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Sample records for active disassembly balance

  1. Pressure-sensitive fasteners for active disassembly

    PEETERS Jef; Van den Bossche, Wannes; Devoldere, Tom; Vanegas, Paul; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a number of novel active fasteners developed to significantly lower disassembly costs during reconditioning, remanufacturing, and recycling of products. In the initial stage of the fastener development process, the applicability of distinct trigger signals for active disassembly (AD) is evaluated. Based on this evaluation, the high robustness of using a pressure increase or decrease as a nondestructive trigger for AD is demonstrated. Since previously ...

  2. Disassembly

    McLellen, Todd

    2012-01-01

    My interest in the real has always been present and I try to mix my work with that. In my series disassembly, I have used old items that are no longer used by the masses and often found on the street curbs heading for disposal. All of the items in the photographs were in working order. The interesting part was the fact that they were all so well built, and most likely put together by hand. I envisioned all the enjoyment these pieces had given many people for many years, all to be replaced by ...

  3. Nek2 activation of Kif24 ensures cilium disassembly during the cell cycle.

    Kim, Sehyun; Lee, Kwanwoo; Choi, Jung-Hwan; Ringstad, Niels; Dynlacht, Brian David

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins are known to promote ciliogenesis, but mechanisms that promote primary cilia disassembly before mitosis are largely unknown. Here we identify a mechanism that favours cilium disassembly and maintains the disassembled state. We show that co-localization of the S/G2 phase kinase, Nek2 and Kif24 triggers Kif24 phosphorylation, inhibiting cilia formation. We show that Kif24, a microtubule depolymerizing kinesin, is phosphorylated by Nek2, which stimulates its activity and prevents the outgrowth of cilia in proliferating cells, independent of Aurora A and HDAC6. Our data also suggest that cilium assembly and disassembly are in dynamic equilibrium, but Nek2 and Kif24 can shift the balance toward disassembly. Further, Nek2 and Kif24 are overexpressed in breast cancer cells, and ablation of these proteins restores ciliation in these cells, thereby reducing proliferation. Thus, Kif24 is a physiological substrate of Nek2, which regulates cilia disassembly through a concerted mechanism involving Kif24-mediated microtubule depolymerization. PMID:26290419

  4. Pit disassembly and conversion demonstration environmental assessment and research and development activities

    A significant portion of the surplus plutonium is in the form of pits, a nuclear weapons component. Pits are composed of plutonium which is sealed in a metallic shell. These pits would need to be safely disassembled and permanently converted to an unclassified form that would be suitable for long-term disposition and international inspection. To determine the feasibility of an integrated pit disassembly and conversion system, a Pit Disassembly and Conversion Demonstration is proposed to take place at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This demonstration would be done in existing buildings and facilities, and would involve the disassembly of up to 250 pits and conversion of the recovered plutonium to plutonium metal ingots and plutonium dioxide. This demonstration also includes the conversion of up to 80 kilograms of clean plutonium metal to plutonium dioxide because, as part of the disposition process, some surplus plutonium metal may be converted to plutonium dioxide in the same facility as the surplus pits. The equipment to be used for the proposed demonstration addressed in this EA would use some parts of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) capability, other existing equipment/capacities, plus new equipment that was developed at other sites. In addition, small-scale R and D activities are currently underway as part of the overall surplus plutonium disposition program. These R and D activities are related to pit disassembly and conversion, MOX fuel fabrication, and immobilization (in glass and ceramic forms). They are described in Section 7.0. On May 16, 1997, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) notified potentially affected states and tribes that this EA would be prepared in accordance with NEPA. This EA has been prepared to provide sufficient information for DOE to determine whether a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is warranted or whether an EIS must be prepared

  5. Pit disassembly and conversion demonstration environmental assessment and research and development activities

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    A significant portion of the surplus plutonium is in the form of pits, a nuclear weapons component. Pits are composed of plutonium which is sealed in a metallic shell. These pits would need to be safely disassembled and permanently converted to an unclassified form that would be suitable for long-term disposition and international inspection. To determine the feasibility of an integrated pit disassembly and conversion system, a Pit Disassembly and Conversion Demonstration is proposed to take place at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This demonstration would be done in existing buildings and facilities, and would involve the disassembly of up to 250 pits and conversion of the recovered plutonium to plutonium metal ingots and plutonium dioxide. This demonstration also includes the conversion of up to 80 kilograms of clean plutonium metal to plutonium dioxide because, as part of the disposition process, some surplus plutonium metal may be converted to plutonium dioxide in the same facility as the surplus pits. The equipment to be used for the proposed demonstration addressed in this EA would use some parts of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) capability, other existing equipment/capacities, plus new equipment that was developed at other sites. In addition, small-scale R and D activities are currently underway as part of the overall surplus plutonium disposition program. These R and D activities are related to pit disassembly and conversion, MOX fuel fabrication, and immobilization (in glass and ceramic forms). They are described in Section 7.0. On May 16, 1997, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) notified potentially affected states and tribes that this EA would be prepared in accordance with NEPA. This EA has been prepared to provide sufficient information for DOE to determine whether a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is warranted or whether an EIS must be prepared.

  6. The non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and microtubule-disassembly activity.

    Kyle D Grode

    Full Text Available Microtubule severing is a biochemical reaction that generates an internal break in a microtubule and regulation of microtubule severing is critical for cellular processes such as ciliogenesis, morphogenesis, and meiosis and mitosis. Katanin is a conserved heterodimeric ATPase that severs and disassembles microtubules, but the molecular determinants for regulation of microtubule severing by katanin remain poorly defined. Here we show that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and activity in living cells. Our data indicate that the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT domain and adjacent linker region of the Drosophila katanin catalytic subunit Kat60 cooperate to regulate microtubule severing in two distinct ways. First, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 decrease its abundance by enhancing its proteasome-dependent degradation. The Drosophila katanin regulatory subunit Kat80, which is required to stabilize Kat60 in cells, conversely reduces the proteasome-dependent degradation of Kat60. Second, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 augment its microtubule-disassembly activity by enhancing its association with microtubules. On the basis of our data, we propose that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin serve as the principal sites of integration of regulatory inputs, thereby controlling its ability to sever and disassemble microtubules.

  7. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  8. Syndecan-1 controls cell migration by activating Rap1 to regulate focal adhesion disassembly

    Altemeier, William A.; Schlesinger, Saundra Y.; Buell, Catherine A.; Parks, William C.; Chen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    After injury, residual epithelial cells coordinate contextual clues from cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions to polarize and migrate over the wound bed. Protrusion formation, cell body translocation and rear retraction is a repetitive process that allows the cell to move across the substratum. Fundamental to this process is the assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions that facilitate cell adhesion and protrusion formation. Here, we identified syndecan-1 as a regulator of focal adhesion ...

  9. The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes

    Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Chumak, Nina; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Nishimura, Toshiro; Schoft, Vera K.; Bindics, János; Ślusarz, Lucyna; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Opravil, Susanne; Mechtler, Karl; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres are the fundamental unit required for segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis, and they are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). In contrast to the relatively well-known process of de novo assembly of CenH3 at centromeres, little is known of how CenH3 is actively removed, leading to centromere disassembly, an essential biological process during the life of a cell. This study describes the process of centromere d...

  10. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  11. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    KALLAYAKIJBOONCHOO

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of the world and becoming one of the major global public health problems.Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time,available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity.Increases in physical activity have been showen to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition,with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate.The Surgeon General's Report on physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular,moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life.However,the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for 3 times a day for aerobic training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits.Indeed,nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health,and should be encouraged in all age groups,particularly early in life,The question is no longer centerd around the health benefit of increasing physical activity,but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals,Hence,effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity.Among various interventions,the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children,The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challege in this field today.

  12. Balanced activity scorecard – combination of activity based costing and activity based management with balanced scorecard

    Dorota Kuchta; Radoslaw Rynca

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a proposal of the Activity Balance Scorecard (ABSC). It is a combination of Activity Based Costing and a modification of Activity Based Management. Contrary to the traditional cascading of the Balanced Scorecard to organisational structures, ABSC is constructed directly for activities or tasks. These activities or tasks should be selected on the basis of ABC results – as it is them which give the information the share of which tasks in the cost structure is high. The ABSC w...

  13. HUWE1 Ubiquitylates and Degrades the RAC Activator TIAM1 Promoting Cell-Cell Adhesion Disassembly, Migration, and Invasion

    Lynsey Vaughan; Chong-Teik Tan; Anna Chapman; Daisuke Nonaka; Mack, Natalie A; Duncan Smith; Richard Booton; Adam F.L. Hurlstone; Angeliki Malliri

    2015-01-01

    Summary The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, deregulated in carcinoma, has been implicated in tumor formation. Here, we uncover a role for HUWE1 in cell migration and invasion through degrading the RAC activator TIAM1, implying an additional function in malignant progression. In MDCKII cells in response to HGF, HUWE1 catalyzes TIAM1 ubiquitylation and degradation predominantly at cell-cell adhesions, facilitating junction disassembly, migration, and invasion. Depleting HUWE1 or mutating the TIAM1 u...

  14. Role of TRIM5α RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in capsid disassembly, reverse transcription blockade, and restriction of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    Kim, Jonghwa; Tipper, Christopher; Sodroski, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    The mammalian tripartite motif protein, TRIM5α, recognizes retroviral capsids entering the cytoplasm and blocks virus infection. Depending on the particular TRIM5α protein and retrovirus, complete disruption of the TRIM5α RING domain decreases virus-restricting activity to various degrees. TRIM5α exhibits RING domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, but the specific role of this activity in viral restriction is unknown. We created a panel of African green monkey TRIM5α (TRIM5α(AGM)) mutants, many of which are specifically altered in RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase function, and characterized the phenotypes of these mutants with respect to restriction of simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV(mac) and HIV-1, respectively). TRIM5α(AGM) ubiquitin ligase activity was essential for both the accelerated disassembly of SIV(mac) capsids and the disruption of reverse transcription. The levels of SIV(mac) particulate capsids in the cytosol of target cells expressing the TRIM5α variants strongly correlated with the levels of viral late reverse transcripts. RING-mediated ubiquitylation and B30.2(SPRY) domain-determined capsid binding independently contributed to the potency of SIV(mac) restriction by TRIM5α(AGM). In contrast, TRIM5α proteins attenuated in RING ubiquitin ligase function still accelerated HIV-1 capsid disassembly, inhibited reverse transcription, and blocked infection. Replacement of the helix-4/5 loop in the SIV(mac) capsid with the corresponding region of the HIV-1 capsid diminished the dependence of restriction on TRIM5α RING function. Thus, ubiquitylation mediated by the RING domain of TRIM5α(AGM) is essential for blocking SIV(mac) infection at the stage of capsid uncoating. PMID:21680520

  15. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source

  16. AGC-2 Disassembly Report

    William Windes

    2014-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite Research and Development (R&D) Program is currently measuring irradiated material properties for predicting the behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades available for use within the cores of new very high temperature reactor designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, consisting of six irradiation capsules, will generate irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. The AGC experiment is designed to determine the changes to specific material properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, elastic modulus, mechanical strength, irradiation induced dimensional change rate, and irradiation creep for a wide variety of nuclear grade graphite types over a range of high temperature, and moderate doses. A series of six capsules containing graphite test specimens will be used to expose graphite test samples to a dose range from 1 to 7 dpa at three different temperatures (600, 900, and 1200°C) as described in the Graphite Technology Development Plan. Since irradiation induced creep within graphite components is considered critical to determining the operational life of the graphite core, some of the samples will also be exposed to an applied load to determine the creep rate for each graphite type under both temperature and neutron flux. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). AGC-1 and AGC-2 will be irradiated in the south flux trap and AGC-3–AGC-6 will be irradiated in the east flux trap. The change in flux traps is due to NGNP irradiation priorities requiring the AGC experiment to be moved to accommodate Fuel irradiation experiments. After irradiation, all six AGC capsules will be cooled in the ATR Canal, sized for shipment, and shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) where the capsule will be disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). During disassembly, the metallic

  17. HUWE1 Ubiquitylates and Degrades the RAC Activator TIAM1 Promoting Cell-Cell Adhesion Disassembly, Migration, and Invasion

    Lynsey Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, deregulated in carcinoma, has been implicated in tumor formation. Here, we uncover a role for HUWE1 in cell migration and invasion through degrading the RAC activator TIAM1, implying an additional function in malignant progression. In MDCKII cells in response to HGF, HUWE1 catalyzes TIAM1 ubiquitylation and degradation predominantly at cell-cell adhesions, facilitating junction disassembly, migration, and invasion. Depleting HUWE1 or mutating the TIAM1 ubiquitylation site prevents TIAM1 degradation, antagonizing scattering, and invasion. Moreover, simultaneous depletion of TIAM1 restores migration and invasion in HUWE1-depleted cells. Significantly, we show that HUWE1 stimulates human lung cancer cell invasion through regulating TIAM1 stability. Finally, we demonstrate that HUWE1 and TIAM1 protein levels are inversely correlated in human lung carcinomas. Thus, we elucidate a critical role for HUWE1 in regulating epithelial cell-cell adhesion and provide additional evidence that ubiquitylation contributes to spatiotemporal control of RAC.

  18. Active dynamic balancing unit for controlled shaking force and shaking moment balancing

    Wijk, van der Volkert; Herder, Just L.

    2010-01-01

    For a mechanism with many elements that needs to be shaking-force and shaking-moment balanced with a low addition of mass, a low addition of inertia, and a low addition of complexity, the use of actively computer-controlled balancing elements is promising. With these actively controlled elements the

  19. Balance Comparisons between Female Dancers and Active Nondancers

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Caswell, Shane V.; Winchester, Jason B.; Shimokochi, Yohei; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Female dancers have lower anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates compared with physically active women. Enhanced balance can decrease musculoskeletal injury risk. Dancers are proposed to have superior balance compared with physically active nondancers, and this may reduce their risk for ACL injury. However, whether female dancers…

  20. First insights into disassembled "evapotranspiration"

    Chormański, Jarosław; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present an initial data analysis obtained from a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them fromthe total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its component transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project

  1. Balanced Growth, Travel Demand, and Physical Activity

    Cervero, Robert; Duncan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    All smart growth initiatives involve some degree of mixed land uses. Which mixed-use strategies – e.g., jobs-housing balance, adding retail to residential districts -- offer the greatest traffic-reducing benefits? This paper addresses this question by examining the degree to which job accessibility is associated with reduced work travel and how closely retail-service accessibility is correlated with miles and hours logged getting to shopping destinations. Based on data from the San Francisc...

  2. RESEARCH ON PROCESS AND PLAN OF DISASSEMBLY

    2001-01-01

    With the viewpoint of integrating all phases of product life cycle,product disassembly problem is discussed. An kind of logical net methodology for product disassembly modeling is presented. An channel of converting product assembly model into disassembly model,such as logical net, is proposed,and the minimization cost problem and its linear programming model are given.

  3. Flexibility and Balancing in Active Distribution Networks

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi

    sources in low voltage (LV) network affects the traditional behavior of these systems, as it leads to reverse power flow, from the customers to the upper network. Such reverse power flow brings new challenges to the system, while it also brings new potentials for transmission system operator (TSO) and...... distribution system operator (DSO) to use the reverse power flow for balancing purposes. The first objective of this research is to quantify and analyze the impact of PV panels and EVs on LV network, and to determine the maximum capacity of LV network for hosting PV panels and EVs. Details of the studies are...... economic incentives for customers to consider RESs as a proper energy source. The other main contribution of this thesis is to propose a new aggregation technique for residential distribution networks, considering small energy sources and electric vehicles. Besides, this thesis proposes a modified LFC...

  4. Off-balance sheet activities and financial innovation in banking

    M.K. LEWIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank’s off-balance sheet operations have grown rapidly in recent years. The ‘off’ balance sheet description denotes that the activities involve contingent commitments or contracts which generate income to a bank, but are not normally captured as assets or liabilities under conventional accounting procedures. The work explores the growth of this phenomenon in a broader context of innovations in financial techniques in banking. The author looks at the nature of off-balance sheet business and compares it with traditional banking operations. The reasons for the growth of these operations as well as their risks are then investigated.

  5. 基于智能材料主动拆卸技术的产品多级主动拆卸方法及其设计准则研究%Research on Multi-step Active Disassembly Methods and Design Principles of Products Based on ADSM

    赵流现; 刘志峰; 李新宇; 张洪潮; 成焕波

    2011-01-01

    针对一些结构复杂或体积较大的产品很难通过一次加热实现完全拆解,以及较多的零部件混杂在一起给后续分拣带来困难等问题,基于智能材料主动拆卸技术的产品多级主动拆卸方法探讨了多级主动拆卸的原理,分析了多级主动拆卸产品的设计准则.结合实际案例分析了多级主动拆卸方法的可行性.%It is difficult to disassemble the complicated or big product completely, it is also difficult to choose the components if they are mixed together. One of the solutions is multi-step active disassembly. This paper mainly studied a method of multi-step active disassembly, discussed the theory, and analyzed the design principles of multi-step active disassembly products. Finally, the feasibility of multi-step active disassembly was proven by using actual example.

  6. Montmorillonite-induced Bacteriophage φ6 Disassembly

    Trusiak, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Katz, A.; Alimova, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Block, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is estimated that there are 1031 virus particles on Earth making viruses an order of magnitude more prevalent in number than prokaryotes with the vast majority of viruses being bacteriophages. Clays are a major component of soils and aquatic sediments and can react with RNA, proteins and bacterial biofilms. The clays in soils serve as an important moderator between phage and their host bacteria, helping to preserve the evolutionary balance. Studies on the effects of clays on viral infectivity have given somewhat contradictory results; possibly a consequence of clay-virus interactions being dependent on the unique structure of particular viruses. In this work, the interaction between montmorillonite and the bacteriophage φ6 is investigated. φ6 is a member of the cystovirus family that infects Pseudomonas syringe, a common plant pathogen. As a member of the cystovirus family with an enveloped structure, φ6 serves as a model for reoviruses, a human pathogen. Experiments were conducted with φ6 suspended in dilute, purified homoionic commercial-grade montmorillonite over a range of virus:clay ratios. At a 1:100000 virus:clay ratio, the clay reduced viral infectivity by 99%. The minimum clay to virus ratio which results in a measurable reduction of P. syringae infection is 1:1. Electron microscopy demonstrates that mixed suspensions of smectite and virus co-aggregate to form flocs encompassing virions within the smectite. Both free viral particles as well as those imbedded in the flocs are seen in the micrographs to be missing the envelope- leaving only the nucleocapsid (NC) intact; indicating that smectite inactivates the virus by envelope disassembly. These results have strong implications in the evolution of both the φ6 virus and its P. syringae host cells. TEM of aggregate showing several disassembled NCs.

  7. Energy balance in a bright active prominence

    The transitions between ten levels and hydrogen atom continuum and 4S, 3D, 4P, Ca+ terms in a bright active prominence are considered. The role of electron impacts and solar radiation scattering taking account of optical thicknesses in all frequencies is considered. It has been found that hydrogen atoms and calcium ions radiate approximately equal amount of energy: 2.4x107 and 1.3x107 erg/cm2xs., respectively. The hydrogen atom radiation is by 2/3 due to solar radiation scattering, the contribution of the scattered radiation for various series and separate lines being unequal. The radiation in the n, k lines and in Ca+ infrared lines is almost completely ensured by electron impacts. Only the tenth part of the necessary energy is added on account of the solar radiation absorption. The total prominence radiation is half ensured due to solar radiation scattering. Approximately the same amount of energ is taken from the electron gas. The higher is q, the more significant becomes the role of electron impacts in hydrogen atom excitation and ionization. The q prominence duty factor value is near to unity

  8. Active video gaming to improve balance in the elderly.

    Lamoth, Claudine J C; Caljouw, Simone R; Postema, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    The combination of active video gaming and exercise (exergaming) is suggested to improve elderly people's balance, thereby decreasing fall risk. Exergaming has been shown to increase motivation during exercise therapy, due to the enjoyable and challenging nature, which could support long-term adherence for exercising balance. However, scarce evidence is available of the direct effects of exergaming on postural control. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of a six-week videogame-based exercise program aimed at improving balance in elderly people. Task performance and postural control were examined using an interrupted time series design. Results of multilevel analyses showed that performance on the dot task improved within the first two weeks of training. Postural control improved during the intervention. After the intervention period task performance and balance were better than before the intervention. Results of this study show that healthy elderly can benefit from a videogame-based exercise program to improve balance and that all subjects were highly motivated to exercise balance because they found gaming challenging and enjoyable. PMID:21685660

  9. Balanced Scorecard and Balanced Scorecard for processes and activities – case study of a car dealer

    Dorota Kuchta; Radoslaw Rynca

    2008-01-01

    W artykule przedstawiono studium przypadku wykorzystania zrownowazonej karty dzialania (ZKD), bedacej przeniesieniem idei BSC na poziom procesow i dzialan. ZKD bylaby budowana dla tych procesow i dzialan, ktorych koszt wyliczony za pomoca metody rachunku kosztow dzialan jest wysoki. ZKD bylaby takze narzedziem wspierajacym poprawe efektywnosci procesow i dzialan zachodzacych w przedsiebiorstwie.The article presents a case study of balanced scorecard for processes and activities in a car deale...

  10. Disassemblability modeling technology of configurable product based on disassembly constraint relation weighted design structure matrix(DSM)

    Qiu, Lemiao; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Shuyou; Sun, Liangfeng

    2014-05-01

    The current research of configurable product disassemblability focuses on disassemblability evaluation and disassembly sequence planning. Little work has been done on quantitative analysis of configurable product disassemblability. The disassemblability modeling technology for configurable product based on disassembly constraint relation weighted design structure matrix (DSM) is proposed. Major factors affecting the disassemblability of configurable product are analyzed, and the disassembling degrees between components in configurable product are obtained by calculating disassembly entropies such as joint type, joint quantity, disassembly path, disassembly accessibility and material compatibility. The disassembly constraint relation weighted DSM of configurable product is constructed and configuration modules are formed by matrix decomposition and tearing operations. The disassembly constraint relation in configuration modules is strong coupling, and the disassembly constraint relation between modules is weak coupling, and the disassemblability configuration model is constructed based on configuration module. Finally, taking a hydraulic forging press as an example, the decomposed weak coupling components are used as configuration modules alone, components with a strong coupling are aggregated into configuration modules, and the disassembly sequence of components inside configuration modules is optimized by tearing operation. A disassemblability configuration model of the hydraulic forging press is constructed. By researching the disassemblability modeling technology of product configuration design based on disassembly constraint relation weighted DSM, the disassembly property in maintenance, recycling and reuse of configurable product are optimized.

  11. Active video gaming to improve balance in the elderly

    Lamoth, C.J.; Caljouw, S.R.; Postema, K.

    2011-01-01

    The combination of active video gaming and exercise (exergaming) is suggested to improve elderly people's balance, thereby decreasing fall risk. Exergaming has been shown to increase motivation during exercise therapy, due to the enjoyable and challenging nature, which could support long-term adhere

  12. Balancing passive and active systems for evolutionary water cooled reactors

    Advanced concepts of the water-cooled reactors are intended to improve safety, economics and public perception of nuclear power. The potential inclusion of new passive means in addition or instead of traditional active systems is being considered by nuclear plant designers to reach these goals. With respect to plant safety, application of the passive means is mainly intended to simplify the safety systems and to improve their reliability, to mitigate the effect of human errors and equipment malfunction. However, some clear drawbacks and the limited experience and testing of passive systems may raise additional questions that have to be addressed in the design process for each advanced reactor. Therefore the plant designer should find a reasonable balance of active and passive means to effectively use their advantages and compensate their drawbacks. Some considerations that have to be taken into account when balancing active/passive means in advanced water-cooled reactors are discussed in this paper. (author)

  13. Impact of Health Perception, Balance Perception, Fall History, Balance Performance, and Gait Speed on Walking Activity in Older Adults

    Talkowski, Jaime B; Brach, Jennifer S.; Studenski, Stephanie; Newman, Anne B

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Disagreement currently exists regarding the contributions of various factors to physical activity in older adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the simultaneous impact of psychological (health perception and balance perception) and physiological (gait speed, fall history, and balance performance) factors on walking activity in older adults.

  14. STUDY ON HUMAN-COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR STABLE VIRTUAL DISASSEMBLY

    Guan Qiang; Zhang Shensheng; Liu Jihong; Cao Pengbing; Zhong Yifang

    2003-01-01

    The cooperative work between human being and computer based on virtual reality (VR) is investigated to plan the disassembly sequences more efficiently. A three-layer model of human-computer cooperative virtual disassembly is built, and the corresponding human-computer system for stable virtual disassembly is developed. In this system, an immersive and interactive virtual disassembly environment has been created to provide planners with a more visual working scene. For cooperative disassembly, an intelligent module of stability analysis of disassembly operations is embedded into the human-computer system to assist planners to implement disassembly tasks better. The supporting matrix for stability analysis of disassembly operations is defined and the method of stability analysis is detailed. Based on the approach, the stability of any disassembly operation can be analyzed to instruct the manual virtual disassembly. At last, a disassembly case in the virtual environment is given to prove the validity of above ideas.

  15. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity.

    VanDerhei, J; Galer, R; Quick, C; Rea, J

    1999-01-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) and the Investment Company Institute (ICI) have been collaborating for the past two years to collect data on participants in 401(k) plans. This effort, known as the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, has obtained data for 401(k) plan participants from certain of EBRI and ICI sponsors and members serving as plan recordkeepers and administrators. The report includes 1996 information on 6.6 million active participants in 27,762 plans holding nearly $246 billion in assets. The data include demographic information, annual contributions, plan balances, asset allocation, and loans, and are currently the most comprehensive source of information on individual plan participants. In 1996, the first year for which data are ready for analysis, the EBRI/ICI database appears to be broadly representative of the universe of 401(k) plans. Key findings include: for all participants, 44.0 percent of the total plan balance is invested in equity funds, 19.1 percent in employer stock, 15.1 percent in guaranteed investment contracts (GICs), 7.8 percent in balanced funds, 6.8 percent in bond funds, 5.4 percent in money funds, 0.8 percent in other stable value funds, and 1.0 percent in other or unidentified investments. This allocation implies that over two-thirds of plan balances are invested directly or indirectly in equity securities. Asset allocation varies with age. For instance, on average, individuals in their twenties invested 76.8 percent of assets in equities and only 22.1 percent in fixed-income investments. By comparison, individuals in their sixties invested 53.2 percent of their assets in equities and 45.9 percent of assets in fixed-income investments. Investment options offered by 401(k) plans appear to influence asset allocation. For example, the addition of company stock substantially reduces the allocation to equity funds and the addition of GICs lowers allocations to bond and money funds

  16. Reactor Decommissioning - Balancing Remote and Manual Activities - 12159

    Nuclear reactors come in a wide variety of styles, size, and ages. However, during decommissioned one issue they all share is the balancing of remotely and manually activities. For the majority of tasks there is a desire to use manual methods because remote working can be slower, more expensive, and less reliable. However, because of the unique hazards of nuclear reactors some level of remote activity will be necessary to provide adequate safety to workers and properly managed and designed it does not need to be difficult nor expensive. The balance of remote versus manual work can also affect the amount and types of waste that is generated. S.A.Technology (SAT) has worked on a number of reactor decommissioning projects over the last two decades and has a range of experience with projects using remote methods to those relying primarily on manual activities. This has created a set of lessons learned and best practices on how to balance the need for remote handling and manual operations. Finding a balance between remote and manual operations on reactor decommissioning can be difficult but by following certain broad guidelines it is possible to have a very successfully decommissioning. It is important to have an integrated team that includes remote handling experts and that this team plans the work using characterization efforts that are efficient and realistic. The equipment need to be simple, robust and flexible and supported by an on-site team committed to adapting to day-to-day challenges. Also, the waste strategy needs to incorporate the challenges of remote activities in its planning. (authors)

  17. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (Pphysical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity.

  18. Active vibration and balance system for closed cycle thermodynamic machines

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass. A method is also provided.

  19. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Binary Code Disassembly for Reverse Engineering

    Marius Popa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The disassembly of binary file is used to restore the software application code in a readable and understandable format for humans. Further, the assembly code file can be used in reverse engineering processes to establish the logical flows of the computer program or its vulnerabilities in real-world running environment. The paper highlights the features of the binary executable files under the x86 architecture and portable format, presents issues of disassembly process of a machine code file and intermediate code, disassembly algorithms which can be applied to a correct and complete reconstruction of the source file written in assembly language, and techniques and tools used in binary code disassembly.

  1. Remote disassembly of an abnormal multiplication system

    The method of abnormal multiplying systems remote disassembling is described. This method was worked through in actual operations as response to the nuclear accident at the RFNC-VNIIEF criticality test facility FKBN-2M on 17 June 1997. The abnormal assembly was a sphere of 235U (90%), surrounded by a copper reflector. The detailed information on the multiplying system disassembly operations could be of use to the experts at other institutions when they develop emergency response plans. (author)

  2. Damage-Free Relief-Valve Disassembly

    Haselmaier, H.

    1986-01-01

    Tool safely disassembles relief valves without damage to sensitive parts. Relief-valve disassembly tool used to extract valve nozzle from its housing. Holding device on tool grops nozzle. When user strikes hammer against impact disk, holding device pulls nozzle from press fit. Previously, nozzle dislodged by striking spindle above it, but practice often damaged retaining screw. New tool removes nozzle directly. With minor modifications, tool adapted to valves from different manufacturers.

  3. Sequence of operations: TFTR assembly and disassembly

    A conceptual sequence of operations necessary to complete initial assembly of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) are described along with subsequent disassembly operations and special techniques planned for use during radioactive disassembly. Special attention is given in this report to techniques, personnel exposure, and equipment needed to effect the opening and closing of a vacuum vessel port and the installation of the vacuum vessel seal weld cutting machine under radioactive conditions

  4. Safe disassembly and storage of radioactive components of JT-60U torus

    Highlights: •We describe the results of the JT-60U disassembly activities, including treatment of the radioactivated materials and safety work during 2009–2012. •This disassembly was required to newly install the JT-60SA torus at the same position in the torus hall. •About 13,000 components cut into pieces with measuring the contact dose were removed from the torus hall and stored safely in storage facilities. •The total weight of the disassembly components reached up to ∼5,400 tons. •We expect that the project of the JT-60U disassembly has provided the valuable data which will be useful for the disassembly of other fusion devices. -- Abstract: Disassembly of the JT-60U torus was started in 2009 after 18 years of D2 operations and was completed in October 2012 for assembling the JT-60SA torus at the same position. The JT-60U torus was featured by the complicated and welded structure against the strong electromagnetic force, and by the radioactivation due to deuterium–deuterium (D–D) reactions. Since this work is the first experience of disassembling a large radioactivated fusion device in Japan, careful preparations of disassembly activities, including treatment of the radioactivated materials and safety work, have been made. During the disassembly period over 3 years, careful measures against exposure were taken and stringent control of exposure dose were implemented, and as a result, accumulated collective effective dose of ∼41,000 person-day to workers was only ∼22 mSv in total and no internal exposure was observed. About 13,000 components cut into pieces with measuring the contact dose were removed from the torus hall and stored safely in storage facilities. The total weight of the disassembly components reached up to ∼5400 tonnes. Most of the disassembly components will be treated as non-radioactive ones after the clearance level inspection under the Japanese regulations in the future. The assembly of JT-60SA has started in January 2013

  5. Disassembling iron availability to phytoplankton

    Yeala eShaked

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability of iron to microorganisms and its underlying mechanisms have far reaching repercussions to many natural systems and diverse fields of research, including ocean biogeochemistry, carbon cycling and climate, harmful algal blooms, soil and plant research, bioremediation, pathogenesis and medicine. Within the framework of ocean sciences, short supply and restricted bioavailability of Fe to phytoplankton is thought to limit primary production and curtail atmospheric CO2 drawdown in vast ocean regions. Yet a clear-cut definition of bioavailability remains elusive, with elements of iron speciation and kinetics, phytoplankton physiology, light, temperature and microbial interactions, to name a few, all intricately intertwined into this concept. Here, in a synthesis of published and new data, we attempt to disassemble the complex concept of iron bioavailability to phytoplankton by individually exploring some of its facets. We distinguish between the fundamentals of bioavailability - the acquisition of Fe-substrate by phytoplankton - and added levels of complexity involving interactions among organisms, iron and ecosystem processes. We first examine how phytoplankton acquire free and organically-bound iron, drawing attention to the pervasiveness of the reductive uptake pathway in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Turning to acquisition rates, we propose to view the availability of various Fe-substrates to phytoplankton as spectrum rather than an absolute all or nothing. We then demonstrate the use of uptake rate constants to make comparisons across different studies, organisms, Fe compounds and environments, and for gauging the contribution of various Fe substrates to phytoplankton growth in situ. Last, we describe the influence of aquatic microorganisms on iron chemistry and fate by way of organic complexation and bio-mediated redox transformations and examine the bioavailability of these bio-modified Fe species.

  6. Reversible 26S Proteasome Disassembly upon Mitochondrial Stress

    Nurit Livnat-Levanon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, proteasomes exist primarily as 26S holoenzymes, the most efficient configuration for ubiquitinated protein degradation. Here, we show that acute oxidative stress caused by environmental insults or mitochondrial defects results in rapid disassembly of 26S proteasomes into intact 20S core and 19S regulatory particles. Consequently, polyubiquitinated substrates accumulate, mitochondrial networks fragment, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels increase. Oxidation of cysteine residues is sufficient to induce proteasome disassembly, and spontaneous reassembly from existing components is observed both in vivo and in vitro upon reduction. Ubiquitin-dependent substrate turnover also resumes after treatment with antioxidants. Reversible attenuation of 26S proteasome activity induced by acute mitochondrial or oxidative stress may be a short-term response distinct from adaptation to long-term ROS exposure or changes during aging.

  7. Broken Detailed Balance of Filament Dynamics in Active Networks

    Gladrow, J.; Fakhri, N.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Schmidt, C. F.; Broedersz, C. P.

    2016-06-01

    Myosin motor proteins drive vigorous steady-state fluctuations in the actin cytoskeleton of cells. Endogenous embedded semiflexible filaments such as microtubules, or added filaments such as single-walled carbon nanotubes are used as novel tools to noninvasively track equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations in such biopolymer networks. Here, we analytically calculate shape fluctuations of semiflexible probe filaments in a viscoelastic environment, driven out of equilibrium by motor activity. Transverse bending fluctuations of the probe filaments can be decomposed into dynamic normal modes. We find that these modes no longer evolve independently under nonequilibrium driving. This effective mode coupling results in nonzero circulatory currents in a conformational phase space, reflecting a violation of detailed balance. We present predictions for the characteristic frequencies associated with these currents and investigate how the temporal signatures of motor activity determine mode correlations, which we find to be consistent with recent experiments on microtubules embedded in cytoskeletal networks.

  8. Broken detailed balance in active fluctuations of semiflexible filaments

    Gladrow, Jannes; Fakhri, Nikta; Mackintosh, Fred C.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Broedersz, Chase P.

    2015-03-01

    Non-equilibrium microscopic force generation in cells often results in stochastic steady-state fluctuations. In the cell cytoskeleton, for example, cytoplasmic myosins can drive vigorous conformational fluctuations of actin filaments and microtubules. We here present an analytical and numerical analysis of randomly driven shape fluctuations of semiflexible filaments in a viscoelastic environment. To detect and quantify non-equilibrium dynamics, we focus on the breaking of detailed balance in a conformational phase space subtended by eigenmodes of the beam equation. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a non-zero circulatory flux in phase space induced by motor activity. Furthermore, we derived an analytical expression of nonequilibrium mode correlations that allows us to predict temporal effects of active molecular motors.

  9. Broken detailed balance reveals stress heterogeneity in active matter

    Gladrow, J; MacKintosh, F C; Schmidt, C F; Broedersz, C P

    2016-01-01

    Myosin motor proteins drive vigorous steady-state fluctuations in the actin cytoskeleton of cells. Endogenous embedded semiflexible filaments such as microtubules, or added filaments such as single-walled carbon nanotubes are used as novel tools to non-invasively track equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuations in such biopolymer networks. Here we analytically calculate shape fluctuations of semiflexible probe filaments in a viscoelastic environment, driven out of equilibrium by motor activity. Transverse bending fluctuations of the probe filaments can be decomposed into dynamic normal modes. We find that these modes no longer evolve independently under non-equilibrium driving. This effective mode coupling results in non-zero circulatory currents in a conformational phase space, reflecting a violation of detailed balance. We present predictions for the characteristic frequencies associated with these currents and investigate how the temporal signatures of motor activity determine mode correlations, which we...

  10. Gelsolin mediates calcium-dependent disassembly of Listeria actin tails

    Larson, Laura; Arnaudeau, Serge; Gibson, Bruce; Li, Wei; Krause, Ryoko; Hao, Binghua; Bamburg, James R.; Lew, Daniel P.; Demaurex, Nicolas; Southwick, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    The role of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of actin filament assembly and disassembly has not been clearly defined. We show that reduction of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) to <40 nM in Listeria monocytogenes-infected, EGFP–actin-transfected Madin–Darby canine kidney cells results in a 3-fold lengthening of actin filament tails. This increase in tail length is the consequence of marked slowing of the actin filament disassembly rate, without a significant change in assembly rate. The Ca2+-sensitive actin-severing protein gelsolin concentrates in the Listeria rocket tails at normal resting [Ca2+]i and disassociates from the tails when [Ca2+]i is lowered. Reduction in [Ca2+]i also blocks the severing activity of gelsolin, but not actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin microinjected into Listeria-infected cells. In Xenopus extracts, Listeria tail lengths are also calcium-sensitive, markedly shortening on addition of calcium. Immunodepletion of gelsolin, but not Xenopus ADF/cofilin, eliminates calcium-sensitive actin-filament shortening. Listeria tail length is also calcium-insensitive in gelsolin-null mouse embryo fibroblasts. We conclude that gelsolin is the primary Ca2+-sensitive actin filament recycling protein in the cell and is capable of enhancing Listeria actin tail disassembly at normal resting [Ca2+]i (145 nM). These experiments illustrate the unique and complementary functions of gelsolin and ADF/cofilin in the recycling of actin filaments. PMID:15671163

  11. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    Iwakura M; Okura K; Shibata K; Kawagoshi A; Sugawara K; Takahashi H; Shioya T

    2016-01-01

    Masahiro Iwakura,1,2 Kazuki Okura,2 Kazuyuki Shibata,1,2 Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi,2 Keiyu Sugawara,2 Hitomi Takahashi,2 Takanobu Shioya1 1Department of Rehabilitation, Akita City Hospital, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan Background: Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured ph...

  12. D-amino acids trigger biofilm disassembly.

    Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Romero, Diego; Cao, Shugeng; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2010-04-30

    Bacteria form communities known as biofilms, which disassemble over time. In our studies outlined here, we found that, before biofilm disassembly, Bacillus subtilis produced a factor that prevented biofilm formation and could break down existing biofilms. The factor was shown to be a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tyrosine, and D-tryptophan that could act at nanomolar concentrations. D-amino acid treatment caused the release of amyloid fibers that linked cells in the biofilm together. Mutants able to form biofilms in the presence of D-amino acids contained alterations in a protein (YqxM) required for the formation and anchoring of the fibers to the cell. D-amino acids also prevented biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-amino acids are produced by many bacteria and, thus, may be a widespread signal for biofilm disassembly. PMID:20431016

  13. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Nuclear fuel bundle disassembly and assembly tool

    A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of tubular fuel rods disposed in parallel array between two transverse tie plates. It is secured against disassembly by one or more locking forks which engage slots in tie rods which position the transverse plates. Springs mounted on the fuel and tie rods are compressed when the bundle is assembled thereby maintaining a continual pressure against the locking forks. Force applied in opposition to the springs permits withdrawal of the locking forks so that one tie plate may be removed, giving access to the fuel rods. An assembly and disassembly tool facilitates removal of the locking forks when the bundle is to be disassembled and the placing of the forks during assembly of the bundle. (U.S.)

  15. Role of TRIM5α RING Domain E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity in Capsid Disassembly, Reverse Transcription Blockade, and Restriction of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus▿†

    Kim, Jonghwa; Tipper, Christopher; Sodroski, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian tripartite motif protein, TRIM5α, recognizes retroviral capsids entering the cytoplasm and blocks virus infection. Depending on the particular TRIM5α protein and retrovirus, complete disruption of the TRIM5α RING domain decreases virus-restricting activity to various degrees. TRIM5α exhibits RING domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, but the specific role of this activity in viral restriction is unknown. We created a panel of African green monkey TRIM5α (TRIM5αAGM) muta...

  16. Particle number correlations in nuclear disassembly

    An investigation of data and model calculations pertaining to the disassembly of an excited nucleus reveals that the probability of occurrence of various partitions is, in the cases considered, well approximated by expressions of the multinomial form. This finding implies that static (number) correlations (apart from those implied by the constraint of fixed total mass or charge) are rather weak and leads to the conclusion that dynamical correlations need to be measured in order to investigate details of the disassembly mechanism. The sensitivity of correlations to conserved quantitites may however be useful for the investigation of certain aspects of the reaction mechanism, in particular for the distinction between central and peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  17. D-Amino Acids Trigger Biofilm Disassembly

    Kolodkin-Gal, Illana; Romero, Diego; Cao, Shugeng; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria form communities known as biofilms, which disassemble over time. Here we found that prior to biofilm disassembly Bacillus subtilis produced a factor that prevented biofilm formation and could break down existing biofilms. The factor was shown to be a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tyrosine and D-tryptophan that could act at nanomolar concentrations. D-amino acid treatment caused the release of amyloid fibers that linked cells in the biofilm together. Mutants able to form biofi...

  18. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  19. Disassembly sequences generation and evaluation : Intregration in virtual reality environment

    Wang, Chenggang

    2014-01-01

    Integration of disassembly operations during product design is an important issue today. It is estimated that at the earliest stages of product design, the cost of disassembly operations almost represents 30 % of its total cost. Nowadays, disassembly operation simulation of industrial products finds a strong interest in interactive simulations through immersive and real-time schemes. In this context, in the first place, this thesis presents a method for generating the feasible disassembly seq...

  20. Sensitivity study of LMFBR core disassemblies

    The primary concern with respect to a prompt critical excursion in an LMFBR is whether the primary containment will be damaged, leading to an early release of radioactivity. The study examines the sensitivity of the damage potential of a core disassembly to ramp rate through prompt critical; initial power level; fuel heat capacity; fuel vapor pressure

  1. Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

    Battle, Christopher; Broedersz, Chase P; Fakhri, Nikta; Geyer, Veikko F; Howard, Jonathon; Schmidt, Christoph F; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-04-29

    Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues. PMID:27126047

  2. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance

    Klaas R Westerterp

    2015-01-01

    Aim Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. Methods An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is m...

  3. A Novel Disassemble Algorithm Designed for Malicious File

    Di Sun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid being static analyzed, hacker rely on various obfuscation techniques to hide its malicious characters. These techniques are very effective against common disassembles, preventing binary file from being disassembled correctly. The study presents novel disassemble algorithm which based on analyzed Control Flow Graph (CFG and Data Flow Graph (DFG information improve the ability of the disassembly. The proposed algorithm was verified on varied binary files. The experiment shows that the method not only improves the accuracy of disassemble but also greatly deal with malicious files.

  4. Shaping tissues by balancing active forces and geometric constraints

    The self-organization of cells into complex tissues during growth and regeneration is a combination of physical–mechanical events and biochemical signal processing. Cells actively generate forces at all stages in this process, and according to the laws of mechanics, these forces result in stress fields defined by the geometric boundary conditions of the cell and tissue. The unique ability of cells to translate such force patterns into biochemical information and vice versa sets biological tissues apart from any other material. In this topical review, we summarize the current knowledge and open questions of how forces and geometry act together on scales from the single cell to tissues and organisms, and how their interaction determines biological shape and structure. Starting with a planar surface as the simplest type of geometric constraint, we review literature on how forces during cell spreading and adhesion together with geometric constraints impact cell shape, stress patterns, and the resulting biological response. We then move on to include cell–cell interactions and the role of forces in monolayers and in collective cell migration, and introduce curvature at the transition from flat cell sheets to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. Fibrous 3D environments, as cells experience them in the body, introduce new mechanical boundary conditions and change cell behaviour compared to flat surfaces. Starting from early work on force transmission and collagen remodelling, we discuss recent discoveries on the interaction with geometric constraints and the resulting structure formation and network organization in 3D. Recent literature on two physiological scenarios—embryonic development and bone—is reviewed to demonstrate the role of the force-geometry balance in living organisms. Furthermore, the role of mechanics in pathological scenarios such as cancer is discussed. We conclude by highlighting common physical principles guiding cell mechanics, tissue patterning

  5. Shaping tissues by balancing active forces and geometric constraints

    Foolen, Jasper; Yamashita, Tadahiro; Kollmannsberger, Philip

    2016-02-01

    The self-organization of cells into complex tissues during growth and regeneration is a combination of physical-mechanical events and biochemical signal processing. Cells actively generate forces at all stages in this process, and according to the laws of mechanics, these forces result in stress fields defined by the geometric boundary conditions of the cell and tissue. The unique ability of cells to translate such force patterns into biochemical information and vice versa sets biological tissues apart from any other material. In this topical review, we summarize the current knowledge and open questions of how forces and geometry act together on scales from the single cell to tissues and organisms, and how their interaction determines biological shape and structure. Starting with a planar surface as the simplest type of geometric constraint, we review literature on how forces during cell spreading and adhesion together with geometric constraints impact cell shape, stress patterns, and the resulting biological response. We then move on to include cell-cell interactions and the role of forces in monolayers and in collective cell migration, and introduce curvature at the transition from flat cell sheets to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. Fibrous 3D environments, as cells experience them in the body, introduce new mechanical boundary conditions and change cell behaviour compared to flat surfaces. Starting from early work on force transmission and collagen remodelling, we discuss recent discoveries on the interaction with geometric constraints and the resulting structure formation and network organization in 3D. Recent literature on two physiological scenarios—embryonic development and bone—is reviewed to demonstrate the role of the force-geometry balance in living organisms. Furthermore, the role of mechanics in pathological scenarios such as cancer is discussed. We conclude by highlighting common physical principles guiding cell mechanics, tissue patterning and

  6. Assembly/disassembly strategies for service applications

    Puente Méndez, Santiago Timoteo; Torres Medina, Fernando; Díaz Baca, Carolina Soledad

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a development of assembly/disassembly systems to be applied in service applications. It uses algorithms developed for industrial applications to perform the service tasks. A robotic system to perform service applications in a cooperative environment with a human is used. The system uses product model to perform the task planning, with the designed task the required grasping points to manipulate the objects are computed according the restrictions. Two experimental results o...

  7. Assisting People with Disabilities to Actively Improve Their Collaborative Physical Activities with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chen, Ling-Che; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2012-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology to modify the Nintendo Wii Balance Board functionality and used it to enable two people with developmental disabilities to actively perform physical activities. This study extended the latest research of the Wii Balance Board application to assess whether four people (two groups) with…

  8. Phosphorylation and disassembly of intermediate filaments in mitotic cells

    As baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells enter mitosis, networks of intermediate filaments (IFs) are transformed into cytoplasmic aggregates of protofilaments. Coincident with this morphological change, the phosphate content of vimentin increases from 0.3 mol of Pi per mol of protein in interphase to 1.9 mol of Pi per mol of protein in mitosis. A similar increase in phosphate content is observed with desmin, from 0.5 mol of Pi per mol of protein to 1.5 mol of Pi per mol of protein. Fractionation of mitotic cell lysates by hydroxylapatite column chromatography reveals the presence of two IF protein kinase activities, designated as IF protein kinase I and IF protein kinase II. Comparison of two-dimensional 32P-labeled phosphopeptide maps of vimentin and desmin phosphorylated in vivo in mitosis, and in vitro using partially purified kinase fractions, reveals extensive similarity in the two sets of phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of in vitro polymerized IFs by IF protein kinase II induces complete disassembly as determined by negative-stain electron microscopy. The results support the idea that the disassembly of IFs in mitosis is regulated by the phosphorylation of its subunit proteins

  9. Phosphorylation and disassembly of intermediate filaments in mitotic cells

    Chou, Yinghao; Rosevear, E.; Goldman, R.D. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-03-01

    As baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells enter mitosis, networks of intermediate filaments (IFs) are transformed into cytoplasmic aggregates of protofilaments. Coincident with this morphological change, the phosphate content of vimentin increases from 0.3 mol of P{sub i} per mol of protein in interphase to 1.9 mol of P{sub i} per mol of protein in mitosis. A similar increase in phosphate content is observed with desmin, from 0.5 mol of P{sub i} per mol of protein to 1.5 mol of P{sub i} per mol of protein. Fractionation of mitotic cell lysates by hydroxylapatite column chromatography reveals the presence of two IF protein kinase activities, designated as IF protein kinase I and IF protein kinase II. Comparison of two-dimensional {sup 32}P-labeled phosphopeptide maps of vimentin and desmin phosphorylated in vivo in mitosis, and in vitro using partially purified kinase fractions, reveals extensive similarity in the two sets of phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of in vitro polymerized IFs by IF protein kinase II induces complete disassembly as determined by negative-stain electron microscopy. The results support the idea that the disassembly of IFs in mitosis is regulated by the phosphorylation of its subunit proteins.

  10. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: Relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward

    Novak, Colleen M.; Burghardt, Paul R.; Levine, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate i...

  11. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    Payne, S.S. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  12. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures

  13. Workshop on instrumentation of the disassembled BER II

    A workshop on the instrumentation of a disassembled BER II-reactor took place in the Hahn-Meitner-Institute in Berlin on April 19 and 20, 1982. Invited were all groups that are promoted by the associations 'Neutron Scattering for Investigation of Condensed Substance' and 'Neutron Scattering and Complementary Methods in Chemistry and Biology', along with experts for neutron spectrometers. 40 foreign scientists from 22 different institutes had accepted the invitation. The actual questions were treated in 13 presentations and a certain number of posters, with the latter also comprising activation analysis. The present report contains the presentations submitted, the final discussion minutes and a summary from HMI-view. (orig./RW)

  14. Disassembly and Sanitization of Classified Matter

    The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) process was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition by using recycling and waste minimization measures. This process was initiated by treaty agreements and reconfigurations within both the DOD and DOE Complexes. The DOE is faced with disassembling and disposing of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, weapon maintenance equipment, and associated material. In addition, regulations have caused a dramatic increase in the need for information required to support the handling and disposition of these parts and materials. In the past, huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and at many other locations throughout the DoE Complex. These materials are placed in onsite storage unit due to classification issues and they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components. Since no disposal options exist for this material, the only choice was long-term storage. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic, requiring a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing, and presenting the potential for loss or theft of the material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made of high quality materials and once this material has been sanitized, the demand for the component metals for recycling efforts is very high. The DSO process for NGPF, classified components established the credibility of this technique for addressing the long-term storage requirements of the classified weapons component inventory. The success of this application has generated interest from other Sandia organizations and other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are requesting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these requests by expanding its scope to include Work-for- Other projects. For example

  15. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities in... operator, may not conduct surface mining activities that would disturb the surface of land within 100...

  16. Disassembler mezikódu jazyka Java

    Macháček, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá popisem struktury mezikódu jazyka Java a disassemblováním instrukcí mezikódu jazyka Java. Součástí této práce je knihovna pro disassemblování souborů tříd jazyka Java. Knihovna umožňuje zobrazit veškeré disassemblované informace uložené v souboru tříd. Pro ukázku práce s knihovnou byla napsána i jednoduchá aplikace s grafickým uživatelským rozhraním. This thesis focus on the structure of Java class file and disassembling bytecode instructions of Java language. Part of ...

  17. Disassembling and modification of RA-3

    The objective of this paper is to describe the partial disassembling and modification of RA-3, called the Modernization Project. It comprises all the technical and administrative steps directly related with this task. The improvement of RA-3 is a result of the lack of 90% enriched uranium obliging a change over to 20% enriched uranium. This brought about design modifications both in fuel elements and the reactor. The presentation of documents for the licensing authority as well as are detailed separately. The modernization project was divided in 25 tasks: 1) changing fuel element support table, 2) changing heat exchanger, 3) repairing of cooling towers, 4) repairing of primary circuit valves, 5) repairing of irradiation channels, 6) construction of a new sampler, 7) changing tangential channel, 8) cleaning and disassembling of reactor (inside), 9) changing continuous demineralizer (ion exchange column), 10) detection of failure in fuel elements, 11) modification of nuclear instrumentation, 12) modification of conventional instrumentation, 13) modification of electrical system, 14) changing telemanipulators, 15) construction of mechanism bridge, 16) changing a primary circuit valve when the heat exchanger is changed too, 17) painting ground floor, hall floor, and pump room floor with epoxy resin levelling, 18) installation of fire alarm system, 19) radioactive liquid discharge, 20) modification of secondary circuit (This task involves: a) installation of a third secondary pump, b) extension of this piping, c) installation of two 12 inch valves to the present cooling towers pools independent, d) installation of filtering system), 21) optimization hot water bed, 22) changing detector support table, 23) removal, decontamination and reinstallation of shielding, 25) changing pneumatic system

  18. Less precise motor control leads to increased agonist-antagonist muscle activation during stick balancing.

    Reeves, N Peter; Popovich, John M; Vijayanagar, Vilok; Pathak, Pramod K

    2016-06-01

    Human motor control has constraints in terms of its responsiveness, which limit its ability to successfully perform tasks. In a previous study, it was shown that the ability to balance an upright stick became progressively more challenging as the natural frequency (angular velocity without control) of the stick increased. Furthermore, forearm and trunk agonist and antagonist muscle activation increased as the natural frequency of the stick increased, providing evidence that the central nervous system produces agonist-antagonist muscle activation to match task dynamics. In the present study, visual feedback of the stick position was influenced by changing where subject focused on the stick during stick balancing. It was hypothesized that a lower focal height would degrade motor control (more uncertainty in tracking stick position), thus making balancing more challenging. The probability of successfully balancing the stick at four different focal heights was determined along with the average angular velocity of the stick. Electromyographic signals from forearm and trunk muscles were also recorded. As expected, the probability of successfully balancing the stick decreased and the average angular velocity of the stick increased as subjects focused lower on the stick. In addition, changes in the level of agonist and antagonist muscle activation in the forearm and trunk was linearly related to changes in the angular velocity of the stick during balancing. One possible explanation for this is that the central nervous system increases muscle activation to account for less precise motor control, possibly to improve the responsiveness of human motor control. PMID:27010497

  19. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  20. Activeness as a key to counter democratic balance

    Qian, Shen; Liu, Yijun; Galam, Serge

    2015-08-01

    According to the classic Galam model of opinion dynamics, each agent participates at each update of an opinion interaction. While the scheme gives everyone the same chance to influence others, in reality, social activity and influence vary considerably from one agent to another. To account for such a feature, we introduce a new individual attribute-"activeness"-which makes some agents more inclined than others at engaging in local discussions. To enhance the corresponding effect, opinion updates are shifted from all-out agent interaction cycles to few agent interaction cycles. Using dynamic analysis and simulations the resulting model is found to exhibit a "Minority Counteroffensive" phenomenon, which under some initial conditions makes the minority to win the opinion competition despite a threshold tipping point at fifty percent. The associated probabilistic phenomenon persists in the case "activeness" is held equal for all agents. The effect of "opinion leaders" is also investigated. Indeed, a leader is an inflexible agent, i.e., an agent who does not change opinion. The results reveal that two opinion leaders with moderate social influence may have a stronger effect than one opinion leader with a strong social influence. The model may shed a new light to the understanding of opinion formation and public voting.

  1. Dynamics of supercapacitor bank with uncontrolled active balancer for engine starting

    Highlights: • Analytic performance of an open-loop operated supercapacitor balancer is revealed. • Natural balancing is shown to be always attained. • Excessive currents arise when the initial voltage misbalance is significant. - Abstract: In this paper, analytical investigation of an actively balanced open-loop operated supercapacitor bank is presented. Supercapacitor unit is utilized for 28 V auxiliary power unit diesel engine starting, allowing relieving the battery from multiple starting stresses. Dynamical equations of the system based on a synchronous bidirectional buck-boost converter are developed by splitting the solution into zero-input and zero-state responses. It is revealed that the system, which is typically nonlinear because of buck-boost converter presence, becomes linear when operated in open loop. Moreover, natural balancing is achieved when the converter is operated with 50% duty cycle. It is shown that balancing time is independent on initial conditions while system damping strongly depends on parasitic resistances especially in practical case of large capacitors and small inductance. Inductor current peak value and balancing time are obtained analytically and validated by simulations. It is revealed that while natural balancing is always achieved, excessive currents may arise when the initial voltage misbalance is significant. In addition, it is shown that one-switching-cycle averaged model is in close agreement with detailed switched model. The presented findings are fully supported by extended simulations

  2. DESIGN OF MACHINES FOR ASSEMBLY, DISASSEMBLY AND REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Ryszard ROHATYŃSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new problems of machine and other industrial products design that result from reverse logistics needs. Postulate to close the material cycle in economy poses for designer teams new, other than heretofore issues. Design for assembly that principles, methodology, and co-ordination in the frame of concurrent design already exist, does not meet demands of reverse logistics. There is a need for taking into consideration disassembly processes. The disassembly should take into regard material recovery processes and the reverse logistics requirements. In the paper general principles of the design for disassembly with allowing for these processes have been formulated.

  3. Effects of flow balancing on active magnetic regenerator performance

    Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Experiments with a recently constructed rotary multi-bed active magnetic regnenerator (AMR) prototype have revealed strong impacts on the temperature span from variations in the resistances of the flow channels carrying heat transfer fluid in and out of the regenerator beds. In this paper we show...... through numerical modeling how unbalanced flow in the beds decreases the cooling power and COP for a dual bed device. Furthermore, it is shown how resistance variations in multi-bed devices give rise to unbalanced flow in the individual beds and how this decreases cooling powers and COPs of the machines...

  4. New package for Belleville spring permits rate change, easy disassembly

    Mac Glashan, W. F.

    1964-01-01

    A spring package, with grooves to hold the spring washers at the inner and outer edges, reduces hysteresis to a minimum. Three-segment retainers permit easy disassembly so that the spring rate can be changed.

  5. Dismantling and disassembly techniques in nuclear facility decommissioning

    Because of the complexity of demolishing nuclear facilities, the components to be treated require specific measures. One important aspect in nuclear plant decommissioning is the partial or complete disassembly of specific plant structures, especially with a view to minimizing the volume of materials to be moved into final storage. In this connection, both decontamination and disassembly and decomposition techniques and their combinations with handling systems are presented. Decontamination procedures must be adapted to the materials to be treated. Disassembly techniques may be of a mechanical, electro-mechanical, thermal or chemical type, and may be associated with the use of handling systems, such as central mast manipulators or, e.g., master - slave manipulators. Flexible systems lend themselves to many uses also because of their economic advantages. Some selected areas of research in disassembly techniques, manual cutting techniques, and the demolition of graphite structures are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  6. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  7. Assembly and disassembly of mammalian chromosome pellicle

    NIZUMEI; JELITTLE; 等

    1992-01-01

    By means of indirect double immunofluorescent staining,the coordination of PI antigen and perichromonucleolin(PCN),the constituent of nuclear periphery and nucleolus respectively,in the assembly and disassembly of chromosome pellicle during mitosis was studied.It was found that in 3T3 cells,during mitosis PI antigen began to coat the condensing chromosome surface earlier than PCN did.However,both of them completed their coating on chromosome at approximately the same stage of mitosis,prometaphase metaphase,The dissociation of mitosis,Prometaphase metaphase.The dissociation of PI antigen from chromosome pellicle to participate the formation of nuclear periphery took place also ahead of that of PCN,At early telophase PI antigen had been extensively involved in the formation of nuclear periphery,while PCN remained in association with the surface of decondensing chromosomes.At late telophase,when PI antigen was localized in an fairly well formed nuclear periphery,PCN was in a stage of forming prenucleolar bodies.

  8. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  9. Assembly and Disassembly Planning by using Fuzzy Logic & Genetic Algorithms

    Galantucci, L. M.; Percoco, G.; Spina, R

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose the implementation of hybrid Fuzzy Logic-Genetic Algorithm (FL-GA) methodology to plan the automatic assembly and disassembly sequence of products. The GA-Fuzzy Logic approach is implemented onto two levels. The first level of hybridization consists of the development of a Fuzzy controller for the parameters of an assembly or disassembly planner based on GAs. This controller acts on mutation probability and crossover rate in order to adapt their values dynamically while th...

  10. Experimental comparison studies with the VENUS-II disassembly code

    The Kiwi-TNT, SNAPTRAN-2 and SNAPTRAN-3 reactor disassembly experiments have been analyzed using the VENUS-II disassembly code. Modifications to the basic VENUS-II model required for the analysis of these tests are discussed. Key results from the analyses are compared to the experimental data and conclusions are drawn concerning the experimental validation of VENUS-II afforded by these comparisons

  11. Effects of activity and energy budget balancing algorithm on laboratory performance of a fish bioenergetics model

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that were fed ad libitum in laboratory tanks under regimes of low activity and high activity. In addition, we compared model performance under two different model algorithms: (1) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t and (2) balancing the lake trout energy budget on day t based on lake trout energy density on day t + 1. Results indicated that the model significantly underestimated consumption for both inactive and active lake trout when algorithm 1 was used and that the degree of underestimation was similar for the two activity levels. In contrast, model performance substantially improved when using algorithm 2, as no detectable bias was found in model predictions of consumption for inactive fish and only a slight degree of overestimation was detected for active fish. The energy budget was accurately balanced by using algorithm 2 but not by using algorithm 1. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of algorithm 2 to estimate food consumption by fish in the field. Our study results highlight the importance of accurately accounting for changes in fish energy density when balancing the energy budget; furthermore, these results have implications for the science of evaluating fish bioenergetics model performance and for more accurate estimation of food consumption by fish in the field when fish energy density undergoes relatively rapid changes.

  12. Disassembly and aggregation in computer aided overhaul preparation

    W. Janik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Disassembly and aggregation procedures are main aspects of an overhaul process. The paper presents the example of an application that solves automation of technical mean recirculation procedures. Automation in the aspect of overhaul process preparation should be obtained through new tools specially oriented to refurbish mechanically used or damaged components.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology is based on complex overhaul process analysis that conclude technical mean recirculation method. This method brings technical mean back to operation with procedures (like: disassembly, aggregation, examination, preparation of refurbishing technology, overhaul process report generation determined in specific order.Findings: Method of technical mean refurbishing with computer aid application. Proposition of automation in aspects of: disassembly (disassembly correct sequence and aggregation procedures (which elements should be examined.Research limitations/implications: Important limitations are: disassembly based on assembly order, automation widest range possible when disassembly and aggregation is based on existing documentation. Aggregation algorithm based on machined type of elements.Practical implications: Nowadays overhaul processes are based directly in most cases on leading technologist experience. Elaborated method and application leads to more objective solutions (decisions based on algorithms results.Originality/value: CAO is an original and new approach that should be considered especially in heavy industry. Nowadays subjective decisions about how to refurbish in overhaul processes could be replaced by automated computer aided solutions. Positive economic impact to future and present overhaul processes execution in industry.

  13. Newcomer Psychological Contracts and Employee Socialization Activities: Does Perceived Balance in Obligations Matter?

    Payne, Stephanie C.; Culbertson, Satoris S.; Boswell, Wendy R.; Barger, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which one's beliefs about the relationship between an employee and an organization at the start of employment influence subsequent socialization activities. The balance of employee exchange relationships, employee perceptions of both their own obligations and the employers' obligations, were collected from 120…

  14. Active Learning and Just-in-Time Teaching in a Material and Energy Balances Course

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of a material and energy balances course is enhanced through a series of in-class and out-of-class exercises. An active learning classroom is achieved, even at class sizes over 150 students, using multiple instructors in a single classroom, problem solving in teams, problems based on YouTube videos, and just-in-time teaching. To avoid…

  15. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  16. AGR-1 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    Paul Demkowicz; Lance Cole; Scott Ploger; Philip Winston; Binh Pham; Michael Abbott

    2011-01-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment ended on November 6, 2009, after 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor, achieving a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in March 2010 for post-irradiation examination. The first PIE activities included non-destructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and the graphite fuel holders. Dimensional measurements of the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsules shells were performed using a custom vision measurement system (for outer diameters and lengths) and conventional bore gauges (for inner diameters). Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Neutron radiography of the intact Capsule 2 showed a high degree of detail of interior components and confirmed the observation that there was no major damage to the capsule. Disassembly of the capsules was initiated using procedures qualified during out-of-cell mockup testing. Difficulties were encountered during capsule disassembly due to irradiation-induced changes in some of the capsule components’ properties, including embrittled niobium and molybdenum parts that were susceptible to fracture and swelling of the graphite fuel holders that affected their removal from the capsule shells. This required various improvised modifications to the disassembly procedure to avoid damage to the fuel compacts. Ultimately the capsule disassembly was successful and only one compact from Capsule 4 (out of 72 total in the test train) sustained damage during the disassembly process, along with the associated graphite holder. The compacts were generally in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor

  17. Physical activity level, musculoskeletal fitness,balance, strength and power performance in older adults

    Lohne-Seiler, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    The link between physical activity and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels where physical activity level has been measured objectively in association with self-reported health, musculoskeletal fitness and balance variables in older men and women. Also, little is known about the functional adaptive responses of older adults to pow...

  18. THREE-PHASE ACTIVE POWER FILTER CONTROLLER FOR BALANCED AND UNBALANCED NON-LINEAR LOAD

    G.NAGESWARA RAO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The active power filter produces equal but opposite harmonic currents to the point of connection with the nonlinear load. This results in a reduction of the original distortion and correction of the power factor. A threephase insulated gate bipolar transistor based current controlled voltage source inverter with a dc bus capacitor is used as an active filter. The firing pulses to the shunt active filter will be generated by using sine PWM method. The models for three-phase active power filter controller for balanced and unbalanced non-linear load is made and is simulated using Matlab/simulink software.

  19. Two separate mechanisms of enforced viral replication balance innate and adaptive immune activation.

    Shaabani, Namir; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Zhou, Fan; Tur, Rita Ferrer; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Tumanov, Alexei V; Hardt, Cornelia; Pinschewer, Daniel; Christen, Urs; Lang, Philipp A; Honke, Nadine; Lang, Karl S

    2016-02-01

    The induction of innate and adaptive immunity is essential for controlling viral infections. Limited or overwhelming innate immunity can negatively impair the adaptive immune response. Therefore, balancing innate immunity separately from activating the adaptive immune response would result in a better antiviral immune response. Recently, we demonstrated that Usp18-dependent replication of virus in secondary lymphatic organs contributes to activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Whether specific mechanisms can balance innate and adaptive immunity separately remains unknown. In this study, using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and replication-deficient single-cycle LCMV vectors, we found that viral replication of the initial inoculum is essential for activating virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits is necessary for inducing systemic levels of type I interferon (IFN-I). Although enforced virus replication is driven primarily by Usp18, B cell-derived lymphotoxin beta contributes to the extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits. Therefore, lymphotoxin beta regulates IFN-I induction independently of CD8(+) T-cell activity. We found that two separate mechanisms act together in the spleen to guarantee amplification of virus during infection, thereby balancing the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:26553386

  20. Reduced function and disassembled microtubules of cultured cardiomyocytes in spaceflight

    YANG Fen; DAI ZhongQuan; TAN YingJun; WAN YuMin; LI YingHui; DING Bai; NIE JieLin; WANG HongHui; ZHANG XiaoYou; WANG ChunYan; LING ShuKuan; NI ChengZhi

    2008-01-01

    Lack of gravity during spaceflight has profound effects on cardiovascular system, but little is known about how the cardiomyocytes respond to microgravity. In the present study, the effects of spaceflight on the structure and function of cultured cardiomyocytes were reported. The primary cultures of neo-natal rat cardiomyocytes were carried on Shenzhou-6 spacecraft and activated at 4 h in orbit. 8 samples were fixed respectively at 4, 48 and 96 h after launching for immunofluorescence of cytoskeleton, and 2 samples remained unfixed to analyze contractile and secretory functions of the cultures. Ground sam-ples were treated in our laboratory in parallel. After 115 h spaceflight, video recordings displayed that the number of spontaneous beating sites in flown samples decreased significantly, and the cells in the beating aggregate contracted in fast frequency without synchrony. Radioimmunoassay of the medium showed that the atrial natriuretic peptide secreted from flown cells reduced by 59.6%. Confocal images demonstrated the time-dependant disassembly of mirotubules versus unchanged distribution and or-ganization of microfilaments. In conclusion, above results indicate reduced function and disorganized cytoskeleton of cardiomyocytes in spaceflight, which might provide some cellular basis for further investigations to probe into the mechanisms underlying space cardiovascular dysfunction.

  1. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Decontamination, disassembly and waste management

    The term 'decommissioning', as used within the nuclear industry, means the actions taken at the end of a facility's useful life to retire the facility from service in a manner that provides adequate protection for the health and safety of the decommissioning workers, the general public, and for the environment. These actions can range from merely closing down the facility and a minimal removal of radioactive material coupled with continuing maintenance and surveillance, to a complete removal of residual radioactivity in excess of levels acceptable for unrestricted use of the facility and its site. This latter condition, unrestricted use, is the ultimate goal of all decommissioning actions at retired nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to provide an information base on the considerations important to decommissioning, the methods available for decontamination and disassembly of a nuclear facility, the management of the resulting radioactive wastes, and the areas of decommissioning methodology where improvements might be made. Specific sections are devoted to each of these topics, and conclusions are presented concerning the present status of each topic. A summary of past decommissioning experience in Member States is presented in the Appendix. The report, with its discussions of necessary considerations, available operational methods, and waste management practices, together with supporting references, provides an appreciation of the activities that comprise decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is anticipated that the information presented in the report should prove useful to persons concerned with the development of plans for the decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities

  2. Rehabilitation Exercises to Induce Balanced Scapular Muscle Activity in an Anti-gravity Posture.

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Yamanaka, Masanori; Hirokawa, Motoki; Tai, Keita; Ezawa, Yuya; Samukawa, Mina; Tohyama, Harukazu; Sugawara, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the intramuscular balance ratios of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) and the lower trapezius muscle (LT), and the intermuscular balance ratios of the UT and the serratus anterior muscle (SA) among prone extension (ProExt), prone horizontal abduction with external rotation (ProHAbd), forward flexion in the side-lying position (SideFlex), side-lying external rotation (SideEr), shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal abduction load (FlexBand), and shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal adduction load (FlexBall) in the standing posture. [Methods] The electromyographic (EMG) activities of the UT, LT and SA were measured during the tasks. The percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was calculated for each muscle, and the UT/LT ratios and the UT/SA ratios were compared among the tasks. [Results] The UT/LT ratio with the FlexBand was not significantly different from those of the four exercises in the side-lying and prone postures. The UT/SA ratio with the FlexBall demonstrated appropriate balanced activity. [Conclusion] In an anti-gravity posture, we recommend the FlexBand and the FlexBall for inducing balanced UT/LT and UT/SA ratios, respectively. PMID:25540485

  3. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 1998.

    VanDerhei, J; Holden, S; Quick, C

    2000-02-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) and the Investment Company Institute (ICI) have been collaborating for the past three years to collect data on participants in 401(k) plans. This effort, known as the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, has obtained data for 401(k) plan participants from certain of EBRI and ICI members serving as plan record keepers and administrators. The report includes 1998 information on 7.9 million active participants in 30,102 plans holding nearly $372 billion in assets. The data include demographic information, annual contributions, plan balances, asset allocation, and loans, and are broadly representative of the universe of 401(k) plans. The database also includes three years of longitudinal information on approximately 3.3 million participants. Key findings include: For all 401(k) participants in the 1998 EBRI/ICI database, almost three-quarters of plan balances are invested directly or indirectly in equity securities. Specifically, 49.8 percent of total plan balances are invested in equity funds, 17.7 percent in company stock, 11.4 percent in guaranteed investment contracts (GICs), 8.4 percent in balanced funds, 6.1 percent in bond funds, 4.7 percent in money funds, and 0.3 percent in other stable value funds. Participant asset allocation varies considerably with age. Younger participants tend to favor equity funds, while older participants are more disposed to invest in GICs and bond funds. On average, participants in their 20s have 62.1 percent of their account balances invested in equity funds, in contrast to 39.8 percent for those in their 60s. Participants in their 20s invest 4.7 percent of their assets in GICs, while those in their 60s invest 20.6 percent. Bond funds, which represent 4.7 percent of the assets of participants in their 20s, amount to 9.0 percent of the assets of participants in their 60s. Investment options offered by 401(k) plans appear to influence asset allocation

  4. Alveolar Type II Cells Escape Stress Failure Caused by Tonic Stretch through Transient Focal Adhesion Disassembly

    Xiao-Yang Liu, Xiao-Fei Chen, Yan-Hong Ren, Qing-Yuan Zhan, Chen Wang, Chun Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation-induced excessive stretch of alveoli is reported to induce cellular stress failure and subsequent lung injury, and is therefore an injurious factor to the lung. Avoiding cellular stress failure is crucial to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI treatment. In the present study, primary rat alveolar type II (ATII cells were isolated to evaluate their viability and the mechanism of their survival under tonic stretch. By the annexin V/ PI staining and flow cytometry assay, we demonstrated that tonic stretch-induced cell death is an immediate injury of mechanical stress. In addition, immunofluorescence and immunoblots assay showed that the cells experienced an expansion-contraction-reexpansion process, accompanied by partial focal adhesion (FA disassembly during contraction. Manipulation of integrin adherent affinity by altering bivalent cation levels in the culture medium and applying an integrin neutralizing antibody showed that facilitated adhesion affinity promoted cell death under tonic stretch, while lower level of adhesion protected the cells from stretch-induced stress failure. Finally, a simplified numerical model was established to reveal that adequate disassembly of FAs reduced the forces transmitting throughout the cell. Taken together, these results indicate that ATII cells escape stress failure caused by tonic stretch via active cell morphological remodeling, during which cells transiently disassemble FAs to unload mechanical forces.

  5. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2007.

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis; Copeland, Craig

    2008-12-01

    The bulk of 401(k) assets continued to be invested in stocks. On average, at year-end 2007, about two-thirds of 401(k) participants' assets were invested in equity securities through equity funds, the equity portion of balanced funds, and company stock. About one-third was in fixed-income securities such as stable value investments and bond and money market funds. Although these relative shares have changed little over the past 12 years, the underlying fund composition has changed over time. About two-thirds of 401(k) plans included lifecycle funds in their investment lineup at year-end 2007. New analysis shows that at year-end 2007, more than 7 percent of the assets in the EBRI/ICI database were invested in lifecycle funds and one-quarter of 401(k) participants held lifecycle funds. Also known as "target date" funds, they are designed to simplify investing and automate account rebalancing. New employees continued to utilize balanced funds, including lifecyclefunds. Across all age groups, more new or recent hires invested their 401(k) assets in balanced funds, including lifecycle funds. At year-end 2007, 28 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in balanced funds, compared with 24 percent in 2006, 19 percent in 2005, and about 7 percent in 1998. At year-end 2007, almost 19 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in lifecycle funds compared with 16 percent at year-end 2006. 401(k) participants continued to seek diversification of their investments. The share of 401(k) accounts invested in company stock continued to shrink, falling by 0.5 percentage point (to 10.6 percent) in 2007. That continued a steady decline that started in 1999. Recently hired 401(k) participants contributed to this trend: they were less likely to hold employer stock. Participants' 401(k) loan activity was stable. In 2007, 18 percent of all 401(k) participants eligible for loans had a loan

  6. Activity, balance, learning, and exposure (ABLE): A new intervention for fear of falling

    Wetherell, JL; Johnson, K.; Chang, D; Ward, SR; Bower, ES; Merz, C; Petkus, AJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Objective: Fear of falling is an important problem among older adults, even those with relatively low rates of objective fall risk, who are often overlooked as targets for intervention. Method: We developed and pilot tested a new intervention, Activity, Balance, Learning, and Exposure (ABLE), in a sample of 10 older adults with excessive fear of falling. The ABLE intervention integrates exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring with a home safety evaluation a...

  7. Balance recovery is compromised and trunk muscle activity is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Smith, Michelle D; Chang, Angela T; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Increased respiration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires greater abdominal muscle activation, which may impact on contribution of the trunk to postural control. This study aimed to determine whether recovery of balance from postural perturbations and trunk muscle activity differs in people with and without COPD before and/or after exercise. Electromyography (EMG) of the obliquus internus (OI) and externus (OE) abdominis, rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and deltoid muscles was recorded with surface electrodes during rapid shoulder flexion and extension. Time taken to regain baseline centre of pressure velocity (vCOP) and the number of postural adjustments following arm movement was calculated from force plate data. Time to recover balance in the direction of postural disturbance (anteroposterior vCOP) was longer in COPD, particularly more severe COPD, than controls. Mediolateral vCOP (perpendicular to the perturbation) and the number of postural adjustments did not differ between groups, but people with more severe COPD were less successful at returning their mediolateral vCOP to baseline. Abdominal muscle EMG was similar between groups, but controls had greater ES EMG during arm movements. Individuals with more severe COPD had greater OE and RA EMG both before and during arm movement compared to those with less severe COPD and controls. Following exercise, OE and ES EMG increased in people with less severe COPD. This study shows that severe COPD is associated with impaired ability to recover balance and greater trunk muscle activity during postural challenges. Augmented trunk muscle activity may limit the contribution of trunk movements to balance recovery and could contribute to increased falls risk. PMID:26471324

  8. Effect of isotonic and isokinetic exercise on muscle activity and balance of the ankle joint

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to examine how the balance of lower limbs and the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), the medial gastrocnemius (GCM), and the peroneus longus (PL) are influenced by isotonic and isokinetic exercise of the ankle joint. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were healthy adults (n=20), and they were divided into two groups (isotonic=10, isokinetic=10). [Methods] Isotonic group performed 3 sets of 10 contractions at 50% of MVIC and Isokinetic group ...

  9. Design of a perfect balance system for active upper-extremity exoskeletons.

    Smith, Richard L; Lobo-Prat, Joan; van der Kooij, Herman; Stienen, Arno H A

    2013-06-01

    Passive gravity compensation in exoskeletons significantly reduces the amount of torque and energy needed from the actuators. So far, no design has been able to achieve perfect balance without compromising the exoskeleton characteristics. Here we propose a novel design that integrates an existing statically-balanced mechanism with two springs and four degrees of freedom into a general-purpose exoskeleton design, that can support any percentage of the combined weight of exoskeleton and arm. As it allows for three rotational degrees of freedom at the shoulder and one at the elbow, it does not compromise exoskeleton characteristics and can be powered with any choice of passive or active actuation method. For instance, with this design a perfectly balanced exoskeleton design with inherently safe, passive actuators on each joint axis becomes possible. The potential reduction in required actuator torque, power and weight, simplification of control, improved dynamic performance, and increased safety margin, all while maintaining perfect balance, are the major advantages of the design, but the integrated systems does add a significant amount of complexity. Future integration in an actual exoskeleton should prove if this tradeoff is beneficial. PMID:24187195

  10. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults.

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. PMID:27203382

  11. Unexplained Chest Pain and Physical Activity: Balancing Between Existential Uncertainty and Certainty.

    Røysland, Ingrid Ølfarnes; Friberg, Febe

    2016-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common complaints in medical settings, but the majority of cases have no detectable cause. Physical activity is recommended, but is one of the major avoidance behaviors in patients with coronary heart disease. The article aims at achieving an understanding of the meaning of physical activity for people with unexplained chest pain. Fifteen people were interviewed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach, with the results revealing four themes: "awareness of the influence of previous life experiences on the decision to be physically active," "unanswered questions related to physical activity and unexplained chest pain," "intertwinement of body and mind," and "physical activity as a source of personal growth." Comprehensive understanding was formulated as "Being physically active while living with unexplained chest pain means balancing between existential uncertainty and certainty." The results are discussed in relation to capability. It is suggested that health professionals adopt a person-centered approach. PMID:25662944

  12. Disassembling "evapotranspiration" in-situ with a complex measurement tool

    Chormanski, Jaroslaw; Kleniewska, Malgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Sporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatylowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them from the total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its components transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project will be the estimation of energy and

  13. AGR-2 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    Ploger, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Demkowciz, Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The AGR 2 irradiation experiment began in June 2010 and was completed in October 2013. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in July 2014 for post-irradiation examination (PIE). The first PIE activities included nondestructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and their graphite fuel holders. Dimensional metrology was then performed on the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsule shells. AGR 2 disassembly and metrology were performed with the same equipment used successfully on AGR 1 test train components. Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Disassembly of the AGR 2 test train and its capsules was conducted rapidly and efficiently by employing techniques refined during the AGR 1 disassembly campaign. Only one major difficulty was encountered while separating the test train into capsules when thermocouples (of larger diameter than used in AGR 1) and gas lines jammed inside the through tubes of the upper capsules, which required new tooling for extraction. Disassembly of individual capsules was straightforward with only a few minor complications. On the whole, AGR 2 capsule structural components appeared less embrittled than their AGR 1 counterparts. Compacts from AGR 2 Capsules 2, 3, 5, and 6 were in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor damage or markings were visible using high resolution photographic inspection. Compact dimensional measurements indicated radial shrinkage between 0.8 to 1.7%, with the greatest shrinkage observed on Capsule 2 compacts that were irradiated at higher temperature. Length shrinkage ranged from 0.1 to 0.9%, with by far the lowest axial shrinkage on Capsule 3 compacts

  14. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material

  15. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2009.

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis

    2010-11-01

    of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in balanced funds, compared with 36 percent in 2008, and about 7 percent in 1998. At year-end 2009, 31 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s was invested in lifecycle funds, compared with almost 23 percent at year-end 2008. 401(K) PARTICIPANTS CONTINUED TO SEEK DIVERSIFICATION OF THEIR INVESTMENTS: The share of 401(k) accounts invested in company stock continued to shrink, falling by half of a percentage point (to 9.2 percent) in 2009. That continued a steady decline that started in 1999. Recently hired 401(k) participants contributed to this trend: They tended to be less likely to hold employer stock. PARTICIPANTS' 401(K) LOAN ACTIVITY ROSE IN 2009: In 2009, 21 percent of all 401(k) participants eligible for loans had a loan outstanding against their 401(k) account, compared with 18 percent at year-end 2008 and year-end 2007. Loans outstanding amounted to 15 percent of the remaining account balance, on average, at year-end 2009, compared with 16 percent at year-end 2008. Loan amounts remained in line with the past few years in terms of typical dollar amounts. PMID:21306082

  16. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2008.

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis

    2009-10-01

    28 percent in 2007, and about 7 percent in 1998. At year-end 2008, almost 23 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in lifecycle funds, compared with almost 19 percent at year-end 2007. 401(K) PARTICIPANTS CONTINUED TO SEEK DIVERSIFICATION OF THEIR INVESTMENTS. The share of 401(k) accounts invested in company stock continued to shrink, falling by nearly 1 percentage point (to 9.7 percent) in 2008. That continued a steady decline that started in 1999. Recently hired 401(k) participants contributed to this trend: they were less likely to hold employer stock. PARTICIPANTS' 401(K) LOAN ACTIVITY WAS STABLE. In 2008, 18 percent of all 401(k) participants eligible for loans had a loan outstanding against their 401(k) account, the same percentage as at year-end 2007 and year-end 2006. Loans outstanding amounted to 16 percent of the remaining account balance, on average, at year-end 2008; this is similar to the year-end 2002 level. PMID:19916277

  17. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2011.

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis; Bass, Steven

    2012-12-01

    THE BULK OF 401(K) ASSETS CONTINUED TO BE INVESTED IN STOCKS: On average, at year-end 2011, 61 percent of 401(k) participants' assets was invested in equity securities through equity funds, the equity portion of balanced funds, and company stock. Thirty-four percent was in fixed-income securities such as stable-value investments and bond and money funds. SEVENTY-TWO PERCENT OF 401(K) PLANS INCLUDED TARGET-DATE FUNDS IN THEIR INVESTMENT LINEUP AT YEAR-END 2011: At year-end 2011, 13 percent of the assets in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database was invested in target-date funds and 39 percent of 401(k) participants held target-date funds. Also known as lifecycle funds, these funds are designed to offer a diversified portfolio that automatically rebalances to be more focused on income over time. MORE NEW OR RECENT HIRES INVESTED THEIR 401(K) ASSETS IN BALANCED FUNDS, INCLUDING TARGET-DATE FUNDS: For example, at year-end 2011, 51 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s was invested in balanced funds, compared with 44 percent in 2010, and about 7 percent in 1998. A significant subset of that balanced fund category is target-date funds. At year-end 2011, 40 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s was invested in target-date funds, compared with 35 percent at year-end 2010. 401(K) PARTICIPANTS CONTINUED TO SEEK DIVERSIFICATION OF THEIR INVESTMENTS: The share of 401(k) accounts invested in company stock remained at 8 percent in 2011. This share has fallen by more than half since 1999. Recently hired 401(k) participants contributed to this trend: They tended to be less likely to hold employer stock. PARTICIPANTS' 401(K) LOAN ACTIVITY REMAINED STEADY, ALTHOUGH LOAN BALANCES INCREASED SLIGHTLY IN 2011: At year-end 2011, 21 percent of all 401(k) participants who were eligible for loans had loans outstanding against their 401(k) accounts, unchanged from year-end 2009 and year-end 2010, and up from 18 percent at year

  18. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    Peng Mou; Dong Xiang; Guanghong Duan

    2013-01-01

    Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs) has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the ...

  19. Teaching Assembly for Disassembly; An Under-Graduate Module Experience

    Alexandri, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about the experience of teaching Assembly for Disassembly to fourth year architect students within the module of sustainable design. When designing a sustainable building one should take into consideration the fact that the building is going to be demolished in some years; thus the materials should be assembled in such a way so that…

  20. CPAP promotes timely cilium disassembly to maintain neural progenitor pool.

    Gabriel, Elke; Wason, Arpit; Ramani, Anand; Gooi, Li Ming; Keller, Patrick; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Poser, Ina; Noack, Florian; Telugu, Narasimha Swamy; Calegari, Federico; Šarić, Tomo; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hyman, Anthony A; Gottardo, Marco; Callaini, Giuliano; Alkuraya, Fowzan Sami; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2016-04-15

    A mutation in the centrosomal-P4.1-associated protein (CPAP) causes Seckel syndrome with microcephaly, which is suggested to arise from a decline in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) during development. However, mechanisms ofNPCs maintenance remain unclear. Here, we report an unexpected role for the cilium inNPCs maintenance and identifyCPAPas a negative regulator of ciliary length independent of its role in centrosome biogenesis. At the onset of cilium disassembly,CPAPprovides a scaffold for the cilium disassembly complex (CDC), which includes Nde1, Aurora A, andOFD1, recruited to the ciliary base for timely cilium disassembly. In contrast, mutatedCPAPfails to localize at the ciliary base associated with inefficientCDCrecruitment, long cilia, retarded cilium disassembly, and delayed cell cycle re-entry leading to premature differentiation of patientiPS-derivedNPCs. AberrantCDCfunction also promotes premature differentiation ofNPCs in SeckeliPS-derived organoids. Thus, our results suggest a role for cilia in microcephaly and its involvement during neurogenesis and brain size control. PMID:26929011

  1. Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Actively Follow Simple Instructions and Perform Designated Physical Activities According to Simple Instructions with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chen, Ling-Che

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance standing location detector. This study extended Wii Balance Board functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated physical activities according to simple…

  2. Study on the application of active balancing device to solve the vibration problem for the rotor with bending fault

    He Lidong; Shen Wei; Gao Jinji; Zhou Weihua

    2006-01-01

    The rotor with bending faults that occurrs on the rotating machinery usually vibrates seriously. This paper investigates to apply the active balancing device on a flexible rotor with bending faults to solve the vibration problem. Two problems are studied by finite element method firstly: Where the balance actuator is fixed on the shaft and how much the balancing capacity of the active balancing device is needed. The experiment is then carried out on the test rig, which consists of a flexible rotor with bending faults. The test results indicate that the bending rotor peak vibration response can be decreased from 550μm to 40μm below by using the active balancing device. The peak vibration response decreases approximately by 93%. The synchronous vibration due to the rotor bending faults can be controlled effectively by using active balancing device. The active balancing device is especially adapted to solve the problem caused by thermal distortion with time-variation and randomness, which is varied with working conditions, thus it has good practical value in practice.

  3. Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults.

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Plisky, Phillip J; Kiesel, Kyle B

    2012-11-01

    The inclusion of movement tests before performance training and sport participation is gaining popularity as part of musculoskeletal screening for injury. The identification of an athlete's asymmetries and poor performance in the preseason allows coaches and sports medicine clinicians the opportunity to proactively address these deficits to reduce the potential for injury. Currently, there are no tests reported in the literature that simultaneously require shoulder and core stability while taking the subjects through a large range of motion at the end range of their stability. Thus, the purpose of this article was to describe the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test and report the gender differences in the performance of the test. Upper extremity reach distances were measured in 95 active adults using a standardized upper extremity balance-and-reach protocol. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability, and gender differences were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, whereas bilateral differences were analyzed using a dependent samples t-test for the normalized composite reach scores. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.80 to 0.99. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for interrater reliability was 1.00. Average composite scores (right/left) reported as a percentage of limb length were 81.7/82.3% for men and 80.7/80.7% for women. The results of the study suggest that the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test is a reliable test for measuring upper extremity reach distance while in a closed-chain position. It was further determined that there was no significant difference in performance between genders or between sides on the test when normalized to limb length. Coaches and sports medicine professionals may consider incorporating the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test as part of their preprogram testing to identify movement limitations and asymmetries in athletes and thereby may reduce injury. PMID:22228174

  4. The effect of virtual reality-based eccentric training on lower extremity muscle activation and balance in stroke patients

    Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Uhm, Yo Han; Heo, Jae Won; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of virtual reality-based eccentric training on lower extremity muscle activity and balance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated, with 15 patients allotted to each of two eccentric training groups: one using a slow velocity (group I) and one using a fast velocity (group II). The virtual reality-based eccentric training was performed by the patients for 30 minutes once a day, 5 days a week, for 8 weeks using an Eccentron system. Surface electromyography was used to measure the lower extremity muscle activity, while a BioRescue was used to measure balancing ability. [Results] A significant difference in lower extremity muscle activation and balance ability was observed in group I compared with group II. [Conclusion] This study showed that virtual reality-based eccentric training using a slow velocity is effective for improving lower extremity muscle activity and balance in stroke patients. PMID:27512263

  5. Associations between active video gaming and other energy-balance related behaviours in adolescents: a 24-hour recall diary study

    Simons, Monique; Mai J M Chinapaw; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    Background Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not other physical activity, and when it is not associated with a higher energy intake. The current study therefore examines the association between active video gaming and other energy-balance-related beh...

  6. A Study of the Effect of Preschool Children's Participation in Sensorimotor Activities on Their Understanding of the Mechanical Equilibrium of a Balance Beam

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Anastasiou, Leonidas; Konsolas, Manos; Prevezanou, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participation in sensorimotor activities by preschool children involving their own bodily balance while walking on a beam over the floor has an effect on their understanding of the mechanical equilibrium of a balance beam. The balance beam consisted of a horizontal stick balancing around its…

  7. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Trouvin, Anne-Priscille; Goëb, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, ...

  8. Design performances and chemistry program supporting the FA3 /UKEPRTM activity management: experience and modeling balance

    EPRTM reactor accounts with an evolutionary design that provides the appropriate features to ensure the safety implementation of different chemistry and radiochemistry options. ALARP considerations have been taken into account by EDF-AREVA for making decisions relating to the activity management in the primary circuit of Flamanville 3-EPRTM and UK-EPRTM reactors. The water chemistry and radiochemistry concept implemented in FA3-EPRTM and UK-EPRTM reactors is the result of an exhaustive selection process based on the balance between the theoretical developments, the laboratory tests and the NPP experience concerning the diverse areas associated with: - The source term identification and characterization: The understanding of the origin and behavior of fission products/actinides, corrosion products and activation products constitutes the essential support for the selection of suitable parameters and criteria to monitor the system integrity, the tramp-uranium and radiation build-up and the discharges to the environment. - The source term quantification: The balance between the baseline data from PWR forerunner reactors and the assessments performed by modeling constitutes the major demonstration of the source term accuracy. This approach ensures that activity risks are understood and can be managed with the EPRTM design options. - The EPRTM design options evaluation: The sensitivity analysis results show the influence of the fuel management, the material choice and the chemistry conditioning on several domains such as the activity coolant and the fuel/ex-core crud management. EDF-AREVA demonstrates by means of this process that the design, sizing and chemistry conditioning of EPRTM reactor primary circuit are adapted to guarantee the correct activity management. The methodology developed, based on qualitative and quantitative assessments, intends to propose to the Nuclear Industry several alternatives for evaluating and/or improving the compliance with requirements

  9. Balance control and anti-gravity muscle activity during the experience of fear at heights.

    Wuehr, Max; Kugler, Guenter; Schniepp, Roman; Eckl, Maria; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Fear of heights occurs when a visual stimulus causes the apprehension of losing balance and falling. A moderate form of visual height intolerance (vHI) affects about one third of the general population and has relevant consequences for the quality of life. A quantitative evaluation of balance mechanisms in persons susceptible to vHI during height exposure is missing. VHI-related changes in postural control were assessed by center-of-pressure displacements and electromyographic recordings of selected leg, arm, and neck muscles in 16 subjects with vHI while standing at heights on an emergency balcony versus standing in the laboratory at ground level. Characteristics of open- and closed-loop postural control were analyzed. Body sway and muscle activity parameters were correlated with the subjective estimates of fear at heights. During height exposure, (1) open-loop control was disturbed by a higher diffusion activity (P anti-gravity leg and neck muscles, both of which depend on the severity of evoked fear at heights. PMID:24744901

  10. Mucin-mediated nanocarrier disassembly for triggered uptake of oligonucleotides as a delivery strategy for the potential treatment of mucosal tumours

    Martirosyan, A; Olesen, M J; Fenton, R A;

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin-mediated d......This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin...

  11. Recycling Potential and Design for Disassembly in Buildings

    Thormark, Catarina

    2001-01-01

    Recycling as part of environmental considerations has become a common feature in architecture and building construction. Recycling of building waste can make a considerable contribution to reducing the total environmental impact of the building sector. To increase the scope for recycling in the future, aspects of recycling have to be included in the design phase. Design for disassembly is a key task to increase the future scope for recycling. One object has been to elucidate the environmental...

  12. Quality management of disassembly of multicomponent compounds using thermal action

    Павлова, Анна Алексеевна; Романов, Сергей Валерьевич; Лагода, Анна Николаевна

    2015-01-01

    Dismantling connections with a tightness or smelting of low-melting filler, Lich non-stationarity of the processes, since in addition to real transformation in their periodic thermal changes occurring elements. To ensure the minimum energy consumption and maximum system performance, fast-heat, and should be targeted, - in the shortest period of time necessary to heat only those portions of the female part of the compound which provides the expansion required for disassembly thermal gap or a p...

  13. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study

  14. Integrated Design of an Active Torque Balancing Mechanism and a Planetary Gear Reducer

    Sun, Jing; Yao, Yanan

    In this paper, a novel concept of integrating an active torque balancing mechanism with a planetary gear reducer is presented. This integrated device is composed of a speed reduction unit and a torque compensation unit. The speed reduction unit, which contains a two-stage planetary gear train, can make the device to transform the speed and torque for meeting the needed requirements of the machine. The torque compensation unit, which consists of a differential gear train and a servo motor, can make the device to balance the input torque fluctuations of the mechanical system. Through an analytical method, an exact control function which can totally eliminate the input torque fluctuation of the driving motor of the machine is derived for the servo motor of the integrated device. At the same time, by adjusting the structure parameters of the differential gear train, the torque fluctuation of the servo motor can be limited too. Besides, in order to obtain a satisfactory tradeoff between the torque fluctuations of the driving motor and the servo motor, an optimization method is developed to find an appropriate control function for the servo motor. In addition, an integrated approach is proposed to optimize both the structure parameters of the differential gear train and the control function of the servo motor. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the design procedures and to show their feasibilities.

  15. Ipl1/Aurora B kinase coordinates synaptonemal complex disassembly with cell cycle progression and crossover formation in budding yeast meiosis

    Jordan, Philip; Copsey, Alice; Newnham, Louise; Kolar, E; Lichten, M; Hoffmann, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Several protein kinases collaborate to orchestrate and integrate cellular and chromosomal events at the G2/M transition in both mitotic and meiotic cells. During the G2/M transition in meiosis, this includes the completion of crossover recombination, spindle formation, and synaptonemal complex (SC) breakdown. We identified Ipl1/Aurora B kinase as the main regulator of SC disassembly. Mutants lacking Ipl1 or its kinase activity assemble SCs with normal timing, but fail to dissociate the centra...

  16. Changing Balance of Spinal Cord Excitability and Nociceptive Brain Activity in Early Human Development.

    Hartley, Caroline; Moultrie, Fiona; Gursul, Deniz; Hoskin, Amy; Adams, Eleri; Rogers, Richard; Slater, Rebeccah

    2016-08-01

    In adults, nociceptive reflexes and behavioral responses are modulated by a network of brain regions via descending projections to the spinal dorsal horn [1]. Coordinated responses to noxious inputs manifest from a balance of descending facilitation and inhibition. In contrast, young infants display exaggerated and uncoordinated limb reflexes [2]. Our understanding of nociceptive processing in the infant brain has been advanced by the use of electrophysiological and hemodynamic imaging [3-6]. From approximately 35 weeks' gestation, nociceptive-specific patterns of brain activity emerge [7], whereas prior to this, non-specific bursts of activity occur in response to noxious, tactile, visual, and auditory stimulation [7-10]. During the preterm period, refinement of spinal cord excitability is also observed: reflex duration shortens, response threshold increases, and improved discrimination between tactile and noxious events occurs [2, 11, 12]. However, the development of descending modulation in human infants remains relatively unexplored. In 40 infants aged 28-42 weeks' gestation, we examined the relationship between nociceptive brain activity and spinal reflex withdrawal activity in response to a clinically essential noxious procedure. Nociceptive-specific brain activity increases in magnitude with gestational age, whereas reflex withdrawal activity decreases in magnitude, duration, and latency across the same developmental period. By recording brain and spinal cord activity in the same infants, we demonstrate that the maturation of nociceptive brain activity is concomitant with the refinement of noxious-evoked limb reflexes. We postulate that, consistent with studies in animals, infant reflexes are influenced by the development of top-down inhibitory modulation from maturing subcortical and cortical brain networks. PMID:27374336

  17. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin; Vincent Goëb

    2010-01-01

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance ...

  18. Girls with generalized joint hypermobility display changed muscle activity and postural sway during static balance tasks

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Johansen, Kl; Hendriksen, P;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study knee muscle activity and static postural sway in girls with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). METHOD: Sixteen girls with GJH and 11 girls with non-GJH (NGJH) aged 14 years, randomly recruited among schoolchildren, participated in this study. GJH inclusion criteria were......: Beighton score minimum 6/9 and one hypermobile knee; for NGJH: Beighton score maximum 5/9 and no knees with hypermobility. The participants performed a static two-legged balance test with eyes open (2EO) and eyes closed (2EC) and a one-legged stance test with eyes open (1EO). Postural sway (centre of...... pressure path length, COPL) was calculated, along with rambling and trembling components. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from the quadriceps (Q), hamstrings (H), and gastrocnemius (G) muscles was recorded, expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary EMG (%MVE), and the co-contraction index (CCI) of...

  19. Aggregate Size and Architecture Determine Microbial Activity Balance for One-Stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.;

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) cooperate in partial nitritation/anammox systems to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this process, large granular microbial aggregates enhance the performance, but little is known about granulation so far......AOB abundance and the activity balance for the different aggregate sizes and (ii) to relate aggregate morphology, size distribution, and architecture putatively to the inoculation and operation of the three reactors. A nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR) was defined as the net aerobic nitrite production rate...... divided by the anoxic nitrite consumption rate. The smallest reactor A, B, and C aggregates were nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large reactor A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the...

  20. Crystal Structure of Sar1[H79G]-GDP Which Provides Insight into the Coat-controlled GTP Hydrolysis in the Disassembly of COP Ⅱ

    RAO Yi-Jian; YUAN Cai; BIAN Chuan-Bing; HOU Xiao-Min; LI Yong-Dong; ZHAO Geng-Xiang; YE Xiao-Ming; HUANG Zi-Xiang; HUANG Ming-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Sar1 is a small GTPase involved in COPⅡ vesicle transport. Previous studies showed that H79G mutation of Sar1 can lock Sar1 in its GTP-bound active conformation, stabilize coat assembly, and prevent the disassembly of COP Ⅱ vesicle coats by reducing Sec23/24 GAPstimulated hydrolysis. We show here that the replacement of His79 by glycine induces a large conformation change in switch Ⅱ and results in the lost of hydrogen bond between His79 and its associated nucleophilic water molecule that was hypothesized to reduce the GAP-stimulated hydrolysis during the COP Ⅱ assembly and disassembly. These results confirm that the switch Ⅱ conformation is important for COP Ⅱ disassembly through coat-controlled GTP hydrolysis.

  1. Distinctive PSA-NCAM and NCAM Hallmarks in Glutamate-Induced Dendritic Atrophy and Synaptic Disassembly

    Podestá, María Fernanda; Yam, Patricia; Codagnone, Martín Gabriel; Uccelli, Nonthué Alejandra; Colman, David; Reinés, Analía

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic and synapse remodeling are forms of structural plasticity that play a critical role in normal hippocampal function. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) participate in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation and plasticity. However, it remains unclear whether they contribute to dendritic retraction and synaptic disassembly. Cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to glutamate (5 µM) showed a reduced MAP-2 (+) area in the absence of neuronal death 24 h after the insult. Concomitantly, synapse loss, revealed by decreased synaptophysin and post-synaptic density-95 cluster number and area, together with changes in NCAM and PSA-NCAM levels were found. Dendritic atrophy and PSA-NCAM reduction proved NMDA-receptor dependent. Live-imaging experiments evidenced dendritic atrophy 4 h after the insult; this effect was preceded by smaller NCAM clusters (1 h) and decreased surface and total PSA-NCAM levels (3 h). Simultaneously, total NCAM cluster number and area remained unchanged. The subsequent synapse disassembly (6 h) was accompanied by reductions in total NCAM cluster number and area. A PSA mimetic peptide prevented both the dendritic atrophy and the subsequent synaptic changes (6 h) but had no effect on the earliest synaptic remodeling (3 h). Thus, NCAM-synaptic reorganization and PSA-NCAM level decrease precede glutamate-induced dendritic atrophy, whereas the NCAM level reduction is a delayed event related to synapse loss. Consequently, distinctive stages in PSA-NCAM/NCAM balance seem to accompany glutamate-induced dendritic atrophy and synapse loss. PMID:25279838

  2. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.57 Hydrologic balance: Surface... permittee or operator, may not conduct surface activities that would disturb the surface of land within...

  3. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  4. The balance between GMD and OFUT1 regulates Notch signaling pathway activity by modulating Notch stability

    Alvaro Glavic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in development and physiology. In Drosophila, Notch is activated by its Delta or Serrate ligands, depending in part on the sugar modifications present in its extracellular domain. O-fucosyltransferase-1 (OFUT1 performs the first glycosylation step in this process, O-fucosylating various EGF repeats at the Notch extracellular domain. Besides its O-fucosyltransferase activity, OFUT1 also behaves as a chaperone during Notch synthesis and is able to down regulate Notch by enhancing its endocytosis and degradation. We have reevaluated the roles that O-fucosylation and the synthesis of GDP-fucose play in the regulation of Notch protein stability. Using mutants and the UAS/Gal4 system, we modified in developing tissues the amount of GDP-mannose-deshydratase (GMD, the first enzyme in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Our results show that GMD activity, and likely the levels of GDP-fucose and O-fucosylation, are essential to stabilize the Notch protein. Notch degradation observed under low GMD expression is absolutely dependent on OFUT1 and this is also observed in Notch Abruptex mutants, which have mutations in some potential O-fucosylated EGF domains. We propose that the GDP-fucose/OFUT1 balance determines the ability of OFUT1 to endocytose and degrade Notch in a manner that is independent of the residues affected by Abruptex mutations in Notch EGF domains.

  5. Asymmetric ring structure of Vps4 required for ESCRT-III disassembly

    Caillat, Christophe; Macheboeuf, Pauline; Wu, Yuanfei; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Boeri-Erba, Elisabetta; Effantin, Gregory; Göttlinger, Heinrich G.; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Renesto, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The vacuolar protein sorting 4 AAA-ATPase (Vps4) recycles endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-III) polymers from cellular membranes. Here we present a 3.6-Å X-ray structure of ring-shaped Vps4 from Metallosphera sedula (MsVps4), seen as an asymmetric pseudohexamer. Conserved key interface residues are shown to be important for MsVps4 assembly, ATPase activity in vitro, ESCRT-III disassembly in vitro and HIV-1 budding. ADP binding leads to conformational changes within the protomer, which might propagate within the ring structure. All ATP-binding sites are accessible and the pseudohexamer binds six ATP with micromolar affinity in vitro. In contrast, ADP occupies one high-affinity and five low-affinity binding sites in vitro, consistent with conformational asymmetry induced on ATP hydrolysis. The structure represents a snapshot of an assembled Vps4 conformation and provides insight into the molecular motions the ring structure undergoes in a concerted action to couple ATP hydrolysis to ESCRT-III substrate disassembly.

  6. Modeling active galactic nucleus feedback in cool-core clusters: The balance between heating and cooling

    We study the long-term evolution of an idealized cool-core galaxy cluster under the influence of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback using three-dimensional high-resolution (60 pc) adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The feedback is modeled with a pair of precessing jets whose power is calculated based on the accretion rate of the cold gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The intracluster medium first cools into clumps along the propagation direction of the jets. As the jet power increases, gas condensation occurs isotropically, forming spatially extended structures that resemble the observed Hα filaments in Perseus and many other cool-core clusters. Jet heating elevates the gas entropy, halting clump formation. The cold gas that is not accreted onto the SMBH settles into a rotating disk of ∼1011 M ☉. The hot gas cools directly onto the disk while the SMBH accretes from its innermost region, powering the AGN that maintains a thermally balanced state for a few Gyr. The mass cooling rate averaged over 7 Gyr is ∼30 M ☉ yr–1, an order of magnitude lower than the classic cooling flow value. Medium resolution simulations produce similar results, while in low resolution runs, the cluster experiences cycles of gas condensation and AGN outbursts. Owing to its self-regulating mechanism, AGN feedback can successfully balance cooling with a wide range of model parameters. Our model also produces cold structures in early stages that are in good agreement with the observations. However, the long-lived massive cold disk is unrealistic, suggesting that additional physical processes are still needed.

  7. Site-specific fatty chain-modified exenatide analogs with balanced glucoregulatory activity and prolonged in vivo activity.

    Sun, Lidan; Huang, Xun; Han, Jing; Cai, Xingguang; Dai, Yuxuan; Chu, Yingying; Wang, Chuandong; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2016-06-15

    The therapeutic utility of exenatide (Ex-4) is limited due to short plasma half-life of 2.4h and thus numerous approaches have been used to obtain a longer action time. However, such strategies often attend to one thing and lose another. The study aimed to identify a candidate with balanced glucoregulatory activity and prolonged in vivo activity. A series of fatty chain conjugates of Ex-4 were designed and synthesized. First, thirteen cysteine modified peptides (1-13) were prepared. Peptides 1, 10, and 13 showed improved glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activate potency and were thus selected for second step modifications to yield conjugates I-1-I-9. All conjugates retained significant GLP-1 receptor activate potency and more importantly exerted enhanced albumin-binding properties and in vitro plasma stability. The protracted antidiabetic effects of the most stable I-3 were further confirmed by both multiple intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and hypoglycemic efficacies test in vivo. Furthermore, once daily injection of I-3 to streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice achieved long-term beneficial effects on hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) lowering and glucose tolerance. Once daily injection of I-3 to diet induced obesity (DIO) mice also achieved favorable effects on food intake, body weight, and blood chemistry. Our results suggested that I-3 was a promising agent deserving further investigation to treat obesity patients with diabetes. PMID:27155328

  8. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than full fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day

  9. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day

  10. Remote examination and disassembly of a biomedical target at LASL

    Group CMB-14 at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory examines a failed water-cooled biomedical pion-production target used in the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The target had developed a water leak during service. During investigation of the failure, the target was pressurized in water first to locate the leak generally and second to pinpoint it after the target was partially disassembled. Samples from the target were examined by a metallograph, a scanning electron microscope, an electron and an ion microprobe, and an x-ray diffractometer

  11. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction

  12. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  13. Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System

    Maya Ben-Yehuda Greenwald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin, being the largest organ of the body, functions as a barrier between our body and the environment. It is consistently exposed to various exogenous and endogenous stressors (e.g., air pollutants, ionizing and non-ionizing irradiation, toxins, mitochondrial metabolism, enzyme activity, inflammatory process, etc. producing reactive oxygen species (ROS and physical damage (e.g., wounds, sunburns also resulting in reactive oxygen species production. Although skin is equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract reactive oxygen species, augmented exposure and continued reactive oxygen species might result in excessive oxidative stress leading to many skin disorders including inflammatory diseases, pigmenting disorders and some types of cutaneous malignancy. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance and of defensive enzymes such as the phase II enzymes. Induction of the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of a large number of skin disorders by stimulating an endogenous defense mechanism. However, prolonged and enhanced activation of this pathway is detrimental and, thus, limits the therapeutic potential of Keap1–Nrf2 modulators. Here, we review the consequences of oxidative stress to the skin, and the defense mechanisms that skin is equipped with. We describe the challenges of maintaining skin redox balance and its impact on skin status and function. Finally, we suggest a novel strategy for maintenance of skin redox homeostasis by modulating the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway using nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  14. The Use of Time Driven Activity Based Costing and Analytic Hierarchy Process Method in the Balanced Scorecard Implementation

    Ednan Ayvaz; Davut Pehlivanl

    2011-01-01

    Balanced scorecard (BSC) functions as an action plan for the basis of establishing the strategy which is definedwith critical success factors. BSC classifies the vision and strategy of the enterprise in four perspectives in whichfinancial and non financial scales are used. BSC becomes a strong method for planning, developing andtransforming the strategy. An active planning is needed in order to settle a strategy. In this study, time drivenActivity Based Costing (TDABC) is important not only i...

  15. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: Is physical activity more "programmable" than food intake?

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mecha...

  16. Balance control and anti‐gravity muscle activity during the experience of fear at heights

    Wuehr, Max; Kugler, Guenter; Schniepp, Roman; Eckl, Maria; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fear of heights occurs when a visual stimulus causes the apprehension of losing balance and falling. A moderate form of visual height intolerance (vHI) affects about one third of the general population and has relevant consequences for the quality of life. A quantitative evaluation of balance mechanisms in persons susceptible to vHI during height exposure is missing. VHI‐related changes in postural control were assessed by center‐of‐pressure displacements and electromyographic record...

  17. Rehabilitation Exercises to Induce Balanced Scapular Muscle Activity in an Anti-gravity Posture

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Yamanaka, Masanori; Hirokawa, Motoki; Tai, Keita; Ezawa, Yuya; Samukawa, Mina; Tohyama, Harukazu; Sugawara, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the intramuscular balance ratios of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) and the lower trapezius muscle (LT), and the intermuscular balance ratios of the UT and the serratus anterior muscle (SA) among prone extension (ProExt), prone horizontal abduction with external rotation (ProHAbd), forward flexion in the side-lying position (SideFlex), side-lying external rotation (SideEr), shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal abduction load (FlexBan...

  18. RNA binding to APOBEC3G induces the disassembly of functional deaminase complexes by displacing single-stranded DNA substrates

    Polevoda, Bogdan; McDougall, William M.; Tun, Bradley N.; Cheung, Michael; Salter, Jason D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Smith, Harold C.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA deaminase activity requires a holoenzyme complex whose assembly on nascent viral reverse transcripts initiates with A3G dimers binding to ssDNA followed by formation of higher-order A3G homo oligomers. Catalytic activity is inhibited when A3G binds to RNA. Our prior studies suggested that RNA inhibited A3G binding to ssDNA. In this report, near equilibrium binding and gel shift analyses showed that A3G assembly and disassembly on ssDNA was an ordered process involving A3G d...

  19. The RanBP2/RanGAP1*SUMO1/Ubc9 SUMO E3 ligase is a disassembly machine for Crm1-dependent nuclear export complexes

    Ritterhoff, Tobias; Das, Hrishikesh; Hofhaus, Götz; Schröder, Rasmus R.; Flotho, Annette; Melchior, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cycles of nucleocytoplasmic transport require disassembly of transport receptor/Ran-GTP complexes in the cytoplasm. A basic disassembly mechanism in all eukaryotes depends on soluble RanGAP and RanBP1. In vertebrates, a significant fraction of RanGAP1 stably interacts with the nucleoporin RanBP2 at a binding site that is flanked by FG-repeats and Ran-binding domains, and overlaps with RanBP2's SUMO E3 ligase region. Here, we show that the RanBP2/RanGAP1*SUMO1/Ubc9 complex functions as an autonomous disassembly machine with a preference for the export receptor Crm1. We describe three in vitro reconstituted disassembly intermediates, which show binding of a Crm1 export complex via two FG-repeat patches, cargo-release by RanBP2's Ran-binding domains and retention of free Crm1 at RanBP2 after Ran-GTP hydrolysis. Intriguingly, all intermediates are compatible with SUMO E3 ligase activity, suggesting that the RanBP2/RanGAP1*SUMO1/Ubc9 complex may link Crm1- and SUMO-dependent functions. PMID:27160050

  20. In Situ Disassembling Behavior of Composite Hydrogels for the Efficient Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution

    Venkatesan Srinivasan; Sundaram Thiraviam; Kullagounder Subramani; Sibi Srinivasan; Pragathiswaran Chelliah; Stanley Anthuvan Babu

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the disassembly of synthetic hydrogels in situ and thereby enhanced adsorption of crystal violet dye is reported. Silicon present in the husk ashes of Panicum miliare is used as the trigger for disassembly of poly(2-acrylamido-1-propane sulfonic acid-co-itaconic acid) hydrogels. Disassembling ability of the ash was determined by changing the temperature of the husk ash. Surface area and particle sizes of both the disassembled and assembled forms of the hydrogels were determ...

  1. Disassembling and reintegration of large telescope primary mirror

    Xu, Qi-rui; Fan, Bin; Zhang, Ming

    2014-09-01

    The success of the large telescope is largely linked to the excellent performance and reliability of the primary mirror. In order to maintain the quality of its reflective surface at the high expectations of astronomers, the primary mirror after almost two or three years of astronomical observations, needs to be removed and reinstalled for its cleaning and re-coating operation. There are a series of procedures such as the primary mirror cell dissembling from telescope, mirror handling, transportation, reintegration, alignment and so on. This paper will describe the experiences of disassembling and reintegration of large telescope primary mirror, taking a two meter grade primary mirror for example. As with all advanced and complex opto-mechanical systems, there has been the usual problems and trouble shooting.

  2. Manipulating Assembly, Disassembly and Exchange in Responsive Polyelectrolyte Multilayers

    Hammond, Paula

    2008-03-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly is based on the alternating adsorption of multilvalent positively and negatively charged species to create ionically crosslinked thin films with nanoscale control of film composition and function. We have utilized this method of assembly to manipulate ion transport, molecular transport, and electrochemical transport in these films, enabling the generation of a range of organic and organic-inorganic devices. Biological materials applications are also derived from such films, enabling their use as drug delivery devices. In each of these applications, it is desired to control interdiffusion and exchange within the multilayer systems to maintain desired function and generate isolated regions of composition and function within the z-direction of the film. Here we address these applications and means of controlling this phenomenon. Furthermore, it is desirable to induce controlled means of disassembly of these multilayer thin films. We will address a number of approaches for achieving this, including hydrolytic degradation, hydrogen bond dissociation, and controlled deconstruction on electrochemical impulse.

  3. Maintenance and disassembly considerations for the Technology Demonstration Facility

    The Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF) is a tandem-mirror design concept carried out under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was conceived as a near-term device with a mission of developing engineering technology in a D-T fusion environment. Overall maintenance and component disassembly were among the responsibilities of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). A configuration evolved that was based on the operational requirements of the components, as well as the requirements for their replacements. Component lifetime estimates were used to estimate the frequency and the number of replacements. In addition, it was determined that the need for remote handling equipment followed within 1.5 years after initial start-up, emphasizing the direct relationship between developing maintenance scenarios/equipment and the device configuration. Many of the scheduled maintenance operations were investigated to first order, and preliminary handling equipment concepts were developed

  4. Double contingency controls in the pit disassembly and conversion facility

    A Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will be built and operated at DOE'S Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The facility will process over three metric tons of plutonium per year. There will be a significant amount of special nuclear material (SNM) moving through the various processing modules in the facility, and this will obviously require well-designed engineering controls to prevent criticality accidents. The PDCF control system will interlock glovebox entry doors closed if the correct amount of SNM has not been removed from the exit enclosure. These same engineering controls will also be used to verify that only plutonium goes to plutonium processing gloveboxes, enriched uranium goes to enriched uranium processing, and that neither goes into non-SNM processing gloveboxes.

  5. A model actin comet tail disassembling by severing

    We use a numerical simulation to model an actin comet tail as it grows from the surface of a small object (a bead) and disassembles by severing. We explore the dependence of macroscopic properties such as the local tail radius and tail length on several controllable properties, namely the bead diameter, the bead velocity, the severing rate per unit length, and the actin gel mesh size. The model predicts an F-actin density with an initial exponential decay followed by an abrupt decay at the edge of the tail, and predicts that the comet tail diameter is constant along the length of the tail. The simulation results are used to fit a formula relating the comet tail length to the control parameters, and it is proposed that this formula offers a means to extract quantitative information on the actin gel mesh size and severing kinetics from simple macroscopic measurements

  6. Active model-based balancing strategy for self-reconfigurable batteries

    Bouchhima, Nejmeddine; Schnierle, Marc; Schulte, Sascha; Birke, Kai Peter

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a novel balancing strategy for self-reconfigurable batteries where the discharge and charge rates of each cell can be controlled. While much effort has been focused on improving the hardware architecture of self-reconfigurable batteries, energy equalization algorithms have not been systematically optimized in terms of maximizing the efficiency of the balancing system. Our approach includes aspects of such optimization theory. We develop a balancing strategy for optimal control of the discharge rate of battery cells. We first formulate the cell balancing as a nonlinear optimal control problem, which is modeled afterward as a network program. Using dynamic programming techniques and MATLAB's vectorization feature, we solve the optimal control problem by generating the optimal battery operation policy for a given drive cycle. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy efficiently balances the cells over the life of the battery, an obvious advantage that is absent in the other conventional approaches. Our algorithm is shown to be robust when tested against different influencing parameters varying over wide spectrum on different drive cycles. Furthermore, due to the little computation time and the proved low sensitivity to the inaccurate power predictions, our strategy can be integrated in a real-time system.

  7. Sequential phosphorylation of GRASP65 during mitotic Golgi disassembly

    Danming Tang

    2012-09-01

    GRASP65 phosphorylation during mitosis and dephosphorylation after mitosis are required for Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. At least eight phosphorylation sites on GRASP65 have been identified, but whether they are modified in a coordinated fashion during mitosis is so far unknown. In this study, we raised phospho-specific antibodies that recognize phosphorylated T220/T224, S277 and S376 residues of GRASP65, respectively. Biochemical analysis showed that cdc2 phosphorylates all three sites, while plk1 enhances the phosphorylation. Microscopic studies using these antibodies for double and triple labeling demonstrate sequential phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the cell cycle. S277 and S376 are phosphorylated from late G2 phase through metaphase until telophase when the new Golgi is reassembled. T220/224 is not modified until prophase, but is highly modified from prometaphase to anaphase. In metaphase, phospho-T220/224 signal localizes on both Golgi haze and mitotic Golgi clusters that represent dispersed Golgi vesicles and Golgi remnants, respectively, while phospho-S277 and S376 labeling is more concentrated on mitotic Golgi clusters. Expression of a phosphorylation-resistant GRASP65 mutant T220A/T224A inhibited mitotic Golgi fragmentation to a much larger extent than the expression of the S277A and S376A mutants. In cytokinesis, T220/224 dephosphorylation occurs prior to that of S277, but after S376. This study provides evidence that GRASP65 is sequentially phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis at different sites to orchestrate Golgi disassembly and reassembly during cell division, with phosphorylation of the T220/224 site being most critical in the process.

  8. Kinesiology Tape or Compression Sleeve Applied to the Thigh Does Not Improve Balance or Muscle Activation Before or Following Fatigue.

    Cavanaugh, M Tyler; Quigley, Patrick J; Hodgson, Daniel D; Reid, Jonathan C; Behm, David G

    2016-07-01

    Cavanaugh, MT, Quigley, PJ, Hodgson, DD, Reid, JC, and Behm, DG. Kinesiology tape or compression sleeve applied to the thigh does not improve balance or muscle activation before or following fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1992-2000, 2016-Compression sleeves (CS) and kinesiology tape (KT) are purported to enhance proprioception, however, there is substantial conflict in the literature. Because the beneficial effects of CS and KT are more evident in the literature with recovery, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of CS and KT on balance under acute nonfatigued and postfatigued conditions. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 12 university participants (5 females and 7 males) performed in a random order CS, KT, and Control conditions. Two trials of each test were conducted before the application of CS or KT (pretest 1), immediately after the application (pretest 2), with posttests at 1 and 10 minutes after 4 sets of unilateral Bulgarian squats to failure (1 minute rest between sets). Tests included a Y balance test (measures: distance reached by nondominant foot in anterior, posterior lateral, and posterior medial directions) and drop jump landing balance test from a 50-cm platform (measures: ground reaction force, electromyography, and center of pressure). The fatigue protocol induced 25.3% decrease in unilateral squat repetitions from set 1 to set 4. There were no significant condition main effects or interactions for any balance measure or EMG before or after fatigue. In conclusion, independent of fatigue, there was no significant effect of CS or KT on balance outcomes immediately and up to 10 minutes following the fatiguing intervention. Thus, nonfatigued or muscles weakened by fatigue did not benefit from CS and KT application. PMID:26705066

  9. Physical Activity Associated with Prayer Regimes Improves Standing Dynamic Balance of Healthy People

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami Saleh; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Oluseye, Kamaldeen

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Preparing for prayers, practicing religious meditation and performing prayers are believed to stimulate the visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems, which provide the sensory information that influences human balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Islamic prayer regime on balance. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty healthy male subjects with a mean age of 31 ± 5 years and a mean body mass index of 27 ± 2 kg/cm2 voluntarily participated in this study. Th...

  10. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C. However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates. Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants

  11. Evaluation of product disassemblibility based on the disassembly extension set%基于拆卸可拓集的产品拆卸性能评估

    赵燕伟; 张美艳; 陈建; 苏楠

    2011-01-01

    针对目前产品拆卸性能评估中图模型方法存在的组合爆炸问题,提出了基于拆卸可拓集理论的评估方法.讨论了联接方式、空间几何约束以及空间可达性与产品拆卸性能之间的关系,给出了评估指标和计算公式,依据所得关联函数值的大小对产品拆卸可拓集进行了不同拆卸区域的划分,为实现产品的快速拆卸和优化设计提供一种理论依据,并以油锯中发动机为例对所提出的方法加以应用,验证了该方法的有效性.%In order to overcome the combination explosion of graph used in evaluation of product's disassemblibility, the new method was stated based on the theory of disassembly extension set, the relations among the connection forms, space geometry restrain,spatial accessibility and disasssemblibility were discussed,then the evaluation process and formula for the calculation of disassemblibility were presented. According to the value of correlation function, the product disassembly extension set was divided into different disassembly areas. Through the division and classification of components,a theoretical basis was provided for the prompt disassembly and product improvement desigr.A complete evaluation of disassemblibility about an engine of oil saw was performed as a case study,which improves the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. A balanced IL-1β activity is required for host response to Citrobacter rodentium infection.

    Misagh Alipour

    Full Text Available Microbial sensing plays essential roles in the innate immune response to pathogens. In particular, NLRP3 forms a multiprotein inflammasome complex responsible for the maturation of interleukin (IL-1β. Our aim was to delineate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, and the contribution of IL-1β to the host defense against Citrobacter rodentium acute infection in mice. Nlrp3(-/- and background C57BL/6 (WT mice were infected by orogastric gavage, received IL-1β (0.5 µg/mouse; ip on 0, 2, and 4 days post-infection (DPI, and assessed on 6 and 10 DPI. Infected Nlrp3(-/- mice developed severe colitis; IL-1β treatments reduced colonization, abrogated dissemination of bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes, and protected epithelial integrity of infected Nlrp3(-/- mice. In contrast, IL-1β treatments of WT mice had an opposite effect with increased penetration of bacteria and barrier disruption. Microscopy showed reduced damage in Nlrp3(-/- mice, and increased severity of disease in WT mice with IL-1β treatments, in particular on 10 DPI. Secretion of some pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines was dissipated in Nlrp3(-/- compared to WT mice. IL-1β treatments elevated macrophage infiltration into infected crypts in Nlrp3(-/- mice, suggesting that IL-1β may improve macrophage function, as exogenous administration of IL-1β increased phagocytosis of C. rodentium by peritoneal Nlrp3(-/- macrophages in vitro. As well, the exogenous administration of IL-1β to WT peritoneal macrophages damaged the epithelial barrier of C. rodentium-infected polarized CMT-93 cells. Treatment of Nlrp3(-/- mice with IL-1β seems to confer protection against C. rodentium infection by reducing colonization, protecting epithelial integrity, and improving macrophage activity, while extraneous IL-1β appeared to be detrimental to WT mice. Together, these findings highlight the importance of balanced cytokine responses as IL-1β improved bacterial clearance in Nlrp3(-/- mice

  13. Optimal Allocation of Dispersed Energy Storage Systems in Active Distribution Networks for Energy Balance and Grid Support

    Nick, Mostafa; Cherkaoui, Rachid; Paolone, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Dispersed storage systems (DSSs) can represent an important near-term solution for supporting the operation and control of active distribution networks (ADNs). Indeed, they have the capability to support ADNs by providing ancillary services in addition to energy balance capabilities. Within this context, this paper focuses on the optimal allocation of DSSs in ADNs by defining a multi-objective optimization problem aiming at finding the optimal trade-off between technical and economical goals....

  14. Assessing the Influence of Global Climate and Anthropogenic Activities on the Water Balance of an Andean Lake

    Julio Cañón; Juan Valdes

    2011-01-01

    Tropical regions along the Andean Cordillera face an uncertain future as mountain lakes and snow peaks exhibit receding trends associated with factors such as climatic precursors and local anthropogenic activities. Tota, the largest mountain lake in the Colombian Andes, exemplifies the role played by these factors on the lake's hydrologic evolution. A monthly water balance in Tota Lake was performed using available hydrological information from 1958 to 2007 to address interannual and multiann...

  15. Dynamic Alterations to α-Actinin Accompanying Sarcomere Disassembly and Reassembly during Cardiomyocyte Mitosis.

    Xiaohu Fan

    Full Text Available Although mammals are thought to lose their capacity to regenerate heart muscle shortly after birth, embryonic and neonatal cardiomyocytes in mammals are hyperplastic. During proliferation these cells need to selectively disassemble their myofibrils for successful cytokinesis. The mechanism of sarcomere disassembly is, however, not understood. To study this, we performed a series of immunofluorescence studies of multiple sarcomeric proteins in proliferating neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and correlated these observations with biochemical changes at different cell cycle stages. During myocyte mitosis, α-actinin and titin were disassembled as early as prometaphase. α-actinin (representing the sarcomeric Z-disk disassembly precedes that of titin (M-line, suggesting that titin disassembly occurs secondary to the collapse of the Z-disk. Sarcomere disassembly was concurrent with the dissolution of the nuclear envelope. Inhibitors of several intracellular proteases could not block the disassembly of α-actinin or titin. There was a dramatic increase in both cytosolic (soluble and sarcomeric α-actinin during mitosis, and cytosolic α-actinin exhibited decreased phosphorylation compared to sarcomeric α-actinin. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 induced the quick reassembly of the sarcomere. Sarcomere dis- and re-assembly in cardiomyocyte mitosis is CDK1-dependent and features dynamic differential post-translational modifications of sarcomeric and cytosolic α-actinin.

  16. Dynamic Alterations to α-Actinin Accompanying Sarcomere Disassembly and Reassembly during Cardiomyocyte Mitosis

    Ali, Mohammad A. M.; Cho, Woo Jung; Lopez, Waleska; Schulz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although mammals are thought to lose their capacity to regenerate heart muscle shortly after birth, embryonic and neonatal cardiomyocytes in mammals are hyperplastic. During proliferation these cells need to selectively disassemble their myofibrils for successful cytokinesis. The mechanism of sarcomere disassembly is, however, not understood. To study this, we performed a series of immunofluorescence studies of multiple sarcomeric proteins in proliferating neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and correlated these observations with biochemical changes at different cell cycle stages. During myocyte mitosis, α-actinin and titin were disassembled as early as prometaphase. α-actinin (representing the sarcomeric Z-disk) disassembly precedes that of titin (M-line), suggesting that titin disassembly occurs secondary to the collapse of the Z-disk. Sarcomere disassembly was concurrent with the dissolution of the nuclear envelope. Inhibitors of several intracellular proteases could not block the disassembly of α-actinin or titin. There was a dramatic increase in both cytosolic (soluble) and sarcomeric α-actinin during mitosis, and cytosolic α-actinin exhibited decreased phosphorylation compared to sarcomeric α-actinin. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) induced the quick reassembly of the sarcomere. Sarcomere dis- and re-assembly in cardiomyocyte mitosis is CDK1-dependent and features dynamic differential post-translational modifications of sarcomeric and cytosolic α-actinin. PMID:26076379

  17. An environmentally friendly technology of disassembling electronic components from waste printed circuit boards.

    Wang, Jianbo; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-07-01

    Electronic components (ECs) disassembling from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is the first and essential step in WPCBs recycling chain. Over the past decades, primitive methods like simply heating WPCBs on a coal-heated plate to melt solders are dominated in practice, causing serious environmental pollution and also putting a real threat to the human health. In order to solve this problem, in this article, an automatic system in pilot-scale for ECs disassembling from WPCBs is designed, manufactured, and investigated. This system contains two parts: ECs automatic disassembly and off-gas purification. Meanwhile, WPCBs from television (i.e., TV-WPCBs) and personal computer (i.e., PC-WPCBs) are used for disassembling tests, respectively. When the disassembling temperature, rotating speed, and incubation time are 265±5°C, 10rpm, and 8min, respectively, the solder can be completely removed from both TV-WPCBs and PC-WPCBs. No pollutant is discharged from this system. Finally, the disassembling procedures for ECs from both TV-WPCBs and PC-WPCBs are suggested to promote WPCBs disassembling in an environment-friendly way, without threaten the environment and human health. PMID:27026495

  18. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 2010.

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis; Bass, Steven

    2011-12-01

    THE BULK OF 401(K) ASSETS CONTINUED TO BE INVESTED IN STOCKS: On average, at year-end 2010, 62 percent of 401(k) participants' assets were invested in equity securities through equity funds, the equity portion of balanced funds, and company stock. Thirty-three percent were in fixed-income securities such as stable value investments and bond and money funds. SEVENTY PERCENT OF 401(K) PLANS INCLUDED TARGET-DATE FUNDS IN THEIR INVESTMENT LINEUP AT YEAR-END 2010: At year-end 2010, 11 percent of the assets in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database were invested in target-date funds and 36 percent of 401(k) participants held target-date funds. Also known as lifecycle funds, they are designed to offer a diversified portfolio that automatically rebalances to be more focused on income over time. MORE NEW OR RECENT HIRES INVESTED THEIR 401(K) ASSETS IN BALANCED FUNDS, INCLUDING TARGET-DATE FUNDS: For example, at year-end 2010, 44 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in balanced funds, compared with 42 percent in 2009, and about 7 percent in 1998. A significant subset of that balanced fund category is target-date funds. At year-end 2010, 35 percent of the account balances of recently hired participants in their 20s were invested in target-date funds, compared with 31 percent at year-end 2009. 401(K) PARTICIPANTS CONTINUED TO SEEK DIVERSIFICATION OF THEIR INVESTMENTS: The share of 401(k) accounts invested in company stock continued to shrink, falling by more than a percentage point (to 8 percent) in 2010, continuing a steady decline that started in 1999. Recently hired 401(k) participants contributed to this trend: They tended to be less likely to hold employer stock. PARTICIPANTS' 401(K) LOAN BALANCES DECLINED SLIGHTLY IN 2010: In 2010, 21 percent of all 401(k) participants who were eligible for loans had loans outstanding against their 401(k) accounts, unchanged from year-end 2009, and up from 18 percent at year-end 2008. Loans

  19. Initial evidence for the link between activities and health: Associations between a balance of activities, functioning and serum levels of cytokines and C-reactive protein.

    Dür, Mona; Steiner, Günter; Stoffer, Michaela Alexandra; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Dejaco, Clemens; Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Prodinger, Birgit; Binder, Alexa; Smolen, Josef; Stamm, Tanja Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence shows interrelations of psychological factors, neurological and immunological processes. Therefore, constructs like a balance of activities, the so called "occupational balance", could also have biological correlates. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between occupational balance, functioning, cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients suffering from a chronic inflammatory disease like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy people. Moreover, we wanted to explore potential differences in gender and employment status. A descriptive study in patients with RA and healthy people was conducted using the Occupational Balance-Questionnaire (OB-Quest) and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Serum levels of cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), interferon alpha (INFα), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), rheumatoid factor (RF) and of CRP were measured. Descriptive statistics, as well as Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearmen's rank correlation coefficients (rs) were calculated. One-hundred-thirty-two patients with RA and 76 healthy people participated. Occupational balance was associated with functioning, cytokines and CRP. The strongest associations were identified in the unemployed healthy-people sample with cytokines and CRP being within the normal range. For example, the OB-Quest item challenging activities was associated with IL-8 (rs=-0.63, p=0.04) and the SF-36 sub-scale bodily pain was associated with IFNα (rs=-0.69, p=0.02). The items rest and sleep (rs=-0.71, p=0.01) and variety of different activities (rs=-0.74, pconcepts encompassed in the construct of occupational balance were associated with functioning, cytokines and CRP. PMID:26773841

  20. Adaptive Control of Active Balancing System for a Fast Speed-varying Jeffcott Rotor with Actuator Time Delay

    HU Bing; FANG Zhi-chu

    2008-01-01

    Due to actuator time delay existing in an adaptive control of the active balancing system for a fastspeed-varying Jeffcott rotor, if an unsynchronized control force (correction imbalance) is applied to the system,it may lead to degradation in control efficiency and instability of the control system. In order to avoid theseshortcomings, a simple adaptive controller was designed for a strictly positive real rotor system with actuatortime delay, then a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional was constructed after an appropriate transform of this sys-tem model, the stability conditions of this adaptive control system with actuator time delay were derived. Afteradding a filter function, the active balancing system for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay can easily be converted to a strictly positive real system, and thus it can use the above adaptive controllersatisfying the stability conditions. Finally, numerical simulations show that the adaptive controller proposedworks very well to perform the active balancing for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay.

  1. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  2. Impact of physical activity on energy balance, food intake and choice in normal weight and obese children in the setting of acute social stress: a randomized controlled trial

    Horsch A.; Wobmann M.; Kriemler S.; Munsch S.; Borloz S.; Balz A.; Marques-Vidal P.; Borghini A.; Puder J. J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress negatively influences food intake and food choices, thereby contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Physical activity can also moderate eating behavior and influence calorie intake. However, it is unknown if acute physical activity influences food intake and overall energy balance after acute stress exposure in children. We therefore investigated the impact of acute physical activity on overall energy balance (food intake minus energy expenditure...

  3. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients

    Adler Charles; Sue Lucia; Beach Thomas; Civarella Gina; He Ping; Nural Hikmet; Zhong Zhenyu; Shill Holly; Caviness John; Xia Weiming; Shen Yong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Correction to Nural H, He P, Beach T, Sue L, Xia W, Shen Y. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009, 4:23.

  4. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients

    Adler Charles

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Nural H, He P, Beach T, Sue L, Xia W, Shen Y. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009, 4:23.

  5. Metal Nanoparticle/Block Copolymer Composite Assembly and Disassembly.

    Li, Zihui; Sai, Hiroaki; Warren, Scott C; Kamperman, Marleen; Arora, Hitesh; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Ligand-stabilized platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were self-assembled with poly(isoprene-block-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PI-b-PDMAEMA) block copolymers to generate organic-inorganic hybrid materials. High loadings of NPs in hybrids were achieved through usage of N,N-di-(2-(allyloxy)ethyl)-N-3-mercaptopropyl-N-3-methylammonium chloride as the ligand, which provided high solubility of NPs in various solvents as well as high affinity to PDMAEMA. From NP synthesis, existence of sub-1 nm Pt NPs was confirmed by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. Estimations of the Pt NP ligand head group density based on HAADF-STEM images and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data yielded results comparable to what has been found for alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on flat Pt {111} surfaces. Changing the volume fraction of Pt NPs in block copolymer-NP composites yielded hybrids with spherical micellar, wormlike micellar, lamellar and inverse hexagonal morphologies. Disassembly of hybrids with spherical, wormlike micellar, and lamellar morphologies generated isolated metal-NP based nano-spheres, cylinders and sheets, respectively. Results suggest the existence of powerful design criteria for the formation of metal-based nanostructures from designer blocked macromolecules. PMID:21103025

  6. A thermodynamic model of microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Bernard M A G Piette

    Full Text Available Microtubules are self-assembling polymers whose dynamics are essential for the normal function of cellular processes including chromosome separation and cytokinesis. Therefore understanding what factors effect microtubule growth is fundamental to our understanding of the control of microtubule based processes. An important factor that determines the status of a microtubule, whether it is growing or shrinking, is the length of the GTP tubulin microtubule cap. Here, we derive a Monte Carlo model of the assembly and disassembly of microtubules. We use thermodynamic laws to reduce the number of parameters of our model and, in particular, we take into account the contribution of water to the entropy of the system. We fit all parameters of the model from published experimental data using the GTP tubulin dimer attachment rate and the lateral and longitudinal binding energies of GTP and GDP tubulin dimers at both ends. Also we calculate and incorporate the GTP hydrolysis rate. We have applied our model and can mimic published experimental data, which formerly suggested a single layer GTP tubulin dimer microtubule cap, to show that these data demonstrate that the GTP cap can fluctuate and can be several microns long.

  7. Safe Shutdown and Deactivation of the 105-K Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site

    Nuclear production reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were operated for several years in support of the United States nuclear weapons program. When this overall mission ended, the 105-K and 105-L reactors continued to perform vital missions, including the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. A spent fuel consolidation effort is underway at SRS, and part of this effort was the safe shutdown and deactivation of the 105-K Disassembly Basin. 105-K ceased reactor operations in the early 1990s and was converted to a nuclear materials management facility. Although not originally designed for long-term storage, the 105-K Basin performed well as an interim, underwater location for reactor fuel and other radiation sources. Following the de-inventory of spent fuel in September 2002, the need to operate the 105-K Basin was eliminated.During production, the Disassembly Basins were used to temporarily store irradiated components removed from the reactor vessel. They are large concrete pools containing approximately 3.4 million gallons of water to provide cooling and shielding for the stored components. In support of this mission, the Basins were furnished with equipment for maintaining water parameters, monitoring radiation, and handling and reconfiguring the fuel components. Some of this equipment is located within the Basin structures themselves, and other pieces are located elsewhere in the local reactor areas. 105-K Basin deactivation activities included the lay-up, removal, or abandoning of this equipment. Eventual decommissioning activities will likely follow the Site-established plan to evaporate much of the Basin water and use the remaining water to grout-in-place residual contamination and scrap materials. Traditional deactivation projects include a substantial reduction in overall facility surveillance and maintenance activities and a relocation of all non-essential personnel to alternate work locations. In this case, however, the Disassembly Basin is not an

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuolar H+-ATPase Regulation by Disassembly and Reassembly: One Structure and Multiple Signals

    Parra, Karlett J.; Chan, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved ATP-driven proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments. V-ATPase proton transport energizes secondary transport systems and is essential for lysosomal/vacuolar and endosomal functions. These dynamic molecular motors are composed of multiple subunits regulated in part by reversible disassembly, which reversibly inactivates them. Reversible disassembly is intertwined with glycolysis, the RAS/cyclic AMP (cAMP)/prot...

  9. The intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea

    Cantu, D.; Vicente, A. R.; L.C.Greve; Dewey, F. M.; Bennett, A.B.; Labavitch, J. M.; Powell, A. L. T.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit ripening is characterized by processes that modify texture and flavor but also by a dramatic increase in susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea. Disassembly of the major structural polysaccharides of the cell wall (CW) is a significant process associated with ripening and contributes to fruit softening. In tomato, polygalacturonase (PG) and expansin (Exp) are among the CW proteins that cooperatively participate in ripening-associated CW disassembly. To determ...

  10. The Balance of Fluid and Osmotic Pressures across Active Biological Membranes with Application to the Corneal Endothelium.

    Cheng, Xi; Pinsky, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The movement of fluid and solutes across biological membranes facilitates the transport of nutrients for living organisms and maintains the fluid and osmotic pressures in biological systems. Understanding the pressure balances across membranes is crucial for studying fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in living systems, and is an area of active research. In this study, a set of enhanced Kedem-Katchalsky (KK) equations is proposed to describe fluxes of water and solutes across biological membranes, and is applied to analyze the relationship between fluid and osmotic pressures, accounting for active transport mechanisms that propel substances against their concentration gradients and for fixed charges that alter ionic distributions in separated environments. The equilibrium analysis demonstrates that the proposed theory recovers the Donnan osmotic pressure and can predict the correct fluid pressure difference across membranes, a result which cannot be achieved by existing KK theories due to the neglect of fixed charges. The steady-state analysis on active membranes suggests a new pressure mechanism which balances the fluid pressure together with the osmotic pressure. The source of this pressure arises from active ionic fluxes and from interactions between solvent and solutes in membrane transport. We apply the proposed theory to study the transendothelial fluid pressure in the in vivo cornea, which is a crucial factor maintaining the hydration and transparency of the tissue. The results show the importance of the proposed pressure mechanism in mediating stromal fluid pressure and provide a new interpretation of the pressure modulation mechanism in the in vivo cornea. PMID:26719894

  11. The Balance of Fluid and Osmotic Pressures across Active Biological Membranes with Application to the Corneal Endothelium.

    Xi Cheng

    Full Text Available The movement of fluid and solutes across biological membranes facilitates the transport of nutrients for living organisms and maintains the fluid and osmotic pressures in biological systems. Understanding the pressure balances across membranes is crucial for studying fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in living systems, and is an area of active research. In this study, a set of enhanced Kedem-Katchalsky (KK equations is proposed to describe fluxes of water and solutes across biological membranes, and is applied to analyze the relationship between fluid and osmotic pressures, accounting for active transport mechanisms that propel substances against their concentration gradients and for fixed charges that alter ionic distributions in separated environments. The equilibrium analysis demonstrates that the proposed theory recovers the Donnan osmotic pressure and can predict the correct fluid pressure difference across membranes, a result which cannot be achieved by existing KK theories due to the neglect of fixed charges. The steady-state analysis on active membranes suggests a new pressure mechanism which balances the fluid pressure together with the osmotic pressure. The source of this pressure arises from active ionic fluxes and from interactions between solvent and solutes in membrane transport. We apply the proposed theory to study the transendothelial fluid pressure in the in vivo cornea, which is a crucial factor maintaining the hydration and transparency of the tissue. The results show the importance of the proposed pressure mechanism in mediating stromal fluid pressure and provide a new interpretation of the pressure modulation mechanism in the in vivo cornea.

  12. Active induction balance method for metal detector sensing head utilizing transmitter-bucking and dual current source

    A central problem in a design of frequency domain electromagnetic induction sensors used in landmine detection is an effective suppression of a direct inductive coupling between the transmitter and the receiver coil (induction balance, IB). In sensing heads based on the transmitter-bucking configuration, IB is achieved by using two concentric transmitter coils with opposing exciter fields in order to create a central magnetic cavity for the receiver coil. This design has numerous advantages over other IB methods in terms of detection sensitivity, spatial resolution, sensor dimensions and suitability for model-based measurements. However, very careful design and precise sensing head geometry are required if a single excitation source is used for driving both transmitter coils. In this paper we analyze the IB sensitivity to small perturbations of geometrical properties of coils. We propose a sensor design with dual current source and active induction balance scheme which overcomes the limitations of geometry-based balancing and potentially provides more efficient compensation of soil effects.

  13. Oxidative stress disassembles the p38/NPM/PP2A complex, which leads to modulation of nucleophosmin-mediated signaling to DNA damage response.

    Guillonneau, Maëva; Paris, François; Dutoit, Soizic; Estephan, Hala; Bénéteau, Elise; Huot, Jacques; Corre, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a leading cause of endothelial dysfunction. The p38 MAPK pathway plays a determinant role in allowing cells to cope with oxidative stress and is tightly regulated by a balanced interaction between p38 protein and its interacting partners. By using a proteomic approach, we identified nucleophosmin (NPM) as a new partner of p38 in HUVECs. Coimmunoprecipitation and microscopic analyses confirmed the existence of a cytosolic nucleophosmin (NPM)/p38 interaction in basal condition. Oxidative stress, which was generated by exposure to 500 µM H2O2, induces a rapid dephosphorylation of NPM at T199 that depends on phosphatase PP2A, another partner of the NPM/p38 complex. Blocking PP2A activity leads to accumulation of NPM-pT199 and to an increased association of NPM with p38. Concomitantly to its dephosphorylation, oxidative stress promotes translocation of NPM to the nucleus to affect the DNA damage response. Dephosphorylated NPM impairs the signaling of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage via inhibition of the phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. Overall, these results suggest that the p38/NPM/PP2A complex acts as a dynamic sensor, allowing endothelial cells to react rapidly to acute oxidative stress.-Guillonneau, M., Paris, F., Dutoit, S., Estephan, H., Bénéteau, E., Huot, J., Corre, I. Oxidative stress disassembles the p38/NPM/PP2A complex, which leads to modulation of nucleophosmin-mediated signaling to DNA damage response. PMID:27142525

  14. Multi-functional Converter with Integrated Motor Control, Battery Charging and Active Module Balancing for Electric Vehicular Application

    Mathe, Laszlo; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and the acoustical noise generated by refuse lorries, electrification of the waste compactor unit is a very promising solution. For the electrical energy storage Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology has been selected with potential for reducing the cost...... used successfully in HVDC/FACTS and large drive applications. In this paper the use of MMC for a battery driven waste compactor unit addressed with integrated functionality including: motor driver, battery charge and active balancing is presented. The challenges addressed here are related to the design...

  15. Numerical analysis of the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator rotor balance system

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The helicopter version of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in a manner analogous to a wind-tunnel balance. Loads are measured by a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators with built-in pressure gages. Complete evaluation of system performance requires calibration of the rotor force- and moment-measurement system when installed in the aircraft. Derivations of calibration corrections for various combinations of calibration data are discussed.

  16. Preliminary results of the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator rotor balance system

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The helicopter version of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in flight analogous to a wind tunnel balance. Loads are measured by a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators which use pressure gages to measure loads. Complete evaluation of system performance required calibration of the rotor force and moment measuring system when installed in the aircraft. Measurement system responses to rotor loads obtained during the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter are plotted and discussed. Plots of the raw transducer data are included.

  17. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  18. GROUT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN 105-R DISASSEMBLY BASIN D AND E CANAL

    Fogle, R.; Collins, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2010-06-03

    The 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin Grout Placement Strategy Report (SRNL-TR-2009-00157) identifies various portions of the facility that will undergo an in-situ decommissioning process. The estimated residual radioactive contamination in the 105-R facility is shown in Figure 1. Cementitious grout formulations developed by SRNL are being used to immobilize and isolate the radioactive contamination in existing below grade portions of the 105-R building as shown by the gray-hatched area in Figure 2. A Zero Bleed flowable fill was formulated for both dry placement and for underwater placement. The first major area in the 105-R Disassembly Basin to undergo the grouting process was the D&E Canal and an underlying void space known as the Chase. Grout temperature data was needed to ensure that the grout mix design was on the correct grout curing trajectory to meet the material compressive strength requirement of 50 pounds per square inch. Initial grout temperature measurements were needed to confirm and optimize grout mix design fresh property characteristics; i.e. material strength, and set time. Grout curing temperature is an integrating fresh property characteristic that is used to estimate cementitious material strength in accordance with the Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method, ASTM C 1074. The Maturity Method is used in the construction industry to estimate in-place strength of concrete to allow the start of critical construction activities; e.g. formwork removal, removal of cold weather protection, opening of roadways to traffic, etc. Applying this methodology provides an expeditious means to estimate in-place grout strength based on compressive strength laboratory results. The Maturity Method results define the relationship between strength-time and age-time that may be utilized in the field for estimating strength after a given time of placement. Maturation curves were developed under the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin

  19. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. GDS disassembly report

    The GDS-1 was disassembled to determine the cause for the rapid degradation of the output power. Unfortunately, it was not possible to relate the observations to direct causes for the degradation. However, some positive statements can be made which have an impact on the flight program. First, the outgassing and gas management techniques were shown to be adequate to maintain clean conditions within the generator. Second, the non-modular components within the generator including the receptacles on the housing were not affected by the thermal environment during operation of GDS-1. Third, a significant amount of sublimation of the P-legs has occurred during the relatively short life of 2000 + hours as shown by the bullet nosing of the legs and deposits on the cold end hardware. The fact that the generator atmosphere was not 100% xenon may have some bearing on this observation but the statement is still accurate. Fourth, all exposed N-legs display cracks and/or chips. Fifth, a great deal of misalignment of both N and P-legs was seen both visually and with radiographs. Although no definite conclusions can be made concerning the cause for the rapid degradation of performance, several of the observed conditions within the module could possibly contribute to that fact. They are: cracks in N-legs (increased resistance); deposits on edges of BeO discs (shorting of thermoelectric circuit); and bullet nosing of P-legs (increased resistance). It remains to be shown if any of these effects or the follower hangup described earlier contributed to the poor performance of GDS-1 or if another effect as yet unknown was the important factor

  20. Increased neck muscle activity and impaired balance among females with whiplash-related chronic neck pain

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Clausen, Brian; Ris Hansen, Inge; Jensen, Rikke Vikær; Steffensen, Rasmus Fischer; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls.......To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls....

  1. Cyclical budget balance measurement

    C. AUDENIS; C. PROST

    2000-01-01

    Government balances are often adjusted for changes in economic activity in order to draw a clearer picture of the underlying fiscal situation and to use this as a guide to fiscal policy analysis. International organisations estimate the cyclical component of economic activity by the current level of the output gap. Using elasticities of tax and public expenditures to GDP, they compute the cyclical part of budget balance. The structural budget balance is defined as the remainder. Our approach ...

  2. Sensemaking in collaborative networks: Creating and balancing activities in open business models

    Peronard, Jean-Paul; Brix, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to advance research on open business models as activity systems (Zott and Amit, 2010) in collaborative networks. We utilize Bradley’s (1995) theory of exchange behavior to discuss how new joint activities can be explored as well as how existing activities can be...

  3. Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults.

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Wolf, Martin; Schumann, Martina; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.25-0.36), while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-s walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC [F (1, 31) = 3.54, p = 0.035, r = 0.32]. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < 0.05 or trend, r = 0.31-0.50). The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults. PMID:27148041

  4. Exergame and Balance Training modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and enhance Executive Function in Older Adults

    Patrick eEggenberger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE or balance and stretching training (BALANCE. The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 minutes per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9±6.9 years. Prefrontal cortex (PFC activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < .05 or trend, r = .25 to .36, while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-second walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC (F(1, 31 = 3.54, p = .035, r = .32. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < .05 or trend, r = .31 to .50. The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults.

  5. Disassembly of yeast 80S ribosomes into subunits is a concerted action of ribosome-assisted folding of denatured protein.

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-22

    It has been shown by several groups that ribosome can assist folding of denatured protein in vitro and the process is conserved across the species. Domain V of large ribosomal rRNA which occupies the intersubunit side of the large subunit was identified as the key player responsible for chaperoning the folding process. Thus, it is conceivable that denatured protein needs to access the intersubunit space of the ribosome in order to get folded. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of release of the protein from the eukaryotic ribosome following reactivation. We have observed significant splitting of yeast 80S ribosome when incubated with the denatured BCAII protein. Energy-free disassembly mechanism functions in low Mg(+2) ion concentration for prokaryotic ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes do not show significant splitting even at low Mg(+2) ion concentration. In this respect, denatured protein-induced disassembly of eukaryotic ribosome without the involvement of any external energy source is intriguing. For prokaryotic ribosomes, it was reported that the denatured protein induces ribosome splitting into subunits in order to access domain V-rRNA. In contrast, our results suggest an alternative mechanism for eukaryotic ribosomal rRNA-mediated protein folding and subsequent separation of the subunits by which release of the activated-protein occurs. PMID:26723252

  6. Human Control Law and Brain Activity of Voluntary Motion by Utilizing a Balancing Task with an Inverted Pendulum

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human characteristics concerning voluntary motion control are investigated, because this motion is fundamental for the machine operation and human-computer system. Using a force feedback haptic device and a balancing task of a virtual inverted pendulum, participants were trained in the task, and hand motion/force was measured, and brain activity was monitored. First, through brain analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and motion analysis of the pendulum, we identified a participant who was the most expert. Next, control characteristics of the most expert were investigated by considering the operational force and delay factor of a human. As a result, it was found that predictive control based on velocity information was used predominantly although a perception feedback control against the pendulum posture worked. And it was shown that an on-off intermittency control, which was a strategy for the skilled balancing, can be described well by a liner model involving two types of time shifts for the position and velocity. In addition, it was confirmed that the cortex activity for observation in an ocular motor control area and visual processing area was strong to enhance above-mentioned control strategies.

  7. A Label Correcting Algorithm for Partial Disassembly Sequences in the Production Planning for End-of-Life Products

    Pei-Fang (Jennifer Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing of used products has become a strategic issue for cost-sensitive businesses. Due to the nature of uncertain supply of end-of-life (EoL products, the reverse logistic can only be sustainable with a dynamic production planning for disassembly process. This research investigates the sequencing of disassembly operations as a single-period partial disassembly optimization (SPPDO problem to minimize total disassembly cost. AND/OR graph representation is used to include all disassembly sequences of a returned product. A label correcting algorithm is proposed to find an optimal partial disassembly plan if a specific reusable subpart is retrieved from the original return. Then, a heuristic procedure that utilizes this polynomial-time algorithm is presented to solve the SPPDO problem. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution procedure.

  8. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day

  9. Hydrogen permeation measurement of the reduced activation ferritic steel F82H by the vacuum thermo-balance method

    Hydrogen permeation fluxes of the reduced activation ferritic steel F82H were quantitatively measured by a newly proposed method, vacuum thermo-balance method, for a precise estimation of tritium leakage in a fusion reactor. We prepared sample capsules made of F82H, which enclosed hydrogen gas. The hydrogen in the capsules permeated through the capsule wall, and subsequently desorbed from the capsule surface during isothermal heating. The vacuum thermo-balance method allows simultaneous measurement of the hydrogen permeation flux by two independent methods, namely, the net weight reduction of the sample capsule and exhaust gas analysis. Thus the simultaneous measurements by two independent methods increase the reliability of the permeability measurement. When the gas pressure of enclosed hydrogen was 0.8 atm at the sample temperature of 673 K, the hydrogen permeation flux of F82H obtained by the net weight reduction and the exhaust gas analysis was 0.75x1018 (H2/m2s) and 2.2x1018 (H2/m2s), respectively. The ratio of the hydrogen permeation fluxes obtained by the net weight reduction to that measured by the exhaust gas analysis was in the range from 1/4 to 1/1 in this experiment. The temperature dependence of the estimated permeation flux was similar in both methods. Taking the uncertainties of both measurements into consideration, both results are supposed to be consistent. The enhancement of hydrogen permeation flux was observed from the sample of which outer surface was mechanically polished. Through the present experiments, it has been demonstrated that the vacuum thermo-balance method is effective for the measurement of hydrogen permeation rate of F82H. (author)

  10. The balance of flexibility and rigidity in the active site residues of hen egg white lysozyme

    Qi Jian-Xun; Jiang Fan

    2011-01-01

    The crystallographic temperature factors (B factor) of individual atoms contain important information about the thermal motion of the atoms in a macromolecule. Previously the theory of flexibility of active site has been established based on the observation that the enzyme activity is sensitive to low concentration denaturing agents. It has been found that the loss of enzyme activity occurs well before the disruption of the three-dimensional structural scaffold of the enzyme. To test the theory of conformational flexibility of enzyme active site, crystal structures were perturbed by soaking in low concentration guanidine hydrochloride solutions. It was found that many lysozyme crystals tested could still diffract until the concentration of guanidine hydrochloride reached 3 M. It was also found that the B factors averaged over individually collected data sets were more accurate. Thus it suggested that accurate measurement of crystal temperature factors could be achieved for medium-high or even medium resolution crystals by averaging over multiple data sets. Furthermore, we found that the correctly predicted active sites included not only the more flexible residues, but also some more rigid residues. Both the flexible and the rigid residues in the active site played an important role in forming the active site residue network, covering the majority of the substrate binding residues. Therefore, this experimental prediction method may be useful for characterizing the binding site and the function of a protein, such as drug targeting.

  11. Review: Progresses in understanding N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) mediated disassembly of SNARE complexes.

    Ryu, Je-Kyung; Jahn, Reinhard; Yoon, Tae-Young

    2016-08-01

    N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) is a key protein of intracellular membrane traffic. NSF is a highly conserved protein belonging to the ATPases associated with other activities (AAA+ proteins). AAA+ share common domains and all transduce ATP hydrolysis into major conformational movements that are used to carry out conformational work on client proteins. Together with its cofactor SNAP, NSF is specialized on disassembling highly stable SNARE complexes that form after each membrane fusion event. Although essential for all eukaryotic cells, however, the details of this reaction have long been enigmatic. Recently, major progress has been made in both elucidating the structure of NSF/SNARE complexes and in understanding the reaction mechanism. Advances in both cryo EM and single molecule measurements suggest that NSF, together with its cofactor SNAP, imposes a tight grip on the SNARE complex. After ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release, it then builds up mechanical tension that is ultimately used to rip apart the SNAREs in a single burst. Because the AAA domains are extremely well-conserved, the molecular mechanism elucidated for NSF is presumably shared by many other AAA+ ATPases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 518-531, 2016. PMID:27062050

  12. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  13. Activity balance of a nuclear medicine therapy ward at a 250 MBQ limit of dismissal

    A consistant utilisation of the raise of the limit of dismissal from 95 to 250 MBq 131I increases the number of radioiodine therapies by a factor of 2.5. The fraction of the activity administered to patients that is excreted until dismissal averages to 72%, including 0.4% in the waste, 0.2% in contaminations of laundry and dishes, and <0.1% airborne activity. 14% of the activity decay in the patient during this time. The remaining 14% leave the therapy facility with the patient and add to 99.9% to the activity polluting the environment. This part causes the highest risk and necessitates a detailled instruction procedure to the patient. (orig.)

  14. Evolution of Popocatépetl volcano's glaciers in Mexico with and without volcanic activity: diagnosis from a minimal mass balance model

    Ontiveros-Gonzalez, G.; Cortes Ramos, J.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2013-05-01

    This work describes the influence of eruptive activity on the evolution of the glacial cover on Popocatepetl volcano. Here, we try to answer a simple question: what had happened if this glacier had not been affected by the volcanic activity? In order to answer this question we modeled the mass balance evolution of this glacier using meteorological data and a minimal mass balance model developed for glaciers elsewhere. For this model we assumed no volcanic activity. These results were compared with measurements available for the actual situation at Popocatépetl Volcano. It was possible to separate the influence of the volcanic activity on the evolution of this glacier system considering two scenarios: one was modeled with a simulation of the mass balance where volcanic activity does not affect, and a second scenario is based on the documented studies developed around the glacial disappearance of the glaciers.

  15. How to implement a balanced programme for musical activities in kindergarten

    Zgonc, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The preschool and school periods are the most important time for intensive music education. In order to successfully enhance a child’s musical development, nursery teachers should ensure that music activities are equally represented within the programme (singing, playing musical instruments, listening to music, listening to music during creative activities, creating music itself, didactic music games). One of the principles that should be followed by nursery teachers and is set out in the Slo...

  16. Human Muscle Spindle Sensitivity Reflects the Balance of Activity between Antagonistic Muscles

    Dimitriou, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Muscle spindles are commonly considered as stretch receptors encoding movement, but the functional consequence of their efferent control has remained unclear. The "alpha-gamma coactivation" hypothesis states that activity in a muscle is positively related to the output of its spindle afferents. However, in addition to the above, possible reciprocal inhibition of spindle controllers entails a negative relationship between contractile activity in one muscle and spindle afferent output from its ...

  17. A semi-immersive virtual reality incremental swing balance task activates prefrontal cortex: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Basso Moro, Sara; Bisconti, Silvia; Muthalib, Makii; Spezialetti, Matteo; Cutini, Simone; Ferrari, Marco; Placidi, Giuseppe; Quaresima, Valentina

    2014-01-15

    Previous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies indicated that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in the maintenance of the postural balance after external perturbations. So far, no studies have been conducted to investigate the PFC hemodynamic response to virtual reality (VR) tasks that could be adopted in the field of functional neurorehabilitation. The aim of this fNIRS study was to assess PFC oxygenation response during an incremental and a control swing balance task (ISBT and CSBT, respectively) in a semi-immersive VR environment driven by a depth-sensing camera. It was hypothesized that: i) the PFC would be bilaterally activated in response to the increase of the ISBT difficulty, as this cortical region is involved in the allocation of attentional resources to maintain postural control; and ii) the PFC activation would be greater in the right than in the left hemisphere considering its dominance for visual control of body balance. To verify these hypotheses, 16 healthy male subjects were requested to stand barefoot while watching a 3 dimensional virtual representation of themselves projected onto a screen. They were asked to maintain their equilibrium on a virtual blue swing board susceptible to external destabilizing perturbations (i.e., randomizing the forward-backward direction of the impressed pulse force) during a 3-min ISBT (performed at four levels of difficulty) or during a 3-min CSBT (performed constantly at the lowest level of difficulty of the ISBT). The center of mass (COM), at each frame, was calculated and projected on the floor. When the subjects were unable to maintain the COM over the board, this became red (error). After each error, the time required to bring back the COM on the board was calculated (returning time). An eight-channel continuous wave fNIRS system was employed for measuring oxygenation changes (oxygenated-hemoglobin, O2Hb; deoxygenated-hemoglobin, HHb) related to the PFC activation (Brodmann Areas 10, 11

  18. Fine Tuning the IRIS Education and Outreach Program: Choosing an Optimal Balance of Activities

    Taber, J. J.; Hubenthal, M.; Aster, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The IRIS Education and Outreach (E&O) Program is committed to making significant and lasting contributions to science education, science literacy and the general public's understanding of the Earth, using seismology and the unique resources of the IRIS consortium. The E&O program has activities that span all educational levels from public outreach to K-12 and college education. The activities are designed for a wide range of individual interaction time, from minutes for a museum display to an entire summer for an undergraduate research internship. In general, the longer the interaction time, the smaller the audience. The educational goals for a particular audience, as stated in the E&O Program plan, define whether an activity is focused more on breadth of audience or depth of content. An activity's ability to meet the educational goals of the E&O program is the most important criteria in assessing its value. However, to help determine which activities are most worthy of continued support and to help select new activities to engage in, we have begun estimating the cost of providing each hour of interaction time for an activity. The lower the cost for each person-hour of interaction, the more efficient the activity, assuming maximum effectiveness of each activity. Thus the importance of assessment is magnified, as a more effective activity could cost more per person-hour and still be supported if no equally effective but more efficient activity is viable. As an example of how resources are divided between different activities, two activities that have similar budgets but very different goals, content depth and audience sizes are our museum program and our professional development workshops. The museum program, a partnership between IRIS, the US Geological Survey, and several major museums across the nation, reaches large audiences (up to 16 million people per year) via 1 traveling and 4 permanent exhibits. The exhibits include real-time earthquake location maps and

  19. Exergame and Balance Training Modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and Enhance Executive Function in Older Adults

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Wolf, Martin; Schumann, Martina; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE). The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 min per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9 ± 6.9 years). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults. PMID:27148041

  20. Comparison of activity of individual pyramidal tract neurons during balancing, locomotion, and scratching.

    Beloozerova, Irina N; Sirota, Mikhail G; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Deliagina, Tatiana G

    2006-04-25

    Neuronal mechanisms of the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebellum play a key role in the control of complex automatic motor behaviors-postural corrections, stepping, and scratching, whereas the role of the motor cortex is less clear. To assess this role, we recorded fore and hind limb-related pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) in the cat during postural corrections and during locomotion; hind limb PTNs were also tested during scratching. The activity of nearly all PTNs was modulated in the rhythm of each of these motor patterns. The discharge frequency, averaged over the PTN population, was similar in different motor tasks, whereas the degree of frequency modulation was larger during locomotion. In individual PTNs, a correlation between analogous discharge characteristics (frequency or its modulation) in different tasks was very low, suggesting that input signals to PTNs in these tasks have a substantially different origin. In about a half of PTNs, their activity in different tasks was timed to the analogous (flexor/extensor) parts of the cycle, suggesting that these PTNs perform similar functions in these tasks (e.g., control of the value of muscle activity). In another half of PTNs, their activity was timed to opposite parts of the cycle in different tasks. These PTNs seem to perform different motor functions in different tasks, or their targets are active in different parts of the cycle in these tasks, or their effects are not directly related to the control of motor output (e.g., they modulate transmission of afferent signals). PMID:16445992

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase: a key regulator of energy balance with many roles in human disease.

    Grahame Hardie, D

    2014-12-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that regulates cellular and whole-body energy balance. A recently reported crystal structure has illuminated the complex regulatory mechanisms by which AMP and ADP cause activation of AMPK, involving phosphorylation by the upstream kinase LKB1. Once activated by falling cellular energy status, AMPK activates catabolic pathways that generate ATP whilst inhibiting anabolic pathways and other cellular processes that consume ATP. A role of AMPK is implicated in many human diseases. Mutations in the γ2 subunit cause heart disease due to excessive glycogen storage in cardiac myocytes, leading to ventricular pre-excitation. AMPK-activating drugs reverse many of the metabolic defects associated with insulin resistance, and recent findings suggest that the insulin-sensitizing effects of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin are mediated by AMPK. The upstream kinase LKB1 is a tumour suppressor, and AMPK may exert many of its antitumour effects. AMPK activation promotes the oxidative metabolism typical of quiescent cells, rather than the aerobic glycolysis observed in tumour cells and cells involved in inflammation, explaining in part why AMPK activators have both antitumour and anti-inflammatory effects. Salicylate (the major in vivo metabolite of aspirin) activates AMPK, and this could be responsible for at least some of the anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin. In addition to metformin and salicylates, novel drugs that modulate AMPK are likely to enter clinical trials soon. Finally, AMPK may be involved in viral infection: downregulation of AMPK during hepatitis C virus infection appears to be essential for efficient viral replication. PMID:24824502

  2. Electrical Tongue Stimulation Normalizes Activity Within the Motion-Sensitive Brain Network in Balance-Impaired Subjects as Revealed by Group Independent Component Analysis

    Wildenberg, Joseph C.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Danilov, Yuri P; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Meyerand, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data allows investigations into network behavior beyond simple activations of individual regions. We apply group independent component analysis to fMRI data collected in a previous study looking at the sustained neuromodulatory effects of electrical tongue stimulation in balance-impaired individuals. Twelve subjects with balance disorders viewed optic flow in an fMRI scanner before and after 5 days of electrical tongue stim...

  3. Energy balance in solar active regions - The dip of April, 1985

    Hudson, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of a solar active region affects the luminosity of the sun. Sunspots directly produce 'dips' in the total solar irradiance approximately proportionally to their projected area, while faculae produce excess energy. These effects were discovered during the solar maximum period of 1980, and the sunspot effect during solar minimum is examined. The 'dip' due to an active region in April, 1985, as observed in the total solar irradiance by the ACRIM instrument on the Solar Maximum Mission is examined. These data (obtained after the spacecraft repair in May, 1984) have simple variations, relative to those observed in 1980, because of the reduced level of activity approaching solar minimum. It is found that the PSI index of projected sunspot area as defined in 1980 appears to describe this 'dip' satisfactorily.

  4. cAMP/PKA signaling balances respiratory activity with mitochondria dependent apoptosis via transcriptional regulation

    Gourlay Campbell W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate control of mitochondrial function, morphology and biogenesis are crucial determinants of the general health of eukaryotic cells. It is therefore imperative that we understand the mechanisms that co-ordinate mitochondrial function with environmental signaling systems. The regulation of yeast mitochondrial function in response to nutritional change can be modulated by PKA activity. Unregulated PKA activity can lead to the production of mitochondria that are prone to the production of ROS, and an apoptotic form of cell death. Results We present evidence that mitochondria are sensitive to the level of cAMP/PKA signaling and can respond by modulating levels of respiratory activity or committing to self execution. The inappropriate activation of one of the yeast PKA catalytic subunits, Tpk3p, is sufficient to commit cells to an apoptotic death through transcriptional changes that promote the production of dysfunctional, ROS producing mitochondria. Our data implies that cAMP/PKA regulation of mitochondrial function that promotes apoptosis engages the function of multiple transcription factors, including HAP4, SOK2 and SCO1. Conclusions We propose that in yeast, as is the case in mammalian cells, mitochondrial function and biogenesis are controlled in response to environmental change by the concerted regulation of multiple transcription factors. The visualization of cAMP/TPK3 induced cell death within yeast colonies supports a model that PKA regulation plays a physiological role in coordinating respiratory function and cell death with nutritional status in budding yeast.

  5. Atypical balance between occipital and fronto-parietal activation for visual shape extraction in dyslexia.

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Reading requires the extraction of letter shapes from a complex background of text, and an impairment in visual shape extraction would cause difficulty in reading. To investigate the neural mechanisms of visual shape extraction in dyslexia, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine brain activation while adults with or without dyslexia responded to the change of an arrow's direction in a complex, relative to a simple, visual background. In comparison to adults with typical reading ability, adults with dyslexia exhibited opposite patterns of atypical activation: decreased activation in occipital visual areas associated with visual perception, and increased activation in frontal and parietal regions associated with visual attention. These findings indicate that dyslexia involves atypical brain organization for fundamental processes of visual shape extraction even when reading is not involved. Overengagement in higher-order association cortices, required to compensate for underengagment in lower-order visual cortices, may result in competition for top-down attentional resources helpful for fluent reading.

  6. Attributing runoff changes to climate variability and human activities: Uncertainty analysis using four monthly water balance models

    Li, Shuai; Xiong, Lihua; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Demissie, Yonas

    2016-01-08

    Hydrological simulations to delineate the impacts of climate variability and human activities are subjected to uncertainties related to both parameter and structure of the hydrological models. To analyze the impact of these uncertainties on the model performance and to yield more reliable simulation results, a global calibration and multimodel combination method that integrates the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM) and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) of four monthly water balance models was proposed. The method was applied to the Weihe River Basin (WRB), the largest tributary of the Yellow River, to determine the contribution of climate variability and human activities to runoff changes. The change point, which was used to determine the baseline period (1956-1990) and human-impacted period (1991-2009), was derived using both cumulative curve and Pettitt’s test. Results show that the combination method from SCEM provides more skillful deterministic predictions than the best calibrated individual model, resulting in the smallest uncertainty interval of runoff changes attributed to climate variability and human activities. This combination methodology provides a practical and flexible tool for attribution of runoff changes to climate variability and human activities by hydrological models.

  7. Importance of balanced diet and physical activity during and after cancer treatment in adolescent patients

    Barnes MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Margaux J Barnes,1 Wendy Demark-Wahnefried21Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USAAbstract: Adolescents diagnosed with cancer are at increased risk for current and future health problems and premature death. As such, it is important to foster the development of health-promoting behaviors that may ameliorate some of this risk. Specific attention has been given to diet and physical activity, as these are behaviors that can be directly controlled and modified by the survivor. Despite the importance of adequate nutrition and physical activity, a large proportion of adolescents with a history of cancer do not meet recommended guidelines for these health behaviors. The current review summarizes the beneficial effects of diet and physical activity in adolescent cancer patients both during and after treatment, evaluates interventions that have been developed to address these behaviors, and provides recommendations for future strategies on how to improve these behaviors in this population. A structured literature review identified ten empirical articles examining diet and/or physical activity interventions in adolescents with a history of cancer. While several interventions aimed at increasing diet and physical activity in this population have been successful, more research is needed to evaluate long-term maintenance of health behaviors, as well as the impact these behavioral changes have on adolescents as they continue into adulthood. Future interventions should incorporate key elements of adolescent development including individualized and specific intervention components and the incorporation of both peer and family support to increase saliency and long-term commitment.Keywords: oncology, adolescence, health-promoting behaviors

  8. Development of the spent fuel disassembling process by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology

    For developing the spent fuel disassembling process, the 3D graphic simulation has been established by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology which is widely used in the industry. The spent fuel disassembling process consists of a downender, a rod extraction device, a rod cutting device, a pellet extracting device and a skeleton compaction device. In this study, the 3D graphical design model of these devices is implemented by conceptual design and established the virtual workcell within kinematics to motion of each device. By implementing this graphic simulation, all the unit process involved in the spent fuel disassembling processes are analyzed and optimized. The 3D graphical model and the 3D graphic simulation can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process

  9. Delivery of lipophilic bioactives: assembly, disassembly, and reassembly of lipid nanoparticles.

    Yao, Mingfei; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2014-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactive molecules can be greatly increased by encapsulating them within engineered lipid nanoparticles (ELNs), such as micelles, microemulsions, nanoemulsions, or solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). After ingestion, these ELNs are disassembled in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and then reassembled into biological lipid nanoparticles (mixed micelles) in the small intestine. These mixed micelles solubilize and transport lipophilic bioactive components to the epithelial cells. The mixed micelles are then disassembled and reassembled into yet another form of biological lipid nanoparticle [chylomicrons (CMs)] within the enterocyte cells. The CMs carry the bioactive components into the systemic (blood) circulation via the lymphatic system, thereby avoiding first-pass metabolism. This article provides an overview of the various physicochemical and physiological processes responsible for the assembly and disassembly of lipid nanoparticles outside and inside the GIT. This knowledge can be used to design food-grade delivery systems to improve the oral bioavailability of encapsulated lipophilic bioactive components. PMID:24328432

  10. Studies of the effects of fuel EOS uncertainties on FBR disassembly energetics

    A principal source of uncertainty in the energetics of FBR core disassembly is the lack of mechanical and thermophysical data on fresh and irradiated fuel under the conditions of interest. The consequences of uncertainties are analysed in two areas: (i) the equation of state (EOS) or irradiated fuel and (ii) the specific heat of molten fuel. The current UK understanding of the role of fission products in the postulated disassembly phase of an HCDA is outlined giving particular emphasis to the possible effects of pre-disassembly heating. The authors draw as far as possible on the rather sparse experimental data and indicate where further work would be most useful. Further they discuss arguments suggesting there exists substantial uncertainty in the currently-accepted values of the specific heat of molten fuel, and show that this lack of knowledge implies that current estimates of accident excursion yield could be exaggerated by more than a factor of two. (author)

  11. The temperature structure and pressure balance of magnetic loops in active regions. [in solar atmosphere

    Foukal, P.

    1975-01-01

    EUV observations show many active region loops in lines formed at temperatures between 10,000 and 2,000,000 K. The brightest loops are associated with flux tubes leading to the umbrae of sunspots. It is shown that the high visibility of certain loops in transition region lines is due principally to a sharp radial decrease of temperature to chromospheric values toward the loop axis. The plasma density of these cool loops is not significantly greater than in the hot gas immediately surrounding it. Consequently, the internal gas pressure of the cool material is clearly lower. The hot material immediately surrounding the cool loops is generally denser than the external corona by a factor 3-4. When the active region is examined in coronal lines, this hot high pressure plasma shows up as loops that are generally parallel to the cool loops but significantly displaced laterally.

  12. Acute coagulopathy of trauma: balancing progressive catecholamine induced endothelial activation and damage by fluid phase anticoagulation

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R

    2010-01-01

    Acute coagulopathy of trauma predicts a poor clinical outcome. Tissue trauma activates the sympathoadrenal system resulting in high circulating levels of catecholamines that influence hemostasis dose-dependently through immediate effects on the two major compartments of hemostasis, i.e., the...... circulating blood and the vascular endothelium. There appears to be a dose-dependency with regards to injury severity and the hemostatic response to trauma evaluated in whole blood by viscoelastic assays like thrombelastography (TEG), changing from normal to hypercoagulable, to hypocoagulable and finally...... evolutionary developed response that counterbalances the injury and catecholamine induced endothelial activation and damage. Given this, the rise in circulating catecholamines in trauma patients may favor a switch from hyper- to hypocoagulability in the blood to keep the progressively more procoagulant...

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infection regulates the balance of activating and inhibitory receptors on decidual natural killer cells.

    Xiaoyan Xu

    Full Text Available Inhibitory receptors and activating receptor expressed on decidual natural killer (dNK cells are generally believed to be important in abnormal pregnancy outcomes and induced adverse pregnancy. However, if Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection induced abnormal pregnancy was related to dNK cells changes is not clear. In this study, we used human dNK cells co-cultured with human extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT cells following YFP-Toxoplasma gondii (YFP-T. gondii infection in vitro and established animal pregnant infection model. Levels of inhibitory receptors KIR2DL4 and ILT-2, their ligand HLA-G, and activating receptor NKG2D in human decidua, and NKG2A and its ligand Qa-1 and NKG2D in mice uterine were analyzed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry with levels of NKG2D significantly higher than those of KIR2DL4 and ILT-2 in vitro and in invo. The level of NKG2D was positively correlated with cytotoxic activity of dNK cells in vitro. Numbers of abnormal pregnancies were significantly greater in the infected group than in the control group. This result demonstrated that the increased NKG2D expression and imbalance between inhibitory receptors of dNK cells and HLA-G may contribute to abnormal pregnancy outcomes observed upon maternal infection with T. gondii.

  14. A Standing Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Physical Activities with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple physical activities by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using Nintendo Wii Balance Boards with a newly developed standing location detection program (SLDP, i.e., a new software program turning a Nintendo Wii Balance…

  15. Disassembly of the fusion-1 capsule after irradiation in the BOR-60 reactor

    A U.S./Russia (RF) collaborative irradiation experiment, Fusion-1, was completed in June 1996 after reaching a peak exposure of ∼17 dpa in the BOR-60 fast reactor at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) in Russia. The specimens were vanadium alloys, mainly of recent heats from both countries. In this reporting period, the capsule was disassembled at the RIAR hot cells and all test specimens were successfully retrieved. For the disassembly, an innovative method of using a heated diffusion oil to melt and separate the lithium bond from the test specimens was adopted. This method proved highly successful

  16. Efficiency Optimization for Disassembly Tools via Using NN-GA Approach

    Guangdong Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disassembly issues have been widely attracted in today’s sustainable development context. One of them is the selection of disassembly tools and their efficiency comparison. To deal with such issue, taking the bolt as a removal object, this work designs their removal experiments for different removal tools considering some factors influencing its removal process. Moreover, based on the obtained experimental data, the removal efficiency for different removal tools is optimized by a hybrid algorithm integrating neural networks (NN and genetic algorithm (GA. Their efficiency comparison is discussed. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed idea and the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  17. Highly Selective Nuclide Removal from the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at SRS

    This paper describes the results of a deployment of highly selective ion-exchange resin technologies for the in-situ removal of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the Savannah River Site (SRS) R-Reactor Disassembly Basin. The deployment was supported by the DOE Office of Science and Technology's (OST, EM-50) National Engineering Technology Laboratory (NETL), as a part of an Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project. The Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning (FDD) Program at the SRS conducted this deployment as a part of an overall program to deactivate three of the site's five reactor disassembly basins

  18. Dynamic myosin activation promotes collective morphology and migration by locally balancing oppositional forces from surrounding tissue.

    Aranjuez, George; Burtscher, Ashley; Sawant, Ketki; Majumder, Pralay; McDonald, Jocelyn A

    2016-06-15

    Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue. Border cells move as a cohesive group of 6-10 cells, traversing a network of large germ line-derived nurse cells within the ovary. Here we show that the border cell cluster is compact and round throughout their entire migration, a shape that is maintained despite the mechanical pressure imposed by the surrounding nurse cells. Nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) activity at the cluster periphery becomes elevated in response to increased constriction by nurse cells. Furthermore, the distinctive border cell collective morphology requires highly dynamic and localized enrichment of Myo-II. Thus, activated Myo-II promotes cortical tension at the outer edge of the migrating border cell cluster to resist compressive forces from nurse cells. We propose that dynamic actomyosin tension at the periphery of collectives facilitates their movement through restrictive tissues. PMID:27122602

  19. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities of Greek herbal infusions; balancing delight and chemoprevention?

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Kogiannou, Dimitra A A; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Papassideri, Issidora S; Kalogeropoulos, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of six herbal infusions - namely rosemary, Cretan dittany, St. John's Wort, sage, marjoram and thyme were assayed. Additionally, the infusion anticarcinogenic effect as to their ability to (a) scavenge free radicals, (b) inhibit cell growth, (c) decrease IL-8 levels and (d) regulate p65 subunit in epithelial colon cancer (HT29) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells was investigated. LC-DAD-MS and GC-MS analyses showed major qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic profiles of the infusions. All herbal infusions exhibited antiradical activity which correlated strongly with their total phenolic content. Infusions exhibited the potential to inhibit cell growth and to reduce IL-8 levels in HT29 colon and PC3 prostate cancer cells. The regulation reported in p65 subunit in HT29 treated with St John's Wort and in PC3 treated with thyme might point to the NF-κB as the molecular target underlying the effect of these infusions. PMID:24001836

  20. A Design Framework for End-of-Life Vehicles Recovery: Optimization of Disassembly Sequence Using Genetic Algorithms

    T. F. Go

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is expected that over the next few years type approval legislation and public awareness will force vehicle manufacturers to identify recovery methods during the design process in order to achieve reuse and recycling targets. Current vehicle design in Malaysia does not sufficiently aid the economic recovery of parts and materials to reach these targets. Approach: This study aimed to provide a framework for automotive components to be designed for ease of recovery. Disassemblability concept evolved from the life cycle engineering concept in which design for disassembly is one of the strategies in reducing the impact of the product to the environment. Results: The proposed methodology that consisted of three distinct elements namely implementing principles and guidelines of design for disassembly into the design, generating optimum disassembly using genetic algorithm approach and evaluating disassemblability of end-of-life products will be discussed. Conclusion/Recommendations: There is a need for effective disassembly in order to enhance the recovery of end-of-life product.The proposed methodology was implemented as a computer-based disassemblability evaluation tool that will enhance disassemblability of the product starting from the design stage.

  1. Disassembling bacterial extracellular matrix with DNase-coated nanoparticles to enhance antibiotic delivery in biofilm infections.

    Baelo, Aida; Levato, Riccardo; Julián, Esther; Crespo, Anna; Astola, José; Gavaldà, Joan; Engel, Elisabeth; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel Angel; Torrents, Eduard

    2015-07-10

    Infections caused by biofilm-forming bacteria are a major threat to hospitalized patients and the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. There is an urgent necessity for novel therapeutic approaches, since current antibiotic delivery fails to eliminate biofilm-protected bacteria. In this study, ciprofloxacin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, which were functionalized with DNase I, were fabricated using a green-solvent based method and their antibiofilm activity was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Such nanoparticles constitute a paradigm shift in biofilm treatment, since, besides releasing ciprofloxacin in a controlled fashion, they are able to target and disassemble the biofilm by degrading the extracellular DNA that stabilize the biofilm matrix. These carriers were compared with free-soluble ciprofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin encapsulated in untreated and poly(lysine)-coated nanoparticles. DNase I-activated nanoparticles were not only able to prevent biofilm formation from planktonic bacteria, but they also successfully reduced established biofilm mass, size and living cell density, as observed in a dynamic environment in a flow cell biofilm assay. Moreover, repeated administration over three days of DNase I-coated nanoparticles encapsulating ciprofloxacin was able to reduce by 95% and then eradicate more than 99.8% of established biofilm, outperforming all the other nanoparticle formulations and the free-drug tested in this study. These promising results, together with minimal cytotoxicity as tested on J774 macrophages, allow obtaining novel antimicrobial nanoparticles, as well as provide clues to design the next generation of drug delivery devices to treat persistent bacterial infections. PMID:25913364

  2. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation

    Hill, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed. The first examined beta{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors (AR's) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via (I{sup 125})iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhi Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of transcending. The third was within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay.

  3. NCI Funding Trends and Priorities in Physical Activity and Energy Balance Research Among Cancer Survivors.

    Alfano, Catherine M; Bluethmann, Shirley M; Tesauro, Gina; Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Elena, Joanne W; Ross, Sharon A; O'Connell, Mary; Bowles, Heather R; Greenberg, Deborah; Nebeling, Linda

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a healthy lifestyle consisting of physical activity, healthy diet, and weight control is associated with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality after cancer. However, these behavioral interventions are not widely adopted in practice or community settings. Integrating heath behavior change interventions into standard survivorship care for the growing number of cancer survivors requires an understanding of the current state of the science and a coordinated scientific agenda for the future with focused attention in several priority areas. To facilitate this goal, this paper presents trends over the past decade of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) research portfolio, fiscal year 2004 to 2014, by funding mechanism, research focus, research design and methodology, primary study exposures and outcomes, and study team expertise and composition. These data inform a prioritized research agenda for the next decade focused on demonstrating value and feasibility and creating desire for health behavior change interventions at multiple levels including the survivor, clinician, and healthcare payer to facilitate the development and implementation of appropriately targeted, adaptive, effective, and sustainable programs for all survivors. PMID:26547926

  4. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed. The first examined beta2-adrenergic receptors (AR's) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via [I125]iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhi Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of transcending. The third was within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay

  5. A Camelid-derived Antibody Fragment Targeting the Active Site of a Serine Protease Balances between Inhibitor and Substrate Behavior.

    Kromann-Hansen, Tobias; Oldenburg, Emil; Yung, Kristen Wing Yu; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza H; Muyldermans, Serge; Declerck, Paul J; Huang, Mingdong; Andreasen, Peter A; Ngo, Jacky Chi Ki

    2016-07-15

    A peptide segment that binds the active site of a serine protease in a substrate-like manner may behave like an inhibitor or a substrate. However, there is sparse information on which factors determine the behavior a particular peptide segment will exhibit. Here, we describe the first x-ray crystal structure of a nanobody in complex with a serine protease. The nanobody displays a new type of interaction between an antibody and a serine protease as it inserts its complementary determining region-H3 loop into the active site of the protease in a substrate-like manner. The unique binding mechanism causes the nanobody to behave as a strong inhibitor as well as a poor substrate. Intriguingly, its substrate behavior is incomplete, as 30-40% of the nanobody remained intact and inhibitory after prolonged incubation with the protease. Biochemical analysis reveals that an intra-loop interaction network within the complementary determining region-H3 of the nanobody balances its inhibitor versus substrate behavior. Collectively, our results unveil molecular factors, which may be a general mechanism to determine the substrate versus inhibitor behavior of other protease inhibitors. PMID:27226628

  6. Balanced Scorecard

    Ahonen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Tasapainotetun tuloskortin eli Balanced Scorecardin avulla organisaatiolla on mahdollisuus saada toiminnasta perinteisiä taloudellisia raportteja parempi kuva. Balanced Scorecard huomioi taloudellisten tunnuslukujen lisäksi myös asiakkaiden, sisäisten prosessien sekä oppimisen ja kasvun näkökulman. Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella suoritusmittaristo pk-yritykselle. Tutkimuksella haettiin Balance Scorecardin kautta vahvistusta ja tukea kohdeyrityksen sisäiseen laskentaan ja ...

  7. Using genetic/simulated annealing algorithm to solve disassembly sequence planning

    Wu Hao; Zuo Hongfu

    2009-01-01

    disassembly sequence.And the solution methodology based on the genetic/simulated annealing algorithm with binary-tree algorithm is given.Finally,an example is analyzed in detail,and the result shows that the model is correct and efficient.

  8. Real-Time Imaging of Single HIV-1 Disassembly with Multicolor Viral Particles.

    Ma, Yingxin; He, Zhike; Tan, Tianwei; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhiping; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Qinxue; Zhou, Peng; Wu, Yuntao; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zongqiang

    2016-06-28

    Viral disassembly is poorly understood and related to the infection mechanism. However, directly observing the process in living cells remains technically challenging. In this study, the genome RNA, capsid, and matrix protein of the HIV-1 virus were labeled with a Ru(II) complex ([Ru(phen)2(dppz)](2+)), the TC-FlAsH/ReAsH system, and EGFP/ECFP, respectively. Using the multicolored virus and single-particle imaging, we were able to track the sequential disassembly process of single HIV-1 virus particles in live host cells. Approximately 0.1% of viral particles were observed to undergo a sequential disassembly process at 60-120 min post infection. The timing and efficiency of the disassembly were influenced by the cellular factor CypA and reverse transcription. The findings facilitate a better understanding of the processes governing the HIV-1 lifecycle. The multicolor labeling protocol developed in this study may find many applications involving virus-host-cell interactions. PMID:27253587

  9. Cotranslational disassembly of flock house virus in a cell-free system.

    Hiscox, J A; Ball, L A

    1997-01-01

    Intact, purified particles of the nodaviruses flock house virus and nodamura virus that were either transfected into cells that were resistant to infection or introduced into in vitro translation systems directed the synthesis of viral proteins. We infer that direct interaction of these nodavirus particles with cytoplasmic components mediated virion disassembly that resulted in release of the viral RNA.

  10. Studies of the effects of fuel EOS uncertainties on FBR disassembly energetics

    The article analyzes the consequences of uncertainties in two areas: (i) the EOS of irradiated fuel; and (ii) the specific heat of molten fuel. The current UK understanding of the role of fission products in the postulated disassembly phase of an HCDA is outlined, giving particular emphasis to the possible effects of predisassembly heating. 21 refs

  11. Rapidly disassembling nanomicelles with disulfide-linked PEG shells for glutathione-mediated intracellular drug delivery.

    Wen, Hui-Yun; Dong, Hai-Qing; Xie, Wen-juan; Li, Yong-Yong; Wang, Kang; Pauletti, Giovanni M; Shi, Dong-Lu

    2011-03-28

    The synthesis and biological efficacy of novel nanomicelles that rapidly disassemble and release their encapsulated payload intracellularly under tumor-relevant glutathione (GSH) levels are reported. The unique design includes a PEG-sheddable shell and poly(ε-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine) core with a redox-sensitive disulfide linkage. PMID:21327187

  12. Development of Disassembly Tool for Intermediate Examination of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Hong, Jintae; Heo, Sungho; Kim, Kahye; Park, Sungjae; Joung, Changyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To check the characteristics of nuclear fuels during an irradiation test, the nuclear fuel rod needs to be disassembled from the test rig located in the pool of the research reactor. Then, the disassembled fuel rod is delivered to the hot cell for intermediate examination. A fuel rod that passes the intermediate examination is delivered to the reactor pool to be reassembled into the test rig. The irradiation test is resumed with the reassembled test rig. Because nuclear fuel rods irradiated by neutrons are highly radioactive, all the disassembly and reassembly processes should be carried out in the pool of the research reactor to prevent operators being exposed to radiation. In particular, because a test rig is 5.4-m long and the reactor pool of HANARO is 6-m deep, special tools need to be developed for performing the disassembly and reassembly processes. In this study, a new assembly design of nuclear fuel rods for intermediate examination is introduced. Furthermore, tools for treating the irradiated fuel rod assembly are introduced, and their performance is verified by an out pile test.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar H+-ATPase regulation by disassembly and reassembly: one structure and multiple signals.

    Parra, Karlett J; Chan, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are highly conserved ATP-driven proton pumps responsible for acidification of intracellular compartments. V-ATPase proton transport energizes secondary transport systems and is essential for lysosomal/vacuolar and endosomal functions. These dynamic molecular motors are composed of multiple subunits regulated in part by reversible disassembly, which reversibly inactivates them. Reversible disassembly is intertwined with glycolysis, the RAS/cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and phosphoinositides, but the mechanisms involved are elusive. The atomic- and pseudo-atomic-resolution structures of the V-ATPases are shedding light on the molecular dynamics that regulate V-ATPase assembly. Although all eukaryotic V-ATPases may be built with an inherent capacity to reversibly disassemble, not all do so. V-ATPase subunit isoforms and their interactions with membrane lipids and a V-ATPase-exclusive chaperone influence V-ATPase assembly. This minireview reports on the mechanisms governing reversible disassembly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, keeping in perspective our present understanding of the V-ATPase architecture and its alignment with the cellular processes and signals involved. PMID:24706019

  14. Conceptual design report for the mechanical disassembly of Fort St. Vrain fuel elements

    A conceptual design study was prepared that: (1) reviewed the operations necessary to perform the mechanical disassembly of Fort St. Vrain fuel elements; (2) contained a description and survey of equipment capable of performing the necessary functions; and (3) performed a tradeoff study for determining the preferred concepts and equipment specifications. A preferred system was recommended and engineering specifications for this system were developed

  15. Disassembly and physical separation of electric/electronic components layered in printed circuit boards (PCB)

    Highlights: ► The disassembly of electric/electronic components (EECs) layered in PCB as the first-step in recycling process. ► The disassembling treatment was carried out by the new designed apparatus. ► Most of the EECs (over 95%) can be recovered in a nondestructive state. ► These EECs contain 17 groups and can be classified into 54 types based on their shapes and sizes. ► The successive 3 stages of physical separation would enables the recovery of minor ingredients. - Abstract: Although printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain various elements, only the major elements (i.e., those with content levels in wt% or over grade) of and precious metals (e.g., Ag, Au, and platinum groups) contained within PCBs can be recycled. To recover other elements from PCBs, the PCBs should be properly disassembled as the first step of the recycling process. The recovery of these other elements would be beneficial for efforts to conserve scarce resources, reuse electric/electronic components (EECs), and eliminate environmental problems. This paper examines the disassembly of EECs from wasted PCBs (WPCBs) and the physical separation of these EECs using a self-designed disassembling apparatus and a 3-step separation process of sieving, magnetic separation, and dense medium separation. The disassembling efficiencies were evaluated by using the ratio of grinding area (Earea) and the weight ratio of the detached EECs (Eweight). In the disassembly treatment, these efficiencies were improved with an increase of grinder speed and grinder height. 97.7% (Earea) and 98% (Eweight) could be accomplished ultimately by 3 repetitive treatments at a grinder speed of 5500 rpm and a grinder height of 1.5 mm. Through a series of physical separations, most groups of the EECs (except for the diode, transistor, and IC chip groups) could be sorted at a relatively high separation efficiency of about 75% or more. To evaluate the separation efficiency with regard to the elemental composition, the

  16. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  17. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke [Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akitsugu [Department of Animal Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga, 526‐0829 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuhiro, E-mail: osaru3@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1–2 h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. - Highlights: • The Golgi apparatus reversibly disassembles by low pH treatment. • The cis-Golgi disassembles quickly generating tubular structures. • Both anterograde and retrograde transport between the ER and the Golgi apparatus are reduced. • Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO

  18. Balance Food and Activity

    ... instead of whole eggs Use tuna canned in water (6-ounce can), instead of oil Here are some ways to burn 150 calories (ENERGY OUT), in just 30 minutes (for a 150 pound person): Shoot hoops Walk two miles Do yard work (gardening, raking leaves, etc.) Go for a bike ride ...

  19. Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of Turkish Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale in Patients with Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Disease

    Karapolat, Hale; Eyigor, Sibel; Kirazli, Yesim; Celebisoy, Nese; Bilgen, Cem; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and sensitivity to change of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) in people with peripheral vestibular disorder. Thirty-three patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular disease were included in the study. Patients were…

  20. A Wireless Object Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with Nintendo Wii Balance Boards

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling

    2012-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology, turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance standing location detector with a newly developed standing location detection program (SLDP). This study extended SLDP functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform…

  1. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  2. Pelvic belt effects on pelvic morphometry, muscle activity and body balance in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    Odette Soisson

    Full Text Available The sacroiliac joint (SIJ is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application.Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects.Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level.Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest.

  3. Dynamics Analysis of a Three-DOF Planar Serial-Parallel Mechanism for Active Dynamic Balancing with Respect to a Given Trajectory

    Kun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of dynamic balancing with respect to a given trajectory is proposed in this paper. Trajectory‐based dynamic balancing is a technique that brings additional mechanisms to unbalanced mechanisms with the purpose of actuating the original mechanism to move along a predefined trajectory, regardless of the shaking forces and moments. In this work, a planar three degrees of freedom (3‐DOF serial‐parallel mechanism is proposed to implement this technique on an unbalanced platform. The overall structure of the system is firstly introduced and the mechanical design and kinematics of the proposed mechanism is then presented. The dynamic model of the mechanism and the platform is derived and analysed. Finally, numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the active dynamic balancing mechanism and the improved dynamic performance of the system.

  4. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor defueling and disassembly. Summary status report. Volume 3

    This document summarizes information relating to the preparations for defueling the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor and disassembly activities being performed concurrently with decontamination of the facility. Data have been collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources and entered in a computerized data sysem which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which can be used in planning for recovery from a loss of coolant event similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during the period of April 23, 1979 to April 16, 1985, in the completion of activities related to preparation for reactor defueling. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are not included within the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: A chronological summary listing work performed for the period; and summary reports for each major task undertaken in connection with the specific scope of this report. Presented in chronological order for the referenced time period. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: Labor and exposures by department; and labor and exposures by major activity

  5. Energy balance measurement

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W;

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance are in their...... of energy balance....

  6. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-12-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (T(th)) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0-38.5 °C) in a broad range of T(a) (3-30 °C). At warmer conditions (T(a)=30-39 °C) T(th) increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of T(body)-T(a) of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a T(a) of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase T(th) by about 1-3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher T(a) they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high T(th) also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees' suction pump even at low T(a). This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing T(a) bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. PMID:20705071

  7. Effect of Electronegativity and Charge Balance on the Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalytic Activity of Nonmetal Doped Anatase TiO2

    Jibao Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity of nonmetal doped anatase TiO2 were investigated in details in this work based on density functional theory calculations. Our results indicate that the electronegativity is of great significance in the band structures, which determines the relative positions of impurity states induced by the doping species, and further influences the optical absorption and photocatalytic activities of doped TiO2. The effect of charge balance on the electronic structure was also discussed, and it was found that the charge-balance structures may be more efficient for visible light photocatalytic activities. In addition, the edge positions of conduction band and valence band, which determine the ability of a semiconductor to transfer photoexcited electrons to species adsorbed on its surface, were predicted as well. The results may provide a reference to further experimental studies.

  8. Mucin-mediated nanocarrier disassembly for triggered uptake of oligonucleotides as a delivery strategy for the potential treatment of mucosal tumours

    Martirosyan, A.; Olesen, M. J.; Fenton, R. A.; Kjems, J.; Howard, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin-mediated disassembly of chitosan-based nanocarriers containing a 13-mer DNA oligonucleotide with a flanked locked RNA nucleic acid gapmer design. Gastric mucins were shown to trigger gapmer release from nanocarriers that was dependent on the interaction time, mucin concentration and N : P ratio with a maximal release at N : P 10. In contrast to siRNA, naked gapmers exhibited uptake into mucus producing HT-MTX mono-cultures and HT-MTX co-cultured with the carcinoma epithelial cell line Caco-2. Importantly, in vivo gapmer uptake was observed in epithelial tissue 30 min post-injection in murine intestinal loops. The findings present a mucosal design-based system tailored for local delivery of oligonucleotides that may maximize the effectiveness of gene silencing therapeutics within tumours at mucosal sites.This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin-mediated disassembly of chitosan-based nanocarriers containing a 13-mer DNA oligonucleotide with a flanked locked RNA nucleic acid gapmer design. Gastric mucins were shown to trigger gapmer release from nanocarriers that was dependent on the interaction time, mucin concentration and N : P ratio with a maximal release at N : P 10. In contrast to siRNA, naked gapmers exhibited uptake into mucus producing HT-MTX mono-cultures and HT-MTX co-cultured with the carcinoma epithelial cell line Caco-2. Importantly, in vivo gapmer uptake was observed in epithelial tissue 30 min post-injection in murine intestinal

  9. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures

  10. Underwater Nuclear Fuel Disassembly and Rod Storage Process and Equipment Description. Volume II

    The process, equipment, and the demonstration of the Underwater Nuclear Fuel Disassembly and Rod Storage System are presented. The process was shown to be a viable means of increasing spent fuel pool storage density by taking apart fuel assemblies and storing the fuel rods in a denser fashion than in the original storage racks. The assembly's nonfuel-bearing waste is compacted and containerized. The report documents design criteria and analysis, fabrication, demonstration program results, and proposed enhancements to the system

  11. Artificial biofilms establish the role of matrix interactions in staphylococcal biofilm assembly and disassembly

    Stewart, Elizabeth J.; Mahesh Ganesan; Younger, John G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the microstructural and mechanical properties of bacterial biofilms can be created through colloidal self-assembly of cells and polymers, and thereby link the complex material properties of biofilms to well understood colloidal and polymeric behaviors. This finding is applied to soften and disassemble staphylococcal biofilms through pH changes. Bacterial biofilms are viscoelastic, structured communities of cells encapsulated in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) co...

  12. Evaporation suppression from spent fuel storage and disassembly basins with monolayer films

    Spent fuel storage and disassembly basins at non-commercial heavy water reactor facilities contain significant quantities of tritiated water. The use of monolayer films for suppressing evaporation from spent nuclear fuel storage basins was investigated. Octadecanol spread easily over large surfaces with a newly designed film pump. This system reduced the evaporation rate by 50%. Consequently, personnel radiation exposure due to tritiated water vapor can be significantly reduced

  13. The budding yeast Ipl1/Aurora protein kinase regulates mitotic spindle disassembly

    Buvelot, Stéphanie; Tatsutani, Sean Y.; Vermaak, Danielle; Biggins, Sue

    2003-01-01

    Ipl1p is the budding yeast member of the Aurora family of protein kinases, critical regulators of genomic stability that are required for chromosome segregation, the spindle checkpoint, and cytokinesis. Using time-lapse microscopy, we found that Ipl1p also has a function in mitotic spindle disassembly that is separable from its previously identified roles. Ipl1–GFP localizes to kinetochores from G1 to metaphase, transfers to the spindle after metaphase, and accumulates at the spindle midzone ...

  14. Real-time assembly and disassembly of human RAD51 filaments on individual DNA molecules

    van der Heijden, Thijn; Seidel, Ralf; Modesti, Mauro; Kanaar, Roland; Wyman, Claire; Dekker, Cees

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe human DNA repair protein RAD51 is the crucial component of helical nucleoprotein filaments that drive homologous recombination. The molecular mechanistic details of how this structure facilitates the requisite DNA strand rearrangements are not known but must involve dynamic interactions between RAD51 and DNA. Here, we report the real-time kinetics of human RAD51 filament assembly and disassembly on individual molecules of both single- and double-stranded DNA, as measured using...

  15. Real-time assembly and disassembly of human RAD51 filaments on individual DNA molecules

    Van der Heijden, T.; Seidel, R.; Modesti, M.; Kanaar, R.; Wyman, C; Dekker, C.

    2007-01-01

    The human DNA repair protein RAD51 is the crucial component of helical nucleoprotein filaments that drive homologous recombination. The molecular mechanistic details of how this structure facilitates the requisite DNA strand rearrangements are not known but must involve dynamic interactions between RAD51 and DNA. Here, we report the real-time kinetics of human RAD51 filament assembly and disassembly on individual molecules of both single- and double-stranded DNA, as measured using magnetic tw...

  16. Design-only conceptual design report for pit disassembly and conversion facility. Rev 0

    Zygmunt, S.; Christensen, L.; Richardson, C.

    1997-12-12

    This design-only conceptual design report (DOCDR) was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Fissile Material Disposition (OFMD) for engineering design of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project No. 99-D-141. The PDCF will be used to disassemble the nation`s inventory of surplus nuclear weapons pits and convert the plutonium recovered from those pits into a form suitable for storage, international inspection, and final disposition. The PDCF is a complex consisting of a hardened building that will contain the plutonium processes in a safe and secure manner, and conventional buildings and structures that will house support personnel, systems, and equipment. The PDCF uses the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES), a low waste, modular pyroprocessing system to convert pits to plutonium oxide. The PDCF project consists of engineering and design, and construction of the buildings and structures, and engineering and design, procurement, installation, testing and start-up of equipment to disassemble pits and convert plutonium in pits to oxide form. The facility is planned to operate for 10 years, averaging 3.5 metric tons (3.86 tons) of plutonium metal per year. On conclusion of operations, the PDCF will be decontaminated and decommissioned.

  17. Preventive maintenance modeling for multi-component systems with considering stochastic failures and disassembly sequence

    The existed PM (preventive maintenance) efforts on multi-component systems usually ignore the PM opportunities at the component failure moments and the structure dependence among the system components. In this paper, a time window based PM model is proposed for multi-component systems with the stochastic failures and the disassembly sequence involved. Whenever one of the system components stochastically fails or reaches its reliability threshold, PM opportunities arise for other system components. A Monte-Carlo based algorithm is built up to simulate the stochastic failures and then to calculate the cumulative maintenance cost of the system. The optimal PM practice is obtained by minimizing the cumulative maintenance cost throughout the given time horizon. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the calculation process and the availability of the proposed PM model. - Highlights: • We propose an opportunistic PM model for multi-component systems. • PM opportunity at stochastic failure moment is considered. • Disassembly sequence among system components is involved. • A Monte Carlo based algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal PM practice. • More PM opportunity arises with increase of disassembly cost of intermediate nodes

  18. Design-only conceptual design report for pit disassembly and conversion facility. Rev 0

    This design-only conceptual design report (DOCDR) was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Fissile Material Disposition (OFMD) for engineering design of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project No. 99-D-141. The PDCF will be used to disassemble the nation's inventory of surplus nuclear weapons pits and convert the plutonium recovered from those pits into a form suitable for storage, international inspection, and final disposition. The PDCF is a complex consisting of a hardened building that will contain the plutonium processes in a safe and secure manner, and conventional buildings and structures that will house support personnel, systems, and equipment. The PDCF uses the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES), a low waste, modular pyroprocessing system to convert pits to plutonium oxide. The PDCF project consists of engineering and design, and construction of the buildings and structures, and engineering and design, procurement, installation, testing and start-up of equipment to disassemble pits and convert plutonium in pits to oxide form. The facility is planned to operate for 10 years, averaging 3.5 metric tons (3.86 tons) of plutonium metal per year. On conclusion of operations, the PDCF will be decontaminated and decommissioned

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-06-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 117 comprises Corrective Action Site (CAS) 26-41-01, Pluto Disassembly Facility, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CAU 117 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 117 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From May 2008 through February 2009, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117, Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, and properly dispose of wastes. Analytes detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to determine COCs for CAU 117. Assessment of the data generated from closure activities indicated that the final action levels were exceeded for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reported as total Aroclor and

  20. Balance System

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  1. Effects of hunger level and nutrient balance on survival and acetylcholinesterase activity of dimethoate exposed wolf spiders

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Dall, Lars G.; Sorensen, Bo C.;

    2002-01-01

    nutrient balance, starvation, and dimethoate exposure revealed synergistic effects of starvation and nutrient imbalance on AChE inhibition by dimethoate in surviving spiders. These results show that the tolerance of non-target arthropods to dimethoate may vary depending on the nutritional history of the...

  2. Proteolytic disassembly of peptide-mediated graphene oxide assemblies for turn-on fluorescence sensing of proteases

    Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Jeon, Su-Ji; Lee, Eunjin; Ju, Jong-Min; Kim, Hye-In; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Molecule-induced assembly of nanomaterials can alter their unique chemical and physical properties, which can be a promising approach for sensing. Herein, we demonstrate an optical `turn-on' biosensor for the detection of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), fabricated by means of a peptide-induced assembly of fluorescent graphene oxide (GO). Functionalization of GO with a peptide substrate for MMP-2 bearing a thiol group leads to its self-assembly via disulfide bonding, accompanied by self-quenching of GO's strong fluorescence. This peptide-induced GO assembly is then disassembled by proteolytic cleavage in the presence of MMP-2, thereby restoring the level of self-quenched GO fluorescence. With this approach, we are able to detect MMP-2 and to investigate the kinetic parameters of MMP-2 activity. The GO-peptide assembly is successfully applied to the selective and sensitive detection of MMP-2 secreted by living cells, human hepatocytes HepG2, at a concentration of 2 ng mL-1.Molecule-induced assembly of nanomaterials can alter their unique chemical and physical properties, which can be a promising approach for sensing. Herein, we demonstrate an optical `turn-on' biosensor for the detection of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), fabricated by means of a peptide-induced assembly of fluorescent graphene oxide (GO). Functionalization of GO with a peptide substrate for MMP-2 bearing a thiol group leads to its self-assembly via disulfide bonding, accompanied by self-quenching of GO's strong fluorescence. This peptide-induced GO assembly is then disassembled by proteolytic cleavage in the presence of MMP-2, thereby restoring the level of self-quenched GO fluorescence. With this approach, we are able to detect MMP-2 and to investigate the kinetic parameters of MMP-2 activity. The GO-peptide assembly is successfully applied to the selective and sensitive detection of MMP-2 secreted by living cells, human hepatocytes HepG2, at a concentration of 2 ng mL-1. Electronic

  3. Mucin-mediated nanocarrier disassembly for triggered uptake of oligonucleotides as a delivery strategy for the potential treatment of mucosal tumours.

    Martirosyan, A; Olesen, M J; Fenton, R A; Kjems, J; Howard, K A

    2016-07-01

    This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin-mediated disassembly of chitosan-based nanocarriers containing a 13-mer DNA oligonucleotide with a flanked locked RNA nucleic acid gapmer design. Gastric mucins were shown to trigger gapmer release from nanocarriers that was dependent on the interaction time, mucin concentration and N : P ratio with a maximal release at N : P 10. In contrast to siRNA, naked gapmers exhibited uptake into mucus producing HT-MTX mono-cultures and HT-MTX co-cultured with the carcinoma epithelial cell line Caco-2. Importantly, in vivo gapmer uptake was observed in epithelial tissue 30 min post-injection in murine intestinal loops. The findings present a mucosal design-based system tailored for local delivery of oligonucleotides that may maximize the effectiveness of gene silencing therapeutics within tumours at mucosal sites. PMID:26694897

  4. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  5. Prosecutor's Office Role In The Process Of Ensuring Balance Between Private And Public Interests In The Conditions Of The Economic Activity Freedom

    Nadezhda D. But

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the problem of prosecutor participation in the process of ensuring the balance of private and public interests during the supervision over laws on free economic activity execution. Authors noted the existence of need for the formation of the registers of subjects of small and medium business which aren't created so far. According to the authors, for more effective control over the balance of private and public interests the anti-corruption legislation of the Russian Federation, including the Federal Law of July 26, 2006 No. 135-FZ "On the competition protection" should be brought into accord with the international precepts of law and standards. Authors pay special attention to the questions of supervision, including reasons for the fact that during the supervision over the performance of laws in the conditions of the economic activity freedom in sight of prosecutors should be not dispositive, but imperative (regulatory and guarding legal norms. In the sphere of the prosecutor's law-enforcement activity in the conditions of economic activity freedom it is expedient to allocate such activity of prosecutors into the independent supervising subsector as it covers not only economic, but also other spheres of public life (state construction, social questions and many other. In the course of research authors analyze various regulations, opinions of scientists and practice of law application. In the conclusion authors explains opinion that questions listed in the present article need more accurate legislative regulation and realization in the law-enforcement practice.

  6. Interactive domains in the molecular chaperone human alphaB crystallin modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Joy G Ghosh

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins regulate microtubule assembly during cell proliferation and in response to stress through interactions that are poorly understood.Novel functions for five interactive sequences in the small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone, human alphaB crystallin, were investigated in the assembly/disassembly of microtubules and aggregation of tubulin using synthetic peptides and mutants of human alphaB crystallin.The interactive sequence (113FISREFHR(120 exposed on the surface of alphaB crystallin decreased microtubule assembly by approximately 45%. In contrast, the interactive sequences, (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, corresponding to the beta8 strand and the C-terminal extension respectively, which are involved in complex formation, increased microtubule assembly by approximately 34-45%. The alphaB crystallin peptides, (113FISREFHR(120 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, inhibited microtubule disassembly by approximately 26-36%, and the peptides (113FISREFHR(120 and (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 decreased the thermal aggregation of tubulin by approximately 42-44%. The (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164 peptides were more effective than the widely used anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, in modulating tubulinmicrotubule dynamics. Mutagenesis of these interactive sequences in wt human alphaB crystallin confirmed the effects of the alphaB crystallin peptides on microtubule assembly/disassembly and tubulin aggregation. The regulation of microtubule assembly by alphaB crystallin varied over a narrow range of concentrations. The assembly of microtubules was maximal at alphaB crystallin to tubulin molar ratios between 1:4 and 2:1, while molar ratios >2:1 inhibited microtubule assembly.Interactive sequences on the surface of human alphaB crystallin collectively modulate microtubule assembly through a dynamic subunit exchange mechanism that depends on the concentration and ratio of alphaB crystallin to tubulin. These are the first

  7. Engineering scale tests of mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing systems for FBR fuel assembly

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) have been developing an advanced head-end process based on mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing systems as a part of Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT). Fuel pins for a fast reactor are installed within a hexagonal shaped wrapper tube made of stainless steel. In order to reprocess the fast reactor fuel pins, they must be removed from the wrapper tube and transported to the shearing system without failure. In addition, the advanced aqueous reprocessing process, called 'NEXT' (New Extraction System for TRU Recovery) process requires a solution of the spent fuel with relatively high concentration (500g/L). JAEA and JAPC have developed the mechanical disassembly and the short stroke shearing technology which is expected to make fragmented fuel to satisfy these requirements. This paper reports the results of engineering scale tests on the mechanical disassembly and short stroke shearing systems. These tests were carried out with simulated FBR fuel assembly and removed pins. The mechanical cutting method has been developed to avoid fuel pin failure during disassembly operation. The cutting process is divided into two modes, so called 'slit-cut' for cutting the wrapper tube and 'crop-cut' for the end plug region of the fuel pin bundle. In the slit-cut mode, the depth of cutting was automatically controlled based on the calculated wastage of the cutting tool and deformation of the wrapper tube which had been measured before the cutting. This procedure was confirmed to minimize the fuel pin failure which was hard to prevent in the case of laser cutting. The cutting speed was also controlled automatically by the electric current of the cutting motor to lower the load of the cutting tool. The removed fuel pins were transported to the shearing machine, whose fuel shearing magazine width was set to be narrow to realize the suitable configuration for the short stroke shearing

  8. Disassembly and domain structure of the proteins in the signal-recognition particle

    Scoulica, Efstathia; Krause, Elke; Meese, Klaus; Dobberstein, Bernhard

    1987-01-01

    The signal-recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex consisting of six different polypeptide chains and a 7SL RNA. It participates in initiating the translocation of proteins across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, SRP was disassembled in 2 M KCl into three components, one RNP composed of 7SL RNA and the 54-kDa and 19-kDa proteins, and two heterodimers consisting of the 72/68-kDa and the 14/9-kDa proteins respectively. The 54-kDa protein could be released from ...

  9. Associations between active video gaming and other energy-balance related behaviours in adolescents : a 24-hour recall diary study

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not oth

  10. Associations between active video gaming and other energy-balance related behaviours in adolescents: a 24-hour recall diary study

    Simons, M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Brug, J.; Seidell, J.C.; Vet, de E.

    2015-01-01

    Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not other physical

  11. Associations between active video gaming and other energy-balance related behaviours in adolescents: a 24-hour recall diary study

    Simons, M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Brug, J.; Seidell, J.; Vet, E. de

    2015-01-01

    Background Active video games may contribute to reducing time spent in sedentary activities, increasing physical activity and preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents. Active video gaming can, however, only be beneficial for weight management when it replaces sedentary activities and not othe

  12. Autophagy Promotes Focal Adhesion Disassembly and Cell Motility of Metastatic Tumor Cells through the Direct Interaction of Paxillin with LC3.

    Sharifi, Marina N; Mowers, Erin E; Drake, Lauren E; Collier, Chris; Chen, Hong; Zamora, Marta; Mui, Stephanie; Macleod, Kay F

    2016-05-24

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that plays a housekeeping role in eliminating protein aggregates and organelles and is activated during nutrient deprivation to generate metabolites and energy. Autophagy plays a significant role in tumorigenesis, although opposing context-dependent functions of autophagy in cancer have complicated efforts to target autophagy for therapeutic purposes. We demonstrate that autophagy inhibition reduces tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro and attenuates metastasis in vivo. Numerous abnormally large focal adhesions (FAs) accumulate in autophagy-deficient tumor cells, reflecting a role for autophagy in FA disassembly through targeted degradation of paxillin. We demonstrate that paxillin interacts with processed LC3 through a conserved LIR motif in the amino-terminal end of paxillin and that this interaction is regulated by oncogenic SRC activity. Together, these data establish a function for autophagy in FA turnover, tumor cell motility, and metastasis. PMID:27184837

  13. Active tuned mass damper in vehicles. Integrated mass and energy balance; Mechatronische Schwingungstilger in Fahrzeugen. Ganzheitliche Massen- und Energiebilanz

    Granzow, Sebastian

    2012-04-02

    The number of mechatronic automotive applications is growing rapidly and becoming more and more important. On the other hand, the automotive industry is faced with the ambitious challenge to significantly reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions. The vehicle mass is as a part of the driving resistance is a starting point. New innovative approaches are required for lightweight constructions. Taking the two aspects together, this leads inevitably to the question: Is it possible to support automotive lightweight construction by using mechatronic systems? The Mechatronic vibration absorber is a combination of a mechanical oscillating system with an electronically controllable force component. This allows a broadband and situation-dependent influence of vehicle vibration behavior. Mechatronic vibration absorbers are suitable to compensate a loss of riding comfort due to a reduction of the body mass. Essential for this is a multidisciplinary simulation environment. The mechatronic vibration absorber, including appropriate control systems, the nonlinear chassis and the elastic body characteristics, inclusive of mutual interactions are mapped in the simulation environment Matlab. In addition to the representation of the oscillating vehicle the determination of the total energy requirements is necessary. To achieve a CO{sub 2}-reduction target, the overall energy balance of lightweight and the electrical vibration absorber energy, which is offered by the vehicle, is required. The question of the real vibration absorber energy needs to be discussed in the context of the individual driving behavior. Ultimately, the overall energy balance is inherently dependent of the individual driving behavior.

  14. Balancing Risk

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  15. Social Balance Theory

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  16. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables

  17. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements. PMID:14700333

  18. Actin disassembly 'clock' and membrane tension determine cell shape and turning: a mathematical model

    Motile cells regulate their shape and movements largely by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton. Principles of this regulation are becoming clear for simple-shaped steadily crawling cells, such as fish keratocytes. In particular, the shape of the leading edge and sides of the lamellipodium-cell motile appendage-is determined by graded actin distribution at the cell boundary, so that the denser actin network at the front grows, while sparser actin filaments at the sides are stalled by membrane tension. Shaping of the cell rear is less understood. Here we theoretically examine the hypothesis that the cell rear is shaped by the disassembly clock: the front-to-rear lamellipodial width is defined by the time needed for the actin-adhesion network to disassemble to the point at which the membrane tension can crush this network. We demonstrate that the theory predicts the observed cell shapes. Furthermore, turning of the cells can be explained by biases in the actin distribution. We discuss experimental implications of this hypothesis.

  19. γ-SNAP stimulates disassembly of endosomal SNARE complexes and regulates endocytic trafficking pathways.

    Inoue, Hiroki; Matsuzaki, Yuka; Tanaka, Ayaka; Hosoi, Kaori; Ichimura, Kaoru; Arasaki, Kohei; Wakana, Yuichi; Asano, Kenichi; Tanaka, Masato; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Tani, Katsuko; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) that reside in the target membranes and transport vesicles assemble into specific SNARE complexes to drive membrane fusion. N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and its attachment protein, α-SNAP (encoded by NAPA), catalyze disassembly of the SNARE complexes in the secretory and endocytic pathways to recycle them for the next round of fusion events. γ-SNAP (encoded by NAPG) is a SNAP isoform, but its function in SNARE-mediated membrane trafficking remains unknown. Here, we show that γ-SNAP regulates the endosomal trafficking of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and transferrin. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that γ-SNAP interacts with a limited range of SNAREs, including endosomal ones. γ-SNAP, as well as α-SNAP, mediated the disassembly of endosomal syntaxin-7-containing SNARE complexes. Overexpression and small interfering (si)RNA-mediated depletion of γ-SNAP changed the morphologies and intracellular distributions of endosomes. Moreover, the depletion partially suppressed the exit of EGFR and transferrin from EEA1-positive early endosomes to delay their degradation and uptake. Taken together, our findings suggest that γ-SNAP is a unique SNAP that functions in a limited range of organelles - including endosomes - and their trafficking pathways. PMID:26101353

  20. Quantifying cadherin mechanotransduction machinery assembly/disassembly dynamics using fluorescence covariance analysis

    Vedula, Pavan; Cruz, Lissette A.; Gutierrez, Natasha; Davis, Justin; Ayee, Brian; Abramczyk, Rachel; Rodriguez, Alexis J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying multi-molecular complex assembly in specific cytoplasmic compartments is crucial to understand how cells use assembly/disassembly of these complexes to control function. Currently, biophysical methods like Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy provide quantitative measurements of direct protein-protein interactions, while traditional biochemical approaches such as sub-cellular fractionation and immunoprecipitation remain the main approaches used to study multi-protein complex assembly/disassembly dynamics. In this article, we validate and quantify multi-protein adherens junction complex assembly in situ using light microscopy and Fluorescence Covariance Analysis. Utilizing specific fluorescently-labeled protein pairs, we quantified various stages of adherens junction complex assembly, the multiprotein complex regulating epithelial tissue structure and function following de novo cell-cell contact. We demonstrate: minimal cadherin-catenin complex assembly in the perinuclear cytoplasm and subsequent localization to the cell-cell contact zone, assembly of adherens junction complexes, acto-myosin tension-mediated anchoring, and adherens junction maturation following de novo cell-cell contact. Finally applying Fluorescence Covariance Analysis in live cells expressing fluorescently tagged adherens junction complex proteins, we also quantified adherens junction complex assembly dynamics during epithelial monolayer formation. PMID:27357130

  1. Neural Network Based Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Novel Electrohydraulic Servo System for Simultaneously Balancing and Positioning by Isoactuation Configuration

    Qiang Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the lightweight requirements of large pipe weapons, a novel electrohydraulic servo (EHS system where the hydraulic cylinder possesses three cavities is developed and investigated in the present study. In the EHS system, the balancing cavity of the EHS is especially designed for active compensation for the unbalancing force of the system, whereas the two driving cavities are employed for positioning and disturbance rejection of the large pipe. Aiming at simultaneously balancing and positioning of the EHS system, a novel neural network based active disturbance rejection control (NNADRC strategy is developed. In the NNADRC, the radial basis function (RBF neural network is employed for online updating of parameters of the extended state observer (ESO. Thereby, the nonlinear behavior and external disturbance of the system can be accurately estimated and compensated in real time. The efficiency and superiority of the system are critically investigated by conducting numerical simulations, showing that much higher steady accuracy as well as system robustness is achieved when comparing with conventional ADRC control system. It indicates that the NNADRC is a very promising technique for achieving fast, stable, smooth, and accurate control of the novel EHS system.

  2. RNA binding to APOBEC3G induces the disassembly of functional deaminase complexes by displacing single-stranded DNA substrates.

    Polevoda, Bogdan; McDougall, William M; Tun, Bradley N; Cheung, Michael; Salter, Jason D; Friedman, Alan E; Smith, Harold C

    2015-10-30

    APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA deaminase activity requires a holoenzyme complex whose assembly on nascent viral reverse transcripts initiates with A3G dimers binding to ssDNA followed by formation of higher-order A3G homo oligomers. Catalytic activity is inhibited when A3G binds to RNA. Our prior studies suggested that RNA inhibited A3G binding to ssDNA. In this report, near equilibrium binding and gel shift analyses showed that A3G assembly and disassembly on ssDNA was an ordered process involving A3G dimers and multimers thereof. Although, fluorescence anisotropy showed that A3G had similar nanomolar affinity for RNA and ssDNA, RNA stochastically dissociated A3G dimers and higher-order oligomers from ssDNA, suggesting a different modality for RNA binding. Mass spectrometry mapping of A3G peptides cross-linked to nucleic acid suggested ssDNA only bound to three peptides, amino acids (aa) 181-194 in the N-terminus and aa 314-320 and 345-374 in the C-terminus that were part of a continuous exposed surface. RNA bound to these peptides and uniquely associated with three additional peptides in the N- terminus, aa 15-29, 41-52 and 83-99, that formed a continuous surface area adjacent to the ssDNA binding surface. The data predict a mechanistic model of RNA inhibition of ssDNA binding to A3G in which competitive and allosteric interactions determine RNA-bound versus ssDNA-bound conformational states. PMID:26424853

  3. RNA binding to APOBEC3G induces the disassembly of functional deaminase complexes by displacing single-stranded DNA substrates

    Polevoda, Bogdan; McDougall, William M.; Tun, Bradley N.; Cheung, Michael; Salter, Jason D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Smith, Harold C.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA deaminase activity requires a holoenzyme complex whose assembly on nascent viral reverse transcripts initiates with A3G dimers binding to ssDNA followed by formation of higher-order A3G homo oligomers. Catalytic activity is inhibited when A3G binds to RNA. Our prior studies suggested that RNA inhibited A3G binding to ssDNA. In this report, near equilibrium binding and gel shift analyses showed that A3G assembly and disassembly on ssDNA was an ordered process involving A3G dimers and multimers thereof. Although, fluorescence anisotropy showed that A3G had similar nanomolar affinity for RNA and ssDNA, RNA stochastically dissociated A3G dimers and higher-order oligomers from ssDNA, suggesting a different modality for RNA binding. Mass spectrometry mapping of A3G peptides cross-linked to nucleic acid suggested ssDNA only bound to three peptides, amino acids (aa) 181–194 in the N-terminus and aa 314–320 and 345–374 in the C-terminus that were part of a continuous exposed surface. RNA bound to these peptides and uniquely associated with three additional peptides in the N- terminus, aa 15–29, 41–52 and 83–99, that formed a continuous surface area adjacent to the ssDNA binding surface. The data predict a mechanistic model of RNA inhibition of ssDNA binding to A3G in which competitive and allosteric interactions determine RNA-bound versus ssDNA-bound conformational states. PMID:26424853

  4. Matter balances and energy in a plant of coal activated in fluidized channel. Part l - Deduction and implementation of the equations system

    The present work develops in a systematic way the group of equations that represents a mineral coal activation process; this one contains a combustor a vaporizer and two fluidized bed reactors (of pyrolysis and partial gasification) the system of equations is obtained starting from the energy and mass balances in each one of the units, same as in the derivation and mixing points. It is possible to know, for a specific case, the enthalpies and temperatures, as well as the massif flows and the concentrations of H2, CH4, CO, CO2, N2, H2O and tar in anyone of the process flow lines. A second paper will show the results obtained by simulations of different conditions of the activated carbon production

  5. A novel quantitative model of cell cycle progression based on cyclin-dependent kinases activity and population balances.

    Pisu, Massimo; Concas, Alessandro; Cao, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    Cell cycle regulates proliferative cell capacity under normal or pathologic conditions, and in general it governs all in vivo/in vitro cell growth and proliferation processes. Mathematical simulation by means of reliable and predictive models represents an important tool to interpret experiment results, to facilitate the definition of the optimal operating conditions for in vitro cultivation, or to predict the effect of a specific drug in normal/pathologic mammalian cells. Along these lines, a novel model of cell cycle progression is proposed in this work. Specifically, it is based on a population balance (PB) approach that allows one to quantitatively describe cell cycle progression through the different phases experienced by each cell of the entire population during its own life. The transition between two consecutive cell cycle phases is simulated by taking advantage of the biochemical kinetic model developed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2009) which involves cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) whose regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms that include association with cyclins and protein inhibitors, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation, and cyclin synthesis or degradation. This biochemical model properly describes the entire cell cycle of mammalian cells by maintaining a sufficient level of detail useful to identify check point for transition and to estimate phase duration required by PB. Specific examples are discussed to illustrate the ability of the proposed model to simulate the effect of drugs for in vitro trials of interest in oncology, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. PMID:25601491

  6. Review of Effects of Physical Activity on Strength, Balance, Mobility and ADL Performance in Elderly Subjects with Dementia

    Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Boersma, Froukje; Luning, Helga; de Jong, Jeltsje; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Elderly individuals with dementia are vulnerable for a decline in physical functioning and basic activities of daily living (BADL) which can lead to a decline in autonomy and participation. This study reviews the effect of physical activity on physical functioning and BADL in elderl

  7. Balanced Scorecard

    Kytka, Roman

    2008-01-01

    V současnosti se podniky setkávají s řadou přístupů k řízení společností a velmi častými pojícími prvky bývají zejména náklady, efektivita a výkonnost. Z nepřeberné řady nástrojů k řízení společností určených tato práce blíže seznamuje s metodikou Balanced Scorecard (BSC), koncepčním rámcem ITIL a metodikou Cobit. Jednotlivě zde jsou představeny dílčí metodiky a rámce. Míra tohoto seznámení je úměrná potřebám práce, tzn. není cílem představit ITIL či Cobit úplně detailně. Naopak zde jsou podc...

  8. Three steps forward, two steps back: mechanistic insights into the assembly and disassembly of the SNARE complex.

    Bombardier, Jeffrey P; Munson, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Membrane fusion is a tightly controlled process in all eukaryotic cell types. The SNARE family of proteins is required for fusion throughout the exocytic and endocytic trafficking pathways. SNAREs on a transport vesicle interact with the cognate SNAREs on the target membrane, forming an incredibly stable SNARE complex that provides energy for the membranes to fuse, although many aspects of the mechanism remain elusive. Recent advances in single-molecule and high-resolution structural methods provide exciting new insights into how SNARE complexes assemble, including measurements of assembly energetics and identification of intermediates in the assembly pathway. These techniques were also key in elucidating mechanistic details into how the SNARE complex is disassembled, including details of the energetics required for ATP-dependent α-SNAP/NSF-mediated SNARE complex disassembly, and the structural changes that accompany ATP hydrolysis by the disassembly machinery. Additionally, SNARE complex formation and disassembly are tightly regulated processes; innovative biochemical and biophysical characterization has deepened our understanding of how these regulators work to control membrane fusion and exocytosis. PMID:26498108

  9. Ultratrace Detection of Toxic Chemicals: Triggered Disassembly of Supramolecular Nanotube Wrappers.

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Azzarelli, Joseph M; Krikorian, Markrete; Swager, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    Chemical sensors offer opportunities for improving personal security, safety, and health. To enable broad adoption of chemical sensors requires performance and cost advantages that are best realized from innovations in the design of the sensing (transduction) materials. Ideal materials are sensitive and selective to specific chemicals or chemical classes and provide a signal that is readily interfaced with portable electronic devices. Herein we report that wrapping single walled carbon nanotubes with metallo-supramolecular polymers creates sensory devices with a dosimetric (time- and concentration-integrated) increase in electrical conductivity that is triggered by electrophilic chemical substances such as diethylchlorophosphate, a nerve agent simulant. The mechanism of this process involves the disassembly of the supramolecular polymer, and we demonstrate its utility in a wireless inductively powered sensing system based on near-field communication technology. Specifically, the dosimeters can be powered and read wirelessly with conventional smartphones to create sensors with ultratrace detection limits. PMID:27336905

  10. Optimized XML Storage in NXD Based on Tree-Structure Disassemble

    2006-01-01

    Independent XML storage based on XSD (XML Schema Document) is adopted in NXD(Native XML Database), XML storage structure based on tree-structure disassemble and the algorithm used in dynamically updating XML document are provided in this paper. The main idea is that in term of data model of XML document, XML document is parsed to Document Structure-Tree with Hierarchical Model and Leaf-Data with Relation Model for storage. Simultaneously Proxy node is imported in order to solve the problem that XML data store in cross-blocks. And with XSD model information, sparse index is constructed to save storage space. It is proved that this storage structure could improve efficiency of XML document operation.

  11. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    Li, Song

    2015-04-27

    Colloidosome capsules possess the potential for the encapsulation and release of molecular and macromolecular cargos. However, the stabilization of the colloidosome shell usually requires an additional covalent crosslinking which irreversibly seals the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds), arising from different contents of a bridged nitrophenylene-alkoxysilane [NB; 3-nitro-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4-(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-amino)methyl)benzamid] derivative in the silica. The surface charge of the positively charged NPs was reversed by light irradiation because of a photoreaction in the NB moieties, which impacted the electrostatic interactions between NPs and disassembled the colloidosome nanosystems. This design was successfully applied for the encapsulation and light-triggered release of cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Adaptation and vision change the relationship between muscle activity of the lower limbs and body movement during human balance perturbations.

    Patel, Mitesh; Gomez, S.; Lush, D; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship between changes in lower limb EMG root mean square (RMS) activity and changes in body movement during perturbed standing. Specifically, linear movement variance, torque variance and body posture were correlated against tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius RMS EMG activity during perturbed standing by vibration of the calf muscles. METHODS: Eighteen healthy participants (mean age 29.1 years) stood quietly for 30s before vibration pulses were randomly appl...

  13. Antimicrobial Active Clothes Display No Adverse Effects on the Ecological Balance of the Healthy Human Skin Microflora

    Dirk Hoefer; Timo R. Hammer

    2011-01-01

    The progressive public use of antimicrobial clothes has raised issues concerning skin health. A placebo-controlled side-to-side study was run with antimicrobial clothes versus fabrics of similar structure but minus the antimicrobial activity, to evaluate possible adverse effects on the healthy skin microflora. Sixty volunteers were enrolled. Each participant received a set of form-fitting T-shirts constructed in 2 halves: an antibacterial half, displaying activities of 3–5 log-step reductions...

  14. Effect of thermal pretreatment on the biogas production and microbial communities balance during anaerobic digestion of urban and industrial waste activated sludge.

    Ennouri, Hajer; Miladi, Baligh; Diaz, Soraya Zahedi; Güelfo, Luis Alberto Fernández; Solera, Rosario; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-08-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on the microbial populations balance and biogas production was studied during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) coming from urban (US: urban sludge) and industrial (IS: industrial sludge) wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The highest biogas yields of 0.42l/gvolatile solid (VS) removed and 0.37l/gVS removed were obtained with urban and industrial sludge pre-treated at 120°C, respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to quantify the major Bacteria and Archaea groups. Compared to control trails without pretreatment, Archaea content increased from 34% to 86% and from 46% to 83% for pretreated IS and US, respectively. In fact, the thermal pre-treatment of WAS enhanced the growth of hydrogen-using methanogens (HUMs), which consume rapidly the H2 generated to allow the acetogenesis. Therefore, the stable and better performance of digesters was observed involving the balance and syntrophic associations between the different microbial populations. PMID:27132226

  15. Rad51 Nucleoprotein Filament Disassembly Captured Using Fluorescent Plasmodium falciparum SSB as a Reporter for Single-Stranded DNA.

    Davenport, Eric Parker; Harris, Derek F; Origanti, Sofia; Antony, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins coordinate DNA replication, repair, and recombination and are critical for maintaining genomic integrity. SSB binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) rapidly and with very high affinity making it a useful molecular tool to detect free ssDNA in solution. We have labeled SSB from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf-SSB) with the MDCC (7-diethylamino-3-((((2-maleimidyl)ethyl)amino)-carbonyl)coumarin) fluorophore which yields a four-fold increase in fluorescence upon binding to ssDNA. Pf-SSBMDCC binding to DNA is unaffected by NaCl or Mg2+ concentration and does not display salt-dependent changes in DNA binding modes or cooperative binding on long DNA substrates. These features are unique to Pf-SSB, making it an ideal tool to probe the presence of free ssDNA in any biochemical reaction. Using this Pf-SSBMDCC probe as a sensor for free ssDNA, we have investigated the clearing of preformed yeast Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments by the Srs2 helicase during HR. Our studies provide a rate for the disassembly of the Rad51 filament by full length Srs2 on long ssDNA substrates. Mutations in the conserved 2B domain in the homologous bacterial UvrD, Rep and PcrA helicases show an enhancement of DNA unwinding activity, but similar mutations in Srs2 do not affect its DNA unwinding or Rad51 clearing properties. These studies showcase the utility of the Pf-SSB probe in mechanistic investigation of enzymes that function in DNA metabolism. PMID:27416037

  16. Catalytic activities enhanced by abundant structural defects and balanced N distribution of N-doped graphene in oxygen reduction reaction

    Bai, Xiaogong; Shi, Yantao; Guo, Jiahao; Gao, Liguo; Wang, Kai; Du, Yi; Ma, Tingli

    2016-02-01

    N-doped graphene (NG) is a promising candidate for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the cathode of fuel cells. However, the catalytic activity of NG is lower than that of commercial Pt/C in alkaline and acidic media. In this study, NG samples were obtained using urea as N source. The structural defects and N distribution in the samples were adjusted by regulating the pyrolysis temperature. The new NG type exhibited remarkable catalytic activities for ORR in both alkaline and acidic media.

  17. A reactor vessel and its internals disassembled and packaged; Ein Reaktortank mit seinen Einbauten ist zerlegt und verpackt. Ein langer Weg mit vielen technischen Herausforderungen wurde erfolgreich gemeistert

    Eisenmann, B.; Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (DE). Projekt Stilllegung Mehrzweckforschungsreaktor (MZFR)

    2008-04-15

    2007 was a successful year for the Disassembly Unit of the Karlsruhe Research Center: dismantling the highly activated Karlsruhe Multipurpose Research Reactor (MZFR) was completed successfully and without any incident. A vote of thanks is expressed at this point to all staff members, participating industries and institutions for their extraordinary commitment and their outstanding innovation and work. Preserving and advancing existing knowledge is one of the important pillars securing a sustainable future for generations to come in Germany. Securing and advancing know-how in nuclear technology was defined as a major duty last in late January 2008 by Dr. Peter Fritz, Chairman of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (KTG) and member of the Executive Board of the Karlsruhe Research Center, for instance, in cooperation between the KERNTECHNIK (i.e. nuclear technology) Southwestern Research and Teaching Association and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The borders of Germany do not constitute a natural radiological barrier, despite the efforts by political groups in this country to convey this impression. This report therefore is to document that the demolition of a nuclear reactor with a high radioactivity inventory can be managed safely. In the light of the experience accumulated with the MZFR, this is feasible only if demolition is carried out immediately instead of the 'problem' of disassembly and conditioning being shifted to future generations. The article is also meant to be a piece of advice by showing the unplannable difficulties which came up, and the technical solutions implemented by the competence team successfully and efficiently. (orig.)

  18. Effects of hunger level and nutrient balance on survival and acetylcholinesterase activity of dimethoate exposed wolf spiders

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Dall, Lars G.; Sorensen, Bo C.; Mayntz, David; Toft, Soren

    2002-01-01

    were created by feeding them fruit flies of either high or low nutrient content for 28 days. Both groups were then split into satiated and 14 days starved subgroups. Each of these was further divided into insecticide treated and control halves. Survivorship and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity...

  19. A SiGe BiCMOS double-balanced mixer with active balun for X-band Doppler radar

    Michaelsen, Rasmus S.; Johansen, Tom K.; Tamborg, Kjeld M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an X-band doublebalanced mixer in SiGe BiCMOS technology. The mixer core consists of a LO Matched quad diode ring using diode-connected Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs). The mixer is integrated with a low-noise, high-linearity active balun on the RF port and a m...

  20. A Camelid-derived Antibody Fragment Targeting the Active Site of a Serine Protease Balances between Inhibitor and Substrate Behavior

    Kromann-Hansen, Tobias; Oldenburg, Emil; Yung, Kristen Wing Yu;

    2016-01-01

    -ray crystal structure of a nanobody in complex with a serine protease. The nanobody displays a new type of interaction between an antibody and a serine protease as it inserts its CDR-H3 loop into the active site of the protease in a substrate-like manner. The unique binding mechanism causes the nanobody to...

  1. Application of mass balance models and the chemical activity concept to facilitate the use of in vitro toxicity data for risk assessment.

    Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Arnot, Jon A

    2014-08-19

    Practical, financial, and ethical considerations related to conducting extensive animal testing have resulted in various initiatives to promote and expand the use of in vitro testing data for chemical evaluations. Nominal concentrations in the aqueous phase corresponding to an effect (or biological activity) are commonly reported and used to characterize toxicity (or biological response). However, the true concentration in the aqueous phase can be substantially different from the nominal. To support in vitro test design and aid the interpretation of in vitro toxicity data, we developed a mass balance model that can be parametrized and applied to represent typical in vitro test systems. The model calculates the mass distribution, freely dissolved concentrations, and cell/tissue concentrations corresponding to the initial nominal concentration and experimental conditions specified by the user. Chemical activity, a metric which can be used to assess the potential for baseline toxicity to occur, is also calculated. The model is first applied to a set of hypothetical chemicals to illustrate the degree to which test conditions (e.g., presence or absence of serum) influence the distribution of the chemical in the test system. The model is then applied to set of 1194 real substances (predominantly from the ToxCast chemical database) to calculate the potential range of concentrations and chemical activities under assumed test conditions. The model demonstrates how both concentrations and chemical activities can vary by orders of magnitude for the same nominal concentration. PMID:25014875

  2. Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or ''clean,'' building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, ''Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201'') was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room into one

  3. Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-09-30

    This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or “clean,” building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, “Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201”) was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room

  4. Comparison of selected methods of establishing a balance of effects as part of an eco-balance. Activity report; Vergleich ausgewaehlter Methoden zur Wirkungsbilanz als Teil der Oekobilanz. Arbeitsbericht

    Pick, E.; Guerzenich, D.; Langer, A.

    1999-11-01

    An eco-balance normally comprises a balance of facts and a balance of effects. The former takes stock of all mass and energy flows without analyzing them, while the latter attempts a quantification of their effects. So far, there is a lack of standardisation in the balance of effects. The investigation therefore attempted to discuss the available methods establishing a balance of effects and evaluate them with a view to their applicability and practicability. The investigations are based on the ISO 140140 ff. standards as these are the only ones that contain a systematic structure of a general eco-balance and are also internationally accepted. [German] Eine Oekobilanz wird heute normalerweise in eine Sachbilanz und in eine Wirkungsbilanz aufgeteilt. Die Sachbilanz stellt alle die vom System ausgeloesten oder verwendeten Stoff- und Energiestroeme zusammen, ohne diese zu bewerten. Die Wirkungsbilanz versucht im Anschluss daran die Auswirkungen der Stoff- und Energiestroeme hinsichtlich der interessierenden Umweltthemen zu quantifizieren. In einer letzten Phase wird schliesslich die Wirkungsbilanz hinsichtlich des Erkenntnisinteresses ausgewertet. Dadurch ist es moeglich, dass Ziele zur Verbesserung formuliert und Potentiale aufgedeckt werden koennen. Die Sachbilanz ist bisher weitestgehend genormt. Zur konkreten Wirkungsbilanzierung hingegen existieren zur Zeit viele verschiedene Herangehensweisen, und es wird daher auch eine Vielzahl von Methoden zu ihrer Durchfuehrung verwendet. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, in die diversen Methoden der Wirkungsbilanzierung einzufuehren und sie hinsichtlich der Anwendbarkeit und Praktikabilitaet zu bewerten. Dabei wird die Normreihe ISO 140140 ff. zugrundegelegt, da diese Normreihe als einzige den Aufbau einer Oekobilanz als Ganzes systematisch vorgibt und zudem international anerkannt ist. (orig.)

  5. The Drosera Extract as an Alternative In Vitro Supplement to Animal Semen: Effects on Bovine Spermatozoa Activity and Oxidative Balance

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-01-01

    In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is considered to be a risk factor to spermatozoa activity, possibly leading to reduced fertility and litter sizes following artificial insemination (AI). A variety of substances isolated from natural resources have the potential to exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus they may extend the lifespan of stored semen. Drosera (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and ant...

  6. Electrolyte Balance of the Inner Ear Investigated by Neutron Activation Analysis of the Sodium and Potassium Content

    Even the few experimental data that have been obtained from investigations of the inner ear are an important contribution to our biochemical knowledge of the sense organs. The apparent discrepancies between some experimental results have prompted comparative studies on the sodium and potassium concentrations in the inner-ear fluids, the liquor cerebrospinalis, the mammalian and human serum. The results of these studies are expected to give a good approximation of the intracellular and extracellular electrolyte concentrations and to yield important information on the physiological and pathological conditions of the inner ear as well as on the mechanism of hearing. The experimental material is obtained from guinea pigs by penetration through the round window (fenestra rotunda). The sodium and potassium content is determined by neutron activation analysis. Potassium is precipitated from the irradiated samples by sodium tetraphenyl borate reagent, so that the sodium activity retained by the filtrate can be directly counted. Since a single precipitation of potassium does not yield end products free from sodium contamination, the precipitate is dissolved in acetone and precipitated again with sodium tetraphenyl borate. The product of the second precipitation is radiochemically pure. In simultaneous experiments, potassium was separated from the much higher sodium activity by isotopic exchange. The irradiated sample is added to an experimentally determined inactive potassium tetraphenyl borate precipitate that adsorbs the total potassium activity present without adsorbing any sodium. The separation of potassium by isotopic exchange has the advantage of yielding in a single step a sufficiently pure product without any sodium contamination. For comparison, sodium and potassium were also determined by flame photometry. (author)

  7. IMPLEMENTASI BALANCED SCORECARD PADA ORGANISASI PUBLIK

    Imelda R. H. N Imelda R. H. N

    2004-01-01

    At first introduced, balance scorecard is used by bussiness organization to measure performance of their activities, now balance scorecard is also used by public organization. A Public Organization is an organization intends to provide services to public, not for seeking profits. In order to used by public organization, a balance scorecard need to be modified. This essay discusses how to build a balance scorecard, which includes strategic goals, measures, targets, initiatives, and implementin...

  8. Balanced Permutation Codes

    Gabrys, Ryan; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by charge balancing constraints for rank modulation schemes, we introduce the notion of balanced permutations and derive the capacity of balanced permutation codes. We also describe simple interleaving methods for permutation code constructions and show that they approach capacity

  9. Dizziness and Balance

    AUDIOLOGY Dizziness and Balance Inform ation Seri es Our balance system helps us walk, run, and move ... known as nystagmus) • Complaints of vertigo or dizziness Audiology Information Series © ASHA 2015 10802 • Balance dysfunction • Difficulty ...

  10. A New PWM Strategy for Grid-Connected Half-Bridge Active NPC Converters With Losses Distribution Balancing Mechanism

    Lin, Ma; Kerekes, Tamas; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems technological development is driven by the request for higher efficiency and safety. These concerns influence also the choice of the power converter stage. Several topologies have been proposed and many of them are available commercially. Among them, the neutral point clamped...... (NPC) and derived topologies offers high efficiency, low leakage current, and low EMI. However, one main disadvantage of the NPC inverter is given by an unequal distribution of the losses in the semiconductor devices, which leads to an unequal distribution of temperature that can affect lifetime. By...... using the active NPC (ANPC) topology, where the clamping diodes are replaced by bidirectional switches, the power losses distribution problem is alleviated. The modulation strategy is a key issue for losses distribution in this topology. In this paper, two known strategies are discussed and a new PWM...

  11. The Drosera Extract as an Alternative In Vitro Supplement to Animal Semen: Effects on Bovine Spermatozoa Activity and Oxidative Balance

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is considered to be a risk factor to spermatozoa activity, possibly leading to reduced fertility and litter sizes following artificial insemination (AI. A variety of substances isolated from natural resources have the potential to exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus they may extend the lifespan of stored semen. Drosera (Drosera rotundifolia L. has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, making the plant extract a potential candidate for preserving liquid animal semen during in vitro storage. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of Drosera extract on the motility, viability and superoxide production of bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6, 12 and 24h of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the SpermVisionTM CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. The CASA analysis revealed that Drosera extract supplementation was able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 mg/mL (P<0.001 with respect to Times 6h, 12h and 24h. At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 mg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability throughout short-term (P<0.05 in case of Time 6h as well as long-term periods of the experiment (P<0.01 with respect to Time 12h, and P<0.001 in case of Time 24h. 10 and 5 mg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the intracellular superoxide production, particularly notable at Times 12h (P<0.01 and 24h (P<0.001. The results indicate that the Drosera extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the

  12. Interactive learning activities for the middle school classroom to promote healthy energy balance and decrease diabetes risk in the HEALTHY primary prevention trial.

    Venditti, Elizabeth M; Giles, Catherine; Firrell, L Suzanne; Zeveloff, Abigail D; Hirst, Kathryn; Marcus, Marsha D

    2014-01-01

    The HEALTHY trial evaluated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention program to reduce risk for type 2 diabetes in middle school students. The comprehensive intervention addressed nutrition, physical activity, and behavior in the context of a social marketing-based communications campaign to promote healthy energy balance. One element was a classroom-based program called FLASH (Fun Learning Activities for Student Health). Five FLASH modules were delivered, one per semester. Process evaluation data were collected from teachers at 21 schools and study staff at seven national sites via survey, interview, and in-class observation. Data from the first four modules were evaluated and showed that FLASH was delivered with high fidelity. Sessions that required peer interaction were rated as the most effective in engaging students and promoting knowledge. Study-provided material resources and on-site support were identified as key facilitators. Student misbehavior was viewed as the greatest barrier. Although the high level of support provided by the study is not likely to be replicated in school systems, those developing wellness policies, health curricula, and teacher training programs may benefit from using the evidence-supported, publicly available HEALTHY materials in their efforts to reduce diabetes risk factors in middle school youth. PMID:23271717

  13. The neighborhood energy balance equation: does neighborhood food retail environment + physical activity environment = obesity? The CARDIA study.

    Janne Boone-Heinonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI throughout early adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993 followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011; 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score. We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25(th to 75(th percentile predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m(2 [estimate (95% CI: -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m(2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01 to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m(2 in men [estimate (95% CI range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06 to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions

  14. BALANCING THE ENERGY BUDGET BETWEEN STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH-REDSHIFT INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    We present deep Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy, along with 16, 24, 70, and 850 μm photometry, for 22 galaxies located in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) field. The sample spans a redshift range of 0.6 ∼AB > 25 mag) sources. We find that infrared (IR; 8-1000 μm) luminosities derived by fitting local spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with 24 μm photometry alone are well matched to those when additional mid-infrared spectroscopic and longer wavelength photometric data are used for galaxies having z ∼12 L sun. However, for galaxies in the redshift range between 1.4 ∼3 x 1012 L sun, IR luminosities are overestimated by an average factor of ∼5 when SED fitting with 24 μm photometry alone. This result arises partly due to the fact that high-redshift galaxies exhibit aromatic feature equivalent widths that are large compared to local galaxies of similar luminosities. Using improved estimates for the IR luminosities of these sources, we investigate whether their infrared emission is found to be in excess relative to that expected based on extinction-corrected UV star formation rates (SFRs), possibly suggesting the presence of an obscured AGN. Through a spectral decomposition of mid-infrared spectroscopic data, we are able to isolate the fraction of IR luminosity arising from an AGN as opposed to star formation activity. This fraction is only able to account for ∼30% of the total IR luminosity among the entire sample and ∼35% of the 'excess' IR emission among these sources, on average, suggesting that AGNs are not the dominant cause of the inferred 'mid-infrared excesses' in these systems. Of the sources identified as having mid-infrared excesses, half are accounted for by using proper bolometric corrections while half show the presence of obscured AGNs. This implies sky and space densities for Compton-thick AGNs of ∼1600 deg.-2 and ∼1.3 x 10-4 Mpc-3, respectively. We also note that IR luminosities derived from SED

  15. A Candidate Approach Implicates the Secreted Salmonella Effector Protein SpvB in P-Body Disassembly

    Eulalio, A.; Fröhlich, K.; Mano, M; Giacca, M.; Vogel, J.

    2011-01-01

    P-bodies are dynamic aggregates of RNA and proteins involved in several post-transcriptional regulation processes. P-bodies have been shown to play important roles in regulating viral infection, whereas their interplay with bacterial pathogens, specifically intracellular bacteria that extensively manipulate host cell pathways, remains unknown. Here, we report that Salmonella infection induces P-body disassembly in a cell type-specific manner, and independently of previously characterized path...

  16. Catalytic Molecular Imaging of MicroRNA in Living Cells by DNA-Programmed Nanoparticle Disassembly.

    He, Xuewen; Zeng, Tao; Li, Zhi; Wang, Ganglin; Ma, Nan

    2016-02-24

    Molecular imaging is an essential tool for disease diagnostics and treatment. Direct imaging of low-abundance nucleic acids in living cells remains challenging because of the relatively low sensitivity and insufficient signal-to-background ratio of conventional molecular imaging probes. Herein, we report a class of DNA-templated gold nanoparticle (GNP)-quantum dot (QD) assembly-based probes for catalytic imaging of cancer-related microRNAs (miRNA) in living cells with signal amplification capacity. We show that a single miRNA molecule could catalyze the disassembly of multiple QDs with the GNP through a DNA-programmed thermodynamically driven entropy gain process, yielding significantly amplified QD photoluminescence (PL) for miRNA imaging. By combining the robust PL of QDs with the catalytic amplification strategy, three orders of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity is achieved in comparison with non-catalytic imaging probe, which enables facile and accurate differentiation between cancer cells and normal cells by miRNA imaging in living cells. PMID:26694689

  17. Green design "bioinspired disassembly-reassembly strategy" applied for improved tumor-targeted anticancer drug delivery.

    Wang, Ruoning; Gu, Xiaochen; Zhou, Jianping; Shen, Lingjia; Yin, Lifang; Hua, Peiying; Ding, Yang

    2016-08-10

    In this study, a simple and green approach 'bioinspired disassembly-reassembly strategy' was employed to reconstitute lipoprotein nanoparticles (RLNs) using whole-components of endogenous ones (contained dehydrated human lipids and native apolipoproteins). These RLNs were engineered to mimic the configuration and properties of natural lipoproteins for efficient drug delivery. In testing therapeutic targeting to microtubules, paclitaxel (PTX) was reassembled into RLNs to achieve improved targeted anti-carcinoma treatment and minimize adverse effects, demonstrating ultimately more applicable than HDL-like particles which are based on exogenous lipid sources. We have characterized that apolipoprotein-decoration of PTX-loaded RLNs (RLNs-PTX) led to favoring uniformly dispersed distribution, increasing PTX-encapsulation with a sustained-release pattern, while enhancing biostability during blood circulation. The innate biological RLNs induced efficient intracellular trafficking of cargos in situ via multi-targeting mechanisms, including scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated direct transmembrane delivery, as well as other lipoprotein-receptors associated endocytic pathways. The resulting anticancer treatment from RLNs-PTX was demonstrated a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.20μg/mL, cell apoptosis of 18.04% 24h post-incubation mainly arresting G2/M cell cycle in vitro, and tumor weight inhibition of 70.51% in vivo. Collectively, green-step assembly-based RLNs provided an efficient strategy for mediating tumor-targeted accumulation of PTX and enhanced anticancer efficacy. PMID:27238442

  18. Role of a reducing environment in disassembly of the herpesvirus tegument

    Newcomb, William W. [Department of Microbiology Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Box 800734, University of Virginia Health System, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave. Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Jones, Lisa M. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Dee, Alexander [Department of Molecular, Microbial and Structural Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 (United States); Chaudhry, Farid [Department of Microbiology Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Box 800734, University of Virginia Health System, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave. Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Brown, Jay C., E-mail: JCB2G@VIRGINIA.EDU [Department of Microbiology Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Box 800734, University of Virginia Health System, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave. Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Initiation of infection by herpes family viruses involves a step in which most of the virus tegument becomes detached from the capsid. Detachment takes place in the host cell cytosol near the virus entry site and it is followed by dispersal of tegument proteins and disappearance of the tegument as a distinct entity. Here we describe the results of experiments designed to test the idea that the reducing environment of the cytosol may contribute to tegument detachment and disassembly. Non-ionic detergent was used to remove the membrane of purified herpes simplex virus under control and reducing conditions. The effects on the tegument were then examined by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Protein analysis demonstrated that most major tegument proteins were removed under both oxidizing and reducing conditions except for UL49 which required a reducing environment. It is proposed therefore that the reducing conditions in the cytosol are involved in removal of UL49 protein. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that capsids produced under oxidizing conditions contained a coating of protein that was absent in reduced virions and which correlated uniquely with the presence of UL49. This capsid-associated layer is suggested to be the location of UL49 in the extracted virion.

  19. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria - An amazing defence tool against hyperosmotic stress

    Daniela eTrono

    2015-12-01

    hyperosmotic stress (mannitol or NaCl, PmitoKATP was found to be activated by ROS, so inhibiting further large-scale ROS production according to a feedback mechanism; moreover, a stress-activated phospholipase A2 may generate FFAs, further activating the channel. In conclusion, a main property of PmitoKATP is the ability to keep in balance the control of harmful ROS with the mitochondrial/cellular bioenergetics, thus preserving ATP for energetic needs of cell defence under stress.

  20. Underwater test basin for testing disassembly techniques in VAK; Unterwasser Testbecken im VAK zur Erprobung von Zerlegetechniken

    Arnold, H.U.; Runge, H.; Schmidt, D. [RWE NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Since the takeover of the VAK Project by RWE NUKEM GmbH the water pool in the former turbine hall plus the utility systems (power supply, media, and crane) have been available for test purposes within the framework of NUKEM projects. The test pool allows disassembly techniques and disassembly systems to be tried out under realistic, but radiation-free, conditions. This offers optimum facilities for preparing disassembly systems for practical use, demonstrating their performance capability, and determining the main operating parameters. Some examples of this pilot phase of operation are the underwater operation of compass saws, hydraulic shears, and cutting grinders, the test program for the WASS process, and the solution of problems associated with the use of a manipulator system together with an underwater plasma torch. (orig.) [German] Mit der Uebernahme des Projektes VAK durch die RWE NUKEM GmbH steht das Wasserbecken im ehemaligen Maschinenhaus nebst den Versorgungseinrichtungen (E-Technik, Medien sowie Krananlage) fuer Erprobungszwecke im Rahmen von NUKEM-Projekten zur Verfuegung. Das Testbecken gestattet die Erprobung von Zerlegetechniken und Zerlegeeinrichtungen unter realitaetsnahen, jedoch strahlungsfreien Bedingungen. Somit kann optimal die Einsatzvorbereitung der Zerlegeeinrichtungen, der Nachweis ihrer Funktionstuechtigkeit sowie die Ermittlung von wichtigen Betriebsparametern durchgefuehrt werden. Beispiele fuer diese Erprobungstaetigkeit sind der Unterwassereinsatz von Stichsaegen, Hydraulikscheren und Trennschleifer, das Testprogramm fuer das WASS-Verfahren sowie die Loesung von Problemstellungen beim Einsatz eines Manipulatorsystems mit einem Unterwasser-Plasmabrenner. (orig.)

  1. Een energiebalans programma voor pasgepensioneerden : impact op lichaamssamenstelling, lichamelijke activiteit en voeding = An energy balance intervention at retirement : impact on body composition, physical activity and diet

    Werkman, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    background Occupational retirement is a life event that is likely to induce lifestyle changes leading to a positive energy balance, and hence weight gain and accumulation of abdominal fat mass. aims The aims of this thesis are 1) to systematically develop an energy balance interventio

  2. Energy balance, leptin, NEFA and IGF-I plasma concentrations and resumption of post partum ovarian activity in swedish red and white breed cows

    Prandi Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the purpose to provide further information in respect of the relationship between metabolism and post partum (PP ovarian activity resumption in dairy cows, the aim of the present study was to characterize the energy balance (EB and leptin, NEFA and IGF-I plasma levels in Swedish Red and White (SRW cows with and without ovarian activity re-initiation within 7 weeks PP. The study was conducted on 12 primiparous SRW cows fed the same diet as total mixed ration for ad libitum intake. The EB was calculated weekly from parturition until seven weeks PP. Blood samples were collected weekly from one week before until 7 weeks after calving for leptin, NEFA and IGF-I analysis. For progesterone (P4 analysis, blood samples were collected two times per week from parturition until the end of the study. P4 profile was used in addition to the clinical examination to detect cows with and without ovarian activity resumption. The clinical and ultrasonographic examination, coupled with P4 profile analysis showed the resumption of ovarian activity within 7 weeks after calving in 8 (group A and no ovarian resumption in 4 cows (group B. No significant differences were detected in the whole period of observation in the amount of milk production between the two groups, while the mean milk protein content was significantly lower in group B at the third week PP. The calculated EB was negative in both groups in the first three weeks after calving, but more marked in group B. NEFA and Leptin plasma levels did not show significant differences between the two groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that, when low milk producing primiparous cows are concerned, no significant differences in BW loss, milk yield, EB and leptin and NEFA plasma levels between the cows with and without resumption of ovarian activity within 7 weeks post partum were seen. However, significantly higher IGF-I levels in the first two weeks after calving were found in

  3. Maintainability Simulation Based on Disassembly and Extended Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets%基于拆卸及扩展广义随机Petri网的维修性仿真

    刘勇; 徐廷学; 孙臣良; 赵建忠

    2013-01-01

    在装备研制早期,难以有效地利用试验的方法进行维修性估计,此时适合采用仿真手段。对于机械系统拆卸路径的分析与优化,先基于赋时变迁Petri网建立拆卸Petri网模型,再利用A*算法搜索最优拆卸路径,并确定拆卸时间。为了建立系统整个维修事件的过程模型,对广义随机Petri网进行了扩展,将其延时变迁与实际分布关联,对基于变迁的维修作业之间的逻辑关系进行了描述,并给出了基于蒙特卡罗法的维修时间仿真算法。最后,以对某火炮装备发射系统不击发故障的分析与排除为例,仿真计算了维修时间均值与方差,并对结果进行了分析。%In the equipment early development, it is hard to do maintainability estimation effectively by means of test, but the simulation method is appropriate. As to the disassembly process’s analysis and optimization, the dis-assembly Petri net model was set up based on timed transition Petri net first, then the A* algorithm was used to search the optimal disassembly path and measure disassembly time. To establish the whole maintenance event process model, the model of generalized stochastic Petri net was extended so that its timed transitions could be associated with actual distributions, the timed transition based maintenance activities and their logic associations were described; and the maintenance time simulation algorithm based on the Monte Carlo method were given. Last, aiming at the analysis and obviation of some gun’s emission system failure to fire, the mean and variance of maintenance time were calculated by simulation, and the results were analyzed.

  4. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  5. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  6. Effects of quebracho tannin extract (Schinopsis balansae Engl.) and activated charcoal on nitrogen balance, rumen microbial protein synthesis and faecal composition of growing Boer goats.

    Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the

  7. The balanced mind

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna;

    2013-01-01

    Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as "mind-wandering," make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in......-wandering on response inhibition and monitoring, using the Error Awareness Task (EAT). We expected to replicate links between TUT and reduced inhibition, and explored whether variance in TUT would predict improved error monitoring, reflecting a capacity to balance between internal and external cognition. By...... during error awareness, supporting a link between monitoring and TUTs. Altogether our results suggest that although TUT is detrimental to task performance, fluctuations in attention between self-generated and external task-related thought is a characteristic of individuals with greater metacognitive...

  8. Negative pressure induces p120-catenin-dependent adherens junction disassembly in keratinocytes during wound healing.

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Chow, Shu-Er; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Shyu, Yu-Chiau; Lu, Mu-Jie

    2016-09-01

    A negative-pressure of 125mmHg (NP) has been widely used to treat chronic wounds in modern medicine. Keratinocytes under NP treatment have shown accelerated cell movement and decreased E-cadherin expression. However, the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin regulation under NP remains incompletely understood. Therefore, we investigated the E-cadherin regulation in keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) under NP. HaCaT cells were treated at ambient pressure (AP) and NP for 12h. Cell movement was measured by traditional and electric wound healing assays at the 2 different pressures. Mutants with overexpression of p120-catenin (p120(ctn)) were used to observe the effect of NP on p120(ctn) and E-cadherin expression during wound healing. Cell fractionation and immunoblotting data showed that NP increased Y228-phosphorylated p120(ctn) level and resulted in the translocation of p120(ctn) from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Immunofluorescence images revealed that NP decreased the co-localization of p120(ctn) and E-cadherin on the plasma membrane. Knockdown of p120(ctn) reduced E-cadherin expression and accelerated cell movement under AP. Overexpression of the Y228-phosphorylation-mimic p120(ctn) decreased E-cadherin membrane expression under both AP and NP. Phosphorylation-deficient mutants conferred restored adherens junctions (AJs) under NP. The Src inhibitor blocked the phosphorylation of p120(ctn) and impeded cell migration under NP. In conclusion, Src-dependent phosphorylation of p120(ctn) can respond rapidly to NP and contribute to E-cadherin downregulation. The NP-induced disassembly of the AJ further accelerates wound healing. PMID:27220534

  9. New findings on the onset of thermal disassembly in spallation reactions

    Thermal multifragmentation is the process of multi body disassembly of a hot nucleus when the excitation is almost purely thermal i.e. dynamical effects like compression (characteristic of ion-ion collisions at Fermi energy) are negligible. Suited reactions are proton induced collision or ion-ion abrasion at relativistic incident energy. Thus we measured four systems at FRS (Fragment separator, GSI, Darmstadt) in inverse kinematics: Fe56+p, Fe56+Ti(nat), Xe136+p, Xe136+Ti(nat) a 1 A*GeV. The inverse kinematics allows to observe all particles without any threshold in energy. This is a great advantage compared to experiments in direct kinematics, because only in inverse kinematics it is possible to obtain complete velocity spectra (without a hole for low velocities) for fully identified isotopes. The complex shape of the velocity spectra allows to identify the different deexcitation channels and it clearly shows the transition from a chaotic-dominated process (Gaussian cloud in velocity space) to a direct Coulomb- (or eventually expansion-) dominated process (shell of a sphere in velocity space). Different possible descriptions of the reaction process are discussed, based either on asymmetric fission or multifragmentation. The resulting physical picture is especially interesting for the Fe56+p, and Xe136+p systems: proton induced collisions could result in the split of the system in two or more fragments due to a fast break-up process. In this case, the configuration of the break-up partition is very asymmetric. The discussion will be extended to other characteristics, like the restoring of nuclear structure features in the isotopic production and the temperature dependence of the isotopic composition of the residues. (author)

  10. The effect of multivalent cations and Tau on paclitaxel-stabilized microtubule assembly, disassembly, and structure.

    Safinya, Cyrus R; Chung, Peter J; Song, Chaeyeon; Li, Youli; Ewert, Kai K; Choi, Myung Chul

    2016-06-01

    In this review we describe recent studies directed at understanding the formation of novel nanoscale assemblies in biological materials systems. In particular, we focus on the effects of multivalent cations, and separately, of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) Tau, on microtubule (MT) ordering (bundling), MT disassembly, and MT structure. Counter-ion directed bundling of paclitaxel-stabilized MTs is a model electrostatic system, which parallels efforts to understand MT bundling by intrinsically disordered proteins (typically biological polyampholytes) expressed in neurons. We describe studies, which reveal an unexpected transition from tightly spaced MT bundles to loose bundles consisting of strings of MTs as the valence of the cationic counter-ion decreases from Z=3 to Z=2. This transition is not predicted by any current theories of polyelectrolytes. Notably, studies of a larger series of divalent counter-ions reveal strong ion specific effects. Divalent counter-ions may either bundle or depolymerize paclitaxel-stabilized MTs. The ion concentration required for depolymerization decreases with increasing atomic number. In a more biologically related system we review synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) studies on the effect of the Tau on the structure of paclitaxel-stabilized MTs. The electrostatic binding of MAP Tau isoforms leads to an increase in the average radius of microtubules with increasing Tau coverage (i.e. a re-distribution of protofilament numbers in MTs). Finally, inspired by MTs as model nanotubes, we briefly describe other more robust lipid-based cylindrical nanostructures, which may have technological applications, for example, in drug encapsulation and delivery. PMID:26684364

  11. IMPLEMENTASI BALANCED SCORECARD PADA ORGANISASI PUBLIK

    Imelda R. H. N Imelda R. H. N

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At first introduced, balance scorecard is used by bussiness organization to measure performance of their activities, now balance scorecard is also used by public organization. A Public Organization is an organization intends to provide services to public, not for seeking profits. In order to used by public organization, a balance scorecard need to be modified. This essay discusses how to build a balance scorecard, which includes strategic goals, measures, targets, initiatives, and implementing balance scorecard to public organization. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Saat pertama kali diperkenalkan, balanced scorecard digunakan oleh organisasi bisnis untuk pengukuran kinerja. Dewasa ini, balanced scorecard tidak saja digunakan oleh organisasi bisnis tetapi juga organisasi publik. Organisasi publik adalah organisasi yang menyediakan jasa pada masyarakat dengan tujuan bukan untuk mencari profit. Untuk dapat digunakan oleh organisasi publik, balanced scorecard tersebut harus dimodifikasi. Tulisan ini membahas bagaimana membangun balanced scorecard, meliputi menentukan tujuan strategis, ukuran yang digunakan, target yang ingin dicapai serta inisiatif, dan mengimplementasikan balanced scorecard pada organisasi publik. Kata kunci: balanced scorecard, organisasi publik.

  12. Human Balance System

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. The Human Balance System Good balance is often taken for granted. Good ... soft, slippery, or uneven). Input from the vestibular system Sensory information about motion, equilibrium, and spatial orientation ...

  13. Random walk and balancing

    Borg, F G

    2004-01-01

    Presents a minireview of topics concerned with balancing in quiet (bipedal) standing, and balancing of a stick. In the focus is the apparent stochastic nature of the swaying of the human inverted pendulum.

  14. Skylab water balance analysis

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  15. Effects of aleglitazar, a balanced dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ agonist on glycemic and lipid parameters in a primate model of the metabolic syndrome

    Meyer Markus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic control and management of dyslipidemia to reduce cardiovascular risk are major therapeutic goals in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of aleglitazar, a balanced dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ (PPARα/γ agonist, on both lipid and glycemic parameters in obese, hypertriglyceridemic, insulin-resistant rhesus monkeys. Methods A 135-day efficacy study was performed in six rhesus monkeys. After a 28-day baseline assessment (vehicle only, monkeys received oral aleglitazar 0.03 mg/kg per day for 42 days, followed by a 63-day washout period. Plasma levels of markers of glycemic and lipid regulation were measured at baseline, at the end of the dosing period, and at the end of the washout period. Results Compared with baseline values, aleglitazar 0.03 mg/kg per day reduced triglyceride levels by an average of 89% (328 to 36 mg/dL; P = 0.0035 when normalized for baseline levels and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 125% (46 to 102 mg/dL; P = 0.0007. Furthermore, aleglitazar reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (41% and increased levels of apolipoprotein A-I (17% and A-II (17%. Aleglitazar also improved insulin sensitivity by 60% (P = 0.001. Mean body weight was reduced by 5.9% from baseline values with aleglitazar at this dose (P = 0.043. Conclusions Aleglitazar, a dual PPARα/γ agonist, has beneficial effects on both lipid and glucose parameters and may have a therapeutic role in modifying cardiovascular risk factors and improving glycemic control in patients with T2DM.

  16. Activation of Hippocampal CREB by Rolipram Partially Recovers Balance Between TNF-α and IL-10 Levels and Improves Cognitive Deficits in Diabetic Rats.

    Miao, Ya; He, Ting; Zhu, Yitong; Li, Wei; Wang, Beiyuan; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes damages the central nervous system, inducing cognitive dysfunction and structural changes, known as diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Some research suggests that the pathogenesis of DE may involve an inflammatory imbalance in the nervous system, along with β-amyloid deposition, similar to Alzheimer's disease. Less data have been yet provided to prove that mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of diabetes on the expression of TNF-α, IL-10, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/phosphorylated CREB (pCREB). Moreover, we investigated whether rolipram can improve memory, suppress the inflammatory response, and improve balance of CREB/pCREB in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. We used a 4-week high-fat diet and a low dose of streptozocin (30 mg/kg) to induce diabetes with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Cognitive impairment was induced over a period of 4 months, and rolipram treatment was concomitantly given. Cognitive impairment was evaluated with the Morris water maze test. We also assessed expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We found that memory in rats with long-term diabetes was impaired. Treatment with rolipram increased expression of CREB and pCREB, reduced the inflammatory reaction (decreased TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 levels), and prevented cognitive impairment in these diabetic animals. This present study suggests that rolipram improves cognitive function by activating the CREB signaling pathway and alleviating neuroinflammation in type 2 diabetic rats. Rolipram may have therapeutic potential in DE. PMID:26001770

  17. Common muscle synergies for balance and walking

    Chvatal, Stacie A.; Ting, Lena H.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the integration of neural mechanisms for balance and locomotion. Muscle synergies have been studied independently in standing balance and walking, but not compared. Here, we hypothesized that reactive balance and walking are mediated by a common set of lower-limb muscle synergies. In humans, we examined muscle activity during multidirectional support-surface perturbations during standing and walking, as well as unperturbed walking at two speeds. We show that most muscle ...

  18. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  19. Coaching for Balance.

    Larson, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses coaching for balance the integration of the whole self: physical (body), intellectual (mind), spiritual (soul), and emotional (heart). Offers four ways to identify problems and tell whether someone is out of balance and four coaching techniques for creating balance. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  20. Disassembly of All SNARE Complexes by N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor (NSF) Is Initiated by a Conserved 1:1 Interaction between α-Soluble NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP) and SNARE Complex*

    Vivona, Sandro; Cipriano, Daniel J.; O'Leary, Seán; Li, Ye Henry; Fenn, Timothy D.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells is facilitated by SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. The ATPase NSF ( N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) and the adaptor protein α-SNAP (soluble NSF attachment protein) disassemble all SNARE complexes formed throughout different pathways, but the effect of SNARE sequence and domain variation on the poorly understood disassembly mechanism is unknown. By measuring SNARE-stimulated ATP hydrolysis rates, Michaelis-Menten constants for disassembly, and SNAP-SN...

  1. The tumor-promoting activity of 2-acetylaminofluorene is associated with disruption of the p53 signaling pathway and the balance between apoptosis and cell proliferation

    The aromatic amine 2-acetylaminofluore (2-AAF) is a powerful complete genotoxic rat liver carcinogen that induces tumors without any additional interventions. While the tumor-initiating genotoxic activity of 2-AAF is well established, its tumor-promotion activity is far less understood. It is believed that the tumor-promoting property of 2-AAF is associated with selective enhancement of cell replication and sustained suppression of apoptosis in initiated cells. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of tumor-promoting events induced by 2-AAF-exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed NIH-31 diet containing 0.02% of 2-AAF for 12 and 24 weeks, and the expression pattern of genes associated with the p53-signaling pathway and microRNA genes was determined in the livers of control and 2-AAF-fed rats. The results indicate that the tumor-promoting property of 2-AAF during hepatocarcinogenesis is associated predominantly with the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic growth-related genes and down-regulation of expression of pro-apoptotic genes. This disrupts the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, which leads to consequential unrestricted cell proliferation, especially of initiated cells. Also, the long-term-administration of 2-AAF resulted in disruption of regulatory miR-34a-p53 feed-back loop that mediates apoptosis. This was evidenced by an increased expression of miR-34a in response to genotoxic effects of 2-AAF in the absence of p53 up-regulation, and loss of regulatory control of mir-34a on SIRT1 function. Additionally, the livers of 2-AAF-exposed rats were characterized by the substantial deregulation of expression of miR-18, miR-21, miR-182, and miR-200 family, microRNAs involved in control of apoptosis/cell proliferation and cell-cell contact pathways, two major pathways disrupted during the promotion stage of hepatocarcinogenesis

  2. Sequence-defined Energetic Shifts Control the Disassembly Kinetics and Microstructure of Amelogenin Adsorbed onto Hydroxyapatite (100)

    Tao, Jinhui; Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.; De Yoreo, Jim; Tarasevich, Barbara J.

    2015-11-03

    The interactions between proteins and surfaces are critical to a number of important processes including biomineralization, the biocompatibility of biomaterials, and the function of biosensors. Although many proteins exist as monomers or small oligomers, amelogenin is a unique protein that self-assembles into supramolecular structures called “nanospheres,” aggregates of 100’s of monomers that are 20-60 nm in diameter. The nanosphere quaternary structure is observed in solution, however, the quaternary structure of amelogenin adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite (HAP) surfaces is not known even though it may be important to amelogenin’s function in forming highly elongated and intricately assembled HAP crystallites during enamel formation. We report studies of the interactions of the enamel protein, amelogenin (rpM179), with a well-defined (100) face prepared by synthesis of large crystals of HAP. High resolution, in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly observe protein adsorption onto HAP at the molecular level within an aqueous solution environment. Our study shows that the amelogenin nanospheres disassemble onto the HAP surface, breaking down into oligomeric (25-mer) subunits of the larger nanosphere. In some cases, the disassembly event is directly observed by in situ imaging for the first time. Quantification of the adsorbate amounts by size analysis led to the determination of a protein binding energy (17.1 kbT) to a specific face of HAP (100). The kinetics of disassembly are greatly slowed in aged solutions, indicating there are time-dependent increases in oligomer-oligomer binding interactions within the nanosphere. A small change in the sequence of amelogenin by the attachment of a histidine tag to the N-terminus of rpM179 to form rp(H)M180 results in the adsorption of a complete second layer on top of the underlying first layer. Our research elucidates how supramolecular protein structures interact and break down at surfaces and how small

  3. DYMAC digital electronic balance

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance

  4. The Balanced Company

    involved in both the creation and recreation of balanced relationships. Chapters in The Balanced Company ask and provide answers to questions about corporately responsible and ethically driven balanced decision making, such as: • How can a company and its stakeholders identify what should be taken into...... changes in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether...... in consumers' and other stakeholder's eyes. Leaders also have to acknowledge that there are times when organizations have to be taken out of balance, since it is necessary to 'unfreeze' existing relationships in organizations during change. Therefore, there are decision and organizing processes...

  5. Balancing with the Brain in Mind

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that it's important for physical educators to understand the connection between balancing and learning. Since, balancing activities provide a link between physical education and the classroom that can enhance both academic learning and physical skill development. They need to be aware of the tremendous impact…

  6. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING MEANING OF INTERMEDIATE MANAGEMENT BALANCES

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects regarding intermediate management balances as a pay instrument of production factors and financing future activities. Paper debate intermediate management balances determination and interpretation.

  7. A colorimetric probe for the rapid and selective determination of mercury(II) based on the disassembly of gold nanorods

    We report on a novel mercury(II)-controlled approach for the disassembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) that has led to a detection system for Hg(II). The modified AuNRs were fabricated by functionalizing AuNRs with L-cysteine via a thiol group chemisorption-type of interaction. L-cysteine induces the assembly of AuNRs through cooperative electrostatic interaction upon which the color of the solution of the AuNRs changes from blue-green to gray dark. The addition of Hg(II), in turn, causes the disassembly of the modified AuNRs and the color of the solution returns to blue-green. This effect enables the optical determination of Hg(II) in aqueous solution, with a linear response in the 0.5 to 250 μM Hg(II) concentration range, an excellent selectivity for Hg(II), and with recoveries ranging from 99 % to 106 % in spiked environmental water samples. (author)

  8. Photosensitizer enhanced disassembly of amphiphilic micelle for ROS-response targeted tumor therapy in vivo.

    Dai, Liangliang; Yu, Yonglin; Luo, Zhong; Li, Menghuan; Chen, Weizhen; Shen, Xinkun; Chen, Feng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Qingfeng; Gu, Hao; Cai, Kaiyong

    2016-10-01

    This study reports a reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive drug delivery system based on amphiphilic polymer of poly(propylene sulfide)-polyethylene glycol-serine-folic acid (PPS-mPEG-Ser-FA). The polymer could form homogeneous micelles with an average diameter of around 80 nm through self-assembly, which would then be loaded with the singlet oxygen-generating photosensitizer of zinc phthalocyanine (ZNPC) and anti-cancer drug of DOX. The disassembly of micelles could be triggered by the hydrophobic to hydrophilic transition of the PPS core in response to ROS-induced oxidation in vitro. ZNPC molecules are capable of producing ROS under laser irradiation, which results in the rapid disassembly of micelles and releasing of the anti-tumor drug for tumor therapy under physiological condition otherwise. Moreover, the excessive ROS production deriving from ZNPC synergically induces cells apoptosis. Furthermore, the DOX loaded amphiphilic micelles could be internalized by tumor cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis to effectively inhibit the tumor growth in vivo, while with only minimal toxic side effects. The results in vitro and in vivo consistently demonstrate that the light-responsive micelle is a promising biodegradable nanocarrier for on-command drug release and targeted tumor therapy. PMID:27423095

  9. Spiropyran-Decorated SiO₂-Pt Janus Micromotor: Preparation and Light-Induced Dynamic Self-Assembly and Disassembly.

    Zhang, Qilu; Dong, Renfeng; Chang, Xueyi; Ren, Biye; Tong, Zhen

    2015-11-11

    The controlled self-assembly of self-propelled Janus micromotors may give the micromotors some potential applications in many fields. In this work, we design a kind of SiO2-Pt Janus catalytic micromotor functionalized by spiropyran (SP) moieties on the surface of the SiO2 hemisphere. The spiropyran-modified SiO2-Pt Janus micromotor exhibits autonomous self-propulsion in the presence of hydrogen peroxide fuel in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)/H2O (1:1 in volume) mixture. We demonstrate that the self-propelled Janus micromotors can dynamically assemble into multiple motors because of the electrostatic attractions and π-π stacking between MC molecules induced by UV light irradiation (λ = 365 nm) and also quickly disassemble into mono motors when the light is switched to green light (λ = 520 nm) for the first time. Furthermore, the assembled Janus motors can move together automatically with different motion patterns propelled by the hydrogen peroxide fuels upon UV irradiation. The work provides a new approach not only to the development of the potential application of Janus motors but also to the fundamental science of reversible self-assembly and disassembly of Janus micromotors. PMID:26488455

  10. Label-free multimodal protease detection based on protein/perylene dye coassembly and enzyme-triggered disassembly.

    Lin, Yiyang; Chapman, Robert; Stevens, Molly M

    2014-07-01

    The development of novel assays for protease sensing plays an important role in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Herein, we report a supramolecular platform for label-free protease detection, based on protein/dye self-assembly and enzyme-triggered disassembly. In a typical case, coassembly of protamine sulfate and perylene dye via electrostatic attractions and π-π interactions caused significant colorimetric and fluorescent responses. Subsequent addition of trypsin was found to cleave the amide bonds of protein, triggering the dissociation of protein/dye aggregates and the release of perylene dyes. The enzyme-triggered disassembly was transduced into multiple readouts including absorption, fluorescence, and polarization, which were exploited for trypsin detection and inhibitor testing. This assay was also used for turn-on fluorescence detection of cathepsin B, an enzyme known to be overexpressed in mammalian cancer cells. The integration of supramolecular self-assembly into enzyme detection in this work has provided a novel label-free biosensing platform which is highly sensitive with multimodal readouts. The relative simplicity of the approach avoids the need for time-consuming substrate synthesis, and is also amenable to naked eye detection. PMID:24914622

  11. Characterization of spent fuel disassembly hardware and nonfuel bearing components and their relationship to 10 CFR 61

    There are a variety of wastes that will be disposed of by the federal waste management system under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The primary waste form is spent nuclear fuel. Currently, this is in the form of fuel assemblies. If the fuel pins are removed from the fuel assembly, as in consolidation, then the fuel pins and the structural portion of the fuel assembly must be considered as separate waste streams. The structural hardware consists of end fittings, grid spacers, water rods (BWR 8 x 8 only), control rod guide tubes (PWR only) and various nuts, washers, springs, etc. These are referred to as spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. There will also be a number of other components which are defined in Appendix E of 10 CFR 961, the standard utility contract. These are referred to as nonfuel-bearing (NFB) components, and include fuel channels (BWR), control rods, fission chambers, neutron sources, thimble plugs, and other components. This paper characterizes spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware, and nonfuel-bearing (NFB) components for the most abundant fuel types. The descriptions and figures given are representative for the items described. Many subvariants exist due to design evaluation, which are not covered. This paper also discusses the relationship of these wastes to 10 CFR 61 waste classification

  12. Overexpression of MLN51 triggers P-body disassembly and formation of a new type of RNA granules.

    Cougot, Nicolas; Daguenet, Elisabeth; Baguet, Aurélie; Cavalier, Annie; Thomas, Daniel; Bellaud, Pascale; Fautrel, Alain; Godey, Florence; Bertrand, Edouard; Tomasetto, Catherine; Gillet, Reynald

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51, also known as CASC3) is a core component of the exon junction complex (EJC), which is loaded onto spliced mRNAs and plays an essential role in determining their fate. Unlike the three other EJC core components [eIF4AIII, Magoh and Y14 (also known as RBM8A)], MLN51 is mainly located in the cytoplasm, where it plays a key role in the assembly of stress granules. In this study, we further investigated the cytoplasmic role of MLN51. We show that MLN51 is a new component of processing bodies (P-bodies). When overexpressed, MLN51 localizes in novel small cytoplasmic foci. These contain RNA, show directed movements and are distinct from stress granules and P-bodies. The appearance of these foci correlates with the process of P-body disassembly. A similar reduction in P-body count is also observed in human HER2-positive (HER2(+)) breast cancer cells overexpressing MLN51. This suggests that P-body disassembly and subsequent mRNA deregulation might correlate with cancer progression. PMID:25205763

  13. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    Oh, Man S.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central playe...

  14. 面向重用的废弃电路板拆解升温策略%Heating Strategy for Waste PCB Disassembly Oriented to the Reuse of Disassembled Components

    龙旦风; 向东; 张永凯; 段广洪

    2014-01-01

    拆解废弃电路板(Printed circuit board, PCB)并重用高价值元器件是一种有效的回收再利用途径。在拆解过程中如果采用不合理工艺极容易导致元器件质量下降,其中塑封芯片内部界面分层是一种常见缺陷。芯片分层通常由过高温度所致,因此有必要对拆解过程电路板温度场和升温策略开展研究。根据充分熔焊和避免芯片分层这两个目标提出了峰值温度准则和升温速率准则:峰值温度准则要求在确保充分熔焊的前提下尽量降低电路板整体温度;升温速率准则要求先快速升温后缓慢升温。建立了多温区热风加热电路板的模型,并根据此模型提出基于温度场均匀性的拆解升温策略以获得符合两条升温准则的温度曲线。利用自主研制的废弃电路板拆解机进行试验验证,结果表明:利用拆解升温策略得到的先快后慢型升温的温度场均匀性明显优于斜坡型升温;用这两种温度曲线拆解电路板得到的元器件拆解率相差很小;与斜坡型升温相比,拆解升温策略使拆解过程造成的分层芯片比例降低80%。因此,基于温度场均匀性的拆解升温策略在不明显改变拆解率的前提下可有效避免拆解造成芯片分层。%Disassembling end-of-life printed circuit boards (PCBs) and reusing the high-value electronic components is an effective way of recycling. During the disassembly process, the quality of components is easily to reduce if the process is inappropriate. A common defect which usually arises in the disassembly process is interfacial delamination within plastic-encapsulated integrated circuits (ICs). The IC delamination is mainly caused by excessive high temperature. Therefore, research of the temperature field of the PCB and the heating strategy is necessary. A peak-temperature principle and a ramp-rate principle are proposed to meet the purpose of heating, i.e. melting the solder

  15. Heating Strategy for Waste PCB Disassembly Oriented to the Reuse of Disassembled Components%面向重用的废弃电路板拆解升温策略

    龙旦风; 向东; 张永凯; 段广洪

    2014-01-01

    拆解废弃电路板(Printed circuit board, PCB)并重用高价值元器件是一种有效的回收再利用途径。在拆解过程中如果采用不合理工艺极容易导致元器件质量下降,其中塑封芯片内部界面分层是一种常见缺陷。芯片分层通常由过高温度所致,因此有必要对拆解过程电路板温度场和升温策略开展研究。根据充分熔焊和避免芯片分层这两个目标提出了峰值温度准则和升温速率准则:峰值温度准则要求在确保充分熔焊的前提下尽量降低电路板整体温度;升温速率准则要求先快速升温后缓慢升温。建立了多温区热风加热电路板的模型,并根据此模型提出基于温度场均匀性的拆解升温策略以获得符合两条升温准则的温度曲线。利用自主研制的废弃电路板拆解机进行试验验证,结果表明:利用拆解升温策略得到的先快后慢型升温的温度场均匀性明显优于斜坡型升温;用这两种温度曲线拆解电路板得到的元器件拆解率相差很小;与斜坡型升温相比,拆解升温策略使拆解过程造成的分层芯片比例降低80%。因此,基于温度场均匀性的拆解升温策略在不明显改变拆解率的前提下可有效避免拆解造成芯片分层。%Disassembling end-of-life printed circuit boards (PCBs) and reusing the high-value electronic components is an effective way of recycling. During the disassembly process, the quality of components is easily to reduce if the process is inappropriate. A common defect which usually arises in the disassembly process is interfacial delamination within plastic-encapsulated integrated circuits (ICs). The IC delamination is mainly caused by excessive high temperature. Therefore, research of the temperature field of the PCB and the heating strategy is necessary. A peak-temperature principle and a ramp-rate principle are proposed to meet the purpose of heating, i.e. melting the solder

  16. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  17. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  18. Integration of balance and strength training into daily life activity to reduce rate of falls in older people (the LiFE study): randomised parallel trial

    Clemson, Lindy; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Bundy, Anita; Cumming, Robert G; Manollaras, Kate; O’Loughlin, Patricia; Black, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a lifestyle integrated approach to balance and strength training is effective in reducing the rate of falls in older, high risk people living at home. Design Three arm, randomised parallel trial; assessments at baseline and after six and 12 months. Randomisation done by computer generated random blocks, stratified by sex and fall history and concealed by an independent secure website. Setting Residents in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Participants Participant...

  19. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada With Errata Sheets, Revision 0

    Pat Matthews

    2007-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117, Pluto Disassembly Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 117 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 26-41-01, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 26-41-01. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 117 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before finalizing the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary following SAFER activities. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated to meet the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 27, 2007, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 26-41-01 in CAU 117.

  1. Activation of PPARs α, β/δ, and γ Impairs TGF-β1-Induced Collagens' Production and Modulates the TIMP-1/MMPs Balance in Three-Dimensional Cultured Chondrocytes

    Paul-Emile Poleni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. We investigated the potency of Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptors (PPARs α, β/δ, and γ agonists to modulate Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1- induced collagen production or changes in Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase- (TIMP- 1/Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP balance in rat chondrocytes embedded in alginate beads. Experimental Approach. Collagen production was evaluated by quantitative Sirius red staining, while TIMP-1 protein levels and global MMP (-1, -2, -3, -7, and -9 or specific MMP-13 activities were measured by ELISA and fluorigenic assays in culture media, respectively. Levels of mRNA for type II collagen, TIMP-1, and MMP-3 & 13 were quantified by real-time PCR. Key Results. TGF-β1 increased collagen deposition and type II collagen mRNA levels, while inducing TIMP-1 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, it decreased global MMP or specific MMP-13 activities, while decreasing MMP-3 or MMP-13 mRNA levels. PPAR agonists reduced most of the effects of TGF-β1 on changes in collagen metabolism and TIMP-1/MMP balance in rat in a PPAR-dependent manner, excepted for Wy14643 on MMP activities. Conclusions and Implications. PPAR agonists reduce TGF-β1-modulated ECM turnover and inhibit chondrocyte activities crucial for collagen biosynthesis, and display a different inhibitory profile depending on selectivity for PPAR isotypes.

  2. Conclusion: The balanced company

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  3. Balancing Trust and Control

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust and...... control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves an...... ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control. The...

  4. Mass balance myths

    In the event of an oil spill at sea, remediation technologies rely on oil spill monitoring and mass balance calculations. The types of oil spills that require knowledge of mass-balance include weathering studies, dispersant-effectiveness testing, measurement of response effectiveness and damage assessment. Non-destructive and non-interfering measuring methods are needed to find components of the mass balance equation such as temporal and spatial distribution of the oil thickness, and the temporal and spatial distribution of oil concentration in the sub-surface plume. The main challenge is the variation in the size scale of laboratory and open ocean measurements. Most large scale oil-spill experiments do not have scientific credibility because there are few situations in which all the oil in the system is accounted for. While some components are accurately accounted for, others ignore mass balance, or the range of measurements is not sufficient to allow for computation of mass balance. 48 refs

  5. Heat-induced disassembly and degradation of chlorophyll-containing protein complexes in vivo. A study with linearly heated barley leaves

    Lípová, L.; Krchňák, P.; Komenda, Josef; Ilík, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1797, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-70. ISSN 0005-2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chlorophyll-containing protein complex * Chlorophyll fluorescence temperature curve * Disassembly Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.132, year: 2010

  6. Nucleolus disassembly in mitosis and apoptosis: dynamic redistribution of phosphorylated-c-Myc, fibrillarin and Ki-67

    C Soldani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus may undergo disassembly either reversibly during mitosis, or irreversibly in apoptosis, thus allowing the redistribution of the nucleolar proteins.We investigated here by immunocytochemistry the fate of three representative proteins, namely phosphorylated c-Myc, fibrillarin and Ki-67, and found that they behave independently in both processes: they relocate in distinct compartments during mitosis, whereas during apoptosis they may either be cleaved (Ki-67 or be extruded into the cytoplasm with a different kinetics and following an ordered, non chaotic program. The separation of these nucleolar proteins which occurs in early apoptotic nuclei continues also in the cytoplasm, and culminates in the final formation of apoptotic blebs containing different nucleolar proteins: this evidence confirms that the apoptotic bodies may be variable in size, content and surface reactivity, and include heterogeneous aggregates of nuclear proteins and/or nucleic acids.

  7. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  8. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  9. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  10. Highly connected neurons spike less frequently in balanced networks

    Pyle, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Biological neuronal networks exhibit highly variable spiking activity. Balanced networks offer a parsimonious model of this variability in which strong excitatory synaptic inputs are canceled by strong inhibitory inputs on average, and irregular spiking activity is driven by fluctuating synaptic currents. Most previous studies of balanced networks assume a homogeneous or distance-dependent connectivity structure, but connectivity in biological cortical networks is more intricate. We use a heterogeneous mean-field theory of balanced networks to show that heterogeneous in-degrees can break balance. Moreover, heterogeneous architectures that achieve balance promote lower firing rates in neurons with larger in-degrees, consistent with some recent experimental observations.

  11. LOAD BALANCING WITH NEURAL NETWORK

    Nada M. Al Sallami

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a proposed load balance technique based on artificial neural network. It distributes workload equally across all the nodes by using back propagation learning algorithm to train feed forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The proposed technique is simple and it can work efficiently when effective training sets are used. ANN predicts the demand and thus allocates resources according to that demand. Thus, it always maintains the active servers according to current demand, which results in low energy consumption than the conservative approach of over-provisioning. Furthermore, high utilization of server results in more power consumption, server running at higher utilization can process more workload with similar power usage. Finally the existing load balancing techniques in cloud computing are discussed and compared with the proposed technique based on various parameters like performance, scalability, associated overhead... etc. In addition energy consumption and carbon emission perspective are also considered to satisfy green computing.

  12. Keeping Your Balance

    ... or problems with balance. Sometimes your doctor or physical therapist can reposition the crystals in your ear and ... Adherence Calcium/Vitamin D Nutrition Overall Health Fractures/Fall Prevention Exercise/Safe Movement Safe Movement & Exercise Videos ...

  13. National Energy Balance - 1984

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.)

  14. National Energy Balance - 1985

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.)

  15. National Energy Balance-1987

    The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.)

  16. Detailed balance and entanglement

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics. (paper)

  17. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    ... usually used on infants and young children. electronystagmogram (ENG). To assess balance, electrodes are placed around the ... videonystagmography (VNG). This test is similar to an ENG, only the child has to focus on the ...

  18. Balance costs for windpower

    Skaflestad, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Wind power scheduling is subject to high forecast uncertainty compared to the dominant Norwegian energy source, hydro power. The regulating market, also known as the balance market, is a market solution for optimal operation of the Nordic power system, putting a price on schedule deviations. Schedules, or production/consumption plans, are collected daily, 12 hours prior to delivery by the system operator Statnett. Wind power is especially vulnerable to balance costs due to the relatively high...

  19. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  20. Microwave balanced oscillators and frequency doublers

    Siripon, N

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is on the application of the injection-locked oscillator technique to microwave balanced oscillators. The balanced oscillator design is primarily analysed using the extended resonance technique. A transmission line is connected between the two active devices, so that the active device resonate each other. The electrical length of the transmission line is also analysed for the balanced oscillation condition. The balanced oscillator can be viewed with the negative resistance model and the feedback model. The former model is characterised at a circuit plane where the feedback network is cut. By using both the negative-resistance oscillator model and the feedback model, the locking range of the oscillator is analysed by extending Kurokawa's theory. This analysis demonstrates the locking range of the injection phenomenon, where the injection frequency is either close to the free-running frequency, close to (1/n) x free-running frequency or close to n x the free-running frequen...

  1. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  2. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  3. Fully-compliant statically-balanced mechanisms without prestressing assembly: concepts and case studies

    G. Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new concepts for designing fully-compliant statically-balanced mechanisms without prestressing assembly. A statically-balanced compliant mechanism can ideally provide zero stiffness and energy free motion like a traditional rigid-body mechanism. These characteristics are important in design of compliant mechanisms where low actuation force, accurate force transmission or high-fidelity force feedback are primary concerns. Typically, static balancing of compliant mechanisms has been achieved by means of prestressing assembly. However, this can often lead to creep and stress relaxation arising in the flexible members. In this paper two concepts are presented which eliminate the need for prestressing assembly of compliant mechanisms: (1 a weight compensator which employs a constant-force compliant mechanism, (2 a near-zero-stiffness mechanism which combines two multistable mechanisms. In addition to the advantages provided by statically-balanced compliant mechanisms, two other notable features of these statically-balanced mechanisms are their ability to be monolithically fabricated and to return to their as-fabricated position without any disassembly when not in use.

  4. BALANCED SCORECARD AND THE MANAGEMENT INTRUMENTS COMPLEMENTARITY

    Sunhilde CUC

    2009-01-01

    The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) presents the quantitative goals selected from multiple perspectives for implementing the organizational strategy and vision. This article considers how Total Quality Management, Activity Based Management (ABM), Customer Value Analysis, EVA and Budgets approaches may complement a balanced scorecard effort. It briefly outlines how this tools are defined, considers their strengths and weaknesses. The paper concludes that when other tools used in conjunction with BSC ...

  5. Watt and joule balances

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  6. Ecological, biological balances and conservation

    The scientific work within the activity ''ecological/biological balances and conservation'' is summarised in this report. The aims of the activity during its existence between 1992 and 1994 have been to: (i) arrange a workshop and publish the presentations on the environmental aspects of energy forest cultivations, (ii) perform joint scientific work together with the activity group on ''biological disposal of wastewaters and sludges'', that is closely related to environmental problems, and (iii) produce ecological guidelines concerning energy forestry, suitable for advisers and farmers dealing with bioenergy problems. The most important results from the workshop were the environmental benefits from energy forestry when compared with intensive agriculture and forestry. Energy forestry has positive influence on the carbon balances, nutrient recycling, and soil sustainability. The effects are also positive on the natural flora and fauna, which in most cases are enriched when compared with agricultural crops. From the joint efforts of the two activities the main result was a study tour, conference and workshop, concentrating on biological purification systems. The most promising system seems to be the vegetation filters of short rotation coppice. The report on ecological guidelines contains a number of ideas and recommendations for establishment, management, and harvesting of energy forests in an environmentally acceptable way. It also gives advice on how to locate the stands to minimise the risk of nutrient leakage from arable land. (Author)

  7. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  8. Automatic force balance calibration system

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  9. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  10. Effect of dietary 7-ketocholesterol, pure, or oxidized cholesterol on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity, energy balance, egg cholesterol concentration, and 14C-acetate incorporation into yolk lipids of laying hens.

    Vargas, R E; Allred, J B; Biggert, M D; Naber, E C

    1986-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of 7-ketocholesterol (7-k) in the presence or absence of pure cholesterol (PCH) or oxidized cholesterol (OCH) in diets of laying hens on reproductive performance and several parameters of cholesterol metabolism. In the first experiment, cholesterol synthesis and transport was examined by the in ovo incorporation of 14C-acetate into yolk triglycerides and cholesterol. Energy balances were also conducted. In the second experiment, hepatic 3 hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was measured in vitro to evaluate potential cholesterol synthesis. In both experiments, reproductive performance and egg yolk cholesterol concentration were measured. Dietary PCH or OCH (.5%) significantly reduced relative acetate incorporation into yolk cholesterol, while 7-k (.025%) had no effect on carbon flow from acetate into egg cholesterol. While 7-k alone did not alter total yolk cholesterol concentration, it moderated the effect of PCH or OCH on increasing yolk cholesterol concentration. No consistent effects of dietary sterols on reproductive performance or energy balance were observed. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was dramatically suppressed by feeding PCH or OCH and moderately suppressed by 7-k. In combination with PCH or OCH, 7-k did not further depress enzyme activity. The observations that 7-k alone depressed hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, without changing relative acetate incorporation into yolk cholesterol while limiting cholesterol deposition in egg yolk from PCH or OCH, is interpreted to mean that 7-k may stimulate sterol transport and excretion while limiting cholesterol synthesis. PMID:3748946

  11. Finding Your Balance

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  12. Getting the balance right

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  13. Aplikace Balanced Scorecard

    Jaroměřská, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with application of the Balanced Scorecard method to Němcova selská mlékárna Radonice, spol. s.r.o. The goal is to analyse the strategic position of the company and propose a new company strategy. Further, the strategic goals defined by the strategy are converted to a strategic map to clearly show causality relationships between the goals of the four perspectives of the Balanced Scoreboard method. The strategic goals are assigned measures and target values and initi...

  14. A balanced team generating model

    van de Water, Tara; van de Water, Henny; Bukman, Cock

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a general team balancing model. It first summarizes existing balancing methods. It is shown that for these methods it is difficult to meet all the conditions posed by Belbin on balanced teams. This mainly is caused by the complexity of the balancing problem. A mathematical mode

  15. Demonstration of posturographic parameters of squat-stand activity in hemiparetic patients on a new multi-utility balance assessing and training system

    Lu, Rong-rong; Li, Fang; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yong-Shan; Xu, Xiu-Lin; Zou, Ren-Lin; Hu, Xiu-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Quantitative evaluation of position control ability in stroke patients is needed. Here we report a demonstration of position control ability assessment and test-retest reliability during squat-stand activity on a new system in hemiparetic patients and controls. Methods Sixty-two healthy adults and thirty-four hemiparetics were enrolled. All of the participants were required to complete five repeated squat-stand activities under three different conditions: partial weight support, st...

  16. Src Kinases Are Required for a Balanced Production of IL-12/IL-23 in Human Dendritic Cells Activated by Toll-Like Receptor Agonists

    Kuka, Mirela; Baronio, Roberta; Valentini, Sara; Monaci, Elisabetta; Muzzi, Alessandro; Aprea, Susanna; De Gregorio, Ennio; D'Oro, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    Background Pathogen recognition by dendritic cells (DC) is crucial for the initiation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) by microbial molecular patterns leads to the maturation of DC, which present the antigen and activate T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Cytokine production by DC is critical for shaping the adaptive immune response by regulating T helper cell differentiation. It was previously shown by our group that Src kinases play ...

  17. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with pit disassembly and conversion facility: alternative 11

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), which is being costed in a separate report by LANL, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option

  18. Nucleosome disassembly during human non-homologous end joining followed by concerted HIRA- and CAF-1-dependent reassembly

    Li, Xuan; Tyler, Jessica K

    2016-01-01

    The cell achieves DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in the context of chromatin structure. However, the mechanisms used to expose DSBs to the repair machinery and to restore the chromatin organization after repair remain elusive. Here we show that induction of a DSB in human cells causes local nucleosome disassembly, apparently independently from DNA end resection. This efficient removal of histone H3 from the genome during non-homologous end joining was promoted by both ATM and the ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeler INO80. Chromatin reassembly during DSB repair was dependent on the HIRA histone chaperone that is specific to the replication-independent histone variant H3.3 and on CAF-1 that is specific to the replication-dependent canonical histones H3.1/H3.2. Our data suggest that the epigenetic information is re-established after DSB repair by the concerted and interdependent action of replication-independent and replication-dependent chromatin assembly pathways. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15129.001 PMID:27269284

  19. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Spent fuel disassembly: increasing hot-cell storage capacity at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    This report presents the results of work performed at AGNS in 1979 related to production-rate fuel disassembly in the existing hot cell spaces of the BNFP. The primary advantage of the developed technique is realized at a reprocessing plant facility where suitable hot cells and connecting storage pools are available. The existing spent fuel pools are also candidates for away-from-reactor (AFR) storage space. Storage estimates based on utilization of the BNFP indicate that a major expansion from 1600 MTU up to 3000 MTU is possible. The report presents data on the results of initial process development and prototype equipment testing. Assessments were made of operational safety, licensing, and economic factors. These studies indicate that the techniques are performable and have economic merit when there is a requirement for a large increment of new storage capacity. A development program plan is presented. This plan delineates the future work required to bring the process to a point where implementation is possible

  20. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Induced Destabilization and Disassembly of Various Structural Variants of Insulin Fibrils Monitored by Vibrational Circular Dichroism.

    Zhang, Ge; Babenko, Viktoria; Dzwolak, Wojciech; Keiderling, Timothy A

    2015-12-15

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) induced destabilization of insulin fibrils has been previously studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and interpreted in terms of secondary structural changes. The variation of this process for fibrils with different types of higher-order morphological structures remained unclear. Here, we utilize vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), which has been reported to provide a useful biophysical probe of the supramolecular chirality of amyloid fibrils, to characterize changes in the macroscopic chirality following DMSO-induced disassembly for two types of insulin fibrils formed under different conditions, at different reduced pH values with and without added salt and agitation. We confirm that very high concentrations of DMSO can disaggregate both types of insulin fibrils, which initially maintained a β-sheet conformation and eventually changed their secondary structure to a disordered form. The two types responded to varying concentrations of DMSO, and disaggregation followed different mechanisms. Interconversion of specific insulin fibril morphological types also occurred during the destabilization process as monitored by VCD. With transmission electron microscopy, we were able to correlate the changes in VCD sign patterns to alteration of morphology of the insulin fibrils. PMID:26582046

  1. Toward Balance in Translation.

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…

  2. National energy balance - 1977

    The national energy balance of the 1976 shows several modifications in relation to the last year. The historical serie is based in more confiable information, from several energy companies. The most greater modifications are on energy source of hard control, such as lignite and charcoal for non-siderurgic uses. (E.G.)

  3. Yin-Yang Balancing

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  4. National energy balance - 1978

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.)

  5. National Energy Balance - 1986

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.)

  6. National Energy Balance - 1981

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.)

  7. Lives in the Balance.

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time parenting. (SM)

  8. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  9. User-calibration of Mettler AT200 analytical balance

    The purpose of this technical implementing procedure (TIP) is to describe the calibration of the Mettler AT200 analytical balance or similar type balance (henceforth called the balance). This balance is used for activities of the Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) ''Metal Barrier Selection and Testing'' (SIP-CM-01, WBS nr. 1.2.2.5.1). In particular, it will be used for Activity E-20-50, ''Long-Term Corrosion Studies.'' The balance will be used for weighing test specimens and reagent chemicals. However, it is not limited to these uses. The calibration procedures consist of activating the internal (self) calibration of the apparatus, and weighing and recording of traceable standards. The balance is equipped with self (internal) calibration and linearization capabilities. It has an internal (built in) set of weights which are used for self calibration. The standard weights are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  10. Wii Fit Balance Board Playing Improves Balance and Gait in Parkinson Disease

    Mhatre, Priya V.; Vilares, Iris; Stibb, Stacy M.; Albert, Mark V.; Pickering, Laura; Marciniak, Christina M.; Kording, Konrad; Toledo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of exercise training by using the Nintendo Wii Fit video game and balance board system on balance and gait in adults with Parkinson disease (PD). Design A prospective interventional cohort study. Setting An outpatient group exercise class. Participants Ten subjects with PD, Hoehn and Yahr stages 2.5 or 3, with a mean age of 67.1 years; 4 men, 6 women. Interventions The subjects participated in supervised group exercise sessions 3 times per week for 8 weeks by practicing 3 different Wii balance board games (marble tracking, skiing, and bubble rafting) adjusted for their individualized function level. The subjects trained for 10 minutes per game, a total of 30 minutes training per session. Main Outcome Measurements Pre-and postexercise training, a physical therapist evaluated subjects’ function by using the Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index, and Sharpened Romberg with eyes open and closed. Postural sway was assessed at rest and with tracking tasks by using the Wii balance board. The subjects rated their confidence in balance by using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale and depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Balance as measured by the Berg Balance Scale improved significantly, with an increase of 3.3 points (P = .016). The Dynamic Gait Index improved as well (mean increase, 2.8; P = .004), as did postural sway measured with the balance board (decreased variance in stance with eyes open by 31%; P = .049). Although the Sharpened Romberg with eyes closed increased by 6.85 points and with eyes opened by 3.3 points, improvements neared significance only for eyes closed (P = .07 versus P = .188). There were no significant changes on patient ratings for the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (mean decrease, −1%; P = .922) or the Geriatric Depression Scale (mean increase, 2.2; P = .188). Conclusions An 8-week exercise training class by using the Wii Fit balance board improved selective measures of

  11. eCounterscreening: using QSAR predictions to prioritize testing for off-target activities and setting the balance between benefit and risk.

    Sheridan, Robert P; McMasters, Daniel R; Voigt, Johannes H; Wildey, Mary Jo

    2015-02-23

    During drug development, compounds are tested against counterscreens, a panel of off-target activities that would be undesirable for a drug to have. Testing every compound against every counterscreen is generally too costly in terms of time and money, and we need to find a rational way of prioritizing counterscreen testing. Here we present the eCounterscreening paradigm, wherein predictions from QSAR models for counterscreen activity are used to generate a recommendation as to whether a specific compound in a specific project should be tested against a specific counterscreen. The rules behind the recommendations, which can be summarized in a risk-benefit plot specific for a counterscreen/project combination, are based on a previously assembled database of prospective QSAR predictions. The recommendations require two user-defined cutoffs: the level of activity in a specific counterscreen that is considered undesirable and the level of risk the chemist is willing to accept that an undesired counterscreen activity will go undetected. We demonstrate in a simulated prospective experiment that eCounterscreening can be used to postpone a large fraction of counterscreen testing and still have an acceptably low risk of undetected counterscreen activity. PMID:25551659

  12. Death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) mediated apoptosis in hantavirus infection is counter-balanced by activation of interferon-stimulated nuclear transcription factors

    Hantaviruses are negative strand RNA species that replicate predominantly in the cytoplasm. They also activate numerous cellular responses, but their involvement in nuclear processes is yet to be established. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), this study investigates the molecular finger-print of nuclear transcription factors during hantavirus infection. The viral-replication-dependent activation of pro-myelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was followed by subsequent localization in nuclear bodies (NBs). PML was also found in close proximity to activated Sp100 nuclear antigen and interferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa protein (ISG-20), but co-localization with death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) was not observed. These data demonstrate that hantavirus triggers PML activation and localization in NBs in the absence of DAXX-PLM-NB co-localization. The results suggest that viral infection interferes with DAXX-mediated apoptosis, and expression of interferon-activated Sp100 and ISG-20 proteins may indicate intracellular intrinsic antiviral attempts

  13. Death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) mediated apoptosis in hantavirus infection is counter-balanced by activation of interferon-stimulated nuclear transcription factors

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F., E-mail: sv.khaiboullina@gmail.com [Whittemore Peterson Institute, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Morzunov, Sergey P. [Department of Pathology and Nevada State Health Laboratory, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Boichuk, Sergei V. [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Palotás, András [Asklepios-Med (private medical practice and research center), Szeged (Hungary); Jeor, Stephen St. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Lombardi, Vincent C. [Whittemore Peterson Institute, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Rizvanov, Albert A. [Department of Genetics, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-01

    Hantaviruses are negative strand RNA species that replicate predominantly in the cytoplasm. They also activate numerous cellular responses, but their involvement in nuclear processes is yet to be established. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), this study investigates the molecular finger-print of nuclear transcription factors during hantavirus infection. The viral-replication-dependent activation of pro-myelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was followed by subsequent localization in nuclear bodies (NBs). PML was also found in close proximity to activated Sp100 nuclear antigen and interferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa protein (ISG-20), but co-localization with death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) was not observed. These data demonstrate that hantavirus triggers PML activation and localization in NBs in the absence of DAXX-PLM-NB co-localization. The results suggest that viral infection interferes with DAXX-mediated apoptosis, and expression of interferon-activated Sp100 and ISG-20 proteins may indicate intracellular intrinsic antiviral attempts.

  14. Artificial cytoskeletal structures within enzymatically active bio-inorganic protocells.

    Kumar, Ravinash Krishna; Li, Mei; Olof, Sam N; Patil, Avinash J; Mann, Stephen

    2013-02-11

    The fabrication of enzymatically active, semi-permeable bio-inorganic protocells capable of self-assembling a cytoskeletal-like interior and undergoing small-molecule dephosphorylation reactions is described. Reversible disassembly of an amino acid-derived supramolecular hydrogel within the internalized reaction space is used to tune the enzymatic activity of the nanoparticle-bounded inorganic compartments. PMID:23027575

  15. AID up-mutants isolated using a high-throughput screen highlight the immunity/cancer balance limiting DNA deaminase activity

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Zizhen; Rada, Cristina; Neuberger, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    DNA deaminases underpin pathways in antibody diversification (AID) and anti-viral immunity (APOBEC3s). Here we show how a high-throughput bacterial papillation assay can be used to screen for AID mutants with increased catalytic activity. The upmutations focus on a small number of residues, some highlighting regions likely implicated in AID’s substrate interaction. Notably, many of the upmutations bring the sequence of AID closer to that of APOBEC3s. AID upmutants can yield increased antibody diversification, raising the possibility that modification of AID’s specific activity might be used to regulate antibody diversification in vivo. However, upmutation of AID also led to increased frequency of chromosomal translocations suggesting that AID’s specific activity may have been limited by the risk of genomic instability. PMID:19543289

  16. Coupling of PAK-Interacting Exchange Factor PIX to GIT1 Promotes Focal Complex Disassembly

    Zhao, Zhou-Shen; Manser, Edward; Loo, Tsui-Han; Lim, Louis

    2000-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase PAK is targeted to focal complexes (FCs) through interactions with the SH3 domains of the PAK-interacting exchange factor PIX and Nck. PIX is a Rac GTP exchange factor that also binds the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein known as GIT1. Overexpression of GIT1 in fibroblasts or epithelial cells causes a loss of paxillin from FCs and stimulates cell motility. This is due to the direct interaction of a C-terminal 125-residue domain of GIT1 with paxill...

  17. Assembly and disassembly of spliceosomes along a specific pre-messenger RNP fiber.

    Kiseleva, E; Wurtz, T; Visa, N; Daneholt, B.

    1994-01-01

    Transcriptionally active Balbiani ring (BR) genes in the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans were studied by immunoelectron microscopy to establish the distribution of spliceosome components along a specific pre-messenger ribonucleoprotein (pre-mRNP) fiber. The BR genes are 35-40 kb in size with three introns close to the 5' end and one close to the 3' end; a very large middle portion lacks introns. As a rule the 5' introns are spliced concomitant with transcription in the prom...

  18. Using balance program for energy balance analysis

    Belong with development of the economy, the energy consumption will be increased very high in the future. Vietnam has a broad range of mineral resources. There is considerable energy potential on form of coal, oil and gas, hydropower and fuel wood, Recently, Vietnam is an exporter of energy. But in next two decades, the energy sources will be enough to meet requirement? The model BALANCE was used to solve energy planning problem. The objective of this model is analyzing energy system and built an energy development strategy in long term. After using model, the results are: total coal consumption will be 17.440 Mtoe in 2020 and 32 Mtoe in 2030. the biggest coal consumer is electricity sector. Total oil production consumption will be more than 30 Mtoe in 2020 and more than 50 Mtoe in 2030. If we have 4 refinery factories from now to 2030, total oil products import will be 11 Mtoe in 2020 and 25 Mtoe in 2030. The amount of gas supply in 2030 will be 20 billions m3 (18 Mtoe). Vietnam needs to import 8.3 Mtoe more, Vietnam will become an energy importer in next 15 years. In previous years, the economy of Vietnam was mainly based on agricultural production. But Vietnam is moving rapidly from an agricultural to an industrial economy. Belong with the development of the economy, energy consumption increases very fast. So which energy sources should be used first and when it will be use...are questions need to be answered. Vietnam has a broad range of mineral resources. There is considerable energy potential on form of coal, oil and gas, hydropower and fuel wood. Recently, Vietnam is energy exporter, but in near future Vietnam has enough energy to meet demand or we need to import from outside? It should be studied carefully to answer. (author)

  19. Energy balances 2001

    Denmark's consumption of energy increased 1,6 % from 2000 to 2001, primarily due to the year 2001 being colder than the year 2000. The production of petroleum decreased from 2000 to 2001, the reason being an accident at the Gorm oil field. The production of renewable energy and natural gas, however, increased. The energy balances is an account of production, import and export, and consumption of energy. The consumption is presented for households and industry. In the energy balances the energy consumption is accounted as physical amounts as well as gross consumption. Also an account is made of the costs of energy in basis prices and in market prices, including calculation of excises on energy, CO2 and SO2. (ln)

  20. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor shedding controls thresholds of innate immune activation that balance opposing TNF functions in infectious and inflammatory diseases

    Xanthoulea, Sofia; Pasparakis, Manolis; Kousteni, Stavroula;

    2004-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a potent cytokine exerting critical functions in the activation and regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Due to its pleiotropic activities, the amplitude and duration of TNF function must be tightly regulated. One of the mechanisms that may have evolved to...... modulate TNF function is the proteolytic cleavage of its cell surface receptors. In humans, mutations affecting shedding of the p55TNF receptor (R) have been linked with the development of the TNFR-associated periodic syndromes, disorders characterized by recurrent fever attacks and localized inflammation....... Here we show that knock-in mice expressing a mutated nonsheddable p55TNFR develop Toll-like receptor-dependent innate immune hyperreactivity, which renders their immune system more efficient at controlling intracellular bacterial infections. Notably, gain of function for antibacterial host defenses...

  1. Adrenergic receptors and gastric secretion in dogs. Is a "tonic balance" relationship between vagal and beta 2-adrenergic activity a possibility?

    Gottrup, F; Hovendal, C; Bech, K; Andersen, D

    1984-01-01

    vagotomy and beta 2-adrenoceptor activity were studied in conscious gastric fistula dogs. Pentagastrin stimulated acid output was increased slightly in non-vagotomized dogs and to its prevagotomy level in vagotomized dogs after propranolol infusion. Practolol showed no such effect. Histamine stimulated......The relative influence of adrenergic receptors on gastric acid secretion in the dog stomach with different vagal activity or "tone" is almost unknown. beta-adrenoceptors seem to be most important for the direct effect of adrenergic stimulation on acid secretion. In this study the effects of...... acid secretion was not influenced significantly by beta-blockade. Similar dose-response curves were found for non-vagotomized dogs with high beta 2-adrenergic tone and dogs with low vagal tone (vagotomy) after pentagastrin and histamine stimulated acid secretion. This study indicates that a...

  2. France's energy balances

    Several terminological definitions of words and concepts used for the establishment of France's energy balance (i.e. the supply and utilization of energy) are presented, taken from the Energy dictionary, published in 1992 by the world Energy Council: primary, secondary, final and useful energy. Statistics concerning energy production, importation and exportation, consumption, and costs are discussed, showing the market share evolution of the different energy types; the France's energy independence ratio has increased from 22% in 1973 to 51% in 1995

  3. An ideal balance?

    Mair, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Considers the intersection between employment policy and family law, and the changes in work and family regarding traditional gender roles. Examines UK and EU policy initiatives aimed at achieving a better work/life balance for employees with children. Argues that many of the policy aspirations are predicated on an equal opportunities employment model that may not exist in practice and also fail to reflect the realities of family life.

  4. Balance-bot

    Abreu, Victor Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Research on inverted pendulum has gained momentum over the last decade on a number of robotic laboratories over the world; due to its unstable proprieties is a good example for control engineers to verify a control theory. To verify that the pendulum can balance we can make some simulations using a closed-loop controller method such as the linear quadratic regulator or the proportional–integral–derivative method. Also the idea of robotic teleoperation is gaining ground. Control...

  5. Ballet Balance Strategies

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic movements of a ballet dancers. It is supported by computer simulated experiments and it is in good agreement with biomechanical measurements of real-life dancers. Our results questions the previous...

  6. National energy balance - 1976

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.)

  7. Finance and Balanced Growth

    Trew, Alex

    2010-01-01

    We study the relationships between various concepts of financial development and balanced economic growth. A model of endogenous growth that incorporates roles for both financial efficiency and access to financial services permits a better understanding of the relationship between the size of the financial sector (value added) and growth. Higher financial value added results from some, but not all, kinds of finance-driven growth. If greater access rather than greater efficiency generates high...

  8. In the balance

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... strategy aimed at bolstering the autonomy and international influence of the Union, vis-à-vis other major powers, including the United States....

  9. Thinking About Competitive Balance

    Allen R. Sanderson; John J. Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators and fans, Major League Baseball itself, and even some economists have expressed growing concern about the widening disparities among team expenditures and the growing concentrations of postseason contenders and championships. In this article we compare different concepts of competitive balance, r...

  10. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  11. Gait and balance disorders.

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  12. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas ampersand Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States' utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste

  13. Work-Life Balance and Work Satisfaction in Workplace

    Soo, Chin Hock

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the workplace environment in an ICT organizations are conducive for the employees to use work-life balance and secondary investigation will involving whether the ability to have work-life balance will increase the happiness and this job satisfaction and leads to higher productivity. A questionnaire which consisted of all the work-life balance activities in the ICT organization were sent out and a total of 94 respondents whom worked in ICT organizations h...

  14. Gut Microbiota: Modulate its Complexity to Restore the Balance

    Fermín Mearin; Speakers Fermín Mearin; Antonio Gasbarrini; Peter Malfertheiner; Mark Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota to health is becoming more widely appreciated. The range of commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals and in patients with a variety of digestive diseases is under active investigation, and evidence is accumulating to suggest that both the diversity and balance of bacterial species are important for health. Disturbance of the balance of microorganisms – dysbiosis – is associated with obesity and a variety of diseases. Restoring the balance by modulat...

  15. Balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs

    Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects and origins of balanced skills among nascent entrepreneurs. In a first step we apply Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades theory to investigate performance effects of a balanced skill set. Second, we investigate potential sources of balanced skills, thereby testing the investment hypothesis against the endowment hypothesis. Analyzing data on high-potential nascent projects, we find support for the notion that balanced skills are important for making progress in the vent...

  16. Feldenkrais Method Balance Classes Improve Balance in Older Adults: A Controlled Trial

    Karol A. Connors

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method balance classes on balance and mobility in older adults. This was a prospective non-randomized controlled study with pre/post measures. The setting for this study was the general community. A convenience sample of 26 community-dwelling older adults (median age 75 years attending Feldenkrais Method balance classes formed the Intervention group. Thirty-seven volunteers were recruited for the Control group (median age 76.5 years. A series of Feldenkrais Method balance classes (the 33312Getting Grounded Gracefully33313 series, two classes per week for 10 weeks, were conducted. Main outcome measures were Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC questionnaire, Four Square Step Test (FSST, self-selected gait speed (using GAITRite instrumented gait mat. At re-testing, the Intervention group showed significant improvement on all of the measures (ABC, P = .016, FSST, P = .001, gait speed, P < .001. The Control group improved significantly on one measure (FSST, P < .001. Compared to the Control group, the Intervention group made a significant improvement in their ABC score (P = .005, gait speed (P = .017 and FSST time (P = .022. These findings suggest that Feldenkrais Method balance classes may improve mobility and balance in older adults.

  17. Feldenkrais method balance classes improve balance in older adults: a controlled trial.

    Connors, Karol A; Galea, Mary P; Said, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Feldenkrais Method balance classes on balance and mobility in older adults. This was a prospective non-randomized controlled study with pre/post measures. The setting for this study was the general community. A convenience sample of 26 community-dwelling older adults (median age 75 years) attending Feldenkrais Method balance classes formed the Intervention group. Thirty-seven volunteers were recruited for the Control group (median age 76.5 years). A series of Feldenkrais Method balance classes (the 33312Getting Grounded Gracefully33313 series), two classes per week for 10 weeks, were conducted. Main outcome measures were Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) questionnaire, Four Square Step Test (FSST), self-selected gait speed (using GAITRite instrumented gait mat). At re-testing, the Intervention group showed significant improvement on all of the measures (ABC, P = .016, FSST, P = .001, gait speed, P Feldenkrais Method balance classes may improve mobility and balance in older adults. PMID:19553385

  18. A new balancing three level three dimensional space vector modulation strategy for three level neutral point clamped four leg inverter based shunt active power filter controlling by nonlinear back stepping controllers.

    Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F

    2016-07-01

    In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK. PMID:27018144

  19. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  20. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  1. Watt and joule balances

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  2. Die Balance der Verantwortung

    Abt, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Die Balance der Verantwortung Ein Modell der Pädagogik zur Entwicklung von Verantwortungsfähigkeit Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Begriff der Verantwortung, der in der Gesellschaft häufig verwendet wird und dort in der Regel positiv belegt ist. Neben der Vorstellung einer modernen Begriffsinterpretation lege ich die Bedeutung des Themas Verantwortung für die menschliche Existenz und damit auch für die Themen Erziehung und Bildung dar. Ausgehend von der Frage, warum Menschen in der d...

  3. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  4. Balance of multi-wavelets

    MAO Yibo

    2003-01-01

    The discrete scalar data need prefiltering when transformed by discrete multi-wavelet, but prefiltering will make some properties of multi-wavelets lost. Balanced multi-wavelets can avoid prefiltering. The sufficient and necessary condition of p-order balance for multi-wavelets in time domain, the interrelation between balance order and approximation order and the sampling property of balanced multi-wavelets are investigated. The algorithms of 1-0rder and 2-0rder balancing for multi-wavelets are obtained. The two algorithms both preserve the orthogonal relation between multi-scaling function and multi-wavelets. More importantly, balancing operation doesn't increase the length of filters, which suggests that a relatively short balanced multiwavelet can be constructed from an existing unbalanced multi-wavelet as short as possible.

  5. Negative leave balances

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  6. Negative leave balances

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  7. 30 CFR 816.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate sediment... available to: (1) Prevent, to the extent possible, additional contributions of sediment to streamflow or...

  8. 30 CFR 817.45 - Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.45 Hydrologic balance: Sediment control measures. (a) Appropriate sediment... available to: (1) Prevent, to the extent possible, additional contributions of sediment to stream flow or...

  9. Teaching Balance Training to Improve Stability and Cognition for Children

    Shim, Andrew L.; Norman, Shannon P.; Kim, Young Ae

    2013-01-01

    There are many benefits to having young children train or practice on balance boards. The physical education setting allows educators to provide opportunities for youth to develop essential fitness skills that can be transferred into other life experiences. Balance-board activities and exercises can help in training the central and peripheral…

  10. Golfers have better balance control and confidence than healthy controls.

    Gao, Kelly L; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Tsang, William W N

    2011-11-01

    In a well-executed golf swing, golfers must maintain good balance and precise control of posture. Golfing also requires prolonged walking over uneven ground such as a hilly course. Therefore, repeated golf practice may enhance balance control and confidence in the golfers. The objective is to investigate whether older golfers had better balance control and confidence than non-golfing older, healthy adults. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted at a University-based rehabilitation center. Eleven golfers and 12 control subjects (all male; mean age: 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 years, respectively) were recruited. Two balance control tests were administered: (1) functional reach test which measured subjects' maximum forward distance in standing; (2) sensory organization test (SOT) which examined subjects' abilities to use somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs to control body sway during stance. The modified Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) determined subject's balance confidence in daily activities. The golfers were found to achieve significantly longer distance in the functional reach test than controls. They manifested significantly better balance than controls in the visual ratio and vestibular ratio, but not the somatosensory ratio of the SOT. The golfers also reported significantly higher balance confidence score ratios. Furthermore, older adults' modified ABC score ratios showed positive correlations with functional reach, visual and vestibular ratios, but not with somatosensory ratio. Golfing is an activity which may enhance both the physical and psychological aspects of balance control. Significant correlations between these measures reveal the importance of the balance control under reduced or conflicting sensory conditions in older adults' balance confidence in their daily activities. Since cause-and-effect could not be established in the present cross-sectional study, further prospective intervention design is warranted. PMID

  11. ANKLE JOINT CONTROL DURING SINGLE-LEGGED BALANCE USING COMMON BALANCE TRAINING DEVICES - IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    Strøm, Mark; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    to characterize different balance exercises based on level of difficulty and sensori-motor training stimulus. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate frontal-plane ankle kinematics and associated peroneal muscle activity during single-legged balance on stable surface (floor) and three...... commonly used balance devices (Airex®, BOSU® Ball and wobble board). DESIGN: Descriptive exploratory laboratory study. METHODS: Nineteen healthy subjects performed single-legged balance with eyes open on an Airex® mat, BOSU® Ball, wobble board, and floor (reference condition). Ankle kinematics were...... voluntary contraction (MVC), and in addition amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) between 90 and 10% was calculated as a measure of muscle activation variability. RESULTS: Balancing on BOSU® Ball and wobble board generally resulted in increased ankle kinematic and muscle activity variables...

  12. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment'). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  13. Advance on the technology of assembly and disassembly of a head frame with four legs and the machine-assembled head frame

    Zhou Youzong; Cao Baozhen [Ministry of Coal Industry (China). Geological Exploration Machinery Factory

    1996-12-31

    According to the meditation of assembling headframes from upper to lower instead of that from lower to upper, the authors created successfully a new type of machine for assembling and disassembling headframes as well as a type of machine-assembled headframe. The new type of headframe not only has the merits of old type of headframe with four legs, but also can keep people away from dangers of working in high space and save the workers much labour. The new technology has good effect on raising productive efficiency. 2 figs.

  14. Live cell imaging of the assembly, disassembly, and actin cable–dependent movement of endosomes and actin patches in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Huckaba, Thomas M.; Gay, Anna Card; Pantalena, Luiz Fernando; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Liza A Pon

    2004-01-01

    Using FM4-64 to label endosomes and Abp1p-GFP or Sac6p-GFP to label actin patches, we find that (1) endosomes colocalize with actin patches as they assemble at the bud cortex; (2) endosomes colocalize with actin patches as they undergo linear, retrograde movement from buds toward mother cells; and (3) actin patches interact with and disassemble at FM4-64–labeled internal compartments. We also show that retrograde flow of actin cables mediates retrograde actin patch movement. An Arp2/3 complex...

  15. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  16. Disassembly and reassembly of human papillomavirus virus-like particles produces more virion-like antibody reactivity

    Zhao Qinjian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines based on major capsid protein L1 are licensed in over 100 countries to prevent HPV infections. The yeast-derived recombinant quadrivalent HPV L1 vaccine, GARDASIL(R, has played an important role in reducing cancer and genital warts since its introduction in 2006. The L1 proteins self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs. Results VLPs were subjected to post-purification disassembly and reassembly (D/R treatment during bioprocessing to improve VLP immunoreactivity and stability. The post-D/R HPV16 VLPs and their complex with H16.V5 neutralizing antibody Fab fragments were visualized by cryo electron microscopy, showing VLPs densely decorated with antibody. Along with structural improvements, post-D/R VLPs showed markedly higher antigenicity to conformational and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs H16.V5, H16.E70 and H263.A2, whereas binding to mAbs recognizing linear epitopes (H16.J4, H16.O7, and H16.H5 was greatly reduced. Strikingly, post-D/R VLPs showed no detectable binding to H16.H5, indicating that the H16.H5 epitope is not accessible in fully assembled VLPs. An atomic homology model of the entire HPV16 VLP was generated based on previously determined high-resolution structures of bovine papillomavirus and HPV16 L1 pentameric capsomeres. Conclusions D/R treatment of HPV16 L1 VLPs produces more homogeneous VLPs with more virion-like antibody reactivity. These effects can be attributed to a combination of more complete and regular assembly of the VLPs, better folding of L1, reduced non-specific disulfide-mediated aggregation and increased stability of the VLPs. Markedly different antigenicity of HPV16 VLPs was observed upon D/R treatment with a panel of monoclonal antibodies targeting neutralization sensitive epitopes. Multiple epitope-specific assays with a panel of mAbs with different properties and epitopes are required to gain a better understanding of the immunochemical

  17. A Disassembly Optimization Problem

    Bhootra, Ajay

    2002-01-01

    The rapid technological advancement in the past century resulted in a decreased life cycle of a large number of products and, consequently, increased the rate of technological obsolescence. The disposal of obsolete products has resulted in rapid landfilling and now poses a major environmental threat. The governments in many countries around the world have started imposing regulations to curb uncontrolled product disposal. The consumers, too, are now aware of adverse effects of product disp...

  18. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Social conflict, in the form of intraspecific selfish "cheating" has been observed in a number of natural systems. However, a formal, evolutionary genetic theory of social cheating that provides an explanatory, predictive framework for these observations is lacking. Here we derive the kin...... selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...... lineages are transient and do not invade. Instead, cheating lineages are eliminated by kin selection but are constantly reintroduced by mutation, maintaining a stable equilibrium frequency of cheaters. The presence of cheaters at equilibrium creates a "cheater load" that selects for mechanisms of cheater...

  19. Energy balance climate models

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  20. A Balancing Act?

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Stampe, Ian

    efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners......With an undifferentiated catchword ‘eco-innovation’ is a largely understudied area, but of high relevance to the society and companies given the strong focus especially by governments on grand challenges like climate change, green technologies and environmental challenges. The paper utilizes the...... 2009 European Manufacturing Survey for the Danish sub-sample including 335 manufacturing firms. Through factor analysis, the paper confirms three main focus areas of new product development in relation to production facilities: efficiency considerations, market attention and greening of innovation...

  1. Balancing Trust and Control

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust and...... control in organizations. The paper examines recent literature on the conceptualization of the relation between trust and control in and between organizations. The literature review shows that trust and control has been conceptualized as either substituting or complementing each other. Further, it is...... found that the complementary/substitution debate calls for an explicit conceptualization of the relation between trust and control as an interactive process, in contrast to earlier conceptualizations of trust and control as two relatively static and isolated concepts. While the static perspective on...

  2. Gravity in the balance

    Although Einstein's theories of relativity showed that Newton's ideas about gravity, space and time were approximations, general relativity still predicts that the gravitational force between two point objects will obey an inverse-square law in the limit of low velocities and weak gravitational fields. Of course, we know that general relativity is probably an approximation as well and that some grander theory - possibly involving extra dimensions of space - will unify gravity with the other fundamental forces. Many of these theories predict that the inverse-square law will break down at distances that are becoming accessible to (relatively small) experiments with torsion balances. As researchers from the Eoet-Wash group in Seattle report 'Testing the gravitational inverse-square law', the inverse-square law has survived all tests so far, but its days are surely numbered. (U.K.)

  3. A Balancing Act?

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Stampe, Ian; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners....... Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that while market attention is important for new product development, green aspects of innovation and efficiency considerations for innovation are important for the energy efficiency of the production companies. Combining these models highlights that energy...... in innovation management have to take the specificities and interactions of different types of eco-innovation more carefully in consideration than so far and to formulate new managerial practices combining energy efficiency and product innovation....

  4. Pressure balance at the magnetopause: Experimental studies

    Suvorova, A V

    2011-01-01

    The pressure balance at the magnetopause is formed by magnetic field and plasma in the magnetosheath, on one side, and inside the magnetosphere, on the other side. In the approach of dipole earth's magnetic field configuration and gas-dynamics solar wind flowing around the magnetosphere, the pressure balance predicts that the magnetopause distance R depends on solar wind dynamic pressure Pd as a power low R ~ Pd^alpha, where the exponent alpha=-1/6. In the real magnetosphere the magnetic filed is contributed by additional sources: Chapman-Ferraro current system, field-aligned currents, tail current, and storm-time ring current. Net contribution of those sources depends on particular magnetospheric region and varies with solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activity. As a result, the parameters of pressure balance, including power index alpha, depend on both the local position at the magnetopause and geomagnetic activity. In addition, the pressure balance can be affected by a non-linear transfer of the solar ...

  5. Balanced Neural Architecture and the Idling Brain

    Brent eDoiron

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A signature feature of cortical spike trains is their trial-to-trial variability. This variability is large in spontaneous conditions and is reduced when cortex is driven by a stimulus or task. Models of recurrent cortical networks with unstructured, yet balanced, excitation and inhibition generate variability consistent with evoked conditions. However, these models lack the long timescale fluctuations and large variability present in spontaneous conditions. We propose that global network architectures which support a large number of stable states (attractor networks allow balanced networks to capture key features of neural variability in both spontaneous and evoked conditions. We illustrate this using balanced spiking networks with clustered assembly, feedforward chain, and ring structures. By assuming that global network structure is related to stimulus preference, we show that signal correlations are related to the magnitude of correlations in the spontaneous state. In our models, the dynamics of spontaneous activity encompasses much of the possible evoked states, consistent with many experimental reports. Finally, we contrast the impact of stimulation on the trial-to-trial variability in attractor networks with that of strongly coupled spiking networks with chaotic firing rate instabilities, recently investigated by Ostojic (2014. We find that only attractor networks replicate an experimentally observed stimulus-induced quenching of trial-to-trial variability. In total, the comparison of the trial-variable dynamics of single neurons or neuron pairs during spontaneous and evoked activity can be a window into the global structure of balanced cortical networks.

  6. Complement activation and inhibition: a delicate balance

    Sjöberg, A P; Trouw, L A; Blom, A M

    2009-01-01

    Complement is part of the innate immune defence and not only recognizes microbes but also unwanted host molecules to enhance phagocytosis and clearance. This process of opsonisation must be tightly regulated to prevent immunopathology. Endogenous ligands such as dying cells, extracellular matrix ...

  7. Variance approximation under balanced sampling

    Deville, Jean-Claude; Tillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A balanced sampling design has the interesting property that Horvitz–Thompson estimators of totals for a set of balancing variables are equal to the totals we want to estimate, therefore the variance of Horvitz–Thompson estimators of variables of interest are reduced in function of their correlations with the balancing variables. Since it is hard to derive an analytic expression for the joint inclusion probabilities, we derive a general approximation of variance based on a residual technique....

  8. Designing Multinational Electricity Balancing Markets

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s unbundled electricity markets, the balancing market is an intricate institutional arrangement that makes sure that the balance between electricity supply and demand is maintained. In the light of the development of a single electricity market in Europe, harmonization and integration of currently national balancing markets have received an increasing attention from governments, system operators, and regulators. This dissertation provides a systematic overview of the possibilities an...

  9. Psychology of the nuclear balance

    Sonntag, P.

    1981-10-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament.

  10. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  11. 2002 energy balances and electricity profiles

    This is the twelfth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy

  12. 1998 energy balances and electricity profiles

    This is the tenth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy Statistics

  13. 2000 energy balances and electricity profiles

    This is the eleventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy

  14. Disassembly of the cholinergic postsynaptic apparatus induced by axotomy in mouse sympathetic neurons: the loss of dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan immunoreactivity precedes that of the acetylcholine receptor.

    Zaccaria, M L; De Stefano, M E; Properzi, F; Gotti, C; Petrucci, T C; Paggi, P

    1998-08-01

    In mouse sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (SCG), cortical cytoskeletal proteins such as dystrophin (Dys) and beta1sigma2 spectrin colocalize with beta-dystroglycan (beta-DG), a transmembrane dystrophin-associated protein, and the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the postsynaptic specialization. The function of the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the organization of the neuronal cholinergic postsynaptic apparatus was studied following changes in the immunoreactivity of these proteins during the disassembly and subsequent reassembly of the postsynaptic specializations induced by axotomy of the ganglionic neurons. After axotomy, a decrease in the number of intraganglionic synapses was observed (t1/2 8 h 45'), preceded by a rapid decline of postsynaptic specializations immunopositive for beta-DG, Dys, and alpha3 AChR subunit (alpha3AChR) (t1/2 3 h 45', 4 h 30' and 6 h, respectively). In contrast, the percentage of postsynaptic densities immunopositive for beta1sigma2 spectrin remained unaltered. When the axotomized neurons began to regenerate their axons, the number of intraganglionic synapses increased, as did that of postsynaptic specializations immunopositive for beta-DG, Dys, and alpha3AChR. The latter number increased more slowly than that of Dys and beta-DG. These observations suggest that in SCG neurons, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex might play a role in the assembly-disassembly of the postsynaptic apparatus, and is probably involved in the stabilization of AChR clusters. PMID:9720492

  15. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  16. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela;

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and...... the real time imbalances are minimized with automatic generation controller and the programmed to regulate active power reserves....

  17. Interim balance: Ecology

    Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.)

  18. Balancing safety and economics

    The safety requirements of NPPs have always aimed at limiting societal risks. This risk approach initially resulted in deterministic design criteria and concepts. In the 1980s the paradigm 'safety at all costs' arose and often led to questionable backfitting measures. Conflicts between new requirements, classical design concepts and operational demands were often ignored. The design requirements for advanced reactors ensure enhanced protection against severe accidents. Still, it is questionable whether the 'no-damage-outside-the-fence' criteria can be achieved deterministically and at competitive costs. Market deregulation and utility privatisation call for a balance between safety and costs, without jeopardising basic safety concepts. An ideal approach must be risk-based and imply modern PSAs and new methods for cost-benefit and ALARA analyses, embed nuclear risks in a wider risk spectrum, but also make benefits transparent within the context of a broader life experience. Governments should define basic requirements, minimum standards and consistent comparison criteria, and strengthen operator responsibility. Internationally sufficient and binding safety requirements must be established and nuclear technology transfer handled in a responsible way, while existing plants, with their continuous backfitting investments, should receive particular attention. (orig.)

  19. Par Pond water balance

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  20. Balancing "we" and "me".

    Congdon, Christine; Flynn, Donna; Redman, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    The open office is the dominant form of workspace design for good reason: It fosters collaboration, promotes learning, and nurtures strong culture. But what most companies fail to realize is that collaboration has a natural rhythm that requires both interaction and private contemplation. Companies have been trying for decades to find the balance between public and private workspace that best supports collaboration. In 1980 52% of U.S. employees lacked workspaces where they could concentrate without distraction. In response, high-walled cubicles took over the corporate landscape. By the late 1990s, the tide had turned, and only 23% of employees wanted more privacy, and 50% wanted more access to other people. Ever since, firms have been beefing up spaces that support collaboration and shrinking areas for individual work. But the pendulum seems to have swung too far: Once again, people feel a pressing need for privacy, not only to do heads-down work but to cope with the intensity of work today. To address these needs, according to the authors, we have to rethink our assumptions about privacy. Traditionally defined in physical terms, privacy is now about the individual's ability to control information and stimulation. In this article, the authors examine workspace design through the new lens of privacy and offer insights on how to foster teamwork and solitude. PMID:25509575