and cheese.

    Perin, Luana Martins; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Silva, Abelardo; Nero, Luís Augusto


    Lactobacillus species are usually used as starters for the production of fermented products, and some strains are capable of producing antimicrobial substances, such as bacteriocins. Because these characteristics are highly desirable, research are continually being performed for novel Lactobacillus strains with bacteriocinogenic potential for use by food industries. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacteriocinogenic potential and activity of Lactobacillus isolates. From a lactic acid bacteria culture collection obtained from raw milk and cheese, 27 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus spp. and selected for the detection of lantibiotics biosynthesis genes, bacteriocin production, antimicrobial spectra, and ideal incubation conditions for bacteriocin production. Based on the obtained results, 21 isolates presented at least one of the three lantibiotics biosynthesis genes (lanB, lanC or lamM), and 23 isolates also produced antimicrobial substances with sensitivity to at least one proteinase, indicating their bacteriocinogenic activity. In general, the isolates had broad inhibitory activity, mainly against Listeria spp. and Staphylococcus spp. strains, and the best antimicrobial performance of the isolates occurred when they were cultivated at 25 °C for 24 or 48 h or at 35 °C for 12 h. The present study identified the bacteriocinogenic potential of Lactobacillus isolates obtained from raw milk and cheese, suggesting their potential use as biopreservatives in foods. PMID:22447149

  9. New insights into fault activation and stress transfer between en echelon thrusts: The 2012 Emilia, Northern Italy, earthquake sequence

    Cheloni, D.; Giuliani, R.; D'Agostino, N.; Mattone, M.; Bonano, M.; Fornaro, G.; Lanari, R.; Reale, D.; Atzori, S.


    Here we present the results of the inversion of a new geodetic data set covering the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence and the following 1 year of postseismic deformation. Modeling of the geodetic data together with the use of a catalog of 3-D relocated aftershocks allows us to constrain the rupture geometries and the coseismic and postseismic slip distributions for the two main events (Mw 6.1 and 6.0) of the sequence and to explore how these thrust events have interacted with each other. Dislocation modeling reveals that the first event ruptured a slip patch located in the center of the Middle Ferrara thrust with up to 1 m of reverse slip. The modeling of the second event, located about 15 km to the southwest, indicates a main patch with up to 60 cm of slip initiated in the deeper and flatter portion of the Mirandola thrust and progressively propagated postseismically toward the top section of the rupture plane, where most of the aftershocks and afterslip occurred. Our results also indicate that between the two main events, a third thrust segment was activated releasing a pulse of aseismic slip equivalent to a Mw 5.8 event. Coulomb stress changes suggest that the aseismic event was likely triggered by the preceding main shock and that the aseismic slip event probably brought the second fault closer to failure. Our findings show significant correlations between static stress changes and seismicity and suggest that stress interaction between earthquakes plays a significant role among continental en echelon thrusts.

  10. Fault detection using (PI) observers

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.; Shafai, B.

    The fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem in connection with Proportional Integral (PI) Observers is considered in this paper. A compact formulation of the FDI design problem using PI observers is given. An analysis of the FDI design problem is derived with respectt to the time domain...... properties. A method for design of PI observers applied to FDI is given....

  11. Isolated HIV-1 core is active for reverse transcription

    Harrich David


    Full Text Available Abstract Whether purified HIV-1 virion cores are capable of reverse transcription or require uncoating to be activated is currently controversial. To address this question we purified cores from a virus culture and tested for the ability to generate authentic reverse transcription products. A dense fraction (approximately 1.28 g/ml prepared without detergent, possibly derived from disrupted virions, was found to naturally occur as a minor sub-fraction in our preparations. Core-like particles were identified in this active fraction by electron microscopy. We are the first to report the detection of authentic strong-stop, first-strand transfer and full-length minus strand products in this core fraction without requirement for an uncoating activity.

  12. Isolated HIV-1 core is active for reverse transcription.

    Warrilow, David; Stenzel, Deborah; Harrich, David


    Whether purified HIV-1 virion cores are capable of reverse transcription or require uncoating to be activated is currently controversial. To address this question we purified cores from a virus culture and tested for the ability to generate authentic reverse transcription products. A dense fraction (approximately 1.28 g/ml) prepared without detergent, possibly derived from disrupted virions, was found to naturally occur as a minor sub-fraction in our preparations. Core-like particles were identified in this active fraction by electron microscopy. We are the first to report the detection of authentic strong-stop, first-strand transfer and full-length minus strand products in this core fraction without requirement for an uncoating activity. PMID:17956635

  13. Architecture of small-scale fault zones in the context of the Leinetalgraben Fault System

    Reyer, Dorothea; Philipp, Sonja L.


    local stress field so that it stops many joints. Well developed fracture networks are therefore in most cases limited to single layers. From the data we finally determined the structural indices of the fault zones, that is, the ratios of damage zone and fault zone widths. By their nature structural indices can obtain values from 0 to 1; the values having implications for fault zone permeability. An ideal value of 0 would mean that a fault damage zone is absent. Such fault zones generally have low permeabilities as long as the faults are not active (slipping). A structural index of 1, however, would imply that there is practically no fault core and the fault zone permeability is entirely controlled by the fractures within the damage zone. Our measurements show that the damage zones of normal faults in the Muschelkalk limestone are relatively thick so that their structural indices are relatively high. In contrast to normal faults, reverse and strike-slip faults have smaller indices because of well developed brecciated fault cores. In addition we found that small-scale fault zones with parallel orientations to the major Leinetalgraben fault zones are more likely to have well developed damage zones than those with conjugate or perpendicular orientation. Our field data lead to the hypothesis that fault systems in the North German Basin may generally be surrounded by small-scale fault zones which have high permeabilities if orientated parallel to the major fault and lower permeabilities if conjugate or perpendicularly orientated. However, further studies of fault systems in different geological settings are needed to support or reject this hypothesis. Such studies help to improve the general understanding of fault zones and fault systems and thereby minimise the risk in matters of the exploitation of fault-related geothermal reservoirs.

  14. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C


    We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot......-forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...

  15. Screening of xylanase activity of Streptomyces albidoflavus PSM-3n isolated from Uttarakhand

    Pushpendra Sharma


    Full Text Available Background: Awareness towards the environmental pollution had made the evolution of green technology by which enzymes got special attention in industries. The enzymes replaced chemical catalysts in manufacturing various chemicals, agricultural and pharmaceutical products. Material and methods: Actinomycetes were isolated and screened for their ability to produce xylanase. For the most promising isolate, selection of media, effect of pH, temperature, metal ions, and detergents on enzyme production and activity was studied. Results: Out of 29 isolates, 22 isolates showed xylanase activity. Out of 22 xylanase producing isolate, 05 isolates were selected for secondary screening on the basis of their clear zone size. The most promising isolate PSM-3n was identified as Streptomyces albidoflavus. It produces maximum enzyme (xylanase in media Horikoshi and Ikura having carbon and nitrogen sources as oat meal and urea respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme production was 4.0 and 45°C respectively. The enzyme activity was found maximum at temperature 50°C and enhanced in the presence of Fe3+ ions. There was a reduction in the enzyme activity in the presence of detergents like SDS, tween-20 and tween-80. The enzyme was fairly stable at 50°C for 1 h. Conclusion: The enzyme produced by the isolate PSM-3n is fairly heat stable and highly acid stable. The activity of the enzyme was increased in presence of Fe3+ ions while decreased in presence of SDS. Therefore, further studies are required for purification of xylanase for its application potential in pulp bioleaching processes and in the functional food industry.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    Seung-Bae Lee


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto


    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients. PMID:27305898

  18. Determination of the cellulolytic activities of microorganisms isolated from poultry litter for sawdust degradation

    Akpomie O.OF


    Full Text Available Cellulolytic activities of bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from poultry droppings were determined using the ability of each isolate to produce clear zones on Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose Agar plates. The bacterial isolates were Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Celulomonas, Escherichia coli and Micrococus species. The cellulolytic counts ranged from 5.02 x 104 + 3.42 to 7.20 x 109 + 6.12 cfu/g. The cellulolytic activities of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.04 to 0.26 iu/m with Cellulomonas having the highest cellulose activity. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Trichoderma sp. and Penicllium chrysogenum with cellulose activities of 0.24 + 0.021 0.19 + 0.031, 0.23 + 0.05 and 0.23 + 0.028iu/ml respectively. All the isolates were able to degrade the sawdust to varying extent. The percentage degradation was highest with Micrococcus sp. (78.20% and least with Trichoderma sp. (65.83%. The study shows that is a potential source of cellulolytic microorganisms which could be employed in the degradation of sawdust.

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of panduratin A against enterococci clinical isolates.

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Han, Sunghwa; Yong, Dongeun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan


    Panduratin A, a natural chalcone compound isolated from the rhizome of fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) MANSF. A). The antibacterial activity of panduratin A against clinical enterococci isolates was compared in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) to those of commonly used antimicrobials, according to the CLSI guidelines. Time-kill curves were constructed to assess the concentration between MIC and bactericidal activity of panduratin A at concentrations ranging from 0x MIC to 4x MIC. The activity of panduratin A against biofilm-producing enterococcal strains was also evaluated. The growth of all clinical enterococci isolates (n=23) were inhibited by panduratin A at a concentration of 2 microg/ml. Panduratin A was able to kill all clinical enterococci isolates with a MBC of 8 microg/ml. The time-kill curves demonstrated that the bactericidal endpoint for clinical enterococci was reached after 30 min of incubation at a panduratin A concentration of 4x MIC. The growth of biofilm-producing enterococcal strains can be inhibited and eradicated by panduratin A at concentrations of antibacterial activity of panduratin A against all clinical enterococci isolates was generally more potent than commonly used antimicrobials. Panduratin A has stronger activity against biofilm-producing enterococcal strains than daptomycin and linezolid. Panduratin A is an antimicrobial agent with high in vitro activity against clinical enterococci, including organisms resistant to other antimicrobials. PMID:20823562

  20. New insights on the seismogenic potential of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (SE Iberia): Quaternary activity and paleoseismicity of the SW segment of the Carrascoy Fault Zone

    Martín-Banda, Raquel; García-Mayordomo, Julián.; Insua-Arévalo, Juan M.; Salazar, Ángel E.; Rodríguez-Escudero, Emilio; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose A.; Medialdea, Alicia; Herrero, María. J.


    The Carrascoy Fault (CAF) is one of the main active faults that form part of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, a 450 km fault system that accommodates most of the convergence between the Eurasian (Iberia) and Nubian plates in the Betic Cordillera, south Spain. Although the CAF represents a major earthquake threat to the nearby City of Murcia, studies on its Quaternary tectonics and seismogenic potential are scarce to date. We present evidence that supports the division of the CAF into two overlapping segments with contrasting tectonic structure, Quaternary activity, and landform control: a SW segment, characterized by a broad fold-and-thrust zone similar to the forebergs defined in the Gobi-Altai region, and a NE segment, characterized by a sharp mountain front controlled by strike-slip tectonics. We attribute the differentiation into these two segments to the stresses associated with topography, which in turn is a consequence of the shortening component, at the middle Pleistocene, after circa 217.4 ka. For the SW segment we infer the occurrence of 9 to 11, Mw 6.7 paleoearthquakes in the last 30.2 kyr, and a slip rate of 0.37 ± 0.08 m/kyr. We date the occurrence of the last surface rupture event after 2750 B.P., and we estimate an average recurrence period of major events of 3.3 ± 0.7 kyr.