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Sample records for active containment systems

  1. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    Lundie, P. [Envirotech (Scotland) Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[Environmental Resource Industries Disposal Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); McLeod, N. [Envirotreat Ltd., Kingswinford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  2. PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems

    Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

    2005-01-01

    A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

  3. Plutonium active operation of the Winfrith modular containment system

    Three gloveboxes contaminated with plutonium have been dismantled inside the Winfrith Modular Containment System. This system is a portable, demountable pressurised suit area with its own filters and shower entry tunnel. Details of the operation are given. (U.K.)

  4. Possibility of air ingress into a BWR containment during a LOCA in case of activation of containment venting system

    The pressure relief systems installed in BWRs protect the containment from overpressure in case of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This paper analyzes the possibility of air ingress, which can cause hydrogen burn, through the rupture disks of the filtered and non-filtered venting systems. Two scenarios were considered: a LOCA without SBO (Station Blackout) and a LOCA with SBO. The thermal-hydraulic code GOTHIC® was used with 3D models of the drywell and wetwell of a Nordic-type BWR. In the LOCA event, we found no activation of the rupture disks within the considered transient simulation. Moreover, the containment spray ensured a low pressure in the drywell and induced a continuous mixing of the wetwell pool. In the LOCA with SBO event, the development of thermal stratification in the wetwell pool accelerated the pressure increase in the drywell, which led to activation of the rupture disk of the filtered venting system. However, no air ingress through the vent was found during the depressurization of the containment, and hence no risk of hydrogen burn under the given assumptions. (author)

  5. The development and testing of a modular containment system under plutonium active conditions

    A Modular Containment System has been designed, constructed and tested under plutonium active conditions at AEE Winfrith. The unit consists of a portable self-contained pressurised suit area, complete with shower entry tunnel and ventilation plant which can be assembled to enclose active plant to enable active operations to be carried out safely by operators dressed in standard pressurised suits. A fundamental feature of the system is the use of strippable coatings which are used to treat the interior surfaces prior to active operations to prevent permanent contamination of the structure. Details of construction are given together with results of trials. Whilst this report describes work with plutonium, the system has clear applications wherever temporary containment of radioactive or toxic materials is needed. (U.K.)

  6. Passive containment system

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  7. Passive containment cooling system

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  8. Advanced Containment System

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  9. Copper-containing polyvinyl alcohol composite systems: Preparation, characterization and biological activity

    Reza Hajipour, Abdol; Mohammadsaleh, Fatemeh; Reza Sabzalian, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The present investigation reports, the complex formation of Cu(II) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the synthesis of PVA-stabilized Cu2O particles. This PVA-Cu2O composite has been prepared via chemical reduction method using PVA-Cu(II) complex as precursor. At first, Cu(II) ions were stabilized in PVA matrix via complex formation with OH groups; subsequently, this PVA-Cu(II) macromolecular complex as precursor reacted with ascorbic acid as reducing agent at pH=12 to prepare PVA-Cu2O composite. The products were characterized by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, Visible Spectroscopy and atomic absorption. In the following, the antibacterial properties of as-prepared composites were examined against Gram-positive (Bacillus thuringiensis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), and the results showed excellent antibacterial activity of these materials.

  10. Los Alamos second-generation system for passive and active neutron assays of drum-size containers

    We describe in a comprehensive fashion the Los Alamos second-generation system for passive and active neutron assays of drum-size containers. The developmental history of this 7-year project is presented with emphasis on the pulsed active neutron technique (differential dieaway), which has achieved milligram levels of assay sensitivity for both plutonium and uranium wastes. We describe in detail the matrix effects for both passive and active neutron assays. We present in a thorough fashion our novel approach to achieving comprehensive corrections for these matrix effects using measurements made during the assays. We develop a matrix correction formalism based on separate neutron absorption and moderator indices determined from these measurements. These are presented as a series of analytic functions fitted to the data. Absolute calibrations and calibration standards are discussed, as is a practical means (pink drum measurements) of achieving routine calibration verification at all implementation sites. We present our overall assay algorithm, integrating absolute calibrations with matrix corrections. We also present a systematic error formalism that is based on the matrix response data. Finally, we outline a strategy for the verification of our entire assay formalism. This is based on measurements with a set of salted waste matrix drums combined with systematic assay intercomparisons of well-characterized transuranic wastes

  11. Surface active properties and biological activity of novel nonionic surfactants containing pyrimidines and related nitrogen heterocyclic ring systems

    El-Sayed, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of annelated pyrimidine derivatives has been synthesized via different heterocyclization reactions of suitably functionalized 6-(4-octadecyloxyphenyl-4-oxo-2- thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (4 with different electrophiles and nucleophiles. These heterocycles bear an active hydrogen atom (NH, OH or COOH which could be propoxylated using propylene oxide with different moles, 5, 10 and 15, to produce nonionic surfactant having a long alkyl chain with molecular weight suitable for becoming an amphiphilic molecule with correct hydrophilic-lypophilic balance which enhances solubility, biodegradability and hence lowers the toxicity to human beings and becomes environmentally friendly. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these compounds were screened and it was found that some of these compounds have similar or higher activity compared with commercial antibiotic drugs (sulphadiazine, which make them suitable for diverse applications like the manufacturing of drugs, pesticides, emulsifiers, cosmetics, etc.Una serie de derivados pirimidínicos y relacionados han sido preparados vía diferentes reacciones de formación de heterociclos entre 6-(4-octadeciloxifenil-4-oxo-2-tioxo- 1,2,3,4-tetrahidropirimidina-5-carbonitrilo (4 y diferentes electrófilos y nucleófilos. Estos heterociclos tienen un átomo de hidrógeno activo (NH, OH, o COOH que fue propoxilado con diferentes moles de óxido de propileno (5, 10, o 15 para producir surfactantes no iónicos con una cadena alquílica larga y peso molecular apropiado para convertirse en una molécula anfifílica con un balance hidrofílico-lipofílico correcto que aumenta la solubilidad y la biodedradabilidad, decrece la toxicidad a los seres humanos, y se convierte en respetuoso con el medio ambiente. Además, las actividades antimicrobianas de estos compuestos fueron determinadas y se encontró que algunos de estos compuestos tuvieron una actividad similar o más alta que

  12. Filtered-vented containment systems

    The potential benefits of filtered-vented containment systems as a means for mitigating the effects of severe accidents are analyzed. Studies so far have focused upon two operating reactor plants in the United States, a large-containment pressurized water reactor and a Mark I containment boiling water reactor. Design options that could be retrofitted to these plants are described including single-component once-through venting systems, multiple-component systems with vent and recirculation capabilities, and totally contained venting systems. A variety of venting strategies are also described which include simple low-volume containment pressure relief strategies and more complicated, high-volume venting strategies that require anticipatory actions. The latter type of strategy is intended for accidents that produce containment-threatening pressure spikes

  13. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO3- was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD5 TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7 ± 4.9% and 50.2 ± 6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD5). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW + glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW + TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28 ± 1 days and 31 ± 2 days with TWW + glucose and TWW + TRNWW, respectively

  14. Spray system of reactor container

    A BWR type reactor comprises a pressure accumulation tank for temporary storing fire-extinguishing system water by making a branch between a fire-extinguishing pump and a reactor container spray, an inlet valve and an outlet valve of the pressure accumulation tank disposed on a pipeline at the upstream and downstream of the branch of the pipeline, a pressure accumulation tank pressure gauge, a valve controller for opening the outlet valve by the pressure high signal of the pressure gauge of the pressure accumulation tank and closing the outlet valve by a pressure low signal of the pressure gauge of the pressure accumulation tank, and a valve for isolating equipments described above from the fire-extinguishing system and the container spray system. The pressure accumulation tank is disposed to a water injection facility while using the fire-extinguishing system water in common for preventing failures due to overpressure or overheating of the reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident. Gaseous radioactive materials in the dry well can be removed efficiently by the spray while maintaining the cooling performance for the reactor container by the intermittent spraying. Then, scrubbing effect of a pressure suppression pool can be improved thereby enabling to reduced radiation released to the environments. (N.H.)

  15. Self-contained microfluidic systems: a review.

    Boyd-Moss, Mitchell; Baratchi, Sara; Di Venere, Martina; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-08-16

    Microfluidic systems enable rapid diagnosis, screening and monitoring of diseases and health conditions using small amounts of biological samples and reagents. Despite these remarkable features, conventional microfluidic systems rely on bulky expensive external equipment, which hinders their utility as powerful analysis tools outside of research laboratories. 'Self-contained' microfluidic systems, which contain all necessary components to facilitate a complete assay, have been developed to address this limitation. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of self-contained microfluidic systems. We categorise these systems based on their operating mechanisms into three major groups: passive, hand-powered and active. Several examples are provided to discuss the structure, capabilities and shortcomings of each group. In particular, we discuss the self-contained microfluidic systems enabled by active mechanisms, due to their unique capability for running multi-step and highly controllable diagnostic assays. Integration of self-contained microfluidic systems with the image acquisition and processing capabilities of smartphones, especially those equipped with accessory optical components, enables highly sensitive and quantitative assays, which are discussed. Finally, the future trends and possible solutions to expand the versatility of self-contained, stand-alone microfluidic platforms are outlined. PMID:27425637

  16. Cooling system for reactor container

    Purpose: To effectively cool a reactor container upon reactor shutdown with no intrusion of metal corrosion products in coolants into the main steam pipe in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: A clean up system comprising a pipeway, a recycling pump, a non-regenerative heat exchanger and a primary coolant purifier and a regenerative heat exchanger is provided branched from a residual heat removing system and the clean up system is connected by way of a valve to a feedwater pipeway, as well as connected by way of the pipeway to the main steam pipeway at the midway of two main steam separation valves outside of the reactor container. This enables to prevent metal corrosion products floating on the surface of reactor water from introducing into the main steam pipe when the pressure vessel is filled with water. Then, since the pressure vessel is filled with primary coolants, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly in a short time. (Ikeda, J.)

  17. Mechanistic and Synthetic Approaches for Activation of Water-and Oxygen-Species by Biomimetic Systems (Containing Manganese and Cobalt)

    Lieb, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The current work deals with elementary reaction steps involved in the mechanisms that lead to the activation of water and oxygen species by biomimetic systems featuring redox-active manganese and cobalt centers, respectively. The first part of this work (Chapter 2 and Chapter 3) deals with the role of water exchange on metal centers that are relevant for water oxidation in nature. The first of two studies about this subject is addressing the role of manganese(III) in the oxygen evolving clust...

  18. Mobile neutron/gamma waste assay system for characterization of waste containing transuranics, uranium, and fission/activation products

    A new integrated neutron/gamma assay system has been built for measuring 55-gallon drums at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The system is unique because it allows simultaneous measurement of neutrons and gamma-rays. This technique also allows measurement of transuranics (TRU), uranium, and fission/activation products, screening for shielded Special Nuclear Material prior to disposal, and critically determinations prior to transportation. The new system is positioned on a platform with rollers and installed inside a trailer or large van to allow transportation of the system to the waste site instead of movement of the drums to the scanner. The ability to move the system to the waste drums is particularly useful for drum retrieval programs common to all DOE sites and minimizes transportation problems on the site. For longer campaigns, the system can be moved into a facility. The mobile system consists of two separate subsystems: a passive Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and a open-quotes clam-shellclose quotes passive neutron counter. The SGS with high purity germanium detector and 75Se transmission source simultaneously scan the height of the drum allowing identification of unshieled open-quotes hot spotsclose quotes in the drum or segments where the matrix is too dense for the transmission source to penetrate. Dense segments can flag shielding material that could be used to hide plutonium or uranium during the gamma analysis. The passive nuetron counter with JSR-12N Neutron Coincidence Analyzer measures the coincident neutrons from the spontaneous fission of even isotopes of plutonium. Because high-density shielding produces minimal absorption of neutrons, compared to gamma rays, the passive neutron portion of the system can detect shielded SNM. Measurements to evaluate the performance of the system are still underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  19. Photocatalytic and biocidal activities of novel coating systems of mesoporous and dense TiO2-anatase containing silver nanoparticles

    Here we describe the development of novel nanostructured coating systems with improved photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. These systems comprise a layer of SiO2 followed by a layer of mesoporous or dense TiO2-anatase, and doping with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The coatings were synthesized via a sol–gel technique by combining colloidal Ag NPs with TiO2 and SiO2 sols. The photocatalytic activity was studied through methyl orange decomposition under UV light. Results showed a great increase of photocatalytic activity by Ag NPs doping. The most active photocatalyst corresponded to the Ag–SiO2/TiO2 mesoporous system, associated with the porosity of the coatings and with the decrease of e–h recombination for the presence of Ag NPs. All the TiO2 coatings showed a strong bactericidal activity against planktonic forms of Gram-negative (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) pathogens, as well as a strong germicidal effect against deadly spores of human gas gangrene- and anthrax-producing bacteria (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis, respectively). The bactericidal and sporocidal activity was improved by doping the coatings with Ag NPs, even more when nanoparticles were in the outer layer of TiO2, because they are more accessible to the environment. The mechanisms responsible for the increase of photocatalytic and bactericidal behaviors related to Ag NP doping were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV–vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence and anodic stripping voltammetry. It was found that the separation of the electron–hole pair contributed to the enhancement of photocatalysis, whereas the effect of the local electric field reinforcement was probably present. A possible involvement of a decrease of band-gap energy and dispersion by silver nanoparticles is ruled out. bactericidal efficacy was increased by Ag+ ion release. Overall, the results included in this article show that the architecture of

  20. Safety system of reactor container

    The safety system of the present invention can shut down a BWR type reactor safely without operator's aid even upon occurrence of an abnormal state. Namely, a pressure/temperature measuring and controlling device is disposed to a dry well in the safety system of a reactor container incorporating a pressure vessel, a space between a dry wall and a wet well and a pressure suppression chamber. Operation signals sent from pipelines of an emergency reactor core cooling system delivered from the pressure vessel are inputted to the pressure/temperature measuring and controlling device. Output signals of the pressure/temperature measuring and controlling device are inputted to a spray device. With such procedures, when actuation of dry well spray is required upon loss of coolants accident, necessity for the actuation of the spray can be judged based on the pressure, temperature in the dry well, reactor water level and a state of operation and duration of abnormal state of other ECCS system using the pressure/temperature measuring and controlling device disposed in the dry well. If actuation of spray is required, the dry wall spray is automatically actuated to reduce pressure and temperature in the container. (I.S.)

  1. Remote operation system for container

    The present invention provides a remote operation system for conducting operation with operation reaction for the inside of a container filled with water (liquid), such as of inner walls and inner structural materials of a BWR type reactor. Namely, a swimming robot comprises a swimming device swimming in the liquid and an attaching/detaching device for holding/releasing the handling robot. A control device remotely operate the swimming robot and the handling robot by way of a cable. A cable processing device takes up or dispenses the cable. In addition, when the swimming robot grasps the handling robot by the attaching/detaching device, the swimming robot transmits an operation instruction sent from the control device by way of the cable to the handling robot. After the attaching/detaching device of the swimming robot releases the handling robot, the handling robot operates based on the transmitted operation instruction. It is preferable that the handling robot has an adsorptive moving device for moving itself while being adsorbed on the wall surface of the container. (I.S.)

  2. Dysprosium-containing layered double hydroxides nanoparticles intercalated with biologically active species as an approach for theranostic systems

    Arratia-Quijada, Jenny

    2015-10-23

    A layered double hydroxide structure including dysprosium cations was prepared by co-precipitation. The nanoparticles showed a linear relationship with the reciprocal relaxation spin-lattice (T1) time of water protons which is reflected as contrast in aqueous suspensions analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. The interlayer space of dysprosium containing LDH was successfully intercalated with folate, ibuprofen and gallate ions, which are key molecules for recognition of some cancer cells and treatment of diseases. The paramagnetic property of the dysprosium-containing LDH detected in this work beside the ability to transport drugs open up the opportunity to design theranostic materials in a single crystal phase with nanometric dimensions.

  3. Building a secondary containment system

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  4. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  5. Understanding aging in containment cooling systems

    A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper discusses the aging mechanisms present in the containment spray system and the containment fan cooler system, which are two systems used to provide the containment cooling function. The failure modes, along with the relative frequency of each is also discussed

  6. Activation of calcineurin by phosphotidylserine containing vesicles

    Politino, M.; King, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca/sup 2 +/- and calmodulin-regulated phosphatase. Recent findings suggested an association of CaN with biological membranes and prompted the present investigation into the interactions of the phosphatase with phospholipids in vitro. In the absence of calmodulin, sonicated preparations of phosphatidylserine (PS) provided a five-fold activation of the Ni- and Mn-supported activities of CaN towards (/sup 32/P) histone Hl; activation in the presence of calmodulin was much less pronounced. Half-maximal activation in the absence of calmodulin required approximately 0.1 mg/ml of PS. Activation of CaN was also observed with mixed vesicles of phosphatidylcholine (PC) containing 20% PS but not with PC alone, or with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Molecular sieve chromatography on Ultrogel AcA 34 provided further evidence that CaN associates with phospholipid vesicles composed of PS, or PC containing 20% PS, but not with vesicles of PC or PE. Complete association with medium sized vesicles of PS and PC/PS required Ca/sup 2 +/ ions; in the absence of the metal ion at least 60% of the enzyme failed to interact with the lipids while the remainder preferentially migrated with larger vesicles. These results suggest a role for Ca/sup 2 +/ in regulating CaN's interaction with phospholipids.

  7. HEPA filter containment systems for nuclear installations

    The Unipak filter containment system units have evolved over the last 20 - 30 years and now have many special features and facilities. Some developments have been required due to changes in filter design to allow higher air flows through each filter. Pressure drops across different systems at these increased flow rates are discussed. The filter containment system has been required for use in systems in which it must be able to withstand pressure or vacuum surges. Data indicating the ability of the system to withstand 15 kPa pressure or depression without permanent deformation is presented. Containment efficiency under these more stringent conditions is calculated from the pressure change. Isolating dampers can be fitted to the individual modules of the containment system. On installation at the required site units are tested to ensure system integrity prior to filter installation. The features of filter containment systems required for nuclear installations are summarised. (author)

  8. Nuclide specific activity monitoring of containment atmosphere and semi passive effluent monitoring during containment venting

    In case of a severe accident, various scenarios can lead to release of radioactive fission products inside the containment atmosphere. International safety standards (e.g. IAEA) require the installation of accident instrumentation for monitoring the conditions in the containment necessary. The AREVA GmbH has developed solutions for measuring the airborne activity in the containment atmosphere as well as activity release into the environment during filtered containment venting. The following paper presents systems for the determination of radioactive releases. The In-Situ Post Accident System PRONAS enables representative nuclide specific sampling of containment atmosphere (aerosols, iodine, noble gases) and sump. The analyses of the samples provide details on the accident course, containment situation and the core damage state. An in-situ sampler collects the aerosol and elemental iodine in a scrubbing liquid. The iodine and aerosol sample is flushed to an outside containment located dilution module and sample box where it can be taken suitable for laboratory analysis. The in-situ sampling technology enables to transport the samples over long distances without serious sample measurement errors. Noble gases and organic iodine are also flushed to the outside sample module. In order to ensure the integrity of the containment, a pressure release in terms of a filtered containment venting (FCV) can be the method of choice if the pressure inside the containment reaches critical values. Then, the newly developed Passive Gaseous Effluent Monitoring System (PEGASUS) is able to determine the released activity to the environment. Two basic designs have been developed to determine the activity release during FCV. PEGASUS-1 consists of a gamma-sensitive detector located close to the venting line downstream the venting vessel measuring the dominating noble gas activity online. This is of great importance for a first indication of the totally released activity and for the early

  9. 40 CFR 265.223 - Containment system.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containment system. 265.223 Section 265.223 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.223 Containment system. All earthen dikes must have a protective...

  10. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  11. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

  12. Passive containment system for a nuclear reactor

    A containment system is described that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is continuously maintained submerged in liquid. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high subatmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means

  13. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    This report summarizes the results of the Reliability Analysis of Containment Isolation System Project. Work was performed in five basic areas: design review, operating experience review, related research review, generic analysis and plant specific analysis. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) reports provided the major sources of containment performance information used in this study. Data extracted from LERs were assembled into a computer data base. Qualitative and quantitative information developed for containment performance under normal operating conditions and design basis accidents indicate that there is room for improvement. A rough estimate of overall containment unavailability for relatively small leaks which violate plant technical specifications is 0.3. An estimate of containment unavailability due to large leakage events is in the range of 0.001 to 0.01. These estimates are dependent on several assumptions (particularly on event duration times) which are documented in the report

  14. System and method for liquid silicon containment

    Cliber, James A; Clark, Roger F; Stoddard, Nathan G; Von Dollen, Paul

    2013-05-28

    This invention relates to a system and a method for liquid silicon containment, such as during the casting of high purity silicon used in solar cells or solar modules. The containment apparatus includes a shielding member adapted to prevent breaching molten silicon from contacting structural elements or cooling elements of a casting device, and a volume adapted to hold a quantity of breaching molten silicon with the volume formed by a bottom and one or more sides.

  15. Evaluation of the nucledyne passive containment system

    This reports contains: (1) an evaluation by Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) of the NucleDyne passive Containment System (PCS) as that conceptual design is applied to a Westinghouse, two loop, Pressurized Water Reactor; (2) an evaluation by Westinghouse of two questions about the impact of the PCS on the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS), which were posed by G/C and best answered by an NSSS vendor; and (3) replies to both the Gilbert/Commonwealth report and the Westinghoue report by NucleDyne Engineering Corporation

  16. Synthesis and optical properties of a crosslinkable polymer system containing TCF and TCP chromophores with excellent electro-optic activity and thermal stability

    Chen, Zhuo; Bo, Shuhui; Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xinhou

    2012-10-01

    Crosslinkable polymer with side-chain system was investigated to increase the content of NLO chromophores and improve the stability of oriented chromophores. In this work, a series of crosslinkable copolymers which beared different concentrations of chromophores with the tricyanofurane (TCF) acceptor and a kind of crosslinkable copolymers beared chromophores with dendritic tricyanopyrroline (TCP) acceptor were successfully synthesized and characterized. The crosslinked EO polymers which beared chromophores with the tricyanofurane (TCF) acceptor revealed the highest EO coefficient (r33) of 47.0 pm/V at 1310 nm, which was similar with the r33 of uncrosslinked systems. Compared to the uncrosslinked EO polymer systems, the crosslinked ones exhibited significantly enhanced temporal stability. Keywords: Nonlinear optics; Crosslinkable system; Chromophore-containing copolymers; Side-chain; Crosslinking reaction; Thermally stable polymer

  17. Acoustic emission monitoring of composite containment systems

    This paper considers two different types of composite containment system, and two different types of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring approach. The first system is a composite reinforced pressure vessel (CRPV) which is monitored both during construction and in-service using a broadband modal acoustic emission (MAE) technique. The second system is a membrane cargo containment system which is monitored using both a global as well as a local AE technique. For the CRPV, the damage assessment is concerned mainly with the integrity of the composite outer layer at the construction stage, and possible fatigue cracking of the inner steel liner at the in-service stage. For the membrane tank, the damage assessment is concerned with locating and quantifying any abnormal porosities that might develop in-service. By comparing and contrasting the different types of structural system and different monitoring approaches inferences are drawn as to what role AE monitoring could take in the damage assessment of other types of composite containment system. (Detailed technical data have not been included, due to client confidentiality constraints.)

  18. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  19. Containment

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  20. Halon 1301 protection system for nuclear containments

    Halon 1301 can provide protection against any combustion hazard that hydrogen gas might present in an LWR containment following a loss-of-coolant accident. A development program was conducted, comprising analytical study, laboratory experiments and large-scale testing, to define the requirements for a Halon 1301 system and to examine certain operational problems that were hypothesized. Some results of the study are presented in this paper

  1. Vehicle mobile 60Co container inspection system

    This paper presents a mobile 60Co container inspection system (CIS) and its performance. With all devices including industrial 60Co source, high sensitive gas-ionized array detector, image treatment and control system, inspection driving device on a vehicle, the vehicle mobile CIS has advantages of high agility and climate resistance, and it can complete emergent inspection. The mobile CIS contains equipment-vehicle and control-vehicle. Equipment-vehicle and object-container are still, while a folding detector gantry is moving through a folding rail on the equipment-vehicle and completes the inspection. the mobile CIS has the inspection characteristics similar to the fixed system and it can be used in worse circumstances. Its CI (Contrast Indicator) and IQI (Image Quality Indicator) for 100 mm steel plate attain to 0.5% and 2.5% respectively, and the SP (Space Penetration) is about 240 mm (Fe). Maximum dose per scanning is about 5 μGy, scanning speed is varied from 6 to 18 m/min, and maximum transformational speed is 90 km/h

  2. Photocatalytic and biocidal activities of novel coating systems of mesoporous and dense TiO{sub 2}-anatase containing silver nanoparticles

    Roldán, María V. [Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos, FCEIA-UNR, IFIR-CONICET, Pellegrini 250, Rosario S2000BTP (Argentina); Oña, Paula de [Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular, FCByF-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Castro, Yolanda; Durán, Alicia [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Faccendini, Pablo; Lagier, Claudia [IQUIR-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Grau, Roberto, E-mail: robertograu@fulbrightmail.org [Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular, FCByF-UNR-CONICET, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Pellegri, Nora S., E-mail: pellegri@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Materiales Cerámicos, FCEIA-UNR, IFIR-CONICET, Pellegrini 250, Rosario S2000BTP (Argentina)

    2014-10-01

    Here we describe the development of novel nanostructured coating systems with improved photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. These systems comprise a layer of SiO{sub 2} followed by a layer of mesoporous or dense TiO{sub 2}-anatase, and doping with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The coatings were synthesized via a sol–gel technique by combining colloidal Ag NPs with TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} sols. The photocatalytic activity was studied through methyl orange decomposition under UV light. Results showed a great increase of photocatalytic activity by Ag NPs doping. The most active photocatalyst corresponded to the Ag–SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} mesoporous system, associated with the porosity of the coatings and with the decrease of e–h recombination for the presence of Ag NPs. All the TiO{sub 2} coatings showed a strong bactericidal activity against planktonic forms of Gram-negative (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) pathogens, as well as a strong germicidal effect against deadly spores of human gas gangrene- and anthrax-producing bacteria (Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus anthracis, respectively). The bactericidal and sporocidal activity was improved by doping the coatings with Ag NPs, even more when nanoparticles were in the outer layer of TiO{sub 2}, because they are more accessible to the environment. The mechanisms responsible for the increase of photocatalytic and bactericidal behaviors related to Ag NP doping were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV–vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence and anodic stripping voltammetry. It was found that the separation of the electron–hole pair contributed to the enhancement of photocatalysis, whereas the effect of the local electric field reinforcement was probably present. A possible involvement of a decrease of band-gap energy and dispersion by silver nanoparticles is ruled out. bactericidal efficacy was increased by Ag{sup +} ion release. Overall, the results

  3. Systems integration and economic aspects of the universal container system

    Universal containers (UC) are multi-assembly spent fuel containers that are loaded and sealed at reactor sites or the first DOE facility. They are thereafter handled as clean containers without reopening and are ultimately emplaced horizontally as self-shielded containers in the drifts of a repository. The use of universal containers has a number of advantages over the current system including reduced handlings of individual fuel assemblies and simplified waste facilities and operations at storage and disposal facilities. Life cycle costs are similar within the DOE portion of the system, but net total system savings can be realized because of savings in the utility portion of the system. These savings result from reduction in at-reactor storage and shutdown reactor costs, and such savings increase with delays in the startup of DOE facilities for accepting spent nuclear fuel

  4. GOTHIC Simulation of Passive Containment Cooling System

    Ha, Huiun; Kim, Hangon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The performance of this system depends on the condensation of steam moving downward inside externally cooled vertical tubes. AES-2006: During a DBA, heat is removed by internally cooled vertical tubes, which are located in containment. We are currently developing the conceptual design of Innovative PWR, which is will be equipped with various passive safety features, including PCCS. We have plan to use internal heat exchanger (HX) type PCCS with concrete containment. In this case, the elevation of HXs is important to ensure the heat removal during accidents. In general, steam is lighter than air mixture in containment. So, steam may be collected at the upper side of containment. It means that higher elevation of HXs, larger heat removal efficiency of those. So, the aim of the present paper is to give preliminary study on variation of heat removal performance according to elevation of HXs. With reference to the design specification of the current reactors including APR+, we had determined conceptual design of PCCS. Using it, we developed a GOTHIC model of the APR1400 containment was adopted PCCS. This calculation model is described herein and representative results of calculation are presented. APR 1400 GOTHIC model was developed for PCCS performance calculation and sensitivity test according to installation elevation of PCCXs. Calculation results confirm that PCCS is working properly. It is found that the difference due to the installation elevation of PCCXs is insignificant at this preliminary analysis, however, further studies should be performed to confirm final performance of PCCS according to the installation elevation. These insights are important for developing the PCCS of Innovative PWR.

  5. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-12-01

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

  6. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel

  7. The ttpC Gene Is Contained in Two of Three TonB Systems in the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but Only One Is Active in Iron Transport and Virulence

    Kustusch, Ryan J.; Kuehl, Carole J.; Crosa, Jorge H.

    2012-01-01

    The TonB system of proteins is required for the energy-dependent active transport of iron-bound substrates across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We have identified three TonB systems within the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The TonB1 system contains the TonB1, ExbD1, and ExbB1 proteins, whereas both the TtpC2-TonB2 and TtpC3-TonB3 systems contain an additional fourth protein, TtpC. Here we report that TtpC3, although highly related to TtpC2, is inactive in iron transport, w...

  8. Prestressed system for nuclear concrete containment domes

    Criteria are examined for prestressing tendon arrangements for nuclear concrete containment domes to counteract the tensile forces induced during a loss-of-coolant accident. A general and systematic numerical approach solvable effectively by computer has been presented to analyze the prestressing effect which can be quite complex because of dome configuration and tendon geometries. The losses of prestressing force due to creep, shrinkage, elastic shortening of concrete, relaxation of prestressing steel, and wedge slip have been incorporated in the analysis. The author presents five different existing systems of tendon layout, critically examines them in the light of the criteria established for selecting a tendon arrangement, and describes their merits and demerits. The author suggests a modified version of one of the existing systems which will improve significantly the effective prestressing force in the hoop direction without increasing the number of tendon layers

  9. BEAM CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR NSLS-II

    The shielding design for the NSLS-II will provide adequate protection for the full injected beam loss in two periods of the ring around the injection point, but the remainder of the ring is shielded for lower losses of (le) 10% full beam. This will require a system to insure that beam losses don't exceed these levels for a period of time that could cause excessive radiation levels outside the shield walls. This beam containment system will measure, provide a level of control and alarm indication of the beam power losses along the beam path from the source (e-gun, linac) thru the injection system and the storage ring. This system will consist of collimators that will provide limits to (and potentially to measure) the beam miss-steering and control the loss points of the charge and monitors that will measure the average beam current losses along the beam path and alarm when this beam power loss exceeds the level set by the shielding specifications. This will require some new ideas in beam loss detection capability and collimation. The initial planning and R and D program will be presented.

  10. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  11. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  12. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  13. Total exhaust containment system for MHD power systems

    Demetriades, S.T.; Maxwell, C.D.; Brouillette, M.; Winckelmans, G.S.

    1989-12-01

    This effort investigated the feasibility of a revolutionary approach to open-cycle space power system exhaust containment. This approach makes use of state-of-the-art US materials technology and unique designs developed at STD Research Corporation to control the effects of effluents from open-cycle MHD generators operating in space by bagging all the MHD exhaust products in light-weight impermeable containers. Theoretical models for the operation of the Total Exhaust Containment System (TECS) were developed and used to design subscale laboratory simulators. Because of the prohibitive cost of building a complete integrated TECS subscale simulator, the feasibility of the concept was verified by investigating experimental the performance of each component as sub-assemblies in the high-enthalpy flow facilities at STD Research Corporation. The test program revealed that the materials chosen prior to contract award were adequate for the task and that the designs for each component fulfilled their role as expected. From those tests and the theoretical scaling laws that were developed in this program, it is estimated that the weight of the TECS system relevant to the STD Research Corporation MHD Space Power System (100 MW{sub e}/500 seconds) is between 5250 and 6250 kg, or between 21 and 25% of the fuel oxidant mass, depending on selection of the molecular barrier material. This effluent/reaction control and containment concept can also be applied to other space- or earth- bound open-cycle power generation systems. 3 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Design of the containment spray system

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The present RFS defines the functional requirements of the containment spray system and proposes certain complementary criteria or methods to be used in its equipment design

  15. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  16. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  17. Achievements and Status of Research Activities in the Containment Area

    Meyer, Leo; WILKENING HEINZ; KLJENAK Ivo; MAGALLON Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In the SARNET Containment topic three issues of severe accident phenomenology are treated which endanger the containment integrity in an early stage of the accident by pressure increase due to fast heat transfer: hydrogen combustion, explosive melt water reaction, and direct containment heating. Progress in activities dealing with the hydrogen issue was achieved by performing experiments addressing these subjects: - hydrogen combustion with defined concentration gradients, - hydro...

  18. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Design of the reactor containment systems in nuclear power plants

    The present Guide deals with the following design aspects of containment systems: The considerations which make containment necessary; The purpose of, and functional requirements for, the containment system; The design basis for the containment system; The specific design requirements and features needed to implement the functional requirements of the containment system; The tests and inspections needed to ensure that the functional requirements of the system can be met throughout the operating life of a nuclear power plant; The general quality assurance and documentation requirements for design of the containment system. This Safety Guide covers the method of limiting the radionuclide releases resulting from accident conditions

  20. Analysis and modeling of container terminal handling activities

    Armando CARTENÌ; Luca, Stefano de

    2010-01-01

    Although the technical literature contains numerous efforts to simulate container terminal performance, little attention has been paid to setting up, calibrating and validating models for handling equipment activities. This paper presents results from the estimation of activity duration concerning three different types of handling equipment: mobile harbor cranes, gantry cranes and reach stackers. Two estimation approaches (sample means vs. random variables) were investigated with respect to d...

  1. Enhancer-activated plasmid transcription complexes contain constrained supercoiling.

    Bonilla, P J; Freytag, S O; Lutter, L C

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that transcriptionally active chromatin contains totally unconstrained supercoiling. The results of recent studies have raised the possibility that this topological state is the property of highly transcribed genes. Since the transcription rate of RNA polymerase II genes can be dramatically increased by the presence of an enhancer, we have determined if the transcription complex of an enhancer-activated plasmid contains totally unconstrained supercoils. Following transfec...

  2. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  3. Bioresponsive systems based on polygalacturonate containing hydrogels.

    Schneider, Konstantin P; Rollett, Alexandra; Wehrschuetz-Sigl, Eva; Hasmann, Andrea; Zankel, Armin; Muehlebach, Andreas; Kaufmann, Franz; Guebitz, Georg M

    2011-04-01

    Polysaccharide acid (PSA) based devices (consisting of alginic acid and polygalacturonic acid) were investigated for the detection of contaminating microorganisms. PSA-CaCl(2) hydrogel systems were compared to systems involving covalent cross-linking of PSA with glycidylmethacrylate (PSA-GMA) which was confirmed with Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Incubation of PSA-CaCl(2) and PSA-GMA beads loaded with Alizarin as a model ingredient with trigger enzymes (polygalacturonases or pectate lyases) or bacteria lead to a smoothening of the surface and exposure of Alizarin according to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) analysis. Enzyme triggered release of Alizarin was demonstrated for a commercial enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger and with purified polygalacturonase and pectate lyase from S. rolfsii and B. pumilus, respectively. In contrast to the PSA-CaCl(2) beads, cross-linking (PSA-GMA beads) restricted the release of Alizarin in absence of enzymes. There was a linear relation between release of Alizarin (5-348 μM) and enzyme activity in a range of 0-300 U ml(-1) dosed. In addition to enzymes, both PSA-CaCl(2) and PSA-GMA beads were incubated with Bacillus subtilis and Yersinia entercolitica as model contaminating microorganism. After 72 h, a release between 10 μM and 57 μM Alizarin was detected. For protection of the hydrogels, an enzymatically modified PET membrane was covalently attached onto the surface. This lead to a slower release and improve long term storage stability based on less than 1% release of dye after 21 days. Additionally, this allowed simple detection by visual inspection of the device due to a colour change of the white membrane to orange upon enzyme triggered release of the dye. PMID:22112943

  4. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing Thiadiazol Moiety

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen novel sulfonylureas containing thiadiazole moiety were synthesized in a two-step reaction. Their structures were determined using IR, 1H NMR, HRFTMS, and elemental analysis. Herbicidal activities of these compounds were determined in the green house bio-assay. The results show that four compounds among them exhibit some activity toward four tested herbs.

  5. Integrated robotic vehicle control system for outdoor container handling

    Viitanen, Jouko O.; Haverinen, Janne; Mattila, Pentti; Maekelae, Hannu; von Numers, Thomas; Stanek, Zbigniev; Roening, Juha

    1997-09-01

    We describe an integrated system developed for use onboard a moving work machine. The machine is targeted to such applications as e.g. automatic container handling at loading terminals. The main emphasis is on the various environment perception duties required by autonomous or semi-autonomous operation. These include obstacle detection, container position determination, localization needed for efficient navigation and measurement of docking and grasping locations of containers. Practical experience is reported on the use of several different types of technologies for the tasks. For close distance measurement, such as container row following, ultrasonic measurement was used, with associated control software. For obstacle and docking position detection, 3D active vision techniques were developed with structured lighting, utilizing also motion estimation techniques. Depth from defocus-based methods were developed for passive 3D vision. For localization, fusion of data from several sources was carried out. These included dead-reckoning data from odometry, an inertial unit, and several alternative external localization devices, i.e. real-time kinematic GPS, inductive and optical transponders. The system was integrated to run on a real-time operating system platform, using a high-level software specification tool that created the hierarchical control structure of the software.

  6. Synthesis and Antifeeding Activity of Acetylene-Containing Tonghaosu Analogs

    CHEN,Li; HU,Tai-Shan; XU,Han-Hong; YIN,Biao-Lin; XIAO,Chun; WU,Yu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    @@ During our continuous efforts towards the search for environmental benign insect antifeedant, we established a concise method for the synthesis of Tonghaosu, a naturally occurring antifeedant.[1] Herein, we report the synthesis and antifeeding activity of 22 new tonghaosu analogs, which contain varied B ring as well as one or two acetylene functionalities. Preliminary bioassay indicates that two acetylene groups containing tonghaosu analogs have better antifeedant activity against large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.) than those with one acetylene group. More interestingly,Z-isomers are much more active than their corresponding E-isomers.

  7. Novel Synthesis and Anti-Microbial Activity Study of Innovative Mannich Bases Containing 2- Phenoxy-1, 3, 2-Dioxa Phospholanes And Indole Systems

    Subba Narayana Kanchana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity on some novel pyrazolone derivatives has been taken up. The primary amines were diazotized with sodium nitrite and HCl mixture at 0-5 0C which were further coupled with ethyl acetoacetic ester to afford phenyl diazonium acetoacetic esters (II. Condensation of 4-substituted aryl hydrazono acetoacetic ester, 4-hydrazinylbenzenamine in the presence of catalytic amount of DMF under microwave irradiation afforded (4Z-4-(2-substituted aryl hydrazono-1-(4-aminophenyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one (III. Subjecting (III to anhydrous K2CO3 in DMF for 8 hours afforded 2-{4-[(4Z-4-(2-substituted aryl hydrazono-4, 5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxopyrazol-1-yl] phenyl amino} acetate( IV which was further reacted with hydrazine hydrate to afford 2-{4-[(4Z-4-(2-substituted aryl hydrazono-4, 5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxopyrazol-1-yl] phenylamino} acetohydrazide (V. Reaction of (V and Isatin (VI b in DMF afforded (4Z-2-(4-((15Z-4-(2-phenylhydrazono-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5 oxopyrazol-1-ylphenylamino-N'-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneacetohydrazide (VII. Compound (VII was subsequently subjected to Mannich reaction with cyclic secondary amines (piperidine/morpholine/N-methyl piperidine in the presence of formaldehyde in DMF to afford (4Z-2-(4-((15Z-4-(2-substituted aryl hydrazono-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxopyrazol-1-ylphenylamino-N'-(2-oxo-1-((piperidin-1-ylmethylindolin-3-ylideneacetohydrazide (VIII which was characterized by I.R, 1HNMR and Mass data. The anti-bacterial activity of synthesized compounds was studied by the disc diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  8. Model Based Control of Reefer Container Systems

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær

    This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together with the...

  9. Activities aimed at qualification of a HLW disposal container

    A container is being developed for the permanent disposal of used fuel from CANDU nuclear reactors in a deep underground disposal vault. The container is required to isolate the fuel from the surrounding environment for at least 500 years. Environmental and mechanical loads on the containers are defined. Several test programs have been carried out to show that the container is suitable for use in the disposal program. The test programs include: Testing of granular materials, hydrostatic pressure and accidental impact tests using a full scale prototype, creep in titanium and steel at vault temperatures. Several finite element models were verified using results from test programs. Finite element analysis were used to obtain information not available from tests. All activities conducted to date show that the container is suitable for disposal. The program is continuing

  10. FCA containment and surveillance (C/S) system

    The Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (JAERI) is internationally recognized as one of the most sensitive facility in the world from the viewpoint of international safeguards, because the facility possesses a large amount of metallic uranium and metallic plutonium, which are needed to perform various physical experiments. These material are subject to frequent verifications by the inspectorate, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the domestic authority (Science and Technology Agency of Japan, STA). Those verifications require inspectors to access to these materials for measurements and applications of seals. Human resources increase of irradiations and restrictions on the freedom of physical experiments, that are inevitably associated with these inspection activities, have been a serious problem that causes significant burdens for all relating parties. To decrease these burdens without any confliction with the inspection goals, an advanced comprehensive system of containment and surveillance has been developed. The FCA Containment and Surveillance (C/S) System consists of tow independent subsystems, i. e. Portal Monitor (P/M) and Penetration Monitor(PN/M). In this system the internal wall of the reactor building is used as a part of containment for the safeguards purpose, which enables the portal, that is installed at the internal wall of the reactor building, to be used as an area for monitoring of any removal of nuclear material. A metal detector of high sensitivity has been selected for the system since all nuclear materials possessed by the FCA has metallic forms. The internal wall has several penetrations for utility purposes, which should also be monitored for the purpose of detecting any removal of nuclear material from the reactor core area. A penetration monitor system has been developed for this purpose. This report describes functions of the system and their operation procedures. (author)

  11. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

  12. AP600-passive containment cooling system structure design and analysis

    The purpose of this paper is to present the design and analysis activities for the structures of AP 600 passive containment cooling system (PCCS). This design is being performed jointly by Ansaldo and Westinghouse as a part of the AP 600 program under the overall leadership of Westinghouse. The AP 600 is a 600 MWe advanced light water reactor that is being designed with passive safety features. The PCCS structures consist of the shield building roof which includes a 400,000 gallon water tank and the PCCS air baffles which direct air flow over the outside of a steel containment vessel to provide the passive cooling of the containment. Two different configurations have been investigated for the shield building roof. One is a flat roof with deep steel girders and a concrete slab with the water tank integral with the steel girders. Another is a conical concrete roof with a steel-lined reinforced concrete tank. Three different options for the water tank have been analyzed. The function of the air baffles is to provide a pathway for natural circulation in a postulated design basis event resulting in large energy release into a containment. (K.I.)

  13. Study of containment over-pressure fragility curve and analysis of opening pressure for containment filtration and exhaust system

    Based on the results of international researches and design feature of CPR1000 containment, the fragility curve for CPR1000 containment is studied. The operation pressure to put Containment Filtration and Exhaust System (EUF) into service is proposed. With different operation pressures, the radiological consequences has been compared. The results show that the pressure threshold for EUF operation can increase to 0.71 MPa (g) and the starting time of the EUF is delayed about 1 day and the accumulated activity to the environment is also decreased definitely. (authors)

  14. Photocatalytic activity of glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals were prepared. ► The glass ceramics showed photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. ► Higher activity was observed in the MgTi4(PO4)6- and CaTi4(PO4)6-containing glass ceramics. -- Abstract: Glass ceramics were prepared by heat-treating MO–TiO2–P2O5 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) and R2O–TiO2–P2O5–SiO2 (R = Li, Na and K) glasses, and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The crystalline phases precipitated in the glasses were only Nasicon-type crystals, MTi4(PO4)6 or RTi2(PO4)3. Decomposition experiments of both methylene blue (MB) and acetaldehyde showed that the glass ceramics exhibited effective photocatalytic activity. The activity did not depend on the radius of the M2+ or R+ ion, and higher activity was observed in the MgTi4(PO4)6 and CaTi4(PO4)6 precipitated glass ceramics.

  15. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  16. Contained fission explosion breeder reactor system

    A reactor system for producing useful thermal energy and valuable isotopes, such as plutonium-239, uranium-233, and/or tritium, in which a pair of sub-critical masses of fissile and fertile actinide slugs are propelled into an ellipsoidal pressure vessel. The propelled slugs intercept near the center of the chamber where the concurring slugs become a more than prompt configuration thereby producing a fission explosion. Re-useable accelerating mechanisms are provided external of the vessel for propelling the slugs at predetermined time intervals into the vessel. A working fluid of lean molten metal slurry is injected into the chamber prior to each explosion for the attenuation of the explosion's effects, for the protection of the chamber's walls, and for the absorbtion of thermal energy and debris from the explosion. The working fluid is injected into the chamber in a pattern so as not to interfere with the flight paths of the slugs and to maximize the concentration of working fluid near the chamber's center. The heated working fluid is drained from the vessel and is used to perform useful work. Most of the debris from the explosion is collected as precipitate and is used for the manufacture of new slugs

  17. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  18. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  19. 75 FR 26268 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    2010-05-11

    ... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... concerning the: Permit to Transfer Containers to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made... Containers to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0049. Form Number: None. Abstract: This...

  20. Report on container technology for the ATLAS TDAQ system

    Gadirov, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    My summer student project "Container technology for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system" focused on the research of container-based (operating system-level) virtualization for TDAQ software. Several tests were performed on Docker platform, all of them showed compatibility for TDAQ software.

  1. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  2. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  3. Nitrogen-Containing Apigenin Analogs: Preparation and Biological Activity

    Jinyi Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of nitrogen-containing apigenin analogs 4a–j was synthesized via Mannich reactions to develop anticancer, antibacterial, and antioxidant agents from plant-derived flavonoids. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and ESI-MS. The in vitro biological activities of the analogs were evaluated via assays of their antiproliferative, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities. The prepared apigenin analogs exhibited different antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines, namely human cervical (HeLa, human hepatocellular liver (HepG2, human lung (A549, and human breast (MCF-7 cancer cells. Compound 4i showed the most favorable in vitro antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 40, 40, 223, and 166 μg/mL against HeLa, HepG2, A549, and MCF-7, respectively. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay also showed that 4i had the most potent antioxidant activity, with the smallest IC50 value (334.8 μg/mL. The antibacterial activities of the analogs were determined using a two-fold serial dilution technique against four pathogenic bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the prepared apigenin analogs exhibited more potent activities than the parent apigenin. Compounds 4h and 4j, in particular, exhibited the best inhibitory activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values of 3.91 and 1.95 μg/mL, respectively.

  4. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  5. Optimized antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of titanate nanofibers containing silver

    Su YH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Yong Hua Su*, Zi Fei Yin*, Hai Liang Xin, Hui Qing Zhang, Jia Yu Sheng, Yan Long Yang, Juan Du, Chang Quan LingDepartment of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equallyAbstract: Titanate nanofibers containing silver have been demonstrated through the experiments reported herein to have effective antifungal and antiproliferative activities in the presence of UV light. The titanate nanofibers containing silver can be fabricated by means of ion exchange followed by a topochemical process in an environment suitable for reductive reactions. Excellent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiproliferative activities could be demonstrated by both Ag2Ti5O11 · xH2O and Ag/titanate (UV light irradiation due to their unique structures and compositions, which have photocatalytic activities to generate reactive oxygen species and capabilities to continuously release the silver ions. Therefore these materials have the potential to produce a membrane for the treatment of superficial malignant tumor, esophageal cancer, or cervical carcinoma. They may also hold utility if incorporated into a coating on stents in moderate and advanced stage esophageal carcinoma or for endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage. These approaches may significantly reduce infections, inhibit tumor growth, and importantly, improve quality of life and prolong survival time for patients with tumors.Keywords: silver, titanate, photocatalytic, antiproliferative, antimicrobial

  6. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  7. COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System

    COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed

  8. Adaptive Fuzzy Containment Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems

    Yang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the containment control problem for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems under directed graphs. The followers are governed by nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics while the multiple leaders are neighbors of a subset of the followers. Fuzzy logic systems (FLSs are used to identify the unknown dynamics and a distributed state feedback containment control protocol is proposed. This result is extended to the output feedback case, where observers are designed to estimate the unmeasurable states. Then, an output feedback containment control scheme is presented. The developed state feedback and output feedback containment controllers guarantee that the states of all followers converge to the convex hull spanned by the dynamic leaders. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that the containment control errors are uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB. An example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  9. Research and construction of 60Co container inspection system

    The author presents a special kind of container inspection system, in which the radiation source is a 60Co industrial radiography source of 100-300 Ci. By the adoption of special high sensitivity array detector and other technical solutions, this 60Co container inspection system possesses nice properties. Its 'image quality indicator (IQI)' and 'contrast indicator (CI)' for 100 mm steel plate are equal to 0.7% and 2.5% respectively. Its 'steel penetration (SP)' is about 240 mm. The 60Co container inspection system is much cheaper and more reliable than the accelerator inspection system, and the area for its installation and operation is much smaller. The 'Steel Penetration (SP)' of 60Co system is much higher than that of X-ray machine inspection system. The another merit of 60Co system is the feasibility of designing and constructing a movable type

  10. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different

  11. Subscale Design of an NTP Engine Exhaust Containment System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A total containment NTP exhaust system has been conceptually engineered, however, since this a completely novel approach to address the numerous issues associated...

  12. Requirements for containment system components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    This Standard specifies the requirements and establishes the rules for design, fabrication, and installation of pressure-retaining containment system components. In this Standard the term 'components' includes non registered items

  13. Introduction to the controlled nuclear fusion (magnetic containment systems)

    The magnetic containment systems, their more important features, and their potentiality to became thermonuclear reactors is described. The work is based upon the first part of a set of lectures dedicated to Plasma and Fusion Physics. (author)

  14. Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal Container System Description Document

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers/waste packages are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred underground through the access drifts using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides long term confinement of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) placed within the disposal containers, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval operations. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time and limits radionuclide release thereafter. The waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum credible handling and rockfall loads, limits the waste form temperature after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Each naval SNF disposal container will hold a single naval SNF canister. There will be approximately 300 naval SNF canisters, composed of long and short canisters. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls and lids. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify a disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the waste package inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and the natural barrier will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel while the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be made of high-nickel alloy.

  15. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene

    Morávková, L. (Lenka); Sedláková, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene) with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a ...

  16. Die Design for Running System of Waste Containers

    Osmel Pérez Acosta; Reinaldo Pérez Sierra; Tania Rodríguez Moliner; Miguel Pérez Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Product deterioration possessing waste containers and their involvement in the collection of solid waste in Cuban cities, the present research is developed in order to make the design of the dies necessary for obtaining system components running of the containers themselves. These systems allow shooting baskets countless repair and revitalization of manufacturing a basket 100 % Cuban. For the design of these dies are taken in account the availability of technology. In this paper, specifically...

  17. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  18. Simplified safety and containment systems for the iris reactor

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a 100 - 300 MW modular type pressurized water reactor supported by the U.S. DOE NERI Program. IRIS features a long-life core to provide proliferation resistance and to reduce the volume of spent fuel, as well as reduce maintenance requirements. IRIS utilizes an integral reactor vessel that contains all major primary system components. This integral reactor vessel makes it possible to reduce containment size; making the IRIS more cost competitive. IRIS is being designed to enhance reactor safety, and therefore a key aspect of the IRIS program is the development of the safety and containment systems. These systems are being designed to maximize containment integrity, prevent core uncover following postulated accidents, minimize the probability and consequences of severe accidents, and provide a significant simplification over current safety system designs. The design of the IRIS containment and safety systems has been identified and preliminary analyses have been completed. The IRIS safety concept employs some unique features that minimize the consequences of postulated design basis events. This paper will provide a description of the containment design and safety systems, and will summarize the analysis results. (author)

  19. Activity diagrams for calcium/hydrogen, sodium/hydrogen, and potassium/hydrogen, and H4SiO4 and their relation to reactions in systems containing radioactive waste forms, cement, and rock in the presence of water

    In order to identify reactions which can occur in systems containing nuclear waste forms, cement, and repository rock in the presence of water, activity diagrams were calculated from free energies for aluminosilicates and calcium silicates. Groundwater compositions from candidate repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of Texas, the Delaware Basin of New Mexico, and the Nevada Test Site were plotted on these diagrams. Essentially all of these are shown to be in the calcium zeolite field as shown on the diagram for calcium in the absence of other cations. Chlorite is shown to be stable in this region at the Mg and pH level of the Ogallala if the chlorite is high in iron, and at the Mg and pH level of the Wolfcamp low- or high-Fe chlorites are stable. Potassium and sodium mineral relationships fall in two categories, dilute waters and saline waters. Boreholes at Yucca Flat and Mercury Valley at the Nevada Test Site, and shallow ground water from the Rolling Plains north and east of the Palo Duro Basin are in equilibrium with kaolinite. The brines from the Salado and Rustler formations are in equilibrium with kaolinite and possibly also with sodium-potassium zeolite and illite. Leachates of cement and water, and cement, waste, and water were plotted on the calcium silicate activity diagram. These solutions are in equilibrium with calcium silicate hydrate hydrolysis reactions, with grossular and possibly with Ca-zeolites. Among the calcium silicates, calcium-silicate-hydrate gel (C-S-H gel) and tobermorite are the most likely candidates, but the thermodynamic data are not adequate to distinguish all the possibilities. 37 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  20. Design Characteristics of the APR+ Containment Spray System

    We, KEPCO E and C, are implementing APR+ design development phase II project, which is owned by the KHNP. The APR+ Containment Spray (CS) System is developed as a four (4) 100%-capacity train system which shares the pumps, heat exchangers, valves, and piping with the Shutdown Cooling (SC) System, meeting the N+2 design concept (capable of satisfying the safety function with a single failure and a concurrent component unavailability due to maintenance) and still maintaining the number and capacity of the system components similar to the APR1400 CS System and SC System combined. The design concept and system configuration of the APR+ CS System are presented

  1. Design Characteristics of the APR+ Containment Spray System

    Doh, Gyu Bong; Park, Jong Ha; Chang, Jae Wang [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    We, KEPCO E and C, are implementing APR+ design development phase II project, which is owned by the KHNP. The APR+ Containment Spray (CS) System is developed as a four (4) 100%-capacity train system which shares the pumps, heat exchangers, valves, and piping with the Shutdown Cooling (SC) System, meeting the N+2 design concept (capable of satisfying the safety function with a single failure and a concurrent component unavailability due to maintenance) and still maintaining the number and capacity of the system components similar to the APR1400 CS System and SC System combined. The design concept and system configuration of the APR+ CS System are presented

  2. 75 FR 43536 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Permit To Transfer Containers to a Container Station

    2010-07-26

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (75 FR 26268) on May 11, 2010, allowing for a 60... Containers to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Permit to Transfer Containers to...

  3. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism

    Andrea Ertani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances.

  4. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  5. Lead corrosion evaluation in high activity nuclear waste container (Argentina)

    This report describes a study of high activity nuclear waste canister corrosion in a deep geological disposal. In this canister design, the vitrified nuclear waste stainless steel container is shielded by a 100 mm thick lead wall. For mechanical resistance, the canister will also have a thin carbon steel external liner. Experimental and mathematical modeling studies are aimed to asses the corrosion kinetics of the carbon steel liner in first instance and then, once this liner has been corroded away, the corrosion kinetics of the main lead barrier. Being that oxygen reduction is the main cathodic reaction that supports the anodic oxidation of iron, a model is described predicting the rate of oxygen consumption in a sealed deep nuclear waste disposal vault as a result of the canister corrosion. Oxidation processes other than container corrosion, and that can account also for oxygen depletion, are not taken into consideration. Corrosion experimental studies on lead and its alloys in groundwater are also reported. These experiments are aimed to improve the corrosion resistance of commercial lead in groundwater. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional container and cargo inspection system

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Su, Chih-Wu; Baritelle, J.; Rhoton, B.

    1997-02-01

    A fusion of two independent but complementary three- dimensional imaging techniques is proposed for detecting drugs in containers, cargo, mail and luggage. The containers, cargo, mail and/or luggage are scanned using a combined neutron and gamma ray source. A detector that can detect both neutrons and gamma rays is used to produce three dimensional images from both signals. The two images will be combined and analyzed by a fast host computer to detect drugs that may be concealed in the container, cargo and/or luggage. The two independent signatures from both neutrons and gamma rays, when analyzed simultaneously, may help determine the type of concealed material inside the containers. Containers, cargo and luggage are filled with a large variety of materials. Imaging them only in two dimensions may result in a poor contraband detection probability as different materials may shield each other. Therefore, a true three-dimensional imaging system is proposed, where the individual items inside the container or cargo can be resolved. This is expected to lead to reliable identification of the drugs even in small quantities. Such a system will also pinpoint the location of the suspected item and help expedite inspection by law enforcement agents. The proposed detection system produces two complementary three- dimensional images of the containers, cargo and/or luggage. These images are combined and analyzed by a specially developed algorithm to identify and locate the contraband automatically.

  7. System of Volcanic activity

    P. HÉDERVARI

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  8. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent

  9. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in the emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) disposal container designs are needed to accommodate the expected range of spent fuel assemblies and provide long-term confinement of the commercial SNF. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls, outer cylinder lids (two on the top, one on the bottom), inner cylinder lids (one on the top, one on the bottom), and an internal metallic basket structure. Exterior labels will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the cladding, Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and natural barrier, will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different

  10. HUMOS monitoring system of leaks into the containment atmosphere

    The detection and monitoring of coolant leaks into the containment atmosphere during reactor operation is a major safety measure. Using the HUMOS monitoring system, leaks can be detected in pressure tests of integrity and in any other mode of operation when the reactor ventilation system is operating and the primary circuit and its components are pressurized. Performance tests, the design, hardware and software of the HUMOS system are briefly described. A test was performed to demonstrate that a small amount of humidity released by leakage into the containment air can be detected. (M.D.)

  11. Digital system detects binary code patterns containing errors

    Muller, R. M.; Tharpe, H. M., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    System of square loop magnetic cores associated with code input registers to react to input code patterns by reference to a group of control cores in such a manner that errors are canceled and patterns containing errors are accepted for amplification and processing. This technique improves reception capabilities in PCM telemetry systems.

  12. Sustainable use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes are found in the two main aquifers of the arid southern part of Israel. Radium is found in the groundwater as three isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra), in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of ongoing experiments testing the feasibility of using the water for irrigation. A controlled experimental system was designed consisting of lysimeters filled with local sandy loam soil. The lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of 226Ra activity concentration in the water: low-radium water (-1), high-radium water (1.8 Bq.l-1), and water enriched at 50 times the concentration in high-radium water (in order to simulate long-term irrigation with high-radium water). Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa, wheat and tomatoes) were grown. It was found that radium uptake by plants is mainly controlled by environmental conditions: soil solution activity concentration, water availability, and potential evapotranspiration. 226Ra accumulates in the leaves of the grown crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) is minimal. For the sake of comparison, 226Ra activity concentration in the edible parts (apart from leaves when they are the edible tissue) is well under the activity concentration of the α-emitting radionuclides recommended in the Codex Alimentarius for radionuclides of anthropogenic origin. The lysimeter experiment showed that 226Ra is mainly concentrated in the upper 20-25 cm of the soil, since sorption of 226Ra to soil particles hinders its mobility. Fifteen years of crop irrigation were simulated by a model describing the coupled processes of transport and sorption of Ra in soil. This model predicted low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone. Development of an activity

  13. Status of advanced containment systems for next generation water reactors

    The present IAEA status report is intended to provide information on the current status and development of containment systems of the next generation reactors for electricity production and, particularly, to highlight features which may be considered advanced, i.e. which present improved performance with evolutionary or innovative design solutions or new design approaches. The objectives of the present status report are: To present, on a concise and consistent basis, selected containment designs currently being developed in the world; to review and compare new approaches to the design bases for the containments, in order to identify common trends, that may eventually lead to greater worldwide consensus, to identify, list and compare existing design objectives for advanced containments, related to safety, availability, maintainability, plant life, decommissioning, economics, etc.; to describe the general approaches adopted in different advanced containments to cope with various identified challenges, both those included in the current design bases and those related to new events considered in the design; to briefly identify recent achievements and future needs for new or improved computer codes, standards, experimental research, prototype testing, etc. related to containment systems; to describe the outstanding features of some containments or specific solutions proposed by different parties and which are generally interesting to the international scientific community. 36 refs, 27 figs, 1 tab

  14. Comparison of kinetics of active tetracycline uptake and active tetracycline efflux in sensitive and plasmid RP4-containing Pseudomonas putida.

    Hedstrom, R C; Crider, B P; Eagon, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane vesicles prepared from tetracycline-sensitive cells of Pseudomonas putida took up tetracycline by an active transport system with an apparent Km of 2.5 mM and a Vmax of 50 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. In contrast, resistance determinant RP4-containing P. putida had an active high-affinity efflux system for tetracycline with a Km of 2.0 to 3.54 microM and a Vmax of 0.15 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. Thus, the efflux system of tetracycline-resistant P. putida(RP4) had an average of 1,000-fold g...

  15. Development of Wireless System for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test

    The containment system leakage rate should be estimated periodically with reliable test equipment. In light-water reactor nuclear power plants, ANSI/ANS- 56.8 is a basis for determining leakage rates. Two types of data acquisition system, centralized type and networked type, has been used. In centralized type, all sensors are connected directly from sensors in the containment to the measuring equipment outside the building. The other hand, the networked type has several branch chains which connect one group of the network-sensors together. To test leakage rate, more than 20 temperature sensors and 6 humidity sensors, which are different for each plant, should be installed on a specific level in the containment. A wireless technology gives the benefits such as reducing installation efforts, making pretest easy, so it is widely used more and more in the plant monitoring. As the containment system has many kinds of complex barriers to the radio frequency, the radio power and frequency band for better transmission rate as well as the interference by the radio frequency should be considered. The overview of the wireless sensor system for the containment leakage rate test is described here and the test results on Yonggwang unit 4 PWR plant is presented

  16. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1999-06-01

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ˜30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ˜1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ˜2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs.

  17. Vehicle and cargo container inspection system for drugs

    A vehicle and cargo container inspection system has been developed which uses gamma-ray radiography to produce digital images useful for detection of drugs and other contraband. The system is comprised of a 1 Ci Cs137 gamma-ray source collimated into a fan beam which is aligned with a linear array of NaI gamma-ray detectors located on the opposite side of the container. The NaI detectors are operated in the pulse-counting mode. A digital image of the vehicle or container is obtained by moving the aligned source and detector array relative to the object. Systems have been demonstrated in which the object is stationary (source and detector array move on parallel tracks) and in which the object moves past a stationary source and detector array. Scanning speeds of ∼30 cm/s with a pixel size (at the object) of ∼1 cm have been achieved. Faster scanning speeds of ∼2 m/s have been demonstrated on railcars with more modest spatial resolution (4 cm pixels). Digital radiographic images are generated from the detector count rates. These images, recorded on a PC-based data acquisition and display system, are shown from several applications: 1) inspection of trucks and containers at a border crossing, 2) inspection of railcars at a border crossing, 3) inspection of outbound cargo containers for stolen automobiles, and 4) inspection of trucks and cars for terrorist bombs

  18. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  19. Cooperatively active sensing system

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  20. Evaluation of the NucleDyne Passive Containment System

    Leininger, W. J.; Coleman, J. H.; Merrell, W. W.

    1981-04-01

    This reports contains: (1) an evaluation by Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) of the NucleDyne passive Containment System (PCS) as that conceptual design is applied to a Westinghouse, two loop, Pressurized Water Reactor; (2) an evaluation by Westinghouse of two questions about the impact of the PCS on the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS), which were posed by G/C and best answered by an NSSS vendor; and (3) replies to both the Gilbert/Commonwealth report and the Westinghoue report by NucleDyne Engineering Corporation.

  1. Corrosion of copper alloys in sulphide containing district heting systems

    Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Copper and some copper alloys are prone to corrosion in sulphide containing geothermal water analogous to corrosion observed in district heating systems containing sulphide due to sulphate reducing bacteria. In order to study the corrosion of copper alloys under practical conditions a test was...... carried out at four sites in the Reykjavik District Heating System. The geothermal water chemistry is different at each site. The corrosion rate and the amount and chemical composition of deposits on weight loss coupons of six different copper alloys are described after exposure of 12 and 18 months...

  2. Die Design for Running System of Waste Containers

    Osmel Pérez Acosta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Product deterioration possessing waste containers and their involvement in the collection of solid waste in Cuban cities, the present research is developed in order to make the design of the dies necessary for obtaining system components running of the containers themselves. These systems allow shooting baskets countless repair and revitalization of manufacturing a basket 100 % Cuban. For the design of these dies are taken in account the availability of technology. In this paper, specifically, describes the production of the piece called saucer, emphasizing the design of the die cutting thereof. These are also given the materials used in each of the components.

  3. Assay of contained waste using active and passive computed tomography

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 600,000 transuranic waste drums temporarily stored at nearly 40 sites within the US. Contents of these drums must be characterized before they are transported for permanent disposal. Opening drums for examination is expensive mainly because of the safety precautions that must be taken. Current nonintrusive methods of characterizing waste in sealed drums are often inaccurate where assay errors are related to nonuniform measurement responses associated with unknown radioactive-source and waste-matrix-material distributions. These errors can be reduced by the application of imaging techniques that better measure the spatial locations of sources and matrix attenuation. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed an emerging gamma-ray nondestructive analysis (NDA) technology, called active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT), that identifies and accurately quantifies all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. The performance of the A and PCT technology has been determined by several open and blind tests. Several 15-replicate studies were completed for three of the four required activity ranges. The three ranges were measured by acquiring A and PCT data for three separate placements of radioactive standards within an empty-matrix drum. The standards had a total mass of 0.93, 9.3, and 33.48 g of 239Pu positioned within the drum and required 4, 0.75, and 0.5 h total assay time per replicate, respectively. The performance results are summarized in Table 1. Additional research is being performed to maintain requirements while decreasing assay time

  4. Mesoporous Metal-Containing Carbon Nitrides for Improved Photocatalytic Activities

    Jie Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4 have attracted increasing interest due to their unusual properties and promising applications in water splitting, heterogeneous catalysis, and organic contaminant degradation. In this study, a new method was developed for the synthesis of mesoporous Fe contained g-C3N4 (m-Fe-C3N4 photocatalyst by using SiO2 nanoparticles as hard template and dicyandiamide as precursor. The physicochemical properties of m-Fe-C3N4 were thoroughly investigated. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Fe was strongly coordinated with the g-C3N4 matrix and that the doping and mesoporous structure partially deteriorated its crystalline structure. The UV-visible absorption spectra revealed that m-Fe-C3N4 with a unique electronic structure displays an increased band gap in combination with a slightly reduced absorbance, implying that mesoporous structure modified the electronic properties of g-Fe-C3N4. The photocatalytic activity of m-Fe-C3N4 for photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB was much higher than that of g-Fe-C3N4, clearly demonstrating porous structure positive effect.

  5. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    Geovani Pereira Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05 embedded in a microemulsion (ME. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05 showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 µg.mL-1 and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 µg.mL-1. Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 µg.mL-1, but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 µg.mL-1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans.

  6. Conceptual Design of Passive Containment Cooling System Based on APR+

    Jeon, Byongguk; No, Heecheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is expected to work well under extended SBO, but is vulnerable to extended SBO coupled with loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Various reactors have been developed, such as AP1000, ESBWR, and KERENA, with passive containment cooling systems (PCCSs) dealing with the accident scenario of SBO with LOCA. The performance of the PCCSs is already or almost validated. Though PCCS is well adopted into BWRs, there has been no success in PWRs with concrete containment. In this paper, we suggest a new PCCS based on APR+ and represent scoping analysis results. The Fukushima accident proved the importance of treating extended SBO. To deal with extended SBO with LOCA scenario, the PCCS based on APR+ is suggested and evaluated roughly for the first time as a PWR with concrete containment.

  7. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants

  8. Fish farming in land-based closed-containment systems

    'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...

  9. Safety of systems for the retention of wastes containing radionuclides

    Information and minimal requirements demanded by CNEN for the emission of the Approval Certificate of the Safety Analysis Report related to system for the retention of wastes containing radionuclide, are established, aiming to assure low radioactivity levels to the environment. (E.G.)

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CANISTERED SNF DISPOSAL CONTAINER SYSTEM

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) canistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  11. Software program in 60Co container inspection system

    The author analyzes the features and limits of the present container inspection system in the world, and puts forward a new inspection apparatus with 60Co as radiography source and microcomputer network to complete inspecting image's acquisition, transmission, assignment, process, inspection, control and information management etc. The author emphasizes on task analysis and technical request in the system, discusses the software running environment and developing environment, the tasks logical division, and makes clear the design's idea, object and style

  12. Reliability assessment of passive containment isolation system using APSRA methodology

    In this paper, a methodology known as APSRA (Assessment of Passive System ReliAbility) has been employed for evaluation of the reliability of passive systems. The methodology has been applied to the passive containment isolation system (PCIS) of the Indian advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR). In the APSRA methodology, the passive system reliability evaluation is based on the failure probability of the system to carryout the desired function. The methodology first determines the operational characteristics of the system and the failure conditions by assigning a predetermined failure criterion. The failure surface is predicted using a best estimate code considering deviations of the operating parameters from their nominal states, which affect the PCIS performance. APSRA proposes to compare the code predictions with the test data to generate the uncertainties on the failure parameter prediction, which is later considered in the code for accurate prediction of failure surface of the system. Once the failure surface of the system is predicted, the cause of failure is examined through root diagnosis, which occurs mainly due to failure of mechanical components. The failure probability of these components is evaluated through a classical PSA treatment using the generic data. The reliability of the PCIS is evaluated from the probability of availability of the components for the success of the passive containment isolation system

  13. Anti-sway system with image sensor for container cranes

    High speed and efficiency are highly important factors in handling cargo at ports. The ability to handle cargo at high speed strongly depends on the anti-sway system employed. However, it is not easy to realize a high-performance antisway control system due to a number of problems. High-speed operation of container cranes is continuously required for crane operators who work as cargo handlers at ports. Undesirable motion can lower the work efficiency due to the prolonged strain to which operators are subjected. To overcome this problem, we propose an anti-sway system with an image sensor for container cranes. In this system, the image sensor is used for measuring the motion of the spreader, and the measured data are fed back to the controller in real time. The applied image processing technique is a kind of robust template matching method referred to as vector code correlation (VCC), which was devised in order to consider real environmental conditions. The anti-sway system proposed in this paper is a mass damper type system in which a movable mass is installed on the spreader. The actuator acting on the movable mass applies inertial force to the spreader, which results in suppressing undesirable sway motion. The system is simple and can be easily applied to any crane system. In this regard, the useful features and the performance of the proposed anti-sway system are experimentally verified

  14. Design criteria and concepts for vented containment systems

    Accident sequences from WASH-1400 were selected and analyzed with the MARCH/CORRAL code to provide an envelope of design conditions. The time-dependent pressures and temperatures in containment were calculated as were the concentrations of steam, noncondensible gases, and airborne fission products in the containment atmosphere. The phenomenon found to be most challenging to containment integrity was a pressure spike resulting from rapid steam generation and/or hydrogen burning. The peak pressures in some sequences exceed the likely failure pressure. Conceptual designs were developed for preserving containment integrity. These include containment pressure relief or depressurization with various venting rates. Anticipatory venting, venting to the atmosphere, venting to a separate building, and venting followed by recirculation back into containment are considered. The effects of these schemes on the important system parameters were identified. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative schemes and their implications for the design of filtration equipment are discussed. For each venting strategy several levels of filtering effectiveness were considered. The simplest option developed is a once-through gravel-filled suppression pool. More sophisticated options involved sand filters, molecular sieves, charcoal adsorbers and HEPA filters. Results of accident consequence calculations using the CRAC code indicate the relatively simple options can provide substantial reductions in consequences of certain accident sequences. 12 figures

  15. Diffusion of Container Packaging Method into the Nigerian Transport System

    ADERAMO A.J.; ADEYANJU J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the diffusion of container method of packaging for the period 1968 – 2005 in Nigeria with a view to adopting the method in the Nigerian Transport System. This was done by collecting a comprehensive data set of import and export container traffic from seven selected ports in Nigeria. These are Apapa Bulkship terminal; AP Molers terminal, Ro-Ro terminal, Tin Can Island, Delta Port, Rivers Ports and Calabar Port. The collected data were used to determine the trend of import an...

  16. Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system based on APR+

    The accident of the Fukushima nuclear power plant left a profound message toward the need for a passive cooling system which can operate under the extended station blackout. These days, nuclear institutions in Korea are developing Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+). Its distinct characteristic lies on the passive auxiliary feed water system (PAFS) which removes decay heat to a passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT) by natural convection. Though the system is expected to work well under station blackout, the system becomes useless under the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) combined with station blackout. This paper aims at using existing heat exchangers of PAFS and PCCT under LOCA to cool the reactor as well as the containment in a fully passive way. To enhance the condensation rate of heat exchangers in PCCT, we need to produce convective flow in the PCCS heat exchangers. Therefore, the whole region of the concrete containment is divided into 3 chambers: inner, outer, PCCS chambers. An outer chamber is disposed to collect non-condensable gas. The condensate is stored in a condensate storage tank (CST) and injected into the reactor by gravity. This system makes a closed circuit to work indefinitely. A scoping analysis for the containment pressure is performed as a function of various parameters: outer chamber volume and number of tubes in heat exchangers. (author)

  17. CONTEMPT4/MOD6: a multicompartment containment system analysis program

    CONTEMPT4/MOD6 is a digital computer program that describes the response of multicompartment containment system subjected to postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and can accomodate both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) containment systems. Also, both design basis accident (DBA) and degraded core type LOCA conditions can be analyzed. The program calculates the time variation of compartment pressures, temperatures and mass and energy inventories due to intercompartment mass and energy exchange taking into account user supplied descriptions of compartments, intercompartment junction flow areas, LOCA source terms and user selected problem features. Analytical models available to describe containment systems include models for containment fans and pumps, cooling sprays, heat conducting structures, sump drains, PWR ice condensers and BWR pressure suppression systems. To accommodate degraded core type accidents, analytical models for hydrogen and carbon monoxide combustion within compartments and energy transfer due to gas radiation are also provided. Dynamic storage allocation (DSA) is used to limit the amount of computer core used for each problem. The flexibility needed to more realistically model the complexity of prototypical containments is provided by the multicompartment capability (up to 999 individual compartments) and generalized user oriented input data descriptions. The program employs an implicit algorithm to compute junction flow when numerically induced flow oscillations are encountered. This capability provides significant reduction of computer run time relative to previous codes in the CONTEMPT series. Descriptions of these analytical models are presented, together with input instructions for the CONTEMPT4/MOD6 program and sample problem results. 23 refs., 62 figs

  18. High temperature performance limit of containment system of transport cask

    Kato, Osamu; Saegusa, Toshiari [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.

    1998-03-01

    The containment performance of a containment system using elastomer gaskets for transport casks under a high temperature and high pressure was clarified. Major results are as follows; (1) The deformation characteristics of the gaskets were represented by the compressive permanent strain rate (Dp). The temperature and time dependence was shown by Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP). (2) Generally, the high temperature performance limit is obtained by a value of LMP when the Dp value reaches 80%. However, the gaskets (FKM, VMQ, EPDM) used for real transport casks were not damaged and the containment performance was not deteriorated as a conservative condition. (3) Assuming that the service period of the gaskets for transport casks is 3 months or 1 year, the high temperature performance limit of the gasket made of fluorine rubber (FKM) is 202degC or 182degC, respectively, which includes safety margin. (author)

  19. High temperature performance limit of containment system of transport cask

    The containment performance of a containment system using elastomer gaskets for transport casks under a high temperature and high pressure was clarified. Major results are as follows; (1) The deformation characteristics of the gaskets were represented by the compressive permanent strain rate (Dp). The temperature and time dependence was shown by Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP). (2) Generally, the high temperature performance limit is obtained by a value of LMP when the Dp value reaches 80%. However, the gaskets (FKM, VMQ, EPDM) used for real transport casks were not damaged and the containment performance was not deteriorated as a conservative condition. (3) Assuming that the service period of the gaskets for transport casks is 3 months or 1 year, the high temperature performance limit of the gasket made of fluorine rubber (FKM) is 202degC or 182degC, respectively, which includes safety margin. (author)

  20. Overview of progress in the containment area - Overview of Containment Issues and Major Experimental Activities

    In the containment area three issues of severe accident phenomenology are treated which endanger the containment integrity by pressure increase due to fast heat transfer: hydrogen combustion, explosive melt water reaction, and direct containment heating. They occur late in severe accidents as consequences of severe core damage. So, their probability of occurrence is extremely small but they involve the risk of a failure of the containment, the final safety enclosure. The pressure load can be quasi-static, i.e. several seconds during direct containment heating (DCH), or highly dynamic as in hydrogen detonation or fuel-coolant interaction (FCI). The related phenomena identified by the EURSAFE project [1] as both important for safety and still lacking sufficient knowledge are investigated experimentally and analytically in a integrated effort by seventeen partner organizations. Although research on these issues started already shortly after the incident at TMI-2 in the 1980's, a number of phenomena have been identified during the EURSAFE project in 2002 and 2003, which need more research effort to be resolved. At the start of the SARNET program tasks for the first year were defined, taking into account existing and planned experimental facilities and codes available in the participating European organizations. This paper gives an overview of the work performed in the first year: the performed experiments and the modeling efforts and achievements using available data. The work within the hydrogen issue was subdivided into two subtopics. The first deals with the hydrogen combustion (HC) and the recombiner technique, while the second treats the problem of containment atmosphere mixing (CAM). Experiments were performed in the ENACCEF and REKO-3 facilities concerning the HC issue, and in the MISTRA and TOSQAN facilities concerning the CAM issue. Models in various CFD codes (TONUS-3D, COM-3D and REACFLOW for hydrogen combustion and GASFLOW for hydrogen recombination as well

  1. Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney

    Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

  2. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria with a stochastic conditional lethal containment system have been constructed. The invertible switch promoter located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the Lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting...... fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli. The phenotype connected with the presence of such a plasmid was to reduce the population growth rate with increasing significance as the cell growth rate was reduced. In very fast growing cells, there was no measurable effect on growth rate. When...... a culture of E. coli harboring the plasmid comprising the containment system is left as stationary cells in suspension without nutrients, viability drops exponentially over a period of several days, in contrast to the control cells, which maintain viability nearly unaffected during the same period...

  3. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene

    Morávková, L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a pycnometer, a dilatometer or a commercial apparatus. The overview of the experimental data and shape of the excess molar volume curve versus mole fraction is presented in this paper. The excess molar volumes were correlated by Redlich–Kister equation. The standard deviations for fitting of excess molar volume versus mole fraction are compared. Found literature data cover a huge temperature range from (288.15 to 343.15 K.

  4. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines. VIII. Systems with quinoline

    (Solid + liquid) equilibrium temperatures for mixtures containing quinoline and 1-dodecanol, 1-hexadecanol, or 1-octadecanol have been measured using a dynamic method. (Quinoline + benzene, +alkane, or +1-alkanol) systems were investigated using DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model yields a good representation of molar excess Gibbs free energies, GE, molar excess enthalpies, HE, and of the (solid + liquid) equilibria, SLE. Interactional and structural effects were analysed comparing HE and the molar excess internal energy at constant volume, UVE. It was encountered that structural effects are very important in systems involving alkanes or 1-alkanols. Interactions between amine molecules are stronger in mixtures with quinoline than in those containing pyridine, which was ascribed to the higher polarizability of quinoline

  5. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines. VIII. Systems with quinoline

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Domanska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-08-15

    (Solid + liquid) equilibrium temperatures for mixtures containing quinoline and 1-dodecanol, 1-hexadecanol, or 1-octadecanol have been measured using a dynamic method. (Quinoline + benzene, +alkane, or +1-alkanol) systems were investigated using DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model yields a good representation of molar excess Gibbs free energies, G{sup E}, molar excess enthalpies, H{sup E}, and of the (solid + liquid) equilibria, SLE. Interactional and structural effects were analysed comparing H{sup E} and the molar excess internal energy at constant volume, U{sub V}{sup E}. It was encountered that structural effects are very important in systems involving alkanes or 1-alkanols. Interactions between amine molecules are stronger in mixtures with quinoline than in those containing pyridine, which was ascribed to the higher polarizability of quinoline.

  6. Clay mineral liner system for leachates containing organic contaminants

    Sreedharan, Vandana; Sivapullaiah, PV

    2011-01-01

    A conventional liner with a good performance against inorganic contaminants with a minimal hydraulic conductivity does not usually perform well for retention/removal of leachates containing organic contaminants. Organic modification of clay can render the naturally organophobic clay tobe organophilic. Incorporation of modified organo clay along with unmodified inorganic clay in liner systems can overcome the inherent incompatibility of conventional liners to organic contaminants and can incre...

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DOE SPENT NUCLEAR DISPOSAL CONTAINER SYSTEM

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  8. Hydrogen risk in the Containment Filtered Venting System

    It was observed that the thermal hydraulic conditions in the CFVS (Containment Filtered Venting System) vessel sharply changed markedly, especially the steam condensation in the early CFVS operation can affect the hydrogen behavior such as the combustion. This paper summarizes the calculated results on hydrogen concentration in the CFVS vessel, which was presented at The Ninth Korea-Japan Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS9) last year. The MELCOR computer code calculated the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the containment building of OPR 1000, and in the cylindrical CFVS vessel with 3 m in diameter and 6.5 m in height under an SBO. After the operation of the CFVS, the pressure and temperature in the containment building decreased, and those in the CFVS vessel jumped from the initial conditions of atmosphere pressure and room temperature. These big differences of thermal-hydraulic conditions can make the volumetric concentrations of steam and gas mixtures in the CFVS vessel to be changed in comparison with those in the containment building. The volumetric concentration of hydrogen increased from 6% in the containment to 14% in the CFVS vessel after the operation of the CFVS, while the concentration of steam decreased from 58% in the containment to 3% in the CFVS vessel. The increased volumetric concentration of hydrogen (14%) with the other concentrations of steam (3%) and air (60%) in the CFVS vessel exists within the region of the burn limit in the Shapiro diagram. This possibility of the hydrogen combustion can threaten the integrity of the CFVS

  9. Design of the AP 600 passive containment cooling system structures

    The AP 600 is a greatly simplified 600 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor, for the 1990's and beyond. Among its major features, a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is designed to remove the residual heat, directly from the containment steel vessel, and transmits it to the environment. The design and analysis of the PCCS structures is being performed jointly by ANSALDO and WESTINGHOUSE, as part of the AP 600 program under WESTINGHOUSE's overall leadership, and will be presented in this paper. The PCCS uses the steel containment wall as a heat transfer surface. The surrounding concrete shield building is used along with a baffle to direct air from the top located air inlets down to a lower elevation of the containment and back up along the containment vessel. In addition a water storage tank is housed in the shield building roof at an elevation sufficient to allow gravity drain of the water on top of the steel containment. The air and the evaporated water exhaust through a chimney in the roof of the shield building. For the roof, a reinforced concrete conical configuration, with a cylindrical stainless steel lined water tank, has been selected and a comprehensive feasibility study has been performed including seismic behaviour, constructability, prefabrication and modularization, adaptability to cope with the External Events strength requirements. For the PCCS air baffles general functional and structural design criteria have been established by including requirements for the air flow path configuration, leaded through the baffles, inspection and maintenance; a series of alternate designs have analyzed, leading to the selection of a reference configuration that will be briefly described. (author). 11 fig

  10. Containment hydrogen removal system for a nuclear power plant

    A hydrogen removal system (10) separates hydrogen from the containment atmosphere of a nuclear power plant using a hydrogen permeable membrane separator (30). Water vapor is removed by condenser (14) from a gas stream withdrawn from the containment atmosphere. The gas stream is then compressed by compressor (24) and cooled (28,34) to the operating temperature of the hydrogen permeable membrane separator (30). The separator (30) separates the gas stream into a first stream, rich in hydrogen permeate, and a second stream that is hydrogen depleted. The separated hydrogen is passed through a charcoal adsorber (48) to adsorb radioactive particles that have passed through the hydrogen permeable membrane (44). The hydrogen is then flared in gas burner (52) with atmospheric air and the combustion products vented to the plant vent. The hydrogen depleted stream is returned to containment through a regenerative heat exchanger (28) and expander (60). Energy is extracted from the expander (60) to drive the compressor (24) thereby reducing the energy input necessary to drive the compressor (24) and thus reducing the hydrogen removal system (10) power requirements

  11. Evaluation of passive containment cooling system performance for simplified BWR

    This paper reports that simplified BWRs are characterized as an adoption of a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) as well as a passive ECCS. Non-condensable gas concentration, governing PCCS performance, is determined by the interaction of mass and energy flows among the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), drywell (D/W) and wetwell (W/W). A new containment safety evaluation code, TOSPAC, which had been developed for evaluating the several PCCS concepts over full break spectra with aiming at fast running, was compared with TRAC-BF1 to ascertain the validity of TOSPAC simple modeling. As for PCCSs, an isolation condenser (IC) was selected for this comparison, since the IC is considered most effective. By comparing the TOSPAC calculation with the TRAC calculation in a main steam line break (MSLB), it was shown that the TOSPAC code gave an adequate result for long term thermal hydraulic system response in the containment. The calculations of other LOCA cases were also carried out with the TOSPAC code. These calculations suggest the effectiveness of the IC cooling performance over wide range of break spectra

  12. 78 FR 28896 - Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components

    2013-05-16

    ... COMMISSION Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components... Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components,'' in which there are no substantive... loading combinations for metal primary reactor containment system components. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  13. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  14. Design compliance matrix waste sample container filling system for nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    This design compliance matrix document provides specific design related functional characteristics, constraints, and requirements for the container filling system that is part of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This document addresses performance, external interfaces, ALARA, Authorization Basis, environmental and design code requirements for the container filling system. The container filling system will interface with the waste stream from the fluidic pumping channels of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system and will fill containers with waste that meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) criteria for waste that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic materials. The specifications for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system are described in a Level 2 Specification document (HNF-3483, Rev. 1). The basis for this design compliance matrix document is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) desk instructions for design Compliance matrix documents (PI-CP-008-00, Rev. 0)

  15. Study on containment safety systems for Korean fusion DEMO plant

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-seok; Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Young Tae [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to review the strategy for radiation barriers in the fusion power plants and to produce simulation data for the conceptual design of safety features to maintain the integrity of such barriers as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though the amount of radioactive source term in fusion power plants should be much less than that of fission power plants, internal as well as external events can result in damage to facilities such that public can be critically exposed by radiation. In the first part of this study, we reviewed and compared the multiple defenses to protect radioactive hazard in fission and fusion power plants. Containment was characterized as an indispensable physical barrier and the integrity of containment particularly enveloping a fuel cycle which is a major radioactive source term, tritium, should be secured. Since water is assumed as one of the coolant options in the Korean fusion DEMO plant, the thermo-hydraulic analysis was carried out using computer simulations to produce key parameters related with the integrity of containment in the second part. The performance of both of active and passive safety features to control the key parameters was compared to take recent fission technologies into account.

  16. Somatostatin and Somatostatin-Containing Neurons in Shaping Neuronal Activity and Plasticity

    Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery over four decades ago, somatostatin (SOM) receives growing scientific and clinical interest. Being localized in the nervous system in a subset of interneurons somatostatin acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and its role in the fine-tuning of neuronal activity and involvement in synaptic plasticity and memory formation are widely recognized in the recent literature. Combining transgenic animals with electrophysiological, anatomical and molecular methods allowed to characterize several subpopulations of somatostatin-containing interneurons possessing specific anatomical and physiological features engaged in controlling the output of cortical excitatory neurons. Special characteristic and connectivity of somatostatin-containing neurons set them up as significant players in shaping activity and plasticity of the nervous system. However, somatostatin is not just a marker of particular interneuronal subpopulation. Somatostatin itself acts pre- and postsynaptically, modulating excitability and neuronal responses. In the present review, we combine the knowledge regarding somatostatin and somatostatin-containing interneurons, trying to incorporate it into the current view concerning the role of the somatostatinergic system in cortical plasticity. PMID:27445703

  17. Determination of active centres on molybdenum containing hydrocracking catalysts

    The estimation of the number of active centres on a catalyst surface by means of a pulse method can be carried out in several ways. Certain disadvantages of the existing methods are pointed out and a modified procedure is proposed

  18. Determination of active centres on molybdenum containing hydrocracking catalysts

    De Wet, C.R. (University of the North, Pietersburg (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry); Van Berge, P.C. (Rand Afrikaans Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1982-01-01

    The estimation of the number of active centres on a catalyst surface by means of a pulse method can be carried out in several ways. Certain disadvantages of the existing methods are pointed out and a modified procedure is proposed.

  19. Decision support system for containment and release management

    The Containment and Release Management project was carried out within the Reinforced Concerted Action Programme for Accident Management Support and partly financed by the European Union. In this report a prototype of an accident management support system is presented. The support system integrates several concepts from accident management research, like safety objective trees, severe accident phenomena, calculation models and an emergency response data system. These concepts are provided by the prototype in such a way that the decision making process of accident management is supported. The prototype application is demonstrated by process data taken from a severe accident scenario for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that was simulated with the thermohydraulic computer program MAAP. The prototype was derived from a decision support framework based on a decision theory. For established and innovative concepts from accident management research it is pointed out in which way these concepts can support accident management and how these concepts can be integrated. This approach is generic in two ways; it applies to both pressurized and boiling water reactors and it applies to both in vessel management and containment and release management. The prototype application was developed in Multimedia Toolbox 3.0 and requires at least a 386 PC with 4 MB memory, 6 MB free disk space and MS Windows 3.1. (orig.)

  20. Passive Hydrogen Mitigation and Cooling System for Containment Systems during Prolonged Station Black Out

    Recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi plants has brought attention to beyond design basis accident scenario where station black out could lead to severe accident with hydrogen release from the core to the containment, hydrogen explosions and containment pressurization. Here a passive containment cooling combined with hydrogen mitigation system is suggested that will passively remove containment heat load as well as mitigate hydrogen from the containment atmospheres during prolonged station blackout. One of the engineered safety systems in the advanced light water reactor is a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) which is composed of either a shell and tube heat exchanger such as the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) or an external air cooling system under various accident conditions to remove the energy make use of atmosphere air as ultimate heat sink to reject the PCCS heat, which in turn transfer hear from the containment. Passive autocatalytic recombiners have been proposed in the past to mitigate hydrogen in the containment. In the proposed design a finned vertical tube type PCCS system submersed in pool water is considered. The supply of pool water may last for three days following which airflow is initiated that will cool the PCCS tubes for long term. The PCCS inlet flow path will have catalytic recombiner that is effective during first few days should there be any hydrogen generation and accumulation in the containment

  1. Evaluation of licensability of the proposed containment system

    As currently proposed, the commercial version of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) would not have a conventional containment building. Instead much greater reliance is placed on the fuel for retention of fission products during normal operating and postulated accident conditions. The MHTGR program participants have chosen an approach to fission product control that relies primarily upon high quality fuel particles to contain a very large fraction of the radionuclides under operating and accident conditions. Additional barriers to radionuclide release are provided by the carbonaceous fuel compacts graphite fuel elements, primary coolant systems, and the reactor building. The reactor vessel is a Class 1 steel vessel that operates at 64 bar (28 psia) pressure during normal operation. The reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure which is constructed below grade with substantial concrete hatch covers over the reactor and steam generator compartments. Using mechanistic source terms, rather than those traditionally imposed by 10CFR100, current calculated results indicate that off-site doses would meet the top-level requirements. Based on these results, the MHTGR participants have taken the position that, with postulated off-site doses so extremely low, a conventional containment would not significantly reduce the risk to the public but would add significantly to the capital cost of the plant and could be a detriment to the passive safety features of the MHTGR design

  2. [Research on the treatment of wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process].

    Xing, Xiao-Qiong; Huang, Cheng-Lan; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying

    2012-11-01

    The wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was characterized with poor biodegradability, and was difficult to remove. In order to find an economically reasonable and practical technology, the research on the removal efficiency of different concentration wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process was studied, and the result was compared with the traditional activated sludge process. The results showed that the ozonation-activated sludge process was not suitable for treating influent with COD below 500 mg x L(-1) and the wastewater PVA concentration was 10-30 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was between 500-800 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 15-60 mg x L(-1), the system had advantages on dealing with this kind of wastewater, and the average removal efficiency of COD and PVA were 92.8% and 57.4%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 4.1% and 15.2% respectively. In addition, the effluent concentrations of COD could keep between 30-60 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was 1 000-1 200 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 20-70 mg x L(-1), the average removal efficiencies of COD and PVA were 90.9% and 45.3%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 12.8% and 12.1% respectively, but the effluent should to be further treated. Compared with the traditional activated sludge process, ozonation-activated sludge process had high treatment efficiency, stable running effect, and effectively in dealing with industrial wastewater containing PVA. PMID:23323416

  3. Achievements of spray activities in nuclear reactor containments during the last decade

    Highlights: • Spray systems in nuclear reactors are described. • Spray models developed for these codes are discussed. • International benchmarking activities are presented. • An overview of the knowledge gained on these sprays during the last decade is given. - Abstract: During the course of a severe accident in a nuclear power plants, spray systems are used in the containment in order to prevent overpressure and to wash-out fission products. Spray will also have an impact on the gas mixing in case of the presence of hydrogen. This paper presents the current achievements of spray activities during the last decade. Spray systems in nuclear reactors are described and an overview of the knowledge gained on these sprays during the last decade is given. During this period, more and more studies devoted to CFD simulations (Computational Fluid Dynamics) of real containment severe accident conditions have been published. In order to give confidence to such calculations, code validation is mandatory. As a result, experiments have been performed in order to validate the spray models. A review of experimental programs, in CARAIDAS, CALIST, TOSQAN (IRSN) and MISTRA (CEA) facilities is presented here. Spray models developed for the codes involved in the above mentioned simulations of these experimental programs are also discussed, as well as international benchmarking activities performed during the last decade. CFD calculations at real scale with well validated phenomena on separate-effect tests are recommended in order to bring some insights for different configurations typical for safety concerns

  4. Level 2 PSA applications. Focus on advanced containment systems

    Use of PSA Level 1 results for PSA application on system design, operation testing and maintenance is common practice, e.g. by living PSA and risk-informed decision making. New or modernized NPP include both core melt prevention and mitigating features which improve the performance of the plant to cope with severe accidents. PSA Level 1 is not well suited for PSA application on systems, structures and components designed to mitigate severe accident scenarios, as the impact on the core damage frequency (CDF) is usually negligible. Instead, the PSA applications on such systems need to be based on the impact on Level 2 PSA results. Most commonly the large early release frequency (LERF) is calculated as PSA Level 2 result. If PSA application on severe accident mitigation systems are based on LERF later and smaller releases might not be addressed correctly. In this presentation, the source term risk, which is calculated by multiplying the frequency of the release with the size of the release, is used as additional risk measure. Both the LERF and the source term risk are important measures and provide rationale for different types of systems. However, these measures can only be evaluated correctly if a best-estimate approach is used for Level 2 PSA. If possible conservatisms from Level 1 PSA are transferred to the Level 2 PSA, this may skew the result and misrepresent the impact of mitigating systems. This paper illustrates the possible uses of a Level 2 PSA results for PSA application and provides examples of systems in existing NPP for which the risk impact can only be evaluated based on Level 2 PSA results. Examples of such systems are: Passive hydrogen recombiners (PARs), Filtered containment venting, Containment isolation. Review of periodic testing strategy by risk informed periodic testing is an essential PSA application. The most important parameter is the test interval of components modeled in the Fault Tree modeling of the PSA. To be able to evaluate the

  5. Synthesis, insecticidal activity, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of anthranilic diamides analogs containing oxadiazole rings.

    Li, Yuhao; Zhu, Hongjun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Rui; Khallaf, Abdalla; Zhang, Xiangning; Ni, Jueping

    2013-06-28

    A series of anthranilic diamides analogs (3–11, 16–24) containing 1,2,4- or 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The structure of 3-bromo-N-(2-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (18, CCDC-) was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua were evaluated. The results showed that most of title compounds displayed good larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, especially compound 3-bromo-N-(4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(5-(methylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (6), which displayed 71.43% activity against P. xylostella at 0.4 μg mL(-1) and 33.33% against S. exigua at 1 μg mL(-1). The structure-activity relationship showed that compounds decorated with a 1,3,4-oxadiazole were more potent than compounds decorated with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and different substituents attached to the oxadiazole ring also affected the insecticidal activity. This work provides some hints for further structure modification and the enhancement of insecticidal activity. PMID:23657615

  6. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  7. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-02-14

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

  8. Thermodynamic investigations of transition metal systems containing coabon and nitrogen

    Teng, Lidong

    2004-01-01

    In view of the important applications of carbides and carbo-nitrides of transition metals in the heat-resistant and hard materials industries, the thermodynamic activities of Cr and Mn in the Cr-C, Fe-Cr-C, Mn-Ni-C and Mn-Ni-C-N systems have been studied in the present work by the use of the galvanic cell technique. CaF2single crystals were used as the solid electrolyte. The phase relationships in selected regions of the systems in question were investigated by the use of the equilibration te...

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Cements Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are commonly used for cementing full cast crown restorations. Regrettably, although the dental cements fill the gap between the tooth and the crown, bacterial micro leakage may occur, resulting in secondary caries. As micro leakage cannot be completely prevented, GCS possessing antibacterial properties are in demand. In the present study the antibacterial activity of insoluble, cross-linked quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (Qp) nanoparticles incorporated at 1% w/w in two clinically available GCS were studied. The antibacterial activity was tested against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei using the direct contact test (Dct) and the agar diffusion test (Ad). Using the direct contact test, antibacterial activity (P<0.05) was found in both tested GICs with incorporated QPEI nanoparticles, the effect lasting for at least one month. However, the ADT showed no inhibition halo in the test bacteria, indicating that the antimicrobial nanoparticles do not diffuse into the agar. The results show that the incorporation of QPEI nanoparticles in glass ionomer cements has a long-lasting antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Changing the antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by incorporating QPEI antibacterial nanoparticles may prolong the clinical performance of dental crowns.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of microemulsion systems containing salicylic acid.

    Badawi, Alia A; Nour, Samia A; Sakran, Wedad S; El-Mancy, Shereen Mohamed Sameh

    2009-01-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) are clear, thermodynamically stable systems. They were used to solubilize drugs and to improve topical drug availability. Salicylic acid (SA) is a keratolytic agent used in topical products with antimicrobial actions. The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate SA ME systems. Different concentrations of SA were incorporated in an ME base composed of isopropyl myristate, water, and Tween 80: propylene glycol in the ratio of 15:1. Three ME systems were prepared: S2%, S5%, and S10% which contain 2%, 5%, and 10% of SA, respectively. Evaluation by examination under cross-polarizing microscope, measuring of percent transmittance, pH measurement, determination of the specific gravity, assessment of rheological properties, and accelerated stability study were carried out. The data showed that the addition of SA markedly affected the physical properties of the base. All systems were not affected by accelerated stability tests. Stability study for 6 months under ambient conditions was carried out for S10%. No remarkable changes were recorded except a decrease in the viscosity value after 1 month. The results suggested that ME could be a suitable vehicle for topical application of different concentrations of SA. PMID:19757081

  11. Lead localized corrosion evaluation in high activity nuclear waste containers

    In Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set according to the multiple barrier concept. A lead layer was preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. The focus of present experiments is to assess on the high purity lead corrosion kinetics due to localized attack by aggressive anions, such as chlorides, nitrates and acetates. Hence, high purity lead corrosion potentials with time, potential kinetic and current time measurements at constant potential were performed in synthetic groundwater contaminated with such anions. (author)

  12. Lignin peroxidase oxidation of aromatic compounds in systems containing organic solvents.

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Westlake, D W; Fedorak, P M

    1994-02-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  13. CONPAS 1.0 (CONtainment Performance Analysis System). User's manual

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) is a verified computer code package to integrate the numerical, graphical, and results-operation aspects of Level 2 probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) for nuclear power plants automatically under a PC window environment. Compared with the existing DOS-based computer codes for Level 2 PSA, the most important merit of the window-based computer code is that user can easily describe and quantify the accident progression models, and manipulate the resultant outputs in a variety of ways. As a main logic for accident progression analysis, CONPAS employs a concept of the small containment phenomenological event tree (CPET) helpful to trace out visually individual accident progressions and of the large supporting event tree (LSET) for its detailed quantification. For the integrated analysis of Level 2 PSA, the code utilizes four distinct, but closely related modules; (1) ET Editor for construction of several event tree models describing the accident progressions, (2) Computer for quantification of the constructed event trees and graphical display of the resultant outputs, (3) Text Editor for preparation of input decks for quanification and utilization of calculational results, and (4) Mechanistic Code Plotter for utilization of results obtained from severe accident analysis codes. Compared with other existing computer codes for Level 2 PSA, the CONPAS code provides several advanced features: computational aspects including systematic uncertainty analysis, importance analysis, sensitivity analysis and data interpretation, reporting aspects including tabling and graphic as well as user-friend interface. 10 refs. (Author) .new

  14. Cask containing method for spent fuel assembly and subcriticality measuring device for a cask containing system

    An area for a spent fuel storage pool is sectioned into an ordinary rack area for disposing spent fuel assemblies taken out from a reactor core and a preliminary storage rack area having the same constitution as a cask for containing spent fuel assemblies. Preceding to cask-containment, the spent fuel assemblies are temporarily transferred once in the preliminary storing rack area from the ordinary rack area to ensure subcriticality and then contained in casks. In addition, those fuels having a higher burn-up degree are disposed coaxially to the central portion and those having not higher burn-up degree are disposed at the outer circumferential portion. The spent fuel assemblies can surely be contained in the casks, or the process of containing the spent fuel assemblies to the casks or the subcriticality after the containment can be evaluated thereby capable of further ensuring the subcriticality. The spent fuel assemblies can be transferred or stored safely and reliably at a good efficiency. (N.H.)

  15. Actively targeted polymer-pirarubicin conjugate containing coiled coil motif

    Pola, Robert; Pechar, Michal; Janoušková, Olga; Sieglová, Irena; Král, Vlastimil; Fábry, Milan; Kovář, Marek

    Bratislava: Young Scientists Council of Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2016. s. 53. ISBN 978-80-970923-8-2. [Bratislava Young Polymer Scientists workshop /6./ - BYPoS 2016. 14.03.2016-18.03.2016, Ždiar] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : HPMA copolymers * drug delivery systems Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J); EC - Immunology (MBU-M)

  16. Supramolecular effects in dendritic systems containing photoactive groups

    GIANLUCA CAMILLO AZZELLINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article are described dendritic structures containing photoactive groups at the surface or in the core. The observed supramolecular effects can be attributed to the nature of the photoactive group and their location in the dendritic architecture. The peripheric azobenzene groups in these dendrimeric compounds can be regarded as single residues that retain the spectroscopic and photochemical properties of free azobenzene moiety. The E and Z forms of higher generation dendrimer, functionalized with azobenzene groups, show different host ability towards eosin dye, suggesting the possibility of using such dendrimer in photocontrolled host-guest systems. The photophysical properties of many dendritic-bipyridine ruthenium complexes have been investigated. Particularly in aerated medium more intense emission and a longer excited-state lifetime are observed as compared to the parent unsubstituted bipyridine ruthenium complexes. These differences can be attributed to a shielding effect towards dioxygen quenching originated by the dendritic branches.

  17. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  18. 77 FR 69650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers... concerning the Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty Free. This request for comment is...: Title: Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty Free. OMB Number: 1651-0035. Form...

  19. Containment vessel, its auxiliary system and plant air conditioning system of advanced thermal reactor Fugen

    The functional requirement for, the design and the construction of, and the functional test on the containment vessel, its auxiliary system, the plant air conditioning and ventilation system of the advanced thermal reactor, Fugen, are described in detail. The main specifications of the containment vessel are as follows: The type enclosed cylinder, the maximum operating pressure 1.35 kg/cm2g, the maximum operating temperature 100 deg C, the leak rate 0.4%/day, the inner diameter 36 m. The height 64 m, the volume 40,900 m3, and the material JIS G3118, SGV-49. The containment vessel is provided with an hatch of 5 m diameter for carrying equipments in two air locks, many high and low voltage cable penetrations, pipe penetrations, a transfer shoot and isolation values. The functions and the specifications of the containment vessel and its auxiliary equipments are explained. The relating auxiliary systems are composed of the containment vessel spray system, the pool facility for steam blow-down, the recirculation system for the air in the vessel, the annulus evacuation system and its pressure control devices, the pressure measuring instruments and pressure relief valves and the temperature measuring devices for the containment vessel, and the object, function, layout and installation of these systems are explained. Concerning the air conditioning system, each main building has the special subsystem, and they are introduced. The progress stage of construction works and the procedure and results of the functional test at the site are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. Containment Depressurization Capabilities of Filtered Venting System in 1000 MWe PWR with Large Dry Containment

    Sang-Won Lee; Tae-Hyub Hong; Yu-Jung Choi; Mi-Ro Seo; Hyeong-Taek Kim

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Korean government and nuclear industries performed comprehensive safety inspections on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design bases events. As a result, a total of 50 recommendations were defined as safety improvement action items. One of them is installation of a containment filtered venting system (CFVS) or portable backup containment spray system. In this paper, the applicability of CFVS is examined for OPR1000,...

  1. Results from modernization of the containment localization systems of the Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4

    The improvements of the Accident Localization System (SLA) of units 3 and 4 systematically implemented by Kozloduy NPP shows an important direction for increasing the safety of NPP with WWER-440/V-230 containments. During the years Kozloduy NPP implemented a large scope of activities aimed in full resolution of all generic shortcomings identified in the original design of these containments. These activities allowed already in 2002 to justify that integrity of the containment is assured for all postulated events and the radiological consequences for all DBAs and BDBAs without core degradation are within the regulatory limits. The last phase of this modernization was oriented toward achieving the same goals in case of severe accidents by installation of systems for avoiding long term pressurization of the SG compartments and by installation of a system for keeping of negative pressure (slight vacuum) during the late phases of development of the accidents thus minimizing significantly the uncontrolled radioactive releases from the containment and assured controlled purified release of radioactivity to environment, and for elimination of conditions for H2 deflagration within the localization system. This paper summarizes the results of the whole modernization process with an emphasis of the implementation of the latest phase successfully completed by Kozloduy NPP in first quarter of 2005 which allowed the plant to demonstrate remarkable mitigation capability for a comprehensive set of very low probability severe accidents scenarios in line with the approach now being promoted for the modern design NPPs

  2. Development of self-assembling nanowires containing electronically active oligothiophenes

    Tsai, Wei-Wen

    This dissertation discusses the development of conductive one-dimensional nanowires from self-assembling oligothiophene molecules. Self-assembly has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative approach towards high performance, solution processable, and low-cost organic electronics. One of the many challenges in this field is the control of supramolecular morphologies of ordered structures containing pi-conjugated moieties. This research demonstrated several successful strategies to achieve self assembly of conductive nanowires using synergistic interactions combining pi stacking and hydrogen bonding. The first approach used was to develop a hairpin-shaped sexithiophene molecule, which features two arms of the conjugated structure. The diamidocyclohexyl headgroup of this molecule successfully directs the self-assembly from hydrogen bonding among the amides, forming high-aspect-ratio one-dimensional nanowires with well-defined diameters of 3.0 +/- 0.3 nm. The molecular orientation in the nanostructures promotes formation of sexithiophene H and J aggregates that facilitate efficient charge transport. Organic field-effect transistors were fabricated to reveal improved intrinsic hole mobility from films of the nanostructures, 3.46 x 10-6 cm2V-1s-1, which is one order of magnitude higher than films cast from unassembled molecules. Bulk heterojunction solar cells were developed from this molecule and fullerenes utilizing solution-phase fabrication methods. Intimate mix of the molecule and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester creates structured interfaces for efficient exciton splitting. The charge carrier mobilities of each material are improved by self-assembly in solution and thermal-energy assisted phase separation.The photovoltaic devices achieved the highest open-circuit voltage of 0.62 V, short-circuit current of 1.79 mA/cm2, fill factor of 35%, and power conversion efficiency of 0.48%. Another strategy to one-dimensional nanowires studied here involved the

  3. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    Marilene Estanqueiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and sodium lauryl sulfate (and sodium cetearyl sulfate (LSX, the nature of the oily phase (decyl oleate, cyclomethicone or dimethicone and the presence or absence of pumice (5% w/w. While maintaining the samples at room temperature, rheology studies, texture analysis and microscopic observation of formulations with and without pumice were performed. Samples were also submitted to an accelerated stability study by centrifugation and to a thermal stress test. Through the testing, it was found that the amount of emulsifying agent affects the consistency and textural properties such as firmness and adhesiveness. So, formulations containing LSX (5% w/w and decyl oleate or dimethicone as oily phase had a better consistency and remained stable with time, so exhibited the best features to be used for skin care products.

  4. A Quintuple Star System Containing Two Eclipsing Binaries

    Rappaport, S; Kalomeni, B; Borkovits, T; Latham, D; Bieryla, A; Ngo, H; Mawet, D; Howell, S; Horch, E; Jacobs, T L; LaCourse, D; Sodor, A; Vanderburg, A; Pavlovski, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11" on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09", while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The 'A' binary is circular with a 5.1-day period, while the 'B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-day period. The gamma velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ~10 km/s. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09", indicates that the orbital period and separation of the 'C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ~65 years and ~25 AU, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e., 21...

  5. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems

    2007-01-01

    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  6. Performance of a HPGe System for Surface and Container Measurements - 13582

    The decommissioning of a nuclear facility or post-accident cleanup is an immense engineering effort requiring an array of specialist tools and techniques. The decommissioning and cleanup activities generate large quantities of low activity waste. For economic disposal, it is desirable to certify the waste as suitable for free release. Every container must be assayed to a sufficient degree of accuracy and sensitivity so that it may be certified to be or not to be suitable for 'free release'. In a previous work, the performance of a highly-automated system for free release of large numbers of containers was presented in which the spectroscopy hardware comprised four ORTEC Interchangeable Detector Module (IDM) mechanically cooled HPGe spectrometers in conjunction with ORTEC ISOPlus waste assay software. It was shown that the system was capable of assaying large containers to free release levels in reasonable measurement times. Not all operations have enough waste to justify an automated system or rapid assay results may be required, perhaps in a remote location. To meet this need, a new mobile system has been developed for the assay of smaller objects (drums, boxes, and surfaces) In-Situ. The system incorporates the latest generation IDM-200 and ISOPlus software and a new variant of the ISOCart hardware. This paper will describe the system and performance. (authors)

  7. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects of...... provides a new way to see the development of a system in terms of the knowledge created in the process. The main practical implication of the framework is that it improves the managers' ability to guide ISD activities as knowledge activities embedded in a knowledge process, a crucial element in development...... ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...

  8. Solid—Liquid Equilibria of Several Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Meleic Anhydride

    MAPeisheng; CHENMingming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibria(SLE) of three binary systems and seven ternary systems containing maleic anhydride(MA) are measured by visual method. The experimental data are compared with the calculated ones with modified universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient(UNIFAC) method in which the interaction parameters between groups come from two sources,dortmund data bank (DDB), if there′s any,and correlations based on our former presented experimental SLE data of twenty binary systems.New groups of MA,ACCOO group,COO group,>C=O group and cy-CH2 group are defined and the SLE data of maleic anhydride in isopropyl acetate in literature are cited in order to assess the new interaction parameters,correlated with Wilson equation and the λh equation.The modified UNIFAC method with these new regressed interaction parameters is also used to predict other three binary systems containing maleic anhydride.

  9. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    Amancio, Diego R; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for contention of activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, as in diseases such as epilepsy that affects the neuronal networks, and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided in modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory through which activity contention is reached by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, viz. random, Barabasi-Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this ...

  10. 78 FR 16531 - Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (“MEMS Devices”) and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (``MEMS Devices'') and Products Containing Same; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (``MEMS Devices'') and... microelectromechanical systems (``MEMS devices'') and products containing same. The complaint names as respondents...

  11. Design of database management system for 60Co container inspection system

    The function of the database management system has been designed according to the features of cobalt-60 container inspection system. And the software related to the function has been constructed. The database querying and searching are included in the software. The database operation program is constructed based on Microsoft SQL server and Visual C++ under Windows 2000. The software realizes database querying, image and graph displaying, statistic, report form and its printing, interface designing, etc. The software is powerful and flexible for operation and information querying. And it has been successfully used in the real database management system of cobalt-60 container inspection system. (authors)

  12. Dynamic testing of MFTF containment-vessel structural system

    Dynamic (modal) testing was performed on the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) containment vessel. The seismic design of this vessel was heavily dependent upon the value of structural damping used in the analysis. Typically for welded steel vessels, a value of 2 to 3% of critical is used. However, due to the large mass of the vessel and magnet supported inside, we felt that the interaction between the structure and its foundation would be enhanced. This would result in a larger value of damping because vibrational energy in the structure would be transferred through the foundation into the surrounding soil. The dynamic test performed on this structure (with the magnet in place) confirmed this later theory and resulted in damping values of approximately 4 to 5% for the whole body modes. This report presents a brief description of dynamic testing emphasizing the specific test procedure used on the MFTF-A system. It also presents an interpretation of the damping mechanisms observed (material and geometric) based upon the spatial characteristics of the modal parameters

  13. Modelling containment passive safety systems in advanced water cooled reactors

    Most designs of advanced passive reactors incorporate Passive Containment Cooling Systems (PCCS) relying on steam condensation to cope with possible pressure increase that would result in the case of a postulated accident. As a consequence, experimental and analytical research programmes have been launched worldwide to investigate new configurations and conditions involved in these new scenarios. This paper summarises the major outcomes of the joint research of CIEMAT, UPV, and UW in developing predictive models to address anticipated conditions in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactors (CIEMAT-UPV) and in the AP600 (CIEMAT-UW). Even though both models share some of their fundamental characteristics (such as being mass/heat transfer analogy based), samples of their validation against independent databases illustrate their intrinsic differences in formulation according to the scenarios addressed by each one. Relative importance of condensate film or gas mixture velocity are discussed, and the effect of key factors such as noncondensable gas presence and pressure are stated. Experimental data from University of Berkeley (UCB) and from University of Wisconsin - Madison (UW) will be used to support comparisons and discussions held in the paper. In short, this work demonstrates that heat/mass transfer analogy-based models, particularly those relying on diffusion film modelling to account for noncondensable gas presence, are extremely useful in test interpretation and result in good agreement with reliable databases. (author)

  14. Smart integrated containment leakage rate test system using wireless communication

    Integrated Leakage Rate Test (ILRT) is the important test the confidentiality and integrity of the containment building, which is the last barrier when Design basis accidents (DBA) of Nuclear Power plant occur. Since the result of this test is the basis to guarantee the safety of nuclear power plants, the test process, test procedure, and the test equipment are required to have high reliability. The test devices previously used have been products of VOLUMERTRICS and GRAFTEL of USA. These devices have been inconvenient to calibrate and use. Thus improved devices needed to be developed to remove the inconveniences, to verify the safety of Korean nuclear power plants with Korea's own technology, and to secure core technology. A new leak test system was developed by domestic technology for that purpose and needed to be verified. In this paper, technical details of the newly developed easy to use and highly reliable measuring test device, which is in operation at the nuclear power plant sites, will be introduced. State of art technology was applied to the device to address the shortcomings of previous US made devices and the difficulties to use on site

  15. Static Instability Analysis of the Natural Circulation Flow in a Passive Containment Cooling System

    When a severe accident occurs in a nuclear power plant, the containment pressure can increase up to 4 bar and, then, it can threaten the containment's integrity. To avoid such over-pressure in the containment, a passive containment cooling systems (PCCS) has been developed instead of existing active cooling systems. The PCCS can cool down the containment by using a natural circulation flow and, thus, flow instabilities may easily occur. It should be confirmed that both static and dynamic flow instabilities do not occur due to the system characteristics. In this study, mathematical models for the single- and two-phase natural circulation flows in a PCCS are developed. Using the flow models, static instability of the natural circulation flow is investigated. In this study, mathematical models for the single- and two-phase natural circulation flows in a PCCS are developed. Using the models, both single- and two-phase natural circulation flows were investigated in terms of static instability. It is shown that, for both cases, there is only one steady-state mass flow rate which satisfies the integrated momentum equation and the pressure drop along the natural circulation loop increases monotonically according to the mass flow rate. Therefore, it can be said that static instability doesn't exist in the PCCS natural circulation loop. Additional research is needed to investigate the dynamic instability of the PCCS natural circulation flow

  16. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    Amancio, Diego R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms responsible for containing activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, for example, in diseases such as epilepsy that affect the neuronal networks and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided into modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory, through which containment of activity is achieved by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, namely, random, Barabási-Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this finding was confirmed by showing that modularity is no longer needed if the dynamics based on the integrate-and-fire dynamics incorporated the decay factor. Taken together, these results provide a proof of principle that persistent, restrained network activation might occur in the absence of any particular topological structure. This may be the reason why neuronal activity does not spread out to the entire neuronal network, even when no special topological organization exists. .

  17. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    The mechanisms responsible for containing activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, for example, in diseases such as epilepsy that affect the neuronal networks and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided into modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory, through which containment of activity is achieved by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, namely, random, Barabási–Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this finding was confirmed by showing that modularity is no longer needed if the dynamics based on the integrate-and-fire dynamics incorporated the decay factor. Taken together, these results provide a proof of principle that persistent, restrained network activation might occur in the absence of any particular topological structure. This may be the reason why neuronal activity does not spread out to the entire neuronal network, even when no special topological organization exists. (paper)

  18. Nonenzymatic copying of RNA templates containing all four letters is catalyzed by activated oligonucleotides

    Prywes, Noam; Blain, J Craig; Del Frate, Francesca; Szostak, Jack W

    2016-01-01

    The nonenzymatic replication of RNA is a potential transitional stage between the prebiotic chemistry of nucleotide synthesis and the canonical RNA world in which RNA enzymes (ribozymes) catalyze replication of the RNA genomes of primordial cells. However, the plausibility of nonenzymatic RNA replication is undercut by the lack of a protocell-compatible chemical system capable of copying RNA templates containing all four nucleotides. We show that short 5′-activated oligonucleotides act as catalysts that accelerate primer extension, and allow for the one-pot copying of mixed sequence RNA templates. The fidelity of the primer extension products resulting from the sequential addition of activated monomers, when catalyzed by activated oligomers, is sufficient to sustain a genome long enough to encode active ribozymes. Finally, by immobilizing the primer and template on a bead and adding individual monomers in sequence, we synthesize a significant part of an active hammerhead ribozyme, forging a link between nonenzymatic polymerization and the RNA world. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17756.001 PMID:27351102

  19. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Analogues of Chlorantraniliprole Containing Nitro Group

    FENG Qi; WANG Ming-zhong; XIONG Li-xia; LIU Zhi-li; LI Zheng-ming

    2011-01-01

    Twelve novel analogues of chlorantraniliprole containing nitro group were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the nitro-containing analogues showed favorable insecticidal activities,while the activity of compounds 5g at 0.25 mg/L was 40%,but still lower than chlorantraniliprole.

  20. Mutual diffusion coefficients in systems containing the nickel ion

    Ribeiro, Ana C. F.; Veríssimo, Luis V. M. M.; Gomes, Joselaine C. S.; Santos, Cecilia I. A. V.; Barros, Marisa C. F.; Lobo, Victor M. M.; Sobral, Abílio J. F. N.; Esteso, Miguel A.; Leaist, Derek G.

    2013-04-01

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in water have been measured at 293.15 K and 303.15 K and at concentrations between 0.020 mol dm-3 and 0.100 mol dm-3, using a conductimetric cell. The experimental mutual diffusion coefficients are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss model. The equivalent conductances at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at those temperatures have been estimated using these results. In addition, from these data, we have estimated some transport and structural parameters, such as limiting diffusion coefficient, ionic conductance at infinitesimal concentration, hydrodynamic radii and activation energy, contributing this way to a better understanding of the structure of these systems and of their thermodynamic behavior in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  1. Hydrodynamic calculation of a filter washing in liquids type used in containment venting systems

    From the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, the European nuclear power plants have chosen to install filters on the venting pipes of the containment, whose function is to help to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident, by controlled depressurization of the containment passively through a filtered venting of the containment system. These systems are designed to relieve the internal pressure of the containment by means of the deliberate opening of pressure relief devices, either a valve or rupture disc during a severe accident and be channeled to the filter unit. In this paper the hydraulic response of a filter system of gases washing by liquid is evaluated, due to this information is necessary to estimate the effect that has the pressure increase of the contention on the discharge capacity of the venting pipes. By simulation of computational of fluid dynamics with the programs: CAELINUX-2014 and OpenFOAM, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Multi Venturi System for gases washing from the containment, which could be included in the general model of the venting pipe, were obtained. Representative models of the Venturi tubes of each concentric area that forming the washing system were generated; and using parametric calculations the average mass flow rate established through each venturi, depending on its size and depth in which it is located inside the tank was estimated. Also, the pressure and mass flow rate required to activate each concentric area depending on the pressure and mass load from the containment were calculated, to estimate the maximum flow that is established through the filter. Finally, the velocity profiles and the characteristic pressure at which each area operates as well as the pressure drop of local and global discharge also were calculated. (Author)

  2. Containment Depressurization Capabilities of Filtered Venting System in 1000 MWe PWR with Large Dry Containment

    Sang-Won Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Korean government and nuclear industries performed comprehensive safety inspections on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design bases events. As a result, a total of 50 recommendations were defined as safety improvement action items. One of them is installation of a containment filtered venting system (CFVS or portable backup containment spray system. In this paper, the applicability of CFVS is examined for OPR1000, a 1000 MWe PWR with large dry containment in Korea. Thermohydraulic analysis results show that a filtered discharge flow rate of 15 [kg/s] at 0.9 [MPa] is sufficient to depressurize the containment against representative containment overpressurization scenarios. Radiological release to the environment is reduced to 10-3 considering the decontamination factor. Also, this cyclic venting strategy reduces noble gas release by 50% for 7 days. The probability of maintaining the containment integrity in level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA initiating events is improved twofold, from 43% to 87%. So, the CFVS can further improve the containment integrity in severe accident conditions.

  3. 46 CFR 153.404 - Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for containment systems having required closed... Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.404 Standards for containment systems having required closed gauges. When Table 1 requires a cargo's containment system to have a closed gauge, the...

  4. 46 CFR 153.406 - Standards for containment systems having required restricted gauges.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for containment systems having required... MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.406 Standards for containment systems having required restricted gauges. When Table 1 requires a cargo's containment system to have a restricted...

  5. A REVIEW OF OXYGEN-CONTAINING SURFACE GROUPS AND SURFACE MODIFICATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON

    WU Yongwen; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; XIA Qibin

    2004-01-01

    This review focused on the recent reports related to the function, characterization and modification of oxygen-containing surface groups of activated carbon (AC). The Oxygen-containing surface groups were briefly described, and the most frequently used techniques for characterization of the oxygen-containing surface groups on ACs were also briefly stated. A detailed discussion of the effects of the oxygen-containing surface groups on the adsorptive capacity of AC was given. The recent progresses in modification of the oxygen-containing surface groups of AC were also reviewed.

  6. The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system

    M Cammarata

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO. It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP, proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.The proPO activating system plays a defensive role in arthropods, molluscs, annelids, ascidians and the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri.In the present paper, we report on ascidian proPO system and related molecules, with particular focus on the biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of the Ciona intestinalis, proPO system of circulating hemocytes from naïve ascidians as well as of body wall following LPS inflammatory challenge.

  7. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Tonghaosu Analogs Containing Phenoxy-phenyl Moiety

    CHEN Li陈立; XU Han-Hong徐汉虹; YIN Biao-Lin尹标林; XIAO Chun肖春; HU Tai-Shan胡泰山; WU Yu-Lin吴毓林

    2004-01-01

    A new series of phenoxy-phenyl moieties containing tonghaosu analogs with varied B-ring 9 were synthesized and characterized by spectral studies. Their insect antifeedant activity against Pieris brassicae and insecticidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus were investigated. Compound 9e exhibited excellent antifeeding activity.

  8. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of new butenolide-containing dithiocarbamates.

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Hai-Wei; Guo, Lin-Lin; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Xu, Bo; Guo, Xiao; Zheng, Chen-Xin; Liu, Hong-Min

    2011-05-15

    Three series of butenolide-containing dithiocarbamates were designed and synthesized. Their anti-tumor activity in vitro was evaluated. Among them compound I-14 exhibited broad spectrum anti-cancer activity against five human cancer cell lines with IC(50) dithiocarbamate side chains on the C-3 position of butenolide was crucial for anti-tumor activity. PMID:21486694

  9. Thermal-hydraulics and its capability of external water wall type passive containment cooling system

    An external water wall type containment cooling system is one of the passive containment cooling systems (PCCSs) which use no active components and are intended as a countermeasure to deal with severe accidents in the next generation power reactors. The core decay heat during a postulated accident is accumulated in the suppression pool (S/P) and transferred to the outer pool (O/P), which is a cooling pool located outside and adjacent to the S/P, by only natural phenomena such as natural convection, heat conduction and evaporation. The thermal-hydraulics, temperature profiles, convection heat transfer coefficients in the pools, and heat transfer coefficients of condensation on the containment vessel wall and evaporation on the S/P surface under a noncondensable gas presence, were measured using a 5m high apparatus. The formation of a thermal stratification boundary at the vent outlets which restricts the effective heat transfer area between pools was clarified and a correlation for each heat transfer coefficient was obtained. Heat removal evaluation models, which analyze the trends of temperatures and pressures, were developed and verified with system tests. As for improvement of the heat removal capability, two procedures were proposed. One is installation of a baffle plate to mitigate thermal stratification in the S/P and enlarge the effective heat transfer area between the pools. The second procedure is employment of a divided wetwell to avoid noncondensable gas effects. The thermal-hydraulic behavior caused by these procedures and their effectiveness were experimentally and analytically confirmed. The capability of the external water wall type containment cooling system during severe accidents for a 1350MWe plant was also analyzed based on the obtained results, and the containment vessel pressure could be suppressed below the allowable pressure during accidents without venting from the containment vessel. (author)

  10. French containment filtering and venting system: Presentation, associated research and development

    Although the probability of a sever accident with core melt is extremely low, it was decided ultimate measures at French PWRs to avoid or limit the consequences of this type of accident. In particular, the studies have shown that in some scenarios, the containment pressure could increase slowly due to water steam production, and to gas production during the interaction between the melted core and the raft concrete. Eventually, that pressure increase could lead to a loss of containment integrity and a high activity release. Therefore, a procedure called ''U5'', associated to a containment filtering and venting system, has been implemented. The required objectives are: first and mainly to limit the containment pressure increase by allowing planned releases, thus keeping containment integrity and leaktightness, second to reduce the associated radioactive release, by means of a coarse and simple filter, to a level leading to radiological consequences compatible with Emergency Plan (a purification coefficient of at least 10 for aerosols). The filter medium which was agreed for this programme is sand. The paper presents the design requirements, the description, the operation and the implementation of the system. 2 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of...

  12. Automated activation-analysis system

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  13. Strategies for operation of containment related ESFs in managing activity release to the environment during accident conditions

    In Indian PHWR design, a double containment concept with passive vapour suppression pool (to limit peak pressure) system has been adopted. In addition to it, various Engineered Safety Features (ESFs) have been incorporated to limit the release of radioactivity to the environment. They are: Reactor building emergency coolers for cooling which results in fast reduction of overpressure; Primary Containment Filtration and Pump Back System (PCFPBS) for reduction in iodine concentration inside RB atmosphere during post LOCA period; and, Primary Containment Controlled Discharge System (PCCDS) for the rapid reduction of over-pressure tail. Due to operation of secondary containment purge system, which maintain negative pressure in the annulus, the ground level release is negligibly small. However, if non- availability of negative pressure in secondary containment space is assumed, then operation of PCFPBS and PCCDS system reduces the ground level release significantly. In this situation, depending upon time of operation of the PCFPBS, it can effectively reduce the iodine release, both in stack level and ground level by trapping it in charcoal filters. It is seen that delay time of PCFPBS operation in conjunction with prevailing weather condition can be manipulated to reduce the effect of stack level release of iodine. In this paper the containment related ESFs used in Indian PHWR is discussed in brief and the effectiveness of operator actions and management strategies in actuation of the ESFs in reducing the activity release to environment (during postulated accident conditions) will be brought out. (author)

  14. 77 FR 6815 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers...

    2012-02-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Country of Origin... requirement concerning Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. This request for...: Title: Country of Origin Marking Requirements for Containers or Holders. OMB Number: 1651-0057....

  15. 78 FR 9720 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    2013-02-11

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 69650) on November 20, 2012, allowing for... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Holders or Containers which enter...

  16. Mark II containment program load evaluation and acceptance criteria; Generic Technical Activity A-8

    The report provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark II pressure-suppression containment design. This report concludes NRC Generic Technical Activity A-8, 'Mark II Containment Pool Dynamic Loads,' which has been designated an 'Unresolved Safety Issue' pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974

  17. Extra amino group-containing gramicidin S analogs possessing outer membrane-permeabilizing activity

    Kawai, Masao; Tanaka, Ryoji; Yamamura, Hatsuo; Yasuda, Keiko; Narita, Shizuto; Umemoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Setsuko; Katsu, Takashi; ヤマムラ, ハツオ; 山村, 初雄

    2003-01-01

    Novel (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-4-aminoproline residue-containing analogs of the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic gramicidin S were synthesized, which exhibited marked permeabilizing activity on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  19. Recombinant expression, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of tritrpticin analogs containing fluoro-tryptophan residues.

    Arias, Mauricio; Hoffarth, Elesha R; Ishida, Hiroaki; Aramini, James M; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-05-01

    The increase in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has prompted significant academic research into new therapeutic agents targeted against these pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) appear as promising candidates, due their potent antimicrobial activity and their ubiquitous presence in almost all organisms. Tritrpticin is a member of this family of peptides and has been shown to exert a strong antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains. Tritrpticin's main structural characteristic is the presence of three consecutive Trp residues at the center of the peptide. These residues play an important role in the activity of tritrpticin against Escherichia coli. In this work, a recombinant version of tritrpticin was produced in E. coli using calmodulin as a fusion protein expression tag to overcome the toxicity of the peptide. When used in combination with glyphosate, an inhibitor of the endogenous synthesis of aromatic amino acids, this expression system allowed for the incorporation of fluorinated Trp analogs at very high levels (>90%). The antimicrobial activity of the 4-, 5- and 6-fluoro-Trp-containing tritrpticins against E. coli was as strong as the activity of the native peptide. Similarly, the tritrpticin analogs exhibited comparable abilities to perturb and permeabilize synthetic lipid bilayers as well as the outer and inner membrane of E. coli. Furthermore, the use of 19F NMR spectroscopy established that each individual fluoro-Trp residue interacts differently with SDS micelles, supporting the idea that each Trp in the original tritrpticin plays a different role in the perturbing/permeabilizing activity of the peptide. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the use of fluoro-Trp in solvent perturbation 19F NMR experiments provides detailed site-specific information on the insertion of the Trp residues in biological membrane mimetics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai

  20. The active site of low-temperature methane hydroxylation in iron-containing zeolites.

    Snyder, Benjamin E R; Vanelderen, Pieter; Bols, Max L; Hallaert, Simon D; Böttger, Lars H; Ungur, Liviu; Pierloot, Kristine; Schoonheydt, Robert A; Sels, Bert F; Solomon, Edward I

    2016-08-18

    An efficient catalytic process for converting methane into methanol could have far-reaching economic implications. Iron-containing zeolites (microporous aluminosilicate minerals) are noteworthy in this regard, having an outstanding ability to hydroxylate methane rapidly at room temperature to form methanol. Reactivity occurs at an extra-lattice active site called α-Fe(ii), which is activated by nitrous oxide to form the reactive intermediate α-O; however, despite nearly three decades of research, the nature of the active site and the factors determining its exceptional reactivity are unclear. The main difficulty is that the reactive species-α-Fe(ii) and α-O-are challenging to probe spectroscopically: data from bulk techniques such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility are complicated by contributions from inactive 'spectator' iron. Here we show that a site-selective spectroscopic method regularly used in bioinorganic chemistry can overcome this problem. Magnetic circular dichroism reveals α-Fe(ii) to be a mononuclear, high-spin, square planar Fe(ii) site, while the reactive intermediate, α-O, is a mononuclear, high-spin Fe(iv)=O species, whose exceptional reactivity derives from a constrained coordination geometry enforced by the zeolite lattice. These findings illustrate the value of our approach to exploring active sites in heterogeneous systems. The results also suggest that using matrix constraints to activate metal sites for function-producing what is known in the context of metalloenzymes as an 'entatic' state-might be a useful way to tune the activity of heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:27535535

  1. Operating experience and performance enhancement of containment and ventilation system of research reactor Dhruva

    Reactor Building (RB) containment of Dhruva is once-through and pressure-vent type. To meet functional requirement, fresh, clean and conditioned air is supplied to RB at a pressure above atmospheric through prefilters and Air Treatment Plant (ATP) before passing through various areas from low active to high active zones. The exhaust air is passed through a bank of HEPA filters and discharged to atmosphere through a 100 m stack. During high pressure in containment or high activity in the RB exhaust air, main ventilation system gets automatically isolated and emergency exhaust system having Iodine filters (HEPA + impregnated charcoal filters) comes into service to bring RB pressure sub atmospheric. Over the operating period of 18 years, general performance of ATP gradually deteriorated due to aging. In order to get reliable and improved service life, refurbishment of ATP with some internal changes (e.g. change in material of construction, modification of de-humidifying system, introduction of Moisture Eliminator etc.) based on operating experience was planned and executed with a minimum downtime of reactor. This paper outlines various preparations, counter measures, execution and re-commissioning details of the above job. Dhruva reactor has a single containment of RCC. Probable leaky points of containment are main supply and exhaust isolating butterfly dampers. This paper also covers the details of operating experience with these dampers and corrective actions for improving their performance and intended functionality. This paper also discusses operating experience with the HEPA and charcoal filters including different measures followed to get better leak tightness and improved service life. (author)

  2. 46 CFR 153.1011 - Changing containment systems and hoses to and from alkylene oxide service.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changing containment systems and hoses to and from... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1011 Changing containment systems and hoses to...) No alkylene oxide is loaded into a containment system that last carried a cargo other than...

  3. Antiviral Activity of Metal-Containing Polymers—Organotin and Cisplatin-Like Polymers

    Girish Barot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymers containing platinum and to a lesser extent tin, have repeatedly demonstrated antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo against a variety of cell and tumor types. The mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activity include inducing a delay in cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchanges blocking tumor growth. As most DNA and some RNA viruses require, and even induce, infected cells to initiate DNA replication and subsequent cell division, compounds with antitumor activity will very likely also possess antiviral activity. This article examines the use of metal-containing polymers as a novel class of antivirals.

  4. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time

  5. Alternative BWR plant shutdown system using fire protection system and containment vent

    In certain severe accidents, caused by factors beyond the plant design bases, a loss of operability in the systems normally used to attain safe shutdown of the plant could occur. For such situations, Cofrentes NPP has carried out a series of studied and modifications that aim to attain safe shutdown using alternative systems which have their own power supply systems and are not dependent on external or emergency networks. These alternative systems include some existing plant systems (fire protection system, FPS) which have been validated to perform new operations, as well as other systems wich have been developed recently (containment venting system, CVS). Reactor cooling is restored through the injection of water using the FPS system (diesel pump), and the residual heat removal function is performed by discharging water through the relief valves into the suppression pool and from there into the external atmosphere by means of the CVS. (Author) 6 refs

  6. Thermodynamic behaviour of an externally cooled, internally heated containment system

    In the case of a core melt accident, outside spraying of the containment is one of the emergency cooling possibilities. For the experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer in laboratory scale, a model containment was built with a diameter of one meter. Additionally a cylinder may be inserted between sump and hemisphere, to enlarge the height of the model containment. The maximum heat power is 11 kW. Thermocouples are used to measure the temperatures at the inside of the containment wall, in the sump and in the containment atmosphere. It is possible to measure the velocity profile under the spherical upper plenum by laser-doppler-anemometrie. Parameter of the experiments were inside coating, height from sump to hemisphere, initial air pressure, cooling water mass flow and sump heating power. The production of inerts, a possible leakage of a controlled blow down gives a change in inerts. The choice of the amount of gas at the start of each experiment allows to consider above facts. The measurements of heat transfer by free convection (Nu/sub FK/) are for big amount of inerts quite good but for lower parts not sucessful.The mass transfer (Sh) has a good reproducibility. By low amount of inerts laminar flow occurs. The influence of the density ratio is much smaller than in the heat transfer correlation, but necessary to consider the turbulent character of the flow. The velocity measurements show a central upstreaming and a down movement along the walls of the pilot plant. A high degree of turbulence was detected. The heat and mass transfer correlations are the experimental base of the calculation of the total inner heat transfer coefficient in the containment simulation code CONTRO. (author)

  7. Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system with air holdup tanks in the concrete containment of improved APR+

    Jeon, Byong Guk; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system (PCCS) based on APR+ is proposed. • Decay heat removal rate is to be maximized by introducing air holdup tanks (AHT). • Only air is transported into the AHT decreasing air mass fraction near HXs inside containment and increasing heat transfer rates. • Large AHT volume gives significantly higher heat removal rate. • External HXs have merits over in-tube HXs for long term cooling. - Abstract: The accident of the Fukushima nuclear power plant emphasized passive systems against prolonged station blackout. This paper aims at conceptual design of passive containment cooling system (PCCS) based on APR+, an advanced PWR developed in Korea with passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). In the design, decay heat removal rate is to be maximized by introducing air holdup tanks (AHT). The AHT is an isolated space disposed above IRWST and is connected to the containment free space by vent lines through IRWST water and PAFS heat exchangers (HXs), where steam generated by decay heat is condensed. Since a lot of steam is condensed through in-tube HXs and IRWST water, air is mainly transported into the AHT decreasing air mass fraction near HXs inside containment and increasing heat transfer rates. Several design options (AHT volume, flow distribution in vent lines, HX types) are evaluated via scoping analysis. The scoping analysis had proved that AHT (>10% containment volume) decreased the required number of PCCS HXs to be installed less than a half, failure of valves caused marginal increase in HXs to be installed, and external HXs had merits over in-tube HXs for long term cooling.

  8. CZECHOSLOVAK ACTIVITY TO PREPARE EUROPEAN NORMS FOR CONTAINERS BEFORE THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    Krzysztof Lewandowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many articles we can read that containers weren't in Europe before 1966, when ship SS Fariland came with 35 feet containers invented by Keith Tantlinger for Sea Land Company owned by Malcom McLean. The focus of this study is on the problem with development norms for European containers. Thus, the main definitions and briefly literature overview in the analysed research area are given. Later, the information about these constructions are developed. Article presents Czechoslovak activity to preparation of three European norms for containers, which were described before Second World War.

  9. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    of time. Similar results were obtained with a strain in which the killing cassette was inserted in the chromosome. In competition with noncontained cells during growth, the contained cells are always outcompeted. Stochastic killing obtained by the fim-gef fusion is at present relevant only as a...

  10. Development of integrated containment and surveillance system for fast critical facility FCA. Portal and penetration monitors

    Manpower and radiation exposure problems, accompanied by frequent Non Destructive Assay (NDA) based inspections at the Fast Critical Facility FCA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), are a burden for both the inspectorates and the facility operator. In the hope of alleviating these burdens, the development of containment and surveillance measures for the FCA was initiated in 1979. The integrated containment and surveillance system consists of a portal monitor and a penetration monitor. The reactor building provides an ideal containment measure because of its explosion-proof, airtight structure and limited number of penetrations. The function of the portal monitor is to detect undeclared removal of nuclear material from the reactor building through the doorway. The penetration monitor is designed for surveillance of diversion routes through containment boundaries, and of safeguards related activities for bypassing the portal monitor. The combination of monitoring by the penetration monitor of containment boundaries and all their penetrations except for the doorway, and monitoring by the portal monitor, provides complete coverage of realistic diversion routes. The development of the system was completed in 1988 and the field trial test was conducted for the period of twelve running months. The final report on the field trial was concluded on January 1990. The major conclusion of the report was that the system is effective, reliable and efficient. Following this successful conclusion, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system for meeting its safeguards goals at the FCA on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment is provided. The development of the authentication equipment is accomplished as an separate Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) task. (author)

  11. Development of integrated containment and surveillance system for fast critical facility FCA. Portal and penetration monitors

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Ogawa, Hironobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yokota, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Manpower and radiation exposure problems, accompanied by frequent Non Destructive Assay (NDA) based inspections at the Fast Critical Facility FCA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), are a burden for both the inspectorates and the facility operator. In the hope of alleviating these burdens, the development of containment and surveillance measures for the FCA was initiated in 1979. The integrated containment and surveillance system consists of a portal monitor and a penetration monitor. The reactor building provides an ideal containment measure because of its explosion-proof, airtight structure and limited number of penetrations. The function of the portal monitor is to detect undeclared removal of nuclear material from the reactor building through the doorway. The penetration monitor is designed for surveillance of diversion routes through containment boundaries, and of safeguards related activities for bypassing the portal monitor. The combination of monitoring by the penetration monitor of containment boundaries and all their penetrations except for the doorway, and monitoring by the portal monitor, provides complete coverage of realistic diversion routes. The development of the system was completed in 1988 and the field trial test was conducted for the period of twelve running months. The final report on the field trial was concluded on January 1990. The major conclusion of the report was that the system is effective, reliable and efficient. Following this successful conclusion, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system for meeting its safeguards goals at the FCA on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment is provided. The development of the authentication equipment is accomplished as an separate Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) task. (author)

  12. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  13. Life cycle assessment of façade coating systems containing manufactured nanomaterials

    Hischier, Roland, E-mail: roland.hischier@empa.ch; Nowack, Bernd [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Gottschalk, Fadri [ETSS (Switzerland); Hincapie, Ingrid [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Steinfeldt, Michael [University of Bremen FB 4/FG 10 Technological Design and Development (Germany); Som, Claudia [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnologies are expected to hold considerable potential for the development of new materials in the construction sector. Up to now the environmental benefits and risks of products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) have been quantified only to a limited extent. This study aims to assess the potential environmental, health and safety impacts of coatings containing MNM using Life-cycle assessment: Do paints containing MNM result in a better environmental performance than paints not containing MNM? The study shows that the results depend on a number of factors: (i) The MNM have to substitute an (active) ingredient of the initial paint composition and not simply be an additional ingredient. (ii) The new composition has to extend the lifetime of the paint for such a time period that the consumption of paint along the life cycle of a building is reduced. (iii) Releases of MNM have to be reduced to the lowest level possible (in particular by dumping unused paint together with the packaging). Only when all these boundary conditions are fulfilled, which is the case only for one of the three paint systems examined, is an improved environmental performance of the MNM-containing paint possible for the paint compositions examined in this study.

  14. Life cycle assessment of façade coating systems containing manufactured nanomaterials

    Nanotechnologies are expected to hold considerable potential for the development of new materials in the construction sector. Up to now the environmental benefits and risks of products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) have been quantified only to a limited extent. This study aims to assess the potential environmental, health and safety impacts of coatings containing MNM using Life-cycle assessment: Do paints containing MNM result in a better environmental performance than paints not containing MNM? The study shows that the results depend on a number of factors: (i) The MNM have to substitute an (active) ingredient of the initial paint composition and not simply be an additional ingredient. (ii) The new composition has to extend the lifetime of the paint for such a time period that the consumption of paint along the life cycle of a building is reduced. (iii) Releases of MNM have to be reduced to the lowest level possible (in particular by dumping unused paint together with the packaging). Only when all these boundary conditions are fulfilled, which is the case only for one of the three paint systems examined, is an improved environmental performance of the MNM-containing paint possible for the paint compositions examined in this study

  15. Study on passive containment cooling system and steam injector system for BWR application

    In next-generation light water reactors, the adoption of a passive system concept is proposed, which can enhance safety system reliability and plant simplification. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) removes decay heat following an accident without any electric power supply and any operational actions. Toshiba has proceeded with the program for the development of PCCS from the thermal-hydraulic viewpoint. The program includes a test program using a full-height, integral system test facility called GIRAFFE as well as supplemental basic test programs. The results of these tests have shown that PCCS has sufficient heat removal capability to prevent the containment pressure from exceeding the design pressure following an accident, and that PCCS is a promising concept to enhance plant safety for the next-generation nuclear reactors. The steam injector system (SIS) is a simple, compact and passive pump system for injection of water, and is proposed for such systems as passive core injection system and PCC pool water refill system of a simplified BWR. Toshiba has performed a feasibility study and full scale tests for the steam injector driven system for PCC/IC pool water refill (SIPOWER). It was demonstrated that the water was successfully pumped up to the pool located at a hight of 40m high using steam with a pressure as low as atmospheric pressure. (author)

  16. Delayed phenomena analysis from French PWR containment instrumentation system

    The analysis of the large amount of measurements which has been now gathered by EDF on its twenty two PWR 900 MW shows that the behaviour of concrete under creep and shrinkage effects is in good agreement with the values given as correct estimates by french regulations and taken into account for the design of nuclear prestressed structures. None of the containment buildings studied here showed significant differences with the regulations theoretical values and consequently all the measurements remain in the field of the allowable strain variations used for design. On the other hand, if the instant loading elastic modulus is clearly determined for each containment, and its effect on theoretical creep taken into account, it was not possible up till now to extract from measurements some particular effects such as type of concrete and agregates or climatic effects. (orig.)

  17. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases

  18. Separation of cadmium and silver in sulphur-containing systems

    From the point of view of radiochemistry the separation of silver and cadmium is of interest for the 109Cd production. This paper presents the application both a sulphur-containing sorbents of Thio-sorb (TR-1) and a sulphur-containing reagent of O-isopropyl-N-methyl-thiocarbaminate (IPMTC) for separation silver and cadmium. A sorption behavior of carrier free 109Cd, 65Zn, silver, copper on sorbent TR-1 in nitric acid solution with range concentration of 0.2-4.0 M is studied. It is found that the sorbent TR-1 has high degree of sorption towards silver from nitric acid solution. The sorption of another elements (Cu, Zn, Cd) is very insignificant and make up less of 0.1 %. The reagent IPMTC is known to have a high extraction ability for silver from 1.0 M HNO3 solution. The obtained results have shown that IPMTC quantitatively extracts silver from diluted nitric acid solution and at the same time another elements (Cu, Zn, Cd) are not extracted by reagent IPMTC. Thus, the investigated sulphur-containing reactants both solid (TR-1) and liquid (IPMTC) may be used foe quantitative recovery of silver from nitric acid solution for 109Cd radionuclide production

  19. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles

    The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d50∼11 ± 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca2+ lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies.

  20. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  1. Synthesis and antifungal activity evaluation of new heterocycle containing amide derivatives.

    Wang, Xuesong; Gao, Sumei; Yang, Jian; Gao, Yang; Wang, Ling; Tang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    A series of heterocycle containing amide derivatives (1-28) were synthesised by the combination of acyl chlorides (1a, 2a) and heterocyclic/homocyclic ring containing amines, and their in vitro antifungal activity was evaluated against five plant pathogenic fungi, namely Gibberella zeae, Helminthosporium maydis, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results of antifungal activity analysis indicated that some of the products showed good to excellent antifungal activity, as compound 2 showed excellent activity against G. zeae and R. solani and potent activity against H. maydi, B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, and compounds 1, 8 and 10 also displayed excellent antifungal potential against H. maydi, B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum and good activity against R. solani when compared with the standard carbendazim. PMID:26140452

  2. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Qian Feng

    Full Text Available Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand.

  3. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Feng, Qian; Langereis, Martijn A; Olagnier, David; Chiang, Cindy; van de Winkel, Roel; van Essen, Peter; Zoll, Jan; Hiscott, John; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2014-01-01

    Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp)-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL) RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand. PMID:24759703

  4. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  5. Investigations on the gas distribution phenomena inside the containment system of LWRs

    The importance of mixing and distribution phenomena of hydrogen gas in the reactor safety is emphasised in the advanced reactor concepts, that heavily rely upon the passive cooling systems during a typical severe accident sequence. An advanced methodology for evaluating the temporal and spatial distribution of non condensable gases, including the simulation of buoyancy-driven flows and the effects of the various ESFs activation, in a multi-compartment containment system of a LWR is reviewed. The methodology employs an analogy technique with electrical networks to determine the convection flows among the containment compartments and evaluates, inside a single node, the profile of the vertical concentrations of steam and non condensable gases. The application of the proposed models to simulate the gas distribution phenomena occurring in the HDR E11.2, in the FIPLOC-F2 and in the NUPEC M-7-1 tests demonstrates the importance of these models providing information about local details and spatial distribution. The main results from the post-test analysis performed to simulate the thermal-hydraulic responses of the above mentioned experiments are presented and demonstrate the improvements and the reduction of the error band with respect to the experimental data. This methodology allows to perform a realistic prediction of severe accident sequence inside the containment system of the actual and advanced passive generation of LWRs. (author). 14 refs., 11 figs

  6. Antiviral Activity of Metal-Containing Polymers—Organotin and Cisplatin-Like Polymers

    Girish Barot; Roner, Michael R.; Charles E. Carraher Jr.; Kimberly Shahi

    2011-01-01

    Polymers containing platinum and to a lesser extent tin, have repeatedly demonstrated antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo against a variety of cell and tumor types. The mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activity include inducing a delay in cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchanges blocking tumor growth. As most DNA and some RNA viruses require, and even induce, infected cells to initiate DNA replication and subsequent cell division, compounds with antitumor activity will ve...

  7. Radiolysis of hydrazine-containing solution for bubbling depressurization systems

    Radiolysis was studied in an aqueous solution containing boric acid and hydrazine, as used in nuclear power plants for trapping volatile chemical forms of iodine during loss-of-coolant accidents. The parameters examined included changes in the hydrazine concentration and pH, and formation of radiolysis products in dependence on the initial hydrazine concentration, absorbed dose, dose rate and temperature. The loss of hydrazine and formation of products were compared for the static and through-flow irradiation modes. The results indicate that the radiation resistance of the solution decreases with its increasing oxygen content and with decreasing dose rate. (author). 4 figs., 17 refs

  8. Verifying Normative System Specification containing Collective Imperatives and Deadlines

    Gasparini, Luca; Norman, Timothy J.; Kollingbaum, Martin J.; Chen, Liang; Meyer, John-Jules Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Our focus is on the specification and verification of normative systems that include contrary-to-duty, collective and event-driven imperatives with deadlines. We propose an operational syntax and semantics for the specification of such systems. Using Maude and its model checker, we show how Linear T

  9. Containment In-Situ PASS and Emission Monitoring System Design and Implementation

    investigated in prototype tests using 80-m-long sample piping. The results showed that aerosol and iodine losses during transport by this method are minimized to values of approximately 10%, with the length of the piping playing almost no role. The tests were performed using a fully automated system and test parameters of 1 to 6 bar and 20 to 150 deg. C. Since the samples can be transported through long pipe runs with practically no losses, it is possible for two power plant units to share a single sampling system. On basis of the results of these analyses the fission product activity concentration primary of the containment atmosphere but also from the containment sump as well as from the condensation pool of BWR can be considered for further accident management. For this purpose measuring results have to be available to the plant crises team soon after onset of an accident and have to be frequently delivered also in the long term phase of an accident. Implementation of In-Situ PASS have already been completed for the first six NPPs, systems for other units are under construction. Emissions monitoring system The emissions monitoring system provides monitoring of radioactive materials discharged during filtered containment venting, broken down into the following nuclide groups: - Aerosol-bound radionuclides, - Non-aerosol-bound(gaseous) iodine isotopes, and - Radioactive noble gases. The data on emission levels determined in the event of containment venting are mainly intended to serve as a basis for implementing emergency response actions and as accurate accident documentation. The system is designed for the maximum activity concentration at the time early containment venting is commenced in the event of a core melt accident, i.e.: - 1 El I Bq/m3 aerosol-bound radionuclides, - 5 El I Bq/m3 gaseous iodine isotopes, and - 2 El 5 Bq/m3 radioactive noble gases. The gas to be monitored is a mixture of air, water vapour and other gases with a temperature up to 130 C and a pressure

  10. Development and application of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, work restraint system, stowage container and return line tether

    Bergonz, F. H.; Okelly, J. K.; Whitsett, C. W.; Petynia, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a self-contained zero-gravity backpack designed for astronaut extravehicular activity, is discussed with reference to the system requirements and characteristics, and potential near-term and future uses. Attention is given to the MMU man-machine interfaces, propulsion capability, attitude control, crew restraint hardware, donning, doffing, activation, and deactivation. Specific applications discussed include: spacecraft inspection and servicing, assembly of large space systems, payload deployment/retrieval, and crew rescue.

  11. Containment decompression-filtering system in French PWRs

    As part of the plan to improve the safety of French PWRs, Electricite de France (EDF) has had to take additional steps to deal with situations beyond the design basis accident. The situations which are considered to be within the limit of a design basis accident are covered by what are called ''H'' procedures, which aim to prevent any risk of serious fuel degradation. These procedures have made it possible to reduce considerably the residual risk. Nevertheless, the authors study extreme case procedures intended to facilitate the implementation of emergency plans and to ensure better control of the containment of radioactive substances during highly improbable situations following major damage to the reactor core. In response to requests made by the French safety authorities, EDF has studied the possibility of installing an additional decompression-filtering device which was not planned at the design stage. The device selected makes use of a penetration already existing in the containment. It includes isolating valves and control elements designed for the situations envisaged, a filtering tank and removal of gases filtered at the common control point for gaseous effluent from the facility. Its installation, which is designed to facilitate the implementation of emergency plans and to limit any release of radioactive substances during serious accidents, therefore complements the traditional safety procedures in France. (author)

  12. Leishmanicidal Activity of Films Containing Paromomycin and Gentamicin Sulfate both In Vitro and In Vivo

    Tolouei, S; Hasheminia, SJ; Narimani, M; Khamesipour, A; Shatalebi, MA; Hejazi, SH

    2011-01-01

    Background Based on the efficacy of paromomycin ointment and recent ongoing clinical trials of combination of paromomycin and gentamicin, a new physical form of films of the paromomycin and gentamicin was prepared and anti-Leishmania activities of the prepared films were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Methods Paromomycin 15% and gentamicin 0.5% was incorporated in a film using ethyl cellulose and HPMC (Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose). In order to assess the drug release and anti-Leishmania activities of the preparation, a clone L. major parasite was established using a set of modified NNN medium without overlay liquid layer. Therapeutic effects of the films were evaluated using Balb/c mice model. The mice were inoculated with 2×106 L. major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then when the lesions developed the mice were randomly divided in 3 groups, 10 mice per group, and treated with either perpetrated films or placebo for 28 days or left untreated. Results Growth inhibition of cloned promastigotes showed that the films have enough releasing capacity and in vivo system, the films containing paromomycin and gentamicin was able to reduce the lesion size and induced complete cure in 80% of the mice but relapse was seen in 60% of the cured mice and overall 50% cure rate was seen during 20 weeks period of the study. Conclusion It seems that the prepared films might be further used in human clinical trials. PMID:22347298

  13. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    Ji Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  14. Thermal behavior and catalytic activity in naphthalene destruction of Ce-, Zr- and Mn-containing oxide layers on titanium

    The present paper is devoted to studies of the composition and surface structure, including those after annealing at high temperatures, and catalytic activity in the reaction of naphthalene destruction of Ce-, Zr- and Mn-containing oxide layers on titanium obtained by means of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The composition and structure of the obtained systems were investigated using the methods of X-ray phase and energy dispersive analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that Ce- and Zr- containing structures had relatively high thermal stability: their element and phase compositions and surface structure underwent virtually no changes after annealing in the temperature range 600-800 deg. C. Annealing of Ce- and Zr-containing coatings in the temperature range 850-900 deg. C resulted in substantial changes of their surface composition and structure: a relatively homogeneous and porous surface becomes coated by large pole-like crystals. The catalytic studies showed rather high activity of Ce- and Zr-containing coatings in the reaction of naphthalene destruction at temperatures up to 850 deg. C. Mn-containing structures of the type MnOx + SiO2 + TiO2/Ti have a well-developed surface coated by 'nano-whiskers'. The phase composition and surface structure of manganese-containing layers changes dramatically in the course of thermal treatment. After annealing above 600 deg. C nano-whiskers vanish with formation of molten structures on the surface. The Mn-containing oxide systems demonstrated lower conversion degrees than the Ce- and Zr-containing coatings, which can be attributed to substantial surface modification and formation of molten manganese silicates at high temperatures.

  15. Validation of computer code TRAFIC used for estimation of charcoal heatup in containment ventilation systems

    Full text of publication follows: Standard Indian PHWRs are provided with a Primary Containment Filtration and Pump-Back System (PCFPB) incorporating charcoal filters in the ventilation circuit to remove radioactive iodine that may be released from reactor core into the containment during LOCA+ECCS failure which is a Design Basis Accident for containment of radioactive release. This system is provided with two identical air circulation loops, each having 2 full capacity fans (1 operating and 1 standby) for a bank of four combined charcoal and High Efficiency Particulate Activity (HEPA) filters, in addition to other filters. While the filtration circuit is designed to operate under forced flow conditions, it is of interest to understand the performance of the charcoal filters, in the event of failure of the fans after operating for some time, i.e., when radio-iodine inventory is at its peak value. It is of interest to check whether the buoyancy driven natural circulation occurring in the filtration circuit is sufficient enough to keep the temperature in the charcoal under safe limits. A computer code TRAFIC (Transient Analysis of Filters in Containment) was developed using conservative one dimensional model to analyze the system. Suitable parametric studies were carried out to understand the problem and to identify the safety of existing system. TRAFIC Code has two important components. The first one estimates the heat generation in charcoal filter based on 'Source Term'; while the other one performs thermal-hydraulic computations. In an attempt validate the Code, experimental studies have been carried out. For this purpose, an experimental set up comprising of scaled down model of filtration circuit with heating coils embedded in charcoal for simulating the heating effect due to radio iodine has been constructed. The present work of validation consists of utilizing the results obtained from experiments conducted for different heat loads, elevations and adsorbent

  16. Influence of Composite Phosphate Inorganic Antibacterial Materials Containing Rare Earth on Activated Water Property of Ceramics

    梁金生; 梁广川; 祁洪飞; 吴子钊; 冀志江; 金宗哲

    2004-01-01

    Antibacterial ceramic was prepared by doping enamel slurry with composite phosphate inorganic antibacterial materials containing rare earth (inorganic antibacterial additives), and then the mechanisms for activating water and improving seed germinative property were tested by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the method of testing oxygen dissolved in activated water. Results show that the half peak width of 17O-NMR for tap water activated by the antibacterial ceramic drops from 115.36 to 99.15 Hz, and oxygen concentrations of activated water increase by 20%, germinate rate of horsebean and earthnut seeds increases by 12.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Therefore antibacterial ceramic doped enamel slurry with inorganic antibacterial additives containing rare earth can reduce the volume of clusters of water molecules, improve activation of tap water, and promote plant seeds germinate.

  17. Active Image Authentication System (AIAS

    S. B. Nikam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s networking age provides greater importance to the authentication mechanism for security. Authentication is the process of identification of user or client respect to service parameters. These service parameters consist of unique combination of password associated with username or userid. Graphical based authentication mechanism had provided strong alternative for knowledge based, token based {&} biometric authentication mechanism. In this paper we are going to propose new graphical based authentication mechanism. This Active Image Authentication System (AIAS provides strong solution on guessing attack using random positioning of Active Points (AP with respect to time domain

  18. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods. PMID:25466086

  19. 78 FR 22293 - Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (“MEMS Devices”) and Products Containing Same; Institution...

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Microelectromechanical Systems (``MEMS Devices'') and Products Containing Same... United States after importation of certain microelectromechanical systems (``MEMS Devices'') and products... after importation of certain microelectromechanical systems (``MEMS Devices'') and products...

  20. The achievement and assessment of safety in systems containing software

    In order to establish confidence in the safe operation of a reactor protection system, there is a need to establish, as far as it is possible, that: (i) the algorithms used are correct; (ii) the system is a correct implementation of the algorithms; and (iii) the hardware is sufficiently reliable. This paper concentrates principally on the second of these, as it applies to the software aspect of the more accurate and complex trip functions to be performed by modern reactor protection systems. In order to engineer safety into software, there is a need to use a development strategy which will stand a high chance of achieving a correct implementation of the trip algorithms. This paper describes three broad methodologies by which it is possible to enhance the integrity of software: fault avoidance, fault tolerance and fault removal. Fault avoidance is concerned with making the software as fault free as possible by appropriate choice of specification, design and implementation methods. A fault tolerant strategy may be advisable in many safety critical applications, in order to guard against residual faults present in the software of the installed system. Fault detection and removal techniques are used to remove as many faults as possible of those introduced during software development. The paper also discusses safety and reliability assessment as it applies to software, outlining the various approaches available. Finally, there is an outline of a research project underway in the UKAEA which is intended to assess methods for developing and testing safety and protection systems involving software. (author)

  1. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is

  2. Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval And Transfer System Prelminary Design Hazard And Operability Study

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m3 of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m3 of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m3 of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected. The sand filter

  3. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    Esteban-Tejeda, L; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Malpartida, F [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Esteban-Cubillo, A, E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es [Tolsa S A R and D Department, Camino de Vallecas-Mejorada del Campo Km 1.6, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d{sub 50}{approx}30 {+-} 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca{sup 2+} lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  4. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d50∼30 ± 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca2+ lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  5. Apex, actively positioned exploration system.

    Greger, B

    1990-01-01

    A conceptually new, modularly designed exploration system for the deep sea (600 m) has been constructed and tested. In its base unit, different soil sampling tools can be integrated. These are, for the time being, a drill core barrel with 0 48 mm iD and a length of 500 mm for rocky basements as a box corer for softer soils as well as an orange peel grab. Towed along via a coaxial cable from a research vessel, the system is TV-guided and can be actively positioned by means of 2 thrusters in or...

  6. SOLAR POWERED WATER COLLECTION, CONTAINMENT, AND SELF REGULATING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    In 2009, over 40 million pounds of Carbon Dioxide were released annually in an effort to water large planters. In addition, over 364 million gallons of water are used to maintain their health. By implementing a system within the planters that allows for onsite water storage wi...

  7. Tracer verification and monitoring of containment systems (II)

    A tracer verification and monitoring system, SEAtrace trademark, has been designed and field tested which uses gas tracers to evaluate, verify, and monitor the integrity of subsurface barriers. This is accomplished using an automatic, rugged, autonomous monitoring system combined with an inverse optimization code. A gaseous tracer is injected inside the barrier and an array of wells outside the barrier are monitored. When the tracer gas is detected, a global optimization code is used to calculate the leak parameters, including leak size, location, and when the leak began. The multipoint monitoring system operates in real-time, can be used to measure both the tracer gas and soil vapor contaminants, and is capable of unattended operation for long periods of time (months). The global optimization code searches multi-dimensional open-quotes spaceclose quotes to find the best fit for all of the input parameters. These parameters include tracer gas concentration histories from multiple monitoring points, medium properties, barrier location, and the source concentration. SEAtrace trademark does not attempt to model all of the nuances associated with multi-phase, multi-component flow, but rather, the inverse code uses a simplistic forward model which can provide results which are reasonably accurate. The system has calculated leak locations to within 0.5 meters and leak radii to within 0.12 meters

  8. Eradication of spontaneous metastases and activation of alveolar macrophages by intravenous injection of liposomes containing muramyl dipeptide.

    Fidler, I. J.; Sone, S.; Fogler, W. E.; Barnes, Z L

    1981-01-01

    The multiple systemic administration of multilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine (molar ratio 3:7) that contained water-soluble muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activated alveolar macrophages to become tumoricidal and eradicated established spontaneous pulmonary and lymph node metastases. Spontaneously metastasizing melanoma cells were injected into the footpads of mice. After 4-5 weeks, the tumors were resected by a midfemoral amputation; 3 days later, twice-week...

  9. Source term aspects associated with future PWR containment systems

    The overall objective of reactor safety is to protect the population against dangerous releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants. In context with a reinforcement of the defense-in-depth strategy the common safety requirements on future nuclear power plants converge in the objective that these plants should be so safe that even in case of a severe accident there will be no need of off-site emergency actions such as an evacuation or resettlement of the population from the vicinity of a nuclear power plant. It is shown by the example of a future 1400 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant that this goal can be attained in principle by providing a double containment with the annulus vented via an appropriate emergency standby filter. Within the framework of severe accident consequence mitigation a set of parameters for accident conditions and emergency filter efficiencies is elaborated under which the German lower levels of intervention for evacuation are not attained. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  10. The safeguards active response inventory system (SARIS)

    The Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS) is a computerized accountability system developed for nuclear materials control that incorporates elements of process monitoring, criticality safety, physical inventory and safeguards. It takes data from the process operations, stores it in an on-line database and translates the information into the formats needed by the various users. It traces the material through the process from feed to product; including recycle, waste and scraps streams. It models the process as the material changes form to ensure that artificial losses are not created. It automatically generates input to Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), performs checks to prevent the possibility of a criticality accident, prepares an audit trail for Safeguards, prints labels for nuclear material containers, and produces DOE/NRC 741 forms. SARIS has been installed at three laboratories across the country

  11. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed...

  12. Hydrogen behaviour in the filtra filtered-vented containment system

    Hydrogen behaviour in gravel beds has been studied experimentally to obtain design data for vent filter systems with gravel condensers. Filtered atmospheric venting of Light Water Reactors is considered as a means of reducing the risk of extensive land contamination in connection with Class 9 accidents. The purpose of the FILTRA project is to provide the technical basis for an evaluation of the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost of some vent filter design concepts

  13. Bionanocomposites containing magnetic graphite as potential systems for drug delivery.

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Alcântara, Ana C S; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Herrmann, Paulo S P; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M; García-Hernández, Mar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-12-30

    New magnetic bio-hybrid matrices for potential application in drug delivery are developed from the assembly of the biopolymer alginate and magnetic graphite nanoparticles. Ibuprofen (IBU) intercalated in a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was chosen as a model drug delivery system (DDS) to be incorporated as third component of the magnetic bionanocomposite DDS. For comparative purposes DDS based on the incorporation of pure IBU in the magnetic bio-hybrid matrices were also studied. All the resulting magnetic bionanocomposites were processed as beads and films and characterized by different techniques with the aim to elucidate the role of the magnetic graphite on the systems, as well as that of the inorganic brucite-like layers in the drug-loaded LDH. In this way, the influence of both inorganic components on the mechanical properties, the water uptake ability, and the kinetics of the drug release from these magnetic systems were determined. In addition, the possibility of modulating the levels of IBU release by stimulating the bionanocomposites with an external magnetic field was also evaluated in in vitro assays. PMID:25455784

  14. Study on Modeling of Container Terminal Logistics System Using Agent-Based Computing and Knowledge Discovery

    Li Bin; Li Wen-Feng; Zhang Yu

    2009-01-01

    Container terminal is the transfer hinge of land-sea intermodal transportation. Container terminal logistics system (CTLS) is the central handling platform of container logistics in logistics network as the computer system is the core processing node to information flow in internet. Quay side is its “central processing unit (CPU)” of handling platform and storage yard is its “main memory.” CTLS is a highly complex system which includes parallel, negotiation, and competition relations etc. in ...

  15. Study on Alkali-Activated Concrete Containing High Volume GGBS with 30% Cement in Ambient Condition

    Nagraj M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag was partially replaced with OPC by 30% by weight. The workability and mechanical properties of alkali-activated concrete were studied. All results of alkali activated slag concrete were compared to control concrete on plain GGBS. The ground granulated blast furnace slag is activated with different concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate activating solutions. The activated slag pastes are cured at 23  2°C for 28 days in sealed plastic containers, the resulting hardened alkali activated pastes are impregnated with epoxy and then polished. The results indicated that the workability decreased as the slag content increased.

  16. Immobilization and direct electrochemistry of copper-containing enzymes on active carbon

    SUN Dongmei; CAI Chenxin; XING Wei; LU Tianhong

    2004-01-01

    Two typical and important copper-containing enzymes, laccase (Lac) and tyrosinase (Tyr), have been immobilized on the surface of active carbon with simple adsorption method. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that the active carbon could promote the direct electron transfer of both Lac and Tyr and a pair of well-defined and nearly symmetric redox peaks appeared on the cyclic voltammograms of Lac or Tyr with the formal potential, E0′, independent on the scan rate. The further experimental results showed that the immobilized copper-containing oxidase displayed an excellent electrocatalytic activity to the electrochemical reduction of O2. The immobilization method presented here has several advantages, such as simplicity, easy to operation and keeping good activity of enzyme etc., and could be further used to study the direct electrochemistry of other redox proteins and enzymes and fabricate the catalysts for biofuel cell.

  17. Syntheses, biological activities and SAR studies of novel carboxamide compounds containing piperazine and arylsulfonyl moieties.

    Wang, Bao-Lei; Shi, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Ma, Yi; Wang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xing-Hai; Li, Yong-Hong; Li, Zheng-Ming; Li, Bao-Ju

    2016-07-19

    A series of novel carboxamide compounds 19a-19j, 20a-20j and 22a-22d containing piperazine and arylsulfonyl moieties have been synthesized. The bioassay results showed that some compounds exhibited favorable herbicidal activities against dicotyledonous plants and many of them possessed excellent antifungal activities. Among 24 novel compounds, some showed superiority over the commercial fungicides Chlorothalonil, Dimethomorph, Thiophanate-methyl, Iprodione, and Zhongshengmycin at 500 mg/L concentration. Some compounds also exhibited high KARI inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL concentration and could be used as new KARI lead inhibitors for further studies. Moreover, SAR of these new compounds were comprehensively investigated using different computational methods in which 3D-QSAR model obtained provided useful information for further structural optimization for the discovery of new fungicides. The results of this research will contribute to explore comprehensive biological activities of piperazine-containing compounds in different areas of chemistry. PMID:27092414

  18. Highly efficient and enzymatic regioselective undecylenoylation of gastrodin in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems.

    Rongling Yang

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and regioselective acylation of pharmacologically interesting gastrodin with vinyl undecylenic acid has been firstly performed through an enzymatic approach. The highest catalytic activity and regioselectivity towards the acylation of 7'-hydroxyl of gastrodin was obtained with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase. In addition, it was observed the lipase displayed higher activity in the eco-friendly solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems than in other organic solvents. In the co-solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3/1, v/v, the reaction rate was 60.6 mM/h, substrate conversion exceeded 99%, and 7'-regioselectivity was 93%. It was also interesting that the lipase-catalyzed acylation couldn't be influenced by the benzylic alcohol in gastrodin. However, pseudomonas cepacia lipase displayed different regioselectivity towards gastrodin and arbutin.

  19. Antibacterial activity of BMS-180680, a new catechol-containing monobactam.

    Fung-Tomc, J; Bush, K; Minassian, B; Kolek, B; Flamm, R; Gradelski, E; Bonner, D

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activities of a new catechol-containing monobactam, BMS-180680 (SQ 84,100), were compared to those of aztreonam, ceftazidime, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. BMS-180680 was often the most active compound against many species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) of < or = 0.5 microg/ml for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter a...

  20. PREFORMULATION STUDIES OF TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEMS CONTAINING BETAHISTINE

    Şahbaz, Sevinç; Dortunç, Betül

    2015-01-01

    Betahistine has been used in the treatment of diseases accompanied by impaired peripheral circulation, e.g. Méniѐre’s syndrome, to reduce the frequency of episodes of vertigo and tinnitus. The drug has a short half-life and should be taken three times daily. Its contraindication in patients with peptic ulcer history and the difficulty of frequently dosing requires administration ways other than the oral route. The aim of this study was to prepare transdermal therapeutic system formulations co...

  1. Application of Density Functional Theory to Systems Containing Metal Atoms

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of density functional theory (DFT) for problems involving metal atoms is considered. The DFT results are compared with experiment as well as results obtained using the coupled cluster approach. The comparisons include geometries, frequencies, and bond energies. The systems considered include MO2, M(OH)+n, MNO+, and MCO+2. The DFT works well for frequencies and geometries, even in case with symmetry breaking; however, some examples have been found where the symmetry breaking is quite severe and the DFT methods do not work well. The calculation of bond energies is more difficult and examples of successes as well as failures of DFT will be given.

  2. Analysis of the exoplanet containing system Kepler 91

    Budding, Edwin; Rhodes, Michael D; Demircan, Osman; Erdem, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We have applied the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program WinFitter to an intensive study of Kepler 91 using all the available photometry from the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website: http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu Our fitting function for the tidal distortion derives from the relevant Radau equation and includes terms up to the fifth power of the fractional radius. This results in a systematic improvement in the mass ratio estimation over that of Lillo Box et al (2014a) and our derived value for the mass ratio is in close agreement with that inferred from recent high-resolution spectroscopic data. It is clear that the data analysis in terms of simply an eclipsing binary system is compromised by the presence of significant other causes of light variation, in particular non-radial pulsations. We apply a low-frequency filtering procedure to separate out some of this additional light variation. Whilst the derived eccentricity appears then reduced, an eccentric e...

  3. Role of unsaturated soil in a waste containment system

    Lim, P.C.; Tay, J.H. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)

    1996-12-31

    The role of the unsaturated properties of sand as a drainage layer in a composite liner system for landfills is investigated. The effect of the unsaturated properties of coarse-grained soil on contaminant migration was evaluated by means of a series of simulations using a one-dimensional model of a two- and a three-layer soil liner system for advection and diffusion, respectively. The results showed that under seepage conditions, the effect of an unsaturated sand layer on the advancement of the concentration front was quite insignificant. The arrival time of the C/C{sub o} = 0.5 concentration front increased from 651 days for the case with no sand layer to approximately 951 days for the case with a 1.0-m sand layer. A steady-state flow condition was ultimately established in the sand, and this fact suggests that the capillary action might not be effective. For diffusion, the arrival time of the concentration front increased nonlinearly with a decrease in the degree of saturation and linearly with increasing depths of the sand layer. At a residual degree of saturation, the arrival times of the C/C{sub o} = 0.01 and 0.5 concentration front at the base of the 1-m sand layer were 26.9 and 877.4 years as compared to 1.52 and 2.62 years by advection, respectively. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and hemolysin activities and heat susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes after growth in media containing sodium chloride.

    Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1990-01-01

    The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and a thiol-activated hemolysin produced by four strains of Listeria monocytogenes propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride were examined. L. monocytogenes 7644 showed an increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and thiol-activated hemolysin activities when grown in a medium containing 2.5% (wt/vol) NaCl followed by a decrease in activities when propagated in media containing salt concentrations higher than 2...

  5. Bactericidal activity of metal-mediated peroxide-ascorbate systems.

    Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L

    1974-11-01

    Model systems containing ascorbate, hydrogen peroxide, and divalent copper or cobalt have been shown to possess marked bactericidal activity. At equivalent concentrations, copper-containing systems were more bactericidal than the corresponding mixtures containing cobalt. Cobalt at concentrations below 10(-4) M did not appreciably augment microbicidal activity, whereas systems containing copper at concentrations as low as 5 x 10(-6) M were still capable of causing some bacterial death. Manganese was inactive. None of these systems was as potent as the well known myeloperoxidase-peroxide-halide system. The mechanisms of action of these systems are not as yet clear. The possibility that they function through the generation of superoxide (O(2) (-)), hydroxyl radical (OH.), or other free radicals was explored through the use of superoxide dismutase and several free radical scavengers. It seems likely at present that the two active metal-mediated systems function via separate mechanisms. The copper system acts with dehydroascorbate, whereas the cobalt system does not. Activity in the cobalt system appears to depend upon the generation of free radicals. PMID:16558093

  6. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel strobilurin analogues containing substituted N-phenylpyrimidin-2-amines

    Hui Chao Li; Bao Shan Chai; Zhi Nian Li; Ji Chun Yang; Chang Ling Liu

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel strobilurin analogues containing substituted N-phenylpyrimidin-2-amines were synthesized. The structures of these new compounds were confirmed by ~1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis. Biological evaluation in the greenhouse showed several compounds have good fungicidal activities at 25 mg/L.

  7. Antimicrobial activity and pH of a endodontic sealer containing MTA

    Maliza, Amanda GA; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Arias, Marcela C;

    Plus immediately, 24 or 48 hours prior to the tests. The antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans was evaluated by the direct contact and the agar diffusion methods. Calcium release was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pH from solutions containing the...

  8. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  9. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2013-01-01

    As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium with a...... heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE...

  10. Viscosity mixing rules for binary systems containing one ionic liquid.

    Tariq, Mohammed; Altamash, Tausif; Salavera, Daniel; Coronas, Alberto; Rebelo, Luis P N; Canongia Lopes, Jose N

    2013-06-24

    In this work the applicability of four of the most commonly used viscosity mixing rules to [ionic liquid (IL)+molecular solvent (MS)] systems is assessed. More than one hundred (IL+MS) binary mixtures were selected from the literature to test the viscosity mixing rules proposed by 1) Hind (Hi), 2) Grunberg and Nissan (G-N), 3) Herric (He) and 4) Katti and Chaudhri (K-C). The analyses were performed by estimating the average (absolute or relative) deviations, AADs and ARDs, between the available experimental data and the predicted ideal mixture viscosity values obtained by means of each rule. The interaction terms corresponding to the adjustable parameters inherent to each rule were also calculated and their trends discussed. PMID:23650138

  11. Thermal hydraulics of an external water wall type passive containment cooling system

    An external water wall type containment cooling system is one of the passive containment cooling systems that use no active components and are intended for system simplification in the next generation power reactors. The core decay heat during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident is accumulated in the suppression pool (SP) and transferred to the outer pool, which is a cooling pool located outside and adjacent to the SP, by only natural phenomena such as natural convection, heat conduction, and evaporation. The temperature profiles and the convection heat transfer coefficients in the pools were measured using a 5-m height apparatus. The formation of a thermal stratification boundary at the vent outlets, which restricts the effective heat transfer area between pools, was clarified, and a correlation for natural convection heat transfer coefficients was obtained. Condensation heat transfer coefficients on the containment vessel wall and evaporation heat transfer coefficients on the SP surface under a noncondensable gas presence, which strongly affected the heat removal from the wet well, were evaluated based on the test results, and the correlations were obtained. The heat removal evaluation models, which analyze the trends of the temperatures and pressure, were developed and verified with system tests. As for the improvement of heat removal capability, two methods were proposed. One is a baffle plate to mitigate thermal stratification in the SP and enlarge the effective heat transfer area between pools. The second method is a divided wet well to avoid noncondensable gas effects. The thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SP with a baffle plate was clarified by three-dimensional analysis, and the effectiveness of these methods was experimentally confirmed

  12. Infra-red spectra of systems containing hydrogen-bonds

    A new theory of the infrared spectra of H-bonded systems is presented, which analyses the different stretching motions in an X-H...Y bond, and studies the validity of their separation. We attribute the structure in the spectra of H-bond stretching motions to the anharmonic coupling of the modes X-H...Y with the modes X-H...H. Starting with the hypothesis that the X-H...Y motion is harmonic, but depends parametrically upon the X...Y distance, and taking into account the interaction between different H-bonds, we have been able to simulate quantitatively (intensity and position) the I.R. spectra of species such as imidazole and acetic acid dimers, which are the experimentally best resolved spectra. The isotope effect (substitution of H by D) is explained quite naturally, and the experimental spectrum of deuterated species is simulated quantitatively, without introducing any other hypothesis; this fact gives us a positive test for the validity of our theory. We have extended those previous considerations to the case of H-bonded crystals, in view of a future reconstitution of their I.R. spectra. The physical meaning of our theory is quite different to most of the previously proposed theories, which have not been confirmed quantitatively, to the best of our knowledge. Those theories did not take into account the interactions between different H-bonds. Thus our quantitative simulation of complex spectra of imidazole and acetic acid, together with the correct prediction of the isotope effect, help us thinking that the proposed mechanism is responsible for the different stretching motions in H-bonded systems. (author)

  13. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  14. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2007-09-11

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the re quest, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  15. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2010-09-21

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the request, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  16. Modular System to Enable Extravehicular Activity

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA), both human and robotic, has been identified as a key component to space missions to support such operations as assembly and maintenance of space systems (e.g. construction and maintenance of the International Space Station), and unscheduled activities to repair an element of the transportation and habitation systems that can only be accessed externally and via unpressurized areas. In order to make human transportation beyond lower Earth orbit (LEO) practical, efficiencies must be incorporated into the integrated transportation systems to reduce system mass and operational complexity. Affordability is also a key aspect to be considered in space system development; this could be achieved through commonality, modularity and component reuse. Another key aspect identified for the EVA system was the ability to produce flight worthy hardware quickly to support early missions and near Earth technology demonstrations. This paper details a conceptual architecture for a modular EVA system that would meet these stated needs for EVA capability that is affordable, and that could be produced relatively quickly. Operational concepts were developed to elaborate on the defined needs, and to define the key capabilities, operational and design constraints, and general timelines. The operational concept lead to a high level design concept for a module that interfaces with various space transportation elements and contains the hardware and systems required to support human and telerobotic EVA; the module would not be self-propelled and would rely on an interfacing element for consumable resources. The conceptual architecture was then compared to EVA Systems used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on the International Space Station to develop high level design concepts that incorporate opportunities for cost savings through hardware reuse, and quick production through the use of existing technologies and hardware designs. An upgrade option

  17. Potential Role of Sulfur-Containing Antioxidant Systems in Highly Oxidative Environments

    Emmanuel Mukwevho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available All forms of life maintain a reducing environment (homeostasis within their cells. Perturbations in the normal redox state can lead to an oxidative environment which has deleterious effects, especially in health. In biological systems, metabolic activities are dependent mainly on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, a metabolic pathway that uses energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to produce ATP. In the process of oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from electron donors to electron acceptors such as oxygen in redox reactions and often results to the generation of reactive species. Reactive oxygen species consist of a class of radical and non-radical oxygen derivatives. The imbalance between the reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence systems leads to oxidative burden and hence, damage biological molecules. Antioxidants help to prevent or fix the deleterious effects of reactive species. Sulfur is an important element in biological systems. This atom is usually integrated into proteins as the redox-active cysteine residue and in molecules such as glutathione, thioredoxin and glutaredoxin which are vital antioxidant molecules and are therefore essential for life. This review covers the role of sulfur containing antioxidant systems in oxidative environments.

  18. Tribological Properties of Nano-dimensional Systems Containing Carbon Surfaces

    A.V. Khomenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We review tribological properties of boundary films of hydrocarbons and water confined between atomically smooth and rough surfaces. Both theory and experiment show that ultrathin film of liquid with thickness less than six molecular diameters restricted in small volumes is solid-like. Such a state is characterized by the decrease of mobility of molecules related to the increase of relaxation times and decrease of the diffusion coefficient. Additionally, quasidiscrete layers of molecules appear and in-plane ordering of the layers occurs. Atomic-scale roughness of the walls destroys the order of the molecules. We also describe experimental studies of friction of graphite at the atomic level. The experiments suggest a principal possibility of superlubricity for the tungsten tip of friction force microscope sheared on the surface of graphite. A possible explanation of this phenomenon consists in the existence of the graphite nanoflake attached to the tip. However, reliable confirmation of this hypothesis is absent in the literature. We also review methods of the graphene preparation through exfoliation of a graphite sample and formation of defects in graphene as a result of its irradiation by different particles. We describe the experimental method of measurement of friction of metallic nanoparticles sliding on the surface of graphite. We consider basic advantages of this approach compared to the known methods and friction duality in these systems. The review indicates the necessity of further comprehensive theoretical study of friction of metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on atomically smooth surfaces.

  19. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis on Containment Filtered Venting System

    Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, the thermal hydraulic conditions (e. g. pressure and flow rate) at each component have been examined and the sensitivity analysis on CFVS design parameters (e. g. water inventory, volumetric flow rate). The purpose is to know the possible range of flow conditions at each component to determine the optimum size of filtration system. GOTHIC code has been used to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behavior inside of CFVS. The behavior of flows in the CFVS has been investigated. The vessel water level and the flow rates during the CFVS operation are examined. It was observed that the vessel water level would be changed significantly due to steam condensation/thermal expansion and steam evaporation. Therefore, the vessel size and the initial water inventory should be carefully determined to keep the minimum water level required for filtration components and not to flood the components in the upper side of the vessel. It has been also observed that the volumetric flow rate is maintained during the CFVS operation, which is beneficial for pool scrubbing units. However, regarding the significant variations at the orifice downstream, careful design would be necessary.

  20. Interface requirements for coupling a containment code to a reactor system thermal hydraulic codes

    Baratta, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    To perform a complete analysis of a reactor transient, not only the primary system response but the containment response must also be accounted for. Such transients and accidents as a loss of coolant accident in both pressurized water and boiling water reactors and inadvertent operation of safety relief valves all challenge the containment and may influence flows because of containment feedback. More recently, the advanced reactor designs put forth by General Electric and Westinghouse in the US and by Framatome and Seimens in Europe rely on the containment to act as the ultimate heat sink. Techniques used by analysts and engineers to analyze the interaction of the containment and the primary system were usually iterative in nature. Codes such as RELAP or RETRAN were used to analyze the primary system response and CONTAIN or CONTEMPT the containment response. The analysis was performed by first running the system code and representing the containment as a fixed pressure boundary condition. The flows were usually from the primary system to the containment initially and generally under choked conditions. Once the mass flows and timing are determined from the system codes, these conditions were input into the containment code. The resulting pressures and temperatures were then calculated and the containment performance analyzed. The disadvantage of this approach becomes evident when one performs an analysis of a rapid depressurization or a long term accident sequence in which feedback from the containment can occur. For example, in a BWR main steam line break transient, the containment heats up and becomes a source of energy for the primary system. Recent advances in programming and computer technology are available to provide an alternative approach. The author and other researchers have developed linkage codes capable of transferring data between codes at each time step allowing discrete codes to be coupled together.

  1. Identification, localization and morphology of APUD cells in gastroenteropancreatic system of stomach-containing teleosts

    Pan, Qian Sheng; Fang, Zhi Ping; Huang, Feng Jie

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To identify the type localization and morphology of APUD endocrine cells in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system of stomach-containing teleosts, and study APUD endocrine system in the stomach, intestine and pancreas of fish species.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of a novel hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor Dscam in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Li, Dan; Yu, Ai-Qing; Li, Xue-Jie; Zhu, You-Ting; Jin, Xing-Kun; Li, Wei-Wei; Wang, Qun

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) mediates innate immunity against pathogens in arthropods. Here, a novel Dscam from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (CqDscam) was isolated. The CqDscam protein contains one signal peptide, ten immunoglobulin domains, six fibronectin type III domains, one transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail. CqDscam phylogenetically clustered with other invertebrate Dscams. Variable regions of CqDscam in N-terminal halves of Ig2 and Ig3 domains, complete Ig7 domain and TM domain can be reshuffled after transcription to produce a deluge of >37,620 potential alternative splice forms. CqDscam was detected in all tissues tested and abundantly expressed in immune system and nerve system. Upon lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and b-1, 3-glucans (Glu) challenged, the expression of CqDscam was up-regulated, while no response in expression occurred after injection with peptidoglycans (PG). Membrane-bound and secreted types of CqDscam were separated on the protein level, and were both extensively induced post LPS challenge. Membrane-bound CqDscam protein was not detected in the serum, but localized to the hemocyte surface by immuno-localization assay. In the antimicrobial assays, the recombinant LPS-induced isoform of CqDscam protein displayed bacterial binding and growth inhibitory activities, especially with Escherichia coli. These results suggested that CqDscam, as one of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), involved in innate immune recognition and defense mechanisms in C. quadricarinatus, possibly through alternative splicing. PMID:26497093

  3. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN PORT CARGO FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN ASIAN CONTAINER PORT SYSTEMS

    Itoh, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study discusses the structural changes in port cargo flow distribution in Asia and traffic inequality in Asian container port systems, by conducting an inequality decomposition analysis of the Gini index. Specifically, port systems considered here comprise 229 container ports, which were classified into fifteen port ranges according to their geographic locations and annual port container traffic data from 1980 to 2009. The results confirmed the trend of shrinkin...

  4. The Principle of the Complex Systems of Container Pneumatic Transport Using Multi-Purpose Switch Throwers

    Yuriy Genrihovich Lobotskiy; Valerii Vasilievich Khmara; Alexandr Mihailovich Kabyshev; Albert Gageevich Dedegkaev

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to the testing process automation of the technological processes in enterprises involved in concentrating, metallurgical and other processing industries and the construction of complex distributed systems of container pneumatic transportation. The structure of such systems includes automatic loading and unloading devices for the transport containers and automatic switch throwers for directional changing the routes of laden and empty transport containers. ...

  5. The convertible client/server technology in large container inspection system

    The author presents a new convertible client/server technology in distributed networking environment of a large container inspection system. The characteristic and advantage of this technology is introduced. The authors illustrate the policy of the technology to develop the networking program, and provide one example about how to program the software in large container inspection system using the new technology

  6. 40 CFR 281.37 - Financial responsibility for UST systems containing petroleum.

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility requirements within the time allowed in the Federal regulations under 40 CFR 280.91. (c) States... systems containing petroleum. 281.37 Section 281.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... for No-Less-Stringent § 281.37 Financial responsibility for UST systems containing petroleum. (a)...

  7. 77 FR 13350 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    2012-03-06

    ... complaint filed by Beacon Navigation GmbH of Zug, Switzerland (``Beacon''). 76 FR 72443 (Nov. 23, 2011). The... COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the...

  8. The convertible client/server technology in large container inspection system

    The author presents a new convertible client/server technology in distributed networking environment of the large container inspection system. The characteristic and advantage of the technology are introduced. The authors illustrate the policy of the technology to develop the networking program, and provide one example about how to program the software in large container inspection system using the new technology

  9. Process and container system for transferring or transporting fuel elements from a nuclear power station to a store

    A system of containers with three types of containers (an inside container, a transport container and a storage container) is used. One either sets the inside container open on the lid side into the transport container first in the water pond of the nuclear power station, and one then sets the fuel elements into the inside container, or one places the inside container, loaded with fuel elements away from the transport container, into the transport container. Both containers are then closed and are transported to the store as a unit. The storage container open on the lid side is prepared there, the floor of the transport container is opened and this, together with the inside container, is lifted above the storage container or set above the storage container. The inside container is then lowered onto the storage container, the transport container is removed and the lid of the storage container is closed. (orig./HP)

  10. Tyrosine kinase activity of a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptor containing the insulin receptor C-terminal domain. Comparison with the tyrosine kinase activities of the insulin and insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptors using a cell-free system.

    Mothe, I; Tartare, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Kaliman, P; Van Obberghen, E; Ballotti, R

    1995-03-15

    In a previous study, we showed that a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor, with the beta subunit C-terminal part of the insulin receptor was more efficient in stimulating glycogen synthesis and p44mapk activity compared to the wild-type IFG-1 receptor [Tartare, S., Mothe, I., Kowalski-Chauvel, A., Breittmayer, J.-P., Ballotti, R. & Van Obberghen, E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11449-11455]. These data indicate that the receptor C-terminal domain plays an important role in the transmission of biological effects. To understand the molecular basis of the differences in receptor specificity, we studied the characteristics of insulin, IGF-1 and chimeric receptor tyrosine kinase activities in a cell-free system. We found that, compared to wild-type insulin and IGF-1 receptors, the chimeric receptor showed a decrease in (a) autophosphorylation, (b) tyrosine kinase activity towards insulin receptor substrate-1 and the insulin receptor-(1142-1158)-peptide, and (c) the ability to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, for all the effects measured in a cell-free system, the chimeric receptor displayed an increased response to IGF-1 compared to the native IGF-1 receptor. Concerning the cation dependence of the tyrosine kinase activity, we showed that, at 10 mM Mg2+, the ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of poly(Glu80Tyr20) by both insulin receptor and chimeric receptor was increased by Mn2+. Conversely at 50 mM Mg2+, the chimeric receptor behaved like the IGF-1 receptor, since the presence of Mn2+ decreased the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on their kinase activity. Furthermore, the Km of the chimeric receptor for ATP was increased compared to the wild-type receptors. These data demonstrate that the replacement of the C-terminal tail of the IGF-1 receptor by that of the insulin receptor has changed the receptor characteristics studied in a cell-free system. Our findings indicate that the C-terminal domain of the insulin receptor beta subunit plays a

  11. High Efficient Enrichment and Activated Dissolution of Refractory Low Grade Rh-containing Material

    WU Xiaofeng; DONG Haigang; TONG Weifeng; ZHAO Jiachun; ZENG Rui

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the low-grade rhodium-containing waste materials,a new process was proposed to enrich and activate rhodium by smelting using iron oxide as a trapping agent and activator.A rhodium concentrate was obtained by the separation of base metals and precious metals.The concentrate was reacted with dilute aqua regia to obtain rhodium solution.The factors influencing the enrichment and activation effects were discussed in this paper.The results showed that the dissolution rate is greater than 99% under the optimum conditions.In this process,the activation of rhodium was finished in the enrichment process.The iron oxide is both a trapping agent and activator,which simplifies the process and reduce the cost.

  12. Influence of strain rate on the twin and slip activity of a magnesium alloy containing neodymium

    Dudamell, N.V. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Hidalgo-Manrique, P., E-mail: paloma.hidalgo@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Chakkedath, A.; Chen, Z.; Boehlert, C.J. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226 (United States); Gálvez, F. [ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yi, S.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D. [Magnesium Innovation Centre, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Pérez-Prado, M.T. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-20

    The mechanical behavior of an extruded magnesium–manganese alloy containing 1 wt% of neodymium (MN11) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 °C at both quasi-static and dynamic rates. Conventional ex-situ tests, carried out in compression along the extrusion axis (EA), have been combined with in-situ tests in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to elucidate the effect of a rare earth (RE) addition on the dominant deformation mechanisms. An unusually large activity of twinning was observed at room temperature in a wide range of quasi-static rates. Furthermore, the twinning activity has been found to increase at temperatures around 250 °C, where clear signs of dynamic strain aging (DSA) are also apparent. The enhanced twinning activity compared to conventional Mg alloys, not containing RE elements, is attributed to an increase in the critical resolved shear stress of basal slip (CRSS{sub basal}) due to the presence of intermetallic RE-containing particles and to the Nd atoms in solid solution. The surprising decrease of the twinning activity at dynamic rates (∼10{sup 3} s{sup −1}) may be explained by a decrease in the CRSS{sub basal} as the intermetallic RE-containg particles and the Nd solid solution strengthening become less effective with increasing strain rate.

  13. Influence of strain rate on the twin and slip activity of a magnesium alloy containing neodymium

    The mechanical behavior of an extruded magnesium–manganese alloy containing 1 wt% of neodymium (MN11) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 °C at both quasi-static and dynamic rates. Conventional ex-situ tests, carried out in compression along the extrusion axis (EA), have been combined with in-situ tests in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to elucidate the effect of a rare earth (RE) addition on the dominant deformation mechanisms. An unusually large activity of twinning was observed at room temperature in a wide range of quasi-static rates. Furthermore, the twinning activity has been found to increase at temperatures around 250 °C, where clear signs of dynamic strain aging (DSA) are also apparent. The enhanced twinning activity compared to conventional Mg alloys, not containing RE elements, is attributed to an increase in the critical resolved shear stress of basal slip (CRSSbasal) due to the presence of intermetallic RE-containing particles and to the Nd atoms in solid solution. The surprising decrease of the twinning activity at dynamic rates (∼103 s−1) may be explained by a decrease in the CRSSbasal as the intermetallic RE-containg particles and the Nd solid solution strengthening become less effective with increasing strain rate

  14. Authentication system for the JAERI Fast Critical Facility Advanced Containment and Surveillance System

    In a joint effort conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), an authentication system has been installed at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) facility in Tokai-mura, Japan. The purpose of this authentication system is to provide the IAEA with an independent means of authenticating the operator-provided Advanced Containment and Survellance (AC/S) system already in place at the facility. Authentication Controllers were installed at the AC/S Portal Monkor and Penetration Monitor to collect data and to randomly test sensor functions between IAEA inspections. During each inspection the authentication data is collected with an Inspector's portable computer and printed for comparison to the data recorded by the AC/S system. Installation of the authentication equipment took place in November 1991 and a three-month field test began in December 1991. This paper will describe the authentication system, the operator interface, and the preliminary results of the field tests

  15. ALIBABA: a French Expert System for PWR Containment Analysis in case of Severe Accidents

    cannot be realistically quantified without a complete knowledge of the state of the containment barrier. ALIBABA supports its assessment on containment isolation reports, on the availability of equipment related to the containment integrity function and on the activity readings either in the various rooms of auxiliary buildings or in the ventilation ducts. It enables an early detection and localization of any potential leak path. It also helps IPSN's experts survey the corrective arrangements set by the plant in order to take their efficiency into account in the evaluation of radioactive releases. The expert system helps the specialist but does not substitute his judgment. The expert remains fully responsible for his own assessment. ALIBABA has proved its efficiency to IPSN's experts for the early detection and identification of potential leak paths of the third containment barrier and its connected circuits, for 900 MWe French PWRs. The enlargement of the system to 1300 and 1400 MWe reactors is well under way and should be in operation by the end of this year. (author)

  16. Study of Real Time Location System For Worker in Containment Building at Nuclear Power Plant

    Workers are required special management to minimize radiation exposure in nuclear power plant. Especially, there are many limitation in their activities at containment building in nuclear power plant. Test personnel shall administer the workers by tracing the location of them inside containment building in nuclear power plant. They may be exposed to the unnecessary radiation due to a complex and high radiation area in the building. Test personnel needs to manage efficiently for worker's safety and work hours at containment building. Therefore, it is critical for the test personnel to notice the risk to the workers by identifying the location when the workers are facing the dangerous situation on the high area. In this paper, we introduce requirements and design method to develop the one and two dimensional RTLS(Real Time Locating System) by using CSS(Chirp Spread Spectrum) which enables precise location measurement and robust data communication even indoor environment with serious electromagnetic interference caused by complicated structure such as the inside of containment building in the nuclear power plant. In the algorithm to compute the distance, it is suggested to use SDS-TWR(Symmetrical Double-Sided Two-Way Ranging) to solve the issue of indirect routes, and develop the power circuit with 10mW of designing gain for output power to meet the KCC standard in order to increase the raging distance, in addition, communication between Anchor and distance measuring computer shall be designed to increase energy using time of Tags(nodes) by using CAN(Controller Area Network) communication

  17. Study of Real Time Location System For Worker in Containment Building at Nuclear Power Plant

    Lee, S. Y.; Kim, G. S. [Samchang Enterprise Company, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. S. [Ulsan Univ., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Workers are required special management to minimize radiation exposure in nuclear power plant. Especially, there are many limitation in their activities at containment building in nuclear power plant. Test personnel shall administer the workers by tracing the location of them inside containment building in nuclear power plant. They may be exposed to the unnecessary radiation due to a complex and high radiation area in the building. Test personnel needs to manage efficiently for worker's safety and work hours at containment building. Therefore, it is critical for the test personnel to notice the risk to the workers by identifying the location when the workers are facing the dangerous situation on the high area. In this paper, we introduce requirements and design method to develop the one and two dimensional RTLS(Real Time Locating System) by using CSS(Chirp Spread Spectrum) which enables precise location measurement and robust data communication even indoor environment with serious electromagnetic interference caused by complicated structure such as the inside of containment building in the nuclear power plant. In the algorithm to compute the distance, it is suggested to use SDS-TWR(Symmetrical Double-Sided Two-Way Ranging) to solve the issue of indirect routes, and develop the power circuit with 10mW of designing gain for output power to meet the KCC standard in order to increase the raging distance, in addition, communication between Anchor and distance measuring computer shall be designed to increase energy using time of Tags(nodes) by using CAN(Controller Area Network) communication.

  18. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  19. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ''lock-in'' amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design

  20. Containment Domains: A Scalable, Efficient and Flexible Resilience Scheme for Exascale Systems

    Jinsuk Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and evaluates a scalable and efficient resilience scheme based on the concept of containment domains. Containment domains are a programming construct that enable applications to express resilience needs and to interact with the system to tune and specialize error detection, state preservation and restoration, and recovery schemes. Containment domains have weak transactional semantics and are nested to take advantage of the machine and application hierarchies and to enable hierarchical state preservation, restoration and recovery. We evaluate the scalability and efficiency of containment domains using generalized trace-driven simulation and analytical analysis and show that containment domains are superior to both checkpoint restart and redundant execution approaches.

  1. Predicting the effects of microbial activity on the corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers may occur in a disposal vault located 500-1000 m underground in the granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The extent and diversity of microbial activity in the vault is expected to be limited initially because of the aggressive conditions produced by γ-radiation, elevated temperatures and desiccation of the clay-based buffer in which the containers will be embedded. Experimental results on the heat- and radiation-sensitivity of the natural microbiota in buffer material are presented. The data suggest that the low water activity in the buffer material will severely limit the growth of microbes near the container. The most likely form of MIC involves sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Electrochemical experiments using a clay-covered copper electrode have shown that sulphide ions produced by SRB could diffuse through buffer material and induce corrosion of the container. A method to predict the long-term corrosion behaviour is presented. (author)

  2. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  3. Design of Passive Containment Cooling System of PWR using Multi-pod Heat Pipe

    Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Sang Nyung [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    As we have seen in the Fukushima nuclear crisis, major accident is not just a hypothetical accident. As in a BWR nuclear power plant, a containment is the last bastion against radiation leakage for a PWR nuclear power plant. The wholesomeness the containment is directly connected with the safety of a nuclear power plant. Therefore, a passive cooling system for the containment is required to prevent a major accident of the nuclear power plant. This study perfected the conceptual design about the Passive Containment Cooling System (including a suppression pool) using Multi-pod Heat Pipe(MPHP) that meets the requirements of air-tightness and economic feasibility

  4. EBF contains a novel zinc coordination motif and multiple dimerization and transcriptional activation domains.

    Hagman, J; Gutch, M J; H. Lin; Grosschedl, R.

    1995-01-01

    Early B cell factor (EBF) was identified and cloned as a transcription factor expressed specifically in B lymphocytes and adipocytes. This protein was also identified as olfactory factor 1 (Olf-1) in olfactory neurons. In this study, we analyzed the structural requirements for DNA binding, homodimerization and transcriptional activation by EBF. A carboxyl-terminal region, containing a repeat of alpha-helices related to the helix-loop-helix motif, is important for dimerization of EBF in soluti...

  5. Structure--antiadenoviral activity of nitrogen containing macroheterocycles and their analogues.

    Dyachenko, N S; Nosach, L N; Povnitsa, O Y; Kuz'min, V E; Artemenko, A G; Lozitskaya, R N; Basok, S S; Alexeeva, I V; Zhovnovataya, V L; Vanden Eynde, J J

    2006-01-01

    The search for the inhibitors of adenoviruses has been performed among the substances of new class NCM (nitrogen containing macroheterocycles) and their analogues that have high potential of pharmacological properties. We have found a number of NCM and their derivatives that inhibit the reproduction of adenoviruses to various degrees. For the prediction of NCM structure with antiadenoviral activity we have performed the computer modeling using QSAR approach on the basis of simplex representation of molecular structure (SiRMS). PMID:17388122

  6. Radiolytic synthesis and antimicrobial activity of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles have been prepared by impregnation of PVA hydrogels in AgNO3 solution and subsequent reduction of Ag+ ions induced by gamma radiation. UV-Visible spectra showed the absorption bands of the surface plasmon at 410 nm. The hydrogels of PVA/Ag have shown excellent activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and have potential for use as wound dressings. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic Diamides Analogues Containing Benzo[b]thiophene

    ZHANG Ji-feng; LIU Chen; LIU Peng-fei; YAN Tao; WANG Bao-lei; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A series of novel anthranilic diamides analogues containing benzo[b]thiophenyl ring was designed and synthesized.Their structures were characterized by melting points,1H nuclear magnetic resonance(1H NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).The bioassay tests indicate that their insecticidal activities were weak to moderate.Antibacterial tests indicate that some of the compounds showed favourable activity in vitro against Physalospora piricola,Alternaria solani,Cercospora arachidicola,Gibberella sanbinetti and Phytophthora infestans at a dosage of 50 mg/L.

  8. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New Pyrethroid Acid Oxime-esters Containing Pyrazole Ring

    MA Jun-an; HUANG Run-qiu; FENG Lei; SONG Jian; QIU De-wen

    2003-01-01

    A series of compounds containing oxime-ester linkage and pyrazole ring(in place of the ester linkage and the alcohol moiety in pyrethroid ester) was designed and synthesized. The structures of all the compounds prepared were confirmed by 1H NMR and MS spectroscopy as well as elemental analyses. The bioassay data of those compounds against tobacco mosaic virus(TMV), cucumber mosaic virus(CMV), potato virus X(PVX) and potato virus Y(PVY) were presented. Among them compound 6i was found to possess significant plant antiviral activities. But all the compounds showed low insecticidal and acaricidal activities.

  9. Synthesis ,Structure and Biological Activities of Some Novel Anthranilic Acid Esters Containing N-Pyridyl-pyrazole

    DONG,Weili; XU,Junying; XIONG,Lixia; LIU,Xinghai; LI,Zhengming

    2009-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low residue,a novel series of anthranilic acid esters containing N-pyridylpyrazole were designed and synthesized.All of the compounds were characterized and confirmed by IR,1H NMR,MS and elemental analysis.The single crystal structure of 14d was determined by X-ray diffraction.The bioassay tests showed that the synthesized compounds exhibited good insecti-tidal activities against Mythimna separata Walker and Culex pipiens pallens.

  10. Antibacterial structure–activity relationship studies of several tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids

    Bahrin, Lucian G; Hopf, Henning; Jones, Peter G; Sarbu, Laura G; Babii, Cornelia; Mihai, Alina C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A structure–activity relationship study concerning the antibacterial properties of several halogen-substituted tricyclic sulfur-containing flavonoids has been performed. The compounds have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of the corresponding 3-dithiocarbamic flavanones under acidic conditions. The influence of different halogen substituents on the antibacterial properties has been tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Amongst the N,N-dialkylamino-substituted flavonoids, those having an N,N-diethylamino moiety exhibited good to excellent antimicrobial properties against both pathogens. Fluorine-substituted flavonoids were found to be less active than those bearing other halogen atoms.

  11. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  12. Scoping and selection of safety significant structures, systems and components for containment spray system

    In this analysis, the PSA determines two functions to be high safety significant while Delphi considers only one function critical. The final expert decision holds that only one out of the five functions is high safety significant. The high safety significant function (CS-01) should have both reliability performance criteria (RPC) and availability performance criteria (APC) set as the performance criteria while the low safety significant functions (CS-02∼05) should only have APC as their performance evaluation. In a nuclear power plant, there are several systems that are relied upon to perform both safety and non- safety related functions. Within each system, there are hundreds of components that perform various functions to meet the system high level goal. It is not economically possible to have all these components monitored under the maintenance rule. In order to optimize the maintenance strategy, selection and scoping of functions is critical. The functions that are important to safety are given first priority so as to mitigate the plant against postulated accidents. This paper seeks to apply maintenance rule guidelines to establish the functions and determine the safety significance SSCs for a containment spray system (CSS). This strategy allows the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operator to prioritize its resources on the most critical SSCs and improve operability, reliability and availability of SSCs in a cost effective manner. The scoping process shows that function CS-01 is high safety significant and therefore it is necessary that effective monitoring of the responsible SSCs to ensure reliable operation when demanded

  13. Searching for benchmark systems containing ultra-cool dwarfs and white dwarfs

    Pinfield D.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used the 2MASS all-sky survey and WISE to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves. We have also identified a sample of common proper motion systems in which a main sequence star has a white dwarf as wide companion. These systems can help explore key issues in star evolution theory, as the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, or the chromospheric activity-age relationship for stars still in the main sequence. Spectroscopy for 50 white dwarf candidates, selected from the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, was obtained. We have also observed 6 of the main sequence star companions, and have estimated their effective temperatures, rotational and microturbulent velocities and metallicities.

  14. Activity System Theory Approach to Healthcare Information System

    Bai, Guohua

    2004-01-01

    Healthcare information system is a very complex system and has to be approached from systematic perspectives. This paper presents an Activity System Theory (ATS) approach by integrating system thinking and social psychology. First part of the paper, the activity system theory is presented, especially a recursive model of human activity system is introduced. A project ‘Integrated Mobile Information System for Diabetic Healthcare (IMIS)’ is then used to demonstrate a practical application of th...

  15. Activity is strength: More active systems are stronger glass formers

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between activity and passive transport processes in an active system may lead to complex spatio-temporal dynamics offering a rich and fascinating phenomenology compared to their passive counterparts. Understanding the properties of an active system in the dense limit is important both from biological as well as physical point of view. Here, we extend an immensely successful microscopic theory for the glassy dynamics of passive systems in their dense low-temperature limit, namely the Random First-Order Transition (RFOT) theory, for an active system generalizing and unifying the findings of recent simulations on such systems. The qualitative picture of glassy dynamics for a passive system survives when activity is introduced, however, a number interesting properties emerge. For example, activity changes the typical length scale and relaxation times, pushes the thermodynamic and dynamic glass transition points towards higher density or lower temperature and the fragility of the system changes as a func...

  16. An assessment of the modular HTGR [High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] containment system

    Utility/user requirements for the MHTGR provide extremely stringent criteria for radionuclide release to the environment. In response to these top-level requirements, the MHTGR has evolved as a design emphasizing passive safety features. A crucial element of the MHTGR safety concept is the containment system which places primary emphasis on retention of fission products in the fuel. In addition to the particle-coating containment, the primary system pressure boundary and reactor building designs contribute to radionuclide retention. The philosophy of the MHTGR containment system is discussed in this paper and an assessment of its effectiveness is provided

  17. A substrate dependent biological containment systems for Pseudomonas putida based on the Escherichia coli gef gene

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Ramos, J. L.; Kaneva, Z.;

    1993-01-01

    operon (Pm) and the lacI gene, encoding the Lac repressor, plus xylS2, coding for a positive regulator of Pm. In liquid culture under optimal growth conditions and in sterile and nonsterile soil microcosms, P. putida KT2440 (pWWO) bearing the containment system behaves as designed. In the presence of a......A model substrate-dependent suicide system to biologically contain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is reported. The system consists of two elements. One element carries a fusion between a synthetic lac promoter (PA1-04/03) and the gef gene, which encodes a killing function. This element is contained...

  18. The ESARDA Working Group on Containment and Surveillance: Activities and achievements

    Full text: The paper describes the Working Group's current terms of reference, membership, working method, topics of interest, achievements, and plans for the next two years. The Working Group's mission is to provide the safeguards community with expert advice on containment and surveillance (C/S) instruments and methods and on their performance; and act as a forum for the exchange of information on such instruments and methods, including unattended and remote monitoring systems. Details of the mission are defined in eleven tasks making up the Working Group's terms of reference. Currently, nineteen individuals from sixteen institutions contribute to the Working Group. Two thirds of the individuals represent ESARDA organisations and one third represents other organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Working Group meets twice per year. In consultation with the ESARDA management and in accordance with its terms of reference, the Working Group addresses and discusses topics of interest. To this end, individual Working Group members volunteer to prepare discussion and working papers. The goal is to publish the results of the Working Group's discussions, preferably in the ESARDA Bulletin. Presently, the agenda is influenced by the implementation of the Additional Protocol. The Working Group's current major discussion topic is related to the development of methods to determine the performance and assurance of C/S instruments. Further topics of interest have been electronic seals, the evaluation of optical surveillance data streams, and on-line process monitoring as a tool for inspecting a reprocessing facility. For the ESARDA web site, the Working Group is maintaining the Compendium of C/S Instruments and Methods and drafting Technical Sheets on safeguards-specific topics. Both the Working Group on C/S and the ESARDA Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Non Destructive Assay (NDA) were interested in setting up guidelines for

  19. Challenges to the design of containment filtered venting systems at NPP

    Severe accidents (SA) may result in pressure and temperature increase leading to containment failure and uncontrolled release of radioactive products to the environment. Containment over-pressurization can be prevented by the operation of a Containment Filter Venting System (CFVS) intended to actuate within the specific SA conditions. However, the particular design solution and especially the sizing of appropriate Containment Filter Venting System require precise information regarding the accident progression and parameters. Such information may be obtained only by detailed assessment of each phase of the severe accident considering the specific reactor technology. Therefore, a study was performed in order to evaluate the most challenging conditions and the most suitable solution for implementation of a system for filtered venting of the containment taking into account the uncertain nature of the accidents and the limitations of the mathematical simulations. The current paper presents the main results from the above mentioned study on the influence of the severe accident conditions, including the specific containment environment effects, to the design and sizing of Containment Filter Venting System. The study includes the selection of a bounding case and the initial conditions for simulation of a severe accident scenario which is expected to pose the most stringent requirements to the CFVS. Evaluation of the Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) parameters and analysis of system performance during the severe accident progression is furthermore performed. The main parameters of the accident scenario under evaluation are the timing of the vessel failure and the containment design limit pressure achievement, hydrogen production during the accident and its influence on the system operation. The accuracy of predictions of the severe accident parameters (containment pressure and temperature, fission product mass concentration at different stages of accident, modelling

  20. The ESARDA Working Group on Containment and Surveillance: Activities and achievements

    Goncalves, Joao; FUNK Pierre; Richter, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    The working group on containment and surveillance (C/S) is one of the discipline-oriented working groups of ESARDA ¿ the European Safeguards Research and Development Association. Its mission is (a) to provide the safeguards community with expert advice on C/S instruments and methods and on their performance and (b) to act as a forum for the exchange of information on such instruments and methods, including unattended and remote monitoring systems. Currently, sixteen institutions contribute to...

  1. Barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes containing carbon nanotubes or activated carbon.

    Surdo, Erin M; Khan, Iftheker A; Choudhury, Atif A; Saleh, Navid B; Arnold, William A

    2011-04-15

    Carbon nanotube addition has been shown to improve the mechanical properties of some polymers. Because of their unique adsorptive properties, carbon nanotubes may also improve the barrier performance of polymers used in contaminant containment. This study compares the barrier performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to that for PVA containing powdered activated carbon (PAC). Raw and surface-functionalized versions of each sorbent were tested for their abilities to adsorb 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and Cu(2+), representing the important hydrophobic organic and heavy metal contaminant classes, as they diffused across the PVA. In both cases, PAC (for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene) and functionalized PAC (for Cu(2+)) outperformed SWCNTs on a per mass basis by trapping more of the contaminants within the barrier membrane. Kinetics of sorption are important in evaluating barrier properties, and poor performance of SWCNT-containing membranes as 1,2,4-TCB barriers is attributed to kinetic limitations. PMID:21349636

  2. The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds

    Maniscalco, B., E-mail: B.Maniscalco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Kaminski, P.M.; Bass, K. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); West, G. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    The re-crystallisation of thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) using cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) is a vital process for obtaining high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the precise micro-structural mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study, we have used alternative chlorine-containing compounds to determine if these can also assist the re-crystallisation of the CdTe layer and to understand the separate roles of cadmium and chlorine during the activation. The compounds used were: tellurium tetrachloride (TeCl{sub 4}), cadmium acetate (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}). TeCl{sub 4} was used to assess the role of Cl and the formation of a Te-rich outer layer which may assist the formation of the back contact. (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}) and HCl were used to distinguish between the roles of cadmium and chlorine in the process. Finally, ZnCl{sub 2} was employed as an alternative to CdCl{sub 2}. We report on the efficacy of using these alternative Cl-containing compounds to remove the high density of planar defects present in untreated CdTe. - Highlights: • Cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) activation treatment • Alternative chlorine containing compounds • Microstructure analysis and electrical performances.

  3. The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds

    The re-crystallisation of thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) using cadmium chloride (CdCl2) is a vital process for obtaining high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the precise micro-structural mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study, we have used alternative chlorine-containing compounds to determine if these can also assist the re-crystallisation of the CdTe layer and to understand the separate roles of cadmium and chlorine during the activation. The compounds used were: tellurium tetrachloride (TeCl4), cadmium acetate (Cd(CH3CO2)2), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2). TeCl4 was used to assess the role of Cl and the formation of a Te-rich outer layer which may assist the formation of the back contact. (Cd(CH3CO2)2) and HCl were used to distinguish between the roles of cadmium and chlorine in the process. Finally, ZnCl2 was employed as an alternative to CdCl2. We report on the efficacy of using these alternative Cl-containing compounds to remove the high density of planar defects present in untreated CdTe. - Highlights: • Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) activation treatment • Alternative chlorine containing compounds • Microstructure analysis and electrical performances

  4. The relation between molecular structure and biological activity among mononitrophenols containing halogens

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Johnson, B.G.H.; Smith, Manning A.

    1966-01-01

    The results of tests of the biological activity of certain nitrophenols containing halogen are reported. Some of these are shown to be significantly more toxic to larvae of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.) than to fishes. It is proposed that the death of lamprey larvae exposed to these compounds results from an acute hypotension (shock) with concomitant circulatory and respiratory failure. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), on the other hand, appear to die, at higher concentrations of the toxin, due to a chemically-caused mechanical interference with respiration through the gills. A systematic series of studies of mononitrophenols containing halogens disclosed that those phenols having the nitro group in the para-position and a halogen atom or group in the meta-position are generally more toxic to lampreys than to fish. The halogens or halogen groups used in this study were fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and trifluormethyl. The same substituents in other positions only occasionally gave rise to selectively toxic compounds. The relationship between the selectively active class of nitrophenols containing halogens and other related structures is discussed.

  5. Modeling anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of N-oxide containing heterocycles.

    Boiani, Mariana; Cerecetto, Hugo; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Gasteiger, Johann

    2008-01-01

    In the present study a systematic approach was used to model the anti-T. cruzi activity of a series of N-oxide containing heterocycles belonging to four chemical families with a wide structural diversity. The proposed mode of action implies the reduction of the N-oxide moiety; however, the biochemical mechanism underlying the anti-T. cruzi activity is still unkown. For structural representation two types of descriptors were analyzed: quantum chemical (AM1) global descriptors and properties coded by radial distribution function (RDF). Both types of descriptors point to the relevance of electronic properties. The local-RDF (LRDF) identified an electrophilic center at 4.1-4.9 A from the oxygen atom of the N-oxide moiety, although other properties are required to explain the biological activity. While the mode of action of N-oxide containing heterocycles is still unknown, the results obtained here strengthen the importance of the electrophilic character of the molecule and the possible participation of the heterocycle in a reduction process. The ability of these descriptors to distinguish among activity classes was assessed using Kohonen neural networks, and the best clustering descriptors were later used for model building. Different learning algorithms were used for model development, and stratified 10-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of each classifier. The best results were obtained using k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and decision tree (J48) methods combined with global descriptors. Since tree-based methods are easily translated into classification rules, the J48 model is a useful tool in the de novo construction of new N-oxide containing heterocycle lead structures. PMID:18163603

  6. Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors

    Pawlak, Robert; Melchor, Jerry P.; Matys, Tomasz; Skrzypiec, Anna E.; Strickland, Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol withdrawal (EW). Here we show that tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease implicated in neuronal plasticity and seizures, is induced in the limbic system by chronic ethanol consumption, temporally coinciding with up-regulation of NMDA receptors. tPA interacts with NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and is required for up-regulation of the NR2B subunit in response to ethanol...

  7. Study on transient hydrogen behavior and effect on passive containment cooling system of the advanced PWR

    A certain amount of hydrogen will be generated due to zirconium-steam reaction or molten corium concrete interaction during severe accidents in the pressurized water reactor (PWR). The generated hydrogen releases into the containment, and the formed flammable mixture might cause deflagration or detonation to produce high thermal and pressure loads on the containment, which may threaten the integrity of the containment. The non-condensable hydrogen in containment may also reduce the steam condensation on the containment surface to affect the performance of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS). To study the transient hydrogen behavior in containment with the PCCS performance during the accidents is significant for the further study on the PCCS design and the hydrogen risk mitigation. In this paper, a new developed PCCS analysis code with self-reliance intellectual property rights, which had been validated by comparison on the transients in the containment during the design basis accidents with other developed PCCS analysis code, is brief introduced and used for the transient simulation in the containment under a postulated small break LOCA of cold-leg. The results show that the hydrogen will flow upwards with the coolant released from the break and spread in the containment by convection and diffusion, and it results in the increase of the pressure in the containment due to reducing the heat removal capacity of the PCCS. (author)

  8. In-service surveillance of unbonded post-tensioning systems in prestressed concrete containment structures

    The condition and functional capability of ungrouted post-tensioning systems in prestressed concrete containment structures built in the United States are assessed periodically. This is accomplished systematically through implementation of an in-service tendon surveillance program for each containment structure. The tendon surveillance program provides for scheduled examination of a representative sampling of tendons to assess prestress force level and physical condition of the tendon including end anchorage assemblies and sheathing filler. Present experience involving five containment structures indicates that the surveillance program provides sufficient data from each surveillance to adequately assess the performance, quality and condition of the post-tensioning system in a particular containment structure. A comparison of data from the different containment structures reveals no significant differences. Prestress force level was found to be in good agreement with predicted values (based on expected time dependent losses). All of the systems were found to be in good condition with no potentially deleterious or adverse conditions developing. The higher confidence in the system's functional capability provided independently by the surveillance of each containment structure is further supported by comparable performance of similar systems in other containment structures. (author)

  9. A PROBABILISTIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MONITORING POINT DENSITY FOR CONTAINMENT SYSTEM LEAK DETECTION

    The use of physical and hydraulic containment systems for the isolation of contaminated ground water and aquifer materials ssociated with hazardous waste sites has increased during the last decade. The existing methodologies for monitoring and evaluating leakage from hazardous w...

  10. Manually controlled neutron-activation system

    Johns, R. A.; Carothers, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    A manually controlled neutron activation system, the Manual Reactor Activation System, was designed and built and has been operating at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. With this system, samples can be irradiated for up to 24 hours and pneumatically transferred to a shielded repository for decay until their activity is low enough for them to be handled at a radiobench. The Manual Reactor Activation System was built to provide neutron activation of solid waste forms for the Alternative Waste Forms Leach Testing Program. Neutron activation of the bulk sample prior to leaching permits sensitive multielement radiometric analyses of the leachates.

  11. Design, Synthesis, Acaricidal Activity, and Mechanism of Oxazoline Derivatives Containing an Oxime Ether Moiety.

    Li, Yongqiang; Li, Chaojie; Zheng, Yanlong; Wei, Xingcun; Ma, Qiaoqiao; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yuxiu; Qin, Yaoguo; Yang, Na; Sun, Yufeng; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Wang, Qingmin

    2014-03-27

    Two series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing an oxime ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate N-(2-chloro-1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. The bioassay results showed that the target compounds with an oxime ether substituent at the para position of 4-phenyl exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus in the laboratory. Moreover, all of the target compounds had much higher activities than etoxazole, as the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the target compounds I-a-I-l and II-a-II-n against T. cinnabarinus were all over 90% at 0.001 mg L(-1), but etoxazole gave only 30% and 40% respectively at the same concentration. The activity order of compounds with regard to acaricidal activity in vivo was almost consistent with their affinity activity with sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of Blattella germanica in vitro, hence, it was supposed that the acaricidal mechanism of action of the target compounds was that they can bind with the site of SUR and therefore inhibit chitin synthesis. Moreover, the eminent effect of the compound II-l, [2-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde O-(4-(2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-4-yl)benzyl) oxime], against Panonychus citri and T. cinnabarinus in the field indicated that II-l exhibited a promising application prospect as a new candicate for controlling spider mites in the field. PMID:24673392

  12. A Cbx8-containing polycomb complex facilitates the transition to gene activation during ES cell differentiation.

    Catherine Creppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb proteins play an essential role in maintaining the repression of developmental genes in self-renewing embryonic stem cells. The exact mechanism allowing the derepression of polycomb target genes during cell differentiation remains unclear. Our project aimed to identify Cbx8 binding sites in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Therefore, we used a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation of endogenous Cbx8 coupled to direct massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq. Our analysis identified 171 high confidence peaks. By crossing our data with previously published microarray analysis, we show that several differentiation genes transiently recruit Cbx8 during their early activation. Depletion of Cbx8 partially impairs the transcriptional activation of these genes. Both interaction analysis, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments support the idea that activating Cbx8 acts in the context of an intact PRC1 complex. Prolonged gene activation results in eviction of PRC1 despite persisting H3K27me3 and H2A ubiquitination. The composition of PRC1 is highly modular and changes when embryonic stem cells commit to differentiation. We further demonstrate that the exchange of Cbx7 for Cbx8 is required for the effective activation of differentiation genes. Taken together, our results establish a function for a Cbx8-containing complex in facilitating the transition from a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state to an active state. As this affects several key regulatory differentiation genes this mechanism is likely to contribute to the robust execution of differentiation programs.

  13. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  14. Tests of the carbon steel containment coating systems under design basis accident conditions

    During a Design Basis Accident (DBA) in nuclear power plants, conditions in the reactor containment will be characterized by elevated temperature and pressure. The Thermohydraulic Laboratory of CDTN have done tests, for evaluating protective coating systems test specimens for the steel containment, under simulated DBA conditions. Until this moment were tested 60 specimens of 6 coating systems. This paper presents the test installation, the tests performed and the temperature pattern specified for Angra II Power Plant. (author). 3 refs, 8 figs

  15. The bactericidal activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide.

    King, J S; Morant, S V; Bramley, A J

    1977-11-19

    Using an in vivo test on teat skin the disinfectant activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide was compared with two iodophor solutions, one containing the recommended concentration of 0.5 per cent available iodine and the other a 10-fold dilution of this (0.05 per cent iodine). The test organisms used were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and for both species the 0.5 per cent iodophor was significantly more bactericidal than either the diluted iodophor or the chlorhexidine/cetrimide teat dip (P less than 0.01). In the test against S aureus, chlorhexidine/cetrimide and the 0.05 per cent iodophor showed similar bactericidal activity, but the iodophor was significantly more bactericidal against E coli (P less than 0.01). It is argued that due to its low bactericidal activity this formulation of chlorhexidine/cetrimide is likely to be inferior to 0.5 per cent iodophor solution as a disinfectant teat dip. PMID:339477

  16. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-β-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98 ± 7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

  17. Galvanic corrosion evaluation of high activity nuclear waste container metals components

    The conceptual design for the feasibility study of an underground repository in Argentina for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set. The container for such reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick lead intermediate layer (100 mm wide) preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Surrounding the container, a bentonite and sand mixture will be used as backfilling of the rock hole. In the probable event that a small break in the metal of the container external layer would cause the simultaneous exposition of the intermediate lead layer and the external metal to the media, the corrosion behaviour of lead-metal galvanic couples in the repository simulated media (groundwater and 10% bentonite suspensions) was studied. In order to select the metal of the container external layer, 60 days galvanic couples tests of lead-titanium, lead-AISI 304 stainless steels and lead-SAE 1010 and SAE 1020 carbon steels were performed at 75 deg. C. Those test results showed the convenience of using carbon steel as an external container layer. Finally, the lead-carbon steel galvanic couples behaviour in groundwater was studied considering the following variables: Lead-carbon steel galvanic couple rate area from 1:10 to 1:40; Carbon content effect in steel corrosion kinetic; Decreasing temperature effect on lead-carbon steel galvanic couple polarity inversion in groundwater; Sea water different concentrations effect in lead-carbon steel galvanic couple corrosion kinetic at 75 deg. C. (author). 6 refs, 34 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin.

    Gong, Shi-Qiang; Epasinghe, D Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-Na; Kimmerling, Kirk A; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol-gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly(methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances. PMID:23485857

  19. Study on the Behaviors of a Conceptual Passive Containment Cooling System

    Jianjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The containment is an ultimate and important barrier to mitigate the consequences after the release of mass and energy during such scenarios as loss of coolant accident (LOCA or main steam line break (MSLB. In this investigation, a passive containment cooling system (PCCS concept is proposed for a large dry concrete containment. The system is composed of series of heat exchangers, long connecting pipes with relatively large diameter, valves, and a water tank, which is located at the top of the system and serves as the final heat sink. The performance of the system is numerically studied in detail under different conditions. In addition, the influences of condensation heat transfer conditions and containment environment temperature conditions are also studied on the behaviors of the system. The results reveal that four distinct operating stages could be experienced as follows: startup stage, single phase quasisteady stage, flashing speed-up transient stage, and flashing dominated quasisteady operating stage. Furthermore, the mechanisms of system behaviors are thus analyzed. Moreover, the feasibility of the system is also discussed to meet the design purpose for the containment integrity requirement. Considering the passive feature and the compactness of the system, the proposed PCCS is promising for the advanced integral type reactor.

  20. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10-3 Ci/m3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10-3 Ci/m3, detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  1. Computation programs for the thermofluidodynamic transient analysis in the containment system following a LOCA

    This works briefly describes the features of the computation codes available at the Istituto di Impianti Nucleari of the Pisa University for the analysis of the thermofluidodynamic transient in the containment system of a nuclear power plant following a LOCA (RELAP 4/MOD.S, COMPARE, FUMO and CONTEMPT-LT/026). More details are contained in the Annex. Particular attention has been devoted to the opportunity to study, through the computation codes, the effects of the sub division of a full pressure containment system

  2. Analysis on the effect of risk from containment failure by over-pressurization during the operation of containment filtered venting system

    Passive safety systems which are operated without power source are suggested as a solution SBO. For containment protection system, Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS) is suggested. CFVS controls the containment pressure by releasing the containment gas through filter passively without any power source. But because still small amount of radioactive material have no choice but to release to the environment, starting time and operation method of CFVS have to be determined carefully. Later starting time brings not only lower release but also higher risk from containment failure by over-pressurization, so it is a problem. In this research, the effect of risk from containment failure by over-pressurization during the operation of containment filtered venting system was analyzed. In this research, optimized values for variables of the CFVS operation method are found as 0.67 MPa, 9 cm, 0.1 MPa each for open pressure, pressure interval, and vent pipe diameter when DF as a function of time and risk from containment over-pressurization failure are considered. Generally in this research, release without risk get lower values in higher pressure, and lower vent pipe diameter. Release with risk get sharply high values when the containment pressure exceeds the design pressure because of the effect of risk from containment failure by over-pressurization. In conclusion, highest pressure, and lowest vent pipe diameter which are not influenced by risk is the optimized values for CFVS operation method because amount of risk is much larger than release through the CFVS

  3. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Amino Acid Ester Derivatives Containing 5-Fluorouracil

    Jing Xiong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid ester derivatives containing 5-fluorouracil were synthesized using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC•HCl and N-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt as a coupling agent. The structures of the products were assigned by NMR, MS, IR etc. The in vitro antitumor activity tests against leukaemia HL-60 and liver cancer BEL-7402 indicated that (R-ethyl 2-(2-(5-fluoro-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H-ylacetamido-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl propanoate showed more inhibitory effect against BEL-7402 than 5-FU.

  4. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    de Sousa VP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Pereira de Sousa,1 Joanne Crean,2 Vinícius Raphael de Almeida Borges,1 Carlos Rangel Rodrigues,1 Lidia Tajber,2 Fabio Boylan,2 Lucio Mendes Cabral1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS. BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Keywords: babassu oil, nanocomposite, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, nanoparticles, benign prostatic hyperplasia, treatment, nanotechnology

  5. Synthesis of new biologically active compounds containing linked thiazolyl-thiazolidinone heterocycles

    Nagaraj Adki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl-1,3-thiazolan-4-one 5a-j has been synthesized by the reaction of 2-(4-methylphenyl-3-(5,5,7-trimethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl-1,3-thiazolan-4-one 4 with aryl aldehydes. Chemical structures of all the new compounds were established by IR, 1H, 13C NMR, MS and elemental data. The compounds 5a-j were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441, Bacillus sphaericus (MTCC 11, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96 and Gram-negative bacteria viz. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 741, Klebsiella aerogenes (MTCC 39, Chromobacterium violaceum (MTCC 2656. Amongst them, compounds containing [(4-chlorophenylmethyli- dene] moiety 5b, [(3-nitrophenylmethylidene] moiety 5d and [(2-thienylmethylidene] moiety 5j showed significant antibacterial activity, almost equal/more than the activity of the standard drug Streptomycin. Further, the compounds 5a-j were also screened for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231, Aspergillus fumigatus (HIC 6094, Trichophyton rubrum (IFO 9185, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (IFO 40996. Most of these new compounds showed appreciable activity against test bacteria and fungi and emerged as potential molecules for further development.

  6. Common commercial and consumer products contain activators of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin receptor.

    Bin Zhao

    Full Text Available Activation of the Ah receptor (AhR by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin, can produce a wide variety of toxic and biological effects. While recent studies have shown that the AhR can bind and be activated by structurally diverse chemicals, how widespread of these AhR agonists are in environmental, biological and synthetic materials remains to be determined. Using AhR-based assays, we demonstrate the presence of potent AhR agonists in a variety of common commercial and consumer items. Solvent extracts of paper, rubber and plastic products contain chemicals that can bind to and stimulate AhR DNA binding and/or AhR-dependent gene expression in hepatic cytosol, cultured cell lines, human epidermis and zebrafish embryos. In contrast to TCDD and other persistent dioxin-like HAHs, activation of AhR-dependent gene expression by these extracts was transient, suggesting that the agonists are metabolically labile. Solvent extracts of rubber products produce AhR-dependent developmental toxicity in zebrafish in vivo, and inhibition of expression of the metabolic enzyme CYP1A, significantly increased their toxic potency. Although the identity of the responsible AhR-active chemicals and their toxicological impact remain to be determined, our data demonstrate that AhR active chemicals are widely distributed in everyday products.

  7. Draft layout, containment and performance of the safety system of the European Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor

    In Europe, the research on Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors is integrated in a project called 'High Performance Light Water Reactor Phase 2' (HPLWR Phase 2), co-funded by the European Commission. Ten partners and three active supporters are working on critical scientific issues to determine the potential of this reactor concept in the electricity market. Close to the end of the project the technical results are translated into a draft layout of the HPLWR. The containment and safety system are being explained. Exemplarily, a depressurization event shows the capabilities of the safety system to sufficiently cool the reactor by means of a low pressure coolant injection system. (author)

  8. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians OFFICE... Construction § 1000.246 Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions...

  9. Common cause failure analysis of PWR containment spray system by GO-FLOW methodology

    Highlights: • Identification of particular causes of failure for common cause failure analysis. • Evaluation of dynamic reliability of PWR containment sprays system (standard case). • Selection of important parameters by sensitivity analysis for CCF analysis. • Calculated dynamic reliability has significantly worsened than that of standard case. • GO-FLOW with it advance function can be used alternatively to FAT and ET tree. -- Abstract: Common cause failure (CCF) is the simultaneous failure of multiple components due to some particular cause of failure and has long been recognized as an important issue in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Sometimes CCFs have an important contribution to system unreliability. In this study, Common Cause Failure has been considered in the reliability analysis and procedure of CCF analysis is treated by GO-FLOW methodology. As the sample system, PWR containment spray system has been taken. It is shown that dynamic reliability of the containment spray system has been significantly decreased by common cause failures

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activities of Schiff base polychelates containing polyurethane links in the main chain

    Hasnain, Sumaiya; Nishat, Nahid

    The concept of combining metallo-polymers with urethanes offers a versatile approach for the synthesis of new polymeric materials. Polyurethane containing transition metals was synthesized by the reaction of Schiff base metal complex with toluene 2,4 diisocyanate. The proposed structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR. The geometry is determined by UV-Visible spectra and magnetic moment measurements, which reveals that the Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have octahedral geometry while square planer geometry is reported for Cu(II) and tetrahedral for Zn(II) complex. The antimicrobial activities are determined using the agar well diffusion method with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis (bacteria), Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus (yeast). All the polymeric metal complexes show comparatively good biocidal activity, which is further enhanced after polymerization.

  11. Metabolic Activation of Rhein: Insights into the Potential Toxicity Induced by Rhein-Containing Herbs.

    Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Jiyue; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yuan; Ruan, Jianqing; Zhang, Hongjian

    2016-07-20

    Rhein is a major component of the many medicinal herbs such as rhubarb. Despite wide use, intoxication cases associated with rhein-containing herbs are often reported. The present work aimed to investigate if rhein was subject to metabolic activation leading to toxicity. Upon incubations with different species of liver microsomes, three monoglucuronides were identified, corresponding to two hydroxyl glucuronides and one acyl glucuronide via the carboxyl group, respectively. Further study revealed that rhein acyl glucuronide was chemically reactive, and showed cytotoxicity toward hepatocarcinoma cells. In addition, significant species differences in glucuronidation of rhein were observed between laboratory animals and humans. Reaction phenotyping experiments demonstrated that rhein acyl glucuronide was catalyzed predominantly by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, 1A9, and 2B7. Taken together, the present study confirmed that rhein could be metabolically activated via the formation of acyl glucuronide, especially in human. PMID:27362917

  12. The formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticles during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide

    Mehrpouya, Fahimeh; Tavanai, Hossein, E-mail: tavanai@cc.iut.ac.ir; Morshed, Mohammad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, Center of Excellence in Applied Nanotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiaci, Mehran [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Activated carbon (AC) can act as an important carrier for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle can be fabricated by the hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxides like titanium isopropoxide. This study showed that the formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticle during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide leads to the formation of mainly anatase crystal TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle in AC nanofibers, with a good dispersion in both the longitude and cross section of nanofibers. The TiO{sub 2} crystallite size lies in the range of 7.3-11.3 nm. The dispersion of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the matrix of AC nanofibers is far superior to the direct mixing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the original electrospinning solution.

  13. Future testing of active safety systems

    Hendriks, F.M.; Pelders, H.A.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are ad

  14. Monitoring the Long-Term Performance of Engineered Containment Systems: Role of Ecological Processes

    Engineered covers have been widely used to minimize water infiltration into landfills used by U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous chemical waste. The degradation of engineered covers over time is a complex process that is influenced by site specific characteristics, the structure and dynamics of the indigenous plant community, and the interplay of physical and biological factors at contaminated sites. It is necessary to develop a rigorous method to evaluate long-term performance of covers and other engineered barriers with quantification of risk and uncertainty. Because many of the contaminants of concern are long-lived, this methodology must consider changes in the environmental setting (e.g., precipitation, temperature) and cover components for long time periods (>100 years). Current monitoring approaches focus solely on hydrologic properties of the cover system. Additionally, cover design guidelines, such as those from RCRA, are not performance based and do not consider long-term site-specific influences such as climate, vegetation, and soils. Fundamental ecological processes such as succession are not even factored into current models, yet they directly affect the integrity of landfill covers through biointrusion, erosion, and water balance. Therefore, it is useful to identify ecological parameters and processes most important to performance for prioritization of site characterization and long-term monitoring activities. This investigation into the role of ecological monitoring of isolation containment systems utilizes the software platform GoldSim to identify important parameters and processes for performance verification and monitoring. (authors)

  15. A study on hydrogen burn due to the operation of containment spray system

    The bounding calculation for inflammable gas combustion due to the steam condensation by the operation of the containment spray system was performed. Sensitivity study was performed for two initiating events, station blackout and loss of coolant accident. The parameters for sensitivity study are the condition of cavity, wet or dry, and the timing of operation of the containment spray system. It is shown, based on MAAP4 analyses, that: for dry cavity, auto-ignition burn and hydrogen laden jet burn due to the high temperature in the reactor cavity consumes large amount of burnable gas in the containment and reduces the peak pressure at the global burn by flammability criteria; for wet cavity, large amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide are generated after dryout of the reactor cavity, but burn is prohibited due to the low gas temperature in the high concentration of the steam. The late operation of the containment spray system condenses the steam rapidly, which results in the global burn at high concentration of burnable gas in the containment. The containment peak pressure from this burn is determined to be high enough to threaten the containment integrity significantly. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Analysis of AP1000 containment passive cooling system during a loss-of-coolant accident

    Highlights: • GOTHIC code is used to model the AP1000 passive cooling system. • The pressure and temperature response compare with DCD. • Predicting the recirculation flow characteristics in secondary containment. • Predicting the nature circulation phenomena in AP1000 containment. - Abstract: A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is one of the design basis accidents (DBAs) in nuclear power plant safety. DBAs may cause containment failure as a result of high temperature or pressure from LOCAs. This study investigates the integrity of the protective mechanism of the AP1000 containment system during a LOCA. The performance of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) and the ability to perform decay heat removal for long-term cooling are evaluated in this study. The PCCS utilizes gravity-driven natural convection and naturally induced passive safety devices to move the decay heat of fuels to the atmosphere. In this study, two accidents are selected for analysis: a double-ended guillotine of a hot leg and a double-ended break of a main steam line. The analytical results are compared with the corresponding results provided in the AP1000 “Design Control Document” (DCD). The short-term calculations and comparisons with the DCD suggest that GOTHIC 7.2a with a natural convection model may properly represent the phenomenon of passive, safe heat removal. This paper also simulates the long-term calculations of spraying the outer primary containment with a water film and the steam condensation of the inner containment

  17. Optical switching in bistable active cavity containing nonlinear absorber on bacteriorhodopsin

    Bazhenov, Vladimir Y.; Taranenko, Victor B.; Vasnetsov, Mikhail V.

    1993-04-01

    The transverse nonlinear dynamics of switchings in an active system (laser with nonlinear saturable absorber on bacteriorhodopsin in a self-imaging cavity) is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The soliton-like light field structure formation and continuously cycled self-switching process are investigated.

  18. What Is an Activity? Appropriating an Activity-Centric System

    Yarosh, Svetlana; Matthews, Tara; Moran, Thomas P.; Smith, Barton

    Activity-Centric Computing (ACC) systems seek to address the fragmentation of office work across tools and documents by allowing users to organize work around the computational construct of an Activity. Defining and structuring appropriate Activities within a system poses a challenge for users that must be overcome in order to benefit from ACC support. We know little about how knowledge workers appropriate the Activity construct. To address this, we studied users’ appropriation of a production-quality ACC system, Lotus Activities, for everyday work by employees in a large corporation. We contribute to a better understanding of how users articulate their individual and collaborative work in the system by providing empirical evidence of their patterns of appropriation. We conclude by discussing how our findings can inform the design of other ACC systems for the workplace.

  19. Synthesis and study on biological activity of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds – regulators of enzymes of nucleic acid biosynthesis

    Alexeeva I. V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations on the development of new regulators of functional activity of nucleic acid biosynthesis enzymes based on polycyclic nitrogen-containing heterosystems are summarized. Computer design and molecular docking in the catalytic site of target enzyme (T7pol allowed to perform the directed optimization of basic structures. Several series of compounds were obtained and efficient inhibitors of herpes family (simple herpes virus type 2, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A and hepatitis C viruses were identified, as well as compounds with potent antitumor, antibacterial and antifungal activity. It was established that the use of model test systems based on enzymes participating in nucleic acids synthesis is a promising approach to the primary screening of potential inhibitors in vitro.

  20. Microparticles Containing Curcumin Solid Dispersion: Stability, Bioavailability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Teixeira, C C C; Mendonça, L M; Bergamaschi, M M; Queiroz, R H C; Souza, G E P; Antunes, L M G; Freitas, L A P

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, respectively. Accelerated stability test demonstrated that the solid dispersion was stable for 9 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed a 5.5-fold increase in curcumin in rat blood plasma when compared to unprocessed curcumin. The solid dispersion also provided enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw oedema. Finally, the solid dispersion proposed here is a promising way to enhance curcumin bioavailability at an industrial pharmaceutical perspective, since its preparation applies the spray drying, which is an easy to scale up technique. The findings herein stimulate further in vivo evaluations and clinical tests as a cancer and Alzheimer chemoprevention agent. PMID:26040724

  1. Water-containing hydrogen-bonding network in the active center of channelrhodopsin.

    Ito, Shota; Kato, Hideaki E; Taniguchi, Reiya; Iwata, Tatsuya; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) functions as a light-gated ion channel in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Passive transport of cations by ChR is fundamentally different from the active transport by light-driven ion pumps such as archaerhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, and halorhodopsin. These microbial rhodopsins are important tools for optogenetics, where ChR is used to activate neurons by light, while the ion pumps are used for neural silencing. Ion-transport functions by these rhodopsins strongly depend on the specific hydrogen-bonding networks containing water near the retinal chromophore. In this work, we measured protein-bound water molecules in a chimeric ChR protein of ChR1 (helices A to E) and ChR2 (helices F and G) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy at 77 K. We found that the active center of ChR possesses more water molecules (9 water vibrations) than those of other microbial (2-6 water vibrations) and animal (6-8 water vibrations) rhodopsins. We conclude that the protonated retinal Schiff base interacts with the counterion (Glu162) directly, without the intervening water molecule found in proton-pumping microbial rhodopsins. The present FTIR results and the recent X-ray structure of ChR reveal a unique hydrogen-bonding network around the active center of this light-gated ion channel. PMID:24512107

  2. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    LI Xia; YU Liangmin; JIANG Xiaohui; XIA Shuwei; ZHAO Haizhou

    2009-01-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-l-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  3. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles containing violacein

    Since violacein—an antibiotic, antiviral, and antiparasitic compound—exhibits poor solubility in water, polymeric poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles containing this compound improved its solubility and biological activity. The nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and characterized in terms of average diameter, zeta potential, drug loading, polymer recovery, in vitro release kinetic, and in vitro antibacterial activity. Nanoparticles with diameters between 116 and 139 nm and negative-charged outer surfaces were obtained. Drug-loading efficiency and polymer recovery were 87 and 93%, respectively. In vitro release kinetics assays showed that violacein loaded in these nanoparticles has sustained release behavior until 5 days. Both free and nanoparticles-loaded violacein exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and ATCC 25923 strains and exhibiting around two to five times lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) than free violacein, respectively. The encapsulated violacein was efficient against methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. No significant activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica was found.

  4. Development and qualification of the FUMO code for the containment system simulation of advanced LWRs

    In the framework of a cooperation between ENEL-CRTN and the Dipartimento di Costruzioni Meccaniche e Nucleari (DCMN) of Pisa University, a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code, named FUMO, for multi-compartment containment systems has been developed and assessed. It is a lumped parameter code and contains all the models necessary to realistically describe the physical phenomena occurring in a passive containment system, following a DBA or a severe accident. A number of different containment tests have been analyzed to assess the code response and to evaluate the influence of the different models implemented in the code on the calculation results. The tests were selected on the basis of their focus on the most relevant physical phenomena for the new containment systems. Preliminary analyses of passive LWR containment systems were also carried out. In particular, a Large LOCA sequence in the AP-600 nuclear reactor was studied, taking, as reference data, a published sequence calculated by Westinghouse. (author). 15 refs, 14 figs

  5. A self-contained, programmable microfluidic cell culture system with real-time microscopy access

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Hemmingsen, Mette; Sabourin, David; Blaga, Felician Stefan; Bruus, Henrik; Dufva, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing microfluidics is a promising way for increasing the throughput and automation of cell biology research. We present a complete self-contained system for automated cell culture and experiments with real-time optical read-out. The system offers a high degree of user-friendliness, stability...... due to simple construction principles and compactness for integration with standard instruments. Furthermore, the self-contained system is highly portable enabling transfer between work stations such as laminar flow benches, incubators and microscopes. Accommodation of 24 individual inlet channels...

  6. 77 FR 24738 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing...

    2012-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing... filed by Linex Technologies, Inc. of Palm Beach Gardens, Florida (``Linex''). 76 FR 33364 (June 8, 2011... States after importation of certain wireless communication devices and systems, components thereof,...

  7. Characterisation of ion transport in sulfonate based ionomer systems containing lithium and quaternary ammonium cations

    Two sulfonated ionomers based on poly(triethylmethyl ammonium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) and containing mixtures of Li+ and quaternary ammonium cations are characterised. The first system contains Li+ and the methyltriethyl ammonium cation (N1222) in a 1:9 molar ratio, and the 7Li NMR line widths showed that the Li+ ions are mobile in this system below the glass transition temperature (105 °C) and are therefore decoupled from the polymer segmental motion. The conductivity in this system was measured as 10−5 S cm−1 at 130 °C. A second PAMPS system containing Li+ and the dimethylbutylmethoxyethyl ammonium cation (N114(2O1)) in a 2:8 molar ratio showed much lower conductivities despite a significantly lower Tg (60 °C), possibly due to associations between the Li+ and the ether group on the ammonium cation, or between the latter cations and the sulfonate groups

  8. Synthesis and herbicidal activity evaluation of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety.

    Che, Jian-yi; Xu, Xiao-yun; Tang, Zi-long; Gu, Yu-cheng; Shi, De-qing

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety 3a-3l were designed and synthesized by a Lewis acid (magnesium perchlorate) catalyzed the Kabachnik-Fields reaction. The bioassays {in vitro, in vivo [Glass House 1 (GH1) and Glass House 2 (GH2)]} showed that most of compounds 3 exhibited excellent and selective herbicidal activities; for example, in GH1 test, compounds 3b, 3d, 3f, 3h and 3j showed excellent and wide spectrum herbicidal activities at the dose of 1000 g/ha, and compounds 3b and 3j exhibited 100% inhibition activities against the four plants in both post- and pre-emergence treatments. Moreover, most of compounds 3 showed higher inhibition against Amaranthus retroflexus and Digitaria sanguinalis than Glyphosate did in pre-emergence treatment. In GH2 test, the four compounds (3b, 3d, 3h and 3j) exhibited 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Ipomoea hederacea in post-emergence treatment and displayed 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus in pre-emergence treatment at the rate of 250 g/ha, and compound 3b showed the best and broad spectrum herbicidal activities against the six test plants. However, the four compounds displayed weaker herbicidal activities against Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli than the other four plants at the rate of 250 g/ha in both pre- and post-emergence treatments. So, compounds 3 can be used as a lead compound for further structure optimization for developing potential selective herbicidal agent. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also investigated. PMID:26786699

  9. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  10. Wireless sensing system for non-invasive monitoring of attributes of contents in a container

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wireless sensing system monitors the level, temperature, magnetic permeability and electrical dielectric constant of a non-gaseous material in a container. An open-circuit electrical conductor is shaped to form a two-dimensional geometric pattern that can store and transfer electrical and magnetic energy. The conductor resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response. The conductor is mounted in an environmentally-sealed housing. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to power the conductor, and wirelessly detects the harmonic response that is an indication of at least one of level of the material in the container, temperature of the material in the container, magnetic permeability of the material in the container, and dielectric constant of the material in the container.

  11. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    Moliner, Manuel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Davis, Mark E. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2010-04-06

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (1:50 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].

  12. Hsp90 protein interacts with phosphorothioate oligonucleotides containing hydrophobic 2'-modifications and enhances antisense activity.

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Sun, Hong; Kinberger, Garth A; Prakash, Thazha P; Nichols, Joshua G; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-05-01

    RNase H1-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are chemically modified to enhance pharmacological properties. Major modifications include phosphorothioate (PS) backbone and different 2'-modifications in 2-5 nucleotides at each end (wing) of an ASO. Chemical modifications can affect protein binding and understanding ASO-protein interactions is important for better drug design. Recently we identified many intracellular ASO-binding proteins and found that protein binding could affect ASO potency. Here, we analyzed the structure-activity-relationships of ASO-protein interactions and found 2'-modifications significantly affected protein binding, including La, P54nrb and NPM. PS-ASOs containing more hydrophobic 2'-modifications exhibit higher affinity for proteins in general, although certain proteins, e.g. Ku70/Ku80 and TCP1, are less affected by 2'-modifications. We found that Hsp90 protein binds PS-ASOs containing locked-nucleic-acid (LNA) or constrained-ethyl-bicyclic-nucleic-acid ((S)-cEt) modifications much more avidly than 2'-O-methoxyethyl (MOE). ASOs bind the mid-domain of Hsp90 protein. Hsp90 interacts with more hydrophobic 2' modifications, e.g. (S)-cEt or LNA, in the 5'-wing of the ASO. Reduction of Hsp90 protein decreased activity of PS-ASOs with 5'-LNA or 5'-cEt wings, but not with 5'-MOE wing. Together, our results indicate Hsp90 protein enhances the activity of PS/LNA or PS/(S)-cEt ASOs, and imply that altering protein binding of ASOs using different chemical modifications can improve therapeutic performance of PS-ASOs. PMID:26945041

  13. The realization of 60Co container inspection system's check-in station

    The functional design and realizing mode of the check-in station software of 60Co container inspection system are illustrated. Check-in station plays an important role in 60Co container inspection system. It undertakes the tasks of inputting the container's relative information, flow control of containers waiting for inspections and the information transfer. Of all the information of check-in station inputs, the customs declaration or the encasement declaration is the main information to be input. In this software, they are input by scanner and the control module of scanner is programmed according to Twain criterion. As Twain criterion is generally followed by image industry, this software has high generality and facility independence

  14. Reliability analysis of the containment spray system of Angra-1 : the injection phase

    The system studied is projected to perform two basic functions : to reduce the pressure and temperature in the containment after a LOCA (loss of coolant accident), to break the main steam line or the main feed line in the containment after a LOCA (loss of coolant accident), to break the main steam line or the main feed line in the containment and to remove the fission products, mainly the iodine of the containment atmosphere. The spray system was analyzed concerning the probability of non-acomplishment of both functions at the same time; therefore the failure of the components of the chemical aditions subsystem are included in the failure tree shown here. (E.G.)

  15. Novel (E)-β-Farnesene Analogues Containing 2-Nitroiminohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine: Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation.

    Qin, Yaoguo; Zhang, Jingpeng; Song, Dunlun; Duan, Hongxia; Li, Wenhao; Yang, Xinling

    2016-01-01

    In order to discover novel eco-friendly compounds with good activity for aphid control, (E)-β-farnesene (EβF), the main component of the aphid alarm pheromone, was chosen as the lead compound. By introducing a 2-nitroimino-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine moiety (abbreviated NHT) to replace the unstable conjugated double bond system of EβF, a series of novel EβF analogues containing the NHT moiety were synthesized via the reaction of substituted NHT rings with (E)-1-chloro-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene. All the compounds were characterized by ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, IR, and high resolution mass spectroscopy (HRMS). The bioassay results showed that all the analogues displayed different repellent and aphicidal activities against green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Particularly, the analogue 4r exhibited obvious repellent activity (repellent proportion: 78.43%) and similar aphicidal activity against M. persicae (mortality: 82.05%) as the commercial compound pymetrozine (80.07%). A preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was also performed, which offered valuable clues for the design of further new EβF analogues. PMID:27347912

  16. Formulation of microspheres containing Crataegus monogyna Jacq. extract with free radical scavenging activity.

    Lucconi, Giulia; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Martino, Emanuela; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Perteghella, Sara; Rossi, Daniela; Faragò, Silvio; Vigo, Daniele; Faustini, Massimo; Collina, Simona; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-02-01

    Extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) show an interesting free radical scavenging (FRS) effect, related to their flavonoids content. Unfortunately, their oral administration is affected by their low bioavailability. The aim of this work is to obtain a multiparticulate drug delivery system for hawthorn extracts for oral administration. The extracts from flowering tops (FL) or fruits (FR) of hawthorn were obtained with maceration, using ethanol as an extraction solvent, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. FL extract showed the highest FRS activity (EC50 3.72 ± 1.21 µg/ml), so it was selected to prepare microparticulate systems by a spray-drying technique, which were characterized by granulometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy and hyperoside content. Antioxidant activity was evaluated before and after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation. Results indicate that the microparticulate systems maintained the antioxidant activity of hawthorn also after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation, exhibiting properties suitable for oral administration. PMID:23301945

  17. Containment Control of Multiagent Systems with Multiple Leaders and Noisy Measurements

    Zhao-Jun Tang; Ting-Zhu Huang; Jin-Liang Shao

    2012-01-01

    We consider the distributed containment control of multiagent systems with multiple stationary leaders and noisy measurements. A stochastic approximation type and consensus-like algorithm is proposed to solve the containment control problem. We provide conditions under which all the followers can converge both almost surely and in mean square to the stationary convex hull spanned by the leaders. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  18. The effects of age on nuclear power plant containment cooling systems

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the performance and availability of containment cooling systems in US commercial nuclear power plants. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The effects of age were characterized for the containment cooling system by reviewing and analyzing failure data from national databases, as well as plant-specific data. The predominant failure causes and aging mechanisms were identified, along with the components that failed most frequently. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also examined. A containment cooling system unavailability analysis was performed to examine the potential effects of aging by increasing failure rates for selected components. A commonly found containment spray system design and a commonly found fan cooler system design were modeled. Parametric failure rates for those components in each system that could be subject to aging were accounted for in the model to simulate the time-dependent effects of aging degradation, assuming no provisions are made to properly manage it. System unavailability as a function of increasing component failure rates was then calculated

  19. New system for the container conditioning of liquid waste in the German future finale repository 'Schacht Konrad'

    The full text of publication follows. On-site the NPP Gundremmingen liquid radioactive waste from the NPP water treatment plant is stored in resin or concentrate collecting tanks. These liquid wastes are cemented in containers in order to temporarily store them in the Bavarian interim storage Mitterteich until they are transported into final repository in 'Schacht Konrad'. With this new system liquid radioactive waste is for the first time conditioned directly into containers destined for final repository in 'Schacht Konrad'. Thus, a very secure and sustainable procedure was developed which also provides high profitability. The conditioning plant for resins and concentrate extracts the liquid waste from the respective collecting tank and transports the waste to the separation tank. This separation tank is dimensioned to ensure complete filling of a Konrad container with only one batch. Within the tank there is the option to adjust the suspensions solids content by either extracting supernatant water or by adding de-ionised water. The specific activity is analysed and after the radiologic data and the solids content are available, the containers are cemented. The required amount of cement is based on the solids content and is automatically added. In the mixer, cement and primary waste suspension are mixed. This mixture is filled into the Konrad container via the allocator. The allocator is a funnel-shaped inlet equipped with a movable tube which makes sure the mixture is evenly spread and also ensures optimal filling of the Konrad container. While filling is ongoing, the container is covered by a lowerable splash guard to avoid contamination. The room situation in Gundremmingen and the specific activities of the primary waste suspension make it necessary to disperse the plant to several rooms. Main components such as separation tanks and pumps are installed in shielded rooms. All activities are conducted remotely controlled and are supervised from the central

  20. Attempt at a Systemic Design of a Protocell: Connecting information, Metabolism and Container

    Albertsen, Anders N.; Maurer, Sarah; Cape, Jonathan;

    (information-bearing, metabolic and amphiphile molecules). These molecules through self-assembly processes will aggregate to form a complete protocell with its own information, metabolism and container components. This system should be capable of performing independently all the necessary metabolic steps, e...... resources in the environment (metabolism) ; iii) the system must be capable of growth and self-replication (a prerequisite here being a genetic building plan); finally iv) it must be capable of adaptation (open-ended evolvability). The design of artificial chemical systems or protocells from the bottom up...... many of the basic characteristics of a living system, but usually lack the gene mediated regulation functions that natural cells possess. To address this issue, we are attempting a systemic approach (Rasmussen, 2004) in implementing a simple, chemical system that contains three major types of molecules...

  1. Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.

    Tripler, Effi; Haquin, Gustavo; Koch, Jean; Yehuda, Zehava; Shani, Uri

    2014-06-01

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)Water (HRW) at 1.8 Bq L(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops. PMID:24345672

  2. Isolation and characterization of recombinant DNAs containing repeated elements of barley genome: identification of individual actively transcribed families of repeats

    A bank of Escherichia coli clones containing fragments of barley nuclear DNA was obtained using plasmid pBR 322. Clones carrying repeated sequences of the plant genome were selected by means of colony and blot hybridization. Clones with actively transcribed sequences were selected by hybridization to complementary DNA synthesized by means of reverse transcription on a template of total barley poly(A)-containing RNA. Individual families of repeats, two of which contained transcriptionally active sequences of the barley genome, were identified by blot hybridization of recombinant plasmids containing labeled DNA fragments of the inserts of three different clones

  3. Image acquisition, transmission and assignment in 60Co container inspection system

    The author describes the data acquisition mode and image reconstruction method in 60Co container inspection system, analyzes the relationship between line pick period and geometry distortion, makes clear the demand to data transmitting rate. It discusses several data communication methods, draws up a plan for network, realizes automatic direction and reasonable assignment of data in the system, cooperation of multi-computer and parallel processing, thus greatly improves the systems inspection efficiency

  4. Characterization of chitosan-nanoclay bionanocomposite active films containing milk thistle extract.

    Beigzadeh Ghelejlu, Sara; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Almasi, Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, bio-based and antioxidant active packaging is attracting significant attention as one of the preferred emerging technologies to prevent sensitive oxidation of foods. In this study, chitosan/nanoclay nanocomposite active films containing three different levels of sodium montmorillonite (MMT) (1, 3 and 5% w/w based on chitosan) and Silybum marianum L. extract (SME) (0.5, 1 and 1.5% v/v) were prepared. The obtained films were characterized in terms of structural, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties as well as antioxidant behavior. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the exfoliated dispersion form of MMT nanolayers. Scanning electron microscopy images showed an increase in films' surface roughness by the addition of MMT. The results indicated that water vapor permeability and solubility of films reduced significantly (p<0.05) by incorporation of MMT and SME. The mechanical and optical properties of films were significantly affected by the content of MMT and SME (p<0.05). Antioxidant properties of the films also were improved by SME incorporation, suggesting that the formulated bionanocomposites could be considered as a promising antioxidant active packaging material. PMID:26853823

  5. Preparation and Application of Active Composite Antibacterial Material Containing Ag + and Zn2+

    2005-01-01

    A kind of active composite antibacterial material was prepared with CaHPO4 as the container,Ag + and Zn2+ were adsorbed through ion-exchange, then it was doped with small scale of rare earth and photocatalyst, and was finally calcined at a certain temperature. The properties and application of the composite material antibacterial were investigated. Some tests show that the as-prepared antibacterial powders modified by opaque agents such as SnO2 and ZrO2 , possess beautiful white and excellent climate resistance at normal temperatures and are promising candidate materials for antibacterial plastics and dope. The result of the application in glaze indicates that Ag + can still exist stably, with no color change for the glaze, even being sintered at 1 200 ℃.SEM, EDS, antibacterial activity analyses and contrast tests reveal that the as-prepared antibacterial powders and the antibacterial glaze both have excellent antibacterial activities, without color change, in the case of dark or brightness.

  6. A substrate dependent biological containment systems for Pseudomonas putida based on the Escherichia coli gef gene

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Ramos, J. L.; Kaneva, Z.; Molin, Søren

    1993-01-01

    A model substrate-dependent suicide system to biologically contain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is reported. The system consists of two elements. One element carries a fusion between a synthetic lac promoter (PA1-04/03) and the gef gene, which encodes a killing function. This element is contained...... within a transposaseless mini-Tn5 transposon so that it can be integrated at random locations on the Pseudomonas chromosome. The second element, harbored by plasmid pCC102, is designed to control the first and bears a fusion between the promoter of the P. putida TOL plasmid-encoded meta-cleavage pathway...... operon (Pm) and the lacI gene, encoding the Lac repressor, plus xylS2, coding for a positive regulator of Pm. In liquid culture under optimal growth conditions and in sterile and nonsterile soil microcosms, P. putida KT2440 (pWWO) bearing the containment system behaves as designed. In the presence of a...

  7. Large-scale tests of aqueous scrubber systems for LMFBR vented containment

    Six large-scale air cleaning tests performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) are described. The test conditions simulated those postulated for hypothetical accidents in an LMFBR involving containment venting to control hydrogen concentration and containment overpressure. Sodium aerosols were generated by continously spraying sodium into air and adding steam and/or carbon dioxide to create the desired Na2O2, Na2CO3 or NaOH aerosol. Two air cleaning systems were tested: (a) spray quench chamber, educator venturi scrubber and high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series; and (b) the same except with the spray quench chamber eliminated. The gas flow rates ranged up to 0.8 m3/s (1700 acfm) at temperatures to 3130C (6000F). Quantities of aerosol removed from the gas stream ranged up to 700 kg per test. The systems performed very satisfactorily with overall aerosol mass removal efficiencies exceeding 99.9% in each test

  8. A survey of imaging systems for materials and objects in containers

    Vanier P.; Dioszegi, Istvan; Ziock, Klaus; Hausladen, Paul, and Blackston, Matthew

    2015-12-07

    Radiation imaging can be useful to evaluate the contents of containers; Passive imaging i.e., gamma sources, neutron sources, hydrogen near to a neutron source. Active imaging i.e., Transmission radiography shows high density material; Neutron coincidences indicate fissionable material; Time of Flight and die-away time are important. These technologies may be most useful in confirming ABSENCE of an item.

  9. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  10. Alkali-activated complex binders from class C fly ash and Ca-containing admixtures.

    Guo, Xiaolu; Shi, Huisheng; Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A

    2010-01-15

    Processes that maximize utilization of industrial solid wastes are greatly needed. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were used to create alkali-activated complex binders (AACBs) from class C fly ash (CFA) and other Ca-containing admixtures including Portland cement (PC), flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), and water treatment residual (WTR). Specimens made only from CFA (CFA100), or the same fly ash mixed with 40 wt% PC (CFA60-PC40), with 10 wt% FGDG (CFA90-FGDG10), or with 10 wt% WTR (CFA90-WTR10) had better mechanical performance compared to binders using other mix ratios. The maximum compressive strength of specimens reached 80.0 MPa. Geopolymeric gel, sodium polysilicate zeolite, and hydrated products coexist when AACB reactions occur. Ca from CFA, PC, and WTR precipitated as Ca(OH)(2), bonded in geopolymers to obtain charge balance, or reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. However, Ca from FGDG probably reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form ettringite. Utilization of CFA and Ca-containing admixtures in AACB is feasible. These binders may be widely utilized in various applications such as in building materials and for solidification/stabilization of other wastes, thus making the wastes more environmentally benign. PMID:19767143

  11. Synergistic aeration biosorption of uranium-containing wastewater by Banyan leaves-activated sludge

    To enhance the efficiency of treatment of uranium-containing wastewater, improve the liquid-solid phase separation during the process, and reduce the disposal cost, it is important to develop low-cost and easily available uranium sorbents. The capability of coalescent utilization of banyan leaves (BL) and activated sludge (AS) for removal of uranium from uranium-containing wastewater are studied. The experimental results show that the coalescent utilization of BL and AS as a uranium sorbent demonstrates a remarkable synergic effect. The uranium removal percentage is 89.6% with BL-AS combination in comparison with 19.2% and 29.4% with AS or BL alone. Various influencing factors are investigated. As the solution pH increase the removal of U goes up first and then drops down with a maximum occurring at pH=3.5. Moderate aeration (80-100 h/L) helps the uranium adsorption, over- or under- aeration lowers the uranium removal. Although the increase of the initial uranium concentration leads to more uranium adsorbed by unit mass of BL-AS adsorbent, but lower the uranium removal ratio, i.e. causes a higher residual concentration of uranium. The adsorption of uranium on BL-AS adsorbent may be equally well described by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm. (authors)

  12. A G-quadruplex-containing RNA activates fluorescence in a GFP-like fluorophore

    Huang, Hao; Suslov, Nikolai B.; Li, Nan-Sheng; Shelke, Sandip A.; Evans, Molly E.; Koldobskaya, Yelena; Rice, Phoebe A.; Piccirilli, Joseph A. [UC

    2014-08-21

    Spinach is an in vitro–selected RNA aptamer that binds a GFP-like ligand and activates its green fluorescence. Spinach is thus an RNA analog of GFP and has potentially widespread applications for in vivo labeling and imaging. We used antibody-assisted crystallography to determine the structures of Spinach both with and without bound fluorophore at 2.2-Å and 2.4-Å resolution, respectively. Spinach RNA has an elongated structure containing two helical domains separated by an internal bulge that folds into a G-quadruplex motif of unusual topology. The G-quadruplex motif and adjacent nucleotides comprise a partially preformed binding site for the fluorophore. The fluorophore binds in a planar conformation and makes extensive aromatic stacking and hydrogen bond interactions with the RNA. Our findings provide a foundation for structure-based engineering of new fluorophore-binding RNA aptamers.

  13. Characterization of poly(ε-caprolactone)-based nanocomposites containing hydroxytyrosol for active food packaging.

    Beltrán, Ana; Valente, Artur J M; Jiménez, Alfonso; Garrigós, María Carmen

    2014-03-12

    Antioxidant nanobiocomposites based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared by incorporating hydroxytyrosol (HT) and a commercial montmorillonite, Cloisite30B (C30B), at different concentrations. A full structural, thermal, mechanical, and functional characterization of the developed nanobiocomposites was carried out. The presence of the nanoclay and HT increased PCL crystallinity, whereas some decrease in thermal stability was observed. TEM analyses corroborated the good dispersion of C30B into the PCL macromolecular structure as already asserted by XRD tests, because no large aggregates were observed. A reduction in oxygen permeability and an increase in elastic modulus were obtained for films containing the nanoclay. Finally, the presence of the nanoclay produced a decrease in the HT release from films due to some interaction between HT and C30B. Results proved that these nanobiocomposites can be an interesting and environmentally friendly alternative for active food packaging applications with antioxidant performance. PMID:24552402

  14. Radioactive package container system for remote handling of low-level radioactive waste

    Remotely operated handling systems are employed for safe processing and transfer of low level radioactive wastes at nuclear generating plants. These systems minimize or preclude personnel radiation exposure while expediting waste handling operations. A remotely operated waste handling and transfer system containing several unique features has been designed, fabricated and tested for installation oat Arizona Public Service's, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The system incorporates modular subcomponents such as a waste processing shield, bottom and top loading shielded cask, and remote grappling equipment, making it adaptable to multi-task waste handling operations. The system has been designed to be operationally flexible, and contributes significantly to reducing waste processing personnel exposure

  15. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [3H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [3H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  16. Separate domains of the insulin receptor contain sites of autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the solubilized insulin receptor before and after partial proteolytic digestion to define domains in the β-subunit that undergo autophosphorylation and contain the tyrosine kinase activity. Wheat germ agglutinin purified insulin receptor from Fao cells was digested briefly at 220C with low concentrations of trypsin, staphylococcal V8 protease, or elastase. Autophosphorylation of the β-subunit was carried out before and after digestion, and the [32P]phosphoproteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected by autoradiography, and analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 85-kDa fragment was not immunoprecipitated by an antibody directed against the C-terminal domain of the β-subunit (αPep-1), indicating that this region of the receptor was lost. The 85-kDa fragment contained about half of the [32P]phosphate originally found in the β-subunit, and tryptic peptide mapping showed that two major tryptic phosphopeptides (previously called pY2 and pY3) were removed. Three other tryptic phosphopeptides (pY1, pY1a, and pY4) were found in the 85- and 70-kDa fragments. To determined the structural requirements for kinase activity, the insulin receptor was subjected to tryptic digestion for 30 s-30 min, such that the receptor was composed exclusively of 85- and 70-kDa fragments of the β-subunit. The 85-kDa fragment exhibited autophosphorylation at pY1, pY1a, and pY4. Both the 85- and 70-kDa fragments phosphorylated tyrosine residues in a synthetic decapeptide that has the sequence of the C-terminal domain of the β-subunit of human insulin rare in the receptor

  17. Novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde

    Highlights: • A novel silicone-based polymer with active methylene was explored. • Surface tension of liquid paints could be lowered using the polymer. • The polymer was easy to migrate toward the air-coating interface. • Free HCHO could effectively be removed using the polymer. • A lights on HCHO reduction without complicated preparation procedure was shielded. - Abstract: Indoor air pollution is caused inevitably due to complicated home decoration, in which formaldehyde is one of the most typical pollutants. It will be a convenient, economical and effective strategy to remove indoor formaldehyde if imparting a feature of formaldehyde removal to decorative coatings. We have successfully explored a novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene used as a formaldehyde absorbent in coatings via a straightforward transesterification process using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. The polymer has been characterized by 13C NMR, FTIR, GC and GPC. Formaldehyde removal capacity of the coating films containing different contents of the polymer has been investigated. The results indicated that coatings incorporating 4 wt% of the polymer could make the coating films exhibit significant improvement on formaldehyde removal including purificatory performance (>85%) and durability of purificatory effect (>60%), compared to those consisting of absorbents without any silicon, and improve yellowing resistance performance, while other properties, such as gloss, adhesion, pencil hardness, flexibility and impact resistance, were kept almost unaffected. The chemical absorption process of the silicone-based polymer filled in interior decorative coatings is demonstrated as a promising technology to purify indoor formaldehyde and thus can reduce the harm to individuals

  18. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the κ-ε two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized

  19. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    Arti Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p. dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU, and micronucleus (MN expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p. produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01, and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01. Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01, non-toxic mitotic index (MI (65.9% and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%. NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity.

  20. Antibacterial activity of DLC films containing TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Marciano, F R; Lima-Oliveira, D A; Da-Silva, N S; Diniz, A V; Corat, E J; Trava-Airoldi, V J

    2009-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been the focus of extensive research in recent years due to their potential applications as surface coatings on biomedical devices. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the anatase crystalline form is a strong bactericidal agent when exposed to near-UV light. In this work we investigate the bactericidal activity of DLC films containing TiO2 nanoparticles. The films were grown on 316L stainless-steel substrates from a dispersion of TiO2 in hexane using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The composition, bonding structure, surface energy, stress, and surface roughness of these films were also evaluated. The antibacterial tests were performed against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the results were compared to the bacterial adhesion force to the studied surfaces. The presence of TiO2 in DLC bulk was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. As TiO2 content increased, I(D)/I(G) ratio, hydrogen content, and roughness also increased; the films became more hydrophilic, with higher surface free energy and the interfacial energy of bacteria adhesion decreased. Experimental results show that TiO2 increased DLC bactericidal activity. Pure DLC films were thermodynamically unfavorable to bacterial adhesion. However, the chemical interaction between the E. coli and the studied films increased for the films with higher TiO2 concentration. As TiO2 bactericidal activity starts its action by oxidative damage to the bacteria wall, a decrease in the interfacial energy of bacteria adhesion causes an increase in the chemical interaction between E. coli and the films, which is an additional factor for the increasing bactericidal activity. From these results, DLC with TiO2 nanoparticles can be useful for producing coatings with antibacterial properties. PMID:19758597

  1. Survival of Salmonella in Cookie and Cracker Sandwiches Containing Inoculated, Low-Water Activity Fillings.

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2015-10-01

    A study was done to determine the rate of inactivation of Salmonella in cookie and cracker snack sandwiches. Two cookie bases (chocolate and vanilla) and cheese crackers, along with high-sugar chocolate and peanut butter-based crème cookie fillings and peanut butter- and cheese-based cracker fillings, were obtained from commercial sources. Fillings and sandwiches containing fillings that had been dry- or wet-inoculated with Salmonella were stored at 25°C for 1, 6, 21, 35, 70, 112, and 182 days (6 months). At initial populations of 3.4 and 3.6 log CFU/g of cookie sandwiches containing chocolate crème and peanut butter crème fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 days; initially at 0.36 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 35 and 70 days. Initially at 2.9 and 3.4 log CFU/g of cracker sandwiches containing peanut butter- and cheese-based fillings, respectively, Salmonella survived for at least 182 and 112 days; initially at 0.53 log CFU/g, the pathogen survived for at least 6 and 35 days. Inactivation of Salmonella was more rapid in wet-inoculated peanut butter crème cookie filling than in dry-inoculated filling but was less affected by type of inoculum in peanut butter-based cracker filling. Chocolate cookie base (water activity [aw] 0.39) and chocolate crème filling (aw 0.30) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.38 within 15 days at 25°C; vanilla cookie base (aw 0.21) and peanut butter-based crème filling (aw 0.27) equilibrated to aw 0.24 between 50 and 80 days. Cheese cracker (aw 0.14) and peanut butter-based filling (aw 0.31) or cheese-based filling (aw 0.33) components of sandwiches equilibrated to aw 0.33 in 80 days. The ability of Salmonella to survive for at least 182 days in fillings of cookie and cracker sandwiches demonstrates a need to assure that filling ingredients do not contain the pathogen and that contamination does not occur during manufacture. PMID:26408131

  2. Electron Propagation within Redox-Active Microdomains in Thin Films of Ferrocene-Containing Diblock Copolymers.

    Ghimire, Govinda; Yi, Yi; Derylo, Maksymilian A; Baker, Lane A; Ito, Takashi

    2015-11-10

    This paper reports the electrochemical behavior of redox-active microdomains in thin films of ferrocene-containing diblock copolymers, polystyrene-block-poly(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl ferrocenecarboxylate) (PS-b-PAEFc). PS-b-PAEFc with different PAEFc volume fractions (PS154-b-PAEFc51, PS154-b-PAEFc26, and PS154-b-PAEFc12, where the subscripts represent the polymerization degree of each block; f(PAEFc) = 0.47, 0.30, and 0.17, respectively) was synthesized by sequential atom transfer radical polymerization. PS-b-PAEFc films of controlled thicknesses (20-160 nm) were prepared on gold substrates via spin-coating and characterized by ellipsometry. Microdomains were observed via atomic force microscopy on the surfaces of PS154-b-PAEFc51 and PS154-b-PAEFc26 thin films but not on the surfaces of PS154-b-PAEFc12 thin films. Electrochemical behavior of films was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry in acetonitrile solution. The redox potential of ferrocene moieties was similar (ca. + 0.29 V vs Fc(+)/Fc) regardless of fPAEFc and film thickness. For PS154-b-PAEFc51 and PS154-b-PAEFc26, thicker films afforded larger faradaic peak currents and exhibited diffusion-controlled voltammograms at faster sweep rates. PS154-b-PAEFc26 produced voltammograms less influenced by solvent-induced swelling than PS154-b-PAEFc51, reflecting the improved morphological stability of PAEFc microdomains by redox-inert PS frameworks. In contrast, PS154-b-PAEFc12 films yielded similar faradaic peak currents regardless of film thickness and exhibited voltammograms indicative of surface-confined species. These observations suggest that PS154-b-PAEFc51 and PS154-b-PAEFc26 films contain continuous PAEFc microdomains extending from the electrode to the surface, in contrast to the PS154-b-PAEFc12 films which contain isolated PAEFc microdomains buried within the PS matrix. Electron propagation took place only through PAEFc microdomains that could electrically communicate with the underlying

  3. Development of an active biodegradable film containing tocopherol and avocado peel extract

    J.C.F. Fidelis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic starch (TPS films and poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT (60/40 m/m containing TOCO-70 (tocopherol/soybean oil 70/30 m/m and avocado peel extract (ExA were produced using blown film extrusion. The formulations of the 5 films (FC/F1/F2/F3 and F4 were established through mixture design with constraints maintaining constant PBAT and TPS proportion, and varying the antioxidant concentrations. Adding antioxidants reduced the water vapour permeability (Kw of the films, with formulation F2 presenting higher decrease in relationto FC, 77.8%. The presence of ExA improved the mechanical properties of the films. The production of the films was determined to be viable after they presented good processability in a pilotextruder, as well as mechanical properties appropriate to production and utilization in industry.The presence of ExA and TOCO 70 provided the films with antioxidant activity; their application as active packaging requires further studies.

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of a lysine-containing cyclic analog of [Leu5]enkephalin

    A cyclic analog of enkephalin - cyclo(Lys-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu) -- and two corresponding linear hexapeptides containing a residue of the amino acid lysine at the beginning and the end of the molecule - Lys-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu and Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Lys - have been synthesized by the classical methods of peptide chemistry. The addition of a lysine residue to the N-end of the enkephalin molecule or the cyclization of this hexapeptide decreased the action of the analogs on the central and peripheral opiate receptors. The addition of lysine through the epsilon-amino group to the C-end of the enkephalin molecule scarcely changed the interaction of the analog with the μ-type of opiate receptor but lowered its affinity for the δ-type of receptor approximately 10-fold. All three analogs that were synthesized possessed an analgesic activity comparable in magnitude with the activity of [Leu5]enkephalin determined by the tail pinch method on intracisternal administration to mice

  5. A study of aeration treatment of uranium-contained wastewater by saccharomyces cerevisiae-activated sludge

    Experiments of the aeration treatment of uranium-contained wastewater by saccharomyces cerevisiae-activated sludge were carried out. The experimental results indicate that, saccharomyces cerevisiae (S.C) can accumulate UO22+ effectively from aqueous solution: the removal ratio of 100 mg·L-1 UO22+ is 78.2% when S.C dosage is 10 g·L-1, while with 8 g·L-1 activated sludge (A.S.) added in the solution the ratio has increased to 96.3%; then, 5-10 min effluent settling is clarified as a result of sludge flocculation; the optimum conditions of biosorption of U from wastewater by S.C.-A.S. are at pH 5, A.S concentration=8 g·L-1, added dry weight of S.C.=10 g·L-1, granularity of S.C=100-120 mesh; the quantity of U increases with the enhanced initial concentration of UO22+ in the process of biosorption by S.C.-A.S., but the removal ratio decreases. The uptake of U could be described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir adsorption isotherms, which demonstrated that the adsorption was regarded as a physical adsorption. (authors)

  6. Study of the activity of DNA polymerases β and λ using 5-formyluridine containing DNA substrates

    Lavrik O. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the TLS-activity of human DNA polymerases β and λ (pols β and λ using 5-formyluridine (5-foU containing DNA duplexes which are imitating the intermediates during replication of the leading DNA strand, and to study the influence of replication factors hRPA and hPCNA on this activity. Methods. The EMSA and the methods of enzyme’s kinetics were used. Results. The capability of pols β and λ to catalyze DNA synthesis across 5-foU was investigated and the kinetic characteristics of this process in the presence and in the absence of protein factors hRPA and hPCNA were evaluated. Conclusions. It was shown that: (i both proteins are able to catalyze TLS on used DNA substrates regardless of the reaction conditions, however, pol λ was more accurate enzyme; (ii hRPA can stimulate the efficacy of the nonmutagenic TLS catalyzed by pol at the nucleotide incorporation directly opposite of 5-foU, at the same time it doesn’t influence the incorporation efficacy if the damage displaced into the duplex; (iii hPCNA doesn’t influence the efficacy of TLS catalyzed by both enzymes.

  7. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p 2 CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  8. Synthesis of monoacylglycerol containing pinolenic acid via stepwise esterification using a cold active lipase.

    Pyo, Young-Gil; Hong, Seung In; Kim, Yangha; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, In-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    High purity monoacylglycerol (MAG) containing pinolenic acid was synthesized via stepwise esterification of glycerol and fatty acids from pine nut oil using a cold active lipase from Penicillium camembertii as a biocatalyst. Effects of temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, and vacuum on the synthesis of MAG by lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid from pine nut oil were investigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) as well as MAG increased significantly when temperature was increased from 20 to 40 °C. At a molar ratio of 1:1, MAG content decreased because of the significant increase in DAG content. Water has a profound influence on both MAG and DAG content through the entire course of reaction. The reaction rate increased significantly as enzyme loading increased up to 600 units. Vacuum was an effective method to reduce DAG content. The optimum temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, vacuum, and reaction time were 20 °C, 1:5 (fatty acid to glycerol), 2%, 600 units, 5 torr, and 24 h, respectively. MAG content further increased via lipase-catalyzed second step esterification at subzero temperature. P. camembertii lipase exhibited esterification activity up to -30 °C. PMID:22753389

  9. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    Ando, Yoshiki, E-mail: andoy@jmmc.jp [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Miyamoto, Hiroshi [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Noda, Iwao; Sakurai, Nobuko [Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomonori [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Yonekura, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Masaki; Mawatari, Masaaki; Hotokebuchi, Takao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p < 0.02) than that on the surface of the CP coating. Moreover, the Ag-CP coating completely inhibits MRSA adhesion [<10 colony-forming units (CFU)] when 10{sup 2} CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  10. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    Iida, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kobzi, Balázs; Sinkó, Katalin; Homonnay, Zoltán [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Kuzmann, Ernő [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1512 (Hungary); Ristić, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, RuđerBošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan); Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na{sub 2}O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅(30−x)SiO{sub 2}) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to Fe{sup III}(T{sub d}) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increase of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 22}O{sub 33} or CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L{sup −1} was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (E{sub g}) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported E{sub g} of 2.2 eV for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These results prove that addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements.

  11. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na2O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe2O3⋅xAl2O3⋅(30−x)SiO2) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The 57Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to FeIII(Td) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe2O3) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe2O3 and increase of Ca2Fe22O33 or CaFe2O4 with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L−1 was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10−3 min−1. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (Eg) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported Eg of 2.2 eV for α-Fe2O3. These results prove that addition of Al2O3 into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements

  12. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound and uses thereof

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-05-31

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  13. CO-TREATABILITY OF A DOMESTIC AND AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CONTAINING DYESTUFF BY THE ACTIVATED - SLUDGE METHOD

    MURATHAN, Ayşe

    1999-01-01

    Co-treatment of an industrial wastewater containing dyestuff was studied with a domestic wastewater by the activated-sludge method was investigated. Treatment efficiency was obtained by determining. BOD, COD and total suspended solids values.

  14. Active clusters in disordered systems

    We introduce an exact algorithm to calculate the distribution of large low energy clusters (droplets) in disordered manifolds and disordered magnets, and we analyze the extent to which these clusters can be treated as independent two-level systems. We show that interfaces in randomly diluted networks always have broad droplet distributions, while diluted antiferromagnets in a field can have either power law or exponential droplet distributions. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Computer based integral gamma activity measurement system

    PC based Integral Gamma Activity measurement system has been developed for measuring the gross gamma activity. The Integral system comprises of the Ion chamber, electrometer amplifier and data acquisition system. This system is used for measuring the activity and also for recording of the decay characteristics. A windows based computer program has been developed for data acquisition and storage during the experiment. The system records the detector current output in the range of 10 pA to 10 nA. The measured current was converted into pre-calibrated gross gamma activity which was used for estimating the power distribution within the reactor core. The paper describes development of the system including the experiment results. (author)

  16. A Wireless Monitoring System for Cracks on the Surface of Reactor Containment Buildings.

    Zhou, Jianguo; Xu, Yaming; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring with wireless sensor networks has been increasingly popular in recent years because of the convenience. In this paper, a real-time monitoring system for cracks on the surface of reactor containment buildings is presented. Customized wireless sensor networks platforms are designed and implemented with sensors especially for crack monitoring, which include crackmeters and temperature detectors. Software protocols like route discovery, time synchronization and data transfer are developed to satisfy the requirements of the monitoring system and stay simple at the same time. Simulation tests have been made to evaluate the performance of the system before full scale deployment. The real-life deployment of the crack monitoring system is carried out on the surface of reactor containment building in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station during the in-service pressure test with 30 wireless sensor nodes. PMID:27314357

  17. Severe accident instrumentation systems for BWR water level and temperature in primary containment vessel measurements

    The severe accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (TF1 accident) in March 2011 brought the lost of the functions of many instrumentation systems. In order to enable the measurements of the important parameters such as reactor water level, temperature and so on even in a case such as the TF1 accident occurs, severe accident instrumentation systems are being developed. In this paper, new system configurations of BWR water level measurement and temperature measurement in primary containment vessels are proposed. Then performance tests for prototype sensors of these measurement systems under high temperature conditions are described. (author)

  18. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes.

    Perez, Ana Paula; Casasco, Agustina; Schilrreff, Priscila; Tesoriero, Maria Victoria Defain; Duempelmann, Luc; Pappalardo, Juan Sebastián; Altube, Maria Julia; Higa, Leticia; Morilla, Maria Jose; Petray, Patricia; Romero, Eder L

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro anti-Leishmania activity of photodynamic liposomes made of soybean phosphatidylcholine, sodium cholate, total polar archaeolipids (TPAs) extracted from the hyperhalophile archaea Halorubrum tebenquichense and the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcAL) was compared to that of ultradeformable photodynamic liposomes lacking TPAs (ZnPcUDLs). We found that while ZnPcUDLs and ZnPcALs (130 nm mean diameter and -35 mV zeta potential) were innocuous against promastigotes, a low concentration (0.01 μM ZnPc and 7.6 μM phospholipids) of ZnPcALs irradiated at a very low-energy density (0.2 J/cm(2)) eliminated L. braziliensis amastigotes from J774 macrophages, without reducing the viability of the host cells. In such conditions, ZnPcALs were harmless for J774 macrophages, HaCaT keratinocytes, and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Therefore, topical photodynamic treatment would not likely affect skin-associated lymphoid tissue. ZnPcALs were extensively captured by macrophages, but ZnPcUDLs were not, leading to 2.5-fold increased intracellular delivery of ZnPc than with ZnPcUDLs. Despite mediating low levels of reactive oxygen species, the higher delivery of ZnPc and the multiple (caveolin- and clathrin-dependent plus phagocytic) intracellular pathway followed by ZnPc would have been the reason for the higher antiamastigote activity of ZnPcALs. The leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes. PMID:25045264

  19. Applicability of Activated Carbon to Treatment of Waste Containing Iodine-Labeled Compounds

    The applicability of activated carbon prepared from sawdust (SD) by one-step chemical activation process using H3PO4 (H) to treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with iodine-labeled prolactin (I-PRL) has been investigated. Treatment processes were performed under the varying conditions; contact time, temperature, carbon type, carbon dosage, and different particle size of activated carbon (SDH). Effect of aqueous waste volume has been investigated to calculate the batch factor (V/M) and the distribution coefficient (Kd). The used activated carbon (SDH) was characterized by N2 adsorption, FTIR, density, ph, point of zero charge phpzc, moisture and ash content. Methylene blue (MB) and iodine number was calculated by adsorption from solution. In order to investigate the mechanism of sorption and potential rate controlling steps, pseudo first- and second-order equations, intra particle diffusion equation and the Elovich equation have been used to test experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the four models has been carried out for system variables in order to assess which model provides the best fit predicted data with experimental results. 7 M NaOH can be used for regeneration of spent SDH activated carbon with the efficiency of 99.6% and the regenerated carbon can be reused for five cycles effectively. The prospect of applying the SDH activated carbon prepared from agricultural by-product, sawdust, to treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with I-PRL appears promising and is considered highly applicable because of its high adsorption capacity, available at low cost, easily regenerated and reused

  20. Separation and removal of alpha activity from glass-ware wash solutions containing surfactants in mild acidic medium

    One of the laboratory radioactive waste solutions, having Teepol, detergent powder and nitric acid, contained alpha activity in the range of 5000 to 22000 cpm/mL. A combination of two techniques i.e. first passing through an extraction chromatographic column containing a commercially available reagent, Cyanex-923 (trialkylphosphine oxide, TRPO) adsorbed on Chromosorb-102 or silica gel followed by passing the effluent through a macroporous cation exchanger, brought the activity level to near disposable to sink limits. (author)

  1. The new client/server model in large container inspection system

    The author presents a new client/server model in distributed networking environment of the large container inspection system. The authors illustrate the structure and characteristics of the model, and introduce the transmittal dispatching technology of server communication which is based on simulating three-passage structure

  2. The Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System: A Prepayment Model for a National Health Service?

    Orient, Jane M.

    1986-01-01

    The Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS), the Arizona Medicaid alternative, is an experiment in contracting “prepaid” indigent health care to the lowest bidding group. The consequences have been substantial cost overruns and serious unanswered questions about the quality and avilability of care.

  3. Luminescence properties of Si-containing porous matrix–PbS nanoparticle systems

    The luminescence properties of systems that contain lead-sulfide nanoparticles deposited onto substrates fabricated from porous silicon, oxidized porous silicon, and porous (tin-oxide)–(silicon-oxide) layers are studied. It is shown that the structure and composition of the matrix induce a strong effect on the luminescence spectra of colloidal quantum dots, defining their emission wavelength

  4. Luminescence properties of Si-containing porous matrix–PbS nanoparticle systems

    Tarasov, S. A., E-mail: satarasov@mail.ru; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Lamkin, I. A.; Maksimov, A. I.; Maraeva, E. V.; Mikhailov, I. I.; Moshnikov, V. A. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” (Russian Federation); Musikhin, S. F. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Nalimova, S. S.; Permyakov, N. V.; Spivak, Yu. M.; Travkin, P. G. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The luminescence properties of systems that contain lead-sulfide nanoparticles deposited onto substrates fabricated from porous silicon, oxidized porous silicon, and porous (tin-oxide)–(silicon-oxide) layers are studied. It is shown that the structure and composition of the matrix induce a strong effect on the luminescence spectra of colloidal quantum dots, defining their emission wavelength.

  5. AN ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS TISSUE DIGESTION SYSTEM FOR A BSL-3-AG CONTAINMENT FACILITY

    An alkaline hydrolysis tissue digestion system was installed at the Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) Biosafety Level (BSL) 3-AG containment facility in 2000 to replace the antiquated pathologic waste incinerator because of significant costs for upgrading this incinerator ...

  6. Report on further development of the Winfrith Modular Containment System and associated equipment

    As a result of operational experience gained with the Winfrith Modular Containment, the need for a lifting aid to facilitate the decommissioning of tall plant, a 2-stage mobile ventilation system and an improved shower entry tunnel was identified. Improved plant and equipment has been designed, constructed and tested and the results are presented here. (author)

  7. Enzymatic production of monoacylglycerols containing polyunsaturated fatty acids through an efficient glycerolysis system

    Yang, Tiankui; Rebsdorf, Morten; Engelrud, Ulrik; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an efficient glycerolysis system for the enzymatic production of monoacylglycerols (MAGs) containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Glycerolysis has been widely applied in industry for the chemical production of food MAGs under high temperature. The enzymatic...

  8. PTS regulation domain-containing transcriptional activator CelR and sigma factor σ(54) control cellobiose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Nie, Xiaoqun; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Yang; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Chen

    2016-04-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulation domain (PRD)-containing enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) are an important class of σ(54) -interacting transcriptional activators. Although PRD-containing EBPs are present in many Firmicutes, most of their regulatory functions remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptional regulons of about 50 PRD-containing EBPs in diverse Firmicutes species are reconstructed by using a comparative genomic approach, which contain the genes associated with utilization of β-glucosides, fructose/levan, mannose/glucose, pentitols, and glucosamine/fructosamine. We then present experimental evidence that the cel operon involved in cellobiose utilization is directly regulated by CelR and σ(54) (SigL) in Clostridium acetobutylicum. The predicted three CelR-binding sites and σ(54) promoter elements upstream of the cel operon are verified by in vitro binding assays. We show that CelR has an ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated by the presence of DNA containing the CelR-binding sites. Moreover, mutations in any one of the three CelR-binding sites significantly decreased the cel promoter activity probably due to the need for all three DNA sites for maximal ATPase activity of CelR. It is suggested that CelR is regulated by PTS-mediated phosphorylation at His-551 and His-829, which exerts a positive effect and an inhibitory effect, respectively, on the CelR activity. PMID:26691835

  9. Gamma-rays from nebulae around binary systems containing energetic rotation powered pulsars

    Bednarek, W.; Sitarek, J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider nebulae which are created around binary systems containing rotation powered pulsars and companion stars with strong stellar winds. It is proposed that the stellar and pulsar winds have to mix at some distance from the binary system, defined by the orbital period of the companion stars and the velocity of the stellar wind. The mixed pulsar-stellar wind expands with a specific velocity determined by the pulsar power and the mass loss rate of the companion star. Relativistic particle...

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR NAVAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER SYSTEM

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) naval spent nuclear fuel disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMF 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  11. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Jorge Morel; Shin'ya Obara; Yuta Morizane

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to...

  12. Report on further development of the Winfrith Modular Containment System and associated equipment

    The Winfrith modular containment system was developed to enable redundant plutonium processing plant to be safely decommissioned. As a result of operational experience the need for a lifting aid to facilitate the decommissioning of tall plant, a 2-stage mobile ventilation system and an improved shower entry tunnel was identified. Improved plant and equipment has been designed, constructed and tested and the results are presented here. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System, 1984-85

    McCall, Nelda; Henton, Douglas; Haber, Susan; Paringer, Lynn; Crane, Michael; Wrightson, William; Freund, Deborah

    1987-01-01

    In this article, we describe the evaluation of the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS), Arizona's alternative to the acute care portion of Medicaid. We provide an assessment of implementation of the program's innovative features during its second 18 months of operation, from April 1984 through September 1985. Included in the evaluation are assessments of the administration of the program, provider relations, eligibility, enrollment and marketing, information systems, quality ...

  14. Radiological containment selection, design, and specification guide

    This document provides guidance to Tank Waste Remediation Systems personnel in determining what containment is appropriate for work activities, what containments are available, general applications of each, design criteria, and other information needed to make informed decisions concerning containment application

  15. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  16. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  17. Tumor-derived vaccines containing CD200 inhibit immune activation: implications for immunotherapy.

    Xiong, Zhengming; Ampudia-Mesias, Elisabet; Shaver, Rob; Horbinski, Craig M; Moertel, Christopher L; Olin, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    There are over 400 ongoing clinical trials using tumor-derived vaccines. This approach is especially attractive for many types of brain tumors, including glioblastoma, yet so far the clinical response is highly variable. One contributor to poor response is CD200, which acts as a checkpoint blockade, inducing immune tolerance. We demonstrate that, in response to vaccination, glioma-derived CD200 suppresses the anti-tumor immune response. In contrast, a CD200 peptide inhibitor that activates antigen-presenting cells overcomes immune tolerance. The addition of the CD200 inhibitor significantly increased leukocyte infiltration into the vaccine site, cytokine and chemokine production, and cytolytic activity. Our data therefore suggest that CD200 suppresses the immune system's response to vaccines, and that blocking CD200 could improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27485078

  18. Enzymatic production of monoacylglycerols containing polyunsaturated fatty acids through an efficient glycerolysis system

    Yang, Tiankui; Rebsdorf, Morten; Engelrud, Ulrik;

    2005-01-01

    was employed as a catalyst in the glycerolysis from the screening. In the batch reaction system with tert-butyl alcohol, temperature higher than 40 °C was favored. The glycerol/oil ratio was best in the study with 4.5 while the solvent weight ratio from 1 to 3 had little effect. In general, 60- 70......The aim of the study was to develop an efficient glycerolysis system for the enzymatic production of monoacylglycerols (MAGs) containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Glycerolysis has been widely applied in industry for the chemical production of food MAGs under high temperature. The enzymatic...... glycerolysis system at 40-70 °C is unfortunately a multiphase system, which leads to the lower reaction efficiency. A tert-butyl alcohol system was developed after careful evaluation and more than 20-fold of the reaction efficiency from this system was obtained compared to the solvent-free system. Novozym 435...

  19. Study on Salt-Containing Extractive Distillation for the 2-Propanol/Water System

    Fu Jiquan

    2008-01-01

    The salt-containing extractive distillation column and the salt-containing agent recovery column for the 2-propanol/water/ethanediol/KAc system were simulated by the NRTL model and the modified Rose Relaxation method. The simulation results showed that prediction of the salt effect in vapor-liquid equilib-rium and the correlation method (TDCM) of NRTL parameters were suitable for the said system. Four different distillation technology processes were investigated; the results showed that the salt-containing extractive distillation process was the best one. The simulating design of the extractive distillation column was performed under the conditions of different total stage number, feeding location, reflux ratio, amount of mixed agent and concentration of KAc. The results showed that such factors as 17 stages, a feeding location at the 9th stage, a reflux ratio of 1.2, and a mixed agent feeding rate of 1.141 kmol/h, might be the best suited operating conditions. The simulating design was also done for the column for recovering the salt-containing agent. The simulation method of the salt-containing extractive distillation is simple and effective in this work.

  20. Implementation of Business Game Activity Support System

    TANABU Motonari

    2004-01-01

    Business game can be used not only as an educational tool for the development of decision making ability, but also can be used for supporting the knowledge creation activity in organizations. In this paper, some conceptual considerations to meanings of the business game in the knowledge creation activity by using the knowledge creation theory and other related theories are given,and business game activity concept which refers to game play and development is proposed. Then focusing on the business game activity as an instantiation of the knowledge creation activity, and a Web based gaming activity support system based on the former system called YBG that enables us to play and develop many business games through the standard web browser is proposed. This system also provides us a lot of opportunities to play and develop the business games over business game communities.

  1. The Origin and Activities of IgA1-Containing Immune Complexes in IgA Nephropathy

    Knoppova, Barbora; Reily, Colin; Maillard, Nicolas; Rizk, Dana V.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Mestecky, Jiri; Raska, Milan; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan

    2016-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis, frequently leading to end-stage renal disease, as there is no disease-specific therapy. IgAN is diagnosed from pathological assessment of a renal biopsy specimen based on predominant or codominant IgA-containing immunodeposits, usually with complement C3 co-deposits and with variable presence of IgG and/or IgM. The IgA in these renal deposits is galactose-deficient IgA1, with less than a full complement of galactose residues on the O-glycans in the hinge region of the heavy chains. Research from the past decade led to the definition of IgAN as an autoimmune disease with a multi-hit pathogenetic process with contributing genetic and environmental components. In this process, circulating galactose-deficient IgA1 (autoantigen) is bound by antiglycan IgG or IgA (autoantibodies) to form immune complexes. Some of these circulating complexes deposit in glomeruli, and thereby activate mesangial cells and induce renal injury through cellular proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix components and cytokines/chemokines. Glycosylation pathways associated with production of the autoantigen and the unique characteristics of the corresponding autoantibodies in patients with IgAN have been uncovered. Complement likely plays a significant role in the formation and the nephritogenic activities of these complexes. Complement activation is mediated through the alternative and lectin pathways and probably occurs systemically on IgA1-containing circulating immune complexes as well as locally in glomeruli. Incidence of IgAN varies greatly by geographical location; the disease is rare in central Africa but accounts for up to 40% of native-kidney biopsies in eastern Asia. Some of this variation may be explained by genetically determined influences on the pathogenesis of the disease. Genome-wide association studies to date have identified several loci associated with IgAN. Some of these loci are associated

  2. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.). PMID:26686675

  3. Effect of long-lived containers on the postclosure performance of a reference disposal system

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves isolating the waste in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced in a scaled vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The concept permits a choice of methods, materials, site locations, and designs. The technical feasibility of this concept and its impact on the environment and human health are summarized in an Environmental Impact Statement (AECL 1994a,b), supported by nine detailed reference documents (Davis et al. 1993; Davison et al. 1994a,b; Goodwin et al. 1994; Greber et al. 1994; Grondin et al. 1994; Johnson et al. 1994a,b; Simmons and Baumgartner 1994). In the assessment of the reference disposal system, we assumed the containers encapsulating the nuclear fuel waste were constructed from Grade-2 titanium. In this report, we investigate the effect of a different choice, and assume the use of long-lived containers constructed from materials such as high-purity copper or Grades-12 or -16 titanium alloys. These alternative materials would provide much longer periods of protection, based on the expectation that the only container failure mechanism, for times up to 105 a, involves initial fabrication defects. We explore the effects of long-lived containers for the same vault layout and orientation that were assumed for the reference disposal vault. We also explore effects for two less favourable situations, in which the vault is closer to a nearby fracture zone and in which the vault is extended to have emplacement rooms on both sides of the fracture zone. Our analyses use the probabilistic assessment computer code, SYVAC3-CC3, an acronym for SYstems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3. with a system model describing the Canadian Concept, generation 3, for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The input data for the code have been adjusted to approximate the expected protection characteristics of alternative container materials. (author). 31 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs

  4. System Specification for Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal System

    This specification provides the system level requirements for receiving, transporting, and disposing of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) canisters generated by the RPP-Waste Treatment Plant. It also identified the requirements for the disposition of failed melters, both High Level and Low-Activity, and Low-Activity samples

  5. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    Bai, Meng-Yi, E-mail: mybai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Adjunct appointment to the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Tz-Chong, E-mail: tcchou@ms5.hinet.net [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jie-Chang; Yang, Hui-Ching [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 {+-} 0.69 {mu}m. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 {mu}L of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  6. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 ± 0.69 μm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: ► We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. ► Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. ► We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties ► The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. ► Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 μL of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  7. 'Becquerel screening' device to automatically measure activity level of contaminated soil in flexible containers

    Contaminated soil and incineration ash collected during offsite decontamination work following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. is being stored in flexible containers. These containers are managed taking their activity level into account in accordance with the Decontamination Guidelines issued by the Ministry of the Environment. Toshiba has developed the 'Becquerel Screening' device that can automatically measure the activity level of the contents of each flexible container simply by placing the container on a palette, without the need to take samples for analysis from the container. The Becquerel Screening device is expected to contribute not only to improved operational efficiency but also to reduced exposure of operators to radiation, because it eliminates the need for direct contact with contaminated soil and ash. (author)

  8. Failure protection measurements of reactor containment vessel and scenario for installation of filtered venting system

    In the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident which results from the earthquake in the Tohoku district Pacific Ocean and the tsunami accompanying it, which occurred on March 11, 2011, a severe accident occurred, leading to reactor core damage and containment failure. As a result, a lot of radioactive materials were released into the environment from the plant. Strengthening of the counter measures against containment failure including installation of a filtered venting system enables it to reduce the probability of these accidents as much as possible. (author)

  9. Surgical Treatment of Uterine Fibroids Within a Containment System and Without Power Morcellation.

    Kho, Kimberly A; Brown, Douglas N

    2016-03-01

    Increased awareness regarding risks associated with intracorporeal electromechanical, or power, morcellation has urged surgeons to develop alternative methods for tissue extraction that may mitigate some of these risks during surgery. The use of containment systems during laparoscopic procedures has allowed surgeons to continue to offer and perform myomectomies that still benefit from being minimally invasive but which may minimize the risk of inadvertent tissue dispersion. Here, we will review techniques for performing contained tissue fragmentation without the use of a power morcellator. PMID:26670832

  10. A container dispatching system for river ports based on distributed intelligent agent

    Jingyuan Zeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the expansion of business scope of river ports, it demands higher loading and unloading efficiency. Automation, informatization and intelligentization become the only way to development of river ports. This paper establishes an informatization framework for river ports at first. The key process in river port is container dispatching. Therefore, this paper designs a container dispatching system based on business intelligence. It can be divided into four levels, data source layer, data warehouse layer, data service layer and application layer. The main modules are discussed in detail. At last, through performance comparison and analysis before and after the system implementation in Whampoa, the system is proved to have a lot of real benefits.

  11. Nonlinear photon transport in a semiconductor waveguide-cavity system containing a single quantum dot

    Hughes, S

    2011-01-01

    The input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport through a semiconductor cavity system containing a single quantum dot is presented. The nonlinear quantum optics formalism uses a master equation approach and focuses on a waveguide-cavity system containing a semiconductor quantum dot; our general technique also applies to studying coherent reflection from a micropillar cavity. We investigate the effects of light propagation and show the need for quantized multiphoton effects for various dot-cavity systems, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less than 0.1, the commonly adopted weak excitation (single quantum) approximation breaks down---even in the weak coupling regime. As a measure of the photon correlations, we compute the Fano factor and the error associated with making a semiclassical approximation. We also investigate the role of electron--acoustic-phonon scattering and show that phonon-mediated scatt...

  12. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities.

  13. 3D visualization design and implementation in 60Co container CT inspection system

    60Co γ-ray container inspection system (TC-Scan), developed at Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University, is installed at the customs for air-cargo or mega-object inspection against smuggling and prohibited objects. With the development of computer science and technology, 3D visualization technology applied to CT inspection system becomes a hotspot. In this paper, a volume rendering visualization system is designed and implemented for TC-Scan, based on ray-casting algorithm. In order to keep flexibility and compatibility for further development, the 3D rendering subsystem is independent from acquisition and reconstruction subsystems. Final rendering results demonstrate legible and distinct 3D vision for container inspection, which improves inspection validity. (authors)

  14. Critical issues in the use of metals and alloys in sulphur-containing aqueous systems

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1992-12-31

    Sulphur-containing aqueous fluids are amongst the most corrosive environments experienced in industrial and natural systems. The high corrosivity is due principally to the wide range of oxidation states that sulphur may exist in within the thermodynamic stability domain of water, as well as to the high lability of many sulphur species, such as the polythionic acids and polysulfides. Additionally, sulphur, along with arsenic, antimony, and mercury, effectively promotes the entry of hydrogen into metal and alloy matrices, thereby leading to hydrogen damage and hydrogen embrittlement. In this paper, the chemistry of sulphur species in aqueous solutions and of the various iron sulphides is reviewed with emphasis on illustrating the diverse nature of metal/sulphur interactions. Finally, we identify a number of critical issues that need to be resolved to greatly improve our understanding of the chemistry of sulphur-containing systems and to improve our ability to predict the form and extent of corrosion in geochemical and geoenergy systems.

  15. Critical issues in the use of metals and alloys in sulphur-containing aqueous systems

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Sulphur-containing aqueous fluids are amongst the most corrosive environments experienced in industrial and natural systems. The high corrosivity is due principally to the wide range of oxidation states that sulphur may exist in within the thermodynamic stability domain of water, as well as to the high lability of many sulphur species, such as the polythionic acids and polysulfides. Additionally, sulphur, along with arsenic, antimony, and mercury, effectively promotes the entry of hydrogen into metal and alloy matrices, thereby leading to hydrogen damage and hydrogen embrittlement. In this paper, the chemistry of sulphur species in aqueous solutions and of the various iron sulphides is reviewed with emphasis on illustrating the diverse nature of metal/sulphur interactions. Finally, we identify a number of critical issues that need to be resolved to greatly improve our understanding of the chemistry of sulphur-containing systems and to improve our ability to predict the form and extent of corrosion in geochemical and geoenergy systems.

  16. Practical experience with a local verification system for containment and surveillance sensors

    With the growing number of nuclear facilities and a number of large commercial bulk handling facilities steadily coming into operation the International Atomic Energy Agency is faced with increasing requirements as to reducing its inspection efforts. One means of meeting these requirements will be to deploy facility based remote interrogation methods for its containment and surveillance instrumentation. Such a technical concept of remote interrogation was realized through the so-called LOVER system development, a local verification system for electronic safeguards seal systems. In the present investigations the application was extended to radiation monitoring by introducing an electronic interface between the electronic safeguards seal and the neutron detector electronics of a waste monitoring system. The paper discusses the safeguards motivation and background, the experimental setup of the safeguards system and the performance characteristics of this LOVER system. First conclusions can be drawn from the performance results with respect to the applicability in international safeguards. This comprises in particular the definition of design specifications for an integrated remote interrogation system for various types of containment and surveillance instruments and the specifications of safeguards applications employing such a system

  17. Active Fault Tolerant Control of Livestock Stable Ventilation System

    Gholami, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    of the hybrid model are estimated by a recursive estimation algorithm, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), using experimental data which was provided by an equipped laboratory. Two methods for active fault diagnosis are proposed. The AFD methods excite the system by injecting a so-called excitation...... degraded performance even in the faulty case. In this thesis, we have designed such controllers for climate control systems for livestock buildings in three steps: Deriving a model for the climate control system of a pig-stable. Designing a active fault diagnosis (AFD) algorithm for different kinds of...... fault. Designing a fault tolerant control scheme for the climate control system. In the first step, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live-stock building is derived. The model is a nonlinear hybrid model. Hybrid systems contain both discrete and continuous components. The parameters...

  18. Effects of soy containing diet and isoflavones on cytochrome P450 enzyme expression and activity.

    Ronis, Martin J J

    2016-08-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play an important role in metabolism and clearance of most clinically utilized drugs and other xenobiotics. They are important in metabolism of endogenous compounds including fatty acids, sterols, steroids and lipid-soluble vitamins. Dietary factors such as phytochemicals are capable of affecting CYP expression and activity, which may be important in diet-drug interactions and in the development of fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. One important diet-CYP interaction is with diets containing plant proteins, particularly soy protein. Soy diets are traditionally consumed in Asian countries and are linked to lower incidence of several cancers and of cardiovascular disease in Asian populations. Soy is also an important protein source in vegetarian and vegan diets and the sole protein source in soy infant formulas. Recent studies suggest that consumption of soy can inhibit induction of CY1 enzymes by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which may contribute to cancer prevention. In addition, there are data to suggest that soy components promiscuously activate several nuclear receptors including PXR, PPAR and LXR resulting in increased expression of CYP3As, CYP4As and CYPs involved in metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids. Such soy-CYP interactions may alter drug pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy and are associated with improved lipid homeostasis and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The current review summarizes results from in vitro; in vivo and clinical studies of soy-CYP interactions and examines the evidence linking the effects of soy diets on CYP expression to isoflavone phytoestrogens, particularly, genistein and daidzein that are associated with soy protein. PMID:27440109

  19. Cell-free synthesis system suitable for disulfide-containing proteins

    Matsuda, Takayoshi [NMR Pipeline Methodology Team, RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Cell-Free Technology Application Laboratory, RIKEN Innovation Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Watanabe, Satoru [NMR Pipeline Methodology Team, RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Kigawa, Takanori, E-mail: kigawa@riken.jp [NMR Pipeline Methodology Team, RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Cell-Free Technology Application Laboratory, RIKEN Innovation Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► Cell-free synthesis system suitable for disulfide-containing proteins is proposed. ► Disulfide bond formation was facilitated by the use of glutathione buffer. ► DsbC catalyzed the efficient shuffling of incorrectly formed disulfide bonds. ► Milligram quantities of functional {sup 15}N-labeled BPTI and lysozyme C were obtained. ► Synthesized proteins were both catalytically functional and properly folded. -- Abstract: Many important therapeutic targets are secreted proteins with multiple disulfide bonds, such as antibodies, cytokines, hormones, and proteases. The preparation of these proteins for structural and functional analyses using cell-based expression systems still suffers from several issues, such as inefficiency, low yield, and difficulty in stable-isotope labeling. The cell-free (or in vitro) protein synthesis system has become a useful protein production method. The openness of the cell-free system allows direct control of the reaction environment to promote protein folding, making it well suited for the synthesis of disulfide-containing proteins. In this study, we developed the Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysate-based cell-free synthesis system for disulfide-containing proteins, which can produce sufficient amounts of functional proteins for NMR analyses. Disulfide bond formation was facilitated by the use of glutathione buffer. In addition, disulfide isomerase, DsbC, catalyzed the efficient shuffling of incorrectly formed disulfide bonds during the protein synthesis reaction. We successfully synthesized milligram quantities of functional {sup 15}N-labeled higher eukaryotic proteins, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and human lysozyme C (LYZ). The NMR spectra and functional analyses indicated that the synthesized proteins are both catalytically functional and properly folded. Thus, the cell-free system is useful for the synthesis of disulfide-containing proteins for structural and functional analyses.

  20. Electrooptical properties of hybrid liquid crystalline systems containing CdSe quantum dots

    Dradrach, K.; Bartkiewicz, S.; Miniewicz, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present electrooptical properties of hybrid liquid crystalline systems, which contained CdSe quantum dots (QDs). We have shown by experiments of degenerated two-wave mixing and transverse conductivity measurements that liquid crystal cells filled with nematic and doped with semiconductor nanoparticles exhibit photorefractive effect associated with photoconductivity appearing in the system. We also present the mathematical model, which explains the relationship between the photoconductivity of the layer on which the QDs reside and the generation of holographic gratings. Our research may help to develop better understanding of processes observed in such systems and create more efficient materials for holographic data storage.

  1. Electrooptical properties of hybrid liquid crystalline systems containing CdSe quantum dots

    Dradrach, K., E-mail: klaudia.dradrach@pwr.edu.pl; Bartkiewicz, S.; Miniewicz, A. [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, we present electrooptical properties of hybrid liquid crystalline systems, which contained CdSe quantum dots (QDs). We have shown by experiments of degenerated two-wave mixing and transverse conductivity measurements that liquid crystal cells filled with nematic and doped with semiconductor nanoparticles exhibit photorefractive effect associated with photoconductivity appearing in the system. We also present the mathematical model, which explains the relationship between the photoconductivity of the layer on which the QDs reside and the generation of holographic gratings. Our research may help to develop better understanding of processes observed in such systems and create more efficient materials for holographic data storage.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and Tris-EDTA.

    Guardabassi, Luca; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Damborg, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA (Otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. The microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. The most susceptible group included Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis, Streptococcus canis and Corynebacterium auriscanis, which were generally killed by 1 : 64 dilution of the antiseptic product (MBC = 23/0.8 microg/mL of chlorhexidine/Tris-EDTA). The most resistant organism was Proteus mirabilis, which survived up to 1 : 8 dilution of the product (MBC = 375/12 microg/mL). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus displayed intermediate MBCs ranging between 188/6 and 47/1.5 microg/mL. Interestingly, S. pseudintermedius was more susceptible than S. aureus, and no significant difference was observed between meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates within each species, indicating that antiseptic use is unlikely to co-select for meticillin resistance. Although the concentrations required for killing (MBCs) varied considerably with microorganism type, the combination of chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA was active against all the pathogens most commonly involved in canine otitis. PMID:20030799

  3. Effect of shoes containing nanosilica particles on knee valgus in active females during landing

    Zahra Bassiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The effect of silica nanoparticles (SNPs in sport shoes outsoles on the  parameters related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL Injury has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes outsole containing a composite of thermoplastic elastomer based on styrene-butadiene and silica nanoparticles (TPEN shoe on Knee Valgus Angle (KVA as a risk factor of ACL injuries during landing Materials and Methods: Fourteen active healthy women without knee injuries and disorders performed bilateral drop jump (DJ and single leg drop landing (SLL tasks in barefoot, wearing shoes fabricated with polyvinyl chloride outsole (PVC shoe and TPEN shoes conditions , randomly. The knee valgus angle values of right and left legs were calculated in the landing conditions. Two factors repeated measures ANOVA were used to investigate the effect of landing and footwear conditions on KVA of right and left legs.  Results: For both left and right limbs, the KVA was at maximum and minimum values during landing with barefoot and TPEN shoes, respectively. PVC shoe significantly reduced the knee valgus by 3.84% in left and 4.18% in right knee (P

  4. Intraoral film containing insulin-phospholipid microemulsion: formulation and in vivo hypoglycemic activity study.

    Rachmawati, Heni; Haryadi, Bernard Manuel; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Suendo, Veinardi

    2015-06-01

    Non-invasive administration of insulin is expected for better diabetes mellitus therapy. In this report, we developed intraoral preparation for insulin. Insulin was encapsulated into nanocarrier using self-assembly emulsification process. To increase lipophilicity of insulin, it was dispersed in phospholipid resulted in insulin-phospholipid solid dispersion. The microemulsion formula was established from our previous work which contained glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween 20, and polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) in a ratio of 1:8:1. To confirm the formation of insulin-phospholipid solid dispersion, PXRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed. Then, the microemulsion was evaluated for droplet size and distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, physical stability, and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, microemulsion with expected characteristic was evaluated for in vitro release, in vitro permeation, and in vivo activity. The droplets size of ∼100 nm with narrow distribution and positive charge of +0.56 mV were formed. The insulin encapsulated in the oil droplet was accounted of >90%. Water-soluble chitosan seems to be a promising film matrix polymer which also functioned as insulin release controller. Oral administration of insulin microemulsion to healthy Swiss-Webster mice showed hypoglycemic effect indicating the success of this protein against a harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. This effectiveness significantly increased by fourfold as compared to free insulin. Taken together, microemulsion seems to be a promising carrier for oral delivery of insulin. PMID:25511810

  5. Attachment of noble metal nanoparticles to conducting polymers containing sulphur - preparation conditions for enhanced electrocatalytic activity

    Taking advantage of the spontaneous deposition of noble metals on polymers containing sulphur, the inclusion of gold and platinum in poly(3-methylthiophene) and poly(3,4-ehylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOTh) layers, achieved by immersion of the polymer into the metal nanoparticles suspension, is reported in the present work. Platinum and gold nanoparticles (NPs), with diameters between 3 and 17 nm, have been prepared from colloidal methods (citrate or borohydride reduction in the presence of citrate capping agent) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electropolymerization was carried out under potentiostatic and potentiodynamic conditions, imparting distinct morphologies, as revealed by atomic force microscopy. After polymer films immersion in the colloidal solutions, evidence of the NPs confinement and distribution was provided by XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy. For thin layers, the quantity of attached metal NPs could be estimated from quartz crystal microbalance data collected throughout the films immersion.The influence of the polymer type and morphology, NPs nature, size and incorporated amount on the electrocatalytic activity of the so-prepared modified electrodes towards the hydrazine oxidation, in phosphate buffer solution, has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results clearly show the superior properties of potentiodynamically prepared PEDOTh films attaching very small (3 nm) freshly prepared Pt-NPs.

  6. Activity release from waste packages containing LL and IL waste forms under mechanical and thermal stresses

    For transport and handling of radioactive waste packages in an underground repository safety assessments are being performed to keep any unacceptable radiation hazards from the operational staff and the population in the site neighborhood. Therefore experiments were carried out to determine source terms for activity release from waste packages containing cemented waste forms in case of heavy mechanical and thermal impacts. Mechanical impact was applied by drop test with a maximum energy input of 3.105 Nm. A special cage construction around the target (reinforced concrete covered by a 80 mm steel plate) allows the collection of the airborne fines with a particle size of < 10 μm by using micro filters in a defined geometry. In addition, in two experiments the particle fraction with an aerodynamic diameter between 1 μm and 20 μm was determined using a cascade impactor. Additional laboratory experiments were performed to determine comparative values for different waste forms. In case of thermal impact, the temperature profiles in the waste forms were measured and the release of added indicators (Cs, Sr, Eu) was determined. Further laboratory experiments were performed with inactive samples to determine the temperature dependence of water release (Thermogravimetric-Analysis)

  7. Low cost combined systems for detection of contraband hidden in cargo containers

    The fruitful cooperation between Egypt and the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA through the Coordinated Research Project (Contract No.13497/RO) which is concerned with the use of neutron based techniques for the detection of illicit materials and explosives tends to design and construct combined systems to search the contents of cargo containers for illicit trafficking. The systems consist of a scanner based on using γ rays emitted from 60Co source to locate the position of contraband hidden within the payload and an identifier based on using neutrons emitted from Pu-α-Be source to distinguish the suspected object through elemental analysis by fast and thermal neutrons. The systems include as well a especially mechanical system to move the inspected container between the radiation sources and detector. The mechanical system is equipped with an electrical controller unit to adjust the movement increment of the inspected container and time of measurement. A γ ray measuring system with NaI(Tl) detector is used to measure the γ rays transmitted through the container during the scanning process. The same γ detector is used to measure the γ spectrum resulting from neutron interrogation. The measured γ rays are fed to two counting stations, the first station is used to count γ rays transmitted through the container during the scanning process, while the second one is used to record the spectrum of γ ray emitted from the suspected object during the identification stage. Results obtained from the primary tests are presented in the form of 2D image for the suspected object and in the form of displayed γ spectra for γ rays emitted from the suspected objects by neutron interrogation analysis. The constructed 2D images and γ-ray spectra measured for different hidden illicit materials clearly indicate that the system is of low scanning cost, very fast and efficient for detecting contraband screened by steel shield of 1 cm thick. In addition, the system weight

  8. Synthesis, structural characterization and anti-carcinogenic activity of new cyclotriphosphazenes containing dioxybiphenyl and chalcone groups

    Görgülü, Ahmet Orhan; Koran, Kenan; Özen, Furkan; Tekin, Suat; Sandal, Süleyman

    2015-05-01

    2,2-Dichloro-4,4,6,6-bis[spiro(2‧,2″-dioxy-1‧,1″-biphenylyl]cyclotriphosphazene (2) was synthesized from hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and 2,2‧-dihydroxybiphenyl. The mixed substituent chalcone/dioxybiphenyl cyclophosphazenes (2a-h) were obtained from the reactions of (2) with hydroxy chalcone compounds in K2CO3/acetone system. The chalcone-cyclophosphazene compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C, 31P NMR techniques. In vitro anti-carcinogenic activities of all compounds were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Anti-carcinogenic activity of the compounds (2a-h) against androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC-3) human prostate cancer cell lines were investigated. Our results indicate that the chalcone-phosphazene compounds (2a-h) have anti-carcinogenic activity on PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines (p < 0.05). The effective dose of the compounds was determined as 100 μM.

  9. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Jorge Morel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to a reduction in the total inertia of the system because renewable generators are connected to the grid by power converters, and transient stability becomes a significant issue. Simulation results show that sodium-sulfur batteries can keep the system in operation and stable after strong transient disturbances, especially for an isolated system. The results also show how the reduction of the inertia in the system can be mitigated by exploiting the kinetic energy of wind turbines.

  10. Fission products distributions in Candu primary heat transport and Candu containment systems during a severe accident

    The paper is intended to analyse the distribution of the fission products (FPs) in CANDU Primary Heat Transport (PHT) and CANDU Containment Systems by using the ASTEC code (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). The complexity of the data required by ASTEC and the complexity both of CANDU PHT and Containment System were strong motivations to begin with a simplified geometry in order to avoid the introducing of unmanageable errors at the level of input deck. Thus only 1/4 of the PHT circuit was simulated and a simplified FPs inventory, some simplifications in the feeders geometry and containment were used. The circuit consists of 95 horizontal fuel channels connected to 95 horizontal out-feeders, then through vertical feeders to the outlet-header (a big pipe that collects the water from feeders); the circuit continues from the outlet-header with a riser and then with the steam generator and a pump. After this pump, the circuit was broken; in this point the FPs are transferred to the containment. The containment model consists of 4 rooms connected between by 6 links. The data related to the nodes' definitions, temperatures and pressure conditions were chosen as possible as real data from CANDU NPP loss of coolant accident sequence. Temperature and pressure conditions in the time of the accident were calculated by the CATHENA code and the source term of FPs introduced into the PHT was estimated by the ORIGEN code. The FPs distribution in the nodes of the circuit and the FPs mass transfer per isotope and chemical species are obtained by using SOPHAEROS module of ASTEC code. The distributions into the containment are obtained by the CPA module of ASTEC code (thermalhydraulics calculations in the containment and FPs aerosol transport). The results consist of mass distributions in the nodes of the circuit and the transferred mass to the containment through the break for different species (FPs and chemical species) and mass distributions in the different parts and

  11. Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes

    Perez AP

    2014-07-01

    leishmanicidal activity of photodynamic liposomal ZnPc was improved by TPA-containing liposomes.Keywords: macrophages, Leishmania amastigotes, Zn intracellular delivery, irradiation

  12. Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI

    Myers, R.L.; Thomas, E.V.

    1995-04-01

    EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.

  13. Electrical impedance tomography system based on active electrodes

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can image the distribution of ventilated lung tissue, and is thus a promising technology to help monitor patient breathing to help selection of mechanical ventilation parameters. Two key difficulties in EIT instrumentation make such monitoring difficult: (1) EIT data quality depends on good electrode contact and is sensitive to changes in contact quality, and (2) EIT electrodes are difficult and time consuming to place on patients. This paper presents the design and initial tests of an active electrode-based system to address these difficulties. Our active electrode EIT system incorporates an active electrode belt, a central voltage-driven current source, central analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters, a central FPGA-based demodulator and controller. The electrode belt is designed incorporating 32 active electrodes, each of which contains the electronic amplifiers, switches and associated logic. Tests show stable device performance with a convenient ease of use and good imaging ability in volunteer tests. (paper)

  14. Cost-benefit of the bubble tower concept as a containment passive safety system

    Containment system integrity for both PWRs and BWRs can be assured by passive measures highlighted the use of an accessory Bubble Tower. The utilization of the Bubble Tower precludes the possibility of containment overpressurization. From the thermodynamic standpoint, the Bubble Tower is simply water column of about 120 ft. height attached to the containment and connected to the air space above the suppression pool of a BWR, or a PWR In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank. From the radiological protection standpoint, the Bubble Tower is a water column sufficient to effect decontamination factors of at least 100 for nuclide species other than the noble gases, and with the addition of organic solubilizers sufficient to effect decontamination factors of at least 10 iodides and at least 100 for other nuclide species. When containment steam or noncondensable gas passes through the Bubble Tower, a significant fraction of the radionuclides is absorbed by the water column. When a cost-benefit dose evaluation is performed relative to the utilization of a Bubble Tower, even under conditions where the dollars per man-rem is taken as $1000, the results are favorable. They are substantially more favorable when the dollars per man-rem is taken as $5000 or $10,000 as are the current trends. (author)

  15. The market-incentive recycling system for waste packaging containers in Taiwan

    This paper presents a new market-incentive (MI) system to recycle waste-packaging containers in Taiwan. Since most used packaging containers have no or insufficient market value, the government imposes a combined product charge and subsidy policy to provide enough economic incentive for recycling various kinds of packaging containers, such as iron, aluminum, paper, glass and plastic. Empirical results show that the new MI approach has stimulated and established the recycling market for waste-packaging containers. The new recycling system has provided 18,356 employment opportunities and generated NT$ 6.97 billion in real-production value and NT$ 3.18 billion in real GDP during the 1998 survey year. Cost-effectiveness analysis constitutes the theoretical foundation of the new scheme, whereas data used to compute empirical product charge are from two sources: marketing surveys of internal conventional costs of solid-waste collection, disposal and recycling in Taiwan, and benefit transfer of external environmental costs in the United States. The new recycling policy designed by the authors provides a reasonable solution for solid-waste management in a country with limited land resources such as Taiwan

  16. SYSTEMIC BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING AND AFTER AUTOTRANSFUSION

    SCHONBERGER, JPAM; VANOEVEREN, W; BREDEE, JJ; EVERTS, PAM; DEHAAN, J; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of shed blood activation in two autotransfusion systems and the effect of circulating blood activation upon autotransfusion, we performed a prospective study in 18 patients undergoing internal mammary artery bypass operation and a control group of 10 patients. The autotransfus

  17. CZECHOSLOVAK ACTIVITY TO PREPARE EUROPEAN NORMS FOR CONTAINERS BEFORE THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    Krzysztof Lewandowski

    2014-01-01

    In many articles we can read that containers weren't in Europe before 1966, when ship SS Fariland came with 35 feet containers invented by Keith Tantlinger for Sea Land Company owned by Malcom McLean. The focus of this study is on the problem with development norms for European containers. Thus, the main definitions and briefly literature overview in the analysed research area are given. Later, the information about these constructions are developed. Article presents Czechoslovak ...

  18. Design Status of the Capillary Brine Residual in Containment Water Recovery System

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support System (LSS) Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long duration human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. To meet this objective, the AES LSS Project is developing technologies to recover water from wastewater brine; highly concentrated waste products generated from a primary water recovery system. The state of the art system used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has the potential to recover up to 85% water from unine wastewater, leaving a significant amounts of water in the waste brine, the recovery of which is a critical technology gap that must be filled in order to enable long duration human exploration. Recovering water from the urine wastewater brine is complicated by the concentration of solids as water is removed from the brine, and the concentration of the corrosive, toxic chemicals used to stabilize the urine which fouls and degrades water processing hardware, and poses a hazard to operators and crew. Brine Residual in Containment (BRIC) is focused on solids management through a process of "in-place" drying - the drying of brines within the container used for final disposal. Application of in-place drying has the potential to improve the safety and reliability of the system by reducing the exposure to crew and hardware to the problematic brine residual. Through a collaboration between the NASA Johnson Space Center and Portland Status University, a novel water recovery system was developed that utilizes containment geometry to support passive capillary flow and static phase separation allowing free surface evaporation to take place in a microgravity environment. A notional design for an ISS demonstration system was developed. This paper describes the concept for the system level design.

  19. Containment control of multi-agent systems with unbounded communication delays

    Shen, Jun; Lam, James

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the containment control problem for multi-agent systems under heterogeneous unbounded communication delays with emphasis on the convergence rate analysis. Different from most works on multi-agent systems, we resort to a viewpoint from the area of positive delay systems. We first cast the containment control problem into the stability analysis of an associated error system. In order to capture the convergence rate, we introduce a nondecreasing positive function whose reciprocal represents the decay rate of the associated error system. Under the assumption that each follower has access to at least one leader and some mild hypotheses on the communication delays, an explicit condition is given to characterise the decay rate of the associated error system in terms of linear programming. In addition, we provide several special cases when the communication delays are restricted by linear, sublinear and logarithmic growth rates, respectively. Finally, through numerical examples, it is shown that the convergence rate is dominated by the delays being the highest order infinitely large quantity.

  20. Gamma band activity in the reticular activating system (RAS

    Francisco J Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep-wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem-thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep-wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by preconscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the