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Sample records for active compounds emitted

  1. Monitoring biogenic volatile compounds emitted by Eucalyptus citriodora using SPME.

    Zini, C A; Augusto, F; Christensen, T E; Smith, B P; Caramão, E B; Pawliszy, J

    2001-10-01

    A procedure to monitor BVOC emitted by living plants using SPME technique is presented. For this purpose, a glass sampling chamber was designed. This device was employed for the characterization of biogenic volatile compounds emitted by leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. After extraction with SPME fibers coated with PDMS/ DVB, it was possible to identify or detect 33 compounds emitted by this plant. A semiquantitative approach was applied to monitor the behavior of the emitted BVOC during 9 days. Circadian profiles of the variation in the concentration of isoprene were plotted. Using diffusion-based SPME quantitation, a recently introduced analytical approach, with extraction times as short as 15 s, it was possible to quantify subparts-per-billion amounts of isoprene emitted by this plant. PMID:11605854

  2. Use of thermal desorption gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry for the comparison of identified and unidentified odor active compounds emitted from building products containing linseed oil

    Clausen, P. A.; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Larsen, K.;

    2008-01-01

    The emission of odor active volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a floor oil based on linseed oil, the linseed oil itself and a low-odor linseed oil was investigated by thermal desorption gas chromatography combined with olfactometry and mass spectrometry (TD-GC-O/MS). The oils were applied to...

  3. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from furniture and electrical appliances].

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Furukawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Therefore, furniture and other household products as well as building products may influence the indoor air quality. This study was performed to estimate quantitatively influence of household products on indoor air quality. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were investigated for 10 products including furniture (chest, desk, dining table, sofa, cupboard) and electrical appliances (refrigerator, electric heater, desktop personal computer, liquid crystal display television and audio) by the large chamber test method (JIS A 1912) under the standard conditions of 28 degrees C, 50% relative humidity and 0.5 times/h ventilation. Emission rate of total VOC (TVOC) from the sofa showed the highest; over 7900 microg toluene-equivalent/unit/h. Relatively high TVOC emissions were observed also from desk and chest. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment for the sofa was 911 microg/m3, accounting for almost 230% of the provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. The values of estimated increment of toluene emitted from cupboard and styrene emitted from refrigerator were 10% and 16% of guideline values, respectively. These results revealed that VOC emissions from household products may influence significantly indoor air quality. PMID:21381398

  4. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    Prieto, A.M. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil); Santos, A.G. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Natural Principles and Toxicology, Rodovia Araraquara-Jau, km 01, Araraquara (Brazil); Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil); Arbex, M.A. [UNIFESP — Federal University of São Paulo, Paulista College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 720, São Paulo (Brazil); Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil); Cavalheiro, A.J.; Silva, D.H.S.; Bolzani, V.S. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Organic Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil); Soares, C.P., E-mail: soarescp@hotmail.com [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  5. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  6. Study of compounds emitted during thermo-oxidative decomposition of polyester fabrics

    Dzięcioł Małgorzata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Compounds emitted during thermo-oxidative decomposition of three commercial polyester fabrics for indoor outfit and decorations (upholstery, curtains were studied. The experiments were carried out in a flow tubular furnace at 600°C in an air atmosphere. During decomposition process the complex mixtures of volatile and solid compounds were emitted. The main volatile products were carbon oxides, benzene, acetaldehyde, vinyl benzoate and acetophe-none. The emitted solid compounds consisted mainly of aromatic carboxylic acids and its derivatives, among which the greatest part took terephthalic acid, monovinyl terephthalate and benzoic acid. The small amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were also emitted. The emission profiles of the tested polyester fabrics were similar. The presence of toxic compounds indicates the possibility of serious hazard for people during fire.

  7. Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting devices

    Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2008-02-01

    Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting device (AMOLED) realizing top emission by using bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure was proposed. The multilayer structure of OLED deposited in the conventional sequence is not on the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane but on the OLED plane. The contact between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of TFT backplane and metal cathode of OLED plane is implemented by using transfer electrode. The stringent pixel design for aperture ratio of the bottom-emitting AMOLED, as well as special technology for the top ITO electrode of top-emitting AMOLED, is unnecessary in the laminated AMOLED.

  8. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Volatile compounds emitted by sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Fravel, Deborah R; Connick, William J; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W

    2002-06-19

    Volatile compounds emitted by sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Sclerotium rolfsii were identified by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectometry. Both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum emitted 2-methylenebornane and 2-methylisoborneol. In addition, S. minor emitted mesityl oxide, gamma-butyrolactone, cis- and trans-linalool oxide, linalool, and trans-nerolidol. S. sclerotiorum emitted 2-methyl-2-bornene, 1-methylcamphene, and a diterpene with a molecular weight of 272. Sclerotium rolfsii did not emit any of these compounds but did emit delta-cadinene and cis-calamenene. Chemicals emitted by S. minor and S. sclerotiorum were tested to determine if they could stimulate germination of conidia of Sporidesmium sclerotivorum, a mycoparasite on sclerotia of Sclerotinia spp. Chemicals were tested at 1 part per billion to 100 parts per million, both in direct contact with conidia and near, but not in, physical contact. None of the chemicals alone nor a combination of all chemicals induced germination of conidia of S. sclerotivorum. PMID:12059156

  10. Development of method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry

    A. Bobrowski; B. Grabowska; M. Holtzer; Kubecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop a method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry. Research were performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials mixtures of semi-volatiles compounds with furfuryl alcohol and aldehyde. Furfuryl-urea resin samples were also used. Station for thermal degradation of materials used in foundry was designed and made. Thermal degradation process conditions and gas chromatograph coupled with high reso...

  11. Odorous Sulfur Compounds Emitted during Production of Compost Used as a Substrate in Mushroom Cultivation

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; van der Drift, C; van Griensven, L. J. L. D.; Vogels, G D

    1990-01-01

    Large-scale composting facilities are known to cause environmental problems, mainly through pungent air emitted by composting material. In air samples taken above stacks set up to prepare compost used as a substrate in mushroom cultivation, several volatile compounds were identified by means of the coupled techniques of gas chromatography and mass spectrography. Among the compounds identified, sulfur-containing compounds [H2S, COS, CH3SH, CS2, (CH3)2S, (CH3)2S2, and (CH3)2S3] are the most con...

  12. Fluorescence Spectra of Model Compounds for Light-emitting Alternating Copolymers in Heterogeneous Environments

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the fluorescence spectra of model compounds of light-emitting alternating copolymers, M (TPA-PPV) and M (TPA-PAV) (Scheme 1) were studied and the effect of KNO3 on the interaction between model compounds and ionic micelle-water interface was also investigated. It is found that (I) The fluorescence changes of M (TPA-PPV) are related to the state of CTAB and SDS solution. (II) Aggregated state can be formed in M (TPA-PAV) solution at low concentration of CTAB. (III) Higher concentration of KNO3 may affect the interaction between model compounds and ionic micelle-water interface.

  13. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-07-28

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.1% and Commission Internationale dÉnclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.05). Efficient deep-blue emission as well as high triplet state energy of Cz-2pbb enables fabrication of hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with a single emissive layer. Hybrid white emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb show the peak external quantum efficiency exceeding 10% and power efficiency of 14.8 lm/W at a luminance of 500 cd/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Discrimination of volatile organic compounds emitted by building materials using an electronic nose

    Regoui, Chaouki; Ramalho, Olivier; Kirchner, Séverine

    1997-01-01

    This work concerns the development of a real time air quality monitoring tool using an electronic nose based on conducting polymer sensors and artificial neural network pattern recognition technique. Eight aromatic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) frequently emitted by the building materials were chosen to assess electronic nose discrimination capability. This discrimination was based on three criteria: carbon chain length (toluene, ethylbenzene and propylbenzene), substituent position on th...

  15. Problems in labeling receptor ligands and related compounds with positron emitting radionuclides

    In the clinical application of positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, there can be a need for tracer preparation several times a day, or in the case of some compounds such as 0-15 labeled water, several times an hour. This type of production schedule means that special emphasis must be placed both on reducing radiation dose to the chemist and on performing rapid quality control of products. The production, reduction of radiation dose, and quality control of oxygen-15 labeled oxygen, carbon monoxide and water, as well as carbon-11 labeled glucose and palmitic acid are used as examples for compounds being produced routinely for PET studies at Washington University

  16. Balanced charge injection in multilayer polymer light-emitting diode with water soluble nonconjugated polymer dispersed by ionic compounds

    Park, Dong-Kyu; Chun, A.-Rum; Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Min-Sook; Kim, Choong-Gi; Kwon, Tae-Woo; Cho, Seong-Jin; Woo, Hyung-Suk; Lee, Jae-Gyoung; Lee, Suck-Hyun; Guo, Zhi-Xin

    2007-07-01

    The authors have fabricated highly efficient polymeric light-emitting diode (PLED) from ionic compound dispersed water soluble nonconjugated polymer, polyurethane (PU), which was used as an ultrathin hole blocking and electron injection layer (HB-EIL) on the top of commercially available blue-emitting polymer, polyfluorene. The device with HB-EIL showed a maximum quantum efficiency of 1.7%, while the one without HB-EIL showed an efficiency of 0.6%. They propose that the better performance in PLED with PU layer was due to a well balanced charge injection in emitting layer after the enhanced electron injection due to ionic compound in the insulating PU layer.

  17. Identification and quantitation of volatile organic compounds emitted from dairy silages and other feedstuffs.

    Malkina, Irina L; Kumar, Anuj; Green, Peter G; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    High ground-level ozone continues to be an important human, animal, and plant health impediment in the United States and especially in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). According to California state and regional air quality agencies, dairies are one of the major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the SJV. A number of recently conducted studies reported emissions data from different dairy sources. However, limited data are currently available for silage and otherfeed storages on dairies, which could potentially contribute to ozone formation. Because the impact of different VOCs on ozone formation varies significantly from one molecular species to another, detailed characterization of VOC emissions is essential to include all the important contributors to atmospheric chemistry and especially atmospheric reactivity. The present research study identifies and quantifies the VOCs emitted from various silages and other feedstuffs. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions. Almost 80 VOCs were identified and quantified from corn (Zea mays L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.),and cereal (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] and oat [Avena sativava L.] grains) silages, total mixed ration (TMR), almond (Amygdalus communis L.) shells and hulls using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. The results revealed high concentrations of emitted alcohols and other oxygenated species. Lower concentrations of highly reactive alkenes and aldehydes were also detected. Additional quantitation and monitoring of these emissions are essential for assessment of and response to the specific needs of the regional air quality in the SJV. PMID:21488490

  18. Analysis of relative concentration of ethanol and other odorous compounds (OCs emitted from the working surface at a landfill in China.

    Dong Li

    Full Text Available Estimating odor emissions from landfill sites is a complicated task because of the various chemical and biological species that exist in landfill gases. In this study, the relative concentration of ethanol and other odorous compounds emitted from the working surface at a landfill in China was analyzed. Gas sampling was conducted at the landfill on a number of selected days from March 2012 to March 2014, which represented different periods throughout the two years. A total of 41, 59, 66, 54, 63, 54, 41, and 42 species of odorous compounds were identified and quantified in eight sampling activities, respectively; a number of 86 species of odorous compounds were identified and quantified all together in the study. The measured odorous compounds were classified into six different categories (Oxygenated compounds, Halogenated compounds, Terpenes, Sulfur compounds, Aromatics, and Hydrocarbons. The total average concentrations of the oxygenated compounds, sulfur compounds, aromatics, halogenated compounds, hydrocarbons, and terpenes were 2.450 mg/m3, 0.246 mg/m3, 0.203 mg/m3, 0.319 mg/m3, 0.530 mg/m3, and 0.217 mg/m3, respectively. The relative concentrations of 59 odorous compounds with respect to the concentration of ethyl alcohol (1000 ppm were determined. The dominant contaminants that cause odor pollution around the landfill are ethyl sulfide, methyl mercaptan, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen sulfide; dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl sulfide also contribute to the pollution to a certain degree.

  19. PTR-MS analysis of reference and plant-emitted volatile organic compounds

    Maleknia, Simin D.; Bell, Tina L.; Adams, Mark A.

    2007-05-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was applied to the analysis of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that emit from various plants. These include a group of alcohols (methanol, ethanol and butanol), carbonyl-containing compounds (acetic acid, acetone and benzaldehyde), isoprene, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), pyrazine, toluene and xylene and a series of terpenes (p-cymene, camphene, 2-carene, limonene, [beta]-myrcene, [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene, [gamma]-tepinene and terpinolene) and oxygen-containing terpenes (1,8-cineole and linalool). These mass spectral data were compared to an electron ionization (EI) database identifying that not all PTR-MS fragments were common to EI. PTR-MS studies of these reference compounds were utilized to identify VOCs emitted from Eucalyptus grandis leaf at a temperature range of 30-100 °C. In addition to protonated molecules (M + H)+, abundant proton-bound dimers or trimers were detected for alcohols, acetone, acetonitrile and THF. Abundant fragment ions attributed to the loss of water from these proton-bound clusters were also observed. The stability of butyl (C4H9+ m/z 57) and acetyl (CH3CO+ m/z 43) fragment ions directed the proton-transfer reactions of butanol and acetic acid. Abundant (M + H)+ ions were detected for pyrazine, THF, toluene and xylene, as well as for all terpenes except those containing oxygen. For linalool and 1,8-cineole, the loss of water generated an abundant fragment ion at m/z 137. PTR-MS fragmentation patterns for terpenes were proposed for m/z 81 (C6H9+), 93 (C7H9+), 95 (C7H11+), 107 (C8H11+), 109 (C8H13+), 119 (C9H11+), 121 (C9H13+) and 137 (loss of water for oxygen-containing terpenes; C10H17+). The relative abundances of (M + H)+ and fragments for all terpenes (except linalool) were dependent on the drift tube voltage and the optimum voltage for detection of molecular ions was different for various terpenes.

  20. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  1. Standards of compounds labeled with positron emitting radionuclides approved as established techniques for medical use. 2009 revision

    For the establishment of positron emission tomography (PET) diagnosis as a routinely used clinical diagnostic tool, the compliances of manufacture regulations under the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principle for PET radiopharmaceuticals are necessary. For this purpose, the Subcommittee on Medical Application of Positron Emitting Radionuclides, Medical Science and Pharmaceutical Committee, in Japan Radioisotope Association has made the Standards for Compounds Labeled with Emitting Radionuclides Approved as Established Techniques for Medical Use'. At present, there are two standards; ones for 15O gases and 18fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) (2001 revision), whose studies have been approved by National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and another for other 10 PET agents (1999 version). Thus, to promote more safe and effective application of compounds labeled with positron emitting radionuclides produced in the hospital, the Subcommittee on Medical Application of Positron Emitting Radionuclides of Medical Science and Pharmaceutical Committee in Japan Radioisotope Association has reviced standards by unifying processes and specifications of 15 compounds including 12 compounds that have been already approved as 'compounds labeled with positron emitting radionuclides as established techniques for medical use' in the committee (18FDG, 15O-oxygen, 15O-carbon monoxide, 15O-carbon dioxide, 11C-monoxide, 13N-nitrogen, 13N-ammonia, 15O-water, 11C-L-methionine, 11C-sodium acetate, 11C-N-methyl-spiperone, and 11C-choline) and three newly compounds approved at 2009 (18F-sodium fluoride, 11C-raclopride, and 11C-flumazenil). This guideline includes the general notices, general rules for preparations, general tests for the quality control, quality of each PET agents, guideline for manufacturing environment and manufacturing process at manufacturing facilities of PET agents. (author)

  2. Influence of volatile organic compounds emitted by Pseudomonas and Serratia strains on Agrobacterium tumefaciens biofilms.

    Plyuta, Vladimir; Lipasova, Valentina; Popova, Alexandra; Koksharova, Olga; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Szegedi, Erno; Chernin, Leonid; Khmel, Inessa

    2016-07-01

    The ability to form biofilms plays an important role in bacteria-host interactions, including plant pathogenicity. In this work, we investigated the action of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by rhizospheric strains of Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449, Pseudomonas fluorescens B-4117, Serratia plymuthica IC1270, as well as Serratia proteamaculans strain 94, isolated from spoiled meat, on biofilms formation by three strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which are causative agents of crown-gall disease in a wide range of plants. In dual culture assays, the pool of volatiles emitted by the tested Pseudomonas and Serratia strains suppressed the formation of biofilms of A. tumefaciens strains grown on polycarbonate membrane filters and killed Agrobacterium cells in mature biofilms. The individual VOCs produced by the tested Pseudomonas strains, that is, ketones (2-nonanone, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) produced by Serratia strains, were shown to kill A. tumefaciens cells in mature biofilms and suppress their formation. The data obtained in this study suggest an additional potential of some ketones and DMDS as protectors of plants against A. tumefaciens strains, whose virulence is associated with the formation of biofilms on the infected plants. PMID:27214244

  3. Measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted in libraries and archives: an inferential indicator of paper decay?

    Gibson Lorraine T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sampling campaign of indoor air was conducted to assess the typical concentration of indoor air pollutants in 8 National Libraries and Archives across the U.K. and Ireland. At each site, two locations were chosen that contained various objects in the collection (paper, parchment, microfilm, photographic material etc. and one location was chosen to act as a sampling reference location (placed in a corridor or entrance hallway. Results Of the locations surveyed, no measurable levels of sulfur dioxide were detected and low formaldehyde vapour (-3 was measured throughout. Acetic and formic acids were measured in all locations with, for the most part, higher acetic acid levels in areas with objects compared to reference locations. A large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs was measured in all locations, in variable concentrations, however furfural was the only VOC to be identified consistently at higher concentration in locations with paper-based collections, compared to those locations without objects. To cross-reference the sampling data with VOCs emitted directly from books, further studies were conducted to assess emissions from paper using solid phase microextraction (SPME fibres and a newly developed method of analysis; collection of VOCs onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer strip. Conclusions In this study acetic acid and furfural levels were consistently higher in concentration when measured in locations which contained paper-based items. It is therefore suggested that both acetic acid and furfural (possibly also trimethylbenzenes, ethyltoluene, decane and camphor may be present in the indoor atmosphere as a result of cellulose degradation and together may act as an inferential non-invasive marker for the deterioration of paper. Direct VOC sampling was successfully achieved using SPME fibres and analytes found in the indoor air were also identified as emissive by-products from paper. Finally a new non

  4. Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) Environmental Test Report

    Salazar, George A.

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits

  5. Systemic Resistance Induced by Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kiyohara, Daigo; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF), Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp.) significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA) were identified as major act...

  6. Systemic resistance induced by volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Hushna Ara Naznin

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOC were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF, Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst. Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA were identified as major active volatile compounds from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp., respectively, and found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR against the pathogen. Molecular signaling for disease suppression by the VOC were investigated by treating different mutants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants impaired in salicylic acid (SA or Jasmonic acid (JA/ethylene (ET signaling pathways with m-cresol and MeBA followed by challenge inoculation with Pst. Results show that the level of protection was significantly lower when JA/ET-impaired mutants were treated with MeBA, and in SA-, and JA/ET-disrupted mutants after m-cresol treatment, indicating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the ISR primed by the volatiles. Analysis of defense-related genes by real-time qRT-PCR showed that both the SA-and JA-signaling pathways combine in the m-cresol signaling of ISR, whereas MeBA is mainly involved in the JA-signaling pathway with partial recruitment of SA-signals. The ET-signaling pathway was not employed in ISR by the volatiles. Therefore, this study identified two novel volatile components capable of eliciting ISR that may be promising candidates in biological control strategy to protect plants from diseases.

  7. Systemic resistance induced by volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kiyohara, Daigo; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF), Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp.) significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA) were identified as major active volatile compounds from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp., respectively, and found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) against the pathogen. Molecular signaling for disease suppression by the VOC were investigated by treating different mutants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants impaired in salicylic acid (SA) or Jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways with m-cresol and MeBA followed by challenge inoculation with Pst. Results show that the level of protection was significantly lower when JA/ET-impaired mutants were treated with MeBA, and in SA-, and JA/ET-disrupted mutants after m-cresol treatment, indicating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the ISR primed by the volatiles. Analysis of defense-related genes by real-time qRT-PCR showed that both the SA-and JA-signaling pathways combine in the m-cresol signaling of ISR, whereas MeBA is mainly involved in the JA-signaling pathway with partial recruitment of SA-signals. The ET-signaling pathway was not employed in ISR by the volatiles. Therefore, this study identified two novel volatile components capable of eliciting ISR that may be promising candidates in biological control strategy to protect plants from diseases. PMID:24475190

  8. Electrochemical activation of reactions involving organometallic compounds

    Data on the electrochemical activation of various reactions involving organometallic compounds are generalised. Primary attention is devoted to the main types of transformation that can be performed by electrochemical electron transfer: redox activation of 16- and 18-electron complexes of transition metals, molybdenum, tungsten, and ruthenium in particular, as the first step of a broad range of reactions, electrocatalysis, mediator processes, and electrosynthesis of compounds containing carbon-metal σ-bonds

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  10. Optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction for the analysis of microbial volatile organic compounds emitted by fungi: Application to historical objects.

    Sawoszczuk, Tomasz; Syguła-Cholewińska, Justyna; del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M

    2015-08-28

    The main goal of this work was to optimize the SPME sampling method for measuring microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted by active molds that may deteriorate historical objects. A series of artificially aged model materials that resemble those found in historical objects was prepared and evaluated after exposure to four different types of fungi. The investigated pairs consisted of: Alternaria alternata on silk, Aspergillus niger on parchment, Chaetomium globosum on paper and wool, and Cladosporium herbarum on paper. First of all, a selection of the most efficient SPME fibers was carried out as there are six different types of fibers commercially available. It was important to find a fiber that absorbs the biggest number and the highest amount of MVOCs. The results allowed establishing and selecting the DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber as the most effective SPME fiber for this kind of an analysis. Another task was to optimize the time of MVOCs extraction on the fiber. It was recognized that a time between 12 and 24h is adequate for absorbing a high enough amount of MVOCs. In the last step the temperature of MVOCs desorption in the GC injection port was optimized. It was found that desorption at a temperature of 250°C allowed obtaining chromatograms with the highest abundances of compounds. To the best of our knowledge this work constitutes the first attempt of the SPME method optimization for sampling MVOCs emitted by molds growing on historical objects. PMID:26209190

  11. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  12. Preparation and fluorescence property of red-emitting Eu3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate phosphor

    This paper describes the energy efficient synthesis of a red-emitting Eu3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate phosphor produced by heating a Eu3+-activated calcium silicate hydrate phosphor. Concentration quenching of the Eu3+-activated calcium silicate hydrate phosphor was not observed and the emission intensity did not decrease up to a Eu/(Ca+Eu) atomic ratio of 0.46. Heating of the Eu3+-activated calcium silicate hydrate (Eu/(Ca+Eu) atomic ratio = 0.32) phosphor produced an amorphous Eu3+-activated calcium silicate phosphor, which had a maximum emission intensity at 870 oC and emitted in the red under near-ultraviolet irradiation (395 nm). The emission intensity of the Eu3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate phosphor was about half that of a commercial BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ phosphor, and shows great potential for application in white light-emitting diodes.

  13. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia (2): Identification of organic compounds

    Fujii, Yusuke; Kawamoto, Haruo; Tohno, Susumu; Oda, Masafumi; Iriana, Windy; Lestari, Puji

    2015-06-01

    Smoke emitted from Indonesian peatland fires has caused dense haze and serious air pollution in Southeast Asia such as visibility impairment and adverse health impacts. To mitigate the Indonesian peatland fire aerosol impacts, an effective strategy and international framework based on the latest scientific knowledge needs to be established. Although several attempts have been made, limited data exist regarding the chemical characteristics of peatland fire smoke for the source apportionment. In order to identify the key organic compounds of peatland fire aerosols, we conducted intensive field studies based on ground-based and source-dominated sampling of PM2.5 in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, during the peatland fire seasons in 2012. Levoglucosan was the most abundant compound among the quantified organic compounds at 8.98 ± 2.28% of the PM2.5 mass, followed by palmitic acid at 0.782 ± 0.163% and mannosan at 0.607 ± 0.0861%. Potassium ion was not appropriate for an indicator of Indonesian peatland fires due to extremely low concentrations associated with smoldering fire at low temperatures. The vanillic/syringic acids ratio was 1.06 ± 0.155 in this study and this may be a useful signature profile for peatland fire emissions. Particulate n-alkanes also have potential for markers to identify impact of Indonesian peatland fire source at a receptor site.

  14. Analysis of the Compounds from the BTEX Group, Emitted During Thermal Decomposition of Alkyd Resin

    M. Kubecki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of the given binding agent for the moulding sands preparation depends on the one hand on the estimation of technological properties of the sand and the mould made of it and the obtained casting quality and on the other hand on the assessment of this sand influence on the natural and working environment. Out of moulding sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. If in the initial state these resins are not very dangerous for people and for the environment, thus under an influence of high temperatures they generate very harmful products, being the result of their thermal decomposition. Depending on the kind of the applied resin (phenol-formaldehyde, urea, furfuryl, urea–furfuryl, alkyd under an influence of a temperature such compounds as: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol, BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH can be formed and released.The aim of the study was the development of the method, selection of analytical methods and the determination of optimal conditionsof formation compounds from the BTEX group. An emission of these components constitutes one of the basic criteria of the harmfulnessassessment of binders applied for moulding and core sands. Investigations were carried out in the specially designed set up for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in a temperature range: 5000C – 13000C at the laboratory scale. The object for testing was alkyd resin applied as a binding material for moulding sands. Within investigations the minimal amount of adsorbent necessary for the adsorption of compounds released during the decomposition of the resin sample of a mass app. 15 mg was selected. Also the minimal amount of solvent needed for

  15. Antitumor activity of chemical modified natural compounds

    Marilda Meirelles de Oliveira

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Search of new activity substances starting from chemotherapeutic agents, continously appears in international literature. Perhaps this search has been done more frequently in the field of anti-tumor chemotherapy on account of the unsuccess in saving advanced stage patients. The new point in this matter during the last decade was computer aid in planning more rational drugs. In near future "the accessibility of supercomputers and emergence of computer net systems, willopen new avenues to rational drug design" (Portoghese, P. S. J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 1. Unknown pharmacological active compounds synthetized by plants can be found even without this eletronic devices, as tradicional medicine has pointed out in many contries, and give rise to a new drug. These compounds used as found in nature or after chemical modifications have produced successful experimental medicaments as FAA, "flavone acetic acid" with good results as inibitors of slow growing animal tumors currently in preclinical evaluation for human treatment. In this lecture some international contributions in the field of chemical modified compounds as antineoplasic drugs will be examined, particularly those done by Brazilian researches.

  16. Activation analysis of particulates emitted from aircraft jet engines

    Particulate matter in emission gas from aircraft jet engines was subjected to instrumental neutron activation analysis and the compositions of trace elements, such as Na, Al, Cl, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sb and Th were determined. For comparison, airborne dust samples collected in and around the airport and a soot sample collected in a jet nozzle were also analyzed. The analytical results obtained involve some ambiguous points mainly resulting from the imperfect sampling method. The analytical sensitivity was insufficient because of the too small amount of collected samples. These should be improved in future studies. (auth.)

  17. Identification and quantification of gaseous organic compounds emitted from biomass burning using two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Hatch, L. E.; Luo, W.; Pankow, J. F.; Yokelson, R. J.; C. E. Stockwell; K. C. Barsanti

    2014-01-01

    The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4), with analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mas...

  18. Low geometry counter for the absolute measurement of the activity of alpha-emitting sources

    A low-geometry counter is described which allows the absolute determination of the activity for alpha-emitting sources. A Si implanted detector is used to obtain the spectrum of the sample. Two samples are measured with this counter and a 2 π gridded ion chamber. The results an their uncertainties for both instruments are discussed. (Author)

  19. Active Matrix Organic light Emitting Diode Display Based on “Super Top Emission” Technology

    Ishibashi, Tadashi; Yamada, Jiro; Hirano, Takashi; Iwase, Yuichi; Sato, Yukio; Nakagawa, Ryo; Sekiya, Mitsunobu; Sasaoka, Tatsuya; Urabe, Tetsuo

    2006-05-01

    We developed an original “Super Top Emission” technology, which enables us to optimize the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) display. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of a 100% NTSC gamut ratio, (2) wide viewing angle, (3) high contrast of 1000:1 maintaining high luminous efficiency with a color filter, (4) original all-solid sealing structure. In addition, Super Top Emission technology was demonstrated by developing a 3.8-type size half video graphics array (HVGA) active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM-OLED) display by the shadow mask patterning process.

  20. Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

    2001-07-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

  1. Role of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted by urban trees on ozone concentration in cities: A review

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) play a critical role in biosphere–atmosphere interactions and are key factors of the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere and climate. However, few studies have been carried out at urban level to investigate the interactions between BVOC emissions and ozone (O3) concentration. The contribution of urban vegetation to the load of BVOCs in the air and the interactions between biogenic emissions and urban pollution, including the likely formation of O3, needs to be investigated, but also the effects of O3 on the biochemical reactions and physiological conditions leading to BVOC emissions are largely unknown. The effect of BVOC emission on the O3 uptake by the trees is further complicating the interactions BVOC–O3, thus making challenging the estimation of the calculation of BVOC effect on O3 concentration at urban level. -- Highlights: • We examine the role of BVOC emitted from urban trees for O3 formation in our cities. • We state that the high BVOC emitter trees are dangerous especially in VOC limited conditions for ozone formation. • We conclude that the choice of the tree species can be very important for the quality of the air in our cities. -- BVOC emission from urban trees can be very important for ozone concentration

  2. 2,4-Dicyano-3-diethylamino-9,9-diethylfluorene Based Blue Light-emitting Star-shaped Compounds: Synthesis and Properties

    CHEN,Xiaohang; CHEN,Xiaopeng; ZHAO,Zujin; L(U),Ping; WANG,Yanguang

    2009-01-01

    Two new star-shaped molecules 1 and 2 containing a triphenylamine/benzene moiety as the central core and three 2,4-dicyano-3-diethylamino-9,9-diethylfluorene moieties as the peripheral functional groups were synthesized and characterized. Charge transfer properties for these compounds were observed in photophysical experiments due to their D-A molecular structure. Compound 1 presented dual fluorescence in high polar solvents. Moreover, these compounds exhibited moderate fluorescence and high thermal stabilities, indicating their potential application to blue light emitting materials.

  3. Active differential optical absorption spectroscopy for NO2 gas pollution using blue light emitting diodes

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz; Gasmi, Khaled; Al-Basheer, Watheq

    2015-05-01

    Availability of high intensity light emitting diodes in the blue region offer excellent opportunity for using them in active Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) to detect air pollution. Their smooth and relatively broad spectral emissions as well as their long life make them almost ideal light sources for active DOAS. In this study, we report the usage of a blue light emitting diode in an active DOAS setup to measure traces of NO2 gas and achieving few parts per billion detection limit for a path length of 300 m. Details of the setup will be presented along with the effects on measurement accuracy due to shifts in the measured spectra calibration and due to using theoretical instrument Gaussian function instead of the measured instrument function.

  4. Guidelines and recommendations for practices of their clinical use of standards of compounds labeled with positron emitting radionuclides approved as established techniques. 2009 revision

    The recent advancement and prevalance of clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) have forced us to review previous manuscript of Standards of compounds labeled with positron emitting radionuclides approved as established techniques for medical use and recommendations on practices of their clinical use'. Subcommittee on Medical Application of Positron Emitting Radionuclides of Medical Science and Pharmaceutical Committee in Japan Radioisotope Association has reviewed standards and recommendations for clinical use. Similar to the previous version of recommendations on practices of clinical use, this version includes 'clinical purpose', 'principle of measurement', 'methods of administration', and 'radiation exposure' of particular PET pharmaceuticals. This version includes 12 PET ligands that have been already approved as 'compounds labeled with positron emitting radionuclides as established techniques for medical use' in the committee (18fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG), 15O-oxygen, 15O-carbon monoxide, 15O-carbon dioxide, 11C-monoxide, 13N-nitrogen, 13N-ammonia, 15O-water, 11C-L-methionine, 11C-sodium acetate, 11C-N-methylspiperone and 11C-choline), and three newly approved compounds (18F-sodium fluoride, 11C-raclopride, and 11C-flumazenil) which have been required for clinical use in many medical institutes. Each medical institute should have a committee and establish internal system to account for conducting clinical use of radiolabeled compounds. (author)

  5. Detection of the scintillation light emitted from direct-bandgap compound semiconductors by a Si avalanche photodiode at 150 mK

    In this work, the direct-bandgap compound semiconductor materials are irradiated by α particles emitted from 241Am for the detection of scintillation light at the temperature of 150 mK. For the irradiation experiment, two disk shaped samples were fabricated from an epoxy resin mixed with the powder of PbI2 and CuI, respectively. Each disk-samples was cooled down to 150 mK by a compact liquid helium-free dilution refrigerator. A Si avalanche photodiode (APD) was employed for detecting the scintillation light emitted from the disk-sample inside the refrigerator. The detection signal current of Si APD was converted into the voltage pulses by a charge sensitive preamplifier. The voltage pulses of the scintillation light emitted from the direct-bandgap semiconductors were observed at the temperature of 150 mK. (author)

  6. Time-lapse synchrotron X-ray diffraction to monitor conservation coatings for heritage lead in atmospheres polluted with oak-emitted volatile organic compounds

    Highlights: • In situ SR-XRD testing of a natural coating for heritage lead. • An oak environment created within an eCell to study corrosion processes. • Semi-quantification of corrosion layer thickness using time-lapse SR-XRD data. • Identification of VOCs emitted from an oak sample using SPME-GCMS. - Abstract: We discuss the effectiveness of a lead tetradecanoate coating on lead to protect against harmful volatile organic compounds emitted from oak. The oak volatile organic compounds were characterized by GCMS and the major constituent was found to be acetic acid. Under the test conditions, the coating decreases the rate of corrosion by up to 75% compared to bare lead. The thickness of corrosion products on the sample was also calculated thus demonstrating the power of the time-lapse synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction technique to deliver a quantitative estimate of the effectiveness of the coating

  7. Detection of the volatile organic compounds emitted from paints using optical fibre long period grating modified with the mesoporous nano-scale coating

    Hromadka, Jiri; James, Stephen; Davis, Frank; Tatam, Ralph P.; Crump, Derrick; Korposh, Sergiy

    2015-09-01

    An optical fibre long period grating (LPG) modified with a mesoporous film infused with a calixarene as a functional compound was employed for the detection of a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The sensing mechanism is based on the transduction of the refractive index change induced by the complexion of the VOCs with calixarene into a change in the form of the transmission spectrum of the LPG. An LPG, modified with a calixarene-infused coating comprising 5 cycles of silica nanoparticles/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polycation (SiO2/PAH), was exposed to mixture of VOCs emitted from paint at conditions simulating ISO standards test (16000-10).

  8. Antitrypanosomal activity of 5-nitro-2-aminothiazole-based compounds.

    Papadopoulou, Maria V; Bloomer, William D; Rosenzweig, Howard S; Wilkinson, Shane R; Szular, Joanna; Kaiser, Marcel

    2016-07-19

    A small series of 5-nitro-2-aminothiazole-based amides containing arylpiperazine-, biphenyl- or aryloxyphenyl groups in their core were synthesized and evaluated as antitrypanosomatid agents. All tested compounds were active or moderately active against Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in infected L6 cells and Trypanosoma brucei brucei, four of eleven compounds were moderately active against Leishmania donovani axenic parasites while none were deemed active against T. brucei rhodesiense. For the most active/moderately active compounds a moderate selectivity against each parasite was observed. There was good correlation between lipophilicity (clogP value) and antileishmanial activity or toxicity against L6 cells. Similarly, good correlation existed between clogP values and IC50 values against T. cruzi in structurally related subgroups of compounds. Three compounds were more potent as antichagasic agents than benznidazole but were not activated by the type I nitrorectusase (NTR). PMID:27092415

  9. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40K (31-121 Bq kg-1), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y-1, a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  10. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  11. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  12. The Size of the Radio-Emitting Region in Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei

    Anderson, James M.; Ulvestad, James S.

    2005-01-01

    We have used the VLA to study radio variability among a sample of 18 low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs), on time scales of a few hours to 10 days. The goal was to measure or limit the sizes of the LLAGN radio-emitting regions, in order to use the size measurements as input to models of the radio emission mechanisms in LLAGNs. We detect variability on typical time scales of a few days, at a confidence level of 99%, in half of the target galaxies. Either variability that is intrinsi...

  13. Improved AC pixel electrode circuit for active matrix of organic light-emitting display

    Si, Yujuan; Lang, Liuqi; Chen, Wanzhong; Liu, Shiyong

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, a modified four-transistor pixel circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting displays (AMOLED) was developed to improve the performance of OLED device. This modified pixel circuit can provide an AC driving mode to make the OLED working in a reversed-biased voltage during the certain cycle. The optimized values of the reversed-biased voltage and the characteristics of the pixel circuit were investigated using AIM-SPICE. The simulated results reveal that this circuit can provide a suitable output current and voltage characteristic, and little change was made in luminance current.

  14. Simulation of the dose rate per activity of beta-emitting radionuclides

    The dose rate per activity was simulated for 10 beta-emitting radionuclides and for different activity distributions (point source, areal sources and a semi-infinite volume source). The results are given for 7 different distances from the source (from 0.01 to 2 m) for both contributions: the beta- and electron-emission, and the X- and gamma-emission. Data are provided for both operational quantities and organ doses: Hp(0.07), Hp(3), Hp(10), Hskin and Hlens. Finally, a software application to interpolate the dose rate per activity due to the beta-emission of arbitrary radionuclides is presented and a simple superposition of these data and of gamma-ray dose constants to calculate the total dose rate is described. (authors)

  15. Identification and quantification of gaseous organic compounds emitted from biomass burning using two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    L. E. Hatch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation within biomass burning (BB plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4, with analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC / TOFMS. The sensitivity and resolving power of GC × GC / TOFMS allowed the acquisition of the most extensive data set of BB NMOCs to date, with measurements for 722 positively or tentatively identified compounds. Estimated emission factors (EFs are presented for these compounds for burns of six different vegetative fuels, including conifer branches, grasses, agricultural residue, and peat. The number of compounds detected from individual burns ranged from 129 to 474, and included extensive isomer groups. For example, 38 monoterpene isomers were observed in the emissions from coniferous fuels; the isomeric ratios were found to be consistent with those reported in relevant essential oils, suggesting that the composition of such oils may be very useful when predicting fuel-dependent terpene emissions. Further, eleven sesquiterpenes were detected and tentatively identified, providing the first reported speciation of sesquiterpenes in gas-phase BB emissions. The calculated EFs for all measured compounds are compared and discussed in the context of potential SOA formation.

  16. Identification and quantification of gaseous organic compounds emitted from biomass burning using two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Hatch, L. E.; Luo, W.; Pankow, J. F.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C. E.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2014-09-01

    The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4), with analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC / TOFMS). The sensitivity and resolving power of GC × GC / TOFMS allowed the acquisition of the most extensive data set of BB NMOCs to date, with measurements for 722 positively or tentatively identified compounds. Estimated emission factors (EFs) are presented for these compounds for burns of six different vegetative fuels, including conifer branches, grasses, agricultural residue, and peat. The number of compounds detected from individual burns ranged from 129 to 474, and included extensive isomer groups. For example, 38 monoterpene isomers were observed in the emissions from coniferous fuels; the isomeric ratios were found to be consistent with those reported in relevant essential oils, suggesting that the composition of such oils may be very useful when predicting fuel-dependent terpene emissions. Further, eleven sesquiterpenes were detected and tentatively identified, providing the first reported speciation of sesquiterpenes in gas-phase BB emissions. The calculated EFs for all measured compounds are compared and discussed in the context of potential SOA formation.

  17. Identification and quantification of gaseous organic compounds emitted from biomass burning using two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Hatch, L. E.; Luo, W.; Pankow, J. F.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C. E.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2015-02-01

    The current understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within biomass burning (BB) plumes is limited by the incomplete identification and quantification of the non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted from such fires. Gaseous organic compounds were collected on sorbent cartridges during laboratory burns as part of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4) and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS). The sensitivity and resolving power of GC × GC-ToFMS allowed the acquisition of the most extensive data set of BB NMOCs to date, with measurements for 708 positively or tentatively identified compounds. Estimated emission factors (EFs) are presented for these compounds for burns of six different vegetative fuels, including conifer branches, grasses, agricultural residue, and peat. The number of compounds meeting the peak selection criteria ranged from 129 to 474 among individual burns, and included extensive isomer groups. For example, 38 monoterpene isomers were observed in the emissions from coniferous fuels; the isomeric ratios were found to be consistent with those reported in relevant essential oils, suggesting that the composition of such oils may be very useful when predicting fuel-dependent terpene emissions. Further, 11 sesquiterpenes were detected and tentatively identified, providing the first reported speciation of sesquiterpenes in gas-phase BB emissions. The calculated EFs for all measured compounds are compared and discussed in the context of potential SOA formation.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2009-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  20. An advanced method of activity determination of large area beta emitting sources

    The presented advanced method of activity determination of large area beta emitting sources is based on a version of efficiency tracing method using a test foil placed between the source and a conventional large area detector. It is shown that the total efficiency of the measuring system may depend on a dimensionless parameter derived from the difference in count rates caused by inserting the test foil while other disturbing effects are mostly reduced or compensated. - Highlights: • Efficiency tracing transmission method of beta activity determination. • Efficiency determined by means of a parameter independent of initial absorption conditions. • Parameter is derived from two counting results obtained with using a test foil. • Particularly useful for calibration and measurement of radionuclide standard sources

  1. Measurement of activity of the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclides in activated components of a medical cyclotron plant

    An identification and activity evaluation of the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclides in activated parts of a medical cyclotron plant by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry were performed. The use of LaBr3:Ce scintillation and HPGe detectors was examined in order to solve the measurement problems due to high activity of some components used inside a plant provided with an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 cyclotron. For each component, the identification of some key-radionuclides allows to evaluate the surface dose behaviour as function of decay time. The largest activity values are related to radionuclides with half-life of 70-80 days, while radionuclides with higher half-lives represent less than 10 per cent of the total activity. The surface dose rate will be reduced to about 1/1000 of the starting value after a decay period of approximately 3 years, with a relatively safety at product disposal work. (author)

  2. The chemistry of positron emitting nucleogenic (hot) atoms with regard to preparation of labelled compounds of practical utility

    An understanding of the chemistry of nucleogenic (hot) atoms has led to the practical preparation of a wide variety of simple precursors used in the syntheses of more complex labelled compounds used in biological and medical research and application. The hot atom chemistry of carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18 is presented in the context of the constraints demanded by the need for labelled compounds for animal and human use. (orig.)

  3. Reduction in Power Consumption for Full-Color Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    Kanno, Hiroshi; Hamada, Yuji; Nishimura, Kazuki; Okumoto, Kenji; Saito, Nobuo; Mameno, Kazunobu; Shibata, Kenichi

    2006-09-01

    The active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) is expected to serve as next generation flat panels display with the outstanding features of wide viewing angle, vivid images, and quick response. For practical use of full-color AMOLEDs in mobile devices, it is essential to reduce the power consumption, which is generally higher than that of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). For this aim, a red, green, blue, and white (RGBW) pixel format combined with an RGB color filter array (RGBW format) with a common white emission layer (EML) has been developed. We find that the RGBW format can successfully reduce the power consumption of a full-color AMOLED by nearly half that of a conventionally filtered RGB pixel format. This improved power consumption is almost equal to the power consumption of a same-sized LCD. The RGBW format is a promising technique for the further reduction of the power consumption of a full-color AMOLED.

  4. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Cuspidaria pulchra and isolated compounds.

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; Bertanha, Camila S; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Tavares, Denise C; Gimenez, Valéria M M; Silva, Márcio L A; Cunha, Wilson R; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluated the in vitro inhibitory activity of the crude ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of Cuspidaria pulchra (Cham.) L.G. Lohmann against 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX). The bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-butanol fraction, which displayed the highest activity, led to the isolation of three compounds: caffeoylcalleryanin (1), verbascoside (2) and 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (3). Assessment of the ability of the isolated compounds to inhibit 15-LOX revealed that compounds 1, 2 and 3 exerted strong 15-LOX inhibitory activity; IC50 values were 1.59, 1.76 and 2.35 μM respectively. The XTT assay showed that none of the isolated compounds seemed to be significantly toxic. PMID:25428032

  5. Use of Angular-Distribution Measurements of Fission Fragments Emitted from Single Crystals for Determining the Lifetimes of Excited Compound Nuclei

    The angular distribution of fission fragments emitted from uranium oxide crystals bombarded with protons in the energy range 9-12 MeV has been measured by using plastic fission-track detectors. The protein energies, and with these the compound-nuclei excitation energies, were selected to give second-chance fission 238Np compound nuclei with life-times in the range detectable by this technique. An upper limit of ≤ 7 x 10-17s has been established for the ''effective lifetime'' of compound nuclei formed by 12-MeV proton bombardment of 238U. A value of 1.4 ± 0.6 x 10-16s has been measured for the total lifetime and 2. 5 ± 1.2 x 10-16s for the partial fission lifetime of 238Np compound nuclei at an average excitation energy of ∼7.3 MeV. The measurements were found to be sensitive to random scattering effects. Experimental determination and analytical treatment of such effects are discussed. (author)

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

    Normah Awang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3(C6H11]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5 have been synthesized using in situ method. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results: Elemental analysis revealed that all compounds were of good purity. Infrared spectra of the compounds showed that the thioureide ν(C-N band was in the region 1450-1500 cm−1. The unsplitting band of ν(C-S in the region 974-979 cm−1 indicated the bidentate nature of the chelated dithiocarbamato legends. The 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbon atom in the N-CS2 group appeared in the range of 196.29-199.82 ppm. Single crystal analysis from one of these compounds showed that the chelating mode of the dithiocarbamate groups was isobidentate. These compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Only one of these compounds shows promising results against S. aureus and S. typhi. Cytotoxicity screening on human leukemic promyelocyte HL-60 cells found that two of these compounds were very active with CD50 values of 0.87 and 0.18 µg mL−1. Conclusion: The studied compounds were found to have the potential in biological activity especially in cytotoxicity where this possibly can be used for clinical trials after further research.

  7. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    Context • Telomeres are repeated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences (TTAGGG) that are located on the 5' ends of chromosomes, and they control the life span of eukaryotic cells. Compelling evidence has shown that the length of a person's life is dictated by the limited number of times that a human cell can divide. The enzyme telomerase has been shown to bind to and extend the length of telomeres. Thus, strategies for activating telomerase may help maintain telomere length and, thus, may lead to improved health during aging. Objective • The current study intended to investigate the effects of several natural compounds on telomerase activity in an established cell model of telomere shortening (ie, IMR90 cells). Design • The research team designed an in vitro study. Setting • The study was conducted at Roskamp Institute in Sarasota, FL, USA. Intervention • The tested single compounds were (1) α-lipoic acid, (1) green tea extract, (2) dimethylaminoethanol L-bitartrate (DMAE L-bitartrate), (3) N-acetyl-L-cysteine hydrochloride (HCL), (4) chlorella powder, (5) L-carnosine, (6) vitamin D3, (7) rhodiola PE 3%/1%, (8) glycine, (9) French red wine extract, (10) chia seed extract, (11) broccoli seed extract, and (12) Astragalus (TA-65). The compounds were tested singly and as blends. Outcome Measures • Telomerase activity for single compounds and blends of compounds was measured by the TeloTAGGG telomerase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 4 most potent blends were investigated for their effects on cancer-cell proliferation and for their potential effects on the cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activity of a chemotherapeutic agent, the topoisomerase I inhibitor topotecan. The benefits of 6 population doublings (PDs) were measured for the single compounds, and the 4 blends were compared to 3 concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Results • Certain of the compounds increased

  8. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats f...

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  10. Antifungal Activity of Extractable Conifer Heartwood Compounds Toward Phytophthora ramorum

    Individual compounds and ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven conifer species were tested for fungicidal activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western redcedar exhibited the strongest activity (EC50 589 and 646 ppm, respectively), yellow-cedar, western juniper, ...

  11. Structure-activity relationships of new antiviral compounds.

    Bonina, L; Orzalesi, G; Merendino, R; Arena, A; Mastroeni, P

    1982-01-01

    In preliminary experiments, the compound 2-amino-5-(2-sulfamoylphenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (G413) was shown to possess high activity against DNA viruses (herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 and adenovirus 17) and RNA viruses (poliovirus 1, echovirus 2, and coxsackievirus B4). Experiments on the replicative cycle of poliovirus 1 and production of infectious RNA viruses demonstrate that this compound probably prevents assembly of virus particles by acting on structural proteins. In the present experim...

  12. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds

    Ana O. de Souza; Fabio C. S. Galetti; Silva, Célio L.; Beatriz Bicalho; Márcia M. Parma; Sebastião F. Fonseca; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Angela C. L. B. Trindade; Rossimíriam P. Freitas Gil; Franciglauber S. Bezerra; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Oliveira, Maria C. F.

    2007-01-01

    Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds. Secondary metabolites from Curvularia eragrostidis and Drechslera dematioidea, Clusia sp. floral resin, alkaloids from Pilocarpus alatus, salicylideneanilines, piperidine amides, the amine 1-cinnamylpiperazine and chiral pyridinium salts were assayed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. N-(salicylidene)-2-hydroxyaniline was the most effective compound with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 µmol/L. Dihy...

  13. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of certain chalcone based pyrazoline compounds

    Sudhakara Rao Gerapati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Convulsions are involuntary, violent, spasmodic and prolonged contractions of skeletal muscles. That means a patient may have epilepsy without convulsions and vice versa. Epilepsy is a common neurological abnormality affecting about 1% of the world population. The primary objectives of these synthesized compounds are to suppress seizures and provide neuroprotection by minimizing the effects from seizure attacks. Here some of the chalcones and chalcone based various pyrazolines were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of elemental analyses and spectroscopic studies (IR, 1H-NMR & Mass spectroscopy. A preliminary evaluation of the prepared compounds has indicated that some of them exhibit moderate to significant anticonvulsant activity compared to a diazepam standard1-3.  All compounds were tested for their anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock induced convulsions (MES in mice at a dose level of 4 mg/kg.b.w. The compounds  Ph1, Ph2 , Py2 ,Py3 and Py4 have shown  to  good anticonvulsant activity when doses are administered as 25mg/ kg.b.w  , reduced the phases of seizures severity and  found to be active and also  increased survival rate. Remaining compounds are less efficacious.

  14. Using a structural criterion for the selection of red-emitting oxide-based compounds containing Pr3+

    In a number of oxide-based host lattices, the Pr3+ ion exhibits a prominent red 1D2→3H4 emission instead of the usual greenish-blue luminescence from 3P0 level. Although different radiationless relaxation processes can contribute to the quenching of 3P0 emission in these compounds, all of them are more or less closely connected to the structural characteristics of the host networks. From structural and optical studies of several compounds containing Pr3+ ions, we propose a very simple criterion, founded on the calculation of point charge electrostatic potentials involving both the first (O2-) and second (metallic cations) coordination environments around one given Pr3+ site in the host structures, to predict either total or partial quenching of 3P0 luminescence

  15. Applicability of light-emitting diodes as light sources for active differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements.

    Kern, Christoph; Trick, Sebastian; Rippel, Bernhard; Platt, Ulrich

    2006-03-20

    We present what is to our knowledge the first use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements of trace gases in the open atmosphere. Modern LEDs represent a potentially advantageous alternative to thermal light sources, in particular to xenon arc lamps, which are the most common active DOAS light sources. The radiative properties of a variety of LEDs were characterized, and parameters such as spectral shape, spectral range, spectral stability, and ways in which they can be influenced by environmental factors were analyzed. The spectra of several LEDs were found to contain Fabry-Perot etalon-induced spectral structures that interfered with the DOAS evaluation, in particular when a constant temperature was not maintained. It was shown that LEDs can be used successfully as light sources in active DOAS experiments that measure NO2 and NO3 near 450 and 630 nm, respectively. Average detection limits of 0.3 parts in 10(9) and 16 parts in 10(12) respectively, were obtained by use of a 6 km light path in the open atmosphere. PMID:16579579

  16. Active-matrix organic light-emitting displays on flexible metal foils

    Chuang, T. K.; Jamshidi Roudbari, A.; Troccoli, M. N.; Chang, Y. L.; Reed, G.; Hatalis, M.; Spirko, J.; Klier, K.; Preis, S.; Pearson, R.; Najafov, H.; Biaggio, I.; Afentakis, T.; Voutsas, A.; Forsythe, E.; Shi, J.; Blomquist, S.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a 3.5 inch diagonal Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Display on flexible metal foils. The active matrix array had the VGA format and was fabricated using the polysilicon TFT technology. The advantages that the metal foil substrates offer for flexible display applications will first be discussed, followed by a discussion on the multilayer coatings that were investigated in order to achieve a high quality insulating layer on the metal foil substrate prior to TFT fabrication. Then the polysilicon TFT device performance will be presented as a function of the polysilicon crystallization method. Both laser crystallized polysilicon and solid phased crystallized polysilicon films were investigated for the TFT device fabrication. Due to the opaque nature of the metal foil substrates the display had a top emission structure. Both small molecule and polymer based organic material were investigated for the display emissive part. The former were evaporated while the latter were applied by spin-cast. Various transparent multi-layer metal films were investigated as the top cathode. The approach used to package the finished AMOLED display in order to protect the organic layers from environmental degradation will be described. The display had integrated polysilicon TFT scan drivers consisting of shift registers and buffers but external data drivers. The driving approach of the display will be discussed in detail. The performance of the finished display will be discussed as a function of the various materials and fabrication processes that were investigated.

  17. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    Russell Keast

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  18. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Armin Oskoueian; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rudi Hendra; Ehsan Oskoueian; Ehsan Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and fla...

  19. Prediction of Antifungal Activity of Gemini Imidazolium Compounds

    Łukasz Pałkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of antimicrobial therapy contributes to the development of strains of fungi resistant to antimicrobial drugs. Since cationic surfactants have been described as good antifungals, we present a SAR study of a novel homologous series of 140 bis-quaternary imidazolium chlorides and analyze them with respect to their biological activity against Candida albicans as one of the major opportunistic pathogens causing a wide spectrum of diseases in human beings. We characterize a set of features of these compounds, concerning their structure, molecular descriptors, and surface active properties. SAR study was conducted with the help of the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach (DRSA, which involves identification of relevant features and relevant combinations of features being in strong relationship with a high antifungal activity of the compounds. The SAR study shows, moreover, that the antifungal activity is dependent on the type of substituents and their position at the chloride moiety, as well as on the surface active properties of the compounds. We also show that molecular descriptors MlogP, HOMO-LUMO gap, total structure connectivity index, and Wiener index may be useful in prediction of antifungal activity of new chemical compounds.

  20. Compound Ag nanocluster-graphene electrodes as transparent and current spreading electrodes for improved light output power in near-ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    We introduced a two-dimensional graphene network on a Ag nanocluster as a transparent and current spreading electrode (TCSE) for a near-ultraviolet light emitting diode (NUV-LED), and compared the performance with those with graphene electrodes or conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The current–voltage characteristics and electroluminescence (EL) data showed that compound Ag nanocluster-graphene (CA-G) electrodes operated well as TCSEs in NUV-LED devices. The forward voltage at an input current of 20 mA was 4.06 V for the NUV-LED of current spreading electrodes with CA-G electrodes, which is only slightly higher than the value 3.96 V with ITO electrodes as TCSEs. The EL intensity of NUV-LEDs with CA-G electrodes also showed a slight increase, compared to that of NUV-LEDs with planar ITO transparent conducting electrodes. (paper)

  1. Hydroxylated PBDEs and brominated phenolic compounds in particulate matters emitted during recycling of waste printed circuit boards in a typical e-waste workshop of South China

    The hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) and brominated phenolic compounds in aerosol samples from a printed circuit boards recycling workshop were characterized. The results show that OH-PBDEs, which are naturally occurring compounds or metabolism of PBDEs, could also be emitted from the e-waste recycling. Five OH-PBDEs, several unidentified mono-OH-PBDE and di-OH-PBDE congeners were detected. The concentration of ∑OH-PBDEs was 1.74–4.22 ng m−3 (average of 2.66 ng m−3), with 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.329 ng m−3) as the most abundant identified congener. The total concentration of di- to tri-brominated phenols (BPs) was 18.8–32.0 ng m−3 (average of 26.3 ng m−3) with 2,4,6-triBP as the most abundant congener. These findings suggest that the recycling of printed circuit boards represent a strong source of OH-PBDEs and BPs to the atmosphere. Additionally, some phenolic compounds including brominated bisphenol A, hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl species and etc. were also identified. -- Highlights: ► OH-PBDEs and BPs were abundant in the PM from printed circuit boards recycling. ► The patterns of OH-PBDEs and BPs were different from that in biotic environment. ► 6-OH-BDE-47 was the most abundant identified OH-PBDE congener. ► 2,4,6-triBP was the most abundant BP congener. ► Possible formation mechanisms of OH-PBDEs and BPs were discussed. -- Recycling of waste printed circuit boards might represent a strong source of OH-PBDEs, BPs and other phenolic compounds

  2. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  3. Separated Carbon Nanotube Macroelectronics for Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Fu, Yue; Zhang, Jialu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Pochiang; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-02-01

    Active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display holds great potential for the next generation visual technologies due to its high light efficiency, flexibility, lightweight, and low-temperature processing. However, suitable thin-film transistors (TFTs) are required to realize the advantages of AMOLED. Pre-separated, semiconducting enriched carbon nanotubes are excellent candidates for this purpose because of their excellent mobility, high percentage of semiconducting nanotubes, and room-temperature processing compatibility. Here we report, for the first time, the demonstration of AMOLED displays driven by separated nanotube thin-film transistors (SN-TFTs) including key technology components such as large-scale high-yield fabrication of devices with superior performance, carbon nanotube film density optimization, bilayer gate dielectric for improved substrate adhesion to the deposited nanotube film, and the demonstration of monolithically integrated AMOLED display elements with 500 pixels driven by 1000 SN-TFTs. Our approach can serve as the critical foundation for future nanotube-based thin-film display electronics.

  4. Organic compounds in PM 2.5 emitted from fireplace and woodstove combustion of typical Portuguese wood species

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Alves, Célia; Fernandes, Ana Patrícia; Monteiro, Cristina; Tarelho, Luís; Evtyugina, Margarita; Pio, Casimiro

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is the further characterisation of PM 2.5 emissions from the residential wood combustion of common woods grown in Portugal. This new research extends to eight the number of biomass fuels studied and tries to understand the differences that the burning appliance (fireplace versus woodstove) and the combustion temperature (cold and hot start) have on emissions. Pinus pinaster (Maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (Golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (Olive), Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste were used in the combustion tests. Determinations included fine particle emission factors, carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermal-optical transmission technique and detailed identification and quantification of organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fine particle emission factors from the woodstove were lower than those from the fireplace. For both combustion appliances, the OC/EC ratio was higher in "cold start" tests (1.56 ± 0.95 for woodstove and 2.03 ± 1.34 for fireplace). These "cold start" OC/EC values were, respectively, for the woodstove and the fireplace, 51% and 69% higher than those obtained in "hot start" experiments. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAHs, n-alkanals, ketones, n-alkanols, terpenoids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, alcohols, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, unsaturated acids and alkyl esters of acids. The smoke emission rate and composition varied widely depending on fuel type, burning appliance and combustion temperature.

  5. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Liriope muscari

    Shu Shan Du; Zhi Long Liu; Rui Chao Lin; Gang Li Wang; Jing Liu; Wen Jie Li; Xian Long Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Five phenolic compounds, namely N-trans-coumaroyltyramine (1), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (2), N-trans-feruloyloctopamine (3), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (4) and (3S)3,5,4′-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methylhomoisoflavanone (5), were isolated from the fibrous roots of Liriope muscari (Liliaceae). Compounds 2–5 were isolated for the first time from the Liriope genus. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The structure-a...

  6. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure. PMID:18618404

  7. Synthesis and antitumor activity of natural compound aloe emodin derivatives.

    Thimmegowda, Naraganahalli R; Park, Chanmi; Shwetha, Bettaswamigowda; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Liu, Kangdong; Hwang, Joonsung; Lee, Sangku; Jeong, Sook J; Soung, Nak K; Jang, Jae H; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong S; Erikson, Raymond L; Kim, Bo Y

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we have synthesized novel water soluble derivatives of natural compound aloe emodin 4(a-j) by coupling with various amino acid esters and substituted aromatic amines, in an attempt to improve the anticancer activity and to explore the structure-activity relationships. The structures of the compounds were determined by (1) H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cell growth inhibition assays revealed that the aloe emodin derivatives 4d, 4f, and 4i effectively decreased the growth of HepG2 (human liver cancer cells) and NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cells) and some of the derivatives exhibited comparable antitumor activity against HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cells) and PC3 (prostate cancer cells) cell lines compared to that of the parent aloe emodin at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:25323822

  8. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  9. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  10. Analysis and quantitation of volatile organic compounds emitted from plastics used in museum construction by evolved gas analysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Samide, Michael J; Smith, Gregory D

    2015-12-24

    Construction materials used in museums for the display, storage, and transportation of artwork must be assessed for their tendency to emit harmful pollution that could potentially damage cultural treasures. Traditionally, a subjective metals corrosion test known as the Oddy test has been widely utilized in museums for this purpose. To augment the Oddy test, an instrumental sampling approach based on evolved gas analysis (EGA) coupled to gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectral (MS) detection has been implemented for the first time to qualitatively identify off-gassed pollutants under specific conditions. This approach is compared to other instrumental methods reported in the literature. This novel application of the EGA sampling technique yields several benefits over traditional testing, including rapidity, high sensitivity, and broad detectability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Furthermore, unlike other reported instrumental approaches, the EGA method was used to determine quantitatively the amount of VOCs emitted by acetate resins and polyurethane foams under specific conditions using both an external calibration method as well as surrogate response factors. EGA was successfully employed to rapidly characterize emissions from 12 types of common plastics. This analysis is advocated as a rapid pre-screening method to rule out poorly performing materials prior to investing time and energy in Oddy testing. The approach is also useful for rapid, routine testing of construction materials previously vetted by traditional testing, but which may experience detrimental formulation changes over time. As an example, a case study on batch re-orders of rigid expanded poly(vinyl chloride) board stock is presented. PMID:26687162

  11. Two new compounds from Crataegus pinnatifida and their antithrombotic activities.

    Zhou, Chen-Chen; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Gao, Pin-Yi; Li, Fei-Fei; Li, Dian-Ming; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    One new sesquiterpene, (1α,4aβ,8aα)-1-isopropanol-4a-methyl-8-methylenedecahydronaphthalene (1), with one new phenylpropanoid, threo-2-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethoxypropan-1-ol (2), along with four known phenylpropanoids were isolated from Crataegus pinnatifida. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR analyses, and HR-ESI-MS. The antithrombotic activity in vitro of all isolates was assayed, and only compound 1 exhibited potent antithrombotic activity by inhibiting platelet aggregation in rat plasma by 81.4% at 1 mg/ml. PMID:24161196

  12. Olive mill wastewater anaerobically digested : phenolic compounds with antiradical activity

    La Cara, Francesco; Ionata, Elena; Del Monaco, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Loredana; Gonçalves, Marta R.; Marques, I. P.

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds, present in the olive fruits and its by-products, has been intensively studied by the antioxidant properties. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a phenolic-rich industrial effluent that can be advantageously valorized by the anaerobic digestion to the methane and agricultural fertilizer productions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antiradical activity of OMW after anaerobic digestion in order to maximize the valorization of this type o...

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF NATURAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ACACIA CONCURRENS BARK

    Nimbekar, Tulsidas; Wanjari, Bhumesh; Patil, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study showed that the ethanolic extracts from the bark of Acacia concurrens exhibited a strong antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions from ethanolic extracts of bark, the EtOAc soluble fraction exhibited the best antioxidant performance. Furthermore, the amounts of total phenolic compound were determined from the ethanolic extracts. Therefore, Acacia concurrens could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  14. Orally active opioid compounds from a non-poppy source.

    Raffa, Robert B; Beckett, Jaclyn R; Brahmbhatt, Vivek N; Ebinger, Theresa M; Fabian, Chrisjon A; Nixon, Justin R; Orlando, Steven T; Rana, Chintan A; Tejani, Ali H; Tomazic, Robert J

    2013-06-27

    The basic science and clinical use of morphine and other "opioid" drugs are based almost exclusively on the extracts or analogues of compounds isolated from a single source, the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). However, it now appears that biological diversity has evolved an alternative source. Specifically, at least two alkaloids isolated from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, mitragynine ((E)-2-[(2S,3S)-3-ethyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12b-octahydroindolo[3,2-h]quinolizin-2-yl]-3-methoxyprop-2-enoic acid methyl ester; 9-methoxy coryantheidine; MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-OH-MG), and several synthetic analogues of these natural products display centrally mediated (supraspinal and spinal) antinociceptive (analgesic) activity in various pain models. Several characteristics of these compounds suggest a classic "opioid" mechanism of action: nanomolar affinity for opioid receptors, competitive interaction with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and two-way analgesic cross-tolerance with morphine. However, other characteristics of the compounds suggest novelty, particularly chemical structure and possible greater separation from side effects. We review the chemical and pharmacological properties of these compounds. PMID:23517479

  15. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis.

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1-5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6-9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5-30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT THIOSEMICARBAZONE COMPOUNDS AGAINST MICROBIAL PATHOGENS

    Negi Parul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazone belongs to a large group of thiourea derivatives, whose biological activities are a function of parent aldehyde or ketone moiety. They have been evaluated over the last 50 year as antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, leprosy, rheumatism, trypanosomiasis and coccidiodis. Thiosemicarbazones were prepared by simple process in which N4-thiosemicarbazone moiety was replaced by aliphatic, arylic and cyclic amines. Present study reported the anti-microbial activity of different thiosemicarbazone compounds against certain bacterial and fungal pathogens viz. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Moraxella cattarhalis, Staph. Saprophyticus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavans.

  17. Relationship structure-antioxidant activity of hindered phenolic compounds

    Weng, X. C.; Huang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and the antioxidant activity of 21 hindered phenolic compounds was investigated by Rancimat and DPPH· tests. 3-tert-butyl-5-methylbenzene-1,2-diol is the strongest antioxidant in the Rancimat test but not in the DPPH· test because its two hydroxyl groups have very strong steric synergy. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol exhibits a strong antioxidant activity as 2,6-ditertbutyl- 4-methoxyphenol does in lard. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4- hydroxy-methylphenol ...

  18. Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography

    Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Xiong, Zhuo; Shang, Liang; Tian, Yingdong; Zhao, Yun; Zhou, Pengyu; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-07

    The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single, twin, triple, and quadruple photonic crystals (PCs) on p-GaN are fabricated by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography (MENLL) process utilizing the focusing behavior of polystyrene spheres. Such a technique is easy and economical for use in fabricating compound nano-patterns. The optimized tilted angle is decided to be 26.6° through mathematic calculation to try to avoid the overlay of patterns. The results of scanning electron microscopy and simulations reveal that the pattern produced by MENLL is a combination of multiple ovals. Compared to planar-LED, the light output power of LEDs with single, twin, triple, and quadruple PCs is increased by 14.78%, 36.03%, 53.68%, and 44.85% under a drive current 350 mA, respectively. Furthermore, all PC-structures result in no degradation of the electrical properties. The stimulated results indicate that the highest light extraction efficiency of LED with the clover-shape triple PC is due to the largest scattering effect on propagation of light from GaN into air.

  19. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  20. Relationship structure-antioxidant activity of hindered phenolic compounds

    Weng, X. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the structure and the antioxidant activity of 21 hindered phenolic compounds was investigated by Rancimat and DPPH· tests. 3-tert-butyl-5-methylbenzene-1,2-diol is the strongest antioxidant in the Rancimat test but not in the DPPH· test because its two hydroxyl groups have very strong steric synergy. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol exhibits a strong antioxidant activity as 2,6-ditertbutyl- 4-methoxyphenol does in lard. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4- hydroxy-methylphenol also exhibits stronger activity than 2-tert-butyl-4- methoxyphenol. The methylene of 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol can provide a hydrogen atom to active free radicals like a phenolic hydroxyl group does because it is greatly activated by both the aromatic ring and hydroxyl group. Five factors affect the antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds: how stable the phenolic compound free radicals are after providing hydrogen atoms; how many hy drogen atoms each of the phenolic compounds can provide; how fast the phenolic compounds provide hydrogen atoms; how easily the phenolic compound free radicals can combine with more active free radicals, and whether or not a new antioxidant can form after the phenolic compound provides hydrogen atoms.La relación entre estructura y la actividad antioxidante de 21 compuestos fenólicos con impedimentos estéricos fue investigado mediante ensayos con Rancimat y DPPH·. El 3-terc-butil-5-metilbenceno-1,2-diol es el antioxidante más potente en los ensayos mediante Rancimat pero no mediante ensayos con DPPH·, porque sus dos grupos hidroxilo tienen una fuerte sinergia estérica. El 2,6-Di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metil-fenol mostró una actividad antioxidante tan fuerte como el 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-metoxifenol en ensayos con manteca de cerdo. El 2,6-di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metilfenol también mostró una actividad más fuerte que el 2-terc-butil-4-metoxifenol. El grupo metileno del 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-hidroxi

  1. Creatinyl amino acids: new hybrid compounds with neuroprotective activity.

    Burov, Sergey; Leko, Maria; Dorosh, Marina; Dobrodumov, Anatoliy; Veselkina, Olga

    2011-09-01

    Prolonged oral creatine administration resulted in remarkable neuroprotection in experimental models of brain stroke. However, because of its polar nature creatine has poor ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) without specific creatine transporter (CRT). Thus, synthesis of hydrophobic derivatives capable of crossing the BBB by alternative pathway is of great importance for the treatment of acute and chronic neurological diseases including stroke, traumatic brain injury and hereditary CRT deficiency. Here we describe synthesis of new hybrid compounds-creatinyl amino acids, their neuroprotective activity in vivo and stability to degradation in different media. The title compounds were synthesized by guanidinylation of corresponding sarcosyl peptides or direct creatine attachment using isobutyl chloroformate method. Addition of lipophilic counterion (p-toluenesulfonate) ensures efficient creatine dissolution in DMF with simultaneous protection of guanidino group towards intramolecular cyclization. It excludes the application of expensive guanidinylating reagents, permits to simplify synthetic procedure and adapt it to large-scale production. The biological activity of creatinyl amino acids was tested in vivo on ischemic stroke and NaNO(2) -induced hypoxia models. One of the most effective compounds-creatinyl-glycine ethyl ester increases life span of experimental animals more than two times in hypoxia model and has neuroprotective action in brain stroke model when applied both before and after ischemia. These data evidenced that creatinyl amino acids can represent promising candidates for the development of new drugs useful in stroke treatment. PMID:21644247

  2. Electrochemical screening of biomembrane-active compounds in water

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Analytical technology application with improvement allowing for on-line high-throughput water toxin screening is presented. • Compound classes of related structure and shape interact with DOPC coated Pt/Hg with a class specific response. • Predecessor membrane system proved as fragile, complex and for environmental application incompatible. - Abstract: Interactions of biomembrane-active compounds with phospholipid monolayers on microfabricated Pt/Hg electrodes in an on-line high throughput flow system are demonstrated by recording capacitance current peak changes as rapid cyclic voltammograms (RCV). Detection limits of the compounds’ effects on the layer have been estimated from the data. Compounds studied include steroids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines. The results show that the extent and type of interaction depends on the—(a) presence and number of aromatic rings and substituents, (b) presence and composition of side chains and, (c) molecular shape. Interaction is only indirectly related to compound hydrophobicity. For a selection of tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines the detection limit in water is related to their therapeutic normal threshold. The sensing assay has been tested in the presence of humic acid as a potential interferent and in a tap water matrix. The system can be applied to the screening of putative hazardous substances and pharmaceuticals allowing for early detection thereof in the water supply. The measurements are made in real time which means that potentially toxic compounds are detected rapidly within <10 min per assay. This technology will contribute greatly to environment safety and health

  3. Electrochemical screening of biomembrane-active compounds in water

    Mohamadi, Shahrzad, E-mail: cmsm@leeds.ac.uk; Tate, Daniel J.; Vakurov, Alexander; Nelson, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Analytical technology application with improvement allowing for on-line high-throughput water toxin screening is presented. • Compound classes of related structure and shape interact with DOPC coated Pt/Hg with a class specific response. • Predecessor membrane system proved as fragile, complex and for environmental application incompatible. - Abstract: Interactions of biomembrane-active compounds with phospholipid monolayers on microfabricated Pt/Hg electrodes in an on-line high throughput flow system are demonstrated by recording capacitance current peak changes as rapid cyclic voltammograms (RCV). Detection limits of the compounds’ effects on the layer have been estimated from the data. Compounds studied include steroids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines. The results show that the extent and type of interaction depends on the—(a) presence and number of aromatic rings and substituents, (b) presence and composition of side chains and, (c) molecular shape. Interaction is only indirectly related to compound hydrophobicity. For a selection of tricyclic antidepressants and tricyclic phenothiazines the detection limit in water is related to their therapeutic normal threshold. The sensing assay has been tested in the presence of humic acid as a potential interferent and in a tap water matrix. The system can be applied to the screening of putative hazardous substances and pharmaceuticals allowing for early detection thereof in the water supply. The measurements are made in real time which means that potentially toxic compounds are detected rapidly within <10 min per assay. This technology will contribute greatly to environment safety and health.

  4. Plant-Derived Compounds with Potential Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor-Kuponiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of active phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, etc., have been isolated and identified in different plants. Pharmacological and chemical investigations of medicinal plants have provided important advances in therapeutic approach to several pathologies as well as extremely useful tools for the theoretical study of physiology and pharmacology. With increased use of herbal medicine, medicinal plants are receiving more attention from the scientific and pharmaceutical communities. Several compounds have been isolated and evaluated for their sedative and anxiolytic properties. Although most of the reported works are more of academic interest and very few find entry at clinical trials; one is hopeful that as more discoveries of sedative and anxiolytic compounds from plants are made, it will lead to generation of more effective drugs.

  5. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds

    Ana O. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds. Secondary metabolites from Curvularia eragrostidis and Drechslera dematioidea, Clusia sp. floral resin, alkaloids from Pilocarpus alatus, salicylideneanilines, piperidine amides, the amine 1-cinnamylpiperazine and chiral pyridinium salts were assayed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. N-(salicylidene-2-hydroxyaniline was the most effective compound with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 8 µmol/L. Dihydrocurvularin was moderately effective with a MIC of 40 µmol/L. Clusia sp. floral resin and a gallocatechin-epigallocatechin mixture showed MIC of 0.02 g/L and 38 µmol/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity was evaluated for N-(salicylidene-2-hydroxyaniline, curvularin, dihydrocurvularin and Clusia sp. floral resin, and the selectivity indexes were > 125, 0.47, 0.75 and 5, respectively.

  6. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds

    Souza, Ana O. de [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Bioquimica e Biofisica]. E-mail: olivia@butantan.gov.br; Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Antimycobacterial and cytotoxicity activity of synthetic and natural compounds. Secondary metabolites from Curvularia eragrostidis and Drechslera dematioidea, Clusia sp. floral resin, alkaloids from Pilocarpus alatus, salicylideneanilines, piperidine amides, the amine 1-cinnamylpiperazine and chiral pyridinium salts were assayed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. N-(salicylidene)-2-hydroxyaniline was the most effective compound with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 {mu}mol/L. Dihydrocurvularin was moderately effective with a MIC of 40 {mu}mol/L. Clusia sp. floral resin and a gallocatechin-epigallocatechin mixture showed MIC of 0.02 g/L and 38 {mu}mol/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity was evaluated for N-(salicylidene)-2-hydroxyaniline, curvularin, dihydrocurvularin and Clusia sp. floral resin, and the selectivity indexes were > 125, 0.47, 0.75 and 5, respectively. (author)

  7. Measurement of activity of surfaces contaminated by beta-emitting nuclides and 55Fe

    The responses of a variety of different types of surface contamination monitoring probes to both small area and distributed sources of the β-emitting nuclides, 90Sr/90Y, 204Tl, 147Pm, 14C and 63Ni, have been measured. The responses to the low-energy X-ray emitting electron-capture nuclide, 55Fe, have also been measured. A figure of merit for the comparison of different types of probe has been derived and applied to the measured responses. The responses of a beryllium-window sodium iodide scintillation probe to 55Fe with integral and differential bias is described in detail; calculated responses to the electron-capture nuclides, 109Cd and 125I, are also included in this report. (author)

  8. Studies on the antioxidant activities of some new chromone compounds.

    Kładna, Aleksandra; Berczyński, Paweł; Piechowska, Teresa; Kruk, Irena; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Ceylan-Unlusoy, Meltem; Verspohl, Eugen J; Ertan, Rahmiye

    2014-11-01

    Recent reviews evidence that the naturally occurring compounds containing the chromone skeleton exhibit antiradical activities, providing protection against oxidative stress. The antioxidant activities of 13 new synthesized chromonyl-2,4-thiazolidinediones, chromonyl-2,4-imidazolidinediones and chromonyl-2-thioxoimidzolidine-4-ones were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant assays, including superoxide anion radical (O2(-•)), hydroxyl radical (HO(•)), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging capacity and total antioxidant capacity ferric ion reducing activity. Superoxide anion radical was produced using potassium superoxide/18-crown-6-ether dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, and the Fenton-like reaction (Fe(II) + H2O2) was a generator of hydroxyl radicals. Chemiluminescence, spectrophotometry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the spin trap were the measurement techniques. The results showed that the majority of the chromone derivatives tested showed a strong scavenging effect towards free radicals, similar to the chemiluminescence reaction with superoxide anion radical with a high activity, inhibition of the DMPO-OOH radical EPR signal (24-58%), the DMPO-OH radical EPR signal (4-75%) and DPPH radical EPR signal (6-100%) at 1 mmol/L. Several of the examined compounds exhibited the high reduction potentials. The results obtained show that the new synthesized chromone derivatives may directly scavenger reactive oxygen species and thus may play a protective role against oxidative damage. PMID:24482260

  9. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  10. Anti-cancer activity of compounds from Cassia garrettiana heartwood

    Supreeya Yuenyongsawad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Cassia garrettiana heartwood showed marked inhibitory activity against several cancer cell lines including HT-29, HeLa, MCF-7 and KB cells. Therefore, its extract and compounds were investigated for their anticancer effect using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. The ethanol extract of C. garrettiana heartwood was separated to give five compounds which are chrysophanol (1, piceatannol (2, aloe-emodin (3, emodin (4 and cassigarol E (5. Of the tested samples, chrysophanol (1 showed the highest anti-cancer activity against KB cells (IC50 = 0.045 g/mL, aloe emodin (3 was the most active against HT-29 (IC50 = 0.29 g/mL, emodin (4 was against HeLa cells (IC50 = 0.82 g/mL, and cassigarol E (5 was active against MCF-7 (IC50 = 0.021 g/mL, whereas piceatannol (2 was inactive in all tested cell lines. This is the first report of anti-cancer effect against HT-29, HeLa, MCF-7 and KB cells of C. garrettiana heartwood.

  11. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  12. Anti-allergic activity of compounds from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Tewtrakul, Supinya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Kummee, Sopa

    2008-02-28

    Kaempferia parviflora is one of the plants in the Zingiberaceae family, locally known in Thai as kra-chai-dam. In Thai traditional medicine, the decoction of Kaempferia parviflora powder with alcohol has been reported to cure allergy, asthma, impotence, gout, diarrhea, dysentery, peptic ulcer and diabetes. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate anti-allergic substances from this plant. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of seven methoxyflavone derivatives (1-7) from Kaempferia parviflora extract and they were identified on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Among the compounds tested, 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5) possessed the highest anti-allergic activity against antigen-induced beta-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with an IC(50) value of 8.0 microM, followed by 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2, IC(50)=20.6 microM) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (4, IC(50)=26.0 microM), whereas others showed moderate activities (IC(50)=37.5-66.5 microM). Structure-activity trends of 7-methoxyflavone derivatives on anti-allergic activity can be summarized as follows: (1) substitution with vicinal methoxyl groups at positions 3' and 4' conferred higher activity than only one methoxylation, (2) methoxylation at position 3 reduced activity and (3) methoxylation at position 5 showed higher activity than hydroxylation. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were also determined for their mechanisms on ionomycin-induced beta-hexosaminidase release. The results indicated that the mechanism on inhibition of cell degranulation of compounds 2 and 5 mainly involve the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx to the cells, whereas that of 4 may be partly due to this inhibition. In regards to the active constituents for anti-allergic activity of Kaempferia parviflora, 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2) and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (4) are responsible for anti-allergic effect of this plant. The

  13. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  14. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  15. Highly efficient exciplex organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters as donor and acceptor materials

    Jeon, Sang Kyu; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient exciplex type organic light-emitting diodes were developed using thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters as donors and acceptors of an exciplex. Blue emitting bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)phenyl]sulfone (DMAC-DPS) was a donor and 9,9‧-(5-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (DDCzTrz) and 9,9‧,9″-(5-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)benzene-1,2,3-triyl)tris(9H-carbazole) (TCzTrz) were acceptor materials. The exciplexes of DMAC-DPS:TCzTrz and DMAC-DPS:DDCzTrz resulted in high photoluminescence quantum yield and high quantum efficiency in the green exciplex organic light-emitting diodes. High quantum efficiencies of 13.4% and 15.3% were obtained in the DMAC-DPS:DDCzTrz and DMAC-DPS:TCzTrz exciplex devices.

  16. Pearson versus Spearman, Kendall's Tau Correlation Analysis on Structure-Activity Relationships of Biologic Active Compounds

    Jäntschi, Lorentz; Sorana-Daniela BOLBOACĂ

    2006-01-01

    A sample of sixty-seven pyrimidine derivatives with inhibitory activity on E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was studied by the use of molecular descriptors family on structure-activity relationships. Starting from the results obtained by applying of MDF-SAR methodology on pyrimidine derivatives and from the assumption that the measured activity (compounds’ inhibitory activity) of a biologically active compounds is a semi-quantitative outcome (can be related with the type of equipment us...

  17. Influence of plasma-activated compounds on melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity.

    Ali, Anser; Ashraf, Zaman; Kumar, Naresh; Rafiq, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farukh; Park, Ji Hoon; Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, SeungHyun; Seo, Sung-Yum; Choi, Eun Ha; Attri, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Many organic chemists around the world synthesize medicinal compounds or extract multiple compounds from plants in order to increase the activity and quality of medicines. In this work, we synthesized new eugenol derivatives (ED) and then treated them with an N2 feeding gas atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to increase their utility. We studied the tyrosinase-inhibition activity (activity test) and structural changes (circular dichroism) of tyrosinase with ED and plasma activated eugenol derivatives (PAED) in a cell-free environment. Later, we used docking studies to determine the possible interaction sites of ED and PAED compounds with tyrosinase enzyme. Moreover, we studied the possible effect of ED and PAED on melanin synthesis and its mechanism in melanoma (B16F10) cells. Additionally, we investigated the structural changes that occurred in activated ED after plasma treatment using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hence, this study provides a new perspective on PAED for the field of plasma medicine. PMID:26931617

  18. IMPLICATIONS OF INFALLING Fe II-EMITTING CLOUDS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: ANISOTROPIC PROPERTIES

    We investigate consequences of the discovery that Fe II emission in quasars, one of the spectroscopic signatures of 'Eigenvector 1', may originate in infalling clouds. Eigenvector 1 correlates with the Eddington ratio L/L Edd so that Fe II/Hβ increases as L/L Edd increases. We show that the 'force multiplier', the ratio of gas opacity to electron scattering opacity, is ∼103-104 in Fe II-emitting gas. Such gas would be accelerated away from the central object if the radiation force is able to act on the entire cloud. As had previously been deduced, infall requires that the clouds have large column densities so that a substantial amount of shielded gas is present. The critical column density required for infall to occur depends on L/L Edd, establishing a link between Eigenvector 1 and the Fe II/Hβ ratio. We see predominantly the shielded face of the infalling clouds rather than the symmetric distribution of emitters that has been assumed. The Fe II spectrum emitted by the shielded face is in good agreement with observations thus solving several long-standing mysteries in quasar emission lines.

  19. Naturally Produced Defensive Alkenal Compounds Activate TRPA1.

    Blair, Nathaniel T; Philipson, Benjamin I; Richards, Paige M; Doerner, Julia F; Segura, Abraham; Silver, Wayne L; Clapham, David E

    2016-05-01

    (E)-2-alkenals are aldehydes containing an unsaturated bond between the alpha and beta carbons. 2-alkenals are produced by many organisms for defense against predators and secretions containing (E)-2-alkenals cause predators to stop attacking and allow the prey to escape. Chemical ecologists have described many alkenal compounds with 3-20 carbons common, having varied positions of double bonds and substitutions. How do these defensive alkenals act to deter predators? We have tested the effects of (E)-2-alkenals with 6-12 carbons on transient receptor potential channels (TRP) commonly found in sensory neurons. We find that (E)-2-alkenals activate transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1) at low concentrations-EC50s 10-100 µM (in 0 added Ca(2+) external solutions). Other TRP channels were either weakly activated (TRPV1, TRPV3) or insensitive (TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM8). (E)-2-alkenals may activate TRPA1 by modifying cysteine side chains. However, target cysteines include others beyond the 3 in the amino-terminus implicated in activation, as a channel with cysteines at 621, 641, 665 mutated to serine responded robustly. Related chemicals, including the aldehydes hexanal and decanal, and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol also activated TRPA1, but with weaker potency. Rat trigeminal nerve recordings and behavioral experiments showed (E)-2-hexenal was aversive. Our results suggest that TRPA1 is likely a major target of these commonly used defensive chemicals. PMID:26843529

  20. Structure–activity relationships of 44 halogenated compounds for iodotyrosine deiodinase-inhibitory activity

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of halogenated compounds on thyroid hormone metabolism via inhibition of iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) activity. The structure-activity relationships of 44 halogenated compounds for IYD-inhibitory activity were examined in vitro using microsomes of HEK-293 T cells expressing recombinant human IYD. The compounds examined were 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 15 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two agrichemicals, five antiparasitics, two pharmaceuticals and three food colorants. Among them, 25 halogenated phenolic compounds inhibited IYD activity at the concentration of 1 × 10−4 M or 6 × 10−4 M. Rose bengal was the most potent inhibitor, followed by erythrosine B, phloxine B, benzbromarone, 4′-hydroxy-2,2′,4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 4-hydroxy-2,3′,3,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 4-hydroxy-2′,3,4′,5,6′-pentachlorobiphenyl, 4′-hydroxy-2,2′,4,5′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, triclosan, and 4-hydroxy-2,2′,3,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. However, among PCBs and PBDEs without a hydroxyl group, including their methoxylated metabolites, none inhibited IYD activity. These results suggest that halogenated compounds may disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis via inhibition of IYD, and that the structural requirements for IYD-inhibitory activity include halogen atom and hydroxyl group substitution on a phenyl ring

  1. Current status for light-emitting diode with Eu-doped GaN active layer grown by MBE

    Wakahara, Akihiro, E-mail: wakahara@ee.tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi Tech, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroto [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi Tech, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Okada, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi Tech, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Electronics Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute, Toyohashi Tech, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Takagi, Yasufumi [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., Hamamatsu 434-8601 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Recent progress on light-emitting diode having a Eu-doped GaN active layer is reported. Although the first success on LED using GaN:Eu has been achieved by OMVPE, the factors to be controlled during the crystal growth are not well understood. We found that GaN:Eu co-doped with Mg in NH{sub 3}-MBE shows a Eu site which is excited only by the above band-gap excitation. The luminescence intensity is enhanced at least 10 times than that without Mg co-doping. The LED operation fabricated using Mg co-doping technique is successfully demonstrated.

  2. Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Array for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    Harada, Chihiro; Hata, Takuya; Chuman, Takashi; Ishizuka, Shinichi; Yoshizawa, Atsushi

    2013-05-01

    We developed a 3-in. organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) array with an ink-jetted organic semiconductor. All layers except electrodes were fabricated by solution processes. The OTFT performed well without hysteresis, and the field-effect mobility in the saturation region was 0.45 cm2 V-1 s-1, the threshold voltage was 3.3 V, and the on/off current ratio was more than 106. We demonstrated a 3-in. active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display driven by the OTFT array. The display could provide clear moving images. The peak luminance of the display was 170 cd/m2.

  3. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic–inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic–inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol–gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-...

  4. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Rowse, Elizabeth G; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species. PMID:27008274

  5. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  6. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Elizabeth G Rowse

    Full Text Available We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS to light emitting diode (LED street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes, or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.

  7. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life. PMID:26784660

  8. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  9. Emissions of carbon species, organic polar compounds, potassium, and mercury from prescribed burning activities

    Zhang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Zielinska, B.; Gerler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning is an important emission source of pollutants to the atmosphere, but few studies have focused on the chemical composition of emissions from prescribed burning activities. Here we present results from a sampling campaign to quantify particulate-phase emissions from various types of prescribed fires including carbon species (Elemental Carbon: EC; Organic Carbon: OC; and Total Carbon: TC); polar organic compounds (12 different compounds and four functional classes); water-soluble potassium (K+); and mercury (Hg). We measured emissions from the following types of prescribed biomass burning in the Lake Tahoe basin located on the California/Nevada border: (i) log piles stacked and dried in the field; (ii) log piles along with green understory vegetation; and (iii) understory green vegetation and surface litter; further emissions were collected from burns conducted in a wood stove: (iv) dried wooden logs; (v) green foliage of understory vegetation collected from the field; and (vi) surface organic litter collected from the field; finally, samples were also taken from (vii) ambient air in residential areas during peak domestic wood combustion season. Results show that OC/EC ratios of prescribed burns in the field ranged from 4 to 10, but lower values (around 1) were observed in controlled stove fires. These results are consistent with an excess of OC emissions over EC found in wildfires. OC/EC ratios, however, showed clear separations between controlled wood stove combustion (higher EC) and prescribed burns in the field (lower EC). We attribute this difference to a higher combustion temperatures and dominance of flaming combustion in wood stove fires. OC positively and linearly correlated to the sum of polar organic compounds across all burn types (r2 of 0.82). The most prevalent group of polar compounds emitted during prescribed fires was resin acids (dehydroabietic, pimaric, and abietic acids), followed by levoglucosan plus mannositol. Negligible

  10. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs

  11. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated. PMID:22165149

  12. Structure and antibacterial activity of new layered perovskite compounds

    TAN Shao-zao; ZHANG Li-ling; XIA Liao-yuan; LIU Ying-liang; LI Du-xin

    2007-01-01

    New layered perovskite compounds, AgxNa2-xLa2Ti3O10 (x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) were synthesized by an ion-exchange reaction of Na2La2Ti3O10 with AgNO3 solution and characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDX), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The ion-exchange processes were optimized, and the antibacterial activity, light permanency and water-resistance were evaluated. Surprisedly, no significant changes in crystal structure of Na2La2Ti3O10 are found by the exchange of silver ions. The Ag0.3Na1.7La2Ti3O10 particles conglomerate obviously with irregular shape and size. Ag0.3Na1.7La2Ti3O10, possessing the minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of 180 mg/L and 240 mg/L, has high antibacterial activity, good light permanency and water-resistance. The ionic state silver in AgxNa2-xLa2Ti3O10 is the antibacterial active component.

  13. Volatile compounds and antioxidative activity of Porophyllum tagetoides extracts.

    Jimenez, M; Guzman, A P; Azuara, E; Garcia, O; Mendoza, M R; Beristain, C I

    2012-03-01

    Porophyllum tagetoides is an annual warm-weather herb that has an intense typical smell. Its leaves are commonly used in soup preparation and traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Its volatile compounds and antioxidant properties were evaluated in crude, aqueous and ethanol leaf extract and an oil emulsion using different antioxidant assays in vitro, such as: DPPH radical scavenging activity, redox potential, polyphenol content, reducing power and optical density. A high antioxidative activity was found when comparing leaves with stems. The crude extract from leaves showed a very high reducing power (2.88 ± 0.20 O.D.) and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (54.63 ± 4.80%), in concordance with a major concentration of vitamin C (23.97 ± 0.36 mg/100 g). Instead, the highest polyphenol content (264.54 ± 2.17 mg GAE/g of sample) and redox potential (561.23 ± 0.15 mV) were found by the ethanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Aldehydes and terpenes such as nonanal, decanal, trans-pineno, β-myrcene and D-limonene were the major volatiles found. This study suggests that Porophyllum tagetoides extracts could be used as antioxidants. PMID:22318745

  14. Hop pellets as an interesting source of antioxidant active compounds

    Andrea Holubková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hop is a plant used by humankind for thousands of years. This plant is one of the main and indispensable raw materials for the beer production. It is used for various dishes preparation in the cuisine. Hop is also used to inhibit bacterial contamination. The hop extracts are used for its sedative, antiseptic and antioxidant properties in medicine, as a part of many phytopharmaceuticals. The present paper have focused on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from 4 samples of hop pellets varieties of Aurora, Saaz, Lublin and Saphir, on the analyzing of bioactive substances (polyphenolics and flavonoids in prepared extracts and on the determination of antioxidant activity.  The highest content of polyphenolic substances was determined in the sample Lublin (153.06 mg gallic acid (GAE/g and Saaz (151.87 mg GAE/g. The amount of flavonoids in the samples  was descending order Saaz > Saphir > Aurora > Lublin. Hops, as plant, is known by high content of antioxidant active substances. Antioxidant activity was determined using three independent spectrofotometric methods, radical scavenging assays using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The sample Aurora showed the highest ability to scavenge of ABTS radical cation. Antioxidant activity continued to decline in a row Saphir> Lublin> Saaz. The same trend was also observed by using the FRAP assay. The most effective DPPH radical scavengering activity had the sample Saaz a Saphir (p>0.05.doi:10.5219/270 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Europium-activated barium/strontium silicates for near-UV light emitting diode applications

    Han, J.K. [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Hannah, M.E.; Piquette, A. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Central Research, 71 Cherry Hill Drive Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Micone, J. [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Hirata, G.A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnolgia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Apdo, Ensenada, MX CP 22860 (Mexico); Talbot, J.B. [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Department of Nanoengineering, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Mishra, K.C. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Central Research, 71 Cherry Hill Drive Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); McKittrick, J., E-mail: jmckittrick@UCSD.Edu [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    This paper reports on the luminescence properties of submicron-sized green-yellow emitting (Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Eu{sub 0.03}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (0{<=}x{<=}1) phosphors. These phosphors were prepared by a modified sol-gel/Pechini method. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the single phase products are obtained. The particle size - ranges from 200 to 500 nm with a spherical or needlelike shape depending on x. These phosphors show strong absorption in the near UV range and the photoluminescence emission spectra consist of a strong broad green-yellow band centered between 512 and 570 nm, depending on x. Furthermore, the phosphors have high quantum efficiencies: 94% for x=0 and 85% for x=0.25. The emission lifetime at 400 K is 97% of that at 40 K, demonstrating good thermal stability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Eu{sub 0.03}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (0{<=}x{<=}1) phosphors were prepared by a sol-gel/Pechini method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Submicron-sized (200-500 nm) particle had a spherical or needlelike morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong absorption and high quantum efficiencies (85-94%) in the near UV range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emission lifetime at 400 K is 97% of that at 40 K, showing good thermal stability.

  16. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant seed revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in four steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of mass spectrometry data. One compound was identified is roseanone. Conclusions: The MS analysis on the active fraction from seed extract of C. fistula confirmed the presence of roseanone with antiyeast activity.

  17. Potential therapeutic applications of microbial surface-active compounds

    Letizia Fracchia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations of microbial surface-active compounds or biosurfactants over the past two decades have led to the discovery of many interesting physicochemical and biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and therapeutic among many other pharmaceutical and medical applications. Microbial control and inhibition strategies involving the use of antibiotics are becoming continually challenged due to the emergence of resistant strains mostly embedded within biofilm formations that are difficult to eradicate. Different aspects of antimicrobial and anti-biofilm control are becoming issues of increasing importance in clinical, hygiene, therapeutic and other applications. Biosurfactants research has resulted in increasing interest into their ability to inhibit microbial activity and disperse microbial biofilms in addition to being mostly nontoxic and stable at extremes conditions. Some biosurfactants are now in use in clinical, food and environmental fields, whilst others remain under investigation and development. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival that of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial, fungal and yeast biofilms as well as viral membrane structures. This presents them as potential candidates for future uses in new generations of antimicrobial agents or as adjuvants to other antibiotics and use as preservatives for microbial suppression and eradication strategies.

  18. 3.4-Inch Quarter High Definition Flexible Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Display with Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    Hatano, Kaoru; Chida, Akihiro; Okano, Tatsuya; Sugisawa, Nozomu; Inoue, Tatsunori; Seo, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Oikawa, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Jun; Yamazaki, Shunpei; Eguchi, Shingo; Katayama, Masahiro; Sakakura, Masayuki

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report a 3.4-in. flexible active matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) display with remarkably high definition (quarter high definition: QHD) in which oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are used. We have developed a transfer technology in which a TFT array formed on a glass substrate is separated from the substrate by physical force and then attached to a flexible plastic substrate. Unlike a normal process in which a TFT array is directly fabricated on a thin plastic substrate, our transfer technology permits a high integration of high performance TFTs, such as low-temperature polycrystalline silicon TFTs (LTPS TFTs) and oxide TFTs, on a plastic substrate, because a flat, rigid, and thermally-stable glass substrate can be used in the TFT fabrication process in our transfer technology. As a result, this technology realized an oxide TFT array for an AMOLED on a plastic substrate. Furthermore, in order to achieve a high-definition AMOLED, color filters were incorporated in the TFT array and a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was combined. One of the features of this device is that the whole body of the device can be bent freely because a source driver and a gate driver can be integrated on the substrate due to the high mobility of an oxide TFT. This feature means “true” flexibility.

  19. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    Linfeng Xu; Yuanzhi Lao; Yanhui Zhao; Jian Qin; Wenwei Fu; Yingjia Zhang; Hongxi Xu

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode o...

  20. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as indica

  1. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Ching-Lin Fan; Hao-Wei Chen; Hui-Lung Lai; Bo-Liang Guo; Bohr-Ran Huang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pixel circuit design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED) displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) as driving element. The automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE) simulator was used to verify that the proposed pixel circuit, which comprises five transistors and one capacitor, can supply uniform output current. The v...

  2. Amorphous silicon thin film transistor active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated on flexible substrates

    Nichols, Jonathan A.

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays are of immense interest because they have several advantages over liquid crystal displays, the current dominant flat panel display technology. OLED displays are emissive and therefore are brighter, have a larger viewing angle, and do not require backlights and filters, allowing thinner, lighter, and more power efficient displays. The goal of this work was to advance the state-of-the-art in active-matrix OLED display technology. First, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were designed and fabricated on glass substrates. The devices operated at low voltages and demonstrated that lower performance TFTs could be utilized in active-matrix OLED displays, possibly allowing lower cost processing and the use of polymeric substrates. Attempts at designing more control into the display at the pixel level were also made. Bistable (one bit gray scale) active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were designed and fabricated. Such pixels could be used in novel applications and eventually help reduce the bandwidth requirements in high-resolution and large-area displays. Finally, a-Si:H TFT active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were fabricated on a polymeric substrate. Displays fabricated on a polymeric substrates would be lightweight; flexible, more rugged, and potentially less expensive to fabricate. Many of the difficulties associated with fabricating active-matrix backplanes on flexible substrates were studied and addressed.

  3. The Antibacterial Activity of Compounds Isolated from Oakmoss against Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp.

    野村, 陽恵; 一色, 恭徳; Sakuda, Keisuke; 佐久間, 克也; 近藤, 誠一

    2012-01-01

    Oakmoss is a natural fragrance ingredient exhibiting highly specific, potent antibacterial activity against Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of severe water-bone pneumonia. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of individual compounds isolated from oakmoss was investigated against L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. A total of 18 known compounds and two minor novel compounds (i.e., 3-methoxy-5-methylphenyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (compound 9) and 8-(2,4-dihydro...

  4. Assessment of aroma active compounds in unconventional fruit types

    Krchňavá, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis deals with the determination of aroma compounds in selected drinks produced from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa). The theoretical part is focused on the description of this plant, its chemical composition, properties, influence on the human body and possibility of utilization and processing. In the experimental part the aroma compounds in samples of sirup and liqueur from chokeberry were identified and quantified. . The aroma compounds were extracted by solid-phase micr...

  5. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    Subramanion L. Jothy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Lai Ngit Shin; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Yee Ling Lau; Yeng Chen; Zuraini Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary...

  6. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    Linfeng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity.

  7. Line-emitting clouds in broad-line regions of active galaxy nuclei their geometry and phase functions

    For a spherical cosmic cloud photoionized by a distant point source, a phase function, which describes anisotropy on the cloud radiation in a given line, is derived. The assumptions made are as follows: (1) the cloud is completely opaque to the line photons, and the line photons are generated at small optical depths; (2) the surface of the cloud emits in the line orthotropically; (3) the dependence of the line luminosity of a surface element on the value of the incident ionizing flux is described by a power law. The derived formulae may be useful n investigations of the structure of broad-line regions of active galactic nuclei. The effect of cloud geometry on phase function is discussed

  8. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co- N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found.

  9. Search for gamma-ray-emitting active galactic nuclei in the Fermi-LAT unassociated sample using machine learning

    The second Fermi-LAT source catalog (2FGL) is the deepest all-sky survey available in the gamma-ray band. It contains 1873 sources, of which 576 remain unassociated. Machine-learning algorithms can be trained on the gamma-ray properties of known active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to find objects with AGN-like properties in the unassociated sample. This analysis finds 231 high-confidence AGN candidates, with increased robustness provided by intersecting two complementary algorithms. A method to estimate the performance of the classification algorithm is also presented, that takes into account the differences between associated and unassociated gamma-ray sources. Follow-up observations targeting AGN candidates, or studies of multiwavelength archival data, will reduce the number of unassociated gamma-ray sources and contribute to a more complete characterization of the population of gamma-ray emitting AGNs.

  10. Biological surface-active compounds from marine bacteria.

    Dang, Nga Phuong; Landfald, Bjarne; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2016-01-01

    Surface-active compounds (SACs) are widely used in different industries as well as in many daily consumption products. However, with the increasing concern for their environmental acceptability, attention has turned towards biological SACs which are biodegradable, less toxic and more environmentally friendly. In this work, 176 marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial isolates from petroleum-contaminated sites along the Norwegian coastline were isolated and screened for their capacity to produce biological SACs. Among them, 18 isolates were capable of reducing the surface tension of the culture medium by at least 20 mN m(-1) and/or capable of maintaining more than 40% of the emulsion volume after 24 h when growing on glucose or kerosene as carbon and energy source. These isolates were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Rhodococcus, Catenovulum, Cobetia, Glaciecola, Serratia, Marinomonas and Psychromonas. Two isolates, Rhodococcus sp. LF-13 and Rhodococcus sp. LF-22, reduced surface tension of culture medium by more than 40 mN m(-1) when growing on kerosene, n-hexadecane or rapeseed oil. The biosurfactants were produced by resting cells of the two Rhodococcus strains suggesting the biosynthesis of the biosurfactants was not necessarily associated with their growth on hydrocarbons. PMID:26506920

  11. Biological activity of terpene compounds produced by biotechnological methods.

    Paduch, Roman; Trytek, Mariusz; Król, Sylwia K; Kud, Joanna; Frant, Maciej; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Fiedurek, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Context Biotransformation systems are profitable tools for structural modification of bioactive natural compounds into valuable biologically active terpenoids. Objective This study determines the biological effect of (R)-(+)-limonene and (-)-α-pinene, and their oxygenated derivatives, (a) perillyl alcohol and (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-carvone enantiomers and (b) linalool, trans-verbenol and verbenone, respectively, on human colon tumour cells and normal colonic epithelium. Materials and methods Biotransformation procedures and in vitro cell culture tests were used in this work. Cells were incubated for 24 h with terpenes at concentrations of 5-500 μg/mL for NR, MTT, DPPH, and NO assays. IL-6 was determined by ELISA with/without 2 h pre-activation with 10 μg/mL LPS. Results trans-Verbenol and perillyl alcohol, obtained via biotransformation, produced in vitro effect against tumour cells at lower concentrations (IC50 value = 77.8 and 98.8 μg/mL, respectively) than their monoterpene precursors, (R)-(+)-limonene (IC50 value = 171.4 μg/mL) and (-)-α-pinene (IC50 value = 206.3 μg/mL). They also showed lower cytotoxicity against normal cells (IC50 > 500 and > 200 μg/mL, respectively). (S)-(+)-Carvone was 59.4% and 27.1% more toxic to tumour and normal cells, respectively, than the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. (R)-(+)-limonene derivatives decreased IL-6 production from normal cells in media with or without LPS (30.2% and 13.9%, respectively), while (-)-α-pinene derivatives induced IL-6 (verbenone had the strongest effect, 60.2% and 29.1% above control, respectively). None of the terpenes had antioxidative activity below 500 μg/mL. Discussion and conclusions Bioactivity against tumour cells decreased in the following order: alcohols > ketones > hydrocarbons. (R)-(+)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, and their derivatives expressed diverse activity towards normal and tumour cells with noticeable enantiomeric differences. PMID:26808720

  12. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  13. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits. PMID:26501271

  14. Detection of Spectral Evolution in the Bursts Emitted During the 2008-2009 Active Episode of SGR J1550 - 5418

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Gruber, David; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Baring, Matthew G.; Gogus, Ersin; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Kaneko, Yuki; Lin, Lin; Watts, Anna L.; Bhat, Narayana; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Greiner, Jochen; Meegan, Charles A.; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert D.; Rau, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In early October 2008, the Soft Gamma Repeater SGRJ1550 - 5418 (1E1547.0 - 5408, AXJ155052 - 5418, PSR J1550 - 5418) became active, emitting a series of bursts which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) after which a second especially intense activity period commenced in 2009 January and a third, less active period was detected in 2009 March-April. Here we analyze the GBM data of all the bursts from the first and last active episodes. We performed temporal and spectral analysis for all events and found that their temporal characteristics are very similar to the ones of other SGR bursts, as well the ones reported for the bursts of the main episode (average burst durations 170ms). In addition, we used our sample of bursts to quantify the systematic uncertainties of the GBM location algorithm for soft gamma-ray transients to less than or equal to 8 degrees. Our spectral analysis indicates significant spectral evolution between the first and last set of events. Although the 2008 October events are best fit with a single blackbody function, for the 2009 bursts an Optically Thin Thermal Bremsstrahlung (OTTB) is clearly preferred. We attribute this evolution to changes in the magnetic field topology of the source, possibly due to effects following the very energetic main bursting episode.

  15. Detection of spectral evolution in the bursts emitted during the 2008-2009 active episode of SGR J1550 - 5418

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Granot, Jonathan; Baring, Matthew G; Göğüş, Ersin; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Kaneko, Yuki; Lin, Lin; Watts, Anna L; Bhat, P Narayana; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Greiner, Jochen; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert D; Rau, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In early October 2008, the Soft Gamma Repeater SGRJ1550 - 5418 (1E 1547.0 - 5408, AXJ155052 - 5418, PSR J1550 - 5418) became active, emitting a series of bursts which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) after which a second especially intense activity period commenced in 2009 January and a third, less active period was detected in 2009 March-April. Here we analyze the GBM data all the bursts from the first and last active episodes. We performed temporal and spectral analysis for all events and found that their temporal characteristics are very similar to the ones of other SGR bursts, as well the ones reported for the bursts of the main episode (average burst durations \\sim 170 ms). In addition, we used our sample of bursts to quantify the systematic uncertainties of the GBM location algorithm for soft gamma-ray transients to < 8 deg. Our spectral analysis indicates significant spectral evolution between the first and last set of events. Although the 2008 October events are best fit with a sin...

  16. Antitumoral Activity Of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds

    Magdalena Klink

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results show that both NO donors demonstrated a wide range of action on both ovarian cancer cell lines. Therefore, they have a high potential of being a supporting compounds in the cancer therapies.

  17. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  18. Design,synthesis and antifungal activities in vitro of novel tetralin compounds

    Hui Tang; You Jun Zhou; Yao Wu Li; Jia Guo Lv; Can Hui Zheng; Jun Chen; Ju Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Novel chiral tetralin compounds were designed and synthesized, and their antifungal activities in vitro were tested. The results showed that all of target compounds had potent antifungal activities, and were stronger than that of control compounds tetrahydroisoquinolines. The binding model of lead molecules in the active site of CYP51 of Candida albicans showed that lead compound specifically interacted with the amino acids residues in the active site, without binding with the heme of CYP51, which was different from azole antifungal drugs. The present study might afford a novel lead molecule to develop non-azole CYP51 inhibitors of fungi.

  19. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound and uses thereof

    Sweeney, Matthew; Xu, Feng; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-07-19

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  20. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  1. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    ... Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids ...

  3. Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity

    Julian Ihssen; Mark Schubert; Linda Thöny-Meyer; Michael Richter

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of ...

  4. Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons

    Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the 16O(n,p)16N reaction using 14N-MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the 3H(d,n)4He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second 16N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1--2 minutes. 15 figs

  5. Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons

    Smith, D.L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

    1996-11-05

    Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction using {sup 14}N-MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second {sup 16}N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1--2 minutes. 15 figs.

  6. Phenolic Compounds from the Flowers of Bombax malabaricum and Their Antioxidant and Antiviral Activities

    Yu-Bo Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new phenolic compounds 1–3 and twenty known ones 4–23 were isolated from the flowers of Bombax malabaricum. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR and chemical reactions. The antioxidant capacities of the isolated compounds were tested using FRAP and DPPH radical-scavenging assays, and compounds 4, 6, 8, 12, as well as the new compound 2, exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than ascorbic acid. Furthermore, all of compounds were tested for their antiviral activities against RSV by the CPE reduction assay and plaque reduction assay. Compounds 4, 10, 12 possess in vitro antiviral activities, and compound 10 exhibits potent anti-RSV effects, comparable to the positive control ribavirin.

  7. Microtubule inhibitors: structure-activity analyses suggest rational models to identify potentially active compounds.

    Callahan, H L; Kelley, C; Pereira, T.; Grogl, M

    1996-01-01

    Trifluralin, a dinitroaniline microtubule inhibitor currently in use as an herbicide, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, and several species of Leishmania, in vitro. As a topical formulation, trifluralin is also effective in vivo (in BALB/c mice) against Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana. Although trifluralin and other dinitroaniline herbicides show significant activity as antiparasitic compounds, disputed indications of potential ...

  8. Synthesis and antiplatelet activity of antithrombotic thiourea compounds: biological and structure-activity relationship studies.

    Lourenço, André Luiz; Saito, Max Seidy; Dorneles, Luís Eduardo Gomes; Viana, Gil Mendes; Sathler, Plínio Cunha; Aguiar, Lúcia Cruz de Sequeira; de Pádula, Marcelo; Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Fraga, Aline Guerra Manssour; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Castro, Helena Carla; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p) displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations. PMID:25903367

  9. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  10. Early evolution of an X-ray emitting solar active region

    The birth and early evolution of a solar active region has been investigated using X-ray observations from the Lockheed Mapping X-Ray Heliometer on board the OSO-8 spacecraft. X-ray emission is observed within three hours of the first detection of Hα plage. At that time, a plasma temperature of 4 x 106 K in a region having a density of the order of 1010 cm-3 is inferred. During the fifty hours following birth almost continuous flares or flare-like X-ray bursts are superimposed on a monotonically increasing base level of X-ray emission produced by plasma with a temperature of the order 3 x 106 K. If it is assumed that the X-rays result from heating due to dissipation of current systems or magnetic field reconnection, it can be concluded that flare-like X-ray emission soon after active region birth implies that the magnetic field probably emerges in a stressed or complex configuration. (Auth.)

  11. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)

  12. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  13. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1086 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  14. Syntheses, biological activities and SAR studies of novel carboxamide compounds containing piperazine and arylsulfonyl moieties.

    Wang, Bao-Lei; Shi, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Ma, Yi; Wang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xing-Hai; Li, Yong-Hong; Li, Zheng-Ming; Li, Bao-Ju

    2016-07-19

    A series of novel carboxamide compounds 19a-19j, 20a-20j and 22a-22d containing piperazine and arylsulfonyl moieties have been synthesized. The bioassay results showed that some compounds exhibited favorable herbicidal activities against dicotyledonous plants and many of them possessed excellent antifungal activities. Among 24 novel compounds, some showed superiority over the commercial fungicides Chlorothalonil, Dimethomorph, Thiophanate-methyl, Iprodione, and Zhongshengmycin at 500 mg/L concentration. Some compounds also exhibited high KARI inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL concentration and could be used as new KARI lead inhibitors for further studies. Moreover, SAR of these new compounds were comprehensively investigated using different computational methods in which 3D-QSAR model obtained provided useful information for further structural optimization for the discovery of new fungicides. The results of this research will contribute to explore comprehensive biological activities of piperazine-containing compounds in different areas of chemistry. PMID:27092414

  15. Effects of polyhydroxy compounds on beetle antifreeze protein activity

    Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wang, Sen; Banatlao, Joseph; Chung, Melody; Velasco, Efrain; Duman, John G.; Wen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) noncolligatively depress the nonequilibrium freezing point of a solution and produce a difference between the melting and freezing points termed thermal hysteresis (TH). Some low-molecular-mass solutes can affect the TH values. The TH enhancement effects of selected polyhydroxy compounds including polyols and carbohydrates on an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis were systematically investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The number of hydroxyl groups dominates the molar enhancement effectiveness of polyhydroxy compounds having one to five hydroxyl groups. However, the above rule does not apply for polyhydroxy compounds having more than five hydroxyl groups. The most efficient polyhydroxy enhancer identified is trehalose. In a combination of enhancers the strongest enhancer plays the major role in determining the TH enhancement. Mechanistic insights into identification of highly efficient AFP enhancers are discussed. PMID:19038370

  16. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New 1,3-Dioxolanes as Potential Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds

    Hatice Başpınar Küçük

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new enantiomerically pure and racemic 1,3-dioxolanes 1-8 was synthesized in good yields and short reaction times by the reaction of salicylaldehyde with commercially available diols using a catalytic amount of Mont K10. Elemental analysis and spectroscopic characterization established the structure of all the newly synthesized compounds. These compounds were tested for their possible antibacterial and antifungal activity. Biological screening showed that all the tested compounds, except 1, show excellent antifungal activity against C. albicans, while most of the compounds have also shown significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa.

  17. NGC5252: a pair of radio-emitting active galactic nuclei?

    Yang, Xiaolong; Paragi, Zsolt; Liu, Xiang; An, Tao; Bianchi, Stefano; Ho, Luis C; Cui, Lang; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Xiaocong

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray source CXO J133815.6+043255 has counterparts in the UV, optical, and radio bands. Based on the multi-band investigations, it has been recently proposed by Kim et al. (2015) as a rarely-seen off-nucleus ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source with a black hole mass of >= 10^4 solar mass in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5252. To explore its radio properties at very high angular resolution, we performed very long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7 GHz. We find that the radio counterpart is remarkably compact among the known ULXs. It does not show a resolved structure with a resolution of a few milliarcsecond (mas), and the total recovered flux density is comparable to that measured in earlier sub-arcsecond-resolution images. The compact radio structure, the relatively flat spectrum, and the high radio luminosity are consistent with a weakly accreting supermassive black hole in a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus. The nucleus of NGC 5252 itself has simi...

  18. The effects of neuroleptic and tricyclic compounds on BKCa channel activity in rat isolated cortical neurones

    Lee, K.; McKenna, F; Rowe, I C M; Ashford, M.L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The actions of several neuroleptic and tricyclic compounds were examined on the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel present in neurones isolated from the rat motor cortex.Classical neuroleptic compounds including chlorpromazine and haloperidol applied to the intracellular surface of inside-out patches produced a concentration-dependent reduction in BKCa channel activity. Similar effects were observed when these compounds were applied to the extracellular surface of outside-out ...

  19. A new method for calculating the activity of stable compound from binary phase diagram

    CHEN Dengfu; DONG Lingyan; BAI Chenguang; LIU Qingcai; WANG Chuanjun

    2006-01-01

    A new method to calculate the activity of a stable compound in a binary phase diagram was presented and dis cussed. According to the formula for calculating activity from the binary phase diagram, the equilibrium constant can be calculated through the mass action principle after the activities of two pure components were computed respectively. Based on that, the activity of a stable compound can be easily obtained at last. The activity of the stable compound InSb is calculated in the In-Sb binary system by using this method. The result is well consistent with another calculation value.

  20. Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria

    DiSpirito, Alan A.; Zahn, James A.; Graham, David W.; Kim, Hyung J.; Alterman, Michail; Larive, Cynthia

    2007-04-03

    A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

  1. Application of Genetic Programming in Predicting Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Water

    Yi Lin CAO; Huan Ying LI

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we calculated 37 structural descriptors of 174 organic compounds. The154 molecules were used to derive quantitative structure-infinite dilution activity coefficientrelationship by genetic programming, the other 20 compounds were used to test the model. Theresult showed that molecular partition property and three-dimensional structural descriptors havesignificant influence on the infinite dilution activity coefficients.

  2. Improving vacuum-UV (VUV) photolysis of organic compounds in water with a phosphor converted xenon excimer lamp emitting at 193 nm.

    Schulze-Hennings, U; Pötschke, L; Wietor, C; Bringmann, S; Braun, N; Hayashi, D; Linnemann, V; Pinnekamp, J

    2016-01-01

    A novel vacuum ultraviolet excimer lamp emitting light at 193 nm was used to investigate the degradation of organic micropollutants in ultrapure water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Overall, light at 193 nm proved to be efficient to degrade the investigated micropollutants (diclofenac, diatrizoic acid, sulfamethoxazole). Experiments with WWTP effluent proved the ability of radiation at 193 nm to degrade micropollutants which are hardly removed with commonly used oxidation technologies like ozonation (diatrizoic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid). PMID:27533863

  3. The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceutically activated compounds and cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water preparation using activated carbon--a review.

    Delgado, Luis F; Charles, Philippe; Glucina, Karl; Morlay, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides a review of recent scientific research on the removal by activated carbon (AC) in drinking water (DW) treatment of 1) two classes of currently unregulated trace level contaminants with potential chronic toxicity-pharmaceutically activate compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); 2) cyanobacterial toxins (CyBTs), which are a group of highly toxic and regulated compounds (as microcystin-LR); and 3) the above mentioned compounds by the hybrid system powdered AC/membrane filtration. The influence of solute and AC properties, as well as the competitive effect from background natural organic matter on the adsorption of such trace contaminants, are also considered. In addition, a number of adsorption isotherm parameters reported for PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs are presented herein. AC adsorption has proven to be an effective removal process for such trace contaminants without generating transformation products. This process appears to be a crucial step in order to minimize PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs in finished DW, hence calling for further studies on AC adsorption removal of these compounds. Finally, a priority chart of PhACs and EDCs warranting further study for the removal by AC adsorption is proposed based on the compounds' structural characteristics and their low removal by AC compared to the other compounds. PMID:22885596

  4. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average. PMID:26606067

  5. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, Gerardo

    2010-10-04

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas \\'parylene only\\' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. High-efficiency diphenylsulfon derivatives-based organic light-emitting diode exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    Lee, Geon Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material with diphenyl sulfone (DPS) as an electron acceptor and 3,6-dimethoxycarbazole (DMOC) and 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (TMC) as electron donors were investigated theoretically for a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) emitter. We calculate the energies of the first singlet (S1) and first triplet (T1)-excited states of TADF materials by performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on the ground state using a dependence on charge transfer amounts for the optimal Hartree-Fock percentage in the exchange-correlation of TD-DFT. The calculated {\\Delta}EST values of TMC-DPS (0.094 eV) was smaller than DMOC-DPS (0.386 eV) because of the large dihedral angles between the donor and accepter moieties. We show that TMC-DPS would have a suitable blue OLED emitter, because it has a large dihedral angle that creates a small spatial overlap between the HOMO and the LUMO and, consequently, the small {\\Delta}EST an...

  7. The FeII emission in active galactic nuclei: excitation mechanisms and location of the emitting region

    Marinello, A O M; Garcia-Rissmann, A; Sigut, T A A; Pradhan, A K

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of FeII emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ a NIR FeII template derived in the literature and found that it successfully reproduces the observed FeII spectrum. The FeII bump at 9200 Angstroms detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyman-alpha fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Angstroms bump, the 1 micron lines and the optical FeII imply that Lyman-alpha fluorescence plays an important role in the FeII production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical FeII is due to this process while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed FeII. The line profiles of FeII 10502, OI 11287, CaII 8664 and Paschen-beta were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that FeII, OI and CaII have similar widt...

  8. Mn2+ activated MgSrAl10O17 green-emitting phosphor-A luminescence and EPR study

    This paper reports on the luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations on MgSrAl10O17:Mn2+ green-emitting phosphor. Single-phase MgSrAl10O17 was successfully synthesized by the one-step solution combustion route without the need for post-annealing at a higher temperature. Crystallization of the powder was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The luminescence of Mn2+- activated MgSrAl10O17 shows a strong green-emission peak around 515 nm due to the 4T1→6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions under the excitation (453 nm). The EPR spectra of Mn2+ ions exhibit a sextet hyperfine structure centered at g ∼1.995. The Mn2+ ion occupies Mg sites which are in tetrahedral symmetry. The magnitude of the hyperfine splitting (A) indicates that Mn2+ is in a moderately ionic environment. The number of spins participating in resonance (N), the paramagnetic susceptibility (χ) and the zero-field splitting parameter (D) have been evaluated and discussed

  9. Theoretical Study of Some Nitrososulfamide Compounds with Antitumor Activity

    Madi Fatiha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The lowest-energy conformations of four 2-chloroethylnitrososulfamides were determined using the MM+ molecular mechanics method as implemented in Hyperchem 6.0. Some of the calculated structural parameters, angles and bonds lengths were compared with the crystal structure data of N-nitroso-N-(2-chloroethyl-N’-sulfamoyl- proline. Using MM+, AM1 and PM3 the anti conformation was predicted to be more stable than the syn conformation in each of these compounds. With these methods we found that the relative energy of the transition state (TS was considerably higher, but with the ab initio method using RHF with minimal basic function STO-3G we found that the syn conformation is predicted to be slightly more stable. The determination of some atomic charges of a selection of atoms on the syn, anti and TS structures of the various compounds provided some details about the nature of the transition state.

  10. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of certain chalcone based pyrazoline compounds

    Sudhakara Rao Gerapati; Kalaichelvan V K; Ganguri Sudhakara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Convulsions are involuntary, violent, spasmodic and prolonged contractions of skeletal muscles. That means a patient may have epilepsy without convulsions and vice versa. Epilepsy is a common neurological abnormality affecting about 1% of the world population. The primary objectives of these synthesized compounds are to suppress seizures and provide neuroprotection by minimizing the effects from seizure attacks. Here some of the chalcones and chalcone based various pyrazolines were evaluated ...

  11. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  12. Antibacterial activity of rhizome of curcuma aromatica and partial purification of active compounds

    S Revathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hexane extract of Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains. Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 ΅g/ml. The phytochemical analysis of hexane extract by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 compounds. The crude hexane extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. The zone showing good antibacterial activity was analysed further by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the probable presence of germacrone.

  13. SPME applied to the study of volatile organic compounds emitted by three species of Eucalyptus in situ. Solid-phase micro extraction.

    Zini, Cláudia A; Augusto, Fabio; Christensen, Eva; Caramão, Elina B; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2002-12-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry-65 microm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) was used to identify and monitor the emission patterns of biogenic volatile organic compounds from leaves of Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus saligna, and Eucalyptus citriodora in situ. Short extractions (1 min) were performed every 30 min for periods of 8-10 h during 24 days taking advantage of the high capacity of this porous polymer coating. Forty-two compounds were detected and 20 identified in the headspace of E. saligna leaves, and 19 of 27 compounds were identified in the headspace of E. dunnii leaves. The emission pattern of (E)-beta-ocimene and rose oxide suggests that they may play a bioactive role in Eucalyptus. PMID:12452632

  14. Review on Natural Coumarin Lead Compounds for Their Pharmacological Activity

    K. N. Venugopala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one is a plant-derived natural product known for its pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antihypertensive, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, antiadipogenic, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. Dietary exposure to benzopyrones is significant as these compounds are found in vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts, coffee, tea, and wine. In view of the established low toxicity, relative cheapness, presence in the diet, and occurrence in various herbal remedies of coumarins, it appears prudent to evaluate their properties and applications further.

  15. An exploratory comparative study of volatile compounds in exhaled breath and emitted by skin using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    Turner, C.; Parekh, B.; Walton, Ch.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Evans, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2008), s. 526-532. ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * volatile compounds * aldehydes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2008

  16. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 μM) relative to the positive control 10 μM rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D3 activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D3 activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism

  17. Determination of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Leaves from Wild Rubus L. Species

    Jan Oszmiański; Aneta Wojdyło; Paulina Nowicka; Mirosława Teleszko; Tomasz Cebulak; Mateusz Wolanin

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones). Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially ...

  18. In Vitro Neuroprotective Activities of Compounds from Angelica shikokiana Makino

    Amira Mira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angelica shikokiana is widely marketed in Japan as a dietary food supplement. With a focus on neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, the aerial part was extracted and through bio-guided fractionation, fifteen compounds [α-glutinol, β-amyrin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, methyl chlorogenate, chlorogenic acid, hyuganin E, 5-(hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside, adenosine (isolated for the first time from A. shikokiana, isoepoxypteryxin and isopteryxin] were isolated. Isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro neuroprotection using acetylcholine esterase inhibitory, protection against hydrogen peroxide and amyloid β peptide (Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells, scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species and thioflavin T assays. Quercetin showed the strongest AChE inhibition (IC50 value = 35.5 µM through binding to His-440 and Tyr-70 residues at the catalytic and anionic sites of acetylcholine esterase, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, its methyl ester, quercetin and luteolin could significantly protect neuro-2A cells against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity and scavenge hydroxyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoiside, hyuganin E and isoepoxypteryxin significantly decreased Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity and Th-T fluorescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about neuroprotection of hyuganin E and isoepoxypteryxin against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity.

  19. Antimicrobial activities against periodontopathic bacteria of Pittosporum tobira and its active compound.

    Oh, Jung-Hyun; Jeong, Yong Joon; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Dae Won; Kang, Se Chan; Khoa, Hoang Viet Bach; Le, Le Ba; Cho, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The study of medicinal plants for treatment of periodontitis is of great value to establish their efficacy as sources of new antimicrobial drugs. Five hundred and fifty eight Korean local plant extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against representative periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Among the various medicinal plants, the alcohol extract of Pittosporum tobira, which significantly exhibited antibacterial effect for all tested strains, showed the highest activity in the antimicrobial assays. NMR analyses revealed that R1-barrigenol, a triterpene sapogenin, was the most effective compound in P. tobira. These results demonstrated that P. tobira possesses antimicrobial properties and would be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. PMID:24662076

  20. Antimicrobial Activities against Periodontopathic Bacteria of Pittosporum tobira and Its Active Compound

    Jung-Hyun Oh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of medicinal plants for treatment of periodontitis is of great value to establish their efficacy as sources of new antimicrobial drugs. Five hundred and fifty eight Korean local plant extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against representative periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Among the various medicinal plants, the alcohol extract of Pittosporum tobira, which significantly exhibited antibacterial effect for all tested strains, showed the highest activity in the antimicrobial assays. NMR analyses revealed that R1-barrigenol, a triterpene sapogenin, was the most effective compound in P. tobira. These results demonstrated that P. tobira possesses antimicrobial properties and would be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

  1. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity of Schiff base compounds of cinnamaldehyde and amino acids.

    Wang, Hui; Yuan, Haijian; Li, Shujun; Li, Zhuo; Jiang, Mingyue

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize hydrophilic cinnamaldehyde Schiff base compounds and investigate those bioactivity. A total of 24 Schiff base compounds were synthesized using a simple approach with 3 cinnamaldehyde derivates and 8 amino acids as raw materials. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed using FTIR, (1)HNMR, HRMS purity and melting point. The antimicrobial activities of new compounds were evaluated with fluconazole and ciprofloxacin as the control against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Findings show that major compounds exhibited significant bioactivity. Results from the structure-activity relationship suggest that both -p-Cl on benzene ring of cinnamaldehyde and the number of -COOK of amino acid salts significantly contributed to antimicrobial activity. PMID:26774583

  2. Bacterial biofilm formation inhibitory activity revealed for plant derived natural compounds.

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Barbato, G; Scoarughi, G L; Cellini, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Selan, L

    2012-01-15

    Use of herbal plant remedies to treat infectious diseases is a common practice in many countries in traditional and alternative medicine. However to date there are only few antimicrobial agents derived from botanics. Based on microbiological screening tests of crude plant extracts we identified four compounds derived from Krameria, Aesculus hippocastanum and Chelidonium majus that showed a potentially interesting antimicrobial activity. In this work we present an in depth characterization of the inhibition activity of these pure compounds on the formation of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus as well as of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. We show that two of these compounds possess interesting potential to become active principles of new drugs. PMID:22182580

  3. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  4. Antifeedant compounds from three species of Apiaceae active against the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller).

    Birkett, Michael A; Dodds, Catherine J; Henderson, Ian F; Leake, Lucy D; Pickett, John A; Selby, Martin J; Watson, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Extracts of volatiles from foliage of three plants in the Apiaceae, Conium maculatum L. (hemlock), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), and Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Nym.) (parsley), previously shown to exhibit antifeedant activity in assays with the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller) (Limacidae: Pulmonata), were studied further to identify the active components. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and neurophysiological assays using tentacle nerve preparations resulted in the identification of 11 active compounds from the three extracts. Wheat flour feeding bioassays were used to determine which of these compounds had the highest antifeedant activity. One of the most active compounds was the alkaloid gamma-coniceine, from C. maculatum. The role of potentially toxic alkaloids as semiochemicals and the potential for using such compounds as crop protection agents to prevent slug feeding damage is discussed. PMID:15139308

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic compounds containing benzimidazole and beta-lactam moiety

    K F Ansari; C Lal

    2009-11-01

    A number of 1-substituted-2-methyl benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their antibacterial activities. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were verified on the basis of spectral and elemental methods of analyses. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds was done by disc diffusion method using Gram-positive (S. aureus, S. mutans and B. subtilis), Gram-negative (E. coli, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa) bacteria and fungi (C. albicans, A. flavus and A. niger). Among the compounds tested 5a, 5b, 5d, 5i, 5j and 5k exhibited good antibacterial activities against Gram positive bacteria, while 5d and 5i also showed notable antifungal activity. Specially compounds 5a and 5b exhibited appreciable activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis comparable to reference drugs.

  6. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...

  7. 6-azacytidine--compound with wide spectrum of antiviral activity.

    Alexeeva, I; Dyachenko, N; Nosach, L; Zhovnovataya, V; Rybalko, S; Lozitskaya, R; Fedchuk, A; Lozitsky, V; Gridina, T; Shalamay, A; Palchikovskaja, L; Povnitsa, O

    2001-01-01

    6-azacytidine demonstrates activity against adenoviruses types 1, 2, 5. It inhibit synthesis of viral DNA and proteins. 6-AC shows antiherpetic and antiinfluenza action during experimental infection in mice. 6-AC is prospective for drug development as an antiviral substance with a wide spectrum of activity. PMID:11562975

  8. Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric (PTR-TOF-MS) determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a biomass fire developed under stable nocturnal conditions

    Brilli, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Ciccioli, Paolo; Zona, Donatella; Loreto, Francesco; Janssens, Ivan A.; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2014-11-01

    Combustion of solid and liquid fuels is the largest source of potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can strongly affect health and the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere. Among combustion processes, biomass burning is one of the largest at global scale. We used a Proton Transfer Reaction “Time-of-Flight” Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS), which couples high sensitivity with high mass resolution, for real-time detection of multiple VOCs emitted by burned hay and straw in a barn located near our measuring station. We detected 132 different organic ions directly attributable to VOCs emitted from the fire. Methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, methyl vinyl ether (MVE), acetic acid and glycolaldehyde dominated the VOC mixture composition. The time-course of the 25 most abundant VOCs, representing ∼85% of the whole mixture of VOCs, was associated with that of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The strong linear relationship between the concentrations of pyrogenic VOC and of a reference species (i.e. CO) allowed us to compile a list of emission ratios (ERs) and emission factors (EFs), but values of ER (and EF) were overestimated due to the limited mixing of the gases under the stable (non-turbulent) nocturnal conditions. In addition to the 25 most abundant VOCs, chemical formula and concentrations of the residual, less abundant VOCs in the emitted mixture were also estimated by PTR-TOF-MS. Furthermore, the evolution of the complex combustion process was described on the basis of the diverse types of pyrogenic gases recorded.

  9. Fluorescence Properties and Synthesis of Green-Emitting Tb3+-Activated Amorphous Calcium Silicate Phosphor by Ultraviolet Irradiation of 378 nm

    Yoshiyuki Kojima; Masaaki Numazawa; Shinnosuke Kamei; Nobuyuki Nishimiya

    2012-01-01

    The excitation wavelength of conventional Tb3+-activated phosphor is near 270 nm. This study describes novel green-emitting Tb3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate by ultraviolet excitation at 378 nm. The Tb3+-activated amorphous calcium silicate was prepared by heating a sample of Tb3+-activated calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) at 900°C for 30 minutes. The emission wavelength of the resulting phosphor was 544 nm. The optimum excitation wavelength within the range 300–400 nm was 378 nm. The T...

  10. Compound A, a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, enhances heat shock protein Hsp70 gene promoter activation.

    Ilse M Beck

    Full Text Available Compound A possesses glucocorticoid receptor (GR-dependent anti-inflammatory properties. Just like classical GR ligands, Compound A can repress NF-κB-mediated gene expression. However, the monomeric Compound A-activated GR is unable to trigger glucocorticoid response element-regulated gene expression. The heat shock response potently activates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, upregulates Hsp70, a known GR chaperone, and also modulates various aspects of inflammation. We found that the selective GR modulator Compound A and heat shock trigger similar cellular effects in A549 lung epithelial cells. With regard to their anti-inflammatory mechanism, heat shock and Compound A are both able to reduce TNF-stimulated IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. We established an interaction between Compound A-activated GR and Hsp70, but remarkably, although the presence of the Hsp70 chaperone as such appears pivotal for the Compound A-mediated inflammatory gene repression, subsequent novel Hsp70 protein synthesis is uncoupled from an observed CpdA-induced Hsp70 mRNA upregulation and hence obsolete in mediating CpdA's anti-inflammatory effect. The lack of a Compound A-induced increase in Hsp70 protein levels in A549 cells is not mediated by a rapid proteasomal degradation of Hsp70 or by a Compound A-induced general block on translation. Similar to heat shock, Compound A can upregulate transcription of Hsp70 genes in various cell lines and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, whereas Compound A-dependent Hsp70 promoter activation is GR-dependent but HSF1-independent, heat shock-induced Hsp70 expression alternatively occurs in a GR-independent and HSF1-dependent manner in A549 lung epithelial cells.

  11. Sm3+-activated gadolinium molybdate: an intense red-emitting phosphor for solid-state lighting based on InGaN LEDs

    Sm3+-activated gadolinium molybdate, Gd2(MoO4)3:Sm3+ red-emitting phosphor was prepared by conventional solid-state method. The structure, morphology, and luminescent properties of these powder samples have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescent spectrophotometry, respectively. The as-obtained phosphor has a monoclinic structure with single crystalline phase. Its mean particle size is about 6-8 μm with pseudo-pompon shape and large surface area, which is suitable for manufacture of white LEDs. The phosphor can be efficiently excited by incident light of 348-445 nm, well matched with the output wavelength of a near-UV InGaN-based chip, and re-emits an intense red light peaking at 650 nm. By combing this phosphor with a 405 nm-emitting InGaN chip, a red LED was fabricated, so that the applicability of this novel phosphor to white LEDs was confirmed. It is considered to be an efficient red-emitting conversion phosphor for solid-state lighting based on InGaN LEDs.

  12. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    Euna eOh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically-important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN. Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.

  13. Photo-catalytic Activities of Plant Hormones on Semiconductor Nanoparticles by Laser-Activated Electron Tunneling and Emitting

    Tang, Xuemei; Huang, Lulu; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2015-03-01

    Understanding of the dynamic process of laser-induced ultrafast electron tunneling is still very limited. It has been thought that the photo-catalytic reaction of adsorbents on the surface is either dependent on the number of resultant electron-hole pairs where excess energy is lost to the lattice through coupling with phonon modes, or dependent on irradiation photon wavelength. We used UV (355 nm) laser pulses to excite electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and bismuth cobalt zinc oxide (Bi2O3)0.07(CoO)0.03(ZnO)0.9 semiconductor nanoparticles with different photo catalytic properties. Photoelectrons are extracted, accelerated in a static electric field and eventually captured by charge deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to detect negative molecules and fragment ions generated by un-paired electron directed bond cleavages. We show that the probability of electron tunneling is determined by the strength of the static electric field and intrinsic electron mobility of semiconductors. Photo-catalytic dissociation or polymerization reactions of adsorbents are highly dependent on the kinetic energy of tunneling electrons as well as the strength of laser influx. By using this approach, photo-activities of phytohormones have been investigated.

  14. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Paul Schnitzler; Jürgen Reichling; Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infectio...

  15. Influence of phenolic compounds on rumen microbial activity

    An 'in vitro' experiment is carried out to examine the effect of tannic acid on rumen microbial activity, due to the toxicity of phenolic acids on many microrganisms. Rumen content is incubated with sodium bicarbonate, glucose and different quantities of tannic acid. 1 μCi of 32p-labelled phosphate is added and after 6 hours the incorporated activity is measured. (M.A.C.)

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of octocrylene-inspired compounds for UV-filter activity

    Hudson C. Polonini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Octocrylene (2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenyl-2-propenoate is present in several sunscreens and is known to work synergistically with UV filters. We prepared eight octocrylene-related compounds to test their photoprotective activities by measuring diffuse transmittance. The compounds had varied photoprotection profiles, with Sun Protection Factors (SPF ranging from 1 to 5 and UVA Protection Factors (UVAPF ranging from 1 to 8. Compounds 4, 5, and 7 showed the best protection against UVB sunrays, while compounds 5, 6, and 7 presented the best results for protection from UVA, so compound 7 had the most balanced protection overall. Results for compounds 4, 8, and 9 are reported for the first time in the literature.

  17. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of potentially bioactive aminobenzylated Mannich bases through active hydrogen compounds

    S. L. VASOYA; P. T. CHOVATIA; D. H. PUROHIT; H. S. JOSHI

    2005-01-01

    An efficient and high yield method for the synthesis of aminobenzylated Mannich bases is described. The synthesis occurs in aqueous medium at 0 ºC. The compounds show moderate antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  18. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of potentially bioactive aminobenzylated Mannich bases through active hydrogen compounds

    S. L. VASOYA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and high yield method for the synthesis of aminobenzylated Mannich bases is described. The synthesis occurs in aqueous medium at 0 ºC. The compounds show moderate antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  19. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  20. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine made from grapes treated with different fungicides.

    Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A

    2015-08-01

    The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines. PMID:25766797

  1. Identification, isolation and characterization of active compounds from the Indian green mussels to develop drugs

    ) display biological activity against the malaria parasite (mouse and human tested). A compound (NIO-3) may find use for developing effective drugs for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, prevention of bone...

  2. Dose per unit cumulated activity (S-values) for e− and beta emitting radionuclides in cancer cell models calculated by Monte Carlo simulation

    Cell dosimetry is relevant regarding new efforts in specific molecular radiotherapy using Auger, CE and beta emitters. Absorbed dose in cells can be obtained by means of the dose per unit cumulated activity (S-values), together with the activity distribution. In this work, Monte Carlo simulation codes PENELOPE and MCNPX were used to obtain cellular S-values for point and extended sources of electrons and beta emitting radionuclides in the nucleus of breast (MDA-MB231, MCF7) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell models. - Highlights: • Cellular S-values were calculated using Penelope and MCPNX Monte Carlo codes. • S-values were obtained for e− and beta emitting radionuclides in cancer cell models. • Breast (MDA-MB231, MCF7) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell models were investigated. • Results are relevant for specific targeted molecular radiotherapy cell dosimetry

  3. Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods

    Xiao-Sheng Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS. In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI, odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal, benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid, ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  4. Acaricidal activity of eugenol based compounds against scabies mites.

    Cielo Pasay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the "itch mite" Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues--acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. CONCLUSIONS: The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies.

  5. Bioproduction, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Compounds from Chlorella vulgaris

    Danielli M.M. Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Various crude extract preparations (ethanol, methanol, buthanol, acetone, DMSO and water from the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were examined for Antioxidant activity, Phytochemical screening and Antimicrobial properties. In vitro free radical quenching and total antioxidant activity of extracts were investigated with 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, and compared with cathequin and Gallic acid as positive controls. In most cases, results showed a significant association between the antioxidant potency and the total phenolics content. The aqueous extract showed both the highest antioxidant activity for inhibition scavenging (68.5% and highest phenolic content (3.45 mg/ mL. Antimicrobial activities were carried out using disc diffusion assays and the broth dilution method against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results demonstrated activity between the aqueous extract and most specimens (Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enteretidis, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that the aqueous crude extract of C. vulgaris could be considered as a biological antioxidant and antimicrobial agent, and a valuable tool for the biotechnology field.

  6. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract and isolated compounds from Croton bonplandianum Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    Burgos, A.; J. BARUA; M.E. FLORES-GIUBI; D. BAZAN; Ferro, E.; N.L. ALVARENGA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Croton bonplandianum Baill. and its main compounds, sparsiflorine and crotsparine, was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the resazurin microtitre-plate method. Pure compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. The alkaloid extract showed activity particularly against the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Regarding t...

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Agave Plants and the Compound Cantalasaponin-1

    Jaime Tortoriello; Maribel Herrera-Ruiz; Manases Gonzalez-Cortazar; Alejandro Zamilpa; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio R.; Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer; Martha L. Arenas Ocampo; Nayeli Monterrosas-Brisson

    2013-01-01

    Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants’ leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear ede...

  8. Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds.

  9. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane pe...

  10. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Anastasia; Wheni; Indrianingsih; Sanro; Tachibana; Rizna; Triana; Dewi; Kazutaka; Itoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume(Q. gilva).Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identii ed as catechin(1), epicatechin(2), and tiliroside(3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of(22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of(28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of(40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of(160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of(28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with(168.60 ± 5.15) and(920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively.Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva coni rmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  11. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Scherer, R.; HT. Godoy

    2014-01-01

    The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtain...

  12. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled compounds

    Tritiated methyl iodide of high specific activity is synthetized by Fischer-Tropsch reaction of tritium with carbon monoxide, tritiated methanol obtained is reacted with hydriodic acid. It is used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl L-methionine 3H-methyl and of diazepam 3H-methyl derivatives. Synthesis of 3-PPP3H: (hydroxy-3 phenyl)-3N-n propyl [3H-2.3] piperidine [3H-2.3] with a specific activity of 4.25 T Bq/mM (115 Ci/mM) and of baclofene 3H with a specific activity of 0.925 TBq (25 Ci/mM) are also described

  13. Anti depressant activity of Mamsyadi Kwatha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.

    Shreevathsa, M; Ravishankar, B; Dwivedi, Rambabu

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a psychiatric condition in which there is loss of interest in all pleasurable outlets, viz. food, sex, work, friends, hobbies and entertainment. The prevalence rate of the disease is 6-8% in women and 3-5% in men. Ayurveda, the science of life, provides systematic management principles for depression. Mamsyadi Kwatha is one such formulation stated by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya in Siddha Yoga Sangraha and Bheshaja Samhita, which is said to be effective in psychiatric conditions. The ingredients are Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Ashwagandh (Withania somnifera) and Parasika Yavani (Hyocymus niger) in an 8:4:1 ratio, respectively. The test drug was subjected for antidepressant activity in experimental models. The models selected for anti depressant activity were behavioral despair test, anti-reserpine test and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) test in albino mice. The test formulation showed significant inhibition of behavioural despair (P depressant activity. PMID:24049416

  14. A Novel LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit to Compensate the Electronic Degradation for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Ching-Lin Fan; Fan-Ping Tseng; Hui-Lung Lai; Bo-Jhang Sun; Kuang-Chi Chao; Yi-Chiung Chen

    2013-01-01

    A novel pixel driving circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays with low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) is studied. The proposed compensation pixel circuit is driven by voltage programming scheme, which is composed of five TFTs and one capacitor, and has been certified to provide uniform output current by the Automatic Integrated Circuit Modeling Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (AIM-SPICE) simulator. The...

  15. Molecular modeling and snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibition by phenolic compounds: Structure-activity relationship.

    Alam, Md Iqbal; Alam, Mohammed A; Alam, Ozair; Nargotra, Amit; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Koul, Surrinder

    2016-05-23

    In our earlier study, we have reported that a phenolic compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde from Janakia arayalpatra root extract was active against Viper and Cobra envenomations. Based on the structure of this natural product, libraries of synthetic structurally variant phenolic compounds were studied through molecular docking on the venom protein. To validate the activity of eight selected compounds, we have tested them in in vivo and in vitro models. The compound 21 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde), 22 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) and 35 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylalcohol) were found to be active against venom-induced pathophysiological changes. The compounds 20, 15 and 35 displayed maximum anti-hemorrhagic, anti-lethal and PLA2 inhibitory activity respectively. In terms of SAR, the presence of a formyl group in conjunction with a phenolic group was seen as a significant contributor towards increasing the antivenom activity. The above observations confirmed the anti-venom activity of the phenolic compounds which needs to be further investigated for the development of new anti-snake venom leads. PMID:26986086

  16. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129. ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  17. The mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 directly activates neurons.

    Michael Schemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compound 48/80 is widely used in animal and tissue models as a "selective" mast cell activator. With this study we demonstrate that compound 48/80 also directly activates enteric neurons and visceral afferents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used in vivo recordings from extrinsic intestinal afferents together with Ca(++ imaging from primary cultures of DRG and nodose neurons. Enteric neuronal activation was examined by Ca(++ and voltage sensitive dye imaging in isolated gut preparations and primary cultures of enteric neurons. Intraluminal application of compound 48/80 evoked marked afferent firing which desensitized on subsequent administration. In egg albumen-sensitized animals, intraluminal antigen evoked a similar pattern of afferent activation which also desensitized on subsequent exposure to antigen. In cross-desensitization experiments prior administration of compound 48/80 failed to influence the mast cell mediated response. Application of 1 and 10 µg/ml compound 48/80 evoked spike discharge and Ca(++ transients in enteric neurons. The same nerve activating effect was observed in primary cultures of DRG and nodose ganglion cells. Enteric neuron cultures were devoid of mast cells confirmed by negative staining for c-kit or toluidine blue. In addition, in cultured enteric neurons the excitatory action of compound 48/80 was preserved in the presence of histamine H(1 and H(2 antagonists. The mast cell stabilizer cromolyn attenuated compound 48/80 and nicotine evoked Ca(++ transients in mast cell-free enteric neuron cultures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed direct excitatory action of compound 48/80 on enteric neurons and visceral afferents. Therefore, functional changes measured in tissue or animal models may involve a mast cell independent effect of compound 48/80 and cromolyn.

  18. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds.

    Forthal, Donald N; Phan, Tran B; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Landucci, Gary; Chu, Hencelyn; Elofsson, Mikael; Peterson, Ellena

    2012-10-01

    Salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds have been shown to inhibit bacterial pathogens, including Chlamydia and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. If such compounds could also target HIV-1, their potential use as topical microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted infections would be considerable. In this study, the in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity, cytotoxicity and mechanism of action of several salicylidene acylhydrazides were determined. Inhibitory activity was assessed using TZM-bl cells and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as targets for HIV-1 infection. Antiviral activity was measured against cell-free and cell-associated virus and in vaginal fluid and semen simulants. Since the antibacterial activity of salicylidene acylhydrazides is reversible by Fe(2+), the ability of Fe(2+) and other cations to reverse the anti-HIV-1 activity of the compounds was determined. Real-time PCR was also employed to determine the stage affected in the HIV-1 replication cycle. Four compounds with 50% inhibitory concentrations against HIV-1 of 1-7 μM were identified. In vitro toxicity varied but was generally limited. Activity was similar against three R5 clade B primary isolates and whether the target for virus replication was TZM-bl cells or PBMCs. Compounds inhibited cell-free and cell-associated virus and were active in vaginal fluid and semen simulants. Fe(2+), but not other cations, reversed the anti-HIV-1 effect. Finally, the inhibitory effect of the compounds occurred at a post-integration step. In conclusion, salicylidene acylhydrazides were identified with in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity in the micromolar range. The activity of these compounds against other sexually transmitted pathogens makes them potential candidates to formulate for use as a broad-spectrum topical genital microbicide. PMID:22819150

  19. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts.

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2012-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22 h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. They were also analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the diphenyl picrylhydrazyl method and the β-carotene linoleate model assay. Moreover, the effects of different crude olive leaf extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 40°C and sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (10% o/w) at 37°C, at a final concentration of crude extract 200 mg kg(-1) oil, were tested and compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene. PMID:22060136

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT THIOSEMICARBAZONE COMPOUNDS AGAINST MICROBIAL PATHOGENS

    Negi Parul; Nandy Subhangkar; Mahato Arun

    2012-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazone belongs to a large group of thiourea derivatives, whose biological activities are a function of parent aldehyde or ketone moiety. They have been evaluated over the last 50 year as antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, leprosy, rheumatism, trypanosomiasis and coccidiodis. Thiosemicarbazones were prepared by simple process in which N4-thiosemicarbazone moiety was replaced by aliphatic, arylic and cyclic amines. Present study reported the anti-microbia...

  1. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A.; Felczykowska, A.; Hohlfeld, N.; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A.; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    isolated by Histopaque™ (Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, USA) flotation. Isolated PBMC were stained supravitally with fluorescent CFSE (Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester) dye according to the method described by Witkowski (2008), re-suspended in culture..., from bacteria and viruses to aquatic animals (Rohrlack et al., 2004; Sedmak et al., 2008; Sønstebø & Rohrlack, 2011). As many cyanobacterial products are characterized by a unique biological activity, they have become a focus of high interest...

  2. Solubility Prediction of Active Pharmaceutical Compounds with the UNIFAC Model

    Nouar, Abderrahim; Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Koutchoukali, Mohamed Salah

    2016-03-01

    The crystallization from solution of an active pharmaceutical ingredient requires the knowledge of the solubility in the entire temperature range investigated during the process. However, during the development of a new active ingredient, these data are missing. Its experimental determination is possible, but tedious. UNIFAC Group contribution method Fredenslund et al. (Vapor-liquid equilibria using UNIFAC: a group contribution method, 1977; AIChE J 21:1086, 1975) can be used to predict this physical property. Several modifications on this model have been proposed since its development in 1977, modified UNIFAC of Dortmund Weidlich et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 26:1372, 1987), Gmehling et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 32:178, 1993), Pharma-modified UNIFAC Diedrichs et al. (Evaluation und Erweiterung thermodynamischer Modelle zur Vorhersage von Wirkstofflöslichkeiten, PhD Thesis, 2010), KT-UNIFAC Kang et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 41:3260, 2002), ldots In this study, we used UNIFAC model by considering the linear temperature dependence of interaction parameters as in Pharma-modified UNIFAC and structural groups as defined by KT-UNIFAC first-order model. More than 100 binary datasets were involved in the estimation of interaction parameters. These new parameters were then used to calculate activity coefficient and solubility of some molecules in various solvents at different temperatures. The model gives better results than those from the original UNIFAC and shows good agreement between the experimental solubility and the calculated one.

  3. Global emissions and models of photochemically active compounds

    Anthropogenic emissions from industrial activity, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning are now known to be large enough (relative to natural sources) to perturb the chemistry of vast regions of the troposphere. A goal of the IGAC Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) is to provide authoritative and reliable emissions inventories on a 1 degree x 1 degree grid. When combined with atmospheric photochemical models, these high quality emissions inventories may be used to predict the concentrations of major photochemical products. Comparison of model results with measurements of pertinent species allows us to understand whether there are major shortcomings in our understanding of tropospheric photochemistry, the budgets and transport of trace species, and their effects in the atmosphere. Through this activity, we are building the capability to make confident predictions of the future consequences of anthropogenic emissions. This paper compares IGAC recommended emissions inventories for reactive nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to those that have been in use previously. We also present results from the three-dimensional LLNL atmospheric chemistry model that show how emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides might potentially affect tropospheric ozone and OH concentrations and how emissions of anthropogenic sulfur increase sulfate aerosol loadings

  4. Leishmanicidal and cholinesterase inhibiting activities of phenolic compounds from Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera.

    Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Weniger, Bernard; Devkota, Krishna Prasad; Ngoupayo, Joseph; Kaiser, Marcel; Naz, Qamar; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Tsamo, Etienne; Sewald, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In a preliminary antiprotozoal screening of several Clusiaceae species, the methanolic extracts of Allanblackia monticola and Symphonia globulifera showed high in vitro leishmanicidal activity. Further bioguided phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of four benzophenones: guttiferone A (1), garcinol (2), cambogin (3) and guttiferone F (4), along with three xanthones: allanxanthone A (5), xanthone V1 (6) and globulixanthone C (7) as active constituents. Compounds 1 and 6 were isolated from S. globulifera leaves, while compounds 2-5 were obtained from A. monticola fruits. Guttiferone A (1) and F (4) showed particulary strong leishmanicidal activity in vitro, with IC50 values (0.2 microM and 0.16 microM, respectively) comparable to that of the reference compound, miltefosine (0.46 microM). Although the leishmanicidal activity is promising, the cytotoxicity profile of these compounds prevent at this state further in vivo biological evaluation. In addition, all the isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their anticholinesterase properties. The four benzophenones showed potent anticholinesterase properties towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (AChE). For AChE, the IC50 value (0.66 microM) of garcinol (2) was almost equal to that of the reference compound galanthamine (0.50 microM). Furthermore, guttiferone A (1) and guttiferone F (4) (IC50 = 2.77 and 3.50 microM, respectively) were more active than galanthamine (IC50 = 8.5) against BChE. PMID:17960072

  5. Olive oils from Algeria: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Laincer, F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against six bacteria of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from eleven Algerian varieties were investigated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determining the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS.+ radicals. The antimicrobial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on human harmful and foodborne pathogens. The results show that total phenols was significantly (p .+ radicals (r = 0.76. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and to a lesser extent B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results reveal that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.Se ha estudiado la composición fenólica y las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, contra seis bacterias, de extractos de aceites de oliva de once variedades argelinas. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante la determinación del efecto captador de radicales de DPPH y ABTS.+. La actividad antimicrobiana se midió como zona de inhibición y como concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC sobre bacterias perjudiciales humanas y agentes patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los fenoles totales está significativamente (p .+ (r= 0,76. Entre las bacterias ensayadas, S. aureus y, en menor grado B. subtilis mostraron la mayor sensibilidad; el MIC varió de 0,6 a 1,6 mg·mL-1 y 1,2 a 1,8 mg·mL-1 respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que los aceites de oliva argelinos pueden constituir una buena fuente de antioxidantes y agentes antimicrobianos.

  6. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical compounds of snake fruit (Salacca Zalacca)

    Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).

  7. Activated phosphors having matrices of yttrium-transition metal compound

    De Kalb, E.L.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-07-01

    A method is described for preparing a phosphor composition containing a lanthanide activator element with a host matrix having a transition element as a major component. The host matrix is composed of certain rare earth phosphates or vanadates such as YPO$sub 4$ with a portion of the rare earth replaced with one or more of the transition elements. On x-ray or other electromagnetic excitation, trace lanthanide impurities or additives within the phosphor are spectrometrically determined from their characteristic luminescence. (auth)

  8. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and...

  9. Oxidation of pharmaceutically active compounds by a ligninolytic fungal peroxidase.

    Eibes, Gemma; Debernardi, Gianfranco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, M Teresa; Lema, Juan M

    2011-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals are an important group of emerging pollutants with increasing interest due to their rising consumption and the evidence for ecotoxicological effects associated to trace amounts in aquatic environments. In this paper, we assessed the potential degradation of a series of pharmaceuticals: antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole), antidepressives (citalopram hydrobromide and fluoxetine hydrochloride), antiepileptics (carbamazepine), anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and naproxen) and estrogen hormones (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol) by means of a versatile peroxidase (VP) from the ligninolytic fungus Bjerkandera adusta. The effects of the reaction conditions: VP activity, organic acid concentration and H(2)O(2) addition rate, on the kinetics of the VP based oxidation system were evaluated. Diclofenac and estrogens were completely degraded after only 5-25 min even with a very low VP activity (10 U l(-1)). High degradation percentages (80%) were achieved for sulfamethoxazole and naproxen. Low or undetectable removal yields were observed for citalopram (up to 18%), fluoxetine (lower than 10%) and carbamazepine (not degraded). PMID:20972884

  10. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (5). Development of imaging technology in life sciences. 2. State-of-the-art automated methods for radiosynthesis of positron-emitting compounds

    It introduces the automated method for radiosynthesis of positron-emitting compounds with 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F using diagnosis by the positron emission tomography (PET). The on-column radiosynthesis using 11CH3I and 18F-produced [11C] choline, [11C] methionine and 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose. The loop labeled method, quick synthesis using microwave heating, and automation is stated. 13NH3 synthesis system, synthesis route of 11C-labeled precursors, 11CH3I gas synthesis method, a miniature module for synthesis of L-[11C] methionine/[11C] choline, three resins using on-column labeled 18F compound, three examples of chemical reactions for on-column synthesis, an automated synthesis device for [18F]FDG: TRACERlabMXFDG, flow route of [11C] methylation by loop labeled method, examples of PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis reactions by microwave heating, and change of He flow rate with the elapsed time are illustrated. (S.Y.)