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Sample records for active cold loads

  1. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    Two semiconductor active cold loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50-100-K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range of 0deg......C-50degC, and long-term stability is assessed. To this end, a test bed has been developed. This test bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design and performance are discussed. The test setup is described, and test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 77 and 56 K for the two ACLs...

  2. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2008-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range 0 50...... degrees C, and long term stability is assessed. To this end a Test Bed has been developed. This Test Bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design is briefly reviewed. The test setup is described, and preliminary test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 77 K and 55 K for the two ACLs...

  3. Performance Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2007-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency has been chosen, and the target noise temperature value is in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are to be characterized in the operating temperature...... range 0-50 degrees C, and long term stability must be assessed. To this end a Test Bed has been developed. This Test Bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design and development is discussed. The test setup is described, and preliminary test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 73 K...

  4. Performance assessment of an LNA used as active cold load

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    The EMIRAD-2 radiometer is an airborne radiometer, which has been developed for calibration and validation of the ESA/SMOS mission data, as well as for data collection for development and evaluation of models for parameter retrieval, based on radiometric L-band data. The instrument has been applied......) low noise amplifier (LNA), operated as an active cold load (ACL). This paper shows results for the ACL performance throughout several years of operation under very different conditions, and important parameters, such as stability, repeatability, and sensitivity to operating temperature variations are...

  5. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  6. Biotechnology of Cold-Active Proteases

    Tulasi Satyanarayana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of Earth’s biosphere is cold (<5 °C and inhabited by psychrophiles. Biocatalysts from psychrophilic organisms (psychrozymes have attracted attention because of their application in the ongoing efforts to decrease energy consumption. Proteinases as a class represent the largest category of industrial enzymes. There has been an emphasis on employing cold-active proteases in detergents because this allows laundry operations at ambient temperatures. Proteases have been used in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. In view of the present limited understanding and availability of cold-active proteases with diverse characteristics, it is essential to explore Earth’s surface more in search of an ideal cold-active protease. The understanding of molecular and mechanistic details of these proteases will open up new avenues to tailor proteases with the desired properties. A detailed account of the developments in the production and applications of cold-active proteases is presented in this review.

  7. Niosome-loaded cold-set whey protein hydrogels.

    Abaee, Arash; Madadlou, Ashkan

    2016-04-01

    The α-tocopherol-carrying niosomes with mean diameter of 5.7 μm were fabricated and charged into a transglutaminase-cross-linked whey protein solution that was subsequently gelled with glucono delta-lactone. Encapsulation efficiency of α-tocopherol within niosomes was ≈80% and encapsulation did not influence the radical scavenging activity of α-tocopherol. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggested formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-linkages by transglutaminase and that enzymatic cross-linking increased proteins hydrophobicity. FTIR also proposed hydrogen bonding between niosomes and proteins. Dynamic rheometry indicated that transglutaminase cross-linking and niosomes charging of the protein solution enhanced the gelation process. However, charging the cross-linked protein solution with niosomal suspension resulted in lower elastic modulus (G') of the subsequently formed gel compared with both non-cross-linked niosome-loaded and cross-linked niosome-free counterparts. Electron microscopy indicated a discontinuous network for the niosome-loaded cross-linked sample. Niosome loading into the protein gel matrix increased its swelling extent in the enzyme-free simulated gastric fluid. PMID:26593471

  8. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    Dipirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  9. Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4; PLA2) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown tissue from plants undergoing cold acclimation and/or chilling stress was investigated in a moderately cold tolerant winter wheat, a spring wheat, and a poorly cold tolerant winter wheat. Activity levels were inv...

  10. Generalized Shape and Gauge Decoupling Load Distribution Optimization Based on IGA for Tandem Cold Mill

    PENG Peng; YANG Quan

    2009-01-01

    Load distribution is the foundation of shape control and gauge control, in which it is necessary to take into account the shape control ability of TCM (tandem cold mill) for strip shape and gauge quality. First, the objective function of generalized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization was established, which considered the rolling force characteristics of the first and last stands in TCM, the relative power, and the TCM shape control ability. Then, IGA (immune genetic algorithm) was used to accomplish this multi-objective load distribution optimization for TCM. After simulation and comparison with the practical load distribution strategy in one tandem cold mill, general-ized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization on the basis of IGA approved good ability of optimizing shape control and gauge control simultaneously.

  11. Object Oriented Modeling of Thermostatically Controlled Devices for Cold Load Pick-up

    Alexandre A. Mota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During service restoration, the power level at buses can significantly differ from the one presented under steady-state conditions, demanding an amount of electric power significantly higher than the normal load. Hence, their post-outage behavior must be adequately forecasted in order to permit the development of reliable restoration plans, or to avoid inadequate actions that may lead to a subsequent shutdown of the electric power system. This problem is known in the literature as cold load pick-up and the thermostatically controlled loads can be pointed as the main responsible for this behavior. Approach: This study proposes a methodology to model the thermostatically controlled load behavior during the reenergization process, based on object oriented programming and the physical modeling of individual loads, avoiding the explicitly modeling of the electric distribution feeder. In this context, the load aggregation is also implemented using “feeder” classes in an hierarchical structure. Results: The methodology was tested considering distinct devices distributed along a hypothetical feeder and the results show the impacts of interruption duration and environmental temperature in the load behavior. Conclusion: The Cold-load phenomena can be successfully simulated based on physical parameters of thermostatically controlled loads using objectoriented programming, yielding satisfactory results. In special, the impacts of the environmental temperature in the load to be restored can be assessed in detail.

  12. Magnetic levitation for effective loading of cold cesium atoms in a crossed dipole trap

    Li, Yuqing; Feng, Guosheng; Xu, Rundong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Jizhou; Chen, Gang; Dai, Xingcan; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-05-01

    We report a detailed study of effective magnetically levitated loading of cold atoms in a crossed dipole trap: an appropriate magnetic field gradient precisely compensates for the destructive gravitational force of the atoms and an additional bias field simultaneously eliminates the antitrapping potential induced by the magnetic field gradient. The magnetic levitation is required for a large-volume crossed dipole trap to form a shallow but very effective loading potential, making it a promising method for loading and trapping more cold atoms. For cold cesium atoms in the F =3 , m F =3 state prepared by three-dimensional degenerated Raman sideband cooling, a large number of atoms ˜3.2 ×106 have been loaded into a large-volume crossed dipole trap with the help of the magnetic levitation technique. The dependence of the number of atoms loaded and trapped in the dipole trap on the magnetic field gradient and bias field, respectively, is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The optimum magnetic field gradient of 31.13 G/cm matches the theoretical value of 31.3 G/cm well. This method can be used to obtain more cold atoms or a large number of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms for many atomic species in high-field seeking states.

  13. Cold rolling technique for U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel plates with high uranium loading

    A new rolling procedure alternated between cold rolling and annealing is described The high uranium-loading U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel pates with uniform thickness of cladding ad meat are fabricated by this procedure. The fuel plates have good metallurgical bond. The minimum thickness of cladding is not less then 0. 25 mm, 7g/cm-3 equivalent uranium loading or even more can be achieved. (author)

  14. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-04-26

    Cooling apparatuses are provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The cooling apparatus includes the cold plate and a controller. The cold plate couples to one or more electronic components to be cooled, and includes an adjustable physical configuration. The controller dynamically varies the adjustable physical configuration of the cold plate based on a monitored variable associated with the cold plate or the electronic component(s) being cooled by the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the electronic component(s), and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  15. Beam heat load measurements in the cold bore superconductive undulator in ANKA

    Casalbuoni, S; Hagelstein, M; Zimmermann, F; Rossmanith, Robert; Kostka, Barbara; Mashkina, Elena; Steffens, Erhard; Bernhard, Axel; Wollmann, Daniel; Baumbach, Tilo

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the beam-induced heat load in the ANKA cold-bore superconductive undulator are summarized. The strength of the two dominating effects, resistive wall heating and heating by electron bombardment, depends on the beam parameters and the gap width.

  16. Evidence for production of tritium via cold fusion reactions in deuterium gas loaded in palladium (Paper No. B4)

    Experiments were conducted to observe cold fusion reaction in deuterium gas loaded palladium. Two types of palladium samples were used. One was commercially procured palladium-silver alloy without any surface treatment and the other was palladium black powder prepared from PdCl2. Deuterium absorption by the powder was very fast, but the same was slow in the alloy. The loading procedure was first to heat the sample to 600degC for two hours under vacuum of better than 10-5mm, cooling to room temperature followed by contact with deuterium gas at 1 atm. and finally keeping for equilibration for several hours in atmosphere free of both moisture and oxygen. Samples were then kept in contact with distilled water for a few hours to extract tritium by isotopic exchange into the water. Tritium activity was measured by liquid scintillation counting. Tritium/deuterium ratio was found to be two-three times more in the case of Pd-Ag foils as compared to Pd powder. The ratio is in the range 10-12 to 10-11 which is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that in the initial deuterium gas used for loading. Autoradiographs of Pd-Ag foils loaded with deuterium showed fogging due to tritium betas. These observations show that deuterium loading of Pd also induces cold fusion in Pd lattice. (M.G.B.). 5 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  17. Optimal component loading in 1-out-of-N cold standby systems

    This paper considers the optimal choice of productivity (load) of components in 1-out-of-N non-repairable cold standby systems. It is assumed that each system component can function at different levels of productivity (load) and that the life time acceleration factor as well as operational and replacement costs of each component are affected by its productivity. We present a model for evaluating the standby system reliability and expected mission cost. Furthermore, we formulate and solve the optimal load distribution problems in which the mission cost is minimized subject to system reliability constraint. Both fixed and variable sequences of component initiation are considered. Illustrative examples are provided

  18. Simulation of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider

    Maury Cuna, Humberto; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The heat load due to the electron cloud in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cold arcs is a concern for its performance near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, which examine the electron-cloud induced heat load for different values of low-energy electron reflectivity and secondary emission yield at injection energy, as well as at beam energies of 4 TeV and 7 TeV, for two different bunch spacing: 25 ns and 50 ns. Benchmarking the simulations against heat-load observations at different beam energies and bunch spacings allows an estimate of the secondary emission yield in the cold arcs of the LHC and of its evolution as a function of time.

  19. Development of Cold Neutron Activation Station at HANARO Cold Neutron Source

    A new cold neutron source at the HANARO Research Reactor had been constructed in the framework of a five-year project, and ended in 2009. It has seven neutron guides, among which five guides were already allocated for a number of neutron scattering instruments. A new two-year project to develop a Cold Neutron Activation Station (CONAS) was carried out at the two neutron guides since May 2010, which was supported by the program of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Korea. Fig. 1 shows the location of CONAS. CONAS is a complex facility including several radioanalytical instruments utilizing neutron capture reaction to analyze elements in a sample. It was designed to include three instruments like a CN-PGAA (Cold Neutron - Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis), a CN-NIPS (Cold Neutron - Neutron Induced Pair Spectrometer), and a CN-NDP (Cold Neutron - Neutron-induced prompt charged particle Depth Profiling). Fig. 2 shows the conceptual configuration of the CONAS concrete bioshield and the instruments. CN-PGAA and CN-NIPS measure the gamma-rays promptly emitted from the sample after neutron capture, whereas CN-NDP is a probe to measure the charged particles emitted from the sample surface after neutron capture. For this, we constructed two cold neutron guides called CG1 and CG2B guides from the CNS

  20. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  1. Cold Thermal Storage and Peak Load Reduction for Office Buildings in Saudi Arabia

    Nabil Y.Abdel-Shafi; Ramzy R.Obaid; Ibrahim M.Jomoah

    2014-01-01

    This paper involves the investigations of the chilled water and ice cold thermal storage technologies along with the associated operating strategies for the air conditioning (AC) systems of the typical office buildings in Saudi Arabia, so as to reduce the electricity energy consumption during the peak load periods. In Saudi Arabia, the extensive use of AC for indoor cooling in offices composes a large proportion of the annual peak electricity demand. The very high temperatures over long summer periods, extending from May to October, and the low cost of energy are the key factors in the wide and extensive use of air conditioners in the kingdom. This intense cooling load adds up to the requirement increase in the capacity of power plants, which makes them under utilized during the off-peak periods. Thermal energy storage techniques are one of the effective demand-side energy management methods. Systems with cold storage shifts all or part of the electricity requirement from peak hours to off-peak hours to reduce demand charges and/or take advantage of off-peak rates. The investigations reveal that the cold thermal energy storage techniques are effective from both technical and economic perspectives in the reduction of energy consumption in the buildings during peak periods.

  2. Cold crucible vitrification of SRS SB4 waste at high waste loadings - 16197

    The test on determination of maximized waste loading was performed at the Radon bench-scale facility equipped with a 236 mm inner diameter cold crucible. Waste surrogate was vitrified using a commercially available Frit 503-R4 (in wt.%: 8 Li2O, 16 B2O3, 76 SiO2). Waste loading ranged between ∼45 and 70 wt.%. Viscosity of the melt with 50 wt.% waste loading remained lower that 100 Poise (maximum value for glass melting) even at temperatures below 1300 deg. C. Electric resistivity value for this glass allowed electric melting at temperatures of 1100-1150 deg. C and higher. Melt viscosity increased with the increase of waste loading and glass with 60 wt.% waste loading had appropriate viscosity for melting at temperatures over 1350 deg. C. This glass was much 'shorter' than the glass with 50 wt.% waste loading. Its electric resistivity at the same temperature was higher than that of glass with 50 wt.% waste loading and allowed this glass to be produced at temperatures 1250 deg. C and lower, but the high viscosity was a restricting factor and this glass required temperatures ∼1400 deg. C and over to be produced. The melt with 70 wt.% waste loading was too inhomogeneous and viscous and its viscosity and electric resistivity could not be measured precisely. As a result the glasses with 70 and 60 wt.% waste loadings required melting temperature as high as 1350-1400 deg. C whereas the glass with 50 wt.% waste loading may be produced at 1150-1250 deg. C. Wet slurry (∼50 and ∼70 wt.% water content) in the amount of 625.1 kg was processed and glass in the amount of 186.6 kg was produced and poured into 12 canisters for 91 hrs. Average slurry feed rate, glass productivity and specific glass productivity were 6.86 kg/hr, 2.16 kg/hr, and 68.8 kg/(m2xhr) respectively. (authors)

  3. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  4. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T [Space Environment Physics Group, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Solanki, S K, E-mail: m.lockwood@reading.ac.uk [MPI fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  5. A liquid-helium-cooled absolute reference cold load for long-wavelength radiometric calibration

    Bensadoun, Marc; Witebsky, Chris; Smoot, George; De Amici, Giovanni; Kogut, AL; Levin, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Design, radiometric and thermal performance, and operation of a large diameter (78 cm) liquid-helium-cooled blackbody absolute reference cold load (CL) for the calibration of microwave radiometers is described. CL provides an absolute calibration near the liquid-helium (LHe) boiling point, with total uncertainty in the radiometric temperature of less than 30 mK over the 2.5-23 cm wavelength operating range. CL was used at several wavelengths at the South Pole, Antarctica and the White Mountain Research Center, California. Results show that, for the instruments operated at 20-, 12-, 7.9-, and 4.0 cm wavelength at the South Pole, the total corrections to the LHe boiling-point temperature (about 3.8 K) were 48 +/-23, 18 +/-10, 10 +/-18, and 15 +/-mK.

  6. Basic study of cold fusion. 2. Development of the measurement system of deuterium loading ratio in palladium cathode

    A measurement system of deuterium loading ratio in the palladium cathode, which is one of the most important factors for cold fusion phenomena, especially excess heat generation, has been introduced to the simultaneous measurement device of heat, neutron and gamma-ray of heavy water electrolysis that had been developed. Pressure of the gas phase in the closed electrolysis cell and electro-conductivity of the palladium cathode were measured to calculate the deuterium loading ratio. The measured ratio by means of each method is adequate compared with the reported results, and turned out to reach approximately 0.87. Simultaneous and continuous measurement of deuterium loading ratio with heat and neutron made reproduction of the situation of cold fusion phenomena and precision measurement of the heat generation possible. (author)

  7. Effect of cold work and type of load in the SCC behaviour of austenitic stainless steels in PWR conditions

    Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in high temperature water, even in reducing environment such as the PWR primary water. Both laboratory results and field evidences confirm that stainless steels are susceptible to SCC when these materials are in a cold work condition. CGR experiments have been performed in order to assess the factors influencing SCC propagation in stainless steels. Compact tension specimens were fabricated of 316 L, 304 L and 347 SS to evaluate the influence of degree of cold work and its way of application, water chemistry, temperature and loading conditions. (authors)

  8. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  9. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Edwards, Louise O. V.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R.; Quillen, Alice C.; Urry, C. Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S.; Wise, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds—a departure from the ‘hot mode’ accretion model—although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy’s centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing ‘shadows’ cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  10. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it. PMID:27279215

  11. Post cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; J. E. Olesen; Porter, J R

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage.Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold storage warming-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations in DEA following cold storage, suggesting a need to consider conditioning time when planning and interpreting results.

  12. Integrin activation by a cold atmospheric plasma jet

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. In this paper, we explore potential mechanisms by which CAP alters cell migration and influences cell adhesion. We focus on the study of CAP interaction with fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells. The data show that fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells have different thresholds (treatment times) required to achieve maximum inhibition of cell migration. Both cell types reduced their migration rates by ∼30-40% after CAP compared to control cells. Also, the impact of CAP treatment on cell migration and persistence of fibroblasts after integrin activation by MnCl2, serum starvation or replating cells onto surfaces coated with integrin ligands is assessed; the results show that activation by MnCl2 or starvation attenuates cells’ responses to plasma. Studies carried out to assess the impact of CAP treatment on the activation state of β1 integrin and focal adhesion size by using immunofluorescence show that fibroblasts have more active β1 integrin on their surface and large focal adhesions after CAP treatment. Based on these data, a thermodynamic model is presented to explain how CAP leads to integrin activation and focal adhesion assembly. (paper)

  13. Synthesis of monoacylglycerol containing pinolenic acid via stepwise esterification using a cold active lipase.

    Pyo, Young-Gil; Hong, Seung In; Kim, Yangha; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, In-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    High purity monoacylglycerol (MAG) containing pinolenic acid was synthesized via stepwise esterification of glycerol and fatty acids from pine nut oil using a cold active lipase from Penicillium camembertii as a biocatalyst. Effects of temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, and vacuum on the synthesis of MAG by lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid from pine nut oil were investigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) as well as MAG increased significantly when temperature was increased from 20 to 40 °C. At a molar ratio of 1:1, MAG content decreased because of the significant increase in DAG content. Water has a profound influence on both MAG and DAG content through the entire course of reaction. The reaction rate increased significantly as enzyme loading increased up to 600 units. Vacuum was an effective method to reduce DAG content. The optimum temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, vacuum, and reaction time were 20 °C, 1:5 (fatty acid to glycerol), 2%, 600 units, 5 torr, and 24 h, respectively. MAG content further increased via lipase-catalyzed second step esterification at subzero temperature. P. camembertii lipase exhibited esterification activity up to -30 °C. PMID:22753389

  14. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.; Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Jonsson, N.G.

    2006-01-01

    The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase...... the contact surface of the transducer, to be larger than the arc of contact. This is in contrast to the smaller and smaller contact pin design that has been prevailing. The measurements were conducted during cold dry rolling of both copper strips and stainless steel strips in a pilot mill. The...

  15. Purification and Characterization of Cold-active α-Amylase Excreted by A Strain of Marine Cold-adaptive Penicillia

    WANG Tian-hong; ZHANG Gang; HOU Yun-hua

    2004-01-01

    The filamentous fungi from the Huanghai sea sludge were screened according to their ability to produce cold-active α-amylase. The strain with the highest amylase activity was identified as Penicillium species. The α-amylase purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography on DEAE-sepharose and sephadex G-100 shows a molecular weight of about 55000 and a pI of 4.38. The enzyme is stable in a pH range of 5.5-8.0 and has a maximum activity at pH 6.0. Compared with the α-amylase from mesophiles and thermophiles, the cold-active enzyme shows a high enzyme activity at lower temperatures and a high sensitivity at temperatures higher than 50 ℃. The optimal temperature is 40 ℃ and the activity decreases dramatically at temperatures above 50 ℃. Ca2+ shows a significant effect on maintaining the structure and the activity of the enzyme. EDTA and Cu2+ are its inhibitors. The products from the hydrolysis of soluble starch with the cold-active enzyme are maltose and other oligosaccharides.

  16. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  17. Use Of Ultra Violet Light (UV-C) To Reduce Possible Microbial Potential In Cold Storage Rooms Loaded With Sweet Potatoes For Exportation

    Irradiation with Ultraviolet-c (UV-C) light (254 nm) was applied on sweet potatoes (cv. Abees) as well as the major recovered organisms that are accounted as contaminants in either the internal atmosphere or on sweet potato tuber roots loaded in cold storage room set at 17 degree C and 65-70% RH for 3 months. The captured types of microorganisms from either the internal atmosphere of cold storage room or surfaces of sweet potato tuber roots were fungi, yeast and bacteria with the greatest percentage of fungi that recorded 90% and 70%, respectively. The major individuals of recovered fungi were Penicillium spp., Alternaria alternata, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus spp., Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium sp. in descending order of their existence percentages. Upon exposure, the internal atmosphere to UV-C light for one, two and three hours inside cold storage room, a significant reduction of the total number of different types of organisms was obtained with the greatest effect for the three hour-exposure time. Exposure of sweet potatoes to UV-C light at three exposure times (1, 2 and 3 hr) and stored in cold rooms for one month caused a reduction of rot percentages upon natural infection conditions with a full reduction (0 %) when irradiated for 3 hr at the same conditions. Rot percentages were decreased as the exposure time increased. Fruit characteristics in terms of tuber root firmness, shrinking and blemishing of irradiated tuber roots were remarkably maintained than which of the non irradiated ones. UV-C light caused a significant increase in phenol contents in tuber root tissue, while a reverse effect in sugar content was detected; such effects were correlated increasingly or decreasingly with the increase of exposure time. The activity of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase or poly phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzymes in irradiated tuber root tissues were significantly enhanced as the exposure time increased

  18. Results of a 50% Waste Loading Vitrification Test Using the Cold Crucible Melter for Savannah River Site Waste

    The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) is a promising alternative compared to the Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) reference technology for vitrification of high level radioactive waste (HLW). Successful tests with 45 wt.% waste loading in the glass facilitated the transition to the third task of the work with waste loading increased to 50 wt.%. The third test was performed using the Radon full-scale vitrification plant equipped with a new cylindrical cold crucible with an inner diameter of 418 mm. Average glass pour rate (average amount of glass poured per 1 hour of run) and specific glass pour rate (average pour rate per melter surface area) reached 16.2 kg/h and ∼118.2 kg/(m2h), respectively. Neither formation of sulfate/chloride salts ('yellow phase') nor melt foaming were observed. Occurrence of a spinel-type phase in the glass didn't reduce chemical durability of the glass. Product Consistency Testing (PCT) demonstrated that leaching of lithium, boron, sodium and silicon from glass samples produced in the CCIM were 15 to 30 times lower than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used for waste form repository acceptance. (authors)

  19. Breakdown of adiabaticity when loading ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices

    Zakrzewski, Jakub; Delande, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Realistic simulations of current ultra-cold atoms experiments in optical lattices show that the ramping up of the optical lattice is significantly nonadiabatic, implying that experimentally prepared Mott insulators are not really in the ground state of the atomic system. The nonadiabaticity is even larger in the presence of a secondary quasi-periodic lattice simulating "disorder". Alternative ramping schemes are suggested that improve the adiabaticity when the disorder is not too large.

  20. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather: Preprint

    Jeffers, Matthew; Chaney, Lawrence; Rugh, John

    2016-03-31

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  1. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather

    Jeffers, Matthew A.; Chaney, Larry; Rugh, John P.

    2016-04-01

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  2. Cold Season Ground Validation Activities in support of GPM

    Hudak, D. R.; Petersen, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    A fundamental component of the next-generation global precipitation data products that will be addressed by the GPM mission is the hydrologic cycle at higher latitudes. In this respect, falling snow represents a primary contribution to regional atmospheric and terrestrial water budgets. The current study provides provide information on the precipitation microphysics and processes associated with cold season precipitation and precipitating cloud systems across multiple scales. It also addresses the ability of in-situ ground-based sensors as well as multi-frequency active and passive microwave sensors to detect and estimate falling snow, and more generally to contribute to our knowledge and understanding of the complete global water cycle. The work supports the incorporation of appropriate physics into GPM snowfall retrieval algorithms and the development of improved ground validation techniques for GPM product evaluation. Important information for developing GPM falling snow retrieval algorithms will be provided by a field campaign that took place in the winter of 2011/12 in the Great Lakes area of North America, termed the GPM Cold Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx). GCPEx represented a collaboration among the NASA, Environment Canada (EC), the Canadian Space Agency and several US, Canadian and European universities. The data collection strategy for GCPEx was coordinated, stacked high-altitude and in-situ cloud aircraft missions sampling within a broader network of ground-based volumetric observations and measurements. The NASA DSC-8 research aircraft provided a platform for the downward-viewing dual-frequency radar and multi-frequency radiometer observations. The University of North Dakota Citation and the Canadian NRC Convair-580 aircraft provided in-situ profiles of cloud and precipitation microphysics using a suite of optical array probes and bulk measurement instrumentation. Ground sampling was focused about a densely-instrumented central location that is

  3. Synergistic Effect of Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Drug Loaded Core-shell Nanoparticles on Inhibiting Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    Zhu, Wei; Lee, Se-Jun; Castro, Nathan J.; Yan, Dayun; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Nano-based drug delivery devices allowing for effective and sustained targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors have revolutionized cancer treatment. As an emerging biomedical technique, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ionized non-thermal gas mixture composed of various reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and UV photons, shows great potential for cancer treatment. Here we seek to develop a new dual cancer therapeutic method by integrating promising CAP and novel drug loaded core-shell nanoparticles and evaluate its underlying mechanism for targeted breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via co-axial electrospraying. Biocompatible poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) was selected as the polymer shell to encapsulate anti-cancer therapeutics. Results demonstrated uniform size distribution and high drug encapsulation efficacy of the electrosprayed nanoparticles. Cell studies demonstrated the effectiveness of drug loaded nanoparticles and CAP for synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell growth when compared to each treatment separately. Importantly, we found CAP induced down-regulation of metastasis related gene expression (VEGF, MTDH, MMP9, and MMP2) as well as facilitated drug loaded nanoparticle uptake which may aid in minimizing drug resistance-a major problem in chemotherapy. Thus, the integration of CAP and drug encapsulated nanoparticles provides a promising tool for the development of a new cancer treatment strategy. PMID:26917087

  4. Analysis of the effects of rising temperature for embankments under seismic loads in cold regions

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature rising for frozen soil because of dynamic load was investigated by indoor tests.Roadway and railway embankments are always loaded by dynamic loads such as earthquakes and vehicles.Because the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is a re-gion where earthquakes occur frequently,it is essential to consider the temperature-rising effect of earthquakes or vehicles on railway and road embankment.In this paper and according to the theories of heat transfer and dynamic equilibrium equations,as-suming frozen soil as thermal elastic-viscoplastic material,taking the combination of thermal and mechanical stresses into account,we present the numerical formulae of this dynamic problem,and the computer program of the two-dimensional finite element is written.Using the program,the dynamic response analyses for embankments loaded by earthquake are worked out.Analysis in-dicated that the temperature-rising effect result from earthquakes for embankment in nonuniform distribution in some small areas,the maximum rising temperature is 0.16 ?C for consideration in this paper.

  5. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

    Andrew David Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  6. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations in...

  7. Ciguatoxins activate specific cold pain pathways to elicit burning pain from cooling

    Vetter, Irina; Touska, Filip; Hess, Andreas; Hinsbey, Rachel; Sattler, Simon; Lampert, Angelika; Sergejeva, Marina; Sharov, Anastasia; Collins, Lindon S; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Engel, Matthias; Cabot, Peter J.; Wood, John N; Vlachová, Viktorie; Reeh, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Ciguatoxins derived from fish lead to cold allodynia in humans, the perception of intense burning pain in response to mild cooling. A novel mouse model of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia reveals that ciguatoxin activates the TRPA1 thermosensitive ion channel to mediate pain perception.

  8. Shear strength developments during shock loading in tantalum alloys: Effects of cold work and alloying

    The development of shear strength behind the shock front in tantalum alloys of 2.5 and 10 wt% tungsten has been monitored by the use of laterally mounted stress gauges. Results show that in common with pure tantalum, shear strength decreases behind the shock front. At 2.5 wt%, we believe that tungsten modifies the mechanical response by mitigating the effects of interstitial solute atoms, thus easing dislocation motion, as evidenced by the smaller reduction in shear strength compared to pure tantalum. At higher tungsten levels, it would appear that this is overcome by an overall increase in Peierls stress, which renders dislocation motion more difficult, thus giving the alloy a response more in common with that of the pure metal. Cold rolling of the 2.5% W alloy also appears to increase shear strength reduction behind the shock front (compared to the annealed alloy), although at present the reasons for this are unclear.

  9. Continuous loading of cold atoms into a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap

    Schmidt, P O; Werner, J; Binhammer, T; Görlitz, A; Pfau, T; Schmidt, Piet O.; Hensler, Sven; Werner, Joerg; Binhammer, Thomas; Goerlitz, Axel; Pfau, Tilman

    2002-01-01

    We present a robust continuous optical loading scheme for a Ioffe-Pritchard (IP) type magnetic trap. Atoms are cooled and trapped in a modified magneto-optical trap (MOT) consisting of a conventional 2D-MOT in radial direction and an axial molasses. The radial magnetic field gradient needed for the operation of the 2D-MOT is provided by the IP trap. A small axial curvature and offset field provide magnetic confinement and suppress spin-flip losses in the center of the magnetic trap without altering the performance of the 2D-MOT. Continuous loading of atoms into the IP trap is provided by radiative leakage from the MOT to a metastable level which is magnetically trapped and decoupled from the MOT light. We are able to accumulate 30 times more atoms in the magnetic trap than in the MOT. The absolute number of $2\\times 10^8$~atoms is limited by inelastic collisions. A model based on rate equations shows good agreement with our data. Our scheme can also be applied to other atoms with similar level structure like ...

  10. Evidence of paleo-cold seep activity from the Bay of Bengal, offshore India

    Mazumdar, A.; Dewangan, P.; Joao, H.M.; Peketi, A.; Khosla, V.R.; Kocherla, M.; Badesab, F.K.; Joshi, R.K.; Roxanne, P.; Ramamurty, P.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Patil, D.J.; Dayal, A.M.; Ramprasad, T.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Avanzinelli, R.

    Evidence of paleo–cold seep associated activities, preserved in methane-derived carbonates in association with chemosynthetic clams (Calyptogena sp.) from a sediment core in the Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal is reported. Visual observations...

  11. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in sputum and nasal fluids increases in asthmatics during common colds

    Cho, Seong H.; Hong, Seung J.; Chen, Haimei; Habib, Ali; Cho, David; Lee, Sun H.; Kang, Joseph; Ward, Theresa; Boushey, Homer A.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Avila, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Capsule Summary This study showed that sputum and nasal lavage levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) rise during a common cold in asthmatic patients. This rise may contribute to the progression of airway remodeling. PMID:24373352

  12. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Tremblay, Grant R; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of c...

  13. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecul...

  14. Production of Cold-Active Bacterial Lipases through Semisolid State Fermentation Using Oil Cakes

    Babu Joseph; Supriya Upadhyaya; Pramod Ramteke

    2011-01-01

    Production of cold active lipase by semisolid state fermentation involves the use of agroindustrial residues. In the present study, semisolid state fermentation was carried out for the production of cold active lipase using Micrococcus roseus, isolated from soil samples of Gangotri glaciers, Western Himalayas. Among various substrate tested, groundnut oil cake (GOC) favored maximal yield of lipases at 15 ± 1°C within 48 h. Supplementation of glucose 1% (w/v) as additional carbon source and am...

  15. Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo

    Cypess, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Chieh; Sze, Cathy; Wang, Ke; English, Jeffrey; Chan, Onyee; Holman, Ashley R.; Tal, Ilan; Palmer, Matthew R.; Kolodny, Gerald M.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    As potential activators of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mild cold exposure and sympathomimetic drugs have been considered as treatments for obesity and diabetes, but whether they activate the same pathways is unknown. In 10 healthy human volunteers, we found that the sympathomimetic ephedrine raised blood pressure, heart rate, and energy expenditure, and increased multiple circulating metabolites, including glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones. Cold exposure also increased blood pressure and...

  16. 'Cold Crucible' vitrification project of low and high active waste

    In continuity of the CEA HLW vitrification process experienced for more than 20 years in industrial operations in Cogema French reprocessing plants (Marcoule and La Hague, France), CEA has developed an advanced extended performance glass melter to address a wider range of waste like LLW, MLW or HLW in particular waste with very corrosive species or requiring glass with high temperature of preparation. In the cold crucible melter the bath of molten glass is directly heated by induction while the walls are cooled to freeze a protective glass layer. This technology with direct heating of the glass and its outstanding resistance to corrosion allows high temperatures, and high glass throughput while keeping the flexibility, the maintainability and low secondary waste generation related to a small metallic melter. Its use in the conventional glass industry and the different pilot tests performed on inactive surrogates have already showed that cold crucible melting is a fully mature technique for successfully contributing to the final stabilisation of the waste at many nuclear facilities. SGN has therefore selected this advanced technology for different projects and facilities planned in Italy, Korea and USA. This poster presents the cold crucible technology through a short technical description of the process and the different projects in progress. Some pilot results are also given. (author)

  17. Active load equivalent for a superpower microsecond-pulse generator

    Performance, structure and results of experimental studies of an active dummy lead for super-high-power pulse generator built according to the layout of pulse modulator with capacitor energy storage are described. The active dummy load represents nonlinear artificial shaping line with 2.5 Ohm wave resistance, which gives an opportunity to shape current pulses with amplitude ≅10 kA at storage charging voltage level of 50 kV. The active dummy load application provides for regeneration of more than 50% of storage energy back into power source, and thus it allows one to decrease sufficiently the test cost

  18. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (USA) Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. {beta}-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in {beta}-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic subtype. This BAT {beta}-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial {beta}-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability.

  19. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [125I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β1- and β2-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β1-adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  20. Cold Surge Activity Over the Gulf of Mexico in a Warmer Climate

    EdgarPerezPerez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold surges are a dominant feature of midlatitude tropical interaction. During the North Hemisphere (NH winter, midlatitude waves propagating from the Rocky Mountains into the Gulf of Mexico result in cold surges, also known as Nortes or Tehuantepecers, associated with severe weather over the southern part of Mexico. The magnitude of their intense surface winds, precipitation and drops in surface temperature depends on the characteristics of the midlatitude wave propagating into the tropics. The high spatial resolution (20km X 20km version of the TL959L60-AGC Model of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan is used to examine changes in cold surge activity under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario for the 2080 - 2099 period. The model realistically reproduces the spatial and temporal characteristics of cold surges for the 1980 - 1989 control period. The effect of changes in baroclinicity, static stability and mean flow over North America suggest that in a warmer climate, increased cold surge activity over the Gulf of Mexico would occur. However, these systems would have shorter wavelength (higher phase speeds and shorter lifespans that could reduce the total amount of winter precipitation. The increased frequency of cold surges over the Gulf of Mexico would be a consequence of weaker baroclinicity and static stability in the lower troposphere over the cold surge genesis region, along with more dominant westerly winds, resulting from ENSO-like conditions in the atmospheric circulations over North America.

  1. An Overview of Active Structural Control under Seismic Loads

    Soong, T.T.; Masri, S. F.; Housner, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of active structural control as a means of structural protection against seismic loads, developed over the last 20 years, has received considerable attention in recent years. It has now reached the stage where active systems have been installed in full-scale structures. It is the purpose of this paper to provide an overview of this development with special emphasis placed on laboratory experiments using model structures and on full-scale implementation of some active control syste...

  2. Antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles.

    Lee, Ga Hyun; Lee, Sung June; Jeong, Sang Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Park, Ga Young; Lee, Se Geun; Choi, Jin Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Utilizing the biological activities of compounds by encapsulating natural components in stable nanoparticles is an important strategy for a variety of biomedical and healthcare applications. In this study, quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were synthesized using an oil-in-water microemulsion method, which is a suitable system for producing functional nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. The resulting quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in an aqueous system. Superoxide radical scavenging effects were found for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles as well as free quercetin. The quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles showed cell viability comparable to that of the controls. The amounts of proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages, such as interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, were reduced significantly for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles. These results suggest that the antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin are maintained after encapsulation in silica. Silica nanoparticles can be used for the effective and stable incorporation of biologically active natural components into composite biomaterials. PMID:27038916

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and sensory charactaristics of Nile Bolti fish during cold storage

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of varying low dose levels of gamma radiation (0.5, 1.5 and 3.OKGY on the microbiological and organoleptic properties of bolti fish (Tilapia nilotica) under post irradiation cold storage conditions (50C±1). It has been found that the maximum shelf life of fresh bolti fish does not exceed 6 days. A great reduction in the total microbial counts, psychrophilic and proteolytic bacteria could be achieved due to irradiation processes. The percentages of inactivated cells for these organisms reached 98.6% 100% and 81.7% respectively at the dose level 3.0 KGY. The values of microorganisms during storage at 50C, indicated their progressive increase and the palatability scores was going, parallel with the increase in the microbial load. The dose of 3 KGY proved to be for keeping the microbial counts at lower level during storage and hence extended the shelf life of fresh bolti fish by three times as compared with the unirradiated samples

  4. Cold Air Activities in July 2004 and Its Impact on Intense Rainfalls over Southwest China

    2007-01-01

    The severe rainfall events in the mid-summer of July 2004 and the roles of cold air in the formation of heavy precipitation are investigated by using daily observational precipitation data of China and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The results show that the severe rainfalls in Southwest China are closely related to the cold air activities from the mid-high latitudes, and the events take place under the cooperative effects of mid-high latitude circulation and low latitude synoptic regimes. It is the merging of a cold vortex over mid-latitudes with the northward landing typhoon and eastward Southwest China Vortex, as well as the abrupt transformation from a transversal trough into an upright one that causes three large alterations of mid-high atmospheric circulation respectively in the early and middle ten days of this month. Then, the amplitude of long waves soon magnifies, leading to the unusual intrusion of cold air to low-latitude areas in the mid-summer. Meanwhile, the warm and humid southwest summer monsoon is quite active. The strong interactions of cold air and summer monsoon over Southwest China result in the large-scale convective rainfalls on the southern side of cold air.With regard to the activities of cold air, it can influence rainfalls in three prominent ways. Firstly, the incursion of upper-level cold air is often accompanied by partial southerly upper-level jet. The ascending branch of the corresponding secondary circulation, which is on the left front side of the jet center, provides the favorite dynamic upward motion for the rainfalls. Secondly, the southward movement of cold air contributes to the establishment of atmospheric baroclinic structure, which would lead to baroclinic disturbances. The atmospheric disturbances associated with the intrusion of cold air can destroy the potential instability stratification, release the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and finally cause convective activities. In addition, the advection processes of dry

  5. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path...

  6. Thermogenin amount and activity in hamster brown fat mitochondria: effect of cold acclimation

    Sundin, U.; Moore, G.; Nedergaard, J.; Cannon, B.

    1987-05-01

    To investigate the acclimation process in a hibernator, four different parameters of thermogenin amount and activity were investigated in brown adipose tissue mitochondria from cold-exposed and cold-acclimated Syrian hamsters. Hamsters, which are hibernators, have been considered to be primed for thermogenesis and thus not to show cold-acclimation effects, but here a significant increase in (/sup 3/H)GDP-binding capacity was observed, and this increase was paralleled by an increase in thermogenin antigen amount, as measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The transient nature of the effect of cold exposure on (/sup 3/H)GDP binding, characteristically observed with rat mitochondria, was not observed with hamster mitochondria, and the increase in (/sup 3/H)GDP binding occurred without a change in the dissociation constant. The increase in thermogenin amount was paralleled by an increase both in GDP-sensitive Cl/sup -/ permeability of the mitochondria and in GDP-sensitive respiration. It was established that it is the maximal activity of thermogenin that is rate limiting for thermogenesis in isolated mitochondria, provided that an optimal substrate is used (such as palmitoyl carnitine). Cold acclimation also increased the total amount of mitochondria in the tissue, leading totally to a sixfold increase in thermogenin content of the hamster. It is concluded that hamsters show the expected physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical signs of cold acclimation.

  7. Thermogenin amount and activity in hamster brown fat mitochondria: effect of cold acclimation

    To investigate the acclimation process in a hibernator, four different parameters of thermogenin amount and activity were investigated in brown adipose tissue mitochondria from cold-exposed and cold-acclimated Syrian hamsters. Hamsters, which are hibernators, have been considered to be primed for thermogenesis and thus not to show cold-acclimation effects, but here a significant increase in [3H]GDP-binding capacity was observed, and this increase was paralleled by an increase in thermogenin antigen amount, as measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The transient nature of the effect of cold exposure on [3H]GDP binding, characteristically observed with rat mitochondria, was not observed with hamster mitochondria, and the increase in [3H]GDP binding occurred without a change in the dissociation constant. The increase in thermogenin amount was paralleled by an increase both in GDP-sensitive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria and in GDP-sensitive respiration. It was established that it is the maximal activity of thermogenin that is rate limiting for thermogenesis in isolated mitochondria, provided that an optimal substrate is used (such as palmitoyl carnitine). Cold acclimation also increased the total amount of mitochondria in the tissue, leading totally to a sixfold increase in thermogenin content of the hamster. It is concluded that hamsters show the expected physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical signs of cold acclimation

  8. Ciguatoxins activate specific cold pain pathways to elicit burning pain from cooling.

    Vetter, Irina; Touska, Filip; Hess, Andreas; Hinsbey, Rachel; Sattler, Simon; Lampert, Angelika; Sergejeva, Marina; Sharov, Anastasia; Collins, Lindon S; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Engel, Matthias; Cabot, Peter J; Wood, John N; Vlachová, Viktorie; Reeh, Peter W; Lewis, Richard J; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2012-10-01

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channel activator toxins that cause ciguatera, the most common form of ichthyosarcotoxism, which presents with peripheral sensory disturbances, including the pathognomonic symptom of cold allodynia which is characterized by intense stabbing and burning pain in response to mild cooling. We show that intraplantar injection of P-CTX-1 elicits cold allodynia in mice by targeting specific unmyelinated and myelinated primary sensory neurons. These include both tetrodotoxin-resistant, TRPA1-expressing peptidergic C-fibres and tetrodotoxin-sensitive A-fibres. P-CTX-1 does not directly open heterologously expressed TRPA1, but when co-expressed with Na(v) channels, sodium channel activation by P-CTX-1 is sufficient to drive TRPA1-dependent calcium influx that is responsible for the development of cold allodynia, as evidenced by a large reduction of excitatory effect of P-CTX-1 on TRPA1-deficient nociceptive C-fibres and of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia in TRPA1-null mutant mice. Functional MRI studies revealed that ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia enhanced the BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal, an effect that was blunted in TRPA1-deficient mice, confirming an important role for TRPA1 in the pathogenesis of cold allodynia. PMID:22850668

  9. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  10. Methane activation on palladium and mercury loaded solid supports

    Kataja, K.; Huuska, M.; Karinto, K.; Maijanen, A.; Reinikainen, M.; Kiviaho, J.; Hase, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Methane activation by non-radical method and especially possibilities to heterogenize the homogeneous non-radical system of Periana et al. was studied. Varied loadings of Pd and Hg were ion exchanged to acidic ZSM-5 zeolites with two different Si/A1 ratios. Activation was tested in tubular flow reactor and the outcoming gas was analyzed with quadrupole mass spectrometer. Catalysts, fresh and used, were characterized by XRF and XRD spectroscopies. The methane activation was observed on tested catalysts. However, the activation was concluded to occur mainly through radical reaction and only to some extent by the expected non-radical mechanism. (author) (9 refs.)

  11. Optimization of electrostatics as a strategy for cold-adaptation: a case study of cold- and warm-active elastases.

    Papaleo, Elena; Olufsen, Magne; De Gioia, Luca; Brandsdal, Bjørn O

    2007-07-01

    Adaptation to both high and low temperatures requires proteins with special properties. While organisms living at or close to the boiling point of water need to have proteins with increased stability, other properties are required at temperatures close to the freezing point of water. Indeed, it has been shown that enzymes adapted to cold environments are less resistant to heat with a concomitant increased activity as compared to their warm-active counter-parts. Several recent studies have pointed in the direction that electrostatic interactions play a central role in temperature adaptation, and in this study we investigate the role such interactions have in adaptation of elastase from Atlantic salmon and pig. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to generate structural ensembles at 283 and 310 K of the psychrophilic and mesophilic elastase, and a total of eight 12 ns simulations have been carried out. Even though the two homologues have a highly similar three-dimensional structure, the location and number of charged amino acids are very different. Based on the simulated structures we find that very few salt-bridges are stable throughout the simulations, and provide little stabilization/destabilization of the proteins as judged by continuum electrostatic calculations. However, the mesophilic elastase is characterized by a greater number of salt-bridges as well as a putative salt-bridge network close to the catalytic site, indicating a higher rigidity of the components involved in the catalytic cycle. In addition, subtle differences are also found in the electrostatic potentials in the vicinity of the catalytic residues, which may explain the increased catalytic efficiency of the cold-adapted elastase. PMID:17084098

  12. Lumbar spinal loads and muscle activity during a golf swing.

    Lim, Young-Tae; Chow, John W; Chae, Woen-Sik

    2012-06-01

    This study estimated the lumbar spinal loads at the L4-L5 level and evaluated electromyographic (EMG) activity of right and left rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi muscles during a golf swing. Four super VHS camcorders and two force plates were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics of golf swings performed by five male collegiate golfers. Average EMG levels for different phases of golf swing were determined. An EMG-assisted optimization model was applied to compute the contact forces acting on the L4-L5. The results revealed a mean peak compressive load of over six times the body weight (BW) during the downswing and mean peak anterior and medial shear loads approaching 1.6 and 0.6 BW during the follow-through phases. The peak compressive load estimated in this study was high, but less than the corresponding value (over 8 BW) reported by a previous study. Average EMG levels of different muscles were the highest in the acceleration and follow-through phases, suggesting a likely link between co-contractions of paraspinal muscles and lumbar spinal loads. PMID:22900401

  13. Enzyme activity, hormone concentration in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri during cold acclimation

    Lin Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play an important role in the seasonal adaptation of body mass and thermogenesis in wild small mammals. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, is a unique species of small mammals which is origin of island in the Oriental realm. The present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy intake, metabolism, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT, and other biochemical characters of T. belangeri during cold exposure about 21 days. Our data demonstrate that cold acclimation induced a remarkable increase in body mass, a significant increase in energy intake and metabolic rate, and high expression of UCP1 in BAT of T. belangeri. Cold acclimation induced an increase in cytochrome c oxidase (COX and Thyroidhormones (T3/T4. These data supported that T. belangeri increased the body mass and increased energy intake and expenditure under cold acclimation. Increased expression of UCP1 was potentially involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and thermogenic capacity following cold acclimation. And it through changes in enzyme activity and hormone concentration under cold acclimation, and suggested temperature changes play an important role in the regulation of thermogenic capacity in tree shrew.

  14. Simulations of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and its high-luminosity upgrade scenarios

    Maury Cuna, H.; Contreras, J. G.; Zimmermann, F.

    2012-01-01

    The heat load generated by an electron cloud in the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a concern for operation near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, with updated secondary- emission models, which examine the severity of the electron heat load over a range of possible operation parameters, both for the nominal LHC and for various luminosity-upgrade scenarios, such as the so-called ‘‘full crab crossing’’ and ‘‘early separation’’ schemes,...

  15. Activity of latissimus dorsi muscle during inspiratory threshold loads.

    Orozco-Levi, M; Gea, J; Monells, J; Aran, X; Aguar, M C; Broquetas, J M

    1995-03-01

    The ability of the latissimus dorsi muscle (LD) to participate as an accessory inspiratory muscle has been the subject of controversy. Electromyographic (EGM) activity of LD was evaluated in 11 healthy subjects (aged 30 +/- 2 yrs; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 106 +/- 5% predicted; maximal inspiratory pressure (Pmax), 120 +/- 6 cmH2O) under different breathing conditions. The ipsilateral biceps brachii was chosen as the control muscle. The EMG was recorded from surface electrodes, but needle electrodes were also used for LD evaluation in a subset of three subjects. The EMG signal from both muscles was recorded simultaneously, rectified and integrated, with subtraction of the electrocardiographic signal. Situations evaluated were: 1) maximal voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) apnoea; and 3) breathing under progressive inspiratory threshold loads (20-100% Pmax, at 20% intervals). A close relationship was evident between LD recordings from surface and needle electrodes (r = 0.975). Activity of LD at baseline was 1.8 +/- 0.4% MVC, and showed a phasic increase during inspiration under loads. This change had a linear tendency and was significant for loads corresponding to 40, 60, 80 and 100% of Pmax when compared to the control muscle. At this latter level, LD activity was equivalent to 32 +/- 5% MVC (range 11-61%), whereas mean activity of the control muscle was less than 7.5% MVC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7789491

  16. Active control landing gear for ground loads alleviation

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An active landing gear has been created by connecting the hydraulic piston in an oleo strut to a hydraulic supply. A controller modulates the pressure in the oleo to achieve the desired dynamic characteristics. Tests on ground rigs (documented by a film) have demonstrated the successful alleviation of induced structural ground loads and the next step will be a flight test using a fighter aircraft.

  17. Purification and characterization of a cold-active lipase from Pichia lynferdii Y-7723: pH-dependant activity deviation

    Lipases with abnormal functionalities such as high thermostability and optimal activity at extreme conditions gain special attentions because of their applicability in the restricted reaction conditions. In particular, cold-active lipases have gained special attentions in various industrial fields s...

  18. Bioelectrical activity of limb muscles during cold shivering of stimulation of the vestibular apparatus

    Kuzmina, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of caloric and electric stimulation of the vestibular receptors on the EMG activity of limb muslces in anesthetized cats during cold induced shivering involved flexor muscles alone. Both types of stimulation suppressed bioelectrical activity more effectively in the ipsilateral muscles. The suppression of shivering activity seems to be due to the increased inhibitory effect of descending labyrinth pathways on the function of flexor motoneurons.

  19. Musculoskeletal Load Assessment in Hospital Nurses with Patient Transfer Activity

    ROGHAYEH ABEDINI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Manual patient handling is known to be the major source of musculoskeletal load among hospital nurses. The objectives of the present study were determination of frequency of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and its associated factors together with assessment of musculoskeletal load due to patient transfer by PTAI method in hospital nursing staff of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS, Iran. In this crosssectional study, 400 randomly selected nurses of SUMS hospital participated. Data were collected by anonymous demographic and Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaires together with PTAI index checklist. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS, version 16. Age and job tenure means of participants were 30.76±6.44 and 6.92±5.75 years, respectively. 88.2% of the nursing staff reported some forms of musculoskeletal symptoms during the 12 months prior to the study. The results of PTAI index assessment demonstrated that in 4%, 8.5% and 87.5% of the subjects, musculoskeletal load were at levels 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The results revealed that PTAI index score was significantly associated with musculoskeletal disorders occurrence (p<0.001. Musculoskeletal load was high among nurses with patient transfer activity. Age, nurse to bed ratio, marital status, shift work and PTAI score were associated risk factors for MSDs in the studied nursing staff.

  20. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    Fu Jianxi [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Huajie [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhou Yanqing [Henan Normal University, 46 East Construction Road, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang Jinye, E-mail: jywang@mail.sioc.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 {mu}m. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  1. Antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere films

    Our aim was to produce an antibiotic-emitting coating composed of zein microspheres for the prevention of bacterial infection on implanted devices. Ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microspheres were prepared using a phase separation procedure, with particle sizes between 0.5 and 2 μm. Drug encapsulation and drug loading varied with the amount of both zein and ciprofloxacin, and the highest encapsulation efficiency was 8.27% (2 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and 20 mg/ml zein; n = 3). A ciprofloxacin-loaded zein microsphere film (CF-MS film) was generated via solvent evaporation. Continuous drug release from a trypsin-degraded microsphere film was observed for up to 28 days. The liberation of ciprofloxacin from the trypsin-degraded film and the biodegradation of the microsphere film were highly correlated. Proliferation assay of the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by the MTT method showed that the microsphere film had no toxicity when compared with cells grown on Corning culture plates alone and plates with a zein film alone. Quantification of bacteria adhesion showed that adhesion on the microsphere film is significantly suppressed. In addition, according to the results of bacterial growth tests, ciprofloxacin-loaded microsphere films maintained antibacterial activity for more than 6 days. In contrast, a control medium containing a zein film allowed constant bacterial growth. These results indicate that CF-MS films might be useful as antibacterial films on implanted devices.

  2. Effect of Active Mineral on Load-Bearing Autoclaved Aerocrete

    彭苏萍; 王立刚

    2001-01-01

    Influence of ultrafine active mineral (DK mineral) on mechanical property of fly ash based load-bearing aerocrete was analyzed. The result shows that the addition of DK mineral in a suitable amount can enhance obviously the compressive strength of aerocrete. According to the SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses, the crystal shapes of hydration products are well developed and interlocked for samples containing DK mineral. Its microstructure is denser than that of the samples without DK mineral. Having a good activation, the DK mineral makes both the type and the quantity of hydrated products be obviously superior to that of the contrast sample.

  3. Synchronization of active mechanical oscillators by an inertial load

    Vilfan, A; Vilfan, Andrej; Duke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the operation of myogenic (self-oscillatory) insect flight muscle, we study a model consisting of a large number of identical oscillatory contractile elements joined in a chain, whose end is attached to a damped mass-spring oscillator. When the inertial load is small, the serial coupling favors an antisynchronous state in which the extension of one oscillator is compensated by the contraction of another, in order to preserve the total length. However, a sufficiently massive load can sychronize the oscillators and can even induce oscillation in situations where isolated elements would be stable. The system has a complex phase diagram displaying quiescent, synchronous and antisynchrononous phases, as well as an unsual asynchronous phase in which the total length of the chain oscillates at a different frequency from the individual active elements.

  4. Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Nobiletin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Ana G. Luque-Alcaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobiletin is a polymethoxyflavonoid with a remarkable antiproliferative effect. In order to overcome its low aqueous solubility and chemical instability, the use of nanoparticles as carriers has been proposed. This study explores the possibility of binding nobiletin to chitosan nanoparticles, as well as to evaluate their antiproliferative activity. The association and loading efficiencies are 69.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The formation of an imine bond between chitosan amine groups and the carbonyl group of nobiletin, via Schiff-base, is proposed. Nobiletin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibit considerable inhibition (IC50=8 μg/mL of cancerous cells, revealing their great potential for applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Antioxidation and ATPase activity in the gill of mud crab Scylla serrata under cold stress

    KONG Xianghui; WANG Guizhong; LI Shaojing

    2007-01-01

    Mud crab (Scylla serrata) is an important commercial crustacean in China. An experiment was designed to study the effect of cold stress on S. serrata. After a one-week adaptation at 28 ℃, the temperature is suddenly reduced to 4 ℃. The crabs were sampled every 2 h for 10 h and dissected immediately to measure the enzyme activity. The crabs at room temperature (28 ℃) were used as the control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of 4 ATPases (Na+, K+-ATPase;Mg2+-ATPase; Ca2+-ATPase; Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase) were measured biochemically. In contrast to the control group, the SOD activity increased significantly from 2 to 6 h after the cold stress, and then decreased. The CAT and GPX activities increased in 2 h, and then decreased gradually. The content of MDA increased gradually in 4 h. The activity ofNa+, K+-ATPase decreased in 2 h, increased up to the top value at Hour 6,then decreased again. The activities of Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase increased significantly in 6 h, insignificantly in any other hours. Under cold stress, the activity of antioxidative enzymes in S. serrata was reduced at first then stabilized, ROS-scavenging weakened, and MDA accumulated gradually in the gill after 6 h. The activity of the 4 ATPases in the crab decreased after 6 h,suggesting that the ability to regulate ion concentration has been paralyzed. Therefore, the maximum period to sustain healthy meat in the crab under cold stress is 6 hours.

  6. Simulations of electron-cloud heat load for the cold arcs of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and its high-luminosity upgrade scenarios

    Maury Cuna, H; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    The heat load generated by an electron cloud in the cold arcs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a concern for operation near and beyond nominal beam current. We report the results of simulation studies, with updated secondary- emission models, which examine the severity of the electron heat load over a range of possible operation parameters, both for the nominal LHC and for various luminosity-upgrade scenarios, such as the so-called ‘‘full crab crossing’’ and ‘‘early separation’’ schemes, the ‘‘large Piwinski angle’’ scheme, and a variant of the latter providing ‘‘compatibility’’ with the (upgraded) LHCb experiment. The variable parameters considered are the maximum secondary-emission yield, the number of particles per bunch, and the spacing between bunches. In addition, the dependence of the heat load on the longitudinal bunch profile is investigated.

  7. E-polarized plane wave diffraction by an impedance loaded parallel-plate waveguide located in cold plasma

    The effects of wall impedances with cold plasma permittivity on an E-polarized electromagnetic signal propagating through a parallel-plate waveguide immersed in a cold plasma have been analyzed. The Helmholtz equation in cold plasma is derived from the model equations. The solution of the Helmholtz equation in cold plasma is determined by Wiener-Hopf technique. From the solution it is observed that the amplitude of the diffracted field decreases with increasing permittivity of the plasma (i.e., by decreasing electron number density (or plasma frequency) or by increasing ion number density). The work presented may be of great importance to quantify the effects of ionosphere plasma on the communicating signals between an Earth station and an artificial satellite in Earth's atmosphere. (paper)

  8. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my disse

  9. Musculoskeletal Load Assessment in Hospital Nurses with Patient Transfer Activity

    Roghayeh Abedini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual patient handling is known to be the major source ofmusculoskeletal load among hospital nurses. The objectives of the present study were determination of frequency ofmusculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and its associatedfactors together with assessment of musculoskeletal loaddue to patient transfer by PTAI method in hospitalnursing staff of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 400 randomlyselected nurses of SUMS hospital participated. Data were collected by anonymousdemographic and Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaires together with PTAI index checklist. Statistical analyses wereundertaken using SPSS, version 16. Age and job tenure means of participantswere 30.76±6.44 and 6.92±5.75 years, respectively. 88.2% of the nursing staffreported some forms of musculoskeletal symptoms during the 12 months prior tothe study. The results of PTAI index assessment demonstrated that in 4%, 8.5% and87.5% of the subjects, musculoskeletal load were at levels 1, 2 and 3,respectively. The results revealed that PTAI index score was significantlyassociated with musculoskeletal disorders occurrence (p<0.001.Musculoskeletal load was high among nurses with patient transfer activity. Age, nurse to bed ratio, marital status, shiftwork and PTAI score were associated risk factors for MSDs in the studiednursing staff.

  10. Observations of cold magnetospheric ions at geosynchronous orbit during times of high activity

    Flowing, cold magnetospheric ions have been observed in conjunction with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause crossings since the earliest ATS and OGO missions. The authors have reported on the occurrence and convection of low-energy (10-100 eV) ions seen by multiple satellites in association with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) encounters. More generally, Los Alamos 3-D plasma instruments observe these ions following storm sudden commencements (SSCs), when activity levels are high. The ions appear to be convecting radially outward and usually westward at speeds of a few to several tens of kilometers per second. Often the energy spectra reveal peaks at energies appropriate for cold convecting H+, He+ and O+. The occurrence frequency distribution of these dense cold ions is peaked near 1400 LT, with an overall range from 1000 to beyond 1800 LT. This local time distribution is greatly skewed from the overall plasmaspheric distribution, which peaks closer to 1800 LT. Multisatellite observations show that the ions are seen first at late afternoon local times and then at progressively earlier and earlier local times (though usually no earlier than 1000 LT). This apparent evolution in local time suggests that the late-afternoon plasmaspheric plasma moves out and dawnward during times of increased magnetospheric activity. The three-satellite observations also allow the authors to track cold plasma convection at multiple points in the magnetosphere, and potentially provide a glimpse of the large-scale convection pattern

  11. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, M.A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core. (au)

  12. Active Match Load Circuit Intended for Testing Piezoelectric Transformers

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    An adjustable high voltage active load circuit for voltage amplitudes above 100 volts, especially intended for resistive matching the output impedance of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) is proposed in this paper. PTs have been around for over 50 years, were C. A. Rosen is common known for his...... famous Rosen type design back in the 1950s. After the discovered of new piezoelectric materials and new PT designs have been invented, the PT based power converters are in the area where they can outperform tradition electromagnetic based converters in certain applications. The performance of PTs can...

  13. Effects of water chemistry and loading conditions on stress corrosion cracking of cold-rolled 316NG stainless steel in high temperature water

    Research highlights: → Grain boundary properties of crack tip materials are correlated to cracking path. → Effects of stress intensity factor and overloading are quantified by experiments. → Various dependences of crack growth on electrode potential is quantified and analyzed. - Abstract: The effects of electrode potential, stress intensity factor and loading history on stress corrosion cracking growth of a cold-rolled 316NG stainless steel in 288 oC pure water were investigated. Crack branching and intergranular stress corrosion cracking along random grain boundaries were observed by electron-back scattering diffraction. A strong dependence of crack growth rate on stress intensity factor is observed. A single-cycle overloading produced a retarded transient cracking growth period. The mild inhibiting effect of decreasing electrode potential on crack growth of cold-rolled 316NG SS is analyzed based on the interaction between crack tip mechanics and crack tip oxidation kinetics.

  14. Removal of dye by immobilised photo catalyst loaded activated carbon

    The ability of activated carbon to adsorb and titanium dioxide to photo degrade organic impurities from water bodies is well accepted. Combination of the two is expected to enhance the removal efficiency due to the synergistic effect. This has enabled activated carbon to adsorb more and at the same time the lifespan of activated carbon is prolonged as the workload of removing organic pollutants is shared between activated carbon and titanium dioxide. Immobilisation is selected to avoid unnecessary filtering of adsorbent and photo catalyst. In this study, mixture of activated carbon and titanium dioxide was immobilised on glass slides. Photodegradation and adsorption studies of Methylene Blue solution were conducted in the absence and presence of UV light. The removal efficiency of immobilised TiO2/ AC was found to be two times better than the removal by immobilised AC or immobilised TiO2 alone. In 4 hours and with the concentration of 10 ppm, TiO2 loaded activated carbon prepared from 1.5 g/ 15.0 mL suspension produced 99.50 % dye removal. (author)

  15. Active Learning Framework for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring: Preprint

    Jin, Xin

    2016-05-16

    Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a set of techniques that estimate the electricity usage of individual appliances from power measurements taken at a limited number of locations in a building. One of the key challenges in NILM is having too much data without class labels yet being unable to label the data manually for cost or time constraints. This paper presents an active learning framework that helps existing NILM techniques to overcome this challenge. Active learning is an advanced machine learning method that interactively queries a user for the class label information. Unlike most existing NILM systems that heuristically request user inputs, the proposed method only needs minimally sufficient information from a user to build a compact and yet highly representative load signature library. Initial results indicate the proposed method can reduce the user inputs by up to 90% while still achieving similar disaggregation performance compared to a heuristic method. Thus, the proposed method can substantially reduce the burden on the user, improve the performance of a NILM system with limited user inputs, and overcome the key market barriers to the wide adoption of NILM technologies.

  16. Technology and equipment based on induction melters with ''cold'' crucible for reprocessing active metal waste

    The operation and, particularly, the decommissioning of NPPs and radiochemical plants result in substantial arisings of radioactive metal waste (RAMW) having different activity levels (from 5 x 10-4 to ∼ 40 Ci/kg). The paper reviews the specific features of the technology and equipment used to melt RAMW in electric arc and induction furnaces with ceramic or 'cold' crucibles. The experimentally determined and calculated data are given on the level to which RAMW is decontaminated from the main radionuclides as well as on the distribution of the latter in the products of melting (ingot, slag, gaseous phase). Special attention is focused on the process and the facility for the induction-slag melting of RAMW in furnaces equipped with 'cold' crucibles. The work is described that is under way at SSC RF VNIINM to master the technology of melting simulated high activity level Zr-alloy and stainless steel waste. (authors)

  17. Evolution of Thermal Response Properties in a Cold-Activated TRP Channel

    Myers, Benjamin R.; Sigal, Yaron M.; David Julius

    2009-01-01

    Animals sense changes in ambient temperature irrespective of whether core body temperature is internally maintained (homeotherms) or subject to environmental variation (poikilotherms). Here we show that a cold-sensitive ion channel, TRPM8, displays dramatically different thermal activation ranges in frogs versus mammals or birds, consistent with variations in these species' cutaneous and core body temperatures. Thus, somatosensory receptors are not static through evolution, but show functiona...

  18. Evolution of thermal response properties in a cold-activated TRP channel.

    Myers, Benjamin R; Sigal, Yaron M; Julius, David

    2009-01-01

    Animals sense changes in ambient temperature irrespective of whether core body temperature is internally maintained (homeotherms) or subject to environmental variation (poikilotherms). Here we show that a cold-sensitive ion channel, TRPM8, displays dramatically different thermal activation ranges in frogs versus mammals or birds, consistent with variations in these species' cutaneous and core body temperatures. Thus, somatosensory receptors are not static through evolution, but show functional diversity reflecting the characteristics of an organism's ecological niche. PMID:19492038

  19. Evolution of thermal response properties in a cold-activated TRP channel.

    Benjamin R Myers

    Full Text Available Animals sense changes in ambient temperature irrespective of whether core body temperature is internally maintained (homeotherms or subject to environmental variation (poikilotherms. Here we show that a cold-sensitive ion channel, TRPM8, displays dramatically different thermal activation ranges in frogs versus mammals or birds, consistent with variations in these species' cutaneous and core body temperatures. Thus, somatosensory receptors are not static through evolution, but show functional diversity reflecting the characteristics of an organism's ecological niche.

  20. Complete genome sequence of the cold-active bacteriophage VMY22 from Bacillus cereus.

    Qin, Kunhao; Cheng, Benxu; Zhang, Shengting; Wang, Nan; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Qi; Kuang, Anxiu; Lin, Lianbing; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin

    2016-06-01

    The cold-active bacteriophage VMY22, belonging to the Podoviridae family, was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome is 18,609 bp long, with an overall G + C content of 36.4 mol%, and 25 open reading frames (ORFs). The sequence contains 46 potential promoters, 6 transcription terminators, and no tRNAs. Most of the ORFs show a high degree of similarity to B103 (NC_004165). Two noteworthy findings were made. First, one of the predicted proteins, ORF 19, shows high sequence similarity to the bacteriocin biosynthesis protein from Bacillus cereus. From this information, we propose that the VMY22 phage is at an intermediate phase in its coevolution with its bacterial host. Second, seven of the hypothetical proteins appear to be unique to this cold-active B. cereus phage (i.e., not found in temperate-active B. cereus phages). These observations add to our current knowledge about the coevolution of bacteriophages and their hosts. The identification of a novel group of gene and protein structures and functions will lead to a better understanding of cold-adaptation mechanisms in bacteria and their bacteriophages. PMID:26941234

  1. Load-Induced Confinement Activates Diamond Lubrication by Water

    Zilibotti, G.; Corni, S.; Righi, M. C.

    2013-10-01

    Tribochemical reactions are chemical processes, usually involving lubricant or environment molecules, activated at the interface between two solids in relative motion. They are difficult to be monitored in situ, which leaves a gap in the atomistic understanding required for their control. Here we report the real-time atomistic description of the tribochemical reactions occurring at the interface between two diamond films in relative motion, by means of large scale ab initio molecular dynamics. We show that the load-induced confinement is able to catalyze diamond passivation by water dissociative adsorption. Such passivation decreases the energy of the contacting surfaces and increases their electronic repulsion. At sufficiently high coverages, the latter prevents surface sealing, thus lowering friction. Our findings elucidate effects of the nanoscale confinement on reaction kinetics and surface thermodynamics, which are important for the design of new lubricants.

  2. Common cold

    ... infections in children, even years after you stop breastfeeding. Drink plenty of fluids to help your immune system work properly. Eat yogurt that contains "active cultures." These may help prevent colds. Probiotics may help ...

  3. Can winter-active bumblebees survive the cold? Assessing the cold tolerance of Bombus terrestris audax and the effects of pollen feeding.

    Emily L Owen

    Full Text Available There is now considerable evidence that climate change is disrupting the phenology of key pollinator species. The recently reported UK winter activity of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris brings a novel set of thermal challenges to bumblebee workers that would typically only be exposed to summer conditions. Here we assess the ability of workers to survive acute and chronic cold stress (via lower lethal temperatures and lower lethal times at 0°C, the capacity for rapid cold hardening (RCH and the influence of diet (pollen versus nectar consumption on supercooling points (SCP. Comparisons are made with chronic cold stress indices and SCPs in queen bumblebees. Results showed worker bees were able to survive acute temperatures likely to be experienced in a mild winter, with queens significantly more tolerant to chronic cold temperature stress. The first evidence of RCH in any Hymenoptera is shown. In addition, dietary manipulation indicated the consumption of pollen significantly increased SCP temperature. These results are discussed in the light of winter active bumblebees and climate change.

  4. Synergistic Effect of Cold Atmospheric Plasma and Drug Loaded Core-shell Nanoparticles on Inhibiting Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    Wei Zhu; Se-Jun Lee; Castro, Nathan J.; Dayun Yan; Michael Keidar; Lijie Grace Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Nano-based drug delivery devices allowing for effective and sustained targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors have revolutionized cancer treatment. As an emerging biomedical technique, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ionized non-thermal gas mixture composed of various reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and UV photons, shows great potential for cancer treatment. Here we seek to develop a new dual cancer therapeutic method by integrating promising CAP and nove...

  5. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF COLD WATER EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM TRIFLORUM IN RATS

    Wanigasekara Daya; Jayakody Anusha Chandra; Ratnasooriya Chatura Dayendra Tissa; Weerasekera Kumudu Rupika

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antinociceptive potential of cold water extract (CWE) of Desmodium triflorum (Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae) plant. One of four doses of CWE (dose 4000 mg/ml, 2000 mg/ml and 1000 mg/ml) or 1 ml tap water was orally administered to male wistar rats and antinociceptive activity was ascertained using tail flik and hot plate techniques. The results showed that CWE possessed marked antinociceptive activity when evaluated in the hot plate test but not in the t...

  6. Production of active species in cold helium–air plasma jets

    Evaluation of the composition of chemically active species produced in the plasma bullet mode of cold atmospheric-pressure helium–air plasma jets is performed. Distributions of species densities along the jet, both in the region of streamer propagation and in the relaxation zone, are given. Dominating channels for the production of major active species (O, OH, NO, O3) are revealed. Effects of variation of the governing parameters (the frequency and amplitude of applied voltage pulses, the content of air in the helium–air mixture, the air humidity) on the plasma composition are discussed. (paper)

  7. Production of active species in cold helium-air plasma jets

    Naidis, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of the composition of chemically active species produced in the plasma bullet mode of cold atmospheric-pressure helium-air plasma jets is performed. Distributions of species densities along the jet, both in the region of streamer propagation and in the relaxation zone, are given. Dominating channels for the production of major active species (O, OH, NO, O3) are revealed. Effects of variation of the governing parameters (the frequency and amplitude of applied voltage pulses, the content of air in the helium-air mixture, the air humidity) on the plasma composition are discussed.

  8. In situ activity of chymotrypsin in sugar-salted herring during cold storage

    Engvang, K.L.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2000-01-01

    In sifts activity of intestinal chymotrypsin in sugar-salted whole herring during cold storage was evaluated by analysing changes in the low-molecular-weight nitrogen fraction when a specific inhibitor was added. Addition of chymostatin (0.01 mM) to sugar-salted herring gave 100% inhibition of...... chymotrypsin activity compared to sugar-salted herring without chymostatin. Inhibition of chymotrypsin did not affect the profile of low- molecular-weight peptides analysed by capillary zone electrophoresis, but resulted in 22% lower content after 26 weeks of storage. Inhibition of chymotrypsin resulted in 17...

  9. Soluble proteins and polyphenoloxidase activity in bud flowers, flowers and leaves of cold stored lisianthus

    Cavasini, R.; Nunes, K.N.M.; Favero, B.T.;

    This study evaluated the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the content of soluble protein present in lisianthus bud flowers, flowers and leaves in room temperature (24±2°C) and pre-exposure cold chamber at 9±2°C for 24 h, in order to examine a possible correlation between these...... parameters and postharvest longevity of lisianthus flowers. After treatments, flowers were kept in pots with water, stored at room temperature and evaluated every three days until the end of their decorative life for biochemical analyzes. During the experimental period the enzymatic activity increased with...

  10. Low levels of physical activity increase metabolic responsiveness to cold in a rat (Rattus fuscipes.

    Frank Seebacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity modulates expression of metabolic genes and may therefore be a prerequisite for metabolic responses to environmental stimuli. However, the extent to which exercise interacts with environmental conditions to modulate metabolism is unresolved. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that even low levels of physical activity are beneficial by improving metabolic responsiveness to temperatures below the thermal neutral zone, thereby increasing the capacity for substrate oxidation and energy expenditure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used wild rats (Rattus fuscipes to avoid potential effects of breeding on physiological phenotypes. Exercise acclimation (for 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 30 days at 60% of maximal performance at 22°C increased mRNA concentrations of PGC1α, PPARδ, and NRF-1 in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to sedentary animals. Lowering ambient temperature to 12°C caused further increases in relative expression of NRF-1 in skeletal muscle, and of PPARδ of brown adipose tissue. Surprisingly, relative expression of UCP1 increased only when both exercise and cold stimuli were present. Importantly, in sedentary animals cold acclimation (12°C alone did not change any of the above variables. Similarly, cold alone did not increase maximum capacity for substrate oxidation in mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase activities of either muscle or brown adipose tissue. Animals that exercised regularly had higher exercise induced metabolic rates in colder environments than sedentary rats, and temperature induced metabolic scope was greater in exercised rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Physical activity is a necessary prerequisite for the expression of transcriptional regulators that influence a broad range of physiological functions from energy metabolism to cardiovascular function and nutrient uptake. A sedentary lifestyle leads to decreased daily energy expenditure because of a

  11. Exploring Cold Trapped Volatiles from Stationary Landers and Mobile Rovers: ESA Activities for Resource Prospecting at the Poles

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Aziz, S.; Houdou, B.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of ESA activities in the area of measuring cold trapped volatiles in-situ, including the PROSPECT package for the Russian Luna-27 mission and the development of mobile platform capabilities that could be applied to future missions.

  12. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    BOND, VERNON; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; FRANKS, B. DON; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African...

  13. Cold active pectinases: advancing the food industry to the next generation.

    Adapa, Vijayanand; Ramya, L N; Pulicherla, K K; Rao, K R S Sambasiva

    2014-03-01

    Pectinase has been an integral part of commercial food processing, where it is used for degradation of pectin and facilitates different processing steps such as liquefaction, clarification and juice extraction. The industry currently uses pectinases from mesophilic or thermophilic microorganisms which are well established, but recently, there has been is a new trend in the food industry to adopt low-temperature processing. This trend is due to the potential economic and environmental advantages which the industry envisages. In order to achieve this change, an alternative for the existing pectinases, which are mostly mesophilic and temperature-dependent, must be identified, which can function efficiently at low temperatures. Psychrophilic pectinases derived from cold-adapted microorganisms, are known to function at low to freezing temperatures and may be an alternative to address the problem. Psychrophilic pectinases can be obtained from the vast microflora inhabiting various cold regions on earth such as oceans, Polar Regions, snow-covered mountains, and glaciers. This article is intended to study the advantages of cold active pectinases, its sources, and the current state of the research. PMID:24390855

  14. Anti-biofilm activities from marine cold adapted bacteria against staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Rosanna ePapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules.The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules.The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules

  15. Compensation of Disturbed Load Currents Using Active Power Filter and Generalized Non-active Power Theory

    Lettl, J.; Šimek, Petr; Valouch, Viktor

    Prague: Electromagnetics Academy, 2015, s. 2500-2505. ISSN 1559-9450. [Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. Prague (CZ), 06.07.2015-09.07.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : disturbed load * GNP (Generalized Non-active Power) * parallel compensation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering www.piers.org

  16. Mitigating the Long term Operating Extreme Load through Active Control

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    the blades. Through gain scheduling of the controller (modifications of the proportional Kp and the integral Ki gains) the extreme loads are mitigated, ensuring minimum instantaneous variations in the power production for operation above rated wind speed. The response of the blade load is examined for...... blade azimuth location are shown to affect the extreme blade load magnitude during operation in normal turbulence wind input. The simultaneously controlled operation of generator torque variation and pitch variation at low blade pitch angles is detected to be responsible for very high loads acting on...

  17. Toluene promotes lid 2 interfacial activation of cold active solvent tolerant lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AMS8.

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Leow, Adam Thean Chor

    2016-07-01

    The utilization of cold active lipases in organic solvents proves an excellent approach for chiral synthesis and modification of fats and oil due to the inherent flexibility of lipases under low water conditions. In order to verify whether this lipase can function as a valuable synthetic catalyst, the mechanism concerning activation of the lid and interacting solvent residues in the presence of organic solvent must be well understood. A new alkaline cold-adapted lipase, AMS8, from Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied for its structural adaptation and flexibility prior to its exposure to non-polar, polar aprotic and protic solvents. Solvents such as ethanol, toluene, DMSO and 2-propanol showed to have good interactions with active sites. Asparagine (Asn) and tyrosine (Tyr) were key residues attracted to solvents because they could form hydrogen bonds. Unlike in other solvents, Phe-18, Tyr-236 and Tyr-318 were predicted to have aromatic-aromatic side-chain interactions with toluene. Non-polar solvent also was found to possess highest energy binding compared to polar solvents. Due to this circumstance, the interaction of toluene and AMS8 lipase was primarily based on hydrophobicity and molecular recognition. The molecular dynamic simulation showed that lid 2 (residues 148-167) was very flexible in toluene and Ca(2+). As a result, lid 2 moves away from the catalytic areas, leaving an opening for better substrate accessibility which promotes protein activation. Only a single lid (lid 2) showed the movement following interactions with toluene, although AMS8 lipase displayed double lids. The secondary conformation of AMS8 lipase that was affected by toluene observed a reduction of helical strands and increased coil structure. Overall, this work shows that cold active lipase, AMS8 exhibits distinguish interfacial activation and stability in the presence of polar and non-polar solvents. PMID:27474867

  18. Daphnetin methylation stabilizes the activity of phosphoribulokinase in wheat during cold acclimation.

    Kane, Khalil; Moheb, Amira; Fukushi, Yukihara; Roy, René; Hüner, Norman P A; Ibrahim, Ragai K; Sarhan, Fathey

    2012-10-01

    The methylation of daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin) to its 8-methyl derivative is catalyzed by a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) O-methyltransferase (TaOMT1). This enzyme is regulated by cold and photosystem II excitation pressure (plastid redox state). Here, we investigated the biological significance of this methylation and its potential role in modulating the activity of kinases in wheat. To identify the potential kinases that may interact with daphnetin in wheat, the soluble protein extract from aerial parts of cold-acclimated wheat was purified by DEAE-cellulose separation and affinity chromatography on a daphnetin derivative (7,8-dihydroxy-4-coumarin acetic acid)-EAH sepharose column. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that wheat phosphoribulokinase (TaPRK) is the major kinase that binds to daphnetin. This TaPRK plays an important role in regulating the flow of carbon through the Calvin cycle, by catalyzing the final step in the regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate from ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) and ATP. The activities of TaPRK, endogenous or recombinant, are inhibited by daphnetin in a specific and dose-dependent manner, but not by its monomethyl derivative (7-methyl, 8-hydroxycoumarin). Furthermore, HPLC-MS analysis of wheat extracts reveals that 7,8-dimethoxycoumarin is more abundant than its monomethyl derivative. The results also show that cold acclimation does not alter the level of TaPRK mRNA or its enzyme activity, and thus ensures the stable generation of ribulose 1,5-biphosphate. PMID:22827600

  19. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Mihaela Cotârleţ; Teodor Gh Negoiţă; Bahrim, Gabriela E.; Peter Stougaard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islan...

  20. Gene Profiling for Invertase Activity: Assessment of Potato Varieties for Resistance towards Cold Induced Sweetening

    Arfan Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potato is the most important staple food in the world. Cold-induced sweetening occurs when potatoes are stored at low temperature for longer period of time. Due to non- enzymatic Millard reaction it causes unwanted changes in colour, taste and in flavor when fried and roasted at high temperature. However, long-term cold storage is mandatory to keep an adequate supply of potatoes throughout the year. The cause of cold-induced sweetening is invertase enzyme. Methods: Five potato varieties (Hermes (A Lady Rosetta (B Oscar (C Kuroda (D and Multa (E were investigated for invertase activity during two month cold storage at 4°C. Crude protein was extracted by PD Midi Trap G25 column technique. Quantification of mRNA expression was employed through QPCR. Determination of sucrose, reducing sugars and organic acids was simply done by 80% ethanol method and concentration were find out by using HPLC with already set standards. The correlation between invertase enzyme, sugar content and mRNA expression was calculated through Statistical methods. Results: Significant activity of invertase was observed at 4ºC with up to 6.3 nmol/min/mg of protein in the type-1 & 4 (cv. Hermes and Kuroda; 2.5 times less in type 2 (Rosetta and 3.5 times less in type 3 (Multa when compared with same at 4ºC. In addition, malic acid concentration was found positively correlated with invertase activity at 4ºC as compared with its concentration at harvesting time. However, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations were independent of invertase enzyme activity. The transcript level of invertase enzyme was found significantly high in potato tubers stored at 4ºC in result 1 & 4 type, less in result type 2(C and negligible in result 3(E potato variety when revealed through reverse transcription PCR. Conclusions: In conclusion, Oscar (C and Multa (E were found more resistant to CIS at 4ºC storage and may be used for future variety improvement programs for CIS resistant

  1. Influence of Pretreatment on Cold Water Solubility and Esterification Activity of Starch

    Jiaying Xin; Yan Wang; Tie Liu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the Cold Water Solubility (CWS) and esterification activity of Native corn Starch (NS) by pretreatment NS using NaOH/urea aqueous solution. The influence of pretreatment on granule shape and crystal structure of corn starch was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). It has been found that the average particle size of Pretreatment corn Starch (PS) decreased to nanometer level, smaller than those of NS (4-15 μm). XRD r...

  2. Determination of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis

    A method for the determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) has been developed and evaluated through the analysis of standard reference materials (SRM). After extensive preparation, approximately 400 mg cattail samples from the lower Apalachicola River floodplain were irradiated in the CNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The results of numerous field samples and two standard reference materials using the nuclear method show favorable comparison to results obtained by a CHNS/O analyzer. (author)

  3. In situ activity of chymotrypsin in sugar-salted herring during cold storage

    Engvang, K.L.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2000-01-01

    In sifts activity of intestinal chymotrypsin in sugar-salted whole herring during cold storage was evaluated by analysing changes in the low-molecular-weight nitrogen fraction when a specific inhibitor was added. Addition of chymostatin (0.01 mM) to sugar-salted herring gave 100% inhibition of......% lower content of free amino acids. The relative amount of single free amino acids was unaffected by the presence of inhibitor, except for valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were formed in lower relative amount. Removal of intestines (gutted herring) and thereby...

  4. Active shape control of composite structures under thermal loading

    Binette, P.; Dano, M.-L.; Gendron, G.

    2009-02-01

    Maintaining the shape of high-precision structures such as space antennas and optical mirrors is still a challenging issue for designers. These structures are subjected to varying temperature conditions which often introduce thermal distortions. The development of smart materials offers great potential to correct the shape and to minimize the surface error. In this study, shape control of a composite structure under thermal loading using piezocomposites is investigated. The composite structure is made of a foam core and two carbon-epoxy face sheets. Macro-fiber composite (MFC™) patches are bonded on one side of the structure. The structure is subjected to a through-the-thickness temperature gradient which induces thermal distortion, essentially in the form of bending. The objective is to apply electric potential to the MFC™ actuators such that the deflection can be minimized. Finite-element analyses are conducted using the commercial software ABAQUS. Experiments are performed to study thermally induced distortion, piezoelectric actuation, and compensation of thermal distortion using MFC™ actuators. Numerical and experimental results are compared. A control loop based on strain measurements is used to actively control the structure. The results show that MFC™ actuators can compensate thermal distortion at all times, and that this is an efficient methodology.

  5. Active shape control of composite structures under thermal loading

    Maintaining the shape of high-precision structures such as space antennas and optical mirrors is still a challenging issue for designers. These structures are subjected to varying temperature conditions which often introduce thermal distortions. The development of smart materials offers great potential to correct the shape and to minimize the surface error. In this study, shape control of a composite structure under thermal loading using piezocomposites is investigated. The composite structure is made of a foam core and two carbon–epoxy face sheets. Macro-fiber composite (MFC(TM)) patches are bonded on one side of the structure. The structure is subjected to a through-the-thickness temperature gradient which induces thermal distortion, essentially in the form of bending. The objective is to apply electric potential to the MFC(TM) actuators such that the deflection can be minimized. Finite-element analyses are conducted using the commercial software ABAQUS. Experiments are performed to study thermally induced distortion, piezoelectric actuation, and compensation of thermal distortion using MFC(TM) actuators. Numerical and experimental results are compared. A control loop based on strain measurements is used to actively control the structure. The results show that MFC(TM) actuators can compensate thermal distortion at all times, and that this is an efficient methodology

  6. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    Cao, Huiluo

    2015-07-21

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  7. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea

    Huiluo eCao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of ammonia oxidizing archaea in different habitats (water versus sediment potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep.

  8. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase is irreversibly transformed into an inactive dimer by low urea concentrations.

    Hjörleifsson, Jens Guðmundur; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a homodimeric metallo-hydrolase where both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) are important for catalysis and stability. Cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase variants have high activity at low temperatures and lower thermal stability compared with variants from mesophilic hosts. The instability, and thus inactivation, could be due to loose association of the dimers and/or loosely bound Mg(2)(+) in the active site, but this has not been studied in detail for the cold-adapted variants. Here, we focus on using the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp in alkaline phosphatase from the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus (VAP) to probe for dimerization. Trp→Phe substitutions showed that two out of the five native Trp residues contributed mostly to the fluorescence emission. One residue, 15Å away from the active site (W460) and highly solvent excluded, was phosphorescent and had a distant role in substrate binding. An additional Trp residue was introduced to the dimer interface to act as a possible probe for dimerization. Urea denaturation curves indicated that an inactive dimer intermediate, structurally equivalent to the native state, was formed before dimer dissociation took place. This is the first example of the transition of a native dimer to an inactive dimer intermediate for alkaline phosphatase without using mutagenesis, ligands, or competitive inhibition. PMID:27043172

  9. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF COLD WATER EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM TRIFLORUM IN RATS

    Wanigasekara Daya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antinociceptive potential of cold water extract (CWE of Desmodium triflorum (Family: Fabaceae / Leguminosae plant. One of four doses of CWE (dose 4000 mg/ml, 2000 mg/ml and 1000 mg/ml or 1 ml tap water was orally administered to male wistar rats and antinociceptive activity was ascertained using tail flik and hot plate techniques. The results showed that CWE possessed marked antinociceptive activity when evaluated in the hot plate test but not in the tail flick test. Antinociceptive action was dose-dependent. Further, it had a rapid onset (1h and a short duration (3h of action. The CWE was safe and was not accompanied with side effects even after sub chronic administration. The antinociception action was mediated by supraspinal mechanisms, possibly via alkaloids and flavonoids. It is concluded that CWE of D. triflorum may be used as a cheap, orally active safe antinociceptive drug.

  10. Load alleviation potential of active flaps and individual pitch control in a full design load basis

    Barlas, Athanasios; Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig;

    2015-01-01

    configuration is evaluated by comparing four setups: 1) baseline with collective pitch, 2) individual pitch control, 3) individual flap control and 4) individual flap control combined with individual pitch control. The CRTEF allows for a significant reduction of the lifetime fatigue on various load channels...

  11. Application of cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis in environmental studies of aquatic plants

    This paper describes the use of cold-neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) to determine carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the aquatic plant Typha domingensis, commonly known as cattail, during spring and fall seasons. According to studies of the Florida Everglades, cattail replaces sawgrass as a result of nutrient enrichment from farm water runoff. Nutrient enrichment, especially phosphorus, in sediment and the water column can lead to undesirable expansion. Early signs of this expansion are apparent in the Apalachicola River floodplain near Apalachicola, Florida, USA. This research project is designed to use cattails as biomonitors of nutrient enrichment in the lower Apalachicola River floodplain. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation has been developed in our previous studies at the CNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. The results of numerous field samples, collected from the study area during spring and fall seasons in 2002, will be presented in this paper. (author)

  12. MOLECULAR MODELING AND DOCKING STUDIES OF COLD ACTIVE LIPASE FROM Pseudomonas fluorescens

    G. N. Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Modeling is essential tool in the drug design process describes the generation, manipulation or representation of 3D structures of the molecules and associated physico-chemical properties while docking predicts the preferred orientation of one molecule to a second when bound to each other to form a stable complex. A cold active lipase producing potential psychrophilic bacteria (GN was isolated and identified by 16S rRNA molecular studies as Pseudomonas vancouverensis. Lipase gene from closely related species P. fluorescens was investigated for their functional role and in silico characterization using molecular modeling and docking studies. A 3D structure of lipase gene was generated with SWISS-MODEL and Discovery Studio 3.0. The stereochemistry of the constructed model of cold active lipase was subjected to energy minimization and the stereo-chemical quality of the predicted structure was assessed. The superimposition of the template (PDBID: 2Z8X with predicted structure showed that weighted root mean square deviation of Cα trace between the template and the final refined model was 0.2 Å with a significant Zscore of 8.2 and sequence identity was 80.5%. Three ligands P-Nitrophenol, Acetate ion and Diethyl phosphonate were taken for docking calculation with generated structure. They were interacting on the functional motifs of predicted model. It has been observed that Leu26, Tyr29, Asn31, Asp33, Pro315 and Thr316 residues were involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with selected ligands. So these interacted residues can be used as prominent active binding sites and which was common to the predicted active site. Based on above investigations it has been found that P. vancouverensis lipase protein can play a similar role in lipid metabolic process and triglyceride lipase functional activity as reported for P. fluorescens lipase protein.

  13. Effect of ascorbic acid on long-term cold exposure induced changes in thyroid activity in sprague dawley rats

    Objective: To determine the effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on long-term cold exposure induced changes in thyroid activity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department of Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, National Institute of Health, Islamabad and Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2009. Methodology: Ninety Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of control, cold exposed and cold exposed along with ascorbic acid supplementation. After one month, their thyroid levels were analyzed by using chemiluminescent immunometric Assay on Siemens Immulite 2000 Analyzer. Results: After 4 weeks of cold exposure to experimental animals, the thyroid activity was raised significantly in the cold exposed group as compared to the control group (p-value for T3 difference = 0.004, T4 difference = 0.002 and TSH difference < 0.001). Supplementation with ascorbic acid in the third group normalized the thyroid hormone activity with p-value for difference in levels of T3 being 0.6661, T4 = 0.027 and TSH = 0.0028. Conclusion: Ascorbic acid prevented the cold induced changes in thyroid hormone levels in rodents. (author)

  14. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    and uncertainties in future application of ACLs in air and space borne missions, and important parameters, such as temperature sensitivity and long term stability are addressed. For the devices under test, temperature sensitivities are found to be in the range from 0.2 K/°C to 0.4 K/°C, and typical...

  15. Chemical stability of a cold-active cellulase with high tolerance toward surfactants and chaotropic agent

    Thaís V. Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CelE1 is a cold-active endo-acting glucanase with high activity at a broad temperature range and under alkaline conditions. Here, we examined the effects of pH on the secondary and tertiary structures, net charge, and activity of CelE1. Although variation in pH showed a small effect in the enzyme structure, the activity was highly influenced at acidic conditions, while reached the optimum activity at pH 8. Furthermore, to estimate whether CelE1 could be used as detergent additives, CelE1 activity was evaluated in the presence of surfactants. Ionic and nonionic surfactants were not able to reduce CelE1 activity significantly. Therefore, CelE1 was found to be promising candidate for use as detergent additives. Finally, we reported a thermodynamic analysis based on the structural stability and the chemical unfolding/refolding process of CelE1. The results indicated that the chemical unfolding proceeds as a reversible two-state process. These data can be useful for biotechnological applications.

  16. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.

  17. Vitrification of dry active waste using pilot scale cold crucible melter

    A simulated mixed Dry Active Waste(DAW) has been vitrified using a pilot scale Cold Crucible Melter(CCM). A processability, characteristics of the combustion and dust generation of the DAW in the CCM, and glass properties were investigated and evaluated. The glass melt was maintained at around 1,150 .deg. C constantly and the mixed DAW was fed into the CCM at the feed rate of 10, 15 and 20kg/h during the test. The viscosities of the base and the final glass were well within the desired range. There was electrical conductivity difference between the base glass and the final glass and it was also within the desired range, as 0.33 S/cm. A stable combustion process of the DAW was performed during the test. And only 3.03% of the dust was generated from the cold crucible melter. All regulated emission gases in the stack were well below the environmental regulation limits. The physical properties and chemical durability of the waste glass were satisfactory the required quality

  18. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Mihaela Cotârleţ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20ºC, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20ºC. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

  20. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens. PMID:19096064

  1. Diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with Arctic sea ice, Spitzbergen.

    Groudieva, Tatiana; Kambourova, Margarita; Yusef, Hoda; Royter, Maryna; Grote, Ralf; Trinks, Hauke; Antranikian, Garabed

    2004-12-01

    The diversity of culturable bacteria associated with sea ice from four permanently cold fjords of Spitzbergen, Arctic Ocean, was investigated. A total of 116 psychrophilic and psychrotolerant strains were isolated under aerobic conditions at 4 degrees C. The isolates were grouped using amplified rDNA restriction analysis fingerprinting and identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The bacterial isolates fell in five phylogenetic groups: subclasses alpha and gamma of Proteobacteria, the Bacillus-Clostridium group, the order Actinomycetales, and the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum. Over 70% of the isolates were affiliated with the Proteobacteria gamma subclass. Based on phylogenetic analysis (<98% sequence similarity), over 40% of Arctic isolates represent potentially novel species or genera. Most of the isolates were psychrotolerant and grew optimally between 20 and 25 degrees C. Only a few strains were psychrophilic, with an optimal growth at 10-15 degrees C. The majority of the bacterial strains were able to secrete a broad range of cold-active hydrolytic enzymes into the medium at a cultivation temperature of 4 degrees C. The isolates that are able to degrade proteins (skim milk, casein), lipids (olive oil), and polysaccharides (starch, pectin) account for, respectively, 56, 31, and 21% of sea-ice and seawater strains. The temperature dependences for enzyme production during growth and enzymatic activity were determined for two selected enzymes, alpha-amylase and beta-galactosidase. Interestingly, high levels of enzyme productions were measured at growth temperatures between 4 and 10 degrees C, and almost no production was detected at higher temperatures (20-30 degrees C). Catalytic activity was detected even below the freezing point of water (at -5 degrees C), demonstrating the unique properties of these enzymes. PMID:15252724

  2. Loading and reflexes : the influence of body weight and active movements on reflex responses in humans

    Bastiaanse, Catharina Maria

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes six studies on the influence of active movements and body loading on reflex responses. To measure those influences healthy subjects were asked to walk with different loadings (e.g. a backpack) or with different active movements (e.g. arm swing) while different reflex responses

  3. Cloning and characterization of a new cold-active lipase from a deep-sea sediment metagenome.

    Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jun-Tae; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Hyung-Kwoun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    To search for new cold-active lipases, a metagenomic library was constructed using cold-sea sediment samples at Edison Seamount and was screened for lipolytic activities by plating on a tricaprylin medium. Subsequently, a fosmid clone was selected, and the whole sequence of 36 kb insert of the fosmid clone was determined by shotgun sequencing. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of 25 open reading frames (ORF), and ORF20 (EML1) showed similarities to lipases. Phylogenetic analysis of EML1 suggested that the protein belonged to a new family of esterase/lipase together with LipG. The EML1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by metal-chelating chromatography. The optimum activity of the purified EML1 (rEML1) occurred at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C, respectively, and rEML1 displayed more than 50% activity at 5 degrees C. The activation energy for the hydrolysis of olive oil was determined to be 3.28 kcal/mol, indicating that EML1 is a cold-active lipase. rEML1 preferentially hydrolyzed triacylglycerols acyl-group chains with long chain lengths of > or = 8 carbon atoms and displayed hydrolyzing activities toward various natural oil substrates. rEML1 was resistant to various detergents such as Triton X-100 and Tween 80. This study represents an example which developed a new cold-active lipase from a deep-sea sediment metagenome. PMID:18773201

  4. Optimization of environmental conditions for production of a novel cold-active lipase from Pichia lynferdii Y-7723

    Lipases with abnormal functionality such as high thermostability and optimal activity at extreme conditions gain special attentions because of their applicability in the restricted reaction conditions. In particular, cold-active lipase(CAL)s have gained special attention in various industrial fields...

  5. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein causes endothelial dysfunction via activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome.

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Sharma, Archna; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Zhigang; Fan, Jie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule which stimulates proinflammatory cytokine release in hemorrhage and sepsis. Under these medical conditions, disruption of endothelial homeostasis and barrier integrity, typically induced by proinflammatory cytokines, is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality. However, the role of CIRP in causing endothelial dysfunction has not been investigated. In this study, we show that intravenous injection of recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) in C57BL/6 mice causes lung injury, evidenced by vascular leakage, edema, increased leukocyte infiltration and cytokine production in the lung tissue. The CIRP-induced lung damage is accompanied with endothelial cell (EC) activation marked by upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1. Using in vitro primary mouse lung vascular ECs (MLVECs), we demonstrate that rmCIRP treatment directly increases the ICAM-1 protein expression and activates NAD(P)H oxidase in MLVECs. Importantly, CIRP stimulates the assembly and activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in MLVECs accompanied with caspase-1 activation, IL-1β release and induction of proinflammatory cell death pyroptosis. Finally, our study demonstrates CIRP-induced EC pyroptosis in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice for the first time. Taken together, the released CIRP in shock can directly activate ECs and induce EC pyroptosis to cause lung injury. PMID:27217302

  6. The effect of active recovery, cold water immersion and passive recovery on subsequent knee extension and flexion strength

    Barbora Strejcová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recovery is an important aspect of every physical activity. Many athletes train hard without giving their body time to recover which can lead to overreaching, burnout or poor performance. Currently cold-water immersion recovery and active recovery have emerged as some of the most popular interventions enabling faster recovery. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of three kinds of recovery (active recovery, cold water immersion, passive recovery on medium-term knee strength in the extension and flexion. METHODS: Fourteen athletes at the age of 26.6 ± 4.4 years performed, in a random cross-over design, 3 sessions with 3 repeated medium-term isokinetic tests. The effect of active recovery, passive rest and cold water immersion were assessed by 3 × 3 (time × recovery repeated-measure ANOVA, respectively. The dependent variables were – peak torque, total work and average power. RESULTS: We found significantly lower absolute differences between the first and third trial in knee extension for peak torque after the active recovery (↑ 0.9 N × m than after the cold water immersion (↓ 14.6 N × m or the passive recovery (↓ 13.9 N × m. The decrease of the average power was significantly lower differences after the active recovery (↓ 5 W than after the cold water immersion (↓ 23.7 W or passive recovery (↓ 25.9 W. The changes in total work were not significant. We did not found any changes in the isokinetic strength for the knee flexors after different kinds of recovery. Maximal heart rate (HRmax was significantly higher during the active recovery than during the cold water immersion and the passive recovery (173 ± 14, 166 ± 14 and 167 ± 14 rpm. We have found significant differences in the average heart rates (HRavg during active recovery, cold water immersion and passive recovery (124 ± 8, 97 ± 9 and 107 ± 12 rpm. CONCLUSION: We found the positive effect of the active recovery on the subsequent medium-term performance for

  7. Flexibility and Stability Trade-Off in Active Site of Cold-Adapted Pseudomonas mandelii Esterase EstK.

    Truongvan, Ngoc; Jang, Sei-Heon; Lee, ChangWoo

    2016-06-28

    Cold-adapted enzymes exhibit enhanced conformational flexibility, especially in their active sites, as compared with their warmer-temperature counterparts. However, the mechanism by which cold-adapted enzymes maintain their active site stability is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of conserved D308-Y309 residues located in the same loop as the catalytic H307 residue in the cold-adapted esterase EstK from Pseudomonas mandelii. Mutation of D308 and/or Y309 to Ala or deletion resulted in increased conformational flexibility. Particularly, the D308A or Y309A mutant showed enhanced substrate affinity and catalytic rate, as compared with wild-type EstK, via enlargement of the active site. However, all mutant EstK enzymes exhibited reduced thermal stability. The effect of mutation was greater for D308 than Y309. These results indicate that D308 is not preferable for substrate selection and catalytic activity, whereas hydrogen bond formation involving D308 is critical for active site stabilization. Taken together, conformation of the EstK active site is constrained via flexibility-stability trade-off for enzyme catalysis and thermal stability. Our study provides further insights into active site stabilization of cold-adapted enzymes. PMID:27259687

  8. Molecular insights into cold active polygalacturonase enzyme for its potential application in food processing.

    Ramya, L N; Pulicherla, K K

    2015-09-01

    Pectin is a complex structural heteropolysaccharide that require numerous pectinolytic enzymes for its complete degradation. Polygalacturonase from mesophilic or thermophilic origin are being widely used in fruit and vegetable processing in the recent decades to degrade pectic substances. Recently cold active pectinases are finding added advantages over meso and thermophilic counterparts, to use in industrial scale particularly in food processing industry. They facilitate in conservation of several properties of foods so that the end product retains its naturality and also generates economic benefits. In the present study, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, a well reported marine psychrophile is taken as a model organism for cold active polygalacturonase and is evaluated in comparision to the routinely used mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes by insicio approach. Polygalacturonase sequences from industrially important microbial sources were subjected to MEME and Pfam wherein motifs and domains involved in the conservation were analyzed. Dendrogram revealed sequence level similarity and motifs showed uniform distribution of conserved regions that are involved in important functions. It was also observed through clustalW analysis that the amount of arginine content of psychrophiles is less when compared with thermophiles. Finally, all the modeled enzyme structures were subjected to docking studies using Autodock 4.2 with the substrate polygalacturonic acid and binding energies were found to be -5.73, -6.22 and -7.27 KCals/mole for meso, thermo and psychrophiles respectively which indicates the efficiency of psychrophilic enzymes when compared with its counterparts giving scope for further experimentation to find their better usage in various food industry applications. PMID:26344963

  9. Activation of Spinal α2-Adrenoceptors Using Diluted Bee Venom Stimulation Reduces Cold Allodynia in Neuropathic Pain Rats

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold allodynia is an important distinctive feature of neuropathic pain. The present study examined whether single or repetitive treatment of diluted bee venom (DBV reduced cold allodynia in sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI rats and whether these effects were mediated by spinal adrenergic receptors. Single injection of DBV (0.25 or 2.5 mg/kg was performed into Zusanli acupoint 2 weeks post CCI, and repetitive DBV (0.25 mg/kg was injected for 2 weeks beginning on day 15 after CCI surgery. Single treatment of DBV at a low dose (0.25 mg/kg did not produce any anticold allodynic effect, while a high dose of DBV (2.5 mg/kg significantly reduced cold allodynia. Moreover, this effect of high-dose DBV was completely blocked by intrathecal pretreatment of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist or propranolol (nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, coadministration of low-dose DBV (0.25 mg/kg and intrathecal clonidine (α2-adrenoceptor agonist synergically reduced cold allodynia. On the other hand, repetitive treatments of low-dose DBV showing no motor deficit remarkably suppressed cold allodynia from 7 days after DBV treatment. This effect was also reversed by intrathecal idazoxan injection. These findings demonstrated that single or repetitive stimulation of DBV could alleviate CCI-induced cold allodynia via activation of spinal α2-adrenoceptor.

  10. Characterization of a novel cold active and salt tolerant esterase from Zunongwangia profunda.

    Rahman, Mohammad Asadur; Culsum, Umma; Tang, Wenhao; Zhang, Shao Wei; Wu, Gaobing; Liu, Ziduo

    2016-04-01

    A novel cold active esterase, EstLiu was cloned from the marine bacterium Zunongwangia profunda, overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by glutathione-S transferase (GST) affinity chromatography. The mature esterase EstLiu sequence encodes a protein of 273 amino acids residues, with a predicted molecular weight of 30KDa and containing the classical pentapeptidase motif from position 156 to 160 with the catalytic triad Ser158-Asp211-His243. Although, EstLiu showed 64% similarity with the hypothetical esterase from Chryseobacterium sp. StRB126 (WP_045498424), phylogenetic analysis showed it had no similarity with any of the established family of lipases/esterases, suggesting that it could be considered as a new family. The purified enzyme showed broad substrate specificity with the highest hydrolytic activity against p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4). EstLiu showed remarkable activity (75%) at 0°Cand the optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 30°C with good thermostability and quickened inactivation above 60°C. EstLiu retained 81, 103, 67 and 78% of its original activity at 50% (v/v) in ethanol, isopropanol, DMSO and ethylene glycol, respectively. In the presence of Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X-100, EstLiu showed 88, 100 and 117% of relative activity. It is also co-factor independent. The high activity at low temperature and desirable stability in organic solvents and salts of this novel family esterase represents a good evidence of novel biocatalyst. Overall, this novel enzyme showed better activity than previously reported esterases in extreme reaction conditions and could promote the reaction in both aqueous and non-aqueous conditions, indicating its great potential for industrial applications. PMID:26920474

  11. A gene encoding a new cold-active lipase from an Antarctic isolate of Penicillium expansum.

    Mohammed, Suja; Te'o, Junior; Nevalainen, Helena

    2013-08-01

    Cold-active lipases are of significant interest as biocatalysts in industrial processes. We have identified a lipase that displayed activity towards long carbon-chain-p-nitrophenyl substrates (C12-C18) at 25 °C from the culture supernatant of an Antarctic Penicillium expansum strain assigned P. expansum SM3. Zymography revealed a protein band of around 30 kDa with activity towards olive oil. DNA fragments of a lipase gene designated as lipPE were isolated from the genomic DNA of P. expansum SM3 by genomic walking PCR. Subsequently, the complete genomic lipPE gene was amplified using gene-specific primers designed from the 5'- and 3'-regions. Reverse transcription PCR was used to amplify the lipPE cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 285 residues that included a predicted signal peptide. Three peptides identified by LC/MS/MS analysis of the proteins in the culture supernatant of P. expansum were also present in the deduced amino acid sequence of the lipPE gene suggesting that this gene encoded the lipase identified by initial zymogram activity analysis. Full analysis of the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the lipPE gene encodes a novel P. expansum lipase. The lipPE gene was expressed in E. coli for further characterization of the enzyme with a view of assessing its suitability for industrial applications. PMID:23779196

  12. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes. PMID:26933936

  13. A novel cold active esterase derived from Colombian high Andean forest soil metagenome.

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Montaña, José Salvador; Alvarez, Diana; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    In order to search new lipolytic enzymes and conduct bioprospecting of microbial communities from high Andean forest soil, a metagenomic library of approximately 20,000 clones was constructed in Escherichia coli using plasmid p-Bluescript II SK+. The library covered 80 Mb of the metagenomic DNA mainly from Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Two clones with lipolytic activity in tributyrin as a substrate were recovered. Clone BAA3G2 (pSK-estGX1) was selected and the entire 4.6 Kb insert sequence was determined. The sequence had a GC content of 70.6% and could be derived from an undescribed Actinobacteria genome. One open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (gene estGX1) with a molecular mass of 22.4 kDa that contained the pentapeptide G-P-S-G-G near the N-terminus essential for lipase activity and the putative catalytic triad was identified, also a putative ribosomal binding site located 18 bp upstream the estGX1 ATG start codon was identified. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the protein belonged to a new lipase family. The secreted enzyme showed a preference for short length fatty acids, with specific activity against p-nitrophenyl-butyrate (0.142 U/mg of total protein), it was cold active with relative activity of 30% at 10°C and moderately thermo active with relative activity of 80% at 50°C and had a pH optimum of 8.0 at 40°C. PMID:22806812

  14. An Overview of Cold-active Microbial a-amylase: Adaptation Strategies and Biotechnological Potentials

    Ramteke, Pramod W.; Jamal M. Arif; Roohi; Mohammed Kuddus

    2011-01-01

    Absolutely the largest proportion of the Earth's biosphere is comprised of organisms that thrive in cold environments are known as psychrophiles and psychrotrophs. Their ability to proliferate in the cold is predicated on a capacity to synthesize cold-adapted enzymes like amylases, proteases, lipases, pectinases, cellulases, etc. that could be used in low-energy processes. Amylases have most widely been reported to occur in microorganisms, although they are also found in plants and animals. C...

  15. The muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing at different backpack load.

    Yali, Han; Aiguo, Song; Haitao, Gao; Songqing, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Stair climbing under backpack load condition is a challenging task. Understanding muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing with load furthers our understanding of the factors involved in joint pathology and the effects of treatment. At the same time, stair climbing under backpack load requires adjustments of muscle activations and increases joint moment compared to level walking, which with muscle activation patterns are altered as a result of using an assistive technology, such as a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscles during stair climbing under different backpack load. Nine healthy volunteers ascended a four-step staircase at different backpack load (0 kg, 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from four lower limb muscles (gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hamstring, rectus femoris). The results showed that muscle activation amplitudes of lower limb increase with increasing load during stair climbing, the maximum RMS of gastrocnemius are greater than tibialis anterior, hamstring and rectus femoris whether stair climbing or level walking under the same load condition. However, the maximum RMS of hamstring are smaller than gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The study of muscle activation under different backpack load during stair climbing can be used to design biomechanism and explore intelligent control based on EMG for a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. PMID:26899302

  16. Diversity, cold active enzymes and adaptation strategies of bacteria inhabiting glacier cryoconite holes of High Arctic.

    Singh, Purnima; Singh, Shiv M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Cryoconite holes have biogeochemical, ecological and biotechnological importance. This communication presents results on culturable psychrophilic bacterial diversity from cryoconite holes at Midre Lovénbreen (ML), Austre Brøggerbreen (AB), and Vestre Brøggerbreen (VB) glaciers. The culturable bacterial count ranged from 2.7 × 10(3) to 8.8 × 10(4) CFUs/g while the total bacterial numbers ranged from 5.07 × 10(5) to 1.50 × 10(6) cells at the three glaciers. A total of 35 morphologically distinct bacterial isolates were isolated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, the identified species belonged to eight genera namely Pseudomonas, Polaromonas, Micrococcus, Subtercola, Agreia, Leifsonia, Cryobacterium and Flavobacterium. The isolates varied in their growth temperature, NaCl tolerance, growth pH, enzyme activities, carbon utilization and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Fatty acid profiles indicate the predominance of branched fatty acids in the isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of culturable bacterial communities and their characterization from glacier cryoconites from High Arctic. High amylase and protease activities expressed by Micrococcus sp. MLB-41 and amylase, protease and lipase activities expressed by Cryobacterium sp. MLB-32 provide a clue to the potential applications of these organisms. These cold-adapted enzymes may provide an opportunity for the prospect of biotechnology in Arctic. PMID:24346230

  17. The role of galactic cold gas in low-level supermassive black hole activity

    Alfvin, Erik D; Haynes, Martha P; Gallo, Elena; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cannon, John M

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole (SMBH) activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. Here, we test whether central black holes may feed at higher rates in gas-rich galaxies, probing SMBH activity well below the active regime down to Eddington ratios of ~1e-7. We use a combination of radio data from the ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 129 late-type galaxies, with MB<-18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 75 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 58% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity LX and galaxy stellar mass Mstar with a slope of 1.7+/-0.3, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.8 sigma level) between LX and HI gas mass MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI fi...

  18. Differential induction, purification and characterization of cold active lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3639.

    Yadav, K N Sathish; Adsul, M G; Bastawde, K B; Jadhav, D D; Thulasiram, H V; Gokhale, D V

    2011-11-01

    The production, purification and characterization of cold active lipases by Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3639 is described. The study presents a new finding of production of cell bound and extracellular lipase activities depending upon the substrate used for growth. The strain produced cell bound and extracellular lipase activity when grown on olive oil and Tween 80, respectively. The organism grew profusely at 20 °C and at initial pH of 5.5, producing maximum extracellular lipase. The purified lipase has a molecular mass of 400 kDa having 20 subunits forming a multimeric native protein. Further the enzyme displayed an optimum pH of 5.0 and optimum temperature of 25 °C. Peptide mass finger printing reveled that some peptides showed homologues sequence (42%) to Yarrowia lipolytica LIP8p. The studies on hydrolysis of racemic lavandulyl acetate revealed that extracellular and cell bound lipases show preference over the opposite antipodes of irregular monoterpene, lavandulyl acetate. PMID:21967715

  19. The influence of ergonomic devices on mechanical load during patient handling activities in nursing homes

    Koppelaar, E; Knibbe, H.J.J.; Miedema, H.S.; Burdorf, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mechanical load during patient handling activities is an important risk factor for low back pain among nursing personnel. The aims of this study were to describe required and actual use of ergonomic devices during patient handling activities and to assess the influence of these ergonomic devices on mechanical load during patient handling activities. METHODS: For each patient, based on national guidelines, it was recorded which specific ergonomic devices were required during distin...

  20. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  1. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  2. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  3. Cold Stress

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  4. Mark II containment program load evaluation and acceptance criteria; Generic Technical Activity A-8

    The report provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark II pressure-suppression containment design. This report concludes NRC Generic Technical Activity A-8, 'Mark II Containment Pool Dynamic Loads,' which has been designated an 'Unresolved Safety Issue' pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974

  5. Effect of Pre-harvest Treatments on the Cellulase Activity and Quality of Ber Fruit Under Cold Storage Conditions

    Sukhjit Kaur JAWANDHA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to find out the effect of various pre-harvest treatments such as CaCl2 (@ 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (@0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%, GA3 (@ 20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (@ 0.1% on the cellulase activity and quality of 'Umran' ber fruits during cold storage. Marked trees were sprayed at colour break stage with the test chemicals. Fruits were packed in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5 oC and 85 � 90 % RH for 30 days. The fruits were evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days interval for various parameters such as cellulase activity, phenolics content, palatability rating and rotting percentage. Cellulase activity registered a gradual increase upto 20 days of storage thereafter a decline was noted in all the treatments. The palatability rating increased up to 10 days of storage in all the treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased with an advancement in storage period. Among the various pre-harvest treatments CaCl2 (2% recorded minimum cellulase activity and rotting percentage and have also registered high palatability rating and phenolics content during cold storage conditions. Studies showed that pre-harvest application of CaCl2 (2% maintained very good fruit quality and prolonged shelf-life for 20 days under cold storage conditions.

  6. Study of plate-fin heat exchanger and cold plate for the active thermal control system of Space Station

    Chyu, MING-C.

    1992-01-01

    Plate-fin heat exchangers will be employed in the Active Thermal Control System of Space Station Freedom. During ground testing of prototypic heat exchangers, certain anomalous behaviors have been observed. Diagnosis has been conducted to determine the cause of the observed behaviors, including a scrutiny of temperature, pressure, and flow rate test data, and verification calculations based on such data and more data collected during the ambient and thermal/vacuum tests participated by the author. The test data of a plate-fin cold plate have been also analyzed. Recommendation was made with regard to further tests providing more useful information of the cold plate performance.

  7. Mark III LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definition. Generic technical activity B-10

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and its consultants at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark III pressure-suppression containment design. Its issuance completes NRC Generic Technical Activity B-10, Behavior of BWR Mark III Containment. On the basis of certain large-scale tests conducted between 1973 and 1979, the General Electric Company developed LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definitions for use in the design of the standard Mark III containment. The staff and its consultants have reviewed these load definitions and their bases conclude that, with a few specified changes, the proposed load definitions provide conservative loading conditions. The staff-approved acceptance criteria for LOCA-related hydrodynamic loads are provided in Appendix C of this report

  8. Mark III LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definition. Generic technical activity B-10. Final report

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and its consultants at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark III pressure-suppression containment design. Its issuance completes NRC Generic Technical Activity B-10, Behavior of BWR Mark III Containment. On the basis of certain large-scale tests conducted between 1973 and 1979, the General Electric Company developed LOCA-related hydrodynamic load definitions for use in the design of the standard Mark III containment. The staff and its consultants have reviewed these load definitions and their bases and conclude that, with a few specified changes, the proposed load definitions provide conservative loading conditions. The staff approved acceptance criteria for LOCA-related hydrodynamic loads are provided in an appendix

  9. Exercising in Cold Weather

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  10. Dynamic Loading of Deformable Porous Media Can Induce Active Solute Transport

    Albro, Michael B.; Chahine, Nadeen O; Li, Roland; Yeager, Keith; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2008-01-01

    Active solute transport mediated by molecular motors across porous membranes is a well-recognized mechanism for transport across the cell membrane. In contrast, active transport mediated by mechanical loading of porous media is a non-intuitive mechanism that has only been predicted recently from theory, but not yet observed experimentally. This study uses agarose hydrogel and dextran molecules as a model experimental system to explore this mechanism. Results show that dynamic loading can enha...

  11. Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP. PMID:23247266

  12. Further studies on the numerical simulation of bubble plumes in the cold seepage active region

    LI Canping; GOU Limin; YOU Jiachun; LIU Xuewei; OU Chuling

    2016-01-01

    Using the occurrence characteristics of bubble plumes in the South China Sea as a reference, this paper continues to study the seismic responses produced by bubble plumes in the cold seepage active region. To make the plume modelling scheme more reasonable, we modified the original modelling scheme and reconstructed a plume water body model based on the variation of its radius as bubbles rise in seawater. The plume seismic records of shot gathers were obtained by forward simulation. The seismic records of single shot show obvious characteristics of a scattering wave field and the periodic characteristics of the model. Seismic records of shot gathers were processed using prestack depth migration. The boundary of its imaging section has a good convergence effect. The migration sections can be imaged distinctly with higher accuracy. The aforementioned studies once again laid a foundation for the further study of the seismic responses produced by plumes. They also gradually probed a more suitable seismic data processing method for plumes and provided a theoretical guidance for the identification of plumes.

  13. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    Nicole A. Vander Schaaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes.

  14. Three-dimensional structure of fluid conduits sustaining an active deep marine cold seep

    Hornbach, M.J.; Ruppel, C.; Van Dover, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Cold seeps in deep marine settings emit fluids to the overlying ocean and are often associated with such seafloor flux indicators as chemosynthetic biota, pockmarks, and authigenic carbonate rocks. Despite evidence for spatiotemporal variability in the rate, locus, and composition of cold seep fluid emissions, the shallow subseafloor plumbing systems have never been clearly imaged in three dimensions. Using a novel, high-resolution approach, we produce the first three-dimensional image of possible fluid conduits beneath a cold seep at a study site within the Blake Ridge gas hydrate province. Complex, dendritic features diverge upward toward the seafloor from feeder conduits at depth and could potentially draw flow laterally by up to 103 m from the known seafloor seep, a pattern similar to that suggested for some hydrothermal vents. The biodiversity, community structure, and succession dynamics of chemosynthetic communities at cold seeps may largely reflect these complexities of subseafloor fluid flow.

  15. Factors on goods temperature stability in fruits & vegetables cold storage during the loading process%果蔬冷库进货期间货物温度稳定性的影响因素

    冯坤旋; 南晓红; 杨巧银; 刘晓菲

    2015-01-01

    温度是果蔬贮藏环境最重要的参数.为了研究果蔬进库过程中影响货物温度稳定性的因素,该文以西安某苹果冷藏库为研究对象,建立冷库环境三维非稳态数值求解模型,模拟了进货过程中新进货物摆放间距、进货温度和进货量对达到贮藏条件货物温度稳定性的影响.模拟结果表明,在实际运行管理中,存在适宜的进货温度和进货量,可使苹果贮藏环境受进货过程影响最小,进货效率最高;增大进货间距可以减小对货物温度场的影响,进货摆放间距并不是越大越好.该文研究的冷库,进货过程中货物应先预冷到3℃再进库,进货摆放间距为0.5 m,进货量不大于10%.%Temperature is one of the most important environmental parameters for fruit or vegetable cold storage. During loading process of fruits or vegetables into cold storage, the new loading goods will influence the temperature stability of goods already settled in the storage room which have reached the storage requirements. Obtaining temperature variation and distribution characteristics in a cold storage during the loading process can provide theoretical reference for optimal design of the cold storage and improve its practical operation and management. To study the factors on the stability of goods temperature during the loading process of fruits and vegetables into cold storage, a combination of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculation and experimental study was carried out to further understand the complicated phenomenon of air flow and heat transfer in cold storage. A 3D (three-dimensional) unsteady numerical calculation model of storage environment was developed for a real cold storage with 50 t volume for apples in Xi'an. A ceiling air cooler was equipped in the cold storage. Thek-ε turbulent model was considered as CFD model. The apple zone was regarded as porous medium zone. The influences of the spacing of goods, loading temperature and loading

  16. VAMP7 regulates constitutive membrane incorporation of the cold-activated channel TRPM8

    Ghosh, Debapriya; Pinto, Silvia; Danglot, Lydia; Vandewauw, Ine; Segal, Andrei; Van Ranst, Nele; Benoit, Melissa; Janssens, Annelies; Vennekens, Rudi; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Galli, Thierry; Vriens, Joris; Voets, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The cation channel TRPM8 plays a central role in the somatosensory system, as a key sensor of innocuously cold temperatures and cooling agents. Although increased functional expression of TRPM8 has been implicated in various forms of pathological cold hypersen-sitivity, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine TRPM8 abundance at the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate constitutive transport of TRPM8 towards the plasma membrane in atypical, non-acidic transpo...

  17. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  18. THREE-PHASE ACTIVE POWER FILTER CONTROLLER FOR BALANCED AND UNBALANCED NON-LINEAR LOAD

    G.NAGESWARA RAO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The active power filter produces equal but opposite harmonic currents to the point of connection with the nonlinear load. This results in a reduction of the original distortion and correction of the power factor. A threephase insulated gate bipolar transistor based current controlled voltage source inverter with a dc bus capacitor is used as an active filter. The firing pulses to the shunt active filter will be generated by using sine PWM method. The models for three-phase active power filter controller for balanced and unbalanced non-linear load is made and is simulated using Matlab/simulink software.

  19. Activation of the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel triggers UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and prevents obesity

    Shuangtao Ma; Zhenyu Zhu; Li Li; Jian Zhong; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Zhiming Zhu; Hao Yu; Zhigang Zhao; Zhidan Luo; Jing Chen; Yinxing Ni; Rongbing Jin; Liqun Ma; Peijian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-expending organ that produces heat.Expansion or activation of BAT prevents obesity and diabetes.Chronic cold exposure enhances thermogenesis in BAT through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activation triggered via a β-adrenergic pathway.Here,we report that the cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is functionally present In mouse BAT.Challenging brown adipocytes with menthol,a TRPM8 agonist,up-regulates UCP1 expression and requires protein kinase A activation.Upon mimicking long-term cold exposure with chronic dietary menthol application,menthol significantly increased the core temperatures and locomotor activity in wild-type mice; these effects were absent in both TRPM8-/- and UCP1-/- mice.Dietary obesity and glucose abnormalities were also prevented by menthol treatment.Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for TRPM8,suggesting that stimulation of this channel mediates BAT thermogenesis,which could constitute a promising way to treat obesity.

  20. Compensation for Adolescents’ School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days

    Michal Kudláček

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Increasing mental load and inadequate stress management significantly affect the efficiency, success and safety of the educational/working process in adolescents. The objective of this study is to determine the extent that adolescents compensate for their school mental load by physical activity (PA on weekend days and, thus, to contribute to the objective measurement of mental load in natural working conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014. A set of different methods was employed—self-administered questionnaire (IPAQ-long questionnaire, objective measurements—pedometers, and accelerometers (ActiTrainers. They was distributed to 548 students from 17 high schools. Participants’ mental load was assessed based on the difference between PA intensity and/or physical inactivity and heart rate range. Results: The participants with the highest mental load during school lessons do not compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. Conclusions: Adolescents need to be encouraged to be aware of their subjective mental load and to intentionally compensate for this load by PA on weekend days. It is necessary to support the process of adopting habits by sufficient physical literacy of students, as well as teachers, and by changes in the school program.

  1. Partial neutron capture cross sections of actinides using cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis

    Nuclear waste needs to be characterized for its safe handling and storage. In particular long-lived actinides render the waste characterization challenging. The results described in this thesis demonstrate that Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA) with cold neutrons is a reliable tool for the non-destructive analysis of actinides. Nuclear data required for an accurate identification and quantification of actinides was acquired. Therefore, a sample design suitable for accurate and precise measurements of prompt γ-ray energies and partial cross sections of long-lived actinides at existing PGAA facilities was presented. Using the developed sample design the fundamental prompt γ-ray data on 237Np, 241Am and 242Pu were measured. The data were validated by repetitive analysis of different samples at two individual irradiation and counting facilities - the BRR in Budapest and the FRM II in Garching near Munich. Employing cold neutrons, resonance neutron capture by low energetic resonances was avoided during the experiments. This is an improvement over older neutron activation based works at thermal reactor neutron energies. 152 prompt γ-rays of 237Np were identified, as well as 19 of 241Am, and 127 prompt γ-rays of 242Pu. In all cases, both high and lower energetic prompt γ-rays were identified. The most intense line of 237Np was observed at an energy of Eγ=182.82(10) keV associated with a partial capture cross section of σγ=22.06(39) b. The most intense prompt γ-ray lines of 241Am and of 242Pu were observed at Eγ=154.72(7) keV with σγ=72.80(252) b and Eγ=287.69(8) keV with σγ=7.07(12) b, respectively. The measurements described in this thesis provide the first reported quantifications on partial radiative capture cross sections for 237Np, 241Am and 242Pu measured simultaneously over the large energy range from 45 keV to 12 MeV. Detailed uncertainty assessments were performed and the validity of the given uncertainties was demonstrated. Compared

  2. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    Ming-Chiu Ou; Yi-Hsin Liu; Yung-Wei Sun; Chin-Feng Chan

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in ox...

  3. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants. PMID:27214000

  4. Common Cold

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  5. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  6. Modulation of the Cold-Activated Channel TRPM8 by Lysophospholipids and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Andersson, David A; Nash, Mark; Bevan, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the effects of PLA2 products (polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophospholipids) on the cold-sensitive channel transient receptor potential (melastatin)-8 (TRPM8), heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. TRPM8 responses to cold and the agonist icilin were abolished by inhibitors of the calcium-independent (iPLA2) form of the enzyme, whereas responses to menthol were less sensitive to iPLA2 inhibition. Inhibition of PLA2 ...

  7. Leukotriene B4-loaded microspheres: a new therapeutic strategy to modulate cell activation

    Sanz Maria J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 is a potent inflammatory mediator that also stimulates the immune response. In addition, it promotes polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis, chemotaxis, chemokinesis and modulates cytokines release. Regarding chemical instability of the leukotriene molecule, in the present study we assessed the immunomodulatory activities conferred by LTB4 released from microspheres (MS. A previous oil-in-water emulsion solvent extraction-evaporation method was chosen to prepare LTB4-loaded MS. Results In the mice cremasteric microcirculation, intraescrotal injection of 0.1 ml of LTB4-loaded MS provoked significant increases in leukocyte rolling flux, adhesion and emigration besides significant decreases in the leukocyte rolling velocity. LTB4-loaded MS also increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα expression by murine peritoneal macrophages and stimulate them to generate nitrite levels. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and nitric oxide (NO productions were also increased when human umbilical vein and artery endothelial cells (HUVECs and HUAECs, respectively were stimulated with LTB4-loaded MS. Conclusion LTB4-loaded MS preserve the biological activity of the encapsulated mediator indicating their use as a new strategy to modulate cell activation, especially in the innate immune response.

  8. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  9. VAMP7 regulates constitutive membrane incorporation of the cold-activated channel TRPM8.

    Ghosh, Debapriya; Pinto, Silvia; Danglot, Lydia; Vandewauw, Ine; Segal, Andrei; Van Ranst, Nele; Benoit, Melissa; Janssens, Annelies; Vennekens, Rudi; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Galli, Thierry; Vriens, Joris; Voets, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The cation channel TRPM8 plays a central role in the somatosensory system, as a key sensor of innocuously cold temperatures and cooling agents. Although increased functional expression of TRPM8 has been implicated in various forms of pathological cold hypersensitivity, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine TRPM8 abundance at the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate constitutive transport of TRPM8 towards the plasma membrane in atypical, non-acidic transport vesicles that contain lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), and provide evidence that vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) mediates fusion of these vesicles with the plasma membrane. In line herewith, VAMP7-deficient mice exhibit reduced functional expression of TRPM8 in sensory neurons and concomitant deficits in cold avoidance and icilin-induced cold hypersensitivity. Our results uncover a cellular pathway that controls functional plasma membrane incorporation of a temperature-sensitive TRP channel, and thus regulates thermosensitivity in vivo. PMID:26843440

  10. Final Report 02-ERD-056 Active Load Control& Mitigation Using Microtabs: A Wind Energy Application

    Nakafuji, D Y

    2003-02-24

    With public concern over the security and reliability of our existing electricity infrastructure and the resurgence of wind energy, the wind industry offers an immediate, first point of entry for the application and demonstration of an active load control technology. An innovative microtab approach is being investigated and demonstrated for active aerodynamic load control applications under the mid-year LDRD (June-Sept. 2002) effort. With many of these million dollar turbines failing at only half the design lifespans, conventional techniques for stiffening rotors, enlarging generators and gearboxes, and reinforcing towers are insufficient to accommodate the demands for bigger, taller and more powerful turbines. The DOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports R&D efforts to develop lighter, more efficient and longer lasting wind turbines and advance turbine components. However, as wind turbine systems continue to increase in size and complexity, fundamental research and technology development has not kept pace with needs. New technologies to increase turbine life spans and to reduce costs are needed to realize wind electricity generation potentials. It is becoming quite evident that without a better understanding of static and dynamic response to normal and abnormal operating loads coupled with sophisticated flow analysis and control techniques, large turbine operating life and component life will be severely limited. Promising technologies include active load control and load alleviation systems to mitigate peak loads from damaging key components. This project addresses science and engineering challenges of developing enabling technologies for active load control for turbine applications using an innovative, translational microtab approach. Figure 1.1 illustrates the microtabs as applied on a wind turbine system. Extending wind turbine operating life is a crucial component for reducing the cost of wind-generated electricity, enabling wind

  11. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  12. Investigation of the Hydroisomerization Activities of Ni-Mo Catalysts Loaded on HY adn HUSY Zeolites

    LuChangbo; LiuChenguang

    2002-01-01

    A series of Ni-Mo/zeolite-Al2o3 catalysts was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and their catalytic experiments were carried out using an automated microflow apparatus.It is concluded that the Ni-Mo catalyst loaded on the HUSY has larger BET surface areas and possesses more acid sites than that loaded on the HY zeolite,and simultaneously the Ni-Mo/HUSY-Al2O3 catalyst reveals higher catalytic activ-ity characterized by feedstock conversion and isomer yield which is about two or three times higher than that of the Ni-Mo/HY-Al2O3 catalyst.

  13. Effect of Pre-harvest Treatments on the Cellulase Activity and Quality of Ber Fruit Under Cold Storage Conditions

    Sukhjit Kaur JAWANDHA; Mahajan, B. V. C.; Parmpal Singh GILL

    2009-01-01

    Studies were carried out to find out the effect of various pre-harvest treatments such as CaCl2 (@ 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%), Ca(NO3)2 (@0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%), GA3 (@ 20, 40 and 60 ppm) and Bavistin (@ 0.1%) on the cellulase activity and quality of 'Umran' ber fruits during cold storage. Marked trees were sprayed at colour break stage with the test chemicals. Fruits were packed in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5 oC and 85 � 90 % RH) for 30 days. The fruits were evaluated after 10, 20 and...

  14. Biochemical Properties of a New Cold-Active Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase from Marine Member Janibacter sp. Strain HTCC2649

    Dongjuan Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1 from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1, Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL, and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL. Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  15. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity. PMID:24927145

  16. Linear active disturbance rejection-based load frequency control concerning high penetration of wind energy

    Highlights: • A disturbance rejection solution to the load frequency control issue is proposed. • Several power systems with wind energy conversation system have been tested. • A tuning algorithm of the controller parameters was proposed. • The performance of the proposed approach is better than traditional controllers. - Abstract: A new grid load frequency control approach is proposed for the doubly fed induction generator based wind power plants. The load frequency control issue in a power system is undergoing fundamental changes due to the rapidly growing amount of wind energy conversation system, and concentrating on maintaining generation-load balance and disturbance rejection. The prominent feature of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach is that the total disturbance can be estimated and then eliminated in real time. And thus, it is a feasible solution to deal with the load frequency control issue. In this paper, the application of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach in the load frequency control issue for a complex power system with wind energy conversation system based on doubly fed induction generator is investigated. The load frequency control issue is formulated as a decentralized multi-objective optimization control problem, the solution to which is solved by the hybrid particle swarm optimization technique. To show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, the robust performance testing based on Monte-Carlo approach is carried out. The performance superiority of the system with the proposed linear active disturbance rejection control approach over that with the traditional proportional integral and fuzzy-proportional integral-based controllers is validated by the simulation results

  17. Controlled release and antibacterial activity of tetracycline hydrochloride-loaded bacterial cellulose composite membranes.

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shuxia; Wu, Jimin; Huang, Min; Min, Huihua; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-07-10

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is widely used in biomedical applications. In this study, we prepared an antibiotic drug tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH)-loaded bacterial cellulose (BC) composite membranes, and evaluated the drug release, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. The structure and morphology of the fabricated BC-TCH composite membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The TCH release results show that the incorporation of BC matrix to load TCH is able to control the release. In vitro antibacterial assay demonstrate that the developed BC-TCH composites displayed excellent antibacterial activity solely associated with the loaded TCH drug. More importantly, the BC-TCH composite membranes display good biocompatibility. These characteristics of BC-TCH composite membranes indicate that they may successfully serve as wound dressings and other medical biomaterials. PMID:27106158

  18. Isolation and characterization of EstC, a new cold-active esterase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2.

    Guillaume Brault

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2 contains more than 50 genes coding for putative lipolytic enzymes. Many studies have shown the capacity of this actinomycete to store important reserves of intracellular triacylglycerols in nutrient depletion situations. In the present study, we used genome mining of S. coelicolor to identify genes coding for putative, non-secreted esterases/lipases. Two genes were cloned and successfully overexpressed in E. coli as His-tagged fusion proteins. One of the recombinant enzymes, EstC, showed interesting cold-active esterase activity with a strong potential for the production of valuable esters. The purified enzyme displayed optimal activity at 35°C and was cold-active with retention of 25% relative activity at 10°C. Its optimal pH was 8.5-9 but the enzyme kept more than 75% of its maximal activity between pH 7.5 and 10. EstC also showed remarkable tolerance over a wide range of pH values, retaining almost full residual activity between pH 6-11. The enzyme was active toward short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C2-C12, displaying optimal activity with the valerate (C5 ester (k(cat/K(m = 737±77 s(-1 mM(-1. The enzyme was also very active toward short chain triglycerides such as triacetin (C2:0 and tributyrin (C4:0, in addition to showing good primary alcohol and organic solvent tolerance, suggesting it could function as an interesting candidate for organic synthesis of short-chain esters such as flavors.

  19. Intercomparison of Neutron Beam Guides for Cold Neutron Activation Station at HANARO using McStas/VITESS/RESTRAX Codes

    Tuan, Hoang Sy Minh; Sun, Gwang Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The HANARO (KAERI) research reactor has been developed a neutron guide system for cold neutron (CN) research facilities since July, 2003. The neutron guide system plays an important role in transporting cold neutrons from the CN source to the neutron facilities as CN-NDP, CN-PGAA, SANS, etc. The CN activation station is being installed in the HANARO cold-neutron research project. The CN-NDP and CN-PGAA were selected as two facilities using at this station. At the end position of CG1 and CG2B beam guides, the CN-NDP and CN-PGAA will be installed in the CN guide hall. In order to predict the neutron flux and intensity values at the CG1 and CG2B beam guides, the simulation results of neutron flux at the CG1 and CG2B beam guides are presented by using several Monte Carlo (MC) neutron ray-tracing simulation codes. The intercomparison of neutron flux values between McStas, VITESS and RESTRAX are performed for getting fairly correct results at two neutron beam guides

  20. Optimization of piezoelectric bimorph actuators with active damping for static and dynamic loads

    Donoso, Alberto; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers optimal design problems in the context of active damping. More specifically, we are interested in controlling the tip-deflection of a cantilever beam subjected to static and time-harmonic loading on its free extreme. First, the thickness profile of a piezoelectric bimorph...

  1. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Simulation of Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction

    Resor, B.; Wilson, D.; Berg, D.; Berg, J.; Barlas, T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Active aerodynamic load control of wind turbine blades is being investigated by the wind energy research community and shows great promise, especially for reduction of turbine fatigue damage in blades and nearby components. For much of this work, full system aeroelastic codes have been used to simul

  2. Metal-loaded polystyrene-based activated carbons as DBT removal media via reactive adsorption

    Ovín Ania, María Concepción; Bandosz, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    [EN] To improve the desulfurization capability of activated carbons, new metal-loaded carbon-based sorbents containing sodium, cobalt, copper, and silver highly dispersed within the carbon matrix were prepared and tested at room temperature for dibenzothiophene (DBT) adsorption. The content of metals can be controlled by selective washing. The new adsorbents showed good adsorption capacities and selectivity towards DBT. The metals incorporated to the surface act not only as active sites for s...

  3. Feasibility of Applying Active Lubrication to Dynamically Loaded Fluid Film Bearings

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of modifying the dynamics of the thin fluid films of dynamically loaded journal bearings, using different strategies of active lubrication is studied in this work. A significant reduction in the vibration levels, wear and power friction losses, is expected. Particularly, the focus...... of this study is on the analysis of main crankshaft bearings, where the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at actively controllable pressures, through orifices circumferentially located along the bearing surface....

  4. Active load management in an intelligent building using model predictive control strategy

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    shifting in PowerFlexHouse heaters' power consumption scheme. With this demand side control study, it is expected that this method of demand response can dramatically raise energy efficiencies and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of intermittent energy resources in the power......This paper introduces PowerFlexHouse, a research facility for exploring the technical potential of active load management in a distributed power system (SYSLAB) with a high penetration of renewable energy and presents in detail on how to implement a thermal model predictive controller for load...

  5. Recent technological advances for modular active harmonic load-pull measurement systems

    Madonna, Gian Luigi; Pisani, Umberto; Ferrero, Andrea Pierenrico

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Load-pull systems are today widely accepted as fundamental tools for non-linear performance evaluation, from device design and modeling in R&D labs to MMIC production testing. This paper presents an overview of the recent innovations in load-pull measurements. After a brief introduction on novelties regarding passive set-ups, the survey deals with technological advances for active systems. Finally, a realization of a modular broadband system for on-wafer measurements in the 0.5-18 GH...

  6. EFFECT OF WEB HOLES ON WEB CRIPPLING STRENGTH OF COLD-FORMED STEEL CHANNEL SECTIONS UNDER END-ONE-FLANGE LOADING CONDITION-PART I: TESTS AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Lian, Ying; uzzaman, asraf; Lim, James; Abdelal, Gasser; Sha, Wei; Nash, David; Young, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Web openings could be used in cold-formed steel beam members, such as wall studs or floor joints, to facilitate ease of services in buildings. In this paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the effect of such holes on web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition; the cases of both flanges fastened and unfastened to the bearing plates are considered. The results of 74 web crippling tests are presented, with 22 tests conducted o...

  7. EFFECT OF WEB HOLES ON WEB CRIPPLING STRENGTH OF COLD-FORMED STEEL CHANNEL SECTIONS UNDER END-ONE-FLANGE LOADING CONDITION - PART II: PARAMETRIC STUDY AND PROPOSED DESIGN EQUATIONS

    Lian, Ying; uzzaman, asraf; Lim, James; Abdelal, Gasser; Sha, Wei; Nash, David; Young, Ben

    2016-01-01

    A parametric study of cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition is undertaken, using finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes and cross-section sizes. The holes are located either centred above the bearing plates or with a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plates. It was demonstrated that the main factors influencing the web crippling strength are the ratio of the hole de...

  8. E. coli-Derived L-Asparaginase Retains Enzymatic and Cytotoxic Activity In Vitro for Canine and Feline Lymphoma after Cold Storage

    Jackie M. Wypij

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. L-asparaginase is effective in treating canine and feline lymphoma, however chemotherapy poses a significant financial cost to veterinary clients, limiting therapy for many pets. Single dose vials result in significant drug wastage, and drug shortages limit consistent availability for pets. Hypothesis. E. coli-derived asparaginase retains enzymatic and antineoplastic activity in canine and feline lymphoma cells after cold storage. Methods. E. coli-derived asparaginase was cold-stored: refrigeration (7–14 days and freezing (14 days–six months, one to three freeze/thaw cycles. Enzymatic activity of asparaginase was measured via a modified asparagine assay. Effects of cold-stored asparaginase on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured in feline (MYA-1, F1B and canine (17–71, OSW lymphoma cells. Results. Cold-stored E. coli-derived asparaginase retains antineoplastic activity in all four cell lines tested. Cold-stored E. coli-derived L-asparaginase depletes asparagine and retains enzymatic activity. Duration of refrigeration, duration of freezing, and number of freeze-thaw cycles have minimal effect on asparaginase enzyme activity. Conclusions and Clinical Importance. This study establishes a scientific basis for long-term cold storage of reconstituted E. coli-derived asparaginase that may result in better utilization of limited drug resources and improve financial feasibility of E. coli-derived asparaginase as a therapeutic option for pets with lymphoma.

  9. Bench Press Upper-Body Muscle Activation Between Stable and Unstable Loads.

    Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Lynn, Scott K; Barillas, Saldiam R

    2015-12-01

    The bench press is one of the most commonly used upper-body exercises in training and is performed with many different variations, including unstable loads (ULs). Although there is much research on use of an unstable surface, there is little to none on the use of an UL. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation during the bench press while using a stable load (SL) vs. UL. Twenty resistance-trained men (age = 24.1 ± 2 years; ht = 177.5 ± 5.8 cm; mass = 88.7 ± 13.7 kg) completed 2 experimental conditions (SL and UL) at 2 different intensities (60 and 80% one repetition maximum). Unstable load was achieved by hanging 16 kg kettlebells by elastic bands from the end of the bar. All trial lifts were set to a 2-second cadence with a slight pause at the bottom. Subjects had electrodes attached to 5 muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, triceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi) and performed 3 isometric bench press trials to normalize electromyographic data. All 5 muscles demonstrated significantly greater activation at 80% compared with 60% load and during concentric compared with eccentric actions. These results suggest that upper body muscle activation is not different in the bench press between UL and SL. Therefore, coaches should use their preference when designing training programs. PMID:26540024

  10. Extracellular cold active lipase from the psychrotrophic Halomonas sp. BRI 8 isolated from the Antarctic sea water

    Vipra Vijay Jadhav; Swanandi Suresh Pote; Amit Yadav; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Rama Kaustubh Bhadekar

    2013-01-01

    An extracellular cold active lipase-producing psychrotrophic bacterium (BRI 8) was isolated from the Antarctic sea water sample. The 16s rRNA sequence study revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Halomonas (929 bp). The present paper reports optimization of fermentation conditions for production of lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) from Halomonas sp. BRI 8. Highest lipase production was observed in the medium containing olive oil and peptone. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme catalysis were...

  11. Determination of hydrogen in niobium by cold neutron prompt gamma ray activation analysis and neutron incoherent scattering

    R.L. Paul; H.H. Cheu-Maya; G.R. Myneni

    2002-11-01

    The presence of trace amounts of hydrogen in niobium is believed to have a detrimental effect on the mechanical and superconducting properties. Unfortunately, few techniques are capable of measuring hydrogen at these levels. We have developed two techniques for measuring hydrogen in materials. Cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) has proven useful for the determination of hydrogen and other elements in a wide variety of materials. Neutron incoherent scattering (NIS), a complementary tool to PGAA, has been used to measure trace hydrogen in titanium. Both techniques were used to study the effects of vacuum heating and chemical polishing on the hydrogen content of superconducting niobium.

  12. Load rather than length sensitive feedback contributes to soleus muscle activity during human treadmill walking

    Klint, Richard Albin Ivar af; Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2010-01-01

    body load and ankle joint angle. The volunteers walked on a treadmill ( approximately 3.6 km/h) connected to a body weight support (BWS) system. To manipulate the load sensitive afferents the level of BWS was switched between 5 and 30% of body weight. The effect of transient changes in BWS on the...... significant difference was observed for the SLR (P = 0.13). Similarly, the effect of the BWS was measured on the unload response, i.e., the depression in soleus activity following a plantar-flexion perturbation ( approximately 5.6 degrees, 203-247 degrees/s), quantified over a 50 ms analysis window. The...... unload response decreased with decreased load (P > 0.001), but was not significantly affected (P = 0.45) by tizanidine induced depression of the MLR (P = 0.039, n = 6). Since tizanidine is believed to depress the group II afferent pathway, these results are consistent with the idea that force...

  13. The Application of Hypoxanthine Activity as a Quality Indicator of Cold Stored Fish Burgers

    METİN, Suhendan; ERKAN, Nuray; VARLIK, Candan

    2002-01-01

    Seafoods are very perishable, and many different methods are used for the determination of their quality. Sensory and hypoxanthine values of cold stored trout burgers, which we prepared, were determined during a 28-day period. Burgers spoiled after the 21st day of storage. The TVB-N values were still very low when the burgers spoiled and the pH values decreased during their storage. Therefore total volatile bases nitrogen and pH analyses were not useful for the determination of the quality...

  14. Amino acid sequence of the cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Nielsen, Berit Noesgaard; Højrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic cod is a marine fish that lives at low temperatures of 0-10 degrees C and contains a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase (AP). Preparations of AP from either the lower part of the intestines or the pyloric caeca area were subjected to proteolytic digestion, mass spectrometry and amino acid...... sequencing by Edman degradation. The primary structure exhibits greatest similarity to human tissue non-specific AP (80%), and approximately 30% similarity to AP from Escherichia coli. The key residues required for catalysis are conserved in the cod AP, except for the third metal binding site, where cod AP...

  15. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses of a cold-active {beta}-galactosidase from the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola BA

    Coombs, J.M.; Brenchley, J.E.

    1999-12-01

    The authors are investigating glycosyl hydrolases from new psychrophilic isolates to examine the adaptations of enzymes to low temperatures. A {beta}-galactosidase from isolate BA, which they have classified as a strain of the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola, was capable of hydrolyzing the chromogen 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside (X-Gal) at 4 C and possessed higher activity in crude cell lysates at 25 than at 37 C. Sequence analysis of a cloned DNA fragment encoding this activity revealed a gene cluster containing three glycosyl hydrolases with homology to an {alpha}-galactosidase and two {beta}-galactosidases. The larger of the two {beta}-galactosidase genes, bgaB, encoded the 76.9-kDa cold-active enzyme. This gene was homologous to family 42 glycosyl hydrolases, a group which contains several thermophilic enzymes but none from lactic acid bacteria. The bgaB gene from isolate BA was subcloned in Escherichia coli, and its enzyme, BgaB, was purified. The purified enzyme was highly unstable and required 10% glycerol to maintain activity. Its optimal temperature for activity was 30 C, and it was inactivated at 40 C in 10 min. The K{sub m} of freshly purified enzyme at 30 C was 1.7 mM, and the V{sub max} was 450 {micro}mol {sm{underscore}bullet} min{sup {minus}1}{sm{underscore}bullet}mg{sup {minus}1} with o-nitrophenyl {beta}-D-galactopyranoside. This cold-active enzyme is interesting because it is homologous to a thermophilic enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus, and comparisons could provide information about structural features important for activity at low temperatures.

  16. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    Bergami, Leonardo

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has...... to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D...... energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first algorithm features a linear quadratic regulator with periodic disturbance rejection, and controls the deflection of...

  17. Rutin-loaded chitosan microspheres: Characterization and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity.

    Cosco, Donato; Failla, Paola; Costa, Nicola; Pullano, Salvatore; Fiorillo, Antonino; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fresta, Massimo; Paolino, Donatella

    2016-11-01

    Rutin was microencapsulated in a chitosan matrix using the spray-drying technique and the resulting system was investigated. High amounts of rutin were efficiently entrapped within polymeric microspheres, and these microparticles were characterized by a smooth surface and afforded a controlled release of the active compound. The anti-inflammatory activity of rutin-loaded microspheres was investigated in in vitro models of NCTC 2544 and C-28 cells treated with LPS by determining the levels of IL-1β and IL-6. The rutin-loaded microspheres showed an increase of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with respect to the free active compound. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that massive intracellular uptake of the chitosan microspheres took place after a few hours of incubation and that the drug was localized in the cytosol compartment of the treated cells. The improved anti-inflammatory activity of the rutin-loaded microspheres was further confirmed by an in vivo model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. PMID:27516307

  18. Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. TTH0-4, a cold-active crude oil degrading strain isolated from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Zhang, Gaosen; Chen, Tuo; Chang, Sijing; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiukun; Wu, Minghui; Wang, Yilin; Long, Haozhi; Chen, Ximing; Wang, Yun; Liu, Guangxiu

    2016-05-20

    Acinetobacter sp. strain TTH0-4 was isolated from a permafrost region in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. With its capability to degrade crude oil at low temperature, 10°C, the strain could be an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of crude oil pollution in cold areas or at cold seasons. We sequenced and annotated the whole genome to serve as a basis for further elucidation of the genetic background of this promising strain, and provide opportunities for investigating the metabolic and regulatory mechanisms and optimizing the biodegradative activity in cold environment. PMID:26988394

  19. Cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis, a non-destructive technique for hydrogen level assessment in zirconium alloys

    Highlights: ► Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis has been performed to detect hydrogen in various Zr alloys. ► CNPGAA is non-destructive and can precisely detect low levels of hydrogen (as low as 5 wt ppm). ► Hydrogen pick-up fraction of ZIRLO samples has been investigated using CNPGAA and Vacuum hot Extraction. ► It is shown that the hydrogen pick-up fraction undergoes significant increase slightly before the weight gain transition. - Abstract: We propose a novel use of a non-destructive technique to quantitatively assess hydrogen concentration in zirconium alloys. The technique, called Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (CNPGAA), is based on measuring prompt gamma rays following the absorption of cold neutrons, and comparing the rate of detection of characteristic hydrogen gamma rays to that of gamma rays from matrix atoms. Because the emission is prompt, this method has to be performed in close proximity to a neutron source such as the one at the National Institute of Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research. Determination shown here to be simple and accurate, matching the results given by usual destructive techniques such as Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE), with a precision of ±2 mg kg−1 (or wt ppm). Very low levels of hydrogen (as low as 5 mg kg−1 (wt ppm)) can be detected. Also, it is demonstrated that CNPGAA can be applied sequentially on an individual corrosion coupon during autoclave testing, to measure a gradually increasing hydrogen concentration. Thus, this technique can replace destructive techniques performed on “sister” samples thereby reducing experimental uncertainties.

  20. "Cold training" affects rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure.

    Venditti, Paola; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Di Meo, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Continuous exposure of homeothermic animals to low environmental temperatures elicits physiological adaptations necessary for animal survival, which are associated to higher generation of pro-oxidants in thermogenic tissues. It is not known whether intermittent cold exposure (cold training) is able to affect tissue responses to continuous cold exposure. Therefore, we investigated whether rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure of 2 days are modified by cold training (1h daily for 5 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks). Continuous cold increased liver oxidative metabolism by increasing tissue content of mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial aerobic capacity. Cold training did not affect such parameters, but attenuated or prevented the changes elicited by continuous cold exposure. Two-day cold exposure increased lipid hydroperoxide and protein-bound carbonyl levels in homogenates and mitochondria, whereas cold training decreased such effects although it decreased only homogenate protein damage in control rats. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPX and GR and H2O2 production were increased by continuous cold exposure. Despite the increase in GPX and GR activities, livers from cold-exposed rats showed increased susceptibility to in vitro oxidative challenge. Such cold effects were decreased by cold training, which in control rats reduced only H2O2 production and susceptibility to stress. The changes of PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 expression levels were consistent with those induced by cold exposure and cold training in mitochondrial protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, the mechanisms by which cold training attenuates the effects of the continuous cold exposure remain to be elucidated. PMID:26808664

  1. Oridonin Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Activity in MCF-7 Cells

    Lu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oridonin (ORI, a famous diterpenoid from Chinese herbal medicine, has drawn rising attention for its remarkable apoptosis and autophagy-inducing activity in human cancer therapy, while clinical application of ORI is limited by its strong hydrophobicity and rapid plasma clearance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the antitumor activity of ORI could be enhanced by loading into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs. ORI-loaded SLNs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization with narrow size distribution and good entrapment efficacy. MTT assay indicated that ORI-loaded SLNs enhanced the inhibition of proliferation against several human cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF-7 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG 2 cells, and lung carcinoma A549 cells compared with free ORI, while no significant enhancement of toxicity to human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells was shown. Meanwhile, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that ORI-SLNs induced more significant cell cycle arrest at S and decreased cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells than bulk ORI solution. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V/PI assay indicated that apoptotic rates of cells treated with ORI-loaded SLNs were higher compared with free ORI. In summary, our data indicated that SLNs may be a potential carrier for enhancing the antitumor effect of hydrophobic drug ORI.

  2. Wear testing of moderate activities of daily living using in vivo measured knee joint loading.

    Jörn Reinders

    Full Text Available Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities.

  3. A novel cold-active β-D-galactosidase from the Paracoccus sp. 32d - gene cloning, purification and characterization

    Wierzbicka-Woś Anna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-D-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23 catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing β-D-galactose residues in β-D-galactosides. Cold-active β-D-galactosidases have recently become a focus of attention of researchers and dairy product manufactures owing to theirs ability to: (i eliminate of lactose from refrigerated milk for people afflicted with lactose intolerance, (ii convert lactose to glucose and galactose which increase the sweetness of milk and decreases its hydroscopicity, and (iii eliminate lactose from dairy industry pollutants associated with environmental problems. Moreover, in contrast to commercially available mesophilic β-D-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis the cold-active counterparts could make it possible both to reduce the risk of mesophiles contamination and save energy during the industrial process connected with lactose hydrolysis. Results A genomic DNA library was constructed from soil bacterium Paracoccus sp. 32d. Through screening of the genomic DNA library on LB agar plates supplemented with X-Gal, a novel gene encoding a cold-active β-D-galactosidase was isolated. The in silico analysis of the enzyme amino acid sequence revealed that the β-D-galactosidase Paracoccus sp. 32d is a novel member of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 2. However, owing to the lack of a BGal_small_N domain, the domain characteristic for the LacZ enzymes of the GH2 family, it was decided to call the enzyme under study 'BgaL'. The bgaL gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the pBAD Expression System. The purified recombinant BgaL consists of two identical subunits with a combined molecular weight of about 160 kDa. The BgaL was optimally active at 40°C and pH 7.5. Moreover, BgaL was able to hydrolyze both lactose and o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside at 10°C with Km values of 2.94 and 1.17 mM and kcat values 43.23 and 71.81 s-1, respectively. One U of the recombinant BgaL would thus be capable

  4. Daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity indicate different adaptive strategies to cold exposure in adult and aged mouse lemurs acclimated to a summer-like photoperiod.

    Terrien, Jeremy; Zizzari, Philippe; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    Daily variations in core temperature (Tc) within the normothermic range imply thermoregulatory processes that are essential for optimal function and survival. Higher susceptibility towards cold exposure in older animals suggests that these processes are disturbed with age. In the mouse lemur, a long-day breeder, we tested whether aging affected circadian rhythmicity of Tc, locomotor activity (LA), and energy balance under long-day conditions when exposed to cold. Adult (N = 7) and aged (N = 5...

  5. Isolation and characterization of glacier VMY22, a novel lytic cold-active bacteriophage of Bacillus cereus

    Xiuling; Ji; Chunjing; Zhang; Yuan; Fang; Qi; Zhang; Lianbing; Lin; Bing; Tang; Yunlin; Wei

    2015-01-01

    As a unique ecological system with low temperature and low nutrient levels, glaciers are considered a "living fossil" for the research of evolution. In this work, a lytic cold-active bacteriophage designated VMY22 against Bacillus cereus MYB41-22 was isolated from Mingyong Glacier in China, and its characteristics were studied. Electron microscopy revealed that VMY22 has an icosahedral head(59.2 nm in length, 31.9 nm in width) and a tail(43.2 nm in length). Bacteriophage VMY22 was classified as a Podoviridae with an approximate genome size of 18 to 20 kb. A one-step growth curve revealed that the latent and the burst periods were 70 and 70 min, respectively, with an average burst size of 78 bacteriophage particles per infected cell. The pH and thermal stability of bacteriophage VMY22 were also investigated. The maximum stability of the bacteriophage was observed to be at pH 8.0 and it was comparatively stable at p H 5.0–9.0. As VMY22 is a cold-active bacteriophage with low production temperature, its characterization and the relationship between MYB41-22 and Bacillus cereus bacteriophage deserve further study.

  6. Potential indirect effects of aerosol on tropical cyclone intensity: convective fluxes and cold-pool activity

    G. M. Krall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational and model evidence suggest that a 2008 Western Pacific typhoon (NURI ingested elevated concentrations of aerosol as it neared the Chinese coast. This study uses a regional model with two-moment bin-emulating microphysics to simulate the typhoon as it enters the field of elevated aerosol concentrations. A clean maritime field of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN was prescribed as marine background CCN concentrations and then based on satellite and global aerosol model output, increased to pollution levels and further enhanced in sensitivity tests. The typhoon was simulated for 96 h beginning 17 August 2008. During the final 60 h CCN concentrations were enhanced as it neared the Philippines and coastal China. The model was initialized with both global reanalysis model data and irregularly spaced dropsonde data from the 2008 T-PARC observational campaign using an objective analysis routine. At 36 h, the internal nudging of the model was switched off and allowed to freely evolve on its own. As the typhoon encountered the elevated CCN in the sensitivity tests, a significant perturbation of windspeed, convective fluxes, and hydrometeor species behavior was simulated. Early during the ingestion of enhanced CCN, precipitation was reduced due to suppressed collision and coalescence, and storm winds increased in strength. Subsequently, owing to reduced fall speeds of the smaller drops, greater amounts of condensate were thrust into supercooled levels where the drops froze releasing greater amounts of latent heat of freezing. Convection thereby intensified which resulted in enhanced rainfall and more vigorous convectively-produced downdrafts. As the convection intensified in the outer rainbands the storm drifted over the developing cold-pools. The enhanced cold-pools blocked the inflow of warm, moist air into the core of the typhoon which led to a weakening of the typhoon with significantly reduced low level wind speeds. The very high amounts of

  7. Science Letters: Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 and activity in carbon-nitric oxide reaction

    WAN Xian-kai; ZOU Xue-quan; SHI Hui-xiang; WANG Da-hui

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of activated carbon loading Fe2O3 was performed by annealing in ammonia, and the activity of the modified carbon for NO reduction was studied in the presence of oxygen. Results show that Fe2O3 enhances the amount of surface oxygen complexes and facilitates nitrogen incorporation in the carbon, especially in the form of pyridinic nitrogen. The modified carbon shows excellent activity for NO reduction in the low temperature regime (<500 ℃) because of the cooperative effect of Fe2O3 and the surface nitrogen species.

  8. Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro.

    Touba, Eslaminejad Parizi; Zakaria, Maziah; Tahereh, Eslaminejad

    2012-02-01

    Crude extracts of seven spices, viz. cardamom, chilli, coriander, onion, garlic, ginger, and galangale were made using cold water and hot water extraction and they were tested for their anti-fungal effects against the three Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani using the 'poisoned food technique'. All seven spices studied showed significant anti-fungal activity at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30% of the crude extract) in-vitro. The cold water extract of garlic exhibited good anti-fungal activity against all three tested fungi. In the case of the hot water extracts, garlic and ginger showed the best anti-fungal activity. Of the two extraction methods, cold water extraction was generally more effective than hot water extraction in controlling the pathogens. Against P. exigua, the 10% cold water extracts of galangale, ginger, coriander and cardamom achieved total (100%) inhibition of pathogen mycelial growth. Total inhibition of F. nygamai mycelial growth was similarly achieved with the 10% cold water extracts garlic. Against R. solani, the 10% cold water extract of galangale was effective in imposing 100% inhibition. Accordingly, the 10% galangale extract effectively controlled both P. exigua and R. solani in vitro. None of the hot water extracts of the spices succeeded in achieving 100% inhibition of the pathogen mycelial growth. PMID:22138549

  9. Definition of two agonist types at the mammalian cold-activated channel TRPM8.

    Janssens, Annelies; Gees, Maarten; Toth, Balazs Istvan; Ghosh, Debapriya; Mulier, Marie; Vennekens, Rudi; Vriens, Joris; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Various TRP channels act as polymodal sensors of thermal and chemical stimuli, but the mechanisms whereby chemical ligands impact on TRP channel gating are poorly understood. Here we show that AITC (allyl isothiocyanate; mustard oil) and menthol represent two distinct types of ligands at the mammalian cold sensor TRPM8. Kinetic analysis of channel gating revealed that AITC acts by destabilizing the closed channel, whereas menthol stabilizes the open channel, relative to the transition state. Based on these differences, we classify agonists as either type I (menthol-like) or type II (AITC-like), and provide a kinetic model that faithfully reproduces their differential effects. We further demonstrate that type I and type II agonists have a distinct impact on TRPM8 currents and TRPM8-mediated calcium signals in excitable cells. These findings provide a theoretical framework for understanding the differential actions of TRP channel ligands, with important ramifications for TRP channel structure-function analysis and pharmacology. PMID:27449282

  10. Weak-light rogue waves, breathers, and their active control in a cold atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency

    Liu, Junyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme to demonstrate the existence of optical Peregrine rogue waves and Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers and realize their active control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we suggest is a cold, Λ -type three-level atomic gas interacting with a probe and a control laser fields and working under EIT condition. We show that, based on EIT with an incoherent optical pumping, which can be used to cancel optical absorption, (1+1)-dimensional optical Peregrine rogue waves, Akhmediev breathers, and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers can be generated with very low light power. In addition, we demonstrate that the Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers in (2+1)-dimensions obtained can be actively manipulated by using an external magnetic field. As a result, these breathers can display trajectory deflections and bypass obstacles during propagation.

  11. Thermal and epithermal neutron dosimetry by induced activation in cold-pressed pellets of TL phosphor-mixture

    Measurement of thermal and epithermal neutron exposures have been attempted using CaF2 and CaSO4 TL phosphors cold-pressed into pellets after mixing with carefully chosen fluxing agents which have appreciable cross sections in this neutron energy range. Epithermal and thermal exposures have been arbitrarily distinguished by the difference obtained with and without cadmium filters covering the pellets. Some of the mixture investigated are: (CaF2 + KBr) and (CaSO4 + KBr) for thermal neutron dosimetry by the induced bromine activity and (CaF2 + Dy2O3 + KCl) and (CaSO4 + Dy2O3 + KCl) for thermal and epithermal neutron dosimetry by the induced dysprosium activity

  12. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  13. Enhanced reactivity of mechanically-activated nano-scale gasless reactive materials consolidated via the cold-spray technique

    Bacciochini, Antoine; Radulescu, Matei; Meydanoglu, Onur; Charron-Tousignant, Yannick; van Dyke, Jason; Jodoin, Bertrand; Nganbe, Michel; Yandouzi, Mohamed; Lee, Julian J.

    2011-06-01

    It has been speculated that gasless reactive systems can sustain supersonic detonations waves, provided the local decomposition rate is sufficiently fast and the initial density is sufficiently close to the theoretical maximal density. The present study presents a novel method to prepare nano-scale energetic materials with high reactivity, vanishing porosity, structural integrity and arbitrary shape. The experiments have focused on the Ni-Al system. To increase the reactivity, an initial mechanical activation was achieved by the technique of ball milling. The consolidation of the materials used the supersonic cold gas spray technique, where the particles are accelerated to high speeds and consolidated via plastic deformation upon impact, forming activated nano-composites in arbitrary shapes with close to zero porosity. This technique permits to retain the micro-structures in the powders and prevents any reactions during the consolidation phase. Deflagration tests of the obtained samples showed an increase in the deflagration rate by up to two orders of magnitude.

  14. Intracerebroventricular administration of leptin increase physical activity but has no effect on thermogenesis in cold-acclimated rats

    Gang-Bin Tang; Xiang-Fang Tang; Kui Li; De-Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Most small homotherms display low leptin level in response to chronic cold exposure. Cold-induced hypoleptinemia was proved to induce hyperphagia. However, it is still not clear whether hypoleptinemia regulates energy expenditure in cold condition. We try to answer this question in chronic cold-acclimated rats. Results showed that 5-day intracerebroventricular(ICV) infusion of leptin (5 μg/day) had no effects on basal and adaptive thermogenesis and uncoupling protein 1 expression. Physical ac...

  15. Loading Capacity versus Enzyme Activity in Anisotropic and Spherical Calcium Carbonate Microparticles.

    Donatan, Senem; Yashchenok, Alexey; Khan, Nazimuddin; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan; Cocquyt, Melissa; Pinchasik, Bat-El; Khalenkow, Dmitry; Möhwald, Helmuth; Konrad, Manfred; Skirtach, Andre

    2016-06-01

    A new method of fabrication of calcium carbonate microparticles of ellipsoidal, rhomboidal, and spherical geometries is reported by adjusting the relative concentration ratios of the initial salt solutions and/or the ethylene glycol content in the reaction medium. Morphology, porosity, crystallinity, and loading capacity of synthesized CaCO3 templates were characterized in detail. Particles harboring dextran or the enzyme guanylate kinase were obtained through encapsulation of these macromolecules using the layer-by-layer assembly technique to deposit positively and negatively charged polymers on these differently shaped CaCO3 templates and were characterized by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy, fluorometric techniques, and enzyme activity measurements. The enzymatic activity, an important application of such porous particles and containers, has been analyzed in comparison with the loading capacity and geometry. Our results reveal that the particles' shape influences morphology of particles and that, as a result, affects the activity of the encapsulated enzymes, in addition to the earlier reported influence on cellular uptake. These particles are promising candidates for efficient drug delivery due to their relatively high loading capacity, biocompatibility, and easy fabrication and handling. PMID:27166641

  16. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults.

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. PMID:27203382

  17. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  18. Impact of thermostatically controlled loads' demand response activation on aggregated power: A field experiment

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena;

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the impacts of different types of DR (demand response) activation on TCLs' (thermostatically controlled loads) aggregated power. The different parties: power system operators, DR service providers (or aggregators) and consumers, have different objectives in relation to DR...... activation. The outcome of this experimental study quantifies the actual flexibility of household TCLs and the consequence for the different parties with respect to power behaviour. Each DR activation method adopts different scenarios to meet the power reduction, and has different impacts on the parameters....... The experiments are conducted with real domestic refrigerators representing TCL. Activating refrigerators for DR with a delay reduces the ISE (integral square error) in power limitation by 28.46%, overshoot by 7.69%. The delay in refrigerator activation causes reduction in power ramp down rate by 39...

  19. Cultivar, harvest location and cold storage influence fruit softening and antioxidative activities of peach fruit (prunus persica (l.) batsch.)

    Fruit softening and quality management is very important to reduce postharvest losses in peach. Present study was conducted to observe the effect of cultivars and harvest locations on peach fruit softening and quality during ripening following cold storage. Fruits of two peach cultivars Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., harvested from two different locations were evaluated at ripening for their postharvest fruit softening and quality after 28 days of low temperature storage. Fruit harvested from Sillanwali exhibited significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, fruit weight loss, ascorbic acid contents, activities of fruit softening enzymes (endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG), exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG)) and significantly lower fruit firmness, ground colour, soluble solid contents (SSC), SSC:TA, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant scavenging activity (ASA), activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pectin esterase (PE) enzymes as compared to fruit harvested from Soan Valley. Peach cv Early Grand showed significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, ascorbic acid contents, activities of CAT, endo-PG and exo-PG enzymes, whereas lower fruit weight loss, fruit firmness, SSC, SSC:TA, TPC, ASA, activities of POD, SOD, PE and enzymes than Flordaking. Harvest location and cultivar significantly influenced various physico-chemical attributes including activities of various fruit softening and antioxidative enzymes in peach fruit during ripening after low temperature storage. (author)

  20. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. PMID:27056255

  1. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  2. Investigation of the Hydroisomerization Activities of Ni-Mo Catalysts Loaded on HY and HUSY Zeolites

    2002-01-01

    A series of Ni-Mo/zeolite-A12O3 catalysts was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation andtheir catalytic experiments were carried out using an automated microflow apparatus. It is concluded that theNi-Mo catalyst loaded on the HUSY has larger BET surface areas and possesses more acid sites than thatloaded on the HY zeolite, and simultaneously the Ni-Mo/HUSY-A12O3 catalyst reveals higher catalytic activ-ity characterized by feedstock conversion and isomer yield which is about two or three times higher than thatof the Ni-Mo/HY-A12O3 catalyst.

  3. Adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation in a smart rotor configuration

    Bergami, L.

    2013-08-15

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able to simulate the response of a wind turbine equipped with ATEF. A load analysis of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine in its baseline configuration reveals that the highest contribution to the blade flapwise fatigue damage originates from normal operation above rated wind speed, and from loads characterized by frequencies below 1 Hz. The analysis also reports that periodic load variations on the turbine blade account for nearly 11 % of the blade flapwise lifetime fatigue damage, while the rest is ascribed to load variations from disturbances of stochastic nature. The study proposes a smart rotor configuration with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first

  4. Relationship Between Accelerometer Load, Collisions, and Repeated High-Intensity Effort Activity in Rugby League Players.

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-12-01

    Triaxial accelerometers have been critical in providing information on the high-acceleration, low-velocity movements that occur in team sports. In addition, these sensors have proven to be useful in quantifying the activities that do not involve the vertical acceleration associated with locomotion (e.g., tackling, on-ground wrestling, and grappling). This study investigated the relationship between Player Load (PL), 2D Player Load (2DPL), and Player Load Slow (PL Slow), collisions, and repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) activity in rugby league players. One hundred and eighty-two rugby league players (age, 24.3 ± 3.3 years) participated in this study. Movement was recorded using a global positioning system unit sampling at 10 Hz and triaxial accelerometer sampling at 100 Hz. Analysis was completed during 26 matches (totaling 386 appearances). Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow and total collisions and RHIE activity. When all players were considered, weak relationships were found between PL and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts performed. However, PL was strongly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with total distance, low-speed activity, high-speed running distance, total collisions, and the number of RHIE bouts for forwards and hookers. Weak and typically insignificant relationships were found between PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts performed by the adjustables and outside backs positional groups. The relationships between PL and the number of collisions and RHIE bouts are stronger in positions where contact and repeated-effort demands are high. From a practical perspective, these results suggest that PL, 2DPL, and PL Slow offer useful "real-time" measures of collision and RHIE activity, particularly in forwards and hookers, to inform interchange strategies and ensure players are training at an adequate intensity. PMID:26196661

  5. Resin-loaded papers: sampling and trace analysis using neutron activation and x-ray spectrography

    Resin-loaded papers, composed of approximately 50 weight percent cellulose and 50 weight percent resin, provide an ideal medium for sampling large volumes of solution, then determining the concentrated elements by either fluorescent x-ray spectrography or neutron activation. This combination of chemistry and spectrography offers a versatile quantitative approach to the determination of trace elements in the ppM-ppB range. Standards and unknowns are prepared by either multiple filtration of solutions through two or more papers to measure the collection efficiency or a radiotracer is added to the solution to serve as a collection monitor. Reagent and paper blanks are incorporated into the analytical procedure. Papers containing strong acid or base resins collect a wide range of ions. Specific ions are collected by either chemical processing of the solution prior to filtration through the resin-loaded paper or by the use of papers loaded with chelating resins having high specificity. Advantages of the resin-loaded paper approach prior to spectrography are: improved analytical accuracy as the standards and unknowns are present in similar matrices; sampling errors are reduced and sensitivity significantly increased by concentration of the elements from a large volume of solution; and x-ray and gamma-ray spectral interferences are greatly reduced compared to bulk analysis. Also standard papers can be reused and stored indefinitely for x-ray applications. Examples of published applications to a wide range of industrial, environmental, and health problems are summaized together with applications by the Bureau of Mines to metallurgical and mining problems. Potential applications of new ion exchange resins and reagent-loaded papers are also considered

  6. Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Roxithromycin Loaded Pegylated Poly Lactide-co-glycolide Nanoparticles

    Mona Noori Koopaei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study The purpose of this study was to prepare pegylated poly lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGAnanoparticles (NPs loaded with roxithromycin (RXN with appropriate physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity. Roxithromycin, a semi-synthetic derivative of erythromycin, is more stable than erythromycin under acidic conditions and exhibits improved clinical effects. Methods RXN was loaded in pegylated PLGA NPs in different drug;polymer ratios by solvent evaporation technique and characterized for their size and size distribution, surface charge,surface morphology, drug loading, in vitro drug release profile, and in vitro antibacterial effects on S. aureus, B. subtilis, and S. epidermidis.Results and conclusion NPs were spherical with a relatively mono-dispersed size distribution. The particle size ofnanoparticles ranged from 150 to 200 nm. NPs with entrapment efficiency of up to 80.0±6.5% and drug loading of up to 13.0±1.0% were prepared. In vitro release study showedan early burst release of about 50.03±0.99% at 6.5 h and then a slow and steady release of RXN was observed after the burst release. In vitro antibacterial effects determined that theminimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of RXN loaded PEG-PLGA NPs were 9 times lower on S. aureus, 4.5 times lower on B. subtilis, and 4.5 times lower on S. epidermidis compared to RXN solution. In conclusion it was shown that polymeric NPs enhanced the antibacterialefficacy of RXN substantially.

  7. Prevalence and infection load dynamics of Rickettsia felis in actively feeding cat fleas.

    Kathryn E Reif

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia felis is a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen recurrently identified in both colonized and wild-caught cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis. We hypothesized that within colonized fleas, the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis allows for the coordination of rickettsial replication and metabolically active periods during flea bloodmeal acquisition and oogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to quantify R. felis in actively feeding R. felis-infected fleas. In three separate trials, fleas were allowed to feed on cats, and a mean of 3.9x10(6 R. felis 17-kDa gene copies was detected for each flea. A distinct R. felis infection pattern was not observed in fleas during nine consecutive days of bloodfeeding. However, an inverse correlation between the prevalence of R. felis-infection, which ranged from 96% in Trial 1 to 35% in Trial 3, and the R. felis-infection load in individual fleas was identified. Expression of R. felis-infection load as a ratio of R. felis/C. felis genes confirmed that fleas in Trial 3 had significantly greater rickettsial loads than those in Trial 1. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Examining rickettsial infection dynamics in the flea vector will further elucidate the intimate relationship between R. felis and C. felis, and facilitate a more accurate understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of R. felis transmission in nature.

  8. Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

  9. Dual Drug Loaded Biodegradable Nanofibrous Microsphere for Improving Anti-Colon Cancer Activity

    Fan, Rangrang; Li, Xiaoling; Deng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Liangxue; Zheng, Yu; Tong, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    One of the approaches being explored to increase antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics is to inject drug-loaded microspheres locally to specific anatomic sites, providing for a slow, long term release of a chemotherapeutic while minimizing systemic exposure. However, the used clinically drug carriers available at present have limitations, such as their low stability, renal clearance and residual surfactant. Here, we report docetaxel (DOC) and curcumin (CUR) loaded nanofibrous microspheres (DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres), self-assembled from biodegradable PLA-PEO-PPO-PEO-PLA polymers as an injectable drug carrier without adding surfactant during the emulsification process. The obtained nanofibrous microspheres are composed entirely of nanofibers and have an open hole on the shell without the assistance of a template. It was shown that these DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres could release curcumin and docetaxel slowly in vitro. The slow, sustained release of curcumin and docetaxel in vivo may help maintain local concentrations of active drug. The mechanism by which DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres inhibit colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis might involve increased induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In vitro and in vivo evaluations demonstrated efficacious synergistic antitumor effects against CT26 of curcumin and docetaxel combined nanofibrous microspheres. In conclusion, the dual drug loaded nanofibrous microspheres were considered potentially useful for treating abdominal metastases of colorectal cancer. PMID:27324595

  10. Transmission measurements of guides for ultra-cold neutrons using UCN capture activation analysis of vanadium

    Frei, A., E-mail: Andreas.Frei@ph.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schreckenbach, K.; Franke, B.; Hartmann, F.J.; Huber, T.; Picker, R.; Paul, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, 85748 Garching (Germany); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2010-01-01

    The efficient transport of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) from their source to the experimental site is a major issue for various kinds of precision experiments. Neutron guides often have to transport the UCN several tens of meters with acceptable losses. In order to qualify the guides, their UCN transmission properties have to be determined with high precision. For this purpose we have developed a novel method. The transmitted UCN were absorbed at the end of the guide in a vanadium disc producing the {beta}-emitter {sup 52} V (half life 3.74 min). The intensity of the 1434 keV {gamma}-ray following the {beta}-decay was measured. UCN guides of non-magnetic nickel alloys made by the replication technique were studied. They show a high Fermi pseudopotential V{sub F} for UCN and a low surface roughness. For these guides the transmission per meter was determined with a relative error of +-0.6%, resulting in values above 0.95/m. By an absolute calibration of the gamma-ray detection system we also deduced the absolute value of the UCN current absorbed in the vanadium plate. Possible applications of this method are discussed.