WorldWideScience

Sample records for active case detection

  1. Impact of ASHA training on active case detection of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.

    Vidya Nand Ravi Das

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges for management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is early diagnosis of cases to improve treatment outcome and reduce transmission. We have therefore investigated active case detection of VL with the help of accredited social health activists (ASHA. ASHAs are women who live in the community and receive performance-based incentives for overseeing maternal and other health-related issues in their village. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: Through conducting interviews with 400 randomly selected ASHAs from four primary health care centers (PHCs, it was observed that their level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis (VL regarding transmission, diagnosis, and treatment was limited. The baseline data indicated that less than 10% of VL cases seeking treatment at the PHCs were referred by ASHAs. To increase the knowledge and the referral rate of VL cases by ASHAs, training sessions were carried out during the monthly ASHA meetings at their respective PHCs. Following a single training session, the referral rate increased from less than 10% to over 27% and the overall knowledge about VL substantially improved. It was not possible, however, to demonstrate that ASHA training reduced the time that individuals had fever before treatment at the PHC. CONCLUSIONS: Training ASHAs to identify VL cases in villages for early diagnosis and treatment at the local PHC is feasible and should be undertaken routinely to improve knowledge about VL.

  2. Gate of radioactivity detection. guide on the methodology to follow in the case of activating

    Most of operators of waste treatment centers are tooled up with gates of radioactivity detection. To meet to a need of clarification of procedures that can be followed during an activating of gates, cards have been established by a work group constituted by representatives of different entities concerned by the subject. These cards propose procedures to follow in the case of activating of gates in respecting the running legislation in the field of environment protection and radiation protection. Annexe with the terms mentioned in the cards are given, a lexicon on radioactivity and a list of organisms able and licensed to provide monitoring for the workers protection against the ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  3. Effectiveness and Feasibility of Active and Passive Case Detection in the Visceral Leishmaniasis Elimination Initiative in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal

    Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Singh, Shri Prakash; Kumar, Narendra; Banjara, Megha Raj; Das, Pradeep; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman; Joshi, Anand,; Kroeger, Axel; Varghese, Beena; Thakur, Chandreshwar Prasad; Huda, M Mamun; Mondal, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the effectiveness of active case detection (ACD) for new visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. ACD detection was carried out using house to house screening in Bangladesh and India and by neighborhood screening around index cases in Nepal. The percent increase of new VL cases through ACD compared to PCD was 6.7–17.1% in India; 38.8% in Nepal; and 60% in Bangladesh. The screening effort was high in India and Bangladesh (house to house screening) compared to Nepal (index case sc...

  4. Malaria incidence in children in South-West Burkina Faso: comparison of active and passive case detection methods.

    Alfred B Tiono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and seasonal pattern of malaria in children in South-West Burkina Faso, and to compare, in a randomized trial, characteristics of cases detected by active and passive surveillance. This study also enabled the planning of a malaria vaccine trial. METHODS: Households with young children, located within 5 kilometers of a health facility, were randomized to one of two malaria surveillance methods. In the first group, children were monitored actively. Each child was visited twice weekly; tympanic temperature was measured, and if the child had a fever or history of fever, a malaria rapid diagnostic test was performed and a blood smear collected. In the second group, children were monitored passively. The child's parent or caregiver was asked to bring the child to the nearest clinic if he was unwell. Follow up lasted 13 months from September 2009. RESULTS: Incidence of malaria (Fever with parasitaemia ≥5,000/µL was 1.18 episodes/child/year in the active cohort and 0.89 in the passive cohort (rate ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.13-1.54. Malaria cases in the passive cohort were more likely to have high grade fever; but parasite densities were similar in the two groups. Incidence was highly seasonal; when a specific case definition was used, about 60% of cases occurred within the 4 months June-September. CONCLUSION: Passive case detection required at least a 30%-40% increase in the sample size for vaccine trials, compared to active detection, to achieve the same power. However we did not find any evidence that parasite densities were higher with passive than with active detection. The incidence of malaria is highly seasonal and meets the WHO criteria for Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC. At least half of the malaria cases in these children could potentially be prevented if SMC was effectively deployed.

  5. Non-target activity detection by post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image assessment technique and case examples

    Yung Hsiang eKao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution yttrium-90 (90Y imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT which qualitatively overcomes the problem of background noise. We present selected case examples of non-target activity in untargeted liver, stomach, gallbladder, chest wall and kidney, supported by angiography and 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT or technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT.

  6. Radial Velocity Detection of Earth-mass Planets in the Presence of Activity Noise: The Case of Alpha Centauri Bb

    Hatzes, Artie P

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the publicly available HARPS radial velocity (RV) measurements for Alpha Cen B, a star hosting an Earth-mass planet candidate in a 3.24 day orbit. The goal is to devise robust ways of extracting low-amplitude RV signals of low mass planets in the presence of activity noise. Two approaches were used to remove the stellar activity signal which dominates the RV variations: 1) Fourier component analysis (pre-whitening), and 2) local trend filtering (LTF) of the activity using short time windows of the data. The Fourier procedure results in a signal at P = 3.236 days and K = 0.42 m/s which is consistent with the presence of an Earth-mass planet, but the false alarm probability for this signal is rather high at a few percent. The LTF results in no significant detection of the planet signal, although it is possible to detect a marginal planet signal with this method using a different choice of time windows and fitting functions. However, even in this case the significance of the 3.24-d sign...

  7. Detecting land use changes affected by human activities using remote sensing (Case study: Karkheh River Basin

    Saeid Maddah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and abundant activities in order to achieve maximum well-being has forced human to make a lot of changes in the nature. These changes will be cost-effective when they have the minimum damage on the landscape. One of the activities that human did for obtaining the water and preventing flood was making the dam in the track of running water. Since the dam is established until its impoundment and after impoundment, the condition of ecosystem and the appearance of the upstream and downstream of the dam will undergo changes. In this study, using satellite data and remote sensing, these changes have been studied and the landuse changes in vegetation, arid land, water level and residential and non-residential lands is measured in 1998 and 2014 using Maximum Likelihood method and support vector machine.

  8. Non-target activity detection by post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image assessment technique and case examples

    Yung Hsiang eKao; Andrew EH eTan; Richard HG eLo; Kiang Hiong eTay; Bien Soo eTan; Pierce KH eChow; David CE eNg; Anthony SW eGoh

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution yttrium-90 (90Y) imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT which...

  9. Non-Target Activity Detection by Post-Radioembolization Yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image Assessment Technique and Case Examples

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Tan, Andrew E. H.; Lo, Richard H. G.; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Tan, Bien Soo; Chow, Pierce K. H.; Ng, David C. E.; Goh, Anthony S. W.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution yttrium-90 (90Y) imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT, whic...

  10. High utility of contact investigation for latent and active tuberculosis case detection among the contacts: a retrospective cohort study in Tbilisi, Georgia, 2010-2011.

    Tsira Chakhaia

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NCTBLD in Tbilisi, Georgia.To assess the utility of contact investigation for tuberculosis (TB case detection. We also assessed the prevalence and risk factors for active TB disease and latent TB infection (LTBI among contacts of active pulmonary TB cases.A retrospective cohort study was conducted among the contacts of active pulmonary TB cases registered in 2010-2011 at the NCTBLD in Tbilisi, Georgia. Contacts of active TB patients were investigated according to an "invitation model": they were referred to the NCTBLD by the index case; were queried about clinical symptoms suggestive of active TB disease; tuberculin skin testing and chest radiographs were performed. Demographic, laboratory, and clinical data of TB patients and their contacts were abstracted from existing records up to February 2013.869 contacts of 396 index cases were enrolled in the study; a median of 2 contacts were referred per index case. Among the 869 contacts, 47 (5.4% were found to have or developed active TB disease: 30 (63.8% were diagnosed with TB during the baseline period (co-prevalent cases and 17 (36.2% developed active TB disease during the follow-up period (mean follow up of 21 months (incident TB cases. The incidence rate of active TB disease among contacts was 1126.0 per 100,000 person years (95% CI 655.7-1802.0 per 100,000 person-years. Among the 402 contacts who had a tuberculin skin test (TST performed, 52.7% (95% CI 47.7-57.7% had LTBI.A high prevalence of LTBI and active TB disease was found among the contacts of TB cases in Tbilisi, Georgia. Our findings demonstrated that an "invitation" model of contact investigation was an effective method of case detection. Therefore, contact investigation should be scaled up in Georgia.

  11. THE RADIAL VELOCITY DETECTION OF EARTH-MASS PLANETS IN THE PRESENCE OF ACTIVITY NOISE: THE CASE OF α CENTAURI Bb

    We present an analysis of the publicly available HARPS radial velocity (RV) measurements for α Cen B, a star hosting an Earth-mass planet candidate in a 3.24 day orbit. The goal is to devise robust ways of extracting low-amplitude RV signals of low-mass planets in the presence of activity noise. Two approaches were used to remove the stellar activity signal which dominates the RV variations: (1) Fourier component analysis (pre-whitening), and (2) local trend filtering (LTF) of the activity using short time windows of the data. The Fourier procedure results in a signal at P = 3.236 days and K = 0.42 m s–1, which is consistent with the presence of an Earth-mass planet, but the false alarm probability for this signal is rather high at a few percent. The LTF results in no significant detection of the planet signal, although it is possible to detect a marginal planet signal with this method using a different choice of time windows and fitting functions. However, even in this case the significance of the 3.24 day signal depends on the details of how a time window containing only 10% of the data is filtered. Both methods should have detected the presence of α Cen Bb at a higher significance than is actually seen. We also investigated the influence of random noise with a standard deviation comparable to the HARPS data and sampled in the same way. The distribution of the noise peaks in the period range 2.8-3.3 days has a maximum of ≈3.2 days and amplitudes approximately one-half of the K-amplitude for the planet. The presence of the activity signal may boost the velocity amplitude of these signals to values comparable to the planet. It may be premature to attribute the 3.24 day RV variations to an Earth-mass planet. A better understanding of the noise characteristics in the RV data as well as more measurements with better sampling will be needed to confirm this exoplanet.

  12. Detecting geyser activity with infrasound

    Johnson, J. B.; Anderson, J. F.; Anthony, R. E.; Sciotto, M.

    2013-04-01

    We monitored geyser activity in the Lower Geyser Basin (LGB) of Yellowstone National Park with dual four-element microphone arrays separated by ~ 600 m. The arrays were independently used to identify incident coherent plane wave energy, then conjoint cross beam back-azimuths from the two arrays were used to precisely locate signal sources. During a week in August 2011 we located repeating infrasound events, peaked in energy between 1 and 10 Hz, originating from at least five independent geothermal features, including the episodically erupting Great Fountain, Fountain and Kaleidoscope Geysers, as well as periodic infrasound from nearby Botryoidal and persistent sound from Firehole Spring. Although activity from nearby cone-type geysers was not detected in the infrasound band up through 50 Hz, the major fountain-type geysers (i.e., with columns greater than 10 m) could be detected at several kilometers, and two minor geysers (i.e., a few meters in eruption height) could be tracked at distances up to a few hundred meters. Detection of geyser activity was especially comprehensive at night when ambient noise was low. We conclude that infrasound monitoring of fountain-type geysers permits convenient tracking of geyser activity, episodicity, signal duration, energy content, and spectral content. These parameters enable objective statistical quantification of geyser behavior and changes over time that may be due to external forcing. Infrasonic study of geyser activity in an individual basin has great monitoring utility and can be reasonably accomplished with two or more distributed sensor arrays.

  13. DETECTION OF TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Yang Wentao; Xu Liangzhong; Zhang Taiming; Zhu weiping; Li Xiaomei; Jin Aiping

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the significance of telomerase activity in breast carcinoma with its respect to axillary lymph node status. Methods: Telomerase activity was analyzed in 88 breast carcinomas and 16benign breast lesions, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Results: Telomerase activity was detected in 75 (85%) of 88 breast carcinomas (including three breast carcinomas in situ which were all positive for telomerase activity), whereas in benign breast lesions analyzed only 2(12.5%) of 16 cases were positive for telomerase activity. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.001). Besides,telomerase activity was expressed significantly higher in node-positive breast carcinoma (93%) than in nodenegative ones (77%) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that telomerase activation plays an important role during breast carcinoma development. It is possible that this enzyme may serve as an early indication of breast carcinoma.

  14. Controller modification applied for active fault detection

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focusing on active fault detection (AFD) for parametric faults in closed-loop systems. This auxiliary input applied for the fault detection will also disturb the external output and consequently reduce the performance of the controller. Therefore, only small auxiliary inputs are used...... modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the external output in the fault free case. Further, in the faulty case, the signature of the auxiliary input can be optimized. This is obtained by using a band-pass filter for the YJBK parameter that is only effective in a small frequency range where...... the frequency for the auxiliary input is selected. This gives that it is possible to apply an auxiliary input with a reduced amplitude. An example is included to show the results....

  15. Analyte detection using an active assay

    Morozov, Victor; Bailey, Charles L.; Evanskey, Melissa R.

    2010-11-02

    Analytes using an active assay may be detected by introducing an analyte solution containing a plurality of analytes to a lacquered membrane. The lacquered membrane may be a membrane having at least one surface treated with a layer of polymers. The lacquered membrane may be semi-permeable to nonanalytes. The layer of polymers may include cross-linked polymers. A plurality of probe molecules may be arrayed and immobilized on the lacquered membrane. An external force may be applied to the analyte solution to move the analytes towards the lacquered membrane. Movement may cause some or all of the analytes to bind to the lacquered membrane. In cases where probe molecules are presented, some or all of the analytes may bind to probe molecules. The direction of the external force may be reversed to remove unbound or weakly bound analytes. Bound analytes may be detected using known detection types.

  16. Additional Fault Detection Test Case Prioritization

    Ritika Jain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Regression testing is used to confirm that previous bugs have been fixed and that new bugs have not been introduced. Thus regression testing is done during maintenance phase and applied whenever a new version of a program is obtained by modifying an existing version. To perform a regression testing a set of new test cases and old test cases that were previously developed by software engineers are reused. This test suite is exhaustive in nature and it may take long time to rerun all test cases. Thus regression testing is too expensive and the number of test cases increases stridently as the software evolves. In present work, an additional fault detection test case prioritization technique is presented that prioritizes test cases in regression test suite based on number of concealed faults detected by test cases. Both noncost cognizant and cost cognizant prioritization of test cases have been performed using proposed technique and efficiency of prioritized suite is assessed using APFD and APFDc metric respectively.

  17. Trichobezoar detected by ultrasonography: Case report

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Myung Jun; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    The authors experienced a case of gastroduodenojejunal trichobezoar detected by ultrasonographic examination. We thought that tricholbezoar had relatively specific ultrasonographic findings such as a broad hyperechogenic superficial bandlike rim with a complete posterior sonic shadowing and multiple linear echogenic strands on its surface representing hairs, which were better seen after water ingestion. So we were able to get the correct diagnosis of trichobezoar prior to conventional barium studies in a patient who could not be suspected clinically.

  18. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  19. Detection of Telomerase Activity Using Capacitance Measurements

    Kang, Bong Keun; Lee, Ri Mi; Choi, Ahmi; Jung, Hyo-Il; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2007-03-01

    Telomerase activity has been found in about 85% cancer cells, while no activity observed in normal cells, so that telomerase has been proposed as a marker for cancer detection. Here, we describe electrical detection of telomerase activity using capacitance measurements. We have investigated the length dependence of capacitance on DNA solutions and found that the capacitance of DNA solutions were dependent on the DNA length. In addition, upon adding telomerase into the solution of telomeric substrate primer, the capacitance was observed to change as a function of time due to the telomeric elongation. These results suggest that this novel nanosensor may be used for rapid detection of telomerase activity.

  20. Detection of uranium mining activities

    In undisturbed natural uranium ore the 238U decay chain isotopes appear in secular decay equilibrium with activity ratios equal to one. In the course of ore processing the bulk of the uranium decay products is separated from the uranium product and concentrated in the tails. Therefore the disturbed activity ratios of short-lived daughters to long-lived parents can be indicators of ore processing. Using 234Th and 238U activities (the short-lived daughter with T1/2=24.1 days and the long- lived parent respectively) one can roughly estimate how much time has elapsed since ore processing occurred. Equilibrium is reached in about three months after processing and the 234Th and 238U activity levels are approximately equal (taking into account the error of measurements). Higher or lower 234Th activity levels, relative to 238U, indicate the material has been recently processed. Assuming the product is depleted in Th and the tails are enriched, the activity of 234Th in fresh product should be lower than 238U and higher in fresh tails. The 234Th/230Th activity ratio can also be used for age estimations (230Th is a long-lived nuclide). Five samples were taken from the Ranger Uranium Mine and Concentration Plant in Australia, and one sample was taken from the Jabiluka mine (10 km far from the Ranger Mine). The samples included non-processed ore, coarse ore from the stockpile, final crushed ore, fresh and old tails, and fresh product (U3O8). All the samples were analyzed by HRGS to measure the activities of gamma emitting nuclides. XRF and IDMS were used to measure uranium content and isotopic composition. The 238U activity was calculated from these measurement results. The 234Th activity was measured by HRGS with a planar HPGe detector and a calibrated low activity 241Am solution as an internal standard. The 234Th/230Th activity ratio was measured using the 60 keV energy region where both isotopes have gamma lines. Use of gamma lines with close energies (63.29 keV for 234Th

  1. Detection of suspicious activity using incremental outlier detection algorithms

    Pokrajac, D.; Reljin, N.; Pejcic, N.; Vance, T.; McDaniel, S.; Lazarevic, A.; Chang, H. J.; Choi, J. Y.; Miezianko, R.

    2009-08-01

    Detection of unusual trajectories of moving objects can help in identifying suspicious activity on convoy routes and thus reduce casualties caused by improvised explosive devices. In this paper, using video imagery we compare efficiency of various techniques for incremental outlier detection on detecting unusual trajectories on simulated and real-life data obtained from SENSIAC database. Incremental outlier detection algorithms that we consider in this paper include incremental Support Vector Classifier (incSVC), incremental Local Outlier Factor (incLOF) algorithm and incremental Connectivity Outlier Factor (incCOF) algorithm. Our experiments performed on ground truth trajectory data indicate that incremental LOF algorithm can provide better detection of unusual trajectories in comparison to other examined techniques.

  2. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  3. Concept of private detective and security activity

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Having analyzed the notions contents, the author has singled out three basic criteria, characterizing private detective and security activity under Russian legislation: provision of services for a fee; service provider must have the special permission (license) from law enforcement agencies.

  4. Detecting active comets with SDSS

    Solontoi, Michael; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; West, Andrew A.; /MIT, MKI; Claire, Mark; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, Mario; /Princeton U. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Kent, Steve; /Fermilab; Lupton, Robert H.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Quinn, Tom; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. Observ.

    2010-12-01

    Using a sample of serendipitously discovered active comets in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we develop well-controlled selection criteria for greatly increasing the efficiency of comet identification in the SDSS catalogs. After follow-up visual inspection of images to reject remaining false positives, the total sample of SDSS comets presented here contains 19 objects, roughly one comet per 10 million other SDSS objects. The good understanding of selection effects allows a study of the population statistics, and we estimate the apparent magnitude distribution to r {approx} 18, the ecliptic latitude distribution, and the comet distribution in SDSS color space. The most surprising results are the extremely narrow range of colors for comets in our sample (e.g. root-mean-square scatter of only {approx}0.06 mag for the g-r color), and the similarity of comet colors to those of jovian Trojans. We discuss the relevance of our results for upcoming deep multi-epoch optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and estimate that LSST may produce a sample of about 10,000 comets over its 10-year lifetime.

  5. Identifying an active case of tuberculosis.

    Williams, G; Alarcon, E; Jittimanee, S; Walusimbi, M; Sebek, M; Berga, E; Villa, T S

    2008-04-01

    The best practice standards set out in chapter 2 of the Best Practice guide focus on the various aspects of identifying an active case of TB and aim to address some of the challenges associated with case detection. The importance of developing a good relationship with the patient from the start, when he or she is often most vulnerable, is emphasised. The first standard focuses on the assessment of someone who might have TB and the second gives detailed guidance about the collection of sputum for diagnosis. The standards are aimed at the health care worker, who assesses the patient when he or she presents at a health care facility and therefore needs to be familiar with the signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with TB. Having suspected TB, the health care worker then needs to ensure that the correct tests are ordered and procedures are followed so that the best quality samples possible are sent to the laboratory and all documentation is filled out clearly and correctly. The successful implementation of these standards can be measured by the accurate and prompt reporting of results, the registration of every case detected and the continued attendance of every patient who needs treatment. PMID:18371262

  6. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES DETECTIVE (DETECTIVE) ACTIVITY IN UKRAINE, HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT, THE WORLD EXPERIENCE IN THE MARKET OF PRIVATE DETECTIVE (DETECTIVE) ACTIVITY

    Cherednichenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the nature, role, place and term of detective (detective) activity, history of development, the world experience in the market of private detective activity in Ukraine. Potential options of its legalization and formalization of the detective (detective) activity in the state. The existence of a law that specifically regulates legal relationships in the field of detective work, will promote a single state policy in the detective work that will allow to carry out effective ...

  7. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  8. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Xiaomu Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  9. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors.

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  10. ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    Skvortsov, D.; Zvereva, M.; Shpanchenko, O.; Dontsova, O.

    2011-01-01

    Progressive loss of the telomeric ends of chromosomes caused by the semi-conservative mechanism of DNA replication is an important timing mechanism which controls the number of cells doubling. Telomerase is an enzyme which elongates one chain of the telomeric DNA and compensates for its shortening during replication. Therefore, telomerase activity serves as a proliferation marker. Telomerase activity is not detected in most somatic cells, with the exception of embryonic tissues, stem cells, a...

  11. Detection of clandestine activities: a global approach

    The detection of clandestine activities is mainly a question of global approach, dealing with all the steps of the proliferation process. The detection of clandestine activities could be achieved adopting a four step global approach. First, you have to perfectly know the fuel and weapons cycles. Then, you have to be able to describe all the indicators and signatures of those cycles. Once those indicators are known, you need to detect them through the use of the right sensors that could be either technical sensors but also other 'sensors' like export control, visa control and other tools like bibliometry. When all information is available, there is a need for data mining and data fusion including also all open source information. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  12. Concept of private detective and security activity

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Having analyzed the notions contents, the author has singled out three basic criteria, characterizing private detective and security activity under Russian legislation: provision of services for a fee; service provider must have the special permission (license from law enforcement agencies.

  13. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ''lock-in'' amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design

  14. Ranging performance of active laser detection

    Sun, Huayan; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Suolin

    2006-06-01

    Ranging performance is described for photoelectric equipment reconnaissance using an active laser detection system that is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect of optical windows. Active laser detection systems have an advantage over passive systems because they can measure target velocity and spatial coordinates. However, there are several challenging problems here because of the great distances involved, the low returned power of the uncooperative target, and the optical aberrations induced by the atmosphere. In the design of this system, the principle of detection is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect according to which the optical windows of photoelectric equipments have a strong reflect character towards incident laser beam. With 'cat's eyes' effect, the detection of uncooperative target can be translated into one of a cooperative target, so the ratio of returned laser can be increased. In this paper, the ranging performance presented here takes into account all the various elements of the system, from the laser emission, target, atmospheric propagation to the detector. The characteristics of back-reflected laser and an estimate of the laser Cross Section (LCS) from 'cat's eyes target' are investigated in theory and simulation. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is calculated by combining the probability of detection of the system for given electronic characteristics of the system and for a given probability of false alarms. On the basis of analysis of SNR, minimum detectable signal power, operating distance of the system and factors affecting the ranging performance is analyzed. Results indicate that system has characters of long range, and high sensitivity. It can be used to detect the aerial targets such as reconnaissance drone, navigate missile, reconnaissance satellite etc.

  15. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    from auxiliary input to residual outputs. The analysis is based on a singular value decomposition of these transfer functions Based on this analysis, it is possible to design auxiliary input as well as design of the associated residual vector with respect to every single parametric fault in the system......The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...

  16. Detection of cardiac activity changes from human speech

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Voznak, Miroslav; Mikulec, Martin; Mehic, Miralem

    2015-05-01

    Impact of changes in blood pressure and pulse from human speech is disclosed in this article. The symptoms of increased physical activity are pulse, systolic and diastolic pressure. There are many methods of measuring and indicating these parameters. The measurements must be carried out using devices which are not used in everyday life. In most cases, the measurement of blood pressure and pulse following health problems or other adverse feelings. Nowadays, research teams are trying to design and implement modern methods in ordinary human activities. The main objective of the proposal is to reduce the delay between detecting the adverse pressure and to the mentioned warning signs and feelings. Common and frequent activity of man is speaking, while it is known that the function of the vocal tract can be affected by the change in heart activity. Therefore, it can be a useful parameter for detecting physiological changes. A method for detecting human physiological changes by speech processing and artificial neural network classification is described in this article. The pulse and blood pressure changes was induced by physical exercises in this experiment. The set of measured subjects was formed by ten healthy volunteers of both sexes. None of the subjects was a professional athlete. The process of the experiment was divided into phases before, during and after physical training. Pulse, systolic, diastolic pressure was measured and voice activity was recorded after each of them. The results of this experiment describe a method for detecting increased cardiac activity from human speech using artificial neural network.

  17. Active Intrusion Detection for Wireless Multihop Networks

    do Carmo, Rodrigo Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on network security and introduces an active-probing technique for intrusion detection in wireless multihop networks. Wireless networks have been the revolution of personal communications of the past decades. Millions of devices with wireless capabilities are sold to end customers every year: smartphones that enable access to the Internet almost everywhere, computers with wireless connections, personal watches, sports shoes, digital cameras, and even lenses with wirel...

  18. Active noncontact tonometer for glaucoma detection

    Han, Yanmei; Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.; Lee, Wing K. A.; Hero, Mark

    2002-09-01

    Glaucoma is an increasingly common cause of visual impairment, and in some cases causes blindness. The approach to develop a low cost and non-contact tonometer for the detection of glaucoma, to replace the Goldmann tonometer used worldwide, is presented in this paper. The new tonometer exploits the vibration property of the cornea - the resonance frequency of the cornea rises with increasing intra-ocular pressure (IOP). An audio frequency signal is used to vibrate the cornea of the eye, the vibration of the cornea is measured using a fibre optic lever probe, and then the IOP can be calculated from the detected resonance frequency of the cornea. The initial PC-version experiment system of the new tonometer has been demonstrated and preliminary testing has been performed, showing a suitable sensitivity in detecting the resonance frequency against the IOP using both the simulated-eye model and the pig's eye. The initial system has been improved to be suitable for greater than 15mm detecting distance, and the measurement of vibrations of human cornea in-vivo has been carried out. Work is now focusing on increasing the sensitivity of the fibre probe, and reducing the measuring time to less than 1 second.

  19. Periodic active case finding for TB: when to look?

    Peter J Dodd

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors influencing the performance and cost-efficacy of periodic rounds of active case finding (ACF for TB. METHODS: A mathematical model of TB dynamics and periodic ACF (PACF in the HIV era, simplified by assuming constant prevalence of latent TB infection, is analyzed for features that control intervention outcome, measured as cases averted and cases found. Explanatory variables include baseline TB incidence, interval between PACF rounds, and different routine and PACF case-detection rates among HIV-infected and uninfected TB cases. FINDINGS: PACF can be cost-saving over a 10 year time frame if the cost-per-round is lower than a threshold proportional to initial incidence and cost-per-case-treated. More cases are averted at higher baseline incidence rates, when more potent PACF strategies are used, intervals between PACF rounds are shorter, and when the ratio of HIV-negative to positive TB cases detected is higher. More costly approaches, e.g. radiographic screening, can be as cost-effective as less costly alternatives if PACF case-detection is higher and/or implementation less frequent. CONCLUSION: Periodic ACF can both improve control and save medium-term health care costs in high TB burden settings. Greater costs of highly effective PACF at frequent (e.g. yearly intervals may be offset by higher numbers of cases averted in populations with high baseline TB incidence, higher prevalence of HIV-uninfected cases, higher costs per-case-treated, and more effective routine case-detection. Less intensive approaches may still be cost-neutral or cost-saving in populations lacking one or more of these key determinants.

  20. Automatic Detection of Adenocarcinoma using Active Contours

    NeelapalaAnilKumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CT scan is the one of the image representation for abdomen, where the tumour to be located and specified effectively with clarity, by the medical expert. This role can be hold by using one of the image processing techniques called segmentation. Image segmentation is the technique which isolates the image into different regions to simplify the image and identify the Tumour easily. Image segmentation has been extensively studied by various approaches. This work, focus on the one of the image segmentation technique with a new regularization term that yields an unsupervised segmentation model which identifies different Tumour locations in a given CT image. Active contours form a boundary around a particular part of the image based on an energy function. The energy function may include intensity values of pixels or gradient values. Chen-Vase method of active contour algorithm is adopted for image segmentation. The segmentation is done after properly masking of CT scan image. The cancer prone area is generalized prior to the masking of the image. Effected abdomen cancer can be identified for better analysis of medical experts using image processing MATLAB tools. This paper describes a new method to detect and extract the features in CT scan images, which shows good performance in detection of difficult features. And the developed technique makes use of major image processing methods and fundamentals to detect the cancer with minimum possible human interaction.

  1. Detection relic gravitational waves in thermal case

    Ghayour, Basem

    2016-01-01

    The thermal spectrum of relic gravitational waves causes the new amplitude that called `modified amplitude'. Our analysis shows that, there exist some chances for detection of the thermal spectrum in addition to the usual spectrum by Adv.LIGO and Dml detectors. The behaviour of the inflation and reheating stages are often known as power law expansion like $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta}$, $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta_s}$ respectively. The $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ have an unique effect on the shape of the spectrum. We find some upper bounds on the $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ by comparison the usual and thermal spectrum with the Adv.LIGO and Dml. As this result gives us more information about the nature of the evolution of inflation and reheating stages.

  2. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress this...... important problem for an active camera. We de- tect these events by first comparing the incoming frames to a background model using features relevant for the three different tampering types. Individual detectors are then developed capable of monitoring long video sequences and indicating the occurrence of...

  3. Detecting Botnet Activities Based on Abnormal DNS traffic

    Ahmed M. Manasrah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The botnet is considered as a critical issue of the Internet due to its fast growing mechanism and affect. Recently, Botnets have utilized the DNS and query DNS server just like any legitimate hosts. In this case, it is difficult to distinguish between the legitimate DNS traffic and illegitimate DNS traffic. It is important to build a suitable solution for botnet detection in the DNS traffic and consequently protect the network from the malicious Botnets activities. In this paper, a simple mechanism is proposed to monitors the DNS traffic and detects the abnormal DNS traffic issued by the botnet based on the fact that botnets appear as a group of hosts periodically. The proposed mechanism is also able to classify the DNS traffic requested by group of hosts (group behavior and single hosts (individual behavior, consequently detect the abnormal domain name issued by the malicious Botnets. Finally, the experimental results proved that the proposed mechanism is robust and able to classify DNS traffic, and efficiently detects the botnet activity with average detection rate of 89%.

  4. Detection and Measurement of Activity in Wounds

    For the proper medical treatment of wounds containing radioactive materials, the physician has to know not only type and amount of activity, but also the location and extent as exactly as possible. The necessary accuracy of detection and measurement can only be achieved with special radiation detectors. They must be very small, insensitive to light and humidity, mechanically robust, electrically safe, and must endure heating to about 200°C for sterilizing purposes. The paper discusses several possibilities of building such detectors, shows the design and construction of some instruments developed and used at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, and gives a comparison of the performance of the different types of counters. (author)

  5. Audio-visual voice activity detection

    LIU Peng; WANG Zuo-ying

    2006-01-01

    In speech signal processing systems,frame-energy based voice activity detection (VAD) method may be interfered with the background noise and non-stationary characteristic of the frame-energy in voice segment.The purpose of this paper is to improve the performance and robustness of VAD by introducing visual information.Meanwhile,data-driven linear transformation is adopted in visual feature extraction,and a general statistical VAD model is designed.Using the general model and a two-stage fusion strategy presented in this paper,a concrete multimodal VAD system is built.Experiments show that a 55.0% relative reduction in frame error rate and a 98.5% relative reduction in sentence-breaking error rate are obtained when using multimodal VAD,compared to frame-energy based audio VAD.The results show that using multimodal method,sentence-breaking errors are almost avoided,and flame-detection performance is clearly improved, which proves the effectiveness of the visual modal in VAD.

  6. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most...

  7. Statistical estimations for predicting the detection limit of low activities

    When extremely low activities are measured, the statistics of the observed decay events may be insufficient for a justified application of statistical assessments based on the Gaussian distribution. Student's t-distribution and the theory of the interval estimation are used as the basis for a statistical model for predicting the detection limit and the signal-to-noise ratio which could be reached under the conditions of the measurement. The derived statistical estimations are applicable in cases when a small number of decay events is expected to be recorded. The minimum detectable activity characterizing the detection limit under the conditions of the measurement, is determined at the given confidence limits and assumed permissible relative statistical errors during the measurement of the sample and the background (within the available time limits). The derived statistical estimations can be used for comparing the possibilities offered by the different measuring methods applied for determination of extremely low activities. These evaluations can also be used as a criterion for discussing the reliability of the measurement results. (author). 6 refs

  8. Metamorphic computer virus detection by Case- Based Reasoning (CBR) methods

    Abdellatif Berkat

    2011-01-01

    Metamorphic virus employs code obfuscation techniques to mutate itself. It absconds from signaturebaseddetection system by modifying internal structure without compromising original functionality.In this paper, we propose a new method, for detecting metamorphic computer viruses, that is based on thetechnique of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). In this method:-Can detect similar viruses with high probability.- The updating of the virus database is done automatically without connecting to the Intern...

  9. Tuberculosis case detection in a state prison system.

    Brock, N N; Reeves, M.; LaMarre, M; DeVoe, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis ((TB) among inmates in the Georgia state prison system; to evaluate the effectiveness of the TB case detection methods used; to evaluate the use of contact tracing for inmate TB cases; and to determine rates of completion of therapy. METHODS: Using a standardized form, the authors abstracted data from reports to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, prison hospital medical charts, and county health depar...

  10. Using Case-Based Reasoning for detecting computer virus

    Abdellatif Berkat

    2011-01-01

    The typical antivirus approach consists of waiting for a number of computers to be infected, detecting the virus, designing a solution, delivering and deploying a solution. In such a situation, it is very difficult to prevent every machine from being compromised by viruses. In this paper, we propose a new method, for detecting computer viruses, that is based on the technique of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). In this method: (1) even new viruses that do not exist in the database can be detected (...

  11. Fast and direct detection of neuronal activation with diffusion MRI

    Over the last 30 years functional neuroimaging has emerged as a revolutionary path to study the brain and the mind. This has been possible because of significant advances mainly in two imaging modalities, namely Positron Emission Tomograph y (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Amazingly, although those two modalities are based on radically different physical approaches (detection of 1 3 radioactivity for the first one and nuclear magnetization for the second), both allo w brain activation images to be obtained through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the same principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism: Blood flow increases locally in activated brain regions. In the case of PET one uses H2O radioactive water which is produced by using a cyclotron and injected to the subject vasculature. In activated brain regions the increase in blood flow leads to a local increase in the tissue radioactive water content detected and localized by the PE T camera. With MRI the hydrogen nuclei of brain endogenous water molecules are magnetized by a strong external magnetic field. In activated regions the increase in blood flow results in an increase of blood oxygenation which induces a slight perturbation of the magnetization relaxation properties of the water molecules around blood vessels detected by the MRI scanner (so called 'BOLD' effect). I n both approaches water is, thus, merely an indirect means to look at changes in cerebral blood flow which accompany brain activation, and although PET and BOLD f MRI have been extremely successful for the functional neuroimaging community, present well known limitations. While the coupling between neuronal activation, metabolism and blood flow has been verified in most instances including BOLD f MRI, the degree and the mechanism of coupling remains largely debated (Magistratt, Pellerin, Mangia) and may fail in some pathological

  12. Magnetogastrographic detection of gastric electrical response activity in humans

    The detection and characterization of gastric electrical activity has important clinical applications, including the early diagnosis of gastric diseases in humans. In mammals, this phenomenon has two important features: an electrical control activity (ECA) that manifests itself as an electric slow wave (with a frequency of 3 cycles per minute in humans) and an electrical response activity (ERA) that is characterized by spiking potentials during the plateau phase of the ECA. Whereas the ECA has been recorded in humans both invasively and non-invasively (magnetogastrography-MGG), the ERA has never been detected non-invasively in humans before. In this paper, we report on our progress towards the non-invasive detection of ERA from the human stomach using a procedure that involves the application of principal component analysis to MGG recordings, which were acquired in our case from ten normal human patients using a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Both pre- and post-prandial recordings were acquired for each patient and 20 min of recordings (10 min of pre-prandial and 10 min of post-prandial data) were analysed for each patient. The mean percentage of ECA slow waves that were found to exhibit spikes of suspected ERA origin was 41% and 61% for pre- and post-prandial recordings, respectively, implying a 47% ERA increase post-prandially (P < 0.0001 at a 95% confidence level). The detection of ERA in humans is highly encouraging and points to the possible use of non-invasive ERA recordings as a valuable tool for the study of human gastric disorders

  13. Detection of the under-soil intruder activity

    Cechak, Jaroslav

    2007-04-01

    The presented paper focuses on the possibilities of technical methods designed to detect a trespasser under the ground, and in general on the possibilities of detection a trespasser behind an obstruction. The paper analyses method of detection of a trespasser that were practically verified by the author of the paper. The first part of the paper discusses the characteristics and use of piezoelectric films that could be used as a replacement for the traditional geophone for detection of underground mining operation. It also provides a block connection diagram of the measuring chain and photos of the practical implementation of the sensor. The consequent part of the paper then discusses the possibilities of detecting a trespasser based on electromagnetic waves emission by humans in the ELF - Extremely Low Frequency band. The paper is supplemented with illustrative photos and results of numeric processing of signals in the form of graphs and courses. The history of excavating and using tunnels spans long into the past. Tunnels were used not only as storage for food and war material but mainly as effective means of protection against attackers. A significant motivating factor for constructing tunnels lies in the hidden possibility of movement of people and transfer of material under the ground of a protected perimeter. At present some tunnels are used as roads for smuggling drugs, weapons, ammunition or illegal passages of people. There are even cases, not exceptional, when tunnels were excavated with the aim to rob a bank safe etc. The fact that construction of tunnels, often quite primitive ones, is not sporadic, can be continually documented not only by historical sources but often also by the daily news summary. The concurrent lack of proper technological means results in the renaissance of using tunnels for illegal purposes even at present. The presented paper focuses on the above mentioned area and points to little used physical principles of detection underground

  14. Using Case-Based Reasoning for detecting computer virus

    Abdellatif Berkat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The typical antivirus approach consists of waiting for a number of computers to be infected, detecting the virus, designing a solution, delivering and deploying a solution. In such a situation, it is very difficult to prevent every machine from being compromised by viruses. In this paper, we propose a new method, for detecting computer viruses, that is based on the technique of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR. In this method: (1 even new viruses that do not exist in the database can be detected (2 The updating of the virus database is done automatically without connecting to the Internet. Whenever a new virus is detected, it will be automatically added to the database used by our application. This presents a major advantage

  15. Detecting eavesdropping activity in fiber optic networks

    MacDonald, Gregory G.

    The secure transmission of data is critical to governments, military organizations, financial institutions, health care providers and other enterprises. The primary method of securing in-transit data is though data encryption. A number of encryption methods exist but the fundamental approach is to assume an eavesdropper has access to the encrypted message but does not have the computing capability to decrypt the message in a timely fashion. Essentially, the strength of security depends on the complexity of the encryption method and the resources available to the eavesdropper. The development of future technologies, most notably quantum computers and quantum computing, is often cited as a direct threat to traditional encryption schemes. It seems reasonable that additional effort should be placed on prohibiting the eavesdropper from coming into possession of the encrypted message in the first place. One strategy for denying possession of the encrypted message is to secure the physical layer of the communications path. Because the majority of transmitted information is over fiber-optic networks, it seems appropriate to consider ways of enhancing the integrity and security of the fiber-based physical layer. The purpose of this research is to investigate the properties of light, as they are manifested in single mode fiber, as a means of insuring the integrity and security of the physical layer of a fiber-optic based communication link. Specifically, the approach focuses on the behavior of polarization in single mode fiber, as it is shown to be especially sensitive to fiber geometry. Fiber geometry is necessarily modified during the placement of optical taps. The problem of detecting activity associated with the placement of an optical tap is herein approached as a supervised machine learning anomaly identification task. The inputs include raw polarization measurements along with additional features derived from various visualizations of the raw data (the inputs are

  16. Minimum Detectable Activity for Tomographic Gamma Scanning System

    Venkataraman, Ram [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Smith, Susan [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. M. [Canberra Industries (AREVA BDNM), Meriden, CT (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For any radiation measurement system, it is useful to explore and establish the detection limits and a minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the radionuclides of interest, even if the system is to be used at far higher values. The MDA serves as an important figure of merit, and often a system is optimized and configured so that it can meet the MDA requirements of a measurement campaign. The non-destructive assay (NDA) systems based on gamma ray analysis are no exception and well established conventions, such the Currie method, exist for estimating the detection limits and the MDA. However, the Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) technique poses some challenges for the estimation of detection limits and MDAs. The TGS combines high resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) with low spatial resolution image reconstruction techniques. In non-imaging gamma ray based NDA techniques measured counts in a full energy peak can be used to estimate the activity of a radionuclide, independently of other counting trials. However, in the case of the TGS each “view” is a full spectral grab (each a counting trial), and each scan consists of 150 spectral grabs in the transmission and emission scans per vertical layer of the item. The set of views in a complete scan are then used to solve for the radionuclide activities on a voxel by voxel basis, over 16 layers of a 10x10 voxel grid. Thus, the raw count data are not independent trials any more, but rather constitute input to a matrix solution for the emission image values at the various locations inside the item volume used in the reconstruction. So, the validity of the methods used to estimate MDA for an imaging technique such as TGS warrant a close scrutiny, because the pair-counting concept of Currie is not directly applicable. One can also raise questions as to whether the TGS, along with other image reconstruction techniques which heavily intertwine data, is a suitable method if one expects to measure samples whose activities

  17. Limits of detection in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Lower limits of detection (LLODs), frequently referred to simply as limits of detection and abbreviated as LODs, often appear in the literature of analytical chemistry - for numerous different methods of elemental and/or molecular analysis. In this chapter, one particular method of quantitative elemental analysis, that of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), is the subject discussed, with reference to LODs. Particularly in the literature of neutron activation analysis (NAA), many tables of 'interference-free' NAA LODs are available. Not all of these are of much use, because (1) for many the definition used for LOD is not clear, or reasonable, (2) for many, the analysis conditions used are not clearly specified, and (3) for many, the analysis conditions used are specified, but not very practicable for most laboratories. For NAA work, such tables of interference-free LODs are, in any case, only applicable to samples in which, at the time of counting, only one radionuclide is present to any significant extent in the activated sample. It is important to note that tables of INAA LODs, per se, do not exist - since the LOD for a given element, under stated analysis conditions, can vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. For any given element, its INAA LOD will always be as large as, and usually much larger than, its tabulated 'interference-free' NAA LOD - how much larger depending upon the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. As discussed in this chapter, however, an INAA computer program exists that can calculate realistic INAA LODs for any elements of interest, in any kind of specified sample matrix, under any given set of analysis conditions

  18. Pulse-Driven Magnetoimpedance Sensor Detection of Cardiac Magnetic Activity

    Nakayama, Shinsuke; Sawamura, Kenta; Mohri, Kaneo; Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to establish a convenient method for detecting biomagnetic activity in the heart. Electrical activity of the heart simultaneously induces a magnetic field. Detection of this magnetic activity will enable non-contact, noninvasive evaluation to be made. We improved the sensitivity of a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI) sensor, which is used as an electric compass in mobile phones and as a motion sensor of the operation handle in computer games, toward a pico-Tesla (pT) level...

  19. Detection of the antibacterial activity of chitosan

    Mayer, Gerd

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using three bacterial strains the antibacterial activity of Chitoskin®, a chitosan-containing wound-dressing, was investigated by determining the viable bacterial cell count in liquid cultures in the absence and presence of Chitoskin®. Results were compared to those obtained for cellulose and silver-laminated cellulose.While the pure cellulose wound-dressing had no impact on the bacterial growth, Chitoskin® and, to an even greater extend, silver-laminated cellulose reduced the viable cell count over 4,5 hrs. Adding a second sample after 2 hrs of incubation resulted in a significantly increased activity of Chitoskin®. In the presence of protein the activity of the silver-laminated cellulose was completely abolished, while that of Chitoskin® continued for at least 3 hrs. Covering bacterial cells on an agar plate with Chitoskin® reversibly inhibited their growth, but did not kill them. Instead, they could be transferred to another sterile agar plate.The results are compatible with the hypothesis that Chitoskin® shows a bacteriostatic activity due to its ability to strongly adsorb the cells. From the theoretical point of view, heavily contaminated wounds would benefit from an early renewal of the wound dressing.

  20. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  1. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    Thompson, D. R.; I. Leifer; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M; M. Fladeland; C. Frankenberg; K. Gerilowski; Green, R. O.; S. Kratwurst; Krings, T; B. Luna; A. K. Thorpe

    2015-01-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of th...

  2. Detection of the antibacterial activity of chitosan

    Mayer, Gerd; Claußen, Tatjana; Heisig, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Using three bacterial strains the antibacterial activity of Chitoskin®, a chitosan-containing wound-dressing, was investigated by determining the viable bacterial cell count in liquid cultures in the absence and presence of Chitoskin®. Results were compared to those obtained for cellulose and silver-laminated cellulose.While the pure cellulose wound-dressing had no impact on the bacterial growth, Chitoskin® and, to an even greater extend, silver-laminated cellulose reduced the viable cell cou...

  3. A Real-time Auto-detection Method for Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) Noise Detection in CMOS Active pixel sensors

    CMOS Active pixel sensors (CMOS APS) are attractive for use in the innermost layers of charged particle trackers, due to their good tradeoffs among the key performances. However, CMOS APS can be greatly influenced by random telegraph signal (RTS) noise, which can cause particle tracking or energy calculation failures. In-depth research of pixels' RTS behavior stimulates the interest of the methods for RTS noise detection, reconstruction and parameters extraction. In this paper, a real-time auto-detection method is proposed, using real-time Gaussian noise standard deviation as the detection threshold. Experimental results show that, compared with current methods using signal standard deviation as the thresholds, the proposed method is more sensitive in multi-level RTS detection and more effective in the case of RTS noise degradation

  4. Human Activity Detection and Recognition Algorithm from Video Surveillances

    Kanchan Gaikwad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for automatic recognition of human activities from video sequences. Visual study of human motion is currently one of the most active research topics in computer vision. This strong interest is determined by a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas such as virtual reality, smart surveillance, perceptual interface, etc. Human motion analysis concerns the detection, tracking and recognition of people. This paper includes the tracking of human activity from video sequencing images. Here we first make frames from video and apply GMM on it. Using HMM we classify the activity and detect the activity. The importance is on three major issues involved in a general human motion analysis system, namely human detection, tracking and activity understanding.

  5. What is controlling shallow active methane seeps in Lake Baikal? Posolsky Bank case-study

    L. Naudts; Granin, N.; Khlystov, O.; Chensky, A.G.; J. Poort; De Batist, M.

    2008-01-01

    Active methane seeps and gas hydrates occur worldwide in the marine environment especially at continental margins. Lake Baikal represents a unique case to study active methane seeps and gas hydrates in an active tectonic, lacustrine setting. In this study we present and explain the distribution of several shallow active methane seeps located on the Posolsky Bank, a major tilted fault block in the central part of Lake Baikal.Active methane seeps were detected with a single-beam echosounder, wh...

  6. Automatic Test case Generation from UML Activity Diagrams

    V.Mary Sumalatha*1; Dr G.S.V.P.Raju2

    2014-01-01

    Test Case Generation is an important phase in software development. Nowadays much of the research is done on UML diagrams for generating test cases. Activity diagrams are different from flow diagrams in the fact that activity diagrams express parallel behavior which flow diagrams cannot express. This paper concentrates on UML 2.0 Activity Diagram for generating test cases. Fork and join pair in activity diagram are used to represent concurrent activities. A novel method is pro...

  7. Y-STR analysis of digital and/or penile penetration cases with no detected spermatozoa.

    McDonald, Andrew; Jones, Emma; Lewis, Jennie; O'Rourke, Paula

    2015-03-01

    This forensic casework trial involved Yfiler(®) testing samples from 47 digital and/or penile penetration cases where the medical examination had occurred within 48h of the alleged incident and no spermatozoa had been detected following Sperm Elution(©). 30% of these cases yielded at least one Y-STR profile comprising three or more alleles per profile and 21% yielded at least one Y-STR profile of ten or more alleles per profile. This trial further investigated the persistence of male DNA in different case types, the location of samples submitted for testing and whether samples from different locations benefit from being combined prior to testing. The data supports the use of Y-STR profiling to provide scientific evidence to investigate whether the alleged sexual activity had occurred as well as to obtain probative evidence in spermatozoa negative penetration cases. PMID:25458926

  8. DETECTION OF TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES

    应作霖; 孙建方; 刘珊

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. To detect telomerase activity in patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and to study therole of telomerase in the tumorigenesis of MF.Methods. The technique of PCR-ELISA was employed to detect telomerase activity in 35 patientswith various stages of MF.Results. 92.3% tumor stage of MF, 78.6% plaque stage of MF and 75.0% patch stage of MF hadpositive telomerase activity. The control samples had no telomerase activity. Telomerase activity in tumorstage of MF was significantly higher than that in plaque stage, while the latter was higher than that inpatch stage. Telomerase activity was correlated with the stage of MF.Conclusion. High level of telomerase activity frequently occurred in patients with MF, suggestingthat telomerase might play an important role in the tumorigenesis of MF and is a useful marker for thediagnosis of MF possibly.

  9. Active case detection, treatment of falciparum malaria with combined chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and vivax malaria with chloroquine and molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in the Republic of Vanuatu

    Rogers William O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum was first described in the Republic of Vanuatu in the early 1980s. In 1991, the Vanuatu Ministry of Health instituted new treatment guidelines for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection consisting of chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy. Chloroquine remains the recommended treatment for Plasmodium vivax. Methods In 2005, cross-sectional blood surveys at 45 sites on Malo Island were conducted and 4,060 adults and children screened for malaria. Of those screened, 203 volunteer study subjects without malaria at the time of screening were followed for 13 weeks to observe peak seasonal incidence of infection. Another 54 subjects with malaria were followed over a 28-day period to determine efficacy of anti-malarial therapy; chloroquine alone for P. vivax and chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for P. falciparum infections. Results The overall prevalence of parasitaemia by mass blood screening was 6%, equally divided between P. falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty percent and 23% of participants with patent P. vivax and P. falciparum parasitaemia, respectively, were febrile at the time of screening. In the incidence study cohort, after 2,303 person-weeks of follow-up, the incidence density of malaria was 1.3 cases per person-year with P. vivax predominating. Among individuals participating in the clinical trial, the 28-day chloroquine P. vivax cure rate was 100%. The 28-day chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine P. falciparum cure rate was 97%. The single treatment failure, confirmed by merozoite surface protein-2 genotyping, was classified as a day 28 late parasitological treatment failure. All P. falciparum isolates carried the Thr-76 pfcrt mutant allele and the double Asn-108 + Arg-59 dhfr mutant alleles. Dhps mutant alleles were not detected in the study sample. Conclusion Peak seasonal malaria prevalence on Malo Island reached hypoendemic levels during the study

  10. The detection of intestinal spike activity on surface electroenterograms

    Myoelectrical recording could provide an alternative technique for assessing intestinal motility, which is a topic of great interest in gastroenterology since many gastrointestinal disorders are associated with intestinal dysmotility. The pacemaker activity (slow wave, SW) of the electroenterogram (EEnG) has been detected in abdominal surface recordings, although the activity related to bowel contractions (spike bursts, SB) has to date only been detected in experimental models with artificially favored electrical conductivity. The aim of the present work was to assess the possibility of detecting SB activity in abdominal surface recordings under physiological conditions. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions of simultaneous internal and external myolectrical signals were conducted on conscious dogs. Signal analysis was carried out in the spectral domain. The results show that in periods of intestinal contractile activity, high-frequency components of EEnG signals can be detected on the abdominal surface in addition to SW activity. The energy between 2 and 20 Hz of the surface myoelectrical recording presented good correlation with the internal intestinal motility index (0.64 ± 0.10 for channel 1 and 0.57 ± 0.11 for channel 2). This suggests that SB activity can also be detected in canine surface EEnG recording.

  11. Pulse-driven magnetoimpedance sensor detection of cardiac magnetic activity.

    Shinsuke Nakayama

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish a convenient method for detecting biomagnetic activity in the heart. Electrical activity of the heart simultaneously induces a magnetic field. Detection of this magnetic activity will enable non-contact, noninvasive evaluation to be made. We improved the sensitivity of a pulse-driven magnetoimpedance (PMI sensor, which is used as an electric compass in mobile phones and as a motion sensor of the operation handle in computer games, toward a pico-Tesla (pT level, and measured magnetic fields on the surface of the thoracic wall in humans. The changes in magnetic field detected by this sensor synchronized with the electric activity of the electrocardiogram (ECG. The shape of the magnetic wave was largely altered by shifting the sensor position within 20 mm in parallel and/or perpendicular to the thoracic wall. The magnetic activity was maximal in the 4th intercostals near the center of the sterna. Furthermore, averaging the magnetic activity at 15 mm in the distance between the thoracic wall and the sensor demonstrated magnetic waves mimicking the P wave and QRS complex. The present study shows the application of PMI sensor in detecting cardiac magnetic activity in several healthy subjects, and suggests future applications of this technology in medicine and biology.

  12. Detection of explosives and active material by nuclear technologies

    The advantages and characteristics of detection of hidden explosives and radioactive materials by nuclear technologies are explained in this paper. The active neutron interrogation technology and their application to detection of explosives are introduced in detail. The non-neutron interrogation technology by gamma method, the commercialized industry neutron sources and gamma ray detectors and their advantages and disadvantages respectively in security application are summarized respectively. The security problem of two typical hidden explosives are discussed with 11 characteristics of a perfect detecting system of explosives. The current research progress in association with particle imaging and fast-pulse neutron system and the passive method to detection of radioactive materials are briefly described. Finally, the paper points out that for detection of hidden explosives and radioactive materials it is necessary to use different technologies for different scenes and targets or use combined technologies. (authors)

  13. Detection of telomerase activity in malignant neoplasms and nonmalignantepithelial tissues of human esophagus

    Shah Min Yang; Tian Jiao Wang; Bao Yu Li; Yuan Huan Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the expression of telomerase activity in malignant esophageal neoplasms and normal humanesophageal epithelia.METHODS Telomerase activity was assayed by the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)method. All the neoplasms and epithelia of esophagus were confirmed by routine pathological diagnosis.RESULTS Telomerase activity was assayed in 18 normal esophageal epithelial tissues and in 35 malignantneoplasms of esophagus, including 27 cases of esophageal carcinoma and 8 cases of cardiac carcinoma.Telomerase activity was detected in most of malignant neoplasms of esophagus (91.4%, 32/35) and in allthe normal esophageal epithelial tissues except one (18/19).CONCLUSION The results suggest that in addition to contributing to proliferation of immortal blast cellsand neoplastic cells, telomerase activity may also play a similar role in regeneration of normal epithelia ofhuman esophagus. The potential use of telomerase activity as a diagnostic marker in human esophagealneoplasm might not be suitable.

  14. Sensitive optical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity with quantum dots

    Ren, Xiangling [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Chen, Zhenzhen; Chen, Xiaoying; Liu, Jing [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Tang, Fangqiong, E-mail: tangfq@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-01-15

    A simple method has been developed to detect the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by the changing of fluorescence intensities of the quantum dots (QDs). In this system, the fluorescence intensities of the QDs were quenched by p-nitrophenol (pNP) which was produced in the process of ALP catalytic reaction. A series of linear calibration curves of the activity of ALP were obtained in different pH buffer solutions. The wide linear range was 3–1000 U L{sup −1} and the detection limit was 3 U L{sup −1} (S/N=3). Furthermore, the experimental conditions of biosensor were optimized, and anti-interference ability was presented. The activity of ALP was also detected in serum and the recovery of ALP in serum samples was more than 95%. The excellent performance of this biosensor indicates that it can be used in practice detection of ALP. -- Highlights: • A sensitive ALP biosensor is constructed based on QDs without complex processes. • The analysis processing is very convenient, simple and rapid. • The detection mechanism of the ALP biosensor is studied by XPS. • The paper proposes a feasible approach for some substrates or enzymes detecting.

  15. Sensitive optical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity with quantum dots

    A simple method has been developed to detect the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by the changing of fluorescence intensities of the quantum dots (QDs). In this system, the fluorescence intensities of the QDs were quenched by p-nitrophenol (pNP) which was produced in the process of ALP catalytic reaction. A series of linear calibration curves of the activity of ALP were obtained in different pH buffer solutions. The wide linear range was 3–1000 U L−1 and the detection limit was 3 U L−1 (S/N=3). Furthermore, the experimental conditions of biosensor were optimized, and anti-interference ability was presented. The activity of ALP was also detected in serum and the recovery of ALP in serum samples was more than 95%. The excellent performance of this biosensor indicates that it can be used in practice detection of ALP. -- Highlights: • A sensitive ALP biosensor is constructed based on QDs without complex processes. • The analysis processing is very convenient, simple and rapid. • The detection mechanism of the ALP biosensor is studied by XPS. • The paper proposes a feasible approach for some substrates or enzymes detecting

  16. Detection of person presence and its activity in the bathtub

    Bujnowski, Adam; Palinski, Arkadiusz; Koscinski, Piotr; Skalski, Lukasz; Skurczynska, Anna; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2013-04-01

    A practical application of a bioimpedance technique for a detection of a bathing person is presented in the paper. It addresses the possibility of supervising people in the bathtub without voiding of their intimacy. The measurement system installed in a fiber-glass or a plastic bathtub is able to detect a presence of the bathing person, to estimate its activity and thus to detect potentially dangerous events. In the paper a principle of measurement, working prototype and measurements are presented. The proposed method can be useful for supporting and supervising bathing of elders, partially disabled or people with some health state risk during the bath and living alone.

  17. Detection of person presence and its activity in the bathtub

    A practical application of a bioimpedance technique for a detection of a bathing person is presented in the paper. It addresses the possibility of supervising people in the bathtub without voiding of their intimacy. The measurement system installed in a fiber-glass or a plastic bathtub is able to detect a presence of the bathing person, to estimate its activity and thus to detect potentially dangerous events. In the paper a principle of measurement, working prototype and measurements are presented. The proposed method can be useful for supporting and supervising bathing of elders, partially disabled or people with some health state risk during the bath and living alone.

  18. Inverse Problem Solution in Landmines Detection Based on Active Thermography

    B. Szymanik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Landmines still affect numerous territories in the whole world and pose a serious threat, mostly to civilians. Widely used non-metallic landmines are undetectable using metal detector. Therefore, there is an urging need to improve methods of detecting such objects. In the present study we introduce relatively new method of landmines' detection: active infrared thermography with microwave excitation. In this paper we present the optimization based method of solving inverse problem for microwave heating. This technique will be used in the reconstruction of detected landmines geometric and material properties.

  19. An Automated Approach to Transform Use Cases into Activity Diagrams

    Yue, Tao; Briand, Lionel C.; Labiche, Yvan

    Use cases are commonly used to structure and document requirements while UML activity diagrams are often used to visualize and formalize use cases, for example to support automated test case generation. Therefore the automated support for the transition from use cases to activity diagrams would provide significant, practical help. Additionally, traceability could be established through automated transformation, which could then be used for instance to relate requirements to design decisions and test cases. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically generate activity diagrams from use cases while establishing traceability links. Data flow information can also be generated and added to these activity diagrams. Our approach is implemented in a tool, which we used to perform five case studies. The results show that high quality activity diagrams can be generated. Our analysis also shows that our approach outperforms existing academic approaches and commercial tools.

  20. A review of conventional explosives detection using active neutron interrogation

    Conventional explosives are relatively easy to obtain and may cause massive harm to people and property. There are several tools employed by law enforcement to detect explosives, but these can be subverted. Active neutron interrogation is a viable alternative to those techniques, and includes: fast neutron analysis, thermal neutron analysis, pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis, neutron elastic scatter, and fast neutron radiography. These methods vary based on neutron energy and radiation detected. A thorough review of the principles behind, advantages, and disadvantages of the different types of active neutron interrogation is presented. (author)

  1. Novel approaches for single molecule activation and detection

    Benfenati, Fabio; Torre, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    How can we obtain tools able to process and exchange information at the molecular scale In order to do this, it is necessary to activate and detect single molecules under controlled conditions. This book focuses on the generation of biologically-inspired molecular devices. These devices are based on the developments of new photonic tools able to activate and stimulate single molecule machines. Additionally, new light sensitive molecules can be selectively activated by photonic tools. These technological innovations will provide a way to control activation of single light-sensitive molecules, a

  2. Detecting rare variants in case-parents association studies.

    Kuang-Fu Cheng

    Full Text Available Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs in detecting common variants (minor allele frequency ≥0.05 many suggested that rare variants also contribute to the genetic architecture of diseases. Recently, researchers demonstrated that rare variants can show a strong stratification which may not be corrected by using existing methods. In this paper, we focus on a case-parents study and consider methods for testing group-wise association between multiple rare (and common variants in a gene region and a disease. All tests depend on the numbers of transmitted mutant alleles from parents to their diseased children across variants and hence they are robust to the effect of population stratification. We use extensive simulation studies to compare the performance of four competing tests: the largest single-variant transmission disequilibrium test (TDT, multivariable test, combined TDT, and a likelihood ratio test based on a random-effects model. We find that the likelihood ratio test is most powerful in a wide range of settings and there is no negative impact to its power performance when common variants are also included in the analysis. If deleterious and protective variants are simultaneously analyzed, the likelihood ratio test was generally insensitive to the effect directionality, unless the effects are extremely inconsistent in one direction.

  3. Detection of Extracellular enzymes Activities in Various Fusarium spp.

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Yoon, Ji Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Hong, Seung Beom; Cheon, Youngah; Ko, Seung Ju

    2007-01-01

    Thirty seven species of Fusarium were evaluated for their ability of producing extracellular enzymes using chromogenic medium containing substrates such as starch, cellobiose, CM-cellulose, xylan, and pectin. Among the tested species Fusarium mesoamericanum, F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, and F. acuminatum showed high β-glucosidase acitivity. Xylanase activity was strongly detected in F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Strong pectinase activity was also found in F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum...

  4. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Penicillium using Chromogenic Media

    Yoon, Ji Hwan; Hong, Seung Beom; Ko, Seung Ju; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2007-01-01

    A total of 106 Penicillium species were tested to examine their ability of degrading cellobiose, pectin and xylan. The activity of β-glucosidase was generally strong in all the Penicillium species tested. P. citrinum, P. charlesii, P. manginii and P. aurantiacum showed the higher ability of producing β-glucosidase than other tested species. Pectinase activity was detected in 24 Penicillium species. P. paracanescens, P. sizovae, P. sartoryi, P. chrysogenum, and P. claviforme showed strong pect...

  5. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed open-quotes lock-inclose quotes amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound

  6. Average-Case Active Learning with Costs

    Guillory, Andrew; Bilmes, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the expected cost of a greedy active learning algorithm. Our analysis extends previous work to a more general setting in which different queries have different costs. Moreover, queries may have more than two possible responses and the distribution over hypotheses may be non uniform. Specific applications include active learning with label costs, active learning for multiclass and partial label queries, and batch mode active learning. We also discuss an approximate version of intere...

  7. Active spectral imaging for standoff detection of explosives

    Skvortsov, L A [Institute of Cryptography, Communications and Informatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-31

    Laser methods of standoff detection of explosive traces on surfaces of objects are considered. These methods are based on active formation of multi- and hyperspectral images of an object examined. The possibilities of these methods and the prospects of their development are discussed. Emphasis is laid on the justification of the most preferred field of application of the technique under consideration.

  8. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    D. R. Thompson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and Methane Experiment (COMEX campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG. AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s−1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications.

  9. Activating BRAF Mutations Detected in Mixed Hürthle Cell Carcinoma and Multifocal Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Report of an Unusual Case and Review of the Literature.

    Sinno, Sara; Choucair, Mahmoud; Nasrallah, Mona; Wadi, Lara; Jabbour, Mark N; Nassif, Samer

    2016-09-01

    Despite the increase in the incidence of thyroid carcinomas, the occurrence of collision tumors in the thyroid remains a rare event. We present the case of a 69-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of painful neck swelling. Imaging revealed a large right hemithyroid mass and a left hemithyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration of the lesions and subsequent total thyroidectomy revealed a Hürthle cell carcinoma in the right lobe and bilateral multicentric papillary carcinoma foci, including 2 foci with a classical pattern and 1 encapsulated follicular variant in the isthmus. BRAF gene mutation analysis revealed V600E gene mutation in the classical variants of papillary carcinoma and in the Hürthle cell carcinoma. The focus of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in the isthmus and a sample from normal thyroid tissue did not harbor BRAF mutations. This case is remarkable in being an unusual report of a follicular Hürthle cell carcinoma harboring the BRAF V600E mutation and occurring in collision with multifocal papillary carcinoma. Documentation of such cases is important as it helps better understand the pathogenesis, clinical behavior, and radiologic findings of such rare lesions and to determine the optimal treatment modalities. PMID:27006301

  10. Voice Activity Detection Using Fuzzy Entropy and Support Vector Machine

    R. Johny Elton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes support vector machine (SVM based voice activity detection using FuzzyEn to improve detection performance under noisy conditions. The proposed voice activity detection (VAD uses fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn as a feature extracted from noise-reduced speech signals to train an SVM model for speech/non-speech classification. The proposed VAD method was tested by conducting various experiments by adding real background noises of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR ranging from −10 dB to 10 dB to actual speech signals collected from the TIMIT database. The analysis proves that FuzzyEn feature shows better results in discriminating noise and corrupted noisy speech. The efficacy of the SVM classifier was validated using 10-fold cross validation. Furthermore, the results obtained by the proposed method was compared with those of previous standardized VAD algorithms as well as recently developed methods. Performance comparison suggests that the proposed method is proven to be more efficient in detecting speech under various noisy environments with an accuracy of 93.29%, and the FuzzyEn feature detects speech efficiently even at low SNR levels.

  11. Towards a sensor for detecting human presence and activity

    Benezeth, Yannick; Laurent, Hélène; Emile, Bruno; Rosenberger, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a vision-based system for human detection and tracking in indoor environment allowing to collect higher level information on people activity. The developed presence sensor based on video analysis, using a static camera is ¯rst of all presented. Composed of three main steps, the ¯rst one consists in change detection using a background model updated at di®erent levels to manage the most common variations of the environment. A moving objects tracking based on interest p...

  12. Verification of Minimum Detectable Activity for Radiological Threat Source Search

    Gardiner, Hannah; Myjak, Mitchell; Baciak, James; Detwiler, Rebecca; Seifert, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office is working to develop advanced technologies that will improve the ability to detect, localize, and identify radiological and nuclear sources from airborne platforms. The Airborne Radiological Enhanced-sensor System (ARES) program is developing advanced data fusion algorithms for analyzing data from a helicopter-mounted radiation detector. This detector platform provides a rapid, wide-area assessment of radiological conditions at ground level. The NSCRAD (Nuisance-rejection Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection) algorithm was developed to distinguish low-count sources of interest from benign naturally occurring radiation and irrelevant nuisance sources. It uses a number of broad, overlapping regions of interest to statistically compare each newly measured spectrum with the current estimate for the background to identify anomalies. We recently developed a method to estimate the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of NSCRAD in real time. We present this method here and report on the MDA verification using both laboratory measurements and simulated injects on measured backgrounds at or near the detection limits. This work is supported by the US Department of Homeland Security, Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, under competitively awarded contract/IAA HSHQDC-12-X-00376. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Gov't.

  13. Detecting constitutive activity and protean agonism at cannabinoid-2 receptor.

    Beltramo, Massimiliano; Brusa, Rossella; Mancini, Isabella; Scandroglio, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Since the cannabinoid system is involved in regulating several physiological functions such as locomotor activity, cognition, nociception, food intake, and inflammatory reaction, it has been the subject of intense study. Research on the pharmacology of this system has enormously progressed in the last 20years. One intriguing aspect that emerged from this research is that cannabinoid receptors (CBs) express a high level of constitutive activity. Investigation on this particular aspect of receptor pharmacology has largely focused on CB1, the CB subtype highly expressed in several brain regions. More recently, research on constitutive activity on the other CB subtype, CB2, was stimulated by the increasing interest on its potential as target for the treatment of various pathologies (e.g., pain and inflammation). There are several possible implications of constitutive activity on the therapeutic action of both agonists and antagonists, and consequently, it is important to have valuable methods to study this aspect of CB2 pharmacology. In the present chapter, we describe three methods to study constitutive activity at CB2: two classical methods relying on the detection of changes in cAMP level and GTPγS binding and a new one based on cell impedance measurement. In addition, we also included a section on detection of protean agonism, which is an interesting pharmacological phenomenon strictly linked to constitutive activity. PMID:21036225

  14. Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques

    A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time. (orig.)

  15. Expansion of brucellosis detection in the country of Georgia by screening household members of cases and neighboring community members

    Sanodze, Lia; Bautista, Christian T.; Garuchava, Natalia; Chubinidze, Svetlana; Tsertsvadze, Ekaterine; Broladze, Mariam; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Tsanava, Shota; Akhvlediani, Tamar; Rivard, Robert G.; Mody, Rupal; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Elzer, Philip H.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is considered as endemic zoonotic disease in the country of Georgia. However, the burden of the disease on a household level is not known. Therefore, this study sought to determine the benefits of active surveillance coupled to serological screening for the early detection of brucellosis among close contacts of brucellosis cases. Methods We used an active surveillance approach to estimate the rate of seropositivity among household family members and neighboring communit...

  16. How Knowledge Organizations Work: The Case of Detectives

    Gottschalk, Petter; Holgersson, Stefan; Karlsen, Jan Terje

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize detectives in police investigations as knowledge workers. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a literature review covering knowledge organizations, police organizations, police investigations, and detectives as knowledge workers. Findings: The paper finds that the changing role…

  17. SVM detection of epileptiform activity in routine EEG.

    Kelleher, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Routine electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important test in aiding the diagnosis of patients with suspected epilepsy. These recordings typically last 20-40 minutes, during which signs of abnormal activity (spikes, sharp waves) are looked for in the EEG trace. It is essential that events of short duration are detected during the routine EEG test. The work presented in this paper examines the effect of changing a range of input values to the detection system on its ability to distinguish between normal and abnormal EEG activity. It is shown that the length of analysis window in the range of 0.5s to 1s are well suited to the task. Additionally, it is reported that patient specific systems should be used where possible due to their better performance.

  18. Comparison of Voice Activity Detection Algorithms for VoIP

    Prasad, Venkatesha R; Sangwan, Abhijeet; Jamadagni, HS; Chiranth, MC; Sah, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    We discuss techniques for Voice Activity Detection (VAD) for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). VAD aids in saving bandwidth requirement of a voice session thereby increasing the bandwidth efficiently. In this paper, we compare the quality of speech, level of compression and computational complexity for three time-domain and three frequency-domain VAD algorithms. Implementation of time-domain algorithms is computationally simple. However, better speech quality is obtained with the frequency...

  19. Quantifying Detection Probabilities for Proliferation Activities in Undeclared Facilities

    International Safeguards is currently in an evolutionary process to increase effectiveness and efficiency of the verification system. This is an obvious consequence of the inability to detect the Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapons programme in the early 90s. By the adoption of the Programme 93+2, this has led to the development of Integrated Safeguards and the State-level concept. Moreover, the IAEA's focus was extended onto proliferation activities outside the State's declared facilities. The effectiveness of safeguards activities within declared facilities can and have been quantified with respect to costs and detection probabilities. In contrast, when verifying the absence of undeclared facilities this quantification has been avoided in the past because it has been considered to be impossible. However, when balancing the allocation of budget between the declared and the undeclared field, explicit reasoning is needed why safeguards effort is distributed in a given way. Such reasoning can be given by a holistic, information and risk-driven approach to Acquisition Path Analysis comprising declared and undeclared facilities. Regarding the input, this approach relies on the quantification of several factors, i.e., costs of attractiveness values for specific proliferation activities, potential safeguards measures and detection probabilities for these measures also for the undeclared field. In order to overcome the lack of quantification for detection probabilities in undeclared facilities, the authors of this paper propose a general verification error model. Based on this model, four different approaches are explained and assessed with respect to their advantages and disadvantages: the analogy approach, the Bayes approach, the frequentist approach and the process approach. The paper concludes with a summary and an outlook on potential future research activities. (author)

  20. Simple spot test for rapid detection of urease activity.

    Qadri, S M; Zubairi, S; Hawley, H P; Ramirez, E G

    1984-01-01

    A spot test for the detection of urease activity was developed and evaluated with 761 strains of gram-negative bacteria. The test was compared with the conventional Christensen urea agar slants and urease test on the Vitek Enterobacteriaceae card (Vitek Systems, Inc., St. Ana, Mo.). Of the 348 strains of the Proteus-Providencia-Morganella group that were urease positive, 327 (94%) yielded positive results within 1 min, and all strains yielded positive results within 2 min. All these organisms...

  1. A militarily fielded thermal neutron activation sensor for landmine detection

    Clifford, E.T.H. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River (Canada); McFee, J.E. [Defence R and D Canada-Suffield, Medicine Hat (Canada)], E-mail: john.mcfee@drdc-rddc.gc.ca; Ing, H.; Andrews, H.R.; Tennant, D.; Harper, E. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River (Canada); Faust, A.A. [Defence R and D Canada-Suffield, Medicine Hat (Canada)

    2007-08-21

    The Canadian Department of National Defence has developed a teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor system to detect anti-tank landmines on roads and tracks in peacekeeping operations. A key part of the system is a thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensor which is placed above a suspect location to within a 30 cm radius and confirms the presence of explosives via detection of the 10.835 MeV gamma ray associated with thermal neutron capture on {sup 14}N. The TNA uses a 100{mu}g{sup 252}Cf neutron source surrounded by four 7.62cmx7.62cm NaI(Tl) detectors. The system, consisting of the TNA sensor head, including source, detectors and shielding, the high-rate, fast pulse processing electronics and the data processing methodology are described. Results of experiments to characterize detection performance are also described. The experiments have shown that anti-tank mines buried 10 cm or less can be detected in roughly a minute or less, but deeper mines and mines significantly displaced horizontally take considerably longer time. Mines as deep as 30 cm can be detected for long count times (1000 s). Four TNA detectors are now in service with the Canadian Forces as part of the four multi-sensor systems, making it the first militarily fielded TNA sensor and the first militarily fielded confirmation sensor for landmines. The ability to function well in adverse climatic conditions has been demonstrated, both in trials and operations.

  2. Sensor to detect endothelialization on an active coronary stent

    Coffey Arthur C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A serious complication with drug-eluting coronary stents is late thrombosis, caused by exposed stent struts not covered by endothelial cells in the healing process. Real-time detection of this healing process could guide physicians for more individualized anti-platelet therapy. Here we present work towards developing a sensor to detect this healing process. Sensors on several stent struts could give information about the heterogeneity of healing across the stent. Methods A piezoelectric microcantilever was insulated with parylene and demonstrated as an endothelialization detector for incorporation within an active coronary stent. After initial characterization, endothelial cells were plated onto the cantilever surface. After they attached to the surface, they caused an increase in mass, and thus a decrease in the resonant frequencies of the cantilever. This shift was then detected electrically with an LCR meter. The self-sensing, self-actuating cantilever does not require an external, optical detection system, thus allowing for implanted applications. Results A cell density of 1300 cells/mm2 on the cantilever surface is detected. Conclusions We have developed a self-actuating, self-sensing device for detecting the presence of endothelial cells on a surface. The device is biocompatible and functions reliably in ionic liquids, making it appropriate for implantable applications. This sensor can be placed along the struts of a coronary stent to detect when the struts have been covered with a layer of endothelial cells and are no longer available surfaces for clot formation. Anti-platelet therapy can be adjusted in real-time with respect to a patient's level of healing and hemorrhaging risks.

  3. Electrochemical detection of transketolase activity using a tyrosinase biosensor.

    Lopez, Marta Sanchez-Paniagua; Charmantray, Franck; Helaine, Virgil; Hecquet, Laurence; Mousty, Christine

    2010-09-15

    This paper proposes a new concept of transketolase (TK) activity profiling. A tyrosinase (PPO) biosensor, based on the immobilization of this enzyme in a Mg(2)Al-Cl layered double hydroxide, was developed for the amperometric detection of N-acetyl-l-tyrosine ethyl ester monohydrate (N-Ac-Tyr-OEt) at -0.2V. This compound was released during an enzymatic reaction catalyzed by TK with N-acetyl-O-(2R, 3S, 5-trihydroxy-4-oxopentyl)-l-tyrosine ethyl ester used as donor substrate. This tyrosinase biosensor was optimized for the detection of TK activity, including PPO optimum substrate concentration, electrolyte nature, pH, and influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). It was found that N-Ac-Tyr-OEt release is dependent on TK concentration (U/mL) in the electrolyte medium. These results demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of the tyrosinase biosensor designed for in vitro detection of TK activity, which is known to be involved in several diseases. PMID:20541930

  4. Early detection and response for measles and rubella cases through the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System in Ibaraki Prefecture.

    Watanabe, Miki; Kurita, Junko; Takagi, Takeshi; Nagata, Noriko; Nagasu, Natsuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Ibaraki Prefecture, all (nursery) schools have joined the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System (hereafter denoted as (N)SASSy), which is operated by the Japan School Health Association to monitor the prevalence of infectious diseases, the early detection and response for outbreaks, and prevention of large outbreaks. Prefectural government officers also utilize it as a control measure for infectious diseases. In particular, when cases of measles or rubella are registered, (N)SASSy sends e-mails automatically to prefectural government officers to activate control measures. This paper summarizes administrative responses by prefectural government officers for measles or rubella cases using (N)SASSy and discusses the future challenges.Methods We summarized registration, detection, and first response data for measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy and compared the number of detected and reported cases enforced by the Infectious Diseases Control Law from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014.Results The public health center questioned hospitals/clinics and (nursery) schools about all registered measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy on the same day to check the entered information. In the past 2 years, there were 5 measles and 56 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 measles and 19 rubella cases in 2014 registered with (N)SASSy. All cases were checked and investigated by the public health center. Of all cases detected by (N)SASSy, 7 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 rubella case in 2014 were reported based on the law. No measles cases were reported in the 2 years. The results of investigations and laboratory tests were given as feedback to the (nursery) schools. If the case did not case definition determined by the law, we changed the status in (N)SASSy to suspected or discarded cases.Conclusion Since (N)SASSy assists prefectural government officers with earlier detection of and response for infectious diseases, it definitely contributes to infection control

  5. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and MEthane eXperiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace-gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications. Post-analysis demonstrates matched filter methods providing noise-equivalent (1σ) detection sensitivity for 1.0 % CH4 column enhancements equal to 141 ppm m.

  6. Activation Detection in fMRI Using Jeffrey Divergence

    Seghouane, Abd-Krim

    2009-12-01

    A statistical test for detecting activated pixels in functional MRI (fMRI) data is proposed. For the derivation of this test, the fMRI time series measured at each voxel is modeled as the sum of a response signal which arises due to the experimentally controlled activation-baseline pattern, a nuisance component representing effects of no interest, and Gaussian white noise. The test is based on comparing the dimension of the voxels fMRI time series fitted data models with and without controlled activation-baseline pattern. The Jeffrey divergence is used for this comparison. The test has the advantage of not requiring a level of significance or a threshold to be provided.

  7. Amplified detection of protease activity using porous silicon nanostructures

    Orosco, Manuel

    This dissertation will focus on harnessing the optical properties of porous silicon to sense protease activity. Electrochemical etching of polished silicon wafers produces porous silicon with unique optical properties such as Fabry-Perot fringes or a dielectric mirror reflecting specific wavelengths. Porous silicon optical transducers are coupled to a biochemical reaction (protease activity) and optically measured in a label-free manner. The first chapter is an introductory chapter discussing the current methods of detecting protease activity. Also discussed is the use of porous silicon for label-free sensing. The second chapter discusses the use of thin protein layers that are spin coated on the surface of a porous silicon film and excluded from the porous matrix based on size. When active proteases are introduced to the protein layer, small peptide fragments are generated, causing a change in refractive index from low to high. This can be used as a tool to monitor protease activity and amplify the signal to the naked eye. To extend on the second chapter, a double layered porous silicon film with the first layer have large pores and the second layer etched below having small pores was used for sensing protease activity. Proteases are adsorbed into the first layer and introduction of whole protein substrate produces small peptide fragments that can enter the second layer (changing the effective optical thickness). The fourth chapter describes a method of using luminescent transducers coupled to protein films. An "on-off" sensor using protein coated luminescent porous silicon was used to detect a decrease in the intensity of luminescence due to degradation of the protein film. An "off-on" sensor involved a fluorescent dye housed in the porous film and capped with a protein coating. The release of the dye is caused by the action of a protease causing an increase in fluorescent intensity from the dye.

  8. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  9. Two Laboratory Activities Using Conventional or Real-Time PCR to Simulate Pathogenic E. coli Detection

    Joanna R. Klein

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In these lab activities, students perform conventional PCR and real-time PCR to simulate pathogenic E. coli detection. The labs were designed to complement a previously published virtual PCR classroom activity in which students are asked to design a PCR-based diagnostic test for a pathogenic strain of E. coli. In the virtual PCR activity, students use bioinformatics to discover that the Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2 are unique to the Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strain O157:H7. Thus they come to the conclusion that doing PCR with primers designed for shiga toxin should be able to differentiate O157:H7 from other strains of E. coli. In the lab activity described here, students actually perform the PCR assay. Performing PCR enhanced student understanding of the technique beyond what was accomplished through the virtual PCR classroom activity and is recommended as an addition to the case study.

  10. Sensor fusion for antipersonnel landmine detection, a case study

    Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.; Cremer, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the multi sensor fusion results obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance Detection system) are presented. The lay out of the test lane and the individual sensors used are described. The implementation of the SCOOP algorithm improves the ROC curves,

  11. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    Horacio Heinzen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 µg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118 and propolis (60 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57 are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 µg/kg are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  12. Mining bipartite graphs to improve semantic pedophile activity detection

    Fournier, Raphaël; Danisch, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    International audience Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are popular to exchange large volumes of data through the Internet. Paedophile activity is a very important topic for our society and some works have recently attempted to gauge the extent of paedophile exchanges on P2P networks. A key issue is to obtain an efficient detection tool, which may decide if a sequence of keywords is related to the topic or not. We propose to use social network analysis in a large dataset from a P2P network to i...

  13. The effect of other activities on INAA limits of detection

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Advance Prediction Computer Program is described, as well as its areas of usefulness. Particular attention is devoted to its ability to predict μg and ppm INAA lower limits of detection (LOD's) of any particular elements of interest in any sample matrix type of even very approximately known average or typical elemental composition. In general, INAA μg LOD's are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than the corresponding 'interference-free' values, and INAA ppm LOD's are found to be 100 to even 100 000 times higher than the corresponding 'interference-free' values calculated for a one-gram sample. (author)

  14. Structural Damage Detection with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2011-07-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are lightweight and inexpensive enablers for a large class of damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper starts with a brief review of PWAS physical principles and basic modelling and continues by considering the various ways in which PWAS can be used for damage detection: (a) embedded guided-wave ultrasonics, i.e., pitch-catch, pulse-echo, phased arrays, thickness mode; (b) high-frequency modal sensing, i.e., the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance method; (c) passive detection, i.e., acoustic emission and impact detection. An example of crack-like damage detection and localization with PWAS phased arrays on a small metallic plate is given. The modelling of PWAS detection of disbond damage in adhesive joints is achieved with the analytical transfer matrix method (TMM). The analytical methods offer the advantage of fast computation which enables parameter studies and carpet plots. A parametric study of the effect of crack size and PWAS location on disbond detection is presented. The power and energy transduction between PWAS and structure is studied analytically with a wave propagation method. Special attention is given to the mechatronics modeling of the complete transduction cycle from electrical excitation into ultrasonic acoustic waves by the piezoelectric effect, the transfer through the structure, and finally reverse piezoelectric transduction to generate the received electric signal. It is found that the combination of PWAS size and wave frequency/wavelength play an important role in identifying transduction maxima and minima that could be exploited to achieve an optimum power-efficient design. The multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), which permits fine discretization of damaged regions and complicated structural geometries, is used to study the generation of guided waves in a plate from an electrically excited transmitter PWAS and the capture of these waves as electric

  15. Signal Detection in High Dimension: The Multispiked Case

    Onatski, Alexei; Moreira, Marcelo J.; Hallin, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies Le Cam’s asymptotic theory of statistical experiments to the signal detection problem in high dimension. We consider the problem of testing the null hypothesis of sphericity of a high-dimensional covariance matrix against an alternative of (unspecified) multiple symmetry-breaking directions (multispiked alternatives). Simple analytical expressions for the Gaussian asymptotic power envelope and the asymptotic powers of previously proposed tests are derived. Those asymptotic ...

  16. Direct Detection of Oil; Case History From Iran

    Iran is one of the main petroleum producers and also one of the countries which experiences contemporary geophysical techniques in Middle East region. Main aim of this study is direct detection of oil hydrocarbons by a special geophysical technique. To accomplish that, FEM, TEM and IP integrated geophysical techniques were successfully applied to measure IP phase shift which might relate to existence of oil traps. Target penetration for this prospecting is about 6 kms

  17. Features for voice activity detection: a comparative analysis

    Graf, Simon; Herbig, Tobias; Buck, Markus; Schmidt, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    In many speech signal processing applications, voice activity detection (VAD) plays an essential role for separating an audio stream into time intervals that contain speech activity and time intervals where speech is absent. Many features that reflect the presence of speech were introduced in literature. However, to our knowledge, no extensive comparison has been provided yet. In this article, we therefore present a structured overview of several established VAD features that target at different properties of speech. We categorize the features with respect to properties that are exploited, such as power, harmonicity, or modulation, and evaluate the performance of some dedicated features. The importance of temporal context is discussed in relation to latency restrictions imposed by different applications. Our analyses allow for selecting promising VAD features and finding a reasonable trade-off between performance and complexity.

  18. Enhanced ULF electromagnetic activity detected by DEMETER above seismogenic regions

    Athanasiou, M; David, C; Anagnostopoulos, G

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument (ICE) onboard the satellite DEMETER in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and lower seiismic activity. In particular we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ez-electric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009), in order to examine check the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in central America, Indonesia, Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool of evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emmited from regions of highest seismic activity at the tectonic plates boundaries. We interpret these results as suggesting that the highest ULF EM energy detected in the topside ionosphere is originated from seismic processes within Earth's...

  19. Seizure-like activity during fentanyl anesthesia. A case report.

    Webb, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Fentanyl induced seizures have been described previously in the literature. Clinical observations has labeled the movements seen in fentanyl anesthesia as seizure activity but electroencephalographic studies have not supported this. A case of seizure-like activity after the administration of fentanyl in a 20-year-old female is reported.

  20. Efficacy of ultrasound elastography in detecting active myositis in children: can it replace MRI?

    Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is a rare yet potentially debilitating condition. MRI is used both for diagnosis and to assess response to treatment. No study has evaluated the performance of US elastography in the diagnosis of this condition in children. To assess the performance of compression-strain US elastography in detecting active myositis in children with clinically confirmed juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and to compare its efficacy to MRI. Children with juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy underwent non-contrast MR imaging as well as compression-strain US elastography of the quadriceps muscles. Imaging findings from both modalities were compared to each other as well as to the clinical determination of active disease based on physical examination and laboratory data. Active myositis on MR was defined as increased muscle signal on T2-weighted images. Elastography images were defined as normal or abnormal based on a previously published numerical scale of muscle elastography in normal children. Muscle echogenicity was graded as normal or abnormal based on gray-scale sonographic images. Twenty-one studies were conducted in 18 pediatric patients (15 female, 3 male; age range 3-19 years). Active myositis was present on MRI in ten cases. There was a significant association between abnormal MRI and clinically active disease (P = 0.012). US elastography was abnormal in 4 of 10 cases with abnormal MRI and in 4 of 11 cases with normal MRI. There was no association between abnormal elastography and either MRI (P > 0.999) or clinically active disease (P > 0.999). Muscle echogenicity was normal in 11 patients; all 11 had normal elastography. Of the ten patients with increased muscle echogenicity, eight had abnormal elastography. There was a significant association between muscle echogenicity and US elastography (P < 0.001). The positive and negative predictive values for elastography in the determination of active myositis were 75% and 31

  1. Efficacy of ultrasound elastography in detecting active myositis in children: can it replace MRI?

    Berko, Netanel S.; Levin, Terry L. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Hay, Arielle [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Bronx, NY (United States); Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Miami, FL (United States); Sterba, Yonit; Wahezi, Dawn [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy is a rare yet potentially debilitating condition. MRI is used both for diagnosis and to assess response to treatment. No study has evaluated the performance of US elastography in the diagnosis of this condition in children. To assess the performance of compression-strain US elastography in detecting active myositis in children with clinically confirmed juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and to compare its efficacy to MRI. Children with juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy underwent non-contrast MR imaging as well as compression-strain US elastography of the quadriceps muscles. Imaging findings from both modalities were compared to each other as well as to the clinical determination of active disease based on physical examination and laboratory data. Active myositis on MR was defined as increased muscle signal on T2-weighted images. Elastography images were defined as normal or abnormal based on a previously published numerical scale of muscle elastography in normal children. Muscle echogenicity was graded as normal or abnormal based on gray-scale sonographic images. Twenty-one studies were conducted in 18 pediatric patients (15 female, 3 male; age range 3-19 years). Active myositis was present on MRI in ten cases. There was a significant association between abnormal MRI and clinically active disease (P = 0.012). US elastography was abnormal in 4 of 10 cases with abnormal MRI and in 4 of 11 cases with normal MRI. There was no association between abnormal elastography and either MRI (P > 0.999) or clinically active disease (P > 0.999). Muscle echogenicity was normal in 11 patients; all 11 had normal elastography. Of the ten patients with increased muscle echogenicity, eight had abnormal elastography. There was a significant association between muscle echogenicity and US elastography (P < 0.001). The positive and negative predictive values for elastography in the determination of active myositis were 75% and 31

  2. Adhesive disbond detection using piezoelectric wafer active sensors

    Roth, William; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2015-04-01

    The aerospace industry continues to increase the use of adhesives for structural bonding due to the increased joint efficiency (reduced weight), even distribution of the load path and decreases in stress concentrations. However, the limited techniques for verifying the strength of adhesive bonds has reduced its use on primary structures and requires an intensive inspection schedule. This paper discusses a potential structural health monitoring (SHM) technique for the detection of disbonds through the in situ inspection of adhesive joints. This is achieved through the use of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS), thin unobtrusive sensors which are permanently bonded to the aircraft structure. The detection method discussed in this study is electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS), a local vibration method. This method detects disbonds from the change in the mechanical impedance of the structure surrounding the disbond. This paper will discuss how predictive modeling can provide valuable insight into the inspection method, and provide better results than empirical methods alone. The inspection scheme was evaluated using the finite element method, and the results were verified experimentally using a large aluminum test article, and included both pristine and disbond coupons.

  3. Research into Plagiarism Cases and Plagiarism Detection Methods

    Kashkur, M; Paršutins, S; Borisovs, A

    2010-01-01

    In the age of information technology intellectual property becomes especially valuable. This is one of the causes why the cases of the plagiarism appear more frequently in all vital sectors. Due to that, there is a growing need for different instruments for the protection and verification of copyright for finding plagiarism. Before checking the document for plagiarism, reviewing algorithms and approaches for searching plagiarism, you must know and understand what constitutes the plagiarism. T...

  4. IAEA safeguards and detection of undeclared nuclear activities

    Verfication of State declarations is an essential feature of IAEA safeguards. The issue of completeness of the declaration of all nuclear material, nuclear activities and nuclear facilities arises only in full scope safeguards, like those pursuant to NPT. Concentrating on the accountability aspect of nuclear material, the NPT safeguards system has achieved a high level of objective and quantified performance. Some of the basic ideas of the drafters of INFCIRC/153 (corrected) have been stalled. Non-proliferation concerns demand also for a detection probability for undeclared nuclear activities. Following the example of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), advanced detection techniques are proposed, which go beyond the classical nuclear material accountability approach. Recent proposals for additional measures to strengthen IAEA safeguards conform to rules of NPT and related safeguards. Some proposals have been agreed generally, others can only be implemented on a voluntary basis between the State and the IAEA. The implementation will require additional resources and support for the IAEA. Great care is required to maintain the existing capability of the IAEA for a technically sound, independent, objective, and internationally acceptable judgement with available resources, and at the same time to change emphasis on certain elements of the existing safeguards system. (orig.)

  5. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    Sanches Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus. In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers.

  6. Detection Thresholds of Falling Snow from Satellite-Borne Active and Passive Sensors

    Jackson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation, including rain and snow, is a critical part of the Earth's energy and hydrology cycles. In order to collect information on the complete global precipitation cycle and to understand the energy budget in terms of precipitation, uniform global estimates of both liquid and frozen precipitation must be collected. Active observations of falling snow are somewhat easier to estimate since the radar will detect the precipitation particles and one only needs to know surface temperature to determine if it is liquid rain or snow. The challenges of estimating falling snow from passive spaceborne observations still exist though progress is being made. While these challenges are still being addressed, knowledge of their impact on expected retrieval results is an important key for understanding falling snow retrieval estimations. Important information to assess falling snow retrievals includes knowing thresholds of detection for active and passive sensors, various sensor channel configurations, snow event system characteristics, snowflake particle assumptions, and surface types. For example, can a lake effect snow system with low (2.5 km) cloud tops having an ice water content (Iwe) at the surface of 0.25 g m-3 and dendrite snowflakes be detected? If this information is known, we can focus retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. Here, the focus is to determine thresholds of detection for falling snow for various snow conditions over land and lake surfaces. The analysis relies on simulated Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) simulations of falling snow cases since simulations provide all the information to determine the measurements from space and the ground truth. Results are presented for active radar at Ku, Ka, and W-band and for passive radiometer channels from 10 to 183 GHz (Skofronick-Jackson, et al. submitted to IEEE TGRS, April 2012). The notable results show: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more

  7. Apparatus and method for detecting contraband using fast neutron activation

    This patent describes a method of detecting contraband within an object under investigation. It comprises: generating a beam of case neutrons; irradiating the object with the beam of fast neutrons, the fast neutrons interacting with atomic nuclei of the elements contained within the object to produce a gamma-ray spectrum having spectral lines characteristic of the elements contained within the object; measuring the spectral lines of the gamma-ray spectrum using a multiplicity of gamma-ray detectors judiciously positioned around the object; detecting the number of neutrons that pass through the object without interacting substantially with atomic nuclei within the object; determining the spatial and density distributions of the atomic nuclei of the elements contained within the object from the measured gamma-ray spectrum obtained from the multiplicity of gamma-ray detectors and the number of neutrons that pass through the object; comparing the measured spatial and density distributions of the atomic nuclei of the elements within the object with known spatial and density distributions of atomic nuclei for elements characteristic of contraband; and determining that contraband is present within the object when the comparison indicates a substantial match

  8. [Tuberculosis in 2015: From diagnosis to the detection of multiresistant cases].

    Hervé, C; Bergot, E; Veziris, N; Blanc, F-X

    2015-10-01

    Incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, a contagious infectious disease, decreases in France with 4934 reported cases in 2013. Tuberculosis remains a global health problem as smear is positive in only 50% cases and culture methods require time. In such a context, genotypic diagnostic tools such as Xpert® MTB/RIF gained interest. This rapid and simple-to-use nucleic acid amplification test allows a diagnosis in two hours and prevents further invasive investigations in pulmonary and mediastinal tuberculosis. Because of its low sensitivity, it cannot be used in pleural fluid. Indirect immunologic tests are of no use to diagnose active tuberculosis disease. Another current area of interest is the emergence of resistant tuberculosis. In France, approximately 100 cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and a few extensively drug resistant tuberculosis have been reported in 2014. Even though these forms of tuberculosis are imported, it is crucial to identify hazardous situations and to optimize care of these patients. Xpert® MTB/RIF is again of marked interest here as it detects rifampin resistance with a 95% sensitivity and a 98% specificity. Interpretation of genotypic tests such as Genotype® MTBDR or Xpert® MTB/RIF depends on known detected mutations, although they do not always have a clinical or phenotypic expression. In multidrug resistant tuberculosis, the new drug bedaquiline obtained approval for temporarily use in combination with other molecules when there is no other treatment option. Results of bedaquiline are encouraging but adverse events like QT prolongation or the development of new specific drug resistance should convince clinicians to use it with caution. PMID:26169235

  9. Indirect detection analysis: wino dark matter case study

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow ≅ 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges

  10. Detection of telornerase activity and cytology in diagnosis of cardiac cancer

    Qiang Wang; Qing Ming Wu; Sheng Bao Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic significance of cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells ofcardia obtained from endoscopic brushing in the cardiac cancer.METHODS The techniques of the qualitative TRAP-silver staining and quantitative TRAP-PCR-ELISAwere employed to detect telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells of cardia obtained from endoscopicbrushing in 72 cases with cardial lesions, cytological diagnosis was made at the same time.RESULTS Telomerase activity with cardiac cancer group (1.521 ± 0. 192) was significantly higher than thatwith cardialitis group (0.065± 0.014). Positive rate of telomerase activity detected in cardiac cancer group(88.89%) was significantly higher than that with cardialitis group (11.11%), the former was significantlyhiger than cytological examination (77.78%). The diagnostic rate of cardiac cancer reached 93.33% iftelomerase activity and cytology were examined at the same time.CONCLUSION Cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cardiac cells may be an effective andsensitive methods in the diagnosis of cardiac cancer. This research can be a basis for the mass screening ofcardiac cancer.

  11. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    Gomez, Andres; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machin...

  12. Active surveillance of Hansen's Disease (leprosy: importance for case finding among extra-domiciliary contacts.

    Maria L N Moura

    Full Text Available Hansen's disease (leprosy remains an important health problem in Brazil, where 34,894 new cases were diagnosed in 2010, corresponding to 15.3% of the world's new cases detected in that year. The purpose of this study was to use home visits as a tool for surveillance of Hansen's disease in a hyperendemic area in Brazil. A total of 258 residences were visited with 719 individuals examined. Of these, 82 individuals had had a previous history of Hansen's disease, 209 were their household contacts and 428 lived in neighboring residences. Fifteen new Hansen's disease cases were confirmed, yielding a detection rate of 2.0% of people examined. There was no difference in the detection rate between household and neighbor contacts (p = 0.615. The two groups had the same background in relation to education (p = 0.510, household income (p = 0.582, and the number of people living in the residence (p = 0.188. Spatial analysis showed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously diagnosed multibacillary cases. Active case finding is an important tool for Hansen's disease control in hyperendemic areas, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment, decrease in disability from Hansen's disease and potentially less spread of Mycobacterium leprae.

  13. Microbubbles detection during cardiopulmonary bypass with transoesophageal echocardiography: a case report

    Zanatta, Paolo; Bosco, Enrico; Salandin, Valeria; Salvador, Loris; Valfrè, Carlo; Sorbara, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Microembolic signals are usually detected with transcranial doppler during cardiac surgery. This report focuses on suggesting the transesophageal echocardiography as a different diagnostic approach to detect microemboli during cardiopulmonary bypass. Case presentation A 58 year old male patient, caucasian race, was operated on video assisted minimally invasive mitral valve repair using right minithoracotomy approach. His past medical history included an uncontrolled hypertension,...

  14. Nonlinear active wave modulation approach for microdamage detection

    Wu, Hwai-Chung; Warnemuende, Kraig

    2001-07-01

    Several nondestructive testing methods can be used to estimate the extents of damage in a concrete structure. Pulse-velocity and amplitude attenuation, are very common in nondestructive ultrasonic evaluation. Velocity of propagation is not very sensitive to the degrees of damage unless a great deal of micro-damage having evolving into localized macro-damage. Amplitude attenuation is potentially more sensitive than pulse-velocity. However, this method depends strongly on the coupling conditions between transducers and concrete, hence unreliable. A new active modulation approach, Nonlinear Active Wave Modulation Spectroscopy, is adopted in our study. In this procedure, a probe wave will be passed through the system in a similar fashion to regular acoustics. Simultaneously, a second, low frequency modulating wave will be applied to the system to effectively change the size and stiffness of flaws microscopically and cyclically, thereby causing the frequency modulation to change cyclically as well. The resulting amplified modulations will be correlated to the extents of damage with the effect that even slight damage should become quantifiable. This study unveils the potential of nonlinear frequency analysis methods for micro-damage detection and evaluation using actively modulated acoustic signals. This method can interrogate materials exaggerating the nonlinearly that exists due to microcracking and deterioration.

  15. Nanobeads-based assays. The case of gluten detection

    In order to verify if the use of nanobeads of poly[phenylacetylene-(co-acrylic acid)] (PPA/AA) in the ELISA test would affect the immune-activity of the antibodies (Ab) and/or the activity of the enzymes used to label the Ab anti-rabbit IGg, in this work we immobilized the horse liver peroxidase labelled Ab anti-rabbit IGg onto PPA/AA nanobeads. The gluten test was chosen as the model to demonstrate the usefulness of these nanobeads in immunoassays. The synthesis of PPA/AA nanobeads was performed by a modified emulsion polymerization. Self-assembly of nanospheres with mean diameter equal to 200 nm was achieved by casting aqueous suspensions. The materials were characterized by traditional spectroscopic techniques, while the size and dispersion of the particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The obtained results show that the immobilization process of the Abs onto PPA/AA did not affect either the immune-response of the Abs or the functional activity of the peroxidase suggesting the usefulness of PPA/AA for the design of advanced nanobeads-based assays for the simultaneous screening of several analytes in complex media.

  16. Nanobeads-based assays. The case of gluten detection

    Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Vittoria Russo, Maria; Bellucci, Stefano; Crescenzo, Roberta; Iozzino, Luisa; Staiano, Maria; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Varriale, Antonio; Rossi, Mosè; D'Auria, Sabato

    2008-11-01

    In order to verify if the use of nanobeads of poly[phenylacetylene-(co-acrylic acid)] (PPA/AA) in the ELISA test would affect the immune-activity of the antibodies (Ab) and/or the activity of the enzymes used to label the Ab anti-rabbit IGg, in this work we immobilized the horse liver peroxidase labelled Ab anti-rabbit IGg onto PPA/AA nanobeads. The gluten test was chosen as the model to demonstrate the usefulness of these nanobeads in immunoassays. The synthesis of PPA/AA nanobeads was performed by a modified emulsion polymerization. Self-assembly of nanospheres with mean diameter equal to 200 nm was achieved by casting aqueous suspensions. The materials were characterized by traditional spectroscopic techniques, while the size and dispersion of the particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The obtained results show that the immobilization process of the Abs onto PPA/AA did not affect either the immune-response of the Abs or the functional activity of the peroxidase suggesting the usefulness of PPA/AA for the design of advanced nanobeads-based assays for the simultaneous screening of several analytes in complex media.

  17. Impaired face detection may explain some but not all cases of developmental prosopagnosia.

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Duchaine, Brad

    2016-05-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition difficulties due to the failure to develop the visual mechanisms for processing faces. The two-process theory of face recognition (Morton & Johnson, 1991) implies that DP could result from a failure of an innate face detection system; this failure could prevent an individual from then tuning higher-level processes for face recognition (Johnson, 2005). Work with adults indicates that some individuals with DP have normal face detection whereas others are impaired. However, face detection has not been addressed in children with DP, even though their results may be especially informative because they have had less opportunity to develop strategies that could mask detection deficits. We tested the face detection abilities of seven children with DP. Four were impaired at face detection to some degree (i.e. abnormally slow, or failed to find faces) while the remaining three children had normal face detection. Hence, the cases with impaired detection are consistent with the two-process account suggesting that DP could result from a failure of face detection. However, the cases with normal detection implicate a higher-level origin. The dissociation between normal face detection and impaired identity perception also indicates that these abilities depend on different neurocognitive processes. PMID:25959299

  18. Repeated training of accredited social health activists (ASHAs) for improved detection of visceral leishmaniasis cases in Bihar, India.

    Das, Vidya Nand Ravi; Pandey, Ravindra Nath; Kumar, Vijay; Pandey, Krishna; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Verma, Rakesh Bihari; Matlashewski, Greg; Das, Pradeep

    2016-02-01

    Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are incentive-based, female health workers responsible for a village of 1000 population and living in the same community and render valuable services towards maternal and child health care, polio elimination program and other health care-related activities including visceral leishmaniasis (VL). One of the major health concerns is that cases remain in the endemic villages for weeks without treatment causing increased likelihood to treatment failure and disease transmission in the community. To address this problem, we have begun a training program for ASHAs to enhance early detection of potential VL cases and referring them to their local Primary Health Centers (PHCs) for diagnosis and treatment. The result of this training showed increased referral rate to PHCs for diagnosis and treatment. Encouraged with the results from a single training session, we determined in the present study whether repeated training of ASHAs resulted in an a further increase in VL case referral to the local PHCs. After two training sessions, VL referrals by ASHAs increased to 46% as compared to 28% after a single training session in this cohort and a baseline of 7% before training. ASHA training is an effective way to conduct active case detection of VL cases and should be repeated once a year. PMID:27077313

  19. INTEGRAL non detection of renewed activity from Terzan 5

    Vovk, I.; Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, Jérôme;

    2011-01-01

    Cluster. From the JEM-X mosaic, we estimated a 5 sigma upper limit of 6 mCrab in the 3-10 keV energy band (effective exposure time 5.2 ks). The 5 sigma upper limit in the 20-40 keV energy band derived from the IBIS/ISGRI data was of 11 mCrab (effective exposure 12 ks). The INTEGRAL observations took place......The Globular Cluster Terzan5, was observed by the IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X instruments on-board INTEGRAL during the Galactic Bulge monitoring program (ATel #438) from 2011 October 25 at 17:15 to 2011 October 25 at 20:56 (UTC). No significant X-ray emission was detected in the direction of the Globular...... about 8 hours before the RXTE detection reported in Atel #3714, and thus probably just before the onset of renewed activity. Due to Sun visibility constraints, no other INTEGRAL observations in the direction of Terzan 5 are planned for the next months....

  20. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    Gomez, Andres; Lara, Camilo; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machine Learning approach. We plan to implement the proposed framework as a software prototype that will be tested as a component of the ALICE Grid middleware.

  1. Review of German activities in the field of acoustic boiling detection

    The potential and the feasibility of acoustic boiling detection systems in LMFBRs are mainly determined by the four following items: The availability of radiation and temperature resistant acoustic transducers; Kind and intensity of the noise source; The acoustic transfer behaviour of the core structure and the coolant; The acoustic background noise. Although these four elements are more or less present in any practical case, this differentiation is useful for several reasons. It helps to analyse the .problem, to define appropriate theoretical and experimental investigations, and finally to synthesize the single results to an overall judgement. This paper reviews the German (KfK and Interatom) activities in the four areas

  2. A 3-Step Algorithm Using Region-Based Active Contours for Video Objects Detection

    Stéphanie Jehan-Besson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a 3-step algorithm for the automatic detection of moving objects in video sequences using region-based active contours. First, we introduce a very full general framework for region-based active contours with a new Eulerian method to compute the evolution equation of the active contour from a criterion including both region-based and boundary-based terms. This framework can be easily adapted to various applications, thanks to the introduction of functions named descriptors of the different regions. With this new Eulerian method based on shape optimization principles, we can easily take into account the case of descriptors depending upon features globally attached to the regions. Second, we propose a 3-step algorithm for detection of moving objects, with a static or a mobile camera, using region-based active contours. The basic idea is to hierarchically associate temporal and spatial information. The active contour evolves with successively three sets of descriptors: a temporal one, and then two spatial ones. The third spatial descriptor takes advantage of the segmentation of the image in intensity homogeneous regions. User interaction is reduced to the choice of a few parameters at the beginning of the process. Some experimental results are supplied.

  3. A case of cerebral cysticercosis detected by computed tomography

    Cysticercosis is well known as a parasitic infection that commonly affects the central nervous system. A 60-year-old man, who once lived in the mainland of China in the 1940s, was admitted to the hospital complaining of the right motor weakness and speech disturbance. Neurological examinations revealed the right hemiparesis with increase of deep tendon reflexes and motor dysphasia. The skull x-ray films showed no abnormal finding, but many small fusiform calcifications were found in the x-ray films of soft tissues of the limbs. Brain CT demonstrated several small rounded and calcified high density areas and cystic low density areas in the parenchyma with a marked dilatation of the ventricular system. And a large cystic mass of the left fronto-parietal region compressed the body of the left lateral ventricle. After infusion of contrast medium, a small ring-enhanced density area in the frontal region was revealed. By a craniotomy, the large cyst, which had a bluish transparent wall, was totally extirpated. The nature of the cystic content was similar to that of the cerebro-spinal fluid. On histological examination of the cyst wall any scolex was not found, but papillary folds and typical three layers of cysticercosis were observed. The immunological testing for cysticercosis was positive on the serum of the patient. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of human cysticercosis. Wider applications of CT in clinical practice could discover more cases of cysticercosis in the recent situation of world wide communication of population. This report will be the first one of cysticercosis which mainly discussed about the findings of CT in the Japanese literature. (author)

  4. Case of cerebral cysticercosis detected by computed tomography

    Tomosugi, Tetsuzo; Gondo, Masazumi; Kanamaru, Reizo; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Mihara, Tadahiro (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-03-01

    Cysticercosis is well known as a parasitic infection that commonly affects the central nervous system. A 60-year-old man, who once lived in the mainland of China in the 1940s, was admitted to the hospital complaining of the right motor weakness and speech disturbance. Neurological examinations revealed the right hemiparesis with increase of deep tendon reflexes and motor dysphasia. The skull x-ray films showed no abnormal finding, but many small fusiform calcifications were found in the x-ray films of soft tissues of the limbs. Brain CT demonstrated several small rounded and calcified high density areas and cystic low density areas in the parenchyma with a marked dilatation of the ventricular system. And a large cystic mass of the left fronto-parietal region compressed the body of the left lateral ventricle. After infusion of contrast medium, a small ring-enhanced density area in the frontal region was revealed. By a craniotomy, the large cyst, which had a bluish transparent wall, was totally extirpated. The nature of the cystic content was similar to that of the cerebro-spinal fluid. On histological examination of the cyst wall any scolex was not found, but papillary folds and typical three layers of cysticercosis were observed. The immunological testing for cysticercosis was positive on the serum of the patient. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of human cysticercosis. Wider applications of CT in clinical practice could discover more cases of cysticercosis in the recent situation of world wide communication of population. This report will be the first one of cysticercosis which mainly discussed about the findings of CT in the Japanese literature.

  5. The System Kato: Detecting Cases of Plagiarism for Answer-Set Programs

    Oetsch, Johannes; Schwengerer, Martin; Tompits, Hans; 10.1017/S1471068410000402

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism detection is a growing need among educational institutions and solutions for different purposes exist. An important field in this direction is detecting cases of source-code plagiarism. In this paper, we present the tool Kato for supporting the detection of this kind of plagiarism in the area of answer-set programming (ASP). Currently, the tool is implemented for DLV programs but it is designed to handle other logic-programming dialects as well. We review the basic features of Kato, introduce its theoretical underpinnings, and discuss an application of Kato for plagiarism detection in the context of courses on logic programming at the Vienna University of Technology.

  6. Casing Pipe Damage Detection with Optical Fiber Sensors: A Case Study in Oil Well Constructions

    Genda Chen; Jun He; Jianping He; Minghua Huang; Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Casing pipes in oil well constructions may suddenly buckle inward as their inside and outside hydrostatic pressure difference increases. For the safety of construction workers and the steady development of oil industries, it is critically important to measure the stress state of a casing pipe. This study develops a rugged, real-time monitoring, and warning system that combines the distributed Brillouin Scattering Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) and the discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG) mea...

  7. Three-dimensional imaging simulation of active laser detection based on DLOS method

    Zhang, Chuanxin; Zhou, Honghe; Chen, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Shuai, Yong; Tan, Heping

    2016-07-01

    The technology of active laser detection is widely used in many different fields nowadays. With the development of computer technology, programmable software simulation can provide reference for the design of active laser detection. The characteristics of the active laser detecting systems also can be judged more visual. Based on the features of the active laser detection, an improved method of radiative transfer calculation (Double Line Of Sight) was developed, and the simulation models of complete active laser detecting imaging were founded. Compared with the results calculated by the Monte Carlo method, the correctness of the improved method was verified. The results of active laser detecting imaging of complex three-dimensional targets in different atmospheric scenes were compared. The influence of different atmospheric dielectric property were analyzed, which provides effective reference for the design of active laser detection.

  8. Duplicated gall bladder detected on 99m Tc HIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy: A report of two cases

    Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare condition often found incidentally; most of these detected on screening Ultrasonography (USG) for abdominal colic. Nuclear hepatobiliary scan, popularly known as hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan, with its biliary kinetics, is highly specific for picking up abnormalities related to biliary tract and GB. We report two cases of duplication of GB visualized on HIDA scan. First case highlights the role of HIDA scan in diagnosis of duplicated GB, where USG was equivocal with a number of differentials, whereas in the second case, HIDA helped to rule out obstruction in this case of duplicated GB identified on USG; ruling out biliary cause for the abdominal colic

  9. Polysplenia Syndrome Detected after Chest Symptoms in Two Adult Patients: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Polisplenia syndrome (PSS) is a rare subtype of heterotaxy syndrome and means ambiguous location of the major thoracic and abdominal organs with vascular anomalies and multiple spleens. We reported on the findings of computed tomography (CT) of PSS in adults, detected incidentally. Two woman underwent a CT examination of the thorax for different thoracic pathologies. There were common abnormalities such as hyparterial bronchi and absence of middle lobe fissure on CTscans suggesting heterotaxy syndrome. Therefore, the abdominal CTs were performed to detect the accompanying abdominal anomalies. Our two cases defined as PSS were diagnosed with multiple spleens in the normal location in the abdomen. The left-dominant liver and short pancreas with agenesis of the pancreatic tail and lateral part of the body were detected on CT scan. In the first case, the vascular abnormalities were as follows: variant entrance of the main portal vein into the liver and atypically located superior mesenteric vein (SMV) joining with the splenic vein to form the portal vein. In the second case, the preduodenal portal vein and hemiazygos continuation with interruption of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) were the vascular anomalies. The bowels were malrotated in the second case. Although such cases are usually admitted as abdominal emergency, our two cases were detected during examinations for thoracic and cardiac pathologies. The knowledge and awareness of PSS can be helpful to diagnose pathology and plan surgical procedures

  10. Generating Representative Attack Test Cases for Evaluating and Testing Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems

    Khalid Nasr; Anas Abou El Kalam; Christian Fraboul

    2012-01-01

    Openness of wireless communication medium and flexibility in dealing with wireless communication protocols and their vulnerabilities create a problem of poor security. Due to deficiencies in the security mechanisms of the first line of defense such as firewall and encryption, there are growing interests in detecting wireless attacks through a second line of defense in the form of Wireless Intrusion Detection System (WIDS). WIDS monitors the radio spectrum and system activities and detects att...

  11. Vernonia amygdalina: Anticancer Activity, Authentication, and Adulteration Detection

    Lecia J. Gresham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that most chemotherapeutic agents are less effective as treatment in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER- breast carcinomas compared to those with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ breast carcinomas. Moreover, African American Women (AAW is disproportionately diagnosed with ER- breast cancer compared to their white counterparts. Novel therapies effective against ER- breast carcinomas are urgently needed to ameliorate the health disparity. Previous reports show that low concentrations (microgram/ml of water-soluble leaf extracts of a Nigerian edible plant, V. amygdalina (VA, potently retards the proliferative activities of ER+ human breast cancerous cells (MCF-7 in vitro in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, the anti-proliferative activities of VA in either ductal or ER- carcinoma cells have not been characterized. The exposure of BT-549 to increasing concentrations of VA (10, 100, and 1000 mmL inhibited cell growth by approximately 14 % (P<0.05, 22 % (p<0.05, and 50 % (p<0.005 respectively. The cell count studies were corroborated by DNA synthesis studies. Treatments of BT-549 with 10, 100, and 1000 mg/mL VA inhibited DNA synthesis in a concentration dependent fashion by 22 %, 76 % (P<0.05, and 86 % (p<0.01 respectively. BT-549 cells were insensitive to 10 and 100 nM paclitaxel (TAX treatments. Isolation of DNA from dried VA leaves yielded approximately 12.2 and 1 kbp genomic DNA that were Eco RI-insensitive but Hind III and Bam HI-sensitive. These pieces of information may be used to enhance the safety of medicinal botanical VA through authentication, and adulteration detection.

  12. Casing Pipe Damage Detection with Optical Fiber Sensors: A Case Study in Oil Well Constructions

    Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Casing pipes in oil well constructions may suddenly buckle inward as their inside and outside hydrostatic pressure difference increases. For the safety of construction workers and the steady development of oil industries, it is critically important to measure the stress state of a casing pipe. This study develops a rugged, real-time monitoring, and warning system that combines the distributed Brillouin Scattering Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR and the discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG measurement. The BOTDR optical fiber sensors were embedded with no optical fiber splice joints in a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP rebar and the FBG sensors were wrapped in epoxy resins and glass clothes, both installed during the segmental construction of casing pipes. In situ tests indicate that the proposed sensing system and installation technique can survive the downhole driving process of casing pipes, withstand a harsh service environment, and remain intact with the casing pipes for compatible strain measurements. The relative error of the measured strains between the distributed and discrete sensors is less than 12%. The FBG sensors successfully measured the maximum horizontal principal stress with a relative error of 6.7% in comparison with a cross multipole array acoustic instrument.

  13. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  14. Monitoring of the wellbeing activity impacts in case company projects

    Sillgren, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study wellbeing activities impact in case company in two product programs. The aim was to highlight best practices and examples that investing in wellbeing can be achieved. The study aims also to in-crease understanding of the impact of well-being actions in case company. The assessment is approached by Donald Kirkpatrick defined model where effec-tiveness is divided in four levels: reaction, learning the way they act, behavior and results. The study refe...

  15. TEAK: topology enrichment analysis framework for detecting activated biological subpathways.

    Judeh, Thair; Johnson, Cole; Kumar, Anuj; Zhu, Dongxiao

    2013-02-01

    To mine gene expression data sets effectively, analysis frameworks need to incorporate methods that identify intergenic relationships within enriched biologically relevant subpathways. For this purpose, we developed the Topology Enrichment Analysis frameworK (TEAK). TEAK employs a novel in-house algorithm and a tailor-made Clique Percolation Method to extract linear and nonlinear KEGG subpathways, respectively. TEAK scores subpathways using the Bayesian Information Criterion for context specific data and the Kullback-Leibler divergence for case-control data. In this article, we utilized TEAK with experimental studies to analyze microarray data sets profiling stress responses in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a public microarray data set, we identified via TEAK linear sphingolipid metabolic subpathways activated during the yeast response to nitrogen stress, and phenotypic analyses of the corresponding deletion strains indicated previously unreported fitness defects for the dpl1Δ and lag1Δ mutants under conditions of nitrogen limitation. In addition, we studied the yeast filamentous response to nitrogen stress by profiling changes in transcript levels upon deletion of two key filamentous growth transcription factors, FLO8 and MSS11. Via TEAK we identified a nonlinear glycerophospholipid metabolism subpathway involving the SLC1 gene, which we found via mutational analysis to be required for yeast filamentous growth. PMID:23268448

  16. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  17. Detecting Well Casing Leaks in Bangladesh Using a Salt Spiking Method

    Stahl, M.O.; Ong, J.B.; Harvey, C. F.; Johnson, C. D.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Tarek, M.H.; van Geen, A.; J. A. Anderson; Lane, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    We apply fluid-replacement logging in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh using a low-cost, down-well fluid conductivity logging tool to detect leaks in the cased section of wells. The fluid-conductivity tool is designed for the developing world: it is lightweight and easily transportable, operable by one person, and can be built for minimal cost. The fluid-replacement test identifies leaking casing by comparison of fluid conductivity logs collected before and after spiking the wellbor...

  18. A Cholecystocolonic Fistula Detected by MRCP in a Patient with Chronic Cholecystitis: A Case Report

    Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    A cholecystocolonic fistula is an uncommon late complication of chronic gallstone disease. Although it may cause acute life-threatening complications such as bowel obstruction or massive hemorrhaging, its accurate preoperative diagnosis may be difficult due to minimal or nonspecific symptoms. Cholecystocolonic fistulas have been diagnosed by various methods, including ERCP. However, the diagnosis of a cholecystocolonic fistula using MRCP has not been reported in the literature. In this case report, we describe a case of a cholecystocolonic fistula detected by MRCP.

  19. Microscopic polyangiitis complicated with ileal involvement detected by double-balloon endoscopy: a case report

    Fukushima, Masashi; Inoue, Satoko; Ono, Yuichiro; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Yoshimura, Hajime; Imai, Yukihiro; Inokuma, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Background Microscopic polyangiitis is characterized by pauci-immune, necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis and an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Although gastrointestinal involvement in microscopic polyangiitis is not rare, endoscopic observation of it is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of small intestinal involvement in microscopic polyangiitis detected and followed up by double-balloon endoscopy. Case presentation A 70-...

  20. Parathyroid adenoma detected with 99mTc-tetrofosmin dual-phase scintigraphy: a case report

    Romanidis, Konstantinos; Karathanos, Evangelos; Nagorni, Eleni-Aikaterini; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sibridis, Efthimios; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Vogiatzaki, Theodosia; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Pitiakoudis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Tc-sestamibi is the most frequently used radionuclide agent for the detection of parathyroid adenomas in the clinical setting. However, Tc-tetrofosmin is another such agent that may be used for this purpose. This case report presents the significance and practicality of 99mTc-tetrofosmin for the diagnosis of parathyroid adenomas with probable high p-glycoprotein levels. Case presentation A 45-year-old woman was referred to our Nuclear Department with a palpable neck nodule suspicio...

  1. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Mitchell G Weiss; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. TRIAL DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. METHODS We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Ta...

  2. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Mitchell G Weiss; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. TRIAL DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. METHODS We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Da...

  3. Joint analysis of infrasound and seismic signals by cross wavelet transform: detection of Mt. Etna explosive activity

    A. Cannata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The prompt detection of explosive volcanic activity is crucial since this kind of activity can release copious amounts of volcanic ash and gases into the atmosphere, causing severe dangers to aviation. In this work, we show how the joint analysis of seismic and infrasonic data by wavelet transform coherence (WTC can be useful to detect explosive activity, significantly enhancing its recognition that is normally done by video cameras and thermal sensors. Indeed, the efficiency of these sensors can be reduced (or inhibited in the case of poor visibility due to clouds or gas plumes. In particular, we calculated the root mean square (RMS of seismic and infrasonic signals recorded at Mt. Etna during 2011. This interval was characterised by several episodes of lava fountains, accompanied by lava effusion, and minor strombolian activities. WTC analysis showed significantly high values of coherence between seismic and infrasonic RMS during explosive activity, with infrasonic and seismic series in phase with each other, hence proving to be sensitive to both weak and strong explosive activity. The WTC capability of automatically detecting explosive activity was compared with the potential of detection methods based on fixed thresholds of seismic and infrasonic RMS. Finally, we also calculated the cross correlation function between seismic and infrasonic signals, which showed that the wave types causing such seismo-acoustic relationship are mainly incident seismic and infrasonic waves, likely with a common source.

  4. Evaluation of methods to detect oxidase activity in the genus Pasteurella.

    Gadberry, J L; Clemmons, K; Drumm, K

    1980-01-01

    Several oxidase reagents and commercial products were evaluated as to their efficacy in detecting oxidase activity in species of the genus Pasteurella. Recommendations are made concerning the reagent of choice for determining oxidase activity in the genus Pasteurella. Recommendations are made also concerning the use of commercial products and their efficacy in detecting oxidase activity in this genus.

  5. Tc-99m HIG Scintigraphy in Detection of Active Inflammation in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Özhan Özdoğan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The diagnosis of active inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS is crucial for treatment to delay possible persistent deformities. There are no specific laboratory tests and imaging methods to clarify the active disease. We evaluated the value of Tc-99m human immunoglobulin (HIG scintigraphy in detection of active inflammation. Material and Methods: Twenty-nine patients were included. Tc-99m methylenediphosphonate bone (MDP and HIG scintigraphies were performed within 2-5 day intervals. Two control groups were constituted both for MDP and HIG scintigraphies. Active inflammation was determined clinically and by serologic tests. Both scintigraphies were evaluated visually. Sacroiliac joint index values (SII were calculated. Results: Active inflammation was considered in five (sacroiliitis in 2, sacroiliitis-spinal inflammation in 1, achilles tendinitis in 1, arthritis of coxafemoral joints in 1 patients. HIG scintigraphy demonstrated active disease in all 3 patients with active sacroiliitis. But, it was negative in the rest. The other 2 active cases were HIG negative. Right and left SII obtained from HIG scintigraphy was higher (p<0.05 in clinically active patients than inactive patients. There was not any significant difference between patients with inactive sacroiliitis and normal controls. Right and left SII obtained from bone scintigraphy was higher (p<0.05 in patient group than in control group. Conclusion: Clinically inactive AS patients, behave no differently than normal controls with quantitative sacroiliac joint evaluation on HIG scintigraphy. HIG scintigraphy may be valuable for evaluation of sacroiliac joints in patients with uncertain laboratory and clinical findings. (MIRT 2011;20:52-58

  6. Multimodality approach of perioperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging, intraoperative 18F-FDG handheld gamma probe detection, and intraoperative ultrasound for tumor localization and verification of resection of all sites of hypermetabolic activity in a case of occult recurrent metastatic melanoma

    Walker Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of diagnostic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT imaging for the staging, restaging, and treatment monitoring of melanoma patients has become a well-recognized standard of care. It plays a key role in detecting sites of occult disease and is widely utilized in the medical and surgical planning of such patients. In the current report, we describe an innovative multimodality approach of perioperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging, intraoperative 18F-FDG handheld gamma probe detection, and intraoperative ultrasound for tumor localization and verification of resection of all sites of hypermetabolic tumor foci in a case of occult recurrent metastatic melanoma. Case presentation This report discusses a case of occult recurrent metastatic melanoma, isolated to three separate sites within the subcutaneous tissues of the left thigh region, which was not clinically apparent but was found on diagnostic restaging whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan utilizing an intravenous injection of 14.8 mCi 18F-FDG. Then, on the day of surgery, the patient received an intravenous injection of 12.8 mCi 18F-FDG. A multimodality approach of intraoperative handheld gamma probe detection, intraoperative ultrasound tumor localization, specimen PET/CT imaging, and postoperative PET/CT imaging was utilized for accomplishing and verifying the excision of all three sites of occult recurrent metastatic melanoma within the left thigh region. Conclusion This innovative multimodality approach of perioperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging, intraoperative 18F-FDG handheld gamma probe detection, and intraoperative ultrasound is promising combined technology for aiding in tumor localization and verification of excision and may ultimately impact positively upon long-term outcome of selected patients.

  7. MR imaging fails to detect bone marrow oedema in osteomyelitis: report of two cases

    Bone marrow oedema is the earliest and most sensitive sign in diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis. In the two demonstrated cases of acute and chronic osteomyelitis, MRI was not able to detect bone marrow oedema due to accompanying haemosiderosis and sclerosis surrounding a bone abscess. (orig.)

  8. MR imaging fails to detect bone marrow oedema in osteomyelitis: report of two cases

    Wingen, M.; Alzen, G.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Bone marrow oedema is the earliest and most sensitive sign in diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis. In the two demonstrated cases of acute and chronic osteomyelitis, MRI was not able to detect bone marrow oedema due to accompanying haemosiderosis and sclerosis surrounding a bone abscess. (orig.)

  9. A Multi-Wavelength Analysis of Active Regions and Sunspots by Comparison of Automated Detection Algorithms

    Verbeeck, Cis; Higgins, Paul A.; Colak, Tufan; Watson, Fraser T.; Delouille, Veronique; Mampaey, Benjamin; Qahwaji, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Since the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) began recording ~ 1 TB of data per day, there has been an increased need to automatically extract features and events for further analysis. Here we compare the overall detection performance, correlations between extracted properties, and usability for feature tracking of four solar feature-detection algorithms: the Solar Monitor Active Region Tracker (SMART) detects active regions in line-of-sight magnetograms; the Automated Solar Activity Prediction...

  10. Risk factors for inadequate TB case finding in Rural Western Kenya: a comparison of actively and passively identified TB patients.

    Anna H Van't Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The findings of a prevalence survey conducted in western Kenya, in a population with 14.9% HIV prevalence suggested inadequate case finding. We found a high burden of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, that a quarter of the prevalent cases had not yet sought care, and a low case detection rate. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We aimed to identify factors associated with inadequate case finding among adults with PTB in this population by comparing characteristics of 194 PTB patients diagnosed in a health facility after self-report, i.e., through passive case detection, with 88 patients identified through active case detection during the prevalence survey. We examined associations between method of case detection and patient characteristics, including HIV-status, socio-demographic variables and disease severity in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. FINDINGS: HIV-infection was associated with faster passive case detection in univariable analysis (crude OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.0-5.9, but in multivariable logistic regression this was largely explained by the presence of cough, illness and clinically diagnosed smear-negative TB (adjusted OR (aOR HIV 1.8, 95% CI 0.85-3.7. Among the HIV-uninfected passive case detection was less successful in older patients aOR 0.76, 95%CI 0.60-0.97 per 10 years increase, and women (aOR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10-0.73. Reported current or past alcohol use reduced passive case detection in both groups (0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.79. Among smear-positive patients median durations of cough were 4.0 and 6.9 months in HIV-infected and uninfected patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: HIV-uninfected patients with infectious TB who were older, female, relatively less ill, or had a cough of a shorter duration were less likely found through passive case detection. In addition to intensified case finding in HIV-infected persons, increasing the suspicion of TB among HIV

  11. Biomarkers for the detection, prognois and evaluation of active tuberculosis

    Shinimukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    The global TS surveillance workshop aims to address the problems with current methods for the detection of TB, and tracking emergence of resistant strains. The purpose of the attached presentation is to review the current methods in the detection of pathogen biomarkers for TB and if that technology has promise for diagnosis of TB. A summary of three biomarkers and some data on their detection strategies is presented. Some of the work is from LANL work but much of it is derived from literature references on the subject.

  12. Grounded Design of Web-Enhanced Case-Based Activity

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Cases have been used in education through a variety of methods, such as case written analysis, case discussion, and case development. Recent case definitions and uses have extended their traditional uses. In case-based reasoning, cases are considered to represent knowledge, and the use of cases is integral to an individual's problem-solving…

  13. A framework for assessing cost management system changes: the case of activity-based costing implementation at food industry

    Tayebeh Faraji; Ali Esmailzade Maghari; Niloufar Mirsepasi

    2015-01-01

    An opportunity to investigate the technical and organizational effect of management accounting system changes has appeared with companies' adoption of activity-based costing (ABC). This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ABC system for case study from food industry in Iran. From this case, the paper develops a framework for assessing ABC implementation and hypotheses about factors that influence implementation. The study detects five cost centers and for each co...

  14. Building SERS-active heteroassemblies for ultrasensitive Bisphenol A detection.

    Feng, Jingjing; Xu, Liguang; Cui, Gang; Wu, Xiaoling; Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2016-07-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) usually exists in daily plastic products, as one of the most important endocrine disrupting chemicals. A sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-encoded aptasensor for the detection of BPA was developed, for the first time, based on gold nanoparticle-nanorod heteroassemblies. The high electromagnetic enhancement in narrow gaps between metal nanoparticles of these heteroassemblies led to marked Raman signals. It was found that the assembly degree and the corresponding SERS signals were in inverse correlation to the BPA concentrations over a wide linear range of 0.001-1ng/mL and the limit of detection was as low as 3.9pg/mL. Excellent recovery ranging from 91% to 95.3% was obtained to assess the feasibility of this method for real sample detection, indicating promising application for the detection of BPA. PMID:26943786

  15. The First Case Report in Italy of Di George Syndrome Detected by Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    Giuseppina Rapacchia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panorama Plus (Natera, a single-nucleotide polymorphism- (SNP- based approach that relies on the identification of maternal and fetal allele distributions, allows the detection of common aneuploidies and also incorporates a panel of 5 microdeletions including Di George syndrome. We report here the first case of Di George syndrome detected by NIPT in Italy; blood was drawn at 12 weeks’ gestation. The patient had an amniocentesis to confirm the diagnosis by MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and an ultrasound aimed to detect the features associated with the syndrome. A right aortic arch and suspect of thymus atrophy were detected, but not other severe malformations typical of the disease. The patient terminated the pregnancy at 17 weeks. NIPT allowed an early screening of Di George syndrome. As the patient was at low risk, it is likely that an ultrasound would have missed the condition.

  16. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  17. Laboratory assays for the detection of malaria transmission reducing activity

    Kolk, Michael van der

    2007-01-01

    Human malaria is a parasitic disease, which causes over 200 million clinical cases and more than one million deaths per year. Most cases occur in children aged below five and the most affected continent is Africa. Malaria is spread by sexual forms of Plasmodium parasites (gametocytes), which are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes from infected to susceptible humans. Human subjects in endemic areas may naturally acquire immunity against the parasite stages involved in transmission. This tran...

  18. Activity Patterns and Pollution Exposure. A Case Study of Melbourne

    In recent times there has been increasing interest in modelling policies to limit impacts of air pollution due to motor vehicles. Impacts of air pollution on human health and comfort depend on the relationship between the distribution of pollutants and the spatial distribution of the urban population. As emissions, weather conditions and the location of the population vary with time of day, day of month and season of the year, the problem is complex. Travel demand models with activity-based approaches and a focus on the overall structure of activity/travel relations, not only spatially, but temporally can make a valuable contribution. They are often used to estimate emissions due to the travel patterns of city populations but may equally be used to provide distributions of urban populations during the day. A case study for Melbourne, Australia demonstrates the use of activity data in the estimation of population exposure. Additionally the study shows some marked differences in activity between seasons and even greater the differences in effect of that activity on exposure to air pollution. Numbers of cities will have seasonal pollutant patterns similar to Melbourne and others will benefit from exploring such patterns

  19. A study on cycle slip detection and correction in case of ionospheric scintillation

    Ji, Shengyue; Chen, Wu; Weng, Duojie; Wang, Zhenjie; Ding, Xiaoli

    2013-03-01

    This research is aiming for cycle slip detection and correction in case of ionospheric scintillation. Different from the normally discussed situation without ionospheric scintillation, ionospheric delay cannot be neglected due to abrupt ionosphere change. In this case, ionosphere-free testing quantities for cycle slip detection and correction have to be used.In the past research, several geometry-free and ionosphere-free testing quantities have been proposed and in every of them, code measurements are involved. So these geometry-free and ionosphere-free testing quantities are sensitive to code observation noise and multipath.In this research, non-geometry-free and ionosphere-free testing quantities are proposed. Different from previously proposed, the code measurements are not longer involved.Detailed discussion on cycle slip detection and correction in case of ionospheric scintillation are given and method using the new proposed non-geometry-free testing quantities in combination with one previously proposed geometry-free & ionosphere-free wide-lane testing quantity is described.The cycle slip detection and correction performance may not be very reliable with the new proposed method. But it is expected that this research will benefit for future work in this aspect.

  20. Amniotic fluid 'sludge' detected in patients with subchorionic hematoma: a report of two cases.

    Tskitishvili, E; Tomimatsu, T; Kanagawa, T; Sawada, K; Kinugasa, Y; Mimura, K; Kimura, T

    2009-04-01

    Amniotic fluid 'sludge' is defined as the presence of dense aggregates of particulate matter in close proximity to the internal cervical os. It is of clinical significance in asymptomatic patients at high risk for spontaneous delivery, and in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Subchorionic hematoma is another ultrasound finding that is associated with a higher incidence of threatened miscarriage and preterm delivery. We report two cases of occurrence of amniotic fluid sludge in patients with previously detected large subchorionic hematoma. In the first case subchorionic hematoma and amniotic fluid sludge were detected by ultrasonography at 13 + 1 and 18 + 6 weeks' gestation, respectively, followed by preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption and emergency Cesarean section. In the second case subchorionic hematoma and amniotic fluid sludge were detected by ultrasound at 11 + 3 and 15 + 5 weeks' gestation, respectively, followed by miscarriage with histological chorioamnionitis. The coincidence of subchorionic hematoma and amniotic fluid sludge in these cases points to a possible connection between these two significant ultrasound findings. PMID:19308930

  1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in uncultured amniocytes for detection of aneuploidy in 4210 prenatal cases

    JIA Chan-wei; WANG Shu-yu; MA Yan-min; LAN Yong-lian; SI Yan-mei; YU Lan; ZHOU Li-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background Almost all reported fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) kits for prenatal diagnosis use probes from foreign (non-Chinese) countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of domestic (Chinese) FISH probe sets to detect aneuploidies of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y related to prenatal diagnosis in 4210 cases.Methods Cytogenetic karyotyping was carded out as a standard prenatal diagnostic test, and amniotic fluid cell interphase FISH analysis was performed using two sets of probes (centromeric probes for chromosomes 18, X, and Y,and locus-specific probes for chromosomes 13 and 21) provided by GP Medical Technologies, Beijing, China. Then we compared the two results and found the performance characteristics for informative FISH results of aneuploidies by the domestic kit probes.Results In 4210 cases, 4126 cases generated karyotype results and 133 abnormal karyotypes (including 97 aneuploidies) were found. The FISH results of 98 cases (among them, 31 cases gave normal cytogenetic results) were uninformative. The rate of abnormal cases was 3.2% (133/4126). For the abnormal karyotypes, the rate of aneuploidy was 72.9% (97/133). Among the 97 aneuploidies, there were 58 cases of trisomy 21 (58/97, 59.8%), four cases of trisomy 13, 23 cases of trisomy 18, and 12 cases of sex chromosomal aneuploidies. The total concordance of the two methods was 97.9% (95/97; two cases were mosaics that had a low percentage of abnormal cells), and the concordance of trisomy 21, 13, and 18 by the two methods was 100%.Conclusions The two sets of the domestic FISH kit probes are reliable for prenatal diagnosis. The results demonstrate that FISH is a rapid and accurate clinical method for prenatal identification of chromosome aneuploidies.

  2. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activities in Ganoderma neo-japonicum

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Park, Ha-Na; Cho, Doo-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Ganoderma to produce extracellular enzymes, including β-glucosidase, cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, xylanase, protease, amylase, and ligninase was tested in chromogenic media. β-glucosidase showed the highest activity, among the eight tested enzymes. In particular, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed significantly stronger activity for β-glucosidase than that of the other enzymes. Two Ganoderma lucidum isolates showed moderate activity for avicelase; however, Ganoderma neo-japonic...

  3. fMRI activation detection with EEG priors

    Kalus, Stefanie; Sämann, Philipp; Czisch, Michael; Fahrmeir, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of brain mapping techniques is to advance the understanding of the relationship between structure and function in the human brain in so-called activation studies. In this work, an advanced statistical model for combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings is developed to fuse complementary information about the location of neuronal activity. More precisely, a new Bayesian method is proposed for enhancing fMRI activation detecti...

  4. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  5. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang CHA general Hospital, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  6. Onboard Detection of Active Canadian Sulfur Springs: A Europa Analogue

    Castano, Rebecca; Wagstaff, Kiri; Gleeson, Damhnait; Pappalardo, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Moghaddam, Baback; Tang, Benyang; Bue, Brian; Doggett, Thomas; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a current, ongoing demonstration of insitu onboard detection in which the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft detects surface sulfur deposits that originate from underlying springs by distinguishing the sulfur from the ice-rich glacial background, a good analogue for the Europan surface. In this paper, we describe the process of developing the onboard classifier for detecting the presence of sulfur in a hyperspectral scene, including the use of a training/testing set that is not exhaustively labeled, i.e.not all true positives are marked, and the selection of 12, out of 242, Hyperion instrument wavelength bands to use in the onboard detector. This study aims to demonstrate the potential for future missions to capture short-lived science events, make decisions onboard, identify high priority data for downlink and perform onboard change detection. In the future, such capability could help maximize the science return of downlink bandwidth-limited missions, addressing a significant constraint in all deep-space missions.

  7. A Multi-Wavelength Analysis of Active Regions and Sunspots by Comparison of Automated Detection Algorithms

    Verbeeck, Cis; Colak, Tufan; Watson, Fraser T; Delouille, Veronique; Mampaey, Benjamin; Qahwaji, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Since the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) began recording ~ 1 TB of data per day, there has been an increased need to automatically extract features and events for further analysis. Here we compare the overall detection performance, correlations between extracted properties, and usability for feature tracking of four solar feature-detection algorithms: the Solar Monitor Active Region Tracker (SMART) detects active regions in line-of-sight magnetograms; the Automated Solar Activity Prediction code (ASAP) detects sunspots and pores in white-light continuum images; the Sunspot Tracking And Recognition Algorithm (STARA) detects sunspots in white-light continuum images; the Spatial Possibilistic Clustering Algorithm (SPoCA) automatically segments solar EUV images into active regions (AR), coronal holes (CH) and quiet Sun (QS). One month of data from the SOHO/MDI and SOHO/EIT instruments during 12 May - 23 June 2003 is analysed. The overall detection performance of each algorithm is benchmarked against National Oc...

  8. Study on the Detection of Telomerase Activity by Combining DNA Sequence Analysis with TRAP

    2001-01-01

    Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) is now aconventional assay for detecting telomerase activity. However, this method presents problems owing to tedious quantitation, radioisotopic handling. In order to alleviate these inconveniences, a novel telomerase DNA sequencing assay together with TRAP to detect human telomerase activity was developed. It was used to detect telomerase activity in Hela, HLF, MCF, K562, SMMC-7721 cells, Leukocytes and RNase-pretreated or heat-treated cells as control. Telomerase activity assayed by this method was positive when the number of K562 cells examined was 102,103, and 104. The telomerase activity depended on the number of K562 cells used in the assay. Telomerase activity of Rnase-pretreated cells or heat-treated cells, and human normal peripheral blood leukocyte(Leu) were negative. The result of this method was available within a few hours and was handled without radioisotope. Further studies should be taken to detect telomerase activity in quantitation.

  9. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Babić Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  10. On Combining Multiple-Instance Learning and Active Learning for Computer-Aided Detection of Tuberculosis.

    Melendez, Jaime; van Ginneken, Bram; Maduskar, Pragnya; Philipsen, Rick H H M; Ayles, Helen; Sanchez, Clara I

    2016-04-01

    The major advantage of multiple-instance learning (MIL) applied to a computer-aided detection (CAD) system is that it allows optimizing the latter with case-level labels instead of accurate lesion outlines as traditionally required for a supervised approach. As shown in previous work, a MIL-based CAD system can perform comparably to its supervised counterpart considering complex tasks such as chest radiograph scoring in tuberculosis (TB) detection. However, despite this remarkable achievement, the uncertainty inherent to MIL can lead to a less satisfactory outcome if analysis at lower levels (e.g., regions or pixels) is needed. This issue may seriously compromise the applicability of MIL to tasks related to quantification or grading, or detection of highly localized lesions. In this paper, we propose to reduce uncertainty by embedding a MIL classifier within an active learning (AL) framework. To minimize the labeling effort, we develop a novel instance selection mechanism that exploits the MIL problem definition through one-class classification. We adapt this mechanism to provide meaningful regions instead of individual instances for expert labeling, which is a more appropriate strategy given the application domain. In addition, and contrary to usual AL methods, a single iteration is performed. To show the effectiveness of our approach, we compare the output of a MIL-based CAD system trained with and without the proposed AL framework. The task is to detect textural abnormalities related to TB. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations at the pixel level are carried out. Our method significantly improves the MIL-based classification. PMID:26660889

  11. Detection of Non-Equilibrium Fluctuations in Active Gels

    Bacanu, Alexandru; Broedersz, Chase; Gladrow, Jannes; Mackintosh, Fred; Schmidt, Christoph; Fakhri, Nikta

    Active force generation at the molecular scale in cells can result in stochastic non-equilibrium dynamics on mesoscpopic scales. Molecular motors such as myosin can drive steady-state stress fluctuations in cytoskeletal networks. Here, we present a non-invasive technique to probe non-equilibrium fluctuations in an active gel using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNTs are semiflexible polymers with intrinsic fluorescence in the near infrared. Both thermal and active motor-induced forces in the network induce transverse fluctuations of SWNTs. We demonstrate that active driven shape fluctuations of the SWNTs exhibit dynamics that reflect the non-equilibrium activity, in particular the emergence of correlations between the bending modes. We discuss the observation of breaking of detailed balance in this configurational space of the SWNT probes. Supported by National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Student Fellowship (NDSEG).

  12. Local Helioseismology of Emerging Active Regions: A Case Study

    Kosovichev, Alexander G; Ilonidis, Stathis

    2016-01-01

    Local helioseismology provides a unique opportunity to investigate the subsurface structure and dynamics of active regions and their effect on the large-scale flows and global circulation of the Sun. We use measurements of plasma flows in the upper convection zone, provided by the Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline developed for analysis of solar oscillation data obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to investigate the subsurface dynamics of emerging active region NOAA 11726. The active region emergence was detected in deep layers of the convection zone about 12 hours before the first bipolar magnetic structure appeared on the surface, and 2 days before the emergence of most of the magnetic flux. The speed of emergence determined by tracking the flow divergence with depth is about 1.4 km/s, very close to the emergence speed in the deep layers. As the emerging magnetic flux becomes concentrated in sunspots local converging flows are observed beneath the for...

  13. Passive radiation detection using optically active CMOS sensors

    Dosiek, Luke; Schalk, Patrick D.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there have been a number of small-scale and hobbyist successes in employing commodity CMOS-based camera sensors for radiation detection. For example, several smartphone applications initially developed for use in areas near the Fukushima nuclear disaster are capable of detecting radiation using a cell phone camera, provided opaque tape is placed over the lens. In all current useful implementations, it is required that the sensor not be exposed to visible light. We seek to build a system that does not have this restriction. While building such a system would require sophisticated signal processing, it would nevertheless provide great benefits. In addition to fulfilling their primary function of image capture, cameras would also be able to detect unknown radiation sources even when the danger is considered to be low or non-existent. By experimentally profiling the image artifacts generated by gamma ray and β particle impacts, algorithms are developed to identify the unique features of radiation exposure, while discarding optical interaction and thermal noise effects. Preliminary results focus on achieving this goal in a laboratory setting, without regard to integration time or computational complexity. However, future work will seek to address these additional issues.

  14. Case-control comparison of bacterial and protozoan microorganisms associated with gastroenteritis: application of molecular detection.

    Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L E S; Dullaert-de Boer, M; Ruijs, G J H M; van der Reijden, W A; van der Zanden, A G M; Weel, J F L; Schuurs, T A

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of molecular detection of infectious organisms has led to increased numbers of positive findings, as observed for pathogens causing gastroenteritis (GE). However, because little is known about the prevalence of these pathogens in the healthy asymptomatic population, the clinical value of these additional findings is unclear. A case-control study was carried out in a population of patients served by general practitioners in the Netherlands. A total of 2710 fecal samples from case and matched control subjects were subjected to multiplex real-time PCR for the 11 most common bacterial and four protozoal causes of GE. Of 1515 case samples, 818 (54%) were positive for one or more target organisms. A total of 49% of the controls were positive. Higher positivity rates in cases compared to controls were observed for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Clostridium difficile, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli/Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Giardia lamblia. However, Dientamoeba fragilis and Shiga-like toxigenic E. coli were detected significantly less frequent in cases than in controls, while no difference in prevalence was found for typical EPEC and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. The association between the presence of microorganisms and GE was the weakest in children aged 0 to 5 years. Higher relative loads in cases further support causality. This was seen for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, and C. parvum/hominis, and for certain age categories of those infected with C. difficile, enteroaggregative E. coli, and atypical EPEC. For D. fragilis and Shiga-like toxigenic E. coli/enterohemorrhagic E. coli, pathogen loads were lower in cases. Application of molecular diagnostics in GE is rapid, sensitive and specific, but results should be interpreted with care, using clinical and additional background information. PMID:25700890

  15. A case of prenatally detected hepatic cyst communicating with the hepatic duct

    Shinsuke Katsuno; Minoru Horisawa; Hiroyuki Fujisaki; Takashi Arikawa; Katsuhiro Kotake; Tsuyoshi Kurokawa; Toshiaki Nonami

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe the case of a 9-year-old girl. During the patient's prenatal period, her mother had suffered domestic violence perpetrated by the patient's father. On maternal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, an intraabdominal cystic lesion was detected in the fetus at around the 30th prenatal week. The patient was delivered normally, and there were no evident anomalies on her body. Computed tomography with drip infusion cholangiography and percutaneous retrograde transhepati...

  16. SPATCLUS: an R Package for Arbitrarily Shaped Multiple Spatial Cluster Detection for Case Event Data

    Demattei, Christophe; Molinari, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    International audience This paper describes an R package, named SPATCLUS, that implements a method recently proposed for spatial cluster detection of case event data. This method is based on a data transformation. This transformation is achieved by the definition of a trajectory which allows to attribute to each point a selection order and the distance to its nearest neighbour. The nearest point is searched among the points which have not yet been selected in the trajectory. Due to the tra...

  17. ADAS on COTS with OpenCL: A Case Study with Lane Detection

    Kai Huang, Biao Hu, Long Chen, Alois Knoll, Zhihua Wang

    2016-01-01

    The concept of autonomous cars is driving a boost for car electronics and the size of automotive semiconductor market is foreseen to double by 2025. How to benefit from this boost is an interesting question. This article presents a case study to test the feasibility of using OpenCL as the programming language and COTS components as the underlying platforms for ADAS development. For representative ADAS applications, a scalable lane detection is developed that can tune the trade-off be...

  18. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  19. Telomere elongation in immortal human cells without detectable telomerase activity.

    Bryan, T M; Englezou, A; J Gupta; Bacchetti, S; Reddel, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    Immortalization of human cells is often associated with reactivation of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds TTAGGG repeats onto telomeres and compensates for their shortening. We examined whether telomerase activation is necessary for immortalization. All normal human fibroblasts tested were negative for telomerase activity. Thirteen out of 13 DNA tumor virus-transformed cell cultures were also negative in the pre-crisis (i.e. non-immortalized) stage. Of 35 immortalized cell line...

  20. Cycle Slips Detection in Quad-Frequency Mode: Galileo's Contribution to an Efficient Approach under High Ionospheric Activity

    Van de Vyvere, Laura; Warnant, René

    2016-04-01

    Cycle slips detection has always been a key issue in phase measurements accuracy, thus impacting positioning precision. Since Galileo is the first constellation to offer four carrier frequencies available in Open Service, we were able to develop an innovative detection algorithm, especially promising in harsh environment like high ionospheric activity. This improves previous dual and triple-frequency methods, whose efficiency was somehow limited in tricky situations, like ionospheric events or particular configurations. In our algorithm, two types of testing quantities were used: triple-frequency Simsky combination and dual-frequency Geometry-Free combination, each one being associated to a suitable detection algorithm. Simsky combination allows to detect almost every configuration, except for cycle slips of the same magnitude, appearing simultaneously on all carriers. Geometry-Free combination is only used to detect this particular case, since it suffers from quick variation of ionospheric delay. Together - through the choice of the most efficient combination alternatives - they enable the detection of any cycle slips configuration. This is now made possible thanks to the availability of data from Galileo's four carriers. The quad-frequency algorithm has been tested on Galileo observations from both GMSD (Japan) and NKLG (Gabon) stations. On the first ones, cycle slips were artificially inserted in order to simulate particular cases and test algorithm robustness. NKLG raw data were used to assess algorithm behaviour for cases met in the equatorial area. Enhanced with a suitable cycle slip correction method and a real-time feature, our algorithm could directly be integrated into the software receiver, enabling the supply of continuous and corrected data to the user. In conclusion, this first quad-frequency cycle slips detection algorithm is obviously a step forward and every Galileo user will indeed be able to benefit from a highly better-quality positioning. With

  1. Topoisomerase I as a Biomarker: Detection of Activity at the Single Molecule Level

    Proszek, Joanna; Roy, Amit; Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine;

    2014-01-01

    hTopI have been reported to result in CPT resistance. Therefore, hTOPI gene copy number, mRNA level, protein amount, and enzyme activity have been studied to explain differences in cellular response to CPT. We show that Rolling Circle Enhanced Enzyme Activity Detection (REEAD), allowing measurement...... of hTopI cleavage-religation activity at the single molecule level, may be used to detect posttranslational enzymatic differences influencing CPT response. These differences cannot be detected by analysis of hTopI gene copy number, mRNA amount, or protein amount, and only become apparent upon...... measuring the activity of hTopI in the presence of CPT. Furthermore, we detected differences in the activity of the repair enzyme tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, which is involved in repair of hTopI-induced DNA damage. Since increased TDP1 activity can reduce cellular CPT sensitivity we suggest that a...

  2. Detection of Sulfatase Enzyme Activity with a CatalyCEST MRI Contrast Agent.

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Fernández-Cuervo, Gabriela; Acfalle, Jasmine P; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    A chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI contrast agent has been developed that detects sulfatase enzyme activity. The agent produces a CEST signal at δ=5.0 ppm before enzyme activity, and a second CEST signal appears at δ=9.0 ppm after the enzyme cleaves a sulfate group from the agent. The comparison of the two signals improved detection of sulfatase activity. PMID:26956002

  3. Detection of telomerase activity in Plasmodium falciparum using a nonradioactive method

    Rubiano Claudia C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, quick and sensitive method was used to detect telomerase activity in Plasmodium falciparum. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay was modified using electrophoresis and staining with SYBR-green I to detect telomerase activity in a range of 10² to 10(7 parasites. This might be a useful way to ascertain telomerase activity in different types of nontumor cells.

  4. Detecting a Defective Casing Seal at the Top of a Bedrock Aquifer.

    Richard, Sandra K; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain

    2016-03-01

    An improperly sealed casing can produce a direct hydraulic connection between two or more originally isolated aquifers with important consequences regarding groundwater quantity and quality. A recent study by Richard et al. (2014) investigated a monitoring well installed in a fractured rock aquifer with a defective casing seal at the soil-bedrock interface. A hydraulic short circuit was detected that produced some leakage between the rock and the overlying deposits. A falling-head permeability test performed in this well showed that the usual method of data interpretation is not valid in this particular case due to the presence of a piezometric error. This error is the direct result of the preferential flow originating from the hydraulic short circuit and the subsequent re-equilibration of the piezometric levels of both aquifers in the vicinity of the inlet and the outlet of the defective seal. Numerical simulations of groundwater circulation around the well support the observed impact of the hydraulic short circuit on the results of the falling-head permeability test. These observations demonstrate that a properly designed falling-head permeability test may be useful in the detection of defective casing seals. PMID:26212855

  5. Electro-active sensor, method for constructing the same; apparatus and circuitry for detection of electro-active species

    Buehler, Martin (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electro-active sensor includes a nonconductive platform with a first electrode set attached with a first side of a nonconductive platform. The first electrode set serves as an electrochemical cell that may be utilized to detect electro-active species in solution. A plurality of electrode sets and a variety of additional electrochemical cells and sensors may be attached with the nonconductive platform. The present invention also includes a method for constructing the aforementioned electro-active sensor. Additionally, an apparatus for detection and observation is disclosed, where the apparatus includes a sealable chamber for insertion of a portion of an electro-active sensor. The apparatus allows for monitoring and detection activities. Allowing for control of attached cells and sensors, a dual-mode circuitry is also disclosed. The dual-mode circuitry includes a switch, allowing the circuitry to be switched from a potentiostat to a galvanostat mode.

  6. Evaluation of harmonic detection methods for active power filter applications

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan

    2005-01-01

    In the attempt to minimize the harmonic disturbances created by the non-linear loads the choice of the active power filters comes out to improve the filtering efficiency and to solve many issues existing with classical passive filters. One of the key points for a proper implementation of an active...... filter is to use a good method for current/voltage reference generation. There exist many implementations supported by different theories (either in time- or frequency-domain), which continuously debate their performances proposing ever better solutions. This paper gives a survey of the common used...... theories. Then, the work here proposes a simulation setup that decouples the harmonic reference generator from the active filter model and its controller. In this way the selected methods can be equally analyzed and compared with respect to their performance, which helps anticipating possible...

  7. Detection rates of the MODIS active fire product in the United States

    Hawbaker, T.J.; Radeloff, V.C.; Syphard, A.D.; Zhu, Z.; Stewart, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    MODIS active fire data offer new information about global fire patterns. However, uncertainties in detection rates can render satellite-derived fire statistics difficult to interpret. We evaluated the MODIS 1??km daily active fire product to quantify detection rates for both Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors, examined how cloud cover and fire size affected detection rates, and estimated how detection rates varied across the United States. MODIS active fire detections were compared to 361 reference fires (??? 18??ha) that had been delineated using pre- and post-fire Landsat imagery. Reference fires were considered detected if at least one MODIS active fire pixel occurred within 1??km of the edge of the fire. When active fire data from both Aqua and Terra were combined, 82% of all reference fires were found, but detection rates were less for Aqua and Terra individually (73% and 66% respectively). Fires not detected generally had more cloudy days, but not when the Aqua data were considered exclusively. MODIS detection rates decreased with fire size, and the size at which 50% of all fires were detected was 105??ha when combining Aqua and Terra (195??ha for Aqua and 334??ha for Terra alone). Across the United States, detection rates were greatest in the West, lower in the Great Plains, and lowest in the East. The MODIS active fire product captures large fires in the U.S. well, but may under-represent fires in areas with frequent cloud cover or rapidly burning, small, and low-intensity fires. We recommend that users of the MODIS active fire data perform individual validations to ensure that all relevant fires are included. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling during periods of extended high auroral activity: a case study

    S. Liléo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from a case study of a plasma boundary crossing by the Cluster spacecraft during an extended period of high auroral activity. The boundary between the magnetotail lobe region of the Southern Hemisphere and the plasma sheet boundary layer, was characterized by intense electric and magnetic field variations, structured upward accelerated ion beams, narrow-scale large field-aligned Poynting fluxes directed upward away from the ionosphere, and a relatively sharp plasma density gradient.

    The observations are shown to be consistent with the concept of a multi-layered boundary with temporal and/or spatial variations in the different layers. H+ and O+ ion beams are seen to be accelerated upwards both by means of a field-aligned electric field and by magnetic pumping caused by large-amplitude and low-frequency electric field fluctuations. The peak energy of the ion beams may here be used as a diagnostic tool for the temporal evolution of the spatial structures, since the temporal changes occur on a time-scale shorter than the times-of-flight of the detected ion species.

    The case study also shows the boundary region to be mainly characterized by a coupling of the detected potential structures to the low ionosphere during the extended period of high auroral activity, as indicated by the intense field-aligned Poynting fluxes directed upward away from the ionosphere.

  9. A coincidence counting system for detection of low level activities

    A system based on coincidence counting for measuring the absolute activity of isotopes in which a gamma ray is emitted by the nucleus following the capture of the orbital electron with a known half-life is described. If the half-life of the excited state is small compared to the resolving time of the coincidence circuit, the absolute activity of the source can be determined. The system consists of two NaI(Th) crystals, a high voltage supply, 2 preamplifiers, 2 amplifiers, two single channel analyzers, one coincident unit, and three sealers

  10. Desulfurization Activated Phosphorothioate DNAzyme for the Detection of Thallium.

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2015-10-20

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal situated between mercury and lead in the periodic table. While its neighbors have been thoroughly studied for DNA-based sensing, little is known about thallium detection. In this work, in vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes is carried out using Tl(3+) as the target metal cofactor. Both normal DNA and phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA are tested for this purpose. While no Tl(3+)-dependent DNAzymes are obtained, a DNA oligonucleotide containing a single PS-modified RNA nucleotide is found to cleave by ∼7% by Tl(3+) at the RNA position. The remaining 93% are desulfurized. By hybridization of this PS-modified oligonucleotide with the Tm7 DNAzyme, the cleavage yield increases to ∼40% in the presence of Tl(3+) and Er(3+). Tm7 is an Er(3+)-dependent RNA-cleaving DNAzyme. It cleaves only the normal substrate but is completely inactive using the PS-modified substrate. Tl(3+) desulfurizes the PS substrate to the normal substrate to be cleaved by Tm7 and Er(3+). This system is engineered into a catalytic beacon for Tl(3+) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM, which is below its maximal contamination limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (10 nM). PMID:26393365

  11. Standoff detection and analysis of dust and particles : the state of the art and case studies

    Point sensors that use vacuum approaches to collect air samples are not well suited for real-time measurements or monitoring of aerosols or dust in large areas, such as mining environments. This paper demonstrated that developments in LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technologies offer capabilities for simple detection of dust particles as well as in-situ assessment of aerosol composition. LiDAR options also include the localization of remote dust clouds, the measurement of their concentration and constituent analysis. The technique involves probing the dust contaminated zones with a laser beam and measuring the level of backscattered light with a collocated detection system. Information regarding the location or content of a dust cloud can be obtained from either elastic response or inelastic response. This presentation included case studies that demonstrated the many technologies developed at Quebec City-based INO for aerosol detection. The technologies included simple range-finding of remote objects, cloud mapping and more complex spectroscopic technologies based on optical inelastic scattering such as laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scattering for particulate identification. The presentation also described the advantages and limitations of the technologies and their suitability for specific mining industry requirements. LiDAR with remote sensing capabilities for dust detection proved to be useful, reliable and affordable. 10 refs., 19 figs.

  12. Atmospheric Detectives. Atlas 2 Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Affairs Div.

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission to Planet Earth, ATLAS 2 will help develop a thorough picture of the Sun's output, its interaction with the atmosphere, and the well-being of Earth's middle atmosphere. This middle school level guide probes the connection between the activities of scientists and the observable…

  13. Impurity profile tracking for active pharmaceutical ingredients: case reports.

    Zhou, Lili; Mao, Bing; Reamer, Robert; Novak, Tom; Ge, Zhihong

    2007-06-28

    Tracking the impurity profile of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a very important task for all stages of drug development. A systematic approach for tracking impurity profile of API is described. Various real pharmaceutical applications are presented through successful examples of impurity profile tracking for three different novel APIs. These include MK-0969, an M3 antagonist; MK-0677, an oral-active growth hormone secretagogue and API-A, a cathepsin K inhibitor. A general strategy including selection of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) impurity profile method based on screening various stationary phases and changing the pH of the mobile phase and elucidation of impurity structures through the utilization of LC-MS, preparative-LC and NMR is demonstrated. A series of studies were conducted on the peak purity check by using the LC-UV diode-array and LC-MS detections. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the evaluation of peak purity are discussed. PMID:17142001

  14. A case of delayed cardiac perforation of active ventricular lead

    Hangyuan Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man was admitted as for one month of repetitive dizziness and one episode of syncope. Electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and his Holter monitoring also showed sinus bradycardia with sinus arrest, sino-atrial block and a longest pause of 4.3 s. Then sick sinus syndrome and Adam-Stokes syndrome were diagnosed. Then a dual chamber pacemaker (Medtronic SDR303 was implanted and the parameters were normal by detection. The patient was discharged 1 week later with suture removed. Then 1.5 month late the patient was presented to hospital once again for sudden onset of chest pain with exacerbation after taking deep breath. Pacemaker programming showed both pacing and sensing abnormality with threshold of?5.0V and resistance of 1200?. Lead perforation was revealed by chest X-ray and confirmed by echocardiogram. Considering the fact that there was high risk to remove ventricular lead, spiral tip of previous ventricular lead was withdrew followed by implantation of a new ventricular active lead to the septum. Previous ventricular lead was maintained. As we know that the complications of lead perforation in the clinic was rare. Here we discuss the clinical management and the possible reasons for cardiac perforation of active ventricular lead.

  15. SPR imaging combined with cyclic voltammetry for the detection of neural activity

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR detects changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. In this study, SPR imaging (SPRi combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV was applied to detect neural activity in isolated bullfrog sciatic nerves. The neural activities induced by chemical and electrical stimulation led to an SPR response, and the activities were recorded in real time. The activities of different parts of the sciatic nerve were recorded and compared. The results demonstrated that SPR imaging combined with CV is a powerful tool for the investigation of neural activity.

  16. Discussions and Comparisons between Comprehensive Harmonic Detection and Specific Harmonic Detection in a Shunt Active Filter for Installation on a Power Distribution System

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Pichai, Jintakosonwit; Fujita, Hideaki; Akagi, Hirofumi; Shinohara, Junya

    This paper deals with harmonic voltage detection methods for a shunt active filter intended for installation on a power distribution system. The active filter acts as a resistor to damp out harmonic propagation throughout the power distribution system. However, the active filter may fall into an unstable condition, because the control system forms a complex feedback loop including harmonic detection, current control, and system impedance. Stability and harmonic-damping performance of two different harmonic detection methods, that are comprehensive harmonic detection and specific harmonic detection, are compared with each other. Moreover, a new compensation scheme for the comprehensive harmonic detection method is proposed to improve system stability.

  17. Analysis of individual brain activation maps using hierarchical description and multiscale detection

    The authors propose a new method for the analysis of brain activation images that aims at detecting activated volumes rather than pixels. The method is based on Poisson process modeling, hierarchical description, and multiscale detection (MSD). Its performances have been assessed using both Monte Carlo simulated images and experimental PET brain activation data. As compared to other methods, the MSD approach shows enhanced sensitivity with a controlled overall type I error, and has the ability to provide an estimate of the spatial limits of the detected signals. It is applicable to any kind of difference image for which the spatial autocorrelation function can be approximated by a stationary Gaussian function

  18. Event Detection for Hydrothermal Plumes: A case study at Grotto Vent

    Bemis, K. G.; Ozer, S.; Xu, G.; Rona, P. A.; Silver, D.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence is mounting that geologic events such as volcanic eruptions (and intrusions) and earthquakes (near and far) influence the flow rates and temperatures of hydrothermal systems. Connecting such suppositions to observations of hydrothermal output is challenging, but new ongoing time series have the potential to capture such events. This study explores using activity detection, a technique modified from computer vision, to identify pre-defined events within an extended time series recorded by COVIS (Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar) and applies it to a time series, with gaps, from Sept 2010 to the present; available measurements include plume orientation, plume rise rate, and diffuse flow area at the NEPTUNE Canada Observatory at Grotto Vent, Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Activity detection is the process of finding a pattern (activity) in a data set containing many different types of patterns. Among many approaches proposed to model and detect activities, we have chosen a graph-based technique, Petri Nets, as they do not require training data to model the activity. They use the domain expert's knowledge to build the activity as a combination of feature states and their transitions (actions). Starting from a conceptual model of how hydrothermal plumes respond to daily tides, we have developed a Petri Net based detection algorithm that identifies deviations from the specified response. Initially we assumed that the orientation of the plume would change smoothly and symmetrically in a consistent daily pattern. However, results indicate that the rate of directional changes varies. The present Petri Net detects unusually large and rapid changes in direction or amount of bending; however inspection of Figure 1 suggests that many of the events detected may be artifacts resulting from gaps in the data or from the large temporal spacing. Still, considerable complexity overlies the "normal" tidal response pattern (the data has a dominant frequency of

  19. Bidirectional grapheme-phoneme activation in a bimodal detection task

    Dijkstra, Ton; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schreuder, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A divided attention paradigm was used to investigate whether graphemes and phonemes can mutually activate or inhibit each other during bimodal processing. In 3 experiments, Dutch subjects reacted to visual and auditory targets in single-channel or bimodal stimuli. In some bimodal conditions, the visual and auditory targets were nominally identical or redundant (e.g., visual A and auditory /a/); in others they were not (e.g., visual U and auditory /a/). Temporal aspects of cross-modal activati...

  20. Effects of Calcium Spikes in the Layer 5 Pyramidal Neuron on Coincidence Detection and Activity Propagation

    Chua, Yansong; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The role of dendritic spiking mechanisms in neural processing is so far poorly understood. To investigate the role of calcium spikes in the functional properties of the single neuron and recurrent networks, we investigated a three compartment neuron model of the layer 5 pyramidal neuron with calcium dynamics in the distal compartment. By performing single neuron simulations with noisy synaptic input and occasional large coincident input at either just the distal compartment or at both somatic and distal compartments, we show that the presence of calcium spikes confers a substantial advantage for coincidence detection in the former case and a lesser advantage in the latter. We further show that the experimentally observed critical frequency phenomenon, in which action potentials triggered by stimuli near the soma above a certain frequency trigger a calcium spike at distal dendrites, leading to further somatic depolarization, is not exhibited by a neuron receiving realistically noisy synaptic input, and so is unlikely to be a necessary component of coincidence detection. We next investigate the effect of calcium spikes in propagation of spiking activities in a feed-forward network (FFN) embedded in a balanced recurrent network. The excitatory neurons in the network are again connected to either just the distal, or both somatic and distal compartments. With purely distal connectivity, activity propagation is stable and distinguishable for a large range of recurrent synaptic strengths if the feed-forward connections are sufficiently strong, but propagation does not occur in the absence of calcium spikes. When connections are made to both the somatic and the distal compartments, activity propagation is achieved for neurons with active calcium dynamics at a much smaller number of neurons per pool, compared to a network of passive neurons, but quickly becomes unstable as the strength of recurrent synapses increases. Activity propagation at higher scaling factors can be

  1. Detection Thresholds of Falling Snow from Satellite-Borne Active and Passive Sensors

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Johnson, Benjamin T.; Munchak, S. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    surface of 0.25 g / cubic m and dendrite snowflakes be detected? If this information is known, we can focus retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. Here, the focus is to determine thresholds of detection for falling snow for various snow conditions over land and lake surfaces. The results rely on simulated Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) simulations of falling snow cases since simulations provide all the information to determine the measurements from space and the ground truth. Sensitivity analyses were performed to better ascertain the relationships between multifrequency microwave and millimeter-wave sensor observations and the falling snow/underlying field of view. In addition, thresholds of detection for various sensor channel configurations, snow event system characteristics, snowflake particle assumptions, and surface types were studied. Results will be presented for active radar at Ku, Ka, and W-band and for passive radiometer channels from 10 to 183 GHz.

  2. Hemoglobin Q-Iran detected in family members from Northern Iran: a case report

    Khorshidi Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemoglobin Q-Iran (α75Asp→His is an important member of the hemoglobin Q family, molecularly characterized by the replacement of aspartic acid by histidine. The first report of hemoglobin Q-Iran and the nomenclature of this hemoglobinopathy dates back to 1970. Iran is known as a country with a high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and different types of hemoglobinopathy. Many of these variants are yet to be identified as the practice of molecular laboratory techniques is limited in this part of the world. Applying such molecular methods, we report the first hemoglobin Q-Iran cases in Northern Iran. Case presentation An unusual band was detected in an isoelectric focusing test and cellulose acetate electrophoresis of a sample from a 22-year-old Iranian man from Mazandaran Province. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis identified this band as hemoglobin Q. A similar band was also detected in his mother's electrophoresis (38 years, Iranian ethnicity. The cases underwent molecular investigation and the presence of a hemoglobin Q-Iran mutation was confirmed by the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method. Direct conventional sequencing revealed a single guanine to cytosine missense mutation (c.226G > C; GAC >CAC at codon 75 in the α-globin gene in both cases. Conclusion The wide spectrum and high frequency of nondeletional α-globin mutations in Mazandaran Province is remarkable and seem to differ considerably from what has been found in Mediterranean populations. This short communication reports the first cases of patients with hemoglobin Q found in that region.

  3. A Comparison Between Data Mining Prediction Algorithms for Fault Detection(Case study: Ahanpishegan co.)

    Amooee, Golriz; Bagheri-Dehnavi, Malihe

    2012-01-01

    In the current competitive world, industrial companies seek to manufacture products of higher quality which can be achieved by increasing reliability, maintainability and thus the availability of products. On the other hand, improvement in products lifecycle is necessary for achieving high reliability. Typically, maintenance activities are aimed to reduce failures of industrial machinery and minimize the consequences of such failures. So the industrial companies try to improve their efficiency by using different fault detection techniques. One strategy is to process and analyze previous generated data to predict future failures. The purpose of this paper is to detect wasted parts using different data mining algorithms and compare the accuracy of these algorithms. A combination of thermal and physical characteristics has been used and the algorithms were implemented on Ahanpishegan's current data to estimate the availability of its produced parts. Keywords: Data Mining, Fault Detection, Availability, Predictio...

  4. Integration of informal medical practitioners in DOTS implementation to improve case detection rate

    To integrate informal registered medical practitioners (IRMP) in Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS) implementation to improve case detection rate. This interventional study was conducted in the settlement area of Malir district whereas New Karachi was taken as control, between February to November 2005. All registered health care providers within 5 kilometer around Tuberculosis (T8) DOTS center Malir were included. New sputum positive and sputum direct smear negative cases of pulmonary Tuberculosis above 15 years residing in the catechumen's area were included as target population. Informal registered medical practitioners were trained for the referral of suspected cases to the TB DOTs center where three sputum samples were taken, and X-ray chest was done to confirm if sputum direct smear (D/S) was negative. Demographic data regarding age, gender, address, case number, onset of symptoms, treatment given, response, compliance to treatment was all collected. Out of 64 health care providers there were a drop out of 6 leaving 58 informal registered medical practitioners (36 homeopathic/ 22 Hakims) who referred 54 cases, of these 16 cases were actual suspects. Two out of these 16 (12.5%) were Tuberculosis positive. One was Sputum D/S positive and the other sputum direct smear negative with X-ray chest positive. Comparison of data (Malir and New Karachi diagnostic center) showed that by incorporating homeopathic and Hakims an increase in the proportion of case identification (0.477) was significantly higher in Malir (intervention area) vs New Karachi (non-intervention area) (0.316). Integration of informal registered medical practitioners was found to be effective in DOTS implementation hence they can be incorporated in other national programmes to improve public health (JPMA 60:33; 2010). (author)

  5. Voice activity detection using audio-visual information

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using Hidden Markov Models; their outcomes are fused using a post......-decision scheme. The Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and the vertical mouth opening are the chosen audio and visual features respectively, both augmented with their first-order derivatives. The proposed system is assessed using far-field recordings from four different speakers and under various levels of...

  6. Charged Particle Detection using a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor

    Matis, H. S.; Bieser, F.; Kleinfelder, S.; Rai, G.; Retiere, F.; H.G. Ritter; Singh, K.; Wurzel, S. E.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.

    2002-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology has shown promise for next-generation vertex detectors. This paper discusses the design and testing of two generations of APS chips. Both are arrays of 128 by 128 pixels, each 20 by 20 micro-m. Each array is divided into sub-arrays in which different sensor structures (4 in the first version and 16 in the second) and/or readout circuits are employed. Measurements of several of these structures under Fe55 exposure are reported. The sensors have also been ir...

  7. Kohonen Neural Network Stress Detection Using Only Electrodermal Activity Features

    BORNOIU, I.-V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for identifying human stress levels by using a Kohonen neural network. The study focuses on differentiating between a relaxed and a stressed state and it presents a series of parameters (skin conductance response signal power, skin conductance response signal frequency, skin conductance level gradient, response rise time and response amplitude extracted only from the electrodermal activity signal. A very strict recording protocol was used to minimize the artifacts caused by the bad connection between electrodes and skin. A stress inducing method is presented that can be used to replicate results in laboratory conditions.

  8. Direct detection of relic active and sterile neutrinos

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Both active and sterile sub-eV neutrinos can form the cosmic neutrino background in the early Universe. We consider the beta-decaying (e.g., $^3$H) and EC-decaying (e.g., $^{163}$Ho) nuclei as the promising targets to capture relic neutrinos in the laboratory. We calculate the capture rates of relic electron neutrinos and antineutrinos against the corresponding beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay backgrounds in the (3+$N_{\\rm s}$) flavor mixing scheme, and discuss the future prospect in terms of the PTOLEMY project. We stress that such direct measurements of hot DM might not be hopeless in the long term.

  9. Characteristics of cirrhosis undiagnosed during life: a comparative analysis of 73 undiagnosed cases and 149 diagnosed cases of cirrhosis, detected in 4929 consecutive autopsies

    Graudal, Niels; Leth, Peter Mygind; Mårbjerg, Lone;

    1991-01-01

    In 4929 consecutive autopsies performed during a period of 4 years, 222 cases (4.5%) of cirrhosis were found, of which 149 (3%) were detected while the patients were alive (diagnosed cirrhosis) and 73 (1.5%) were not detected while the patients were living (undiagnosed cirrhosis). Fifty-three of...

  10. Real-Time Bidirectional Pyrophosphorolysis-Activated Polymerization for Quantitative Detection of Somatic Mutations

    Song, Najie; Zhong, Xueting; Li, Qingge

    2014-01-01

    Detection of somatic mutations for targeted therapy is increasingly used in clinical settings. However, due to the difficulties of detecting rare mutations in excess of wild-type DNA, current methods often lack high sensitivity, require multiple procedural steps, or fail to be quantitative. We developed real-time bidirectional pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (real-time Bi-PAP) that allows quantitative detection of somatic mutations. We applied the method to quantify seven mutation...

  11. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data.

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. RESULTS: Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  12. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

    Madden, Stephen F

    2010-05-18

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources.

  13. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    Thompson, D. R.; I. Leifer; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M; M. Fladeland; C. Frankenberg; K. Gerilowski; Green, R. O.; S. Kratwurst; Krings, T; B. Luna; A. K. Thorpe

    2015-01-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform miss...

  14. Combination of activity and lying/standing data for detection of oestrus in cows

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm for detecting oestrus in dairy cows from measurements of activity and duration of lying/standing periods. Each cows activity is measured by a sensor attached to the neck that returns an activity index for each hour. Duration of lying is...... and results of decision algorithms are presented for Oestrus detection. Detection based on the lying balance indicator and the two sets of measured information are demonstrated to increase the detection sensitivity to 100% for a set of 10 cows....... measured by a sensor attached to the hind leg of the cow. Activity and lying/standing behaviour are modelled as a discrete event system, constructed using automata theory. In an attempt to estimate a biologically relevant lying balance, a lying balance indicator is constructed and is influencing transition...

  15. Detection of Hodgkin Transformation in a Case of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by PET/CT

    Sabire Yılmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter’s transformation (RT represents the development of high grade lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL. CLL/SLL may convert also to Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the so-called Hodgkin’s variant of Richter transformation. Histopathological proof is needed to confirm a definitive diagnosis. Patients with RT generally have a poor prognosis, with prompt recognition optimise clinical management. Whole-body PET scan with 18F-FDG can be used for detection of RT of CLL/SLL. We describe the case of 64-year-old woman with CLL/SLL who developed Hodgkin lymphoma detected with PET/CT.

  16. [Detection of cephalopelvic disproportion using a virtual reality model: a feasibility study of three cases].

    Ami, O; Chabrot, P; Jardon, K; Rocas, D; Delmas, V; Boyer, L; Mage, G

    2011-01-01

    Routine daily practice shows that successful vaginal delivery for women with suspected narrow pelvis or large fetus remains possible. We present a computer software for the detection of fetopelvic disproportion based on 3D vectorial reconstructions of the fetal head and maternal pelvis with simulation of head passage through the pelvis for collision detection. Three delivery simulations were generated from MR pelvimetry data in two patients, one with narrow pelvis and the other with macrosomic fetus. Based on the simulation, fetus size in both cases was appropriate for the pelvic size, but delivery simulation for the macrosomic fetus concluded that vaginal delivery was mechanically impossible. Further evaluation of this promising software on a larger patient population is necessary. PMID:21352725

  17. Detection of active intraabdominal hemorrhage after blunt trauma: value of delayed CT scanning

    Active hemorrhage is a rare finding at CT following blunt abdominal trauma. The time interval between IV contrast administration and scanning the abdomen may impact on the ability to visualize active hemorrhage at CT. We report a case of active hemorrhage associated with splenic injury that was identified only at delayed CT scanning. (orig.)

  18. Optimization of 14C-lysine concentration and specific activity for the radiometric detection of microorganisms

    The sensitivity of the radiometric detection of microbial contamination based on the labeling of cells by 14C-lysine was studied as a function of the lysineconcentration and its specific activity for a strain of E. coli and a strain of S. cerevisiae. It was found that best conditions of detection were given by a labelled lysine specific activity of 200 mCsub(i)/mmole and a medium radioactivity of 0.2 μCsub(i)/ml. (orig.)

  19. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  20. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  1. Complexity, signal detection, and the application of ergonomics: reflections on a healthcare case study.

    Dekker, Sidney

    2012-05-01

    Complexity is a defining characteristic of healthcare, and ergonomic interventions in clinical practice need to take into account aspects vital for the success or failure of new technology. The introduction of new monitoring technology, for example, creates many ripple effects through clinical relationships and agents' cross-adaptations. This paper uses the signal detection paradigm to account for a case in which multiple clinical decision makers, across power hierarchies and gender gaps, manipulate each others' sensitivities to evidence and decision criteria. These are possible to analyze and predict with an applied ergonomics that is sensitive to the social complexities of the workplace, including power, gender, hierarchy and fuzzy system boundaries. PMID:21813110

  2. Stream computing for biomedical signal processing: A QRS complex detection case-study.

    Murphy, B M; O'Driscoll, C; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P

    2015-08-01

    Recent developments in "Big Data" have brought significant gains in the ability to process large amounts of data on commodity server hardware. Stream computing is a relatively new paradigm in this area, addressing the need to process data in real time with very low latency. While this approach has been developed for dealing with large scale data from the world of business, security and finance, there is a natural overlap with clinical needs for physiological signal processing. In this work we present a case study of streams processing applied to a typical physiological signal processing problem: QRS detection from ECG data. PMID:26737641

  3. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  4. Detection of carbon monoxide poisoning that occurred before a house fire in three cases.

    Oshima, Toru; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Sasao, Ako; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-09-01

    In our institutes, we perform a quantitative evaluation of volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood in all fatal fire-related cases using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We previously reported that benzene concentrations in the blood were positively correlated with carbon monoxide-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentrations in fire-related deaths. Here, we present 3 cases in which benzene concentrations in the blood were not correlated with CO-Hb concentrations. A high CO-Hb concentration without a hydrocarbon component, such as benzene, indicates that the deceased inhaled carbon monoxide that was not related to the smoke from the fire. Comparing volatile hydrocarbons with CO-Hb concentrations can provide more information about the circumstances surrounding fire-related deaths. We are currently convinced that this is the best method to detect if carbon monoxide poisoning occurred before a house fire started. PMID:26004303

  5. Utility of serum thymidine kinase activity measurements for cases of bovine leukosis with difficult clinical diagnoses.

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of serum thymidine kinase (TK) activity for diagnosing bovine leukosis cases for which clinical diagnosis was difficult ('BL with difficult diagnosis'). Median TK activity values in 24 'BL with difficult diagnosis' and 36 cattle for which BL was clinically confirmed by cytology findings of enlarged superficial lymph nodes ('clinically confirmed BL') were 36.8 and 39.4 U/l, respectively (no significant difference). The percentage with positive TK activity (> 5.4 U/l) was also similar in both groups (83.3% for 'BL with difficult diagnosis' and 97.2% for 'clinically confirmed BL'). TK activity was significantly higher in cows with 'BL with difficult diagnosis' compared to those with other tumors (N = 13) and those with inflammatory diseases (N = 14). Maximum TK activity in cows with other tumors and inflammatory diseases was not high (cows with other tumors and those with inflammatory diseases were 1.8 and 1.4 IU/l, respectively. Positive TK activity was found in a significantly higher percentage of cows with 'BL with difficult diagnosis' (83.3%) relative to the percentages of cows with other tumors (15.3%) and inflammatory diseases (21.4%). Thus, TK activity is an appropriate marker for detecting BL onset in cows with 'BL with difficult diagnosis' as well as 'clinically confirmed BL' group. While the specificity of TK activity required for BL diagnosis is not clear, simultaneous evaluation of serum lactate dehydrogenase activity may assist in the differential diagnoses of other tumors and inflammatory diseases from BL. PMID:23628971

  6. Label free detection of optogenetically stimulated cellular activity by low coherence interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    Satpathy, Sarmishtha; Batabyal, Subrata; Dave, Digant P.; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2016-03-01

    Detecting cellular activity in sub-millisecond timescale and micrometer resolution without using invasive means has been a long standing goal in the study of cellular networks. Here, we have employed phase sensitive low coherence interferometry for detecting optogenetically stimulated activity of cells. Nanoscale changes in optical path length (due to change in refractive index and changes in cell thickness) occur when cells are activated, which we aim to detect by phase sensitive low coherence interferometry. A low coherence interferometry and patch-clamp electrophysiology systems were integrated with an inverted fluorescence microscope. Blue laser beam was coupled to the electrophysiology-interferometric detection system for optogenetic stimulation. The phase-sensitive measurements were carried out on Channelrhodopsin-2 sensitized cells (identified by YFP fluorescence) as well as control cells in reflection mode for different intensities and exposures of optogenetic stimulation beam. This method offers good temporal and spatial resolution without using exogenous labeling. Results of studies on all optical stimulation and detection of cellular activity will be presented. Interpretation of the optical activity signals will be discussed in context with changes in cell physiology during stimulation. We will also discuss the potential sources of various artifacts in optical/electrical detection of cellular activity during optical stimulation.

  7. Remnant Pancreatectomy for Recurrent or Metachronous Pancreatic Carcinoma Detected by FDG-PET: Two Case Reports

    Masaru Koizumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Although surgical resection is the only curative therapeutic option for recurrent or metachronous pancreatic carcinomas, most such cancers are beyond surgical curability. We herein report on two rare cases of remnant pancreatectomy used to treat recurrent or metachronous pancreatic carcinomas. Case reports Case#1 A 65-year-old male developed weight loss and diabetes mellitus 83 months after a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by two years of adjuvant chemotherapy (5- fluorouracil plus leucovorin plus mitomycin C for a pancreatic carcinoma in the head of the pancreas (stage IA. An abdominal CT scan revealed a 3 cm tumor in the remnant pancreas which appeared as a ‘hot’ nodule on FDG-PET. A remnant distal pancreatectomy was performed and a pancreatic carcinoma similar in profile to the primary lesion (stage IIB was confirmed pathologically. Case#2 A 67-year-old male showed increased CA 19-9 levels 25 months after a distal pancreatectomy for a pancreatic carcinoma in the body of the pancreas (stage IA. An abdominal CT scan revealed a cystic lesion in the cut end of the pancreas which appeared as a ‘hot’ nodule on FDG-PET. A remnant proximal pancreatectomy with duodenectomy was performed and a metachronous pancreatic carcinoma (stage III was confirmed pathologically. Conclusion Remnant pancreatectomy can be considered a treatment option for recurrent or metachronous pancreatic carcinomas. FDG-PET can play a key role in detecting remnant pancreatic carcinomas.

  8. A Novel Test for Detecting SNP-SNP Interactions in Case-Only Trio Studies.

    Balliu, Brunilda; Zaitlen, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Epistasis plays a significant role in the genetic architecture of many complex phenotypes in model organisms. To date, there have been very few interactions replicated in human studies due in part to the multiple-hypothesis burden implicit in genome-wide tests of epistasis. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop the most powerful tests possible for detecting interactions. In this work we develop a new SNP-SNP interaction test for use in case-only trio studies called the trio correlation (TC) test. The TC test computes the expected joint distribution of marker pairs in offspring conditional on parental genotypes. This distribution is then incorporated into a standard 1 d.f. correlation test of interaction. We show via extensive simulations under a variety of disease models that our test substantially outperforms existing tests of interaction in case-only trio studies. We also demonstrate a bias in a previous case-only trio interaction test and identify its origin. Finally, we show that a previously proposed permutation scheme in trio studies mitigates the known biases of case-only tests in the presence of population stratification. We conclude that the TC test shows improved power to identify interactions in existing, as well as emerging, trio association studies. The method is publicly available atwww.github.com/BrunildaBalliu/TrioEpi. PMID:26865367

  9. Stellar activity as noise in exoplanet detection I. Methods and application to solar-like stars and activity cycles

    Korhonen, H.; Andersen, J. M.; Piskunov, N.; Hackman, T.; Juncher, D.; Jarvinen, S. P.; Joergensen, U. G.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of exoplanets using any method is prone to confusion due to the intrinsic variability of the host star. We investigate the effect of cool starspots on the detectability of the exoplanets around solar-like stars using the radial velocity method. For investigating this activity-caused "jitter" we calculate synthetic spectra using radiative transfer, known stellar atomic and molecular lines, different surface spot configurations, and an added planetary signal. Here, the methods are...

  10. Detecting actively translated open reading frames in ribosome profiling data.

    Calviello, Lorenzo; Mukherjee, Neelanjan; Wyler, Emanuel; Zauber, Henrik; Hirsekorn, Antje; Selbach, Matthias; Landthaler, Markus; Obermayer, Benedikt; Ohler, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    RNA-sequencing protocols can quantify gene expression regulation from transcription to protein synthesis. Ribosome profiling (Ribo-seq) maps the positions of translating ribosomes over the entire transcriptome. We have developed RiboTaper (available at https://ohlerlab.mdc-berlin.de/software/), a rigorous statistical approach that identifies translated regions on the basis of the characteristic three-nucleotide periodicity of Ribo-seq data. We used RiboTaper with deep Ribo-seq data from HEK293 cells to derive an extensive map of translation that covered open reading frame (ORF) annotations for more than 11,000 protein-coding genes. We also found distinct ribosomal signatures for several hundred upstream ORFs and ORFs in annotated noncoding genes (ncORFs). Mass spectrometry data confirmed that RiboTaper achieved excellent coverage of the cellular proteome. Although dozens of novel peptide products were validated in this manner, few of the currently annotated long noncoding RNAs appeared to encode stable polypeptides. RiboTaper is a powerful method for comprehensive de novo identification of actively used ORFs from Ribo-seq data. PMID:26657557