WorldWideScience

Sample records for activator appliances

  1. Treatment with active orthodontic appliance in adult patient

    Radeska, Ana; Radeski, Josif; Zlatanovska, Katerina; Papakoca, Kiro; Zarkova, Julija

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Showing the efficiency of orthodontic mobile appliance in treatment of adult patient Case summary: The patient A.K. Age 25 years whit forced progenia, bilateral hypodontia of the maxillary incisors and cross bite of 2 mm in front. The patient was treated with active orthodontic appliance whit bitten ridge and down labial arch. The treatment lasted 18 months after which periods is reached normal occlusion with normal overlap in front and closed diastema mediana. The hypodontia of the m...

  2. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    2013-02-01

    ..., 2013. The subzone (``GE Appliance Park'') currently has authority to produce household appliances, including dishwashers, refrigerator- freezers, freezers, apparel washing machines and dryers,...

  3. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  4. Energy and CO2 efficient scheduling of smart appliances in active houses equipped with batteries

    Paridari, Kaveh; Parisio, Alessandra; Sandberg, Henrik; Johansson, Karl Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for scheduling smart appliances and batteries, in order to reduce both the electricity bill and the CO2 emissions. Mathematically, the scheduling problem is posed as a multi-objective Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP), which can be solved by using standard algorithms. A case study is performed to assess the performance of the proposed scheduling framework. Numerical results show that the new formulation can decrease both the CO2 emissions and the...

  5. Home Appliance Kingdom

    JUMBO; ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    With 900 chain stores and three retail brands, Gome, China’s largest home appliance retail group, is pursuing grandiose dreams of becoming a home appliance kingdomOn November 22, 2006, Chinese home appliance retail heavyweights Beijing-based Gome Electri

  6. Arch development with trans-force lingual appliances.

    Clark, William J

    2005-01-01

    Trans-Force lingual appliances are designed to correct arch form in patients with contracted dental arches. Interceptive treatment with this new series of pre-activated lingual appliances offers new possibilities for arch development, in combination with fixed appliances. Palatal and lingual appliances insert in horizontal lingual sheaths in molar bands. No activation is required after the appliance is fitted, and this principle is extended to a series of appliances for sagittal and transverse arch development. Both sagittal and transverse appliances have additional components to achieve 3-way expansion where this is indicated. The invisible lingual appliances may be used in correction of all classes of malocclusion at any stage of development, from mixed dentition through permanent dentition, and this approach has wide indications in adult treatment. PMID:15794037

  7. Energy reduction of the switches TRIAC type applied to appliances

    Benabdelaziz, Ghafour

    2006-01-01

    A major problem of our time concerns electrical energy. If the industry represents a large part of electricity consumption, the domestic sector is no exception. The appliance industry is developing in the country at the rate of increase in living standards of residents. Appliances integrate more and more electronic functions both consuming energy in active mode than in "sleep" mode. In an effort to reduce the energy consumed by appliances, it is important to use all the possibilities that can...

  8. Oral radiation protector appliance

    An appliance for protecting teeth, gingiva, periodontal or alveola bone, salivary glands, and adjacent body areas against the harmful side effects of radiation therapy consists of an intraoral portion and an extraoral portion that may be selectively attached. The intraoral portion is substantially u-shaped to encompass the teeth and adjacent areas. The intraoral part may be made of lead sheet coated with plastic; the extraoral portion may be of lead sheet

  9. Self ligating lingual appliance.

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S S; Jayan, B K

    2015-12-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  10. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  11. Comparison of efficacy between modified forsus appliance and activator appliance in the treatment of class Ⅱ patients with madibular retrusion%改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器治疗下颌后缩的疗效比较

    叶静; 寇波; 王春玲

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器(Activator)治疗安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩患者的临床疗效.方法 分别用Forsus矫治器(A组)和肌激动器(B组),联合固定矫治器对两组安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩患者进行功能性矫形治疗,治疗前后拍摄头颅侧位片,并进行Pancherz头影测量和分析.结果 A组患者治疗时间(21.4±2.0)个月,B组治疗时间(27.3±2.5)个月,差异具有统计学意义.两组经过改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器联合固定矫治器治疗后,患者软组织改善明显,下颌后缩面型显著改善.前牙覆盖均减少,磨牙关系纠正为Ⅰ类关系.SNB角增大,ANB角缩小,软组织侧貌改善较大,两组测量项目治疗前后比较,差异均有统计学意义,但组间差异无统计学意义.治疗后,B组骀平面的变化较明显.结论 改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器均可以有效地促进下颌骨的生长发育,协调上下颌骨的位置关系,显著改善Ⅱ类咬合关系以及下颌后缩面型.但改良式Forsus矫治器24 h发挥作用,不依赖于患者的配合性,能够更好地进行生长改良,缩短患者的矫治疗程,在矫治效率和矫治时间方面,明显优于肌激动器.%Objective To evaluate and analyze the effects between with modified Forsus appliance and activator in the treatment of class Ⅱ madibular retrusion.Methods 70 children with class Ⅱ malocclusion and mandibular retrusion were selected and divided into two groups:35 patients treated with this modified Forsus appliance (group A) and other 35 treated with activator (group B).Cephalometric radiographs were taken and analyzed at the pre-treatment time (T0) and the post-treatment time (T1) with the Pancherz analysis.Results The course of treatment was obviously different:the course of group A was (21.4±2.0) months,and group B was (27.3±2.5) months; the treatment course of group A was shorter than that of group B.After treatment,profiles of the two groups were obviously

  12. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  13. Non-intrusive appliance recognition

    Hoogsteen, G; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, V.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system. Th

  14. Remote repair appliance

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs

  15. Remote Control of Home Appliances

    Mayola Reena Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled "Remote Control of Home Appliances" aims at providing access to home appliances from a far-off location over the Internet. The paper is designed and implemented to achieve control on the appliances such as light bulbs, fans, serial lights and a dot-matrix display over the internet. The paper is deployed by dividing it into three major modules namely Input, Computation and Output where the modules interact with each other to bring out the overall functionality the paper desires to. The significance of implementing the paper is, the remote control of home appliances over the internet. The other important advantages are: It eliminates re-programming the microcontroller of the dot-matrix display and also it eliminates the need for a person to be present to operate and control any of the home appliances, thus reducing the labor.

  16. The analysis of the treatment to Class Ⅲ patients between with modified forsus appliance and with Activator appliance by pancherz%改良Forsus矫治器与肌激动器治疗安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩疗效对比研究

    叶静; 张勇; 王春玲; 肖水清

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and analysize the effects between with modified Forsus appliance and activator in the treatment of Class Ⅱ madibular retrusion by Pancherz. Method: 40 children with Class Ⅱ malocclusion and mandibular retrusion were selected and divided into two groups.20 patients treated with this new appliance and other 20 treated with activator. Cephalometric radiographs were taken and analyzed at the pre-treatment time(Tl) and the post-treatment time (T2) with the Pancherz analysis. Students' t-test was used to determine if there were significant differences between the 2 time periods. Result: After treatment, profiles of the two groups were obviously improved. The trends were similar in overjet and the molar relationship, SNB and ANB.all had significant differences. Conclusion: Both the modified Forsus appliance and activator appliance combined with straight wire appliance can effectively stimulate the mandibular growth, balance the jaw relationship, and correct the Class Ⅱ mandibular retrusion.%目的:比较改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器治疗安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩病例的临床疗效.方法:应用改良式Forsus 矫治器(F组)与肌激动器(A组)联合固定矫治器分别对20例安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩病例进行功能性矫治,治疗前后摄头颅定位侧位片,进行Pancherz头影测量分析.SPSS 12.0统计学软件进行配对t检验.结果:F组治疗时间(20.5±2.1)个月,A组治疗时间(26.6±2.7)个月,差异具有显著性.两组病例治疗后患者下颌后缩面型显著改善.前牙覆盖减小,磨牙关系纠正为Ⅰ类关系.SNB增大,ANB减小,以上测量项目治疗前后比较,均具有显著的统计学差异,但组间差异并不显著.治疗后,?平面的变化A组较明显.结论:改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器均可以有效促进下颌骨的生长发育,协调上下颌骨的位置关系,显著改善Ⅱ类咬合关系和下颌后缩面型.两者的矫治效率和矫治疗效均无明显差异.

  17. Using Computer Vision to Access Appliance Displays

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Ladner, Richard E.; Coughlan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties accessing a growing array of everyday appliances, needed to perform a variety of daily activities, because they are equipped with electronic displays. We are developing a “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display, to address this problem. The current prototype analyzes video from the smartphone’s camera, providing real-time feedback to guide the user until a satisfa...

  18. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  19. Clash of the Appliance Titans

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Even while serving out a sentence behind bars,Chinese billionaire Huang Guangyu fought for control of Gome,the appliance chain he built up in the late 1980s,but lost the high-profile war to sack current chairman,Chen Xiao.The fact that Huang remains Gome's largest shareholder has paved the way for future power struggles over the appliance giant.

  20. Economics of appliance efficiency

    Several significant developments occurred in 2001 that affect the impact of market transformation programs. This paper presented and applied an econometric approach to the identification and estimation of market models for refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers and room air conditioners. The purpose of the paper was to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient appliances. The paper discussed the approach with particular reference to building a database of sales and drivers of sales using publicly available information; estimation of the determinants of sales using econometric models; and estimation of the individual impacts of prices, gross domestic product (GDP) and energy conservation policies on sales using regression results. Market and policy developments were also presented, such as change a light, save the world promotion; the California energy crisis; and the Pacific Northwest drought induced hydro power shortage. It was concluded that an increase in GDP increased the sales of both more efficient and less efficient refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. An increase in electricity price increased sales of Energy Star refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Functional processes when wearing the SII appliance during the day.

    Sander, F G

    2001-07-01

    In 20 subjects the neuromuscular activity during the day was divided into six different activities and recorded. In the case of typical application of the SII appliance for 4 hours in the afternoon and the free organization of this time by the patient himself, most of the time fell into the area "intellectual activity" followed by the area "manual activity". Since the term "functional orthodontics" naturally describes the function, this should be realized most impressively when wearing such an appliance during the day. During the day there are mouth opening and closing movements of varying frequency with quite different amplitudes. Conversation as well as reading a text aloud can be considered favorable in terms of neuromuscular adaptation. Obviously, the relatively short habituation period soon results in the patient not needing the bars as guiding bars any more (this is in contrast to investigations during nocturnal sleep). In other words, the patient needs them only for a brief time to influence the muscles in such a way that the neuromuscular masticatory pattern is virtually independent of the bars. Only during intellectual and practical activity does the patient rest on the inclined plane with the help of the bars and execute small movements. Consequently, wearing the SII appliance during the day can be regarded as extremely important to the success of treatment. Important neuromuscular influences occur while doing homework as well as during intellectual activity. Wearing the appliance during the day corresponds to neuromuscular programming, so that the term "functional orthodontic appliance" is completely correct. Since there are only about 600 biting actions during the night, a functional orthodontic appliance should definitely be worn for a certain time during the day too, in order not to jeopardize the neuromuscular adaptation. PMID:11508103

  2. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...... materials and environments. This has been done by the use of existing hardware technologies in novel combinations, controlled and mediated in the software applications we have developed. These developments, (the SpacePanel, the TagTable and ProjecTable , the SitePack and the software application Topos...

  3. Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

  4. Appliance management for federated cloud environments

    Airaj M.; Blanchet C.; Kenny S.; Loomis C.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud infrastructures provide compelling features for scientific and engineering applications. Federated clouds additionally promise improved scalability via access to a larger pool of resources and improved service availability through geographically distributed redundant servers. Effective use of federated clouds requires the creation of portable appliances and consistent appliance management techniques. The StratusLab Marketplace, a platform-agnostic appliance registry, facilitates applian...

  5. Appliance design for pervasive computing

    Roussos, George

    2003-01-01

    The First International Conference on Appliance Design offered the opportunity for computer scientists, electronic engineers, designers, architects, and business strategists to discuss and to blend all the perspectives of design—physical, functional, interaction, graphical, and information—of pervasive computing systems and infrastructures.

  6. Status of European appliance standards

    Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de L`Environnement et de la Maitrise de L`Energie, Valbonne (France)

    1992-05-01

    The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

  7. Designing appliances for mobile commerce and retailtainment

    Roussos, George; Kourouthanassis, P.; Moussouri, T.

    2003-01-01

    In the emerging world of the new consumer and the `anytime, anywhere' mobile commerce, appliances are located at the collision point of the retailer and consumer agendas. The consequence of this is twofold: on the one hand appliances that were previously considered plain and utilitarian become entertainment devices and on the other, for the effective design of consumer appliances it becomes paramount to employ multidisciplinary expertise. In this paper, we discuss consumer perceptions of a re...

  8. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    Reji Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA, designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

  9. Overview on PIV Application to Appliances

    Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Paone, Nicola; Rossi, Massimiliano; Castellini, Paolo

    The term appliances describes a wide range of products that are used to perform a wide variety of tasks. In the home environment, household appliances like refrigerators, ovens, washing machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, hair driers are sold in million pieces per year; they also have commercial and industrial application. Typical products of the appliance industry have a relatively low industrial cost and the appliance market shows a strong competition, in which appliance technical performance plays a role together with aesthetics and costs. Therefore, efforts in applied research for product technical improvement can be done only if the ratio cost to benefits is advantageous. Many such appliances have complex fluid-dynamic problems; it is important that any experimental technique bears inherent characteristics of simplicity, provides a rapid means to collect experimental data, provides information that engineers can readily exploit for product enhancement, and mostly for computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code validation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) satisfies most of the above-mentioned requirements and therefore appears as a good candidate experimental technique to be proposed in the field of appliances. Nevertheless, PIV applications are rare. The PIVNet2 workshop on "PIV application to appliances" that took place in Ancona on June 2003 intended to illustrate the great potential for application of the PIV technique in this sector. This chapter presents an overview of PIV application to appliances according to the outcome from this workshop.

  10. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  11. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  12. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    to secure materially a quite good everyday life. In other climates and cultures the preferred mix of services might be different. Barriers for implementing energy saving technologies and behaviors, and policies to overcome these barriers and aim for a sustainable society are outlined. The most severe...... barriers for saving energy in general are in different ways caused by the political insistence on eternal economic expansion, in some aspects against the public preferences. Of the many ‘here and now’ policies to promote the dissemination of energy efficient appliances, buildings and other end...

  13. Algorithms for appliance usage prediction

    Truong, Ngoc Cuong

    2014-01-01

    Demand-Side Management (DSM) is one of the key elements of future Smart Electricity Grids. DSM involves mechanisms to reduce or shift the consumption of electricity in an attempt to minimise peaks. By so doing it is possible to avoid using expensive peaking plants that are also highly carbon emitting. A key challenge in DSM, however, is the need to predict energy usage from specific home appliances accurately so that consumers can be notified to shift or reduce the use of high energy-consumin...

  14. Scheduling home appliances for energy efficient buildings

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk;

    2010-01-01

    appliances is proposed and analyzed. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption threshold, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where....... The trade-off was a delay of approximately 25 min for the aggregated low priority class....

  15. 49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.

    2010-10-01

    ... strength. (2) All safety appliances shall be securely fastened to the car body structure with mechanical... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety appliances. 238.429 Section 238.429..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier II...

  16. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  17. Minat Masyarakat dalam Menggunakan Smart Appliances

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga sumber energi yang semakin naik dari tahun ke tahun dan kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong perkembangan smart grid. Smart appliance merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam smart grid. Penerapan smart appliance sejalan dengan kebijakan untuk mengurangi konsumsi energi, mengurangi emisi karbon dan penyediaan energi dari energi terbarukan. Penetrasi telepon bergerak turut memudahkan manajemen energi dan otomatisasi home appliance. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis minat masyarakat, yang merupakan aktor aktif dalam konsumsi dan manajemen energi di rumah tangga. Data penelitian dianalisis  dengan menggunakan metode structural equation modeling (SEM Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel enjoyment memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat dalam menggunakan smart appliance. Sedangkan, variabel compatibility ease of use, relative advantage dan image tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat menggunakan smart appliance.

  18. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean [Economic and Social Research Institute, Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson' s Quay, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available. (author)

  19. A Comparison of Generative and Discriminative Appliance Recognition Models for Load Monitoring

    Appliance-level Load Monitoring (ALM) is essential, not only to optimize energy utilization, but also to promote energy awareness amongst consumers through real-time feedback mechanisms. Non-intrusive load monitoring is an attractive method to perform ALM that allows tracking of appliance states within the aggregated power measurements. It makes use of generative and discriminative machine learning models to perform load identification. However, particularly for low-power appliances, these algorithms achieve sub-optimal performance in a real world environment due to ambiguous overlapping of appliance power features. In our work, we report a performance comparison of generative and discriminative Appliance Recognition (AR) models for binary and multi-state appliance operations. Furthermore, it has been shown through experimental evaluations that a significant performance improvement in AR can be achieved if we make use of acoustic information generated as a by-product of appliance activity. We demonstrate that our a discriminative model FF-AR trained using a hybrid feature set which is a catenation of audio and power features improves the multi-state AR accuracy up to 10 %, in comparison to a generative FHMM-AR model

  20. Retrospective evaluation of therapeutic outcomes of functional appliances combined with headgear

    José Pedro Tavares; Afonso Pinhão Ferreira; Paula Vaz; Maria João Ponces; Eugénio Joaquim Pereira Martins

    2013-01-01

    Functional appliances were developed to correct mainly Class II malocclusions in growing children but the influence of those appliances on craniofacial growth is still controversial, even when used in combinations with headgear. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate skeletal, dental and tegumental cephalometric modifications induced by Teuscher activator. This study was accomplished in a mixed dentition sample of Class II malocclusions subjects with mandibular retrognatism. T...

  1. Generating power footprints without appliance interaction : an enabler for privacy intrusion

    Sintoni, Alex; Schoofs, Anthony; Doherty, A.; Alan F. SMEATON; O'Hare, G. M. P.; Ruzzelli, Antonio G.

    2011-01-01

    Appliance load monitoring (ALM) systems are systems capable of monitoring appliances’ operation within a building using a single metering point. As such, they uncover information on occupants’ activities of daily living and subsequently an exploitable privacy leak. Related work has shown monitoring accuracies higher than 90% ̇ achieved by ALM systems, yet requiring interaction with appliances for system calibration. In the context of external privacy intrusion, ALM systems have the following ...

  2. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  3. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Italy

    Aurelio Volpe

    2014-01-01

    This report, yearly published, has reached its xx edition and analyzes the behaviour of the Italian buyers of built-in appliances taking into consideration: the sales performance for kitchens and built-in appliances, purchasing criteria by major buyers of built-in appliances, development of brand-name image and customer satisfaction of major built-in appliances purchasers. The study is based on 117 telephone interviews with kitchen furniture manufacturers, built-in appliances wholesalers and ...

  4. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi;

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  5. Fabrication of a resin appliance with alloy components using digital technology without an analog impression.

    Al Mortadi, Noor; Jones, Quentin; Eggbeer, Dominic; Lewis, Jeffrey; Williams, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a resin appliance incorporating "wire" components without the use of an analog impression and dental casts using an intraoral scanner and computer technology to build the appliance. This unique alignment of technology offers an enormous reduction in the number of fabrication steps when compared with more traditional methods of manufacture. The prototype incorporated 2 Adams clasps and a fitted labial bow. The alloy components were built from cobalt-chromium in an initial powdered form using established digital technology methods and then inserted into a build of a resin base plate. This article reports the first known use of computer-aided design and additive manufacture to fabricate a resin and alloy appliance, and constitutes proof of the concept for such manufacturing. The original workflow described could be seen as an example for many other similar appliances, perhaps with active components. The scan data were imported into an appropriate specialized computer-aided design software, which was used in conjunction with a force feedback (haptic) interface. The appliance designs were then exported as stereolithography files and transferred to an additive manufacturing machine for fabrication. The results showed that the applied techniques may provide new manufacturing and design opportunities in orthodontics and highlights the need for intraoral-specific additive manufacture materials to be produced and tested for biocompatibility compliance. In a trial, the retainer was fitted orally and judged acceptable by the clinician according to the typical criteria when placing such appliances in situ. PMID:26522047

  6. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    Cartwright, R.A

    1999-07-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  7. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Hellen Soares Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário Pereira; João Armando Brancher; Elisa Souza Camargo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measure...

  8. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  9. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  10. Advances in household appliances- A review

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R and D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R and D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to 'level' the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers. - Highlights: → This paper presents latest developments/status of advanced residential appliances. → Stringent minimum energy performance standards can reduce appliance energy use. → There is a potential to reduce energy use in appliances by up to 50%.

  11. A century of the edgewise appliance

    James L Vaden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The edgewise appliance, born in the mind of Dr. Edward Angle and first introduced on June 2, 1925, has withstood the test of almost a century of time and usage. The 022 standard appliance that Angle described in a series of four articles in Dental Cosmos is being used by many orthodontic clinicians in fundamentally the same form as it was presented in 1928 and 1929 in Dental Cosmos. Yes, it has been modified in innumerable ways. However, to use one of the modifications, the clinician must understand and respect the fundamentals of its use. This treatise describes the appliance′s evolution from Angle to its use today. The force system of today is simpler and more refined than what Angle envisioned but the appliance is "intact." It is as modern as tomorrow and will continue to be used as long as the specialty exists. It was Angle′s greatest contribution.

  12. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Russia

    Aurelio Volpe; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Russia as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Russian market. The research also includes an overview of the Russian kitchen furniture market providing data on production, consumption international trade, distribution and prices. Tables and data show the sales breakdown of built-in appliances purchases by supplier (appliance ...

  13. Activator reloaded - Myofunctional appliance at its best

    Anil S Malik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontics from time immemorial has always been considered as the first speciality of dentistry. Diagnosis and treatment planning from Dr. Tweed′s time always required extraction of four vital and functional premolar teeth. However, many patients, parents and general dentists have failed to understand that orthodontic treatment at an early age can help save the extraction teeth to achieve a full functional and esthetic harmonius dentition. Our case demonstrates a non-extraction orthodontic treatment plan of a developing skeletal Class II malocclusion. The results of this case show a successful correction of Class II molar malocclusion with excellent form and function, which resulted in improvement of the patient′s frontal and facial profile, which, thereby boosted her personality and self-confidence.

  14. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    2010-07-02

    ... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. Because modern... Task Force is developing new industry standards for safety appliance arrangements on new car... alternative standards relating to the safety appliance arrangements on any passenger car type considered to...

  15. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  16. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    2011-04-28

    ... Process. See 66 FR 4104, 4198 (January 17, 2001). To FRA's knowledge this requirement has not presented... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety Appliance Standards AGENCY... establishing a process for the review and approval of existing industry standards. This process will...

  17. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non...

  18. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  19. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  20. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  1. Modelling the effects of U.S. ENERGY STARR appliance programs

    Numerous U.S. utilities and market transformation organizations have invested heavily in the ENERGY STAR program, designed to increase market penetration of energy-efficient products (e.g., home appliances, lighting products, windows). Major activities involve stimulating production and promotion of qualifying models, as well as stocking, sales support and financial incentives to customers-all of which entail considerable investments of public funds. Several studies have shown that customer awareness of ENERGY STAR has increased across the country, particularly where energy-efficiency programs have been most active. Furthermore, studies in regions with aggressive programs have shown that the market penetration of qualifying products has increased rapidly. Until recently, however, policy makers have lacked reliable studies that compare changes in market penetration across regions with and without programs while factoring out effects of demographic and other background factors (e.g., education, income, and climate). Also lacking have been attempts to assess whether heavy promotion of the ENERGY STAR brand with some appliances (e.g., clothes washers) has affected the market penetration of less-promoted qualifying appliances. In this paper, the authors address these issues, using a database of the market penetration of four major home appliances at national retailers in each of the individual states over a multi-year period, based on multivariate statistical models. Results include both analyses of the overall trend of market penetration (1998-2002) for the appliances considered and the incremental effects of the 2003 program. The results lead to recommendations regarding the design of programs supporting ENERGY STAR compliant appliances and the key components of those programs

  2. Powder electrostatic enamelling of household appliances

    Bragina, L.; Shalygina, O.; Kuryakin, N.; Annenkov, V.; Guzenko, N.; Kupriyanenko, K.; Hudyakov, V.; Landik, A.

    2011-12-01

    Principles and practices of contemporary resource and energy saving technology of powder electrostatic application (POESTA)of vitreous enamel coatings are described. Its technological, economic and ecological advantages over slip enamelling in household appliances manufacture are discussed. We develop the principles of synthesis of special glass frits with high electric resistivity for POESTA and discuss the results of studies aimed at the development and industrial implementation of ground, direct-on and coloured cover enamels for household appliances and direct-on thermally resistant chemically durable coatings with antibacterial effect for protection of inner tanks of water heaters. Finally, we describe the development of compositions for easy-to-clean, catalytic and pyrolytic coatings.

  3. What's driving energy efficient appliance label awareness and purchase propensity?

    The EU appliance energy consumption labeling scheme is a key component of efforts to increase the diffusion of energy-efficient household appliances. In this paper, the determinants of consumer knowledge of the energy label for household appliances and the choice of class-A energy-efficient appliances are jointly estimated using data from a large survey of more than 20,000 German households. The results for five major appliances suggest that lack of knowledge of the energy label can generate considerable bias in both estimates of rates of uptake of class-A appliances and in estimates of the underlying determinants of choice of class-A appliance. Simulations of the choice to purchase a class-A appliance, given knowledge of the labeling framework, reveal that residence characteristics and, in several cases, regional electricity prices strongly increase the propensity to purchase a class-A appliance, but socio-economic characteristics have surprisingly little impact on appliance energy-class choice. (author)

  4. An Efficient, Scalable Time-Frequency Method for Tracking Energy Usage of Domestic Appliances Using a Two-Step Classification Algorithm

    Paula Meehan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Load monitoring is the practice of measuring electrical signals in a domestic environment in order to identify which electrical appliances are consuming power. One reason for developing a load monitoring system is to reduce power consumption by increasing consumers’ awareness of which appliances consume the most energy. Another example of an application of load monitoring is activity sensing in the home for the provision of healthcare services. This paper outlines the development of a load disaggregation method that measures the aggregate electrical signals of a domestic environment and extracts features to identify each power consuming appliance. A single sensor is deployed at the main incoming power point, to sample the aggregate current signal. The method senses when an appliance switches ON or OFF and uses a two-step classification algorithm to identify which appliance has caused the event. Parameters from the current in the temporal and frequency domains are used as features to define each appliance. These parameters are the steady-state current harmonics and the rate of change of the transient signal. Each appliance’s electrical characteristics are distinguishable using these parameters. There are three Types of loads that an appliance can fall into, linear nonreactive, linear reactive or nonlinear reactive. It has been found that by identifying the load type first and then using a second classifier to identify individual appliances within these Types, the overall accuracy of the identification algorithm is improved.

  5. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  6. Switch green : Energy Star appliance feebate

    Between 1990 and 2004, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the residential sector have grown by 10 per cent, and are likely to continue growing unless a policy aimed at reducing emissions is introduced. The residential sector is a significant contributor to Canada's overall GHG emissions, and an important source for potential reductions. This report presented the results of a study that described and evaluated a new economic instrument aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption in Canada from household appliances, such as air conditioners, furnaces and boilers. Results of a quantitative analysis to determine the effect of changing taxation of residential appliances to reflect energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions were presented. In addition, the report presented the results of a qualitative evaluation of the policy, using the criteria established in the 2005 budget plan, a framework for evaluating environmental tax proposals. The report outlined the context for the tax proposal that was evaluated and provided a summary of trends in Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption as well as a discussion of important trends in residential energy consumption. A review of policies already in place to address energy consumption from household appliances was also presented. 11 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  8. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Denmark

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Denmark as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Danish market. The research also includes an overview of the Danish kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (supply ...

  9. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Belgium

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Belgium as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Belgian market. The research also includes an overview of the Belgian kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (suppl...

  10. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Hungary

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Hungary as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Hungarian market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption and international trade. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (supply and sales) are analysed by customer type (appli...

  11. Electric household appliances lighting. Synthesis; Electromenager eclairage. Note de synthese

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French behavior concerning the electric household appliances and the lighting of their accommodation. The document presents statistically the answers to the questions on the electric household in the accommodation, the choice criteria, the use conditions, the washing temperatures, the nature of the electric household appliances, the microwave ovens, the influence of the energy-label on the appliances and the lighting. (A.L.B.)

  12. Clinical application of palatal lift appliance in velopharyngeal incompetence

    S Premkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nasal air leak in cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal incompetence leads to characteristic nasal snort. The efficacy of the palatal lift appliance in patients with adequate velopharyngeal tissue with incompetence was tested. Speech quality improved after the wearing of palatal lift appliance. Palatal lift appliances are simple and efficient in reducing the nasal air leak. Ongoing speech therapy is necessary and advised for patients receiving palatal lift.

  13. Energy policy turnaround with household appliances?; Energiewende mit Haushaltsgeraeten?

    Arquit Niederberger, Anne [Policy Solutions, San Francisco, CA (United States); Shiroff, Samuel; Boehm, Peter [BSH Bosch und Siemens Hausgeraete GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Household appliances and other electrical devices offer the widest possibilities for a cost-effective reduction of the energy consumption in Germany. Home appliances and other electrical devices are one of the crucial factors for an energy policy turnaround in Germany. The contribution under consideration reports on the reasons. Proposals for an energy efficiency program for the transformation of the market for household appliances are presented.

  14. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  15. Measurement of HTO permeability of materials for protective appliances

    Tritiated water (HTO) vapor permeabilities were measured for plastic and rubber films used for protective appliances (suits, gloves, wrappings, etc.). The measurement data prove that polyehylene and butyl rubbers are materials suitable for HTO protective appliances with their lower permeability. The data also indicate that desiccating protective appliances before reuse is effective for restoring their original resistances to penetrating HTO vapor when they are repeatedly used. (author)

  16. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    René Chalon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  17. Effects of mandibular protraction appliance associated to fixed appliance in adults

    Bruno D'Aurea Furquim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to conduct a cephalometric evaluation of the skeletal, dental and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment of adult patients presenting Class II malocclusion, performed with a Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed orthodontic appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of teleradiographs obtained before and after treatment of 9 adult patients (initial mean age of 22.48 years with bilateral Class II, division 1, malocclusion. Paired t test (p < 0.05 was applied to compare initial and final values. RESULTS: t test revealed an increase in anteroinferior facial height and posterior facial height. The dental changes include: extrusion of upper incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion of lower incisors, mesialization and extrusion of mandibular molars. Regarding the soft tissue component, there was an increase in nasolabial angle in addition to upper lip retrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of treating Class II malocclusion adult patients, by means of using Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed appliance were mostly observed in the mandibular arch, and consisted of buccal inclination, protrusion and intrusion of incisors, and mesialization and extrusion of the molars.

  18. User interface design of electronic appliances

    Baumann, Konrad

    2002-01-01

    This simple and manageable guide to user interface design is written for the professional in industry working on product development and the decision process. It is directed not only to the human factors specialists, but also to technicians, designers, marketing and product managers and students.The book presents guidelines for user interface design including a catalogue of input and output devices for electronic appliances, adding material on the design process, interaction design, advanced input, speech interfaces, evaluation, standards, the move from usability to pleasure and cultural diffe

  19. CONTROLLING HOME APPLIANCES REMOTELY THROUGH VOICE COMMAND

    Marriam Butt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available the main concern in systems development is the integration of technologies to increase customer satisfaction. Research presented in this paper focuses mainly in three things first to understand the speech or voice of user second is to control the home appliances through voice call and third is to finds intrusion in the house. The user can make a voice call in order to perform certain actions such as switching lights on/off, getting the status of any appliance etc. And when system finds intrusion it sends an alert voice message to preconfigured cell when the user is away from the place. The proposed system is implemented using voice Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM and wireless technology based on .NET framework and Attention (AT commands. Microsoft speech reorganization engine, speech SDK 5.1 is used to understand the voice command of user. As it is wireless so more cost effective and easy to use. The GSM technology used in system provide the everywhere access of the system for security. Experimental results show that the system is more secure and cost effective as compared to existing systems. We conclude that this system provides solution for the problems faced by home owner in daily life and make their life easy and comfortable by proposing cost effective and reliable solution.

  20. Corrosion of weldments in orthodontic appliances

    The study of corrosion-related problems of dental materials has undergone a considerable development in recent years in order to avoid the use of materials with insufficient corrosion resistance in patients mouth. The subject of the present work was to study a particular type of corrosion: galvanic corrosion. One of the most common case of galvanic couples in patients mouth are the orthodontic appliances. The materials studied in the present work were stainless steel strips and silver-copper wires, isolated and welded between them. The electrochemical tests were performed in a NaCl 0.1M and Lactic Acid 0.1 M solution (pH2.3), and after test, the specimens were observed using the optical and scanning electron microscope. The results show that when stainless steel is coupled with a silver solder, the last is the anode of the galvanic couple. As a consequence of this, the silver solder undergone a severe attack. Stainless steel orthodontic appliances with silver solder are feasibly destroyed due to a severe attack on the filler metal disjoining the welded parts. (author) 9 refs

  1. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  2. Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management

    Neumann, Peter; Mahlknecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management, bringing together for the first time a multidisciplinary blend of topics from embedded systems, information technology and power engineering.  Coverage includes challenges for future resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.   Provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management; Equips researchers and engineers with information required to succeed in designing energy management for smart appliances; Includes coverage of resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.  

  3. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  4. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  5. A Comparative Survey on Importance of Marketing Communications between European Companies and Eastern Asian Companies for Home Appliances in Iran

    Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communications or promotion is one of the elements which can have an effect on consumers’ behavior through five important and effective marketing elements. Among all commercial products, household appliances are significantly noteworthy based on their strategic nature. Exploiting marketing communications mix in selling domestic appliances produced in other countries, in an attempt to sell them in Iran could effectively entice customers into buying such products through the manipulation of their tastes and wants. The present study with focus on related literature on marketing communications, aims at investigating the degree of importance of marketing communications on selling the foreign household appliances in Iran based on a descriptive-applied research through pair wise comparison. Using a pair wise comparison questionnaire, including 60 questions in three parts, the researcher collected data from the senior managers of big household appliances companies in Europe and East Asia who are active in Iran as well, under the basis of present and desirable circumstances. It was concluded that there is a difference between companies producing household appliances in Europe and East Asia considering the importance of elements of marketing communications.

  6. Thermal plumes of kitchen appliances: cooking mode

    Kosonen, R. [Halton Oy, Kausala (Finland); Koskela, H.; Saarinen, P. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The main method in the design practice of kitchen ventilation has been the calculation of the airflow rate, which is sufficient to extract the convective heat and contaminants. Undersized airflow rates could lead into indoor air problems and oversized ventilation system increases unnecessary energy consumption and the life-cycle costs of the system. In the most accurate design method, the design of a kitchen ventilation system is based on the airflow rate of the thermal plume. When the convection flow is calculated, the influence of the cooking process is ignored. In this paper, the actual measured plume characteristics of typical kitchen appliances are presented during cooking mode. The conducted measurements show that the generic plume equation gives a suitable platform for practical applications during the cooking mode as well. The critical factors affecting the accuracy are the estimation of the actual convection load and the proper adjustment of the virtual origin. (author)

  7. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Zdenek Bradac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  8. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  9. Decision-making in electrical appliance use in the home

    This paper presents the results of a survey as well as an argument from the viewpoint of behavioral economics with the aim of clarifying how consumers make decisions about electrical appliance use in the home. A survey of consumers showed that most have little awareness of the energy efficiency of appliances, the price of the services produced by electrical appliances, or electricity rates. These findings indicate that price does not function as a signal in electricity consumption through electrical appliance use. Rather, we found that consumer decision-making in electricity consumption is dependent on the characteristics of the particular electrical appliances they use. Additionally, we argue that the payment system for home electricity consumption plays an important role in decision-making, causing biases due to aspects of human psychology discussed here in terms of satisficing and heuristics, payment decoupling, and budgeting. We conclude that decision-making about electrical appliance use and electricity consumption in the home is not always rational and is affected both by the particular characteristics of appliances and the payment system for electricity consumption along with human psychology

  10. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  11. Strategies of Internalization in the Industry of Mining Ma-chines and Appliances

    Izabela Jonek-Kowalska

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the industry of mining machines and appliances in Poland, as a result of considerable economic improvement on the market of energetic resources, gains an incredible opportunity for further development. However, its use is de-pendent on the intensification of activity internationalization. Polish sales mar-ket, due to hard coal mining decrease and financial problems of mining enter-prises, does not guarantee sales increase.Therefore, the basic objective of this article is to assess ...

  12. Follow-up problems with fixed appliances in pediatric dentistry.

    Ari, Timucin

    2015-03-01

    Fixed appliances are commonly used in managing early orthodontic problems. Despite their widespread use, they have the potential to impinge on the soft tissues, interfere with the eruption of adjacent teeth and become dislodged or broken. These two case reports present the poor outcomes of fixed appliance treatments if the patient fails to attend follow-up appointments. A successful outcome of treatment with fixed appliances depends upon proper patient selection and the communication skills of the dentist to help patients/parents understand the importance of regular checkups. PMID:25928968

  13. Simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances

    DING Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Simulation technology has been widely used for performance prediction and optimal design of refrigeration and air conditioning appliances. A brief history of simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is reviewed. The models for evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube and thermal insulation layer are summarized, and a fast calculation method for thermodynamic properties of refrigerant is introduced in this paper. The model-based intelligent simulation technology and the simulation technology based on graph theory are also illustrated. Finally, an updated trend of simulation technology development for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is discussed.

  14. Periodontal effects with self ligating appliances and laser biostimulation

    Gianluigi Caccianiga

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The combination between self ligating appliances and laser′s biostimulation could improve the differentiation of periodontal ligaments stem cells in fibroblasts, able to promote attached gingiva around the crown of the teeth erupted in oral vestibular mucosa.

  15. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good oppourtunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode.

  16. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good opportunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode

  17. Brand Loyalty and Marketing Strategy: An Application to Home Appliances

    Barry L. Bayus

    1992-01-01

    In the academic literature, the modelling of brand choice and switching behavior has a long history for frequently purchased packaged goods. Comparable efforts with consumer durable goods, however, are generally absent. This paper presents an application of the brand switching model proposed by Colombo and Morrison (1989) to a set of four major home appliances. Appliance brand loyalty, however, is shown to be a function of the timing of replacements, a factor that has not entered into the mod...

  18. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Poland

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Poland as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Polish market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, production, consumption, international trade, distribution channels, the leading Polish and foreign kitchen furniture manufacturers as wel...

  19. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Greece

    Aurelio Volpe

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Greece as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Greek market. The research also includes an overview of the Greek kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Short profiles of the main distributors by type (appl...

  20. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Spain

    Aurelio Volpe; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Spain as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Spanish market. The research also includes an overview of the Spanish kitchen furniture market providing data on kitchen furniture production and consumption, international trade, supply structure, distribution, sales and market share of the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers...

  1. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in France

    Aurelio Volpe

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in France as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the French market. The research also includes an overview of the French kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, trade and leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distributors.Special attention is given to the 'cuisinistes...

  2. Analysis and optimisation of virtual DataPower appliances

    JANŠA, JURE

    2014-01-01

    Thesis describes the market of IBM DataPower appliances and their corresponding functionalities. We explain the benefits of these devices in the SOA (Services Oriented Architecture) environments. Case study of testing environment configuration is demonstrated on the physical XI50 and XI52 models and various configurations of virtual DataPower appliance. The analysis of the data obtained with these configurations is performed. At the end we provide the principles and guidelines for the proper ...

  3. Integration of Legacy Appliances into Home Energy Management Systems

    Egarter, Dominik; Monacchi, Andrea; Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The progressive installation of renewable energy sources requires the coordination of energy consuming devices. At consumer level, this coordination can be done by a home energy management system (HEMS). Interoperability issues need to be solved among smart appliances as well as between smart and non-smart, i.e., legacy devices. We expect current standardization efforts to soon provide technologies to design smart appliances in order to cope with the current interoperability issues. Neverthel...

  4. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  5. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Aioob Ghanbary; Ehsan Habibi; Arezou Abbaspour Darbandy

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention ac...

  6. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  7. Improved Appliance Coordination Scheme with Waiting Time in Smart Grids

    Firas A. Al Balas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids aim to merge the advances in communications and information technologies with traditional power grids. In smart grids, users can generate energy and sell it to the local utility supplier. The users can reduce energy consumption by shifting appliances’ start time to off-peak hours. Many researchers have proposed techniques to reduce the previous issue for home appliances, such as the Appliances Coordination (ACORD scheme and Appliances Coordination with Feed In (ACORD-FI scheme. The goal of this work is to introduce an efficient scheme to reduce the total cost of energy bills by utilizing the ACORD-FI scheme to obtain an effective solution. In this work three scheduling schemes are proposed: the Appliances Coordination by Giving Waiting Time (ACORD-WT, the Appliances Coordination by Giving Priority (ACORD-P, and using photovoltaic (PV with priority and waiting time scheduling algorithms. A simulator written in C++ is used to test the performance of the proposed schemes using. The performance metric used is the total savings in the cost of the energy bill in dollars. The first comparison for the proposed schemes with the ACORD-FI, and the results show that the efficiency of the proposed ACORD-WT is better than the ACORD-FI, regardless of the number of appliances. Moreover, the proposed ACORD-P, is also better than the standard ACORD-FI.

  8. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Hellen Soares Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25; and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25. Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p<0.05; there was also an increase in glucose, amylase and protein concentrations in the saliva of the Experimental Group, but the differences were insignificant. There was insignificant correlation between calcium ion concentration and salivary flow or between buffering capacity and salivary flow. CONCLUSION: The saliva of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances had lower pH, buffering capacity and calcium concentration than that of individuals without any type of orthodontic appliance. These oral changes are enough to cause tooth demineralization. Patients with orthodontic appliances should adopt additional oral hygiene procedures.

  9. Thermal plumes of kitchen appliances: idle mode

    Kosonen, R. [Halton Oy, Kausala (Finland); Koskela, H.; Saarinen, P. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Turku (Finland)

    2006-09-15

    In the kitchen environment, pollutant fumes of the cooking process are released into the ambient air by the convection plumes. The practical problem is to compute the requested extract air flow rate to maintain good indoor air quality in an energy efficient manner. In the most accurate design method, the design of a kitchen ventilation system is based on the flow rate of the thermal plume. In this method, the amount of heat carried in a convective plume over a cooking appliance at a certain height is calculated. The heat load is then assumed to be a point heat source and the velocity and temperature profiles are approximated to be Gaussian distributed. In commercial kitchens, the location of the extraction point is at a height of 0.9-1.4 m above the heat source where the convection flow is not yet fully developed. This paper demonstrates that the generic plume equation, derived in the region of complete flow similarity, is not accurate in this intermediate zone. However, it gives a reasonable accuracy for practical applications when an individually adjusted empirical factor of the virtual origin is applied. The power intensity of the heat gain has a much more significant effect on the plume characteristic than the previous studies indicate. The plumes are narrower and the spreading angle is smaller with higher heat gains. (author)

  10. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  11. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  12. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  13. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  14. Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.

    Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

    2011-06-01

    The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation. PMID:20630942

  15. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  16. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  17. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de l`Environnement and de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 6 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  18. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  19. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  20. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk;

    2011-01-01

    should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... by means of simulation and by using real data for power consumption and operation hours. The defined maximum power limit of 750 and 1000 Watt was not exceeded during peak demand hours. The trade‐off was an average delay of 36,1 and 12,36 minutes, respectively, for the aggregated low priority class....

  1. [Microbial colonization and various cleaning procedures for orthodontic appliances].

    Diedrich, P

    1989-06-01

    The cleaning of removable appliances was analysed in three groups: 1. cleaning with tooth-brush/toothpaste, 2. self-acting cleansing agent, 3. ultrasonic treatment. In the same patient group identical plates were fitted each for one month and cleaned by the different procedures. The microbial population and the cleansing effects were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The findings shows clearly, that the toothbrush alone is unsatisfactory for achieving effective decontamination in the hygiene-critical areas of the plates. In contrast to this cleansing tablets and ultrasonic treatment were more effective in plaque-accumulating areas. None of the cleansing procedures effected complete decontamination of the removable appliances. PMID:2767590

  2. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  3. Design and Implementation of the Information Appliance's Home Gateway Based on CORBA

    ZHU Zhu; LIU Hong

    2010-01-01

    With the emergence of a variety of IA (information appliances) and the development of network technology, a convenient and effective platform is needed to control home appliances.This paper presents a "Web_CORBA home gateway" ,provides an inter-face definition of information appliances and eventually complete the internet remote control.Information Appliance refrigerator to be given as an example of the specific design process.

  4. Unsupervised Training Methods for Non-intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring from Smart Meter Data

    Parson, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is the process of disaggregating a household’s total electricity consumption into its contributing appliances. Smart meters are currently being deployed on national scales, providing a platform to collect aggregate household electricity consumption data. Existing approaches to NIALM require a manual training phase in which either sub-metered appliance data is collected or appliance usage is manually labelled. This training data is used to build ...

  5. Three case reports demonstrating treatment of relatively complex orthodontic cases using a completely customised lingual appliance.

    Buckley, John

    2016-01-01

    It is a commonly held misconception among Irish dentists that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. This article demonstrates the use of contemporary completely customised lingual orthodontic appliances to treat a diverse range of malocclusions, to a satisfactory level, and thereby may disabuse clinicians of the belief that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. PMID:27197371

  6. Measures for improving the adoption of higher efficiency appliances in Indonesian households: An analysis of lifetime use and decision-making in the purchase of electrical appliances

    Highlights: ► We observe human psychosocial variables regarding purchase of electrical appliances. ► Two cities with different cultures are subject of this study – Bandung and Yogyakarta. ► Differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural. ► Ads and store’s staff have the greatest impact on people’s choice of appliances. ► Adoption of higher-efficiency appliances could be implemented based on each culture. - Abstract: One approach to decreasing electricity consumption is to facilitate the replacement of older appliances with new, higher-efficiency. The objectives of this paper are to compare and analyse the replacement of appliances in two cities of Indonesia – Yogyakarta and Bandung – that are characterised by different cultural backgrounds, ethnicities, and decision-making processes in the household purchase of electrical appliances. A questionnaire survey method was employed to obtain information on behavioural economics and human psychosocial variables such as attitudes, beliefs and perceived benefits regarding the replacement and purchase of electrical appliances. The results show that refrigerators in Yogyakarta have a longer lifetime than in Bandung. However, in Bandung, air conditioners, electric fans, rice cookers, and water pumps have a longer lifetime than in Yogyakarta. These differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural differences within the two cities that are reflected in the manner in which people use electrical appliances as well as to their lack of knowledge regarding appliance operation. An analysis of the factors influencing the purchase of appliances indicated that people in Yogyakarta show a greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than do persons in Bandung. The following suggestions could be implemented to improve the strategy of encouraging the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances: (1) in Yogyakarta, energy labelling could be

  7. Procool - eco-efficient cold appliances for the commercial use

    Pro-Cool is an EU-wide demonstration project which supports the development and market penetration of eco-efficient plug-in cold appliances for the commercial use. These products should be both highly energy efficient, free of HFC-containing refrigerants and -foaming agents and eco-efficient in a general sense. Thus the project corresponds with the EU Integrated Product Policy which aims at improving products by considering the ecological impact along the product life cycle. Besides ecological criteria, which are central for the project, other aspects relevant for purchasers like warranty and functionality are taken into account to guarantee the acceptance of the products by the demand side target groups. The so called 'voice of the customer' has been considered in the development of the criteria To achieve the necessary stimulation of the supply and demand side market a combined competition and procurement approach is developed addressing both manufacturers and buyers respectively users of the products. The central measure of the project is a European competition for suppliers what offers leading manufacturers of the market the opportunity to present themselves as innovative companies which provide eco-efficient equipment. Eight leading manufacturers which have a high market share in the selected product categories are taking part in the competition. Furthermore three large companies representing the demand side branches of super market chains and drinks industry already have signed a general agreement to support the project and to consider the products resulting from the competition in their procurement activities. Thus major supply and demand side target groups which are capable to support market transformation have joined the project. The competition terminates by December 2005 and the award of the winning products takes place in spring 2006 at an international fair or conference event. The paper presents the objectives and the concept of the project. Relevant

  8. Causes and consequences of backdrafting of vented gas appliances.

    Nagda, N L; Koontz, M D; Billick, I H; Leslie, N P; Behrens, D W

    1996-09-01

    House depressurization occurs when household equipment such as a kitchen or bathroom fan or a fireplace exhausts air from the house and lowers the pressure indoors with respect to the outside. The operation of air handlers for forced-air heating or cooling systems also can have a depressurization effect. This depressurization can hinder the natural draft from vented combustion appliances and lead to backdrafting, which in turn can result in combustion gases spilling into the indoor airspace. Extensive spillage can cause elevated indoor levels of combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor, as well as contaminants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The focus of this paper is to review studies on depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage from gas-fired, drafthood equipped furnaces and domestic hot water heaters. Qualitative and quantitative techniques that were used in depressurization and backdrafting studies conducted in Canada, Europe, and the United States are analyzed. These studies have shown that exhaust fans operated simultaneously with fireplaces depressurize houses by 3 to 8 Pa on average. The CO indoor concentrations due to spillage, as reported in these studies, generally have been lower than 5 ppm. However, such low CO concentrations do not necessarily imply that a potential problem associated with backdrafting does not exist. Other combustion products, such as NO2, rarely have been measured in prior backdrafting studies. It can be concluded from the literature review that causes of house depressurization are well understood. However, more comprehensive research is needed to better understand the frequency, duration, and severity of depressurization-induced spillage in a broad cross section of houses. Efforts in this direction have begun recently in the United States through a workshop to define research issues, pilot studies to develop comprehensive measurement protocols, and consensus standard

  9. Procool - eco-efficient cold appliances for the commercial use

    Schaeppi, Bernd; Ritter, Herbert [The Austrian Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Barthel, Claus [Wuppertal Institut for Climate, Environment and Energy (Germany); Hermann, Laurenz [Deutsche Energieagentur, Berlin (Germany); Streif, Oswald [Verein fuer Konsumenteninformation, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    Pro-Cool is an EU-wide demonstration project which supports the development and market penetration of eco-efficient plug-in cold appliances for the commercial use. These products should be both highly energy efficient, free of HFC-containing refrigerants and -foaming agents and eco-efficient in a general sense. Thus the project corresponds with the EU Integrated Product Policy which aims at improving products by considering the ecological impact along the product life cycle. Besides ecological criteria, which are central for the project, other aspects relevant for purchasers like warranty and functionality are taken into account to guarantee the acceptance of the products by the demand side target groups. The so called 'voice of the customer' has been considered in the development of the criteria To achieve the necessary stimulation of the supply and demand side market a combined competition and procurement approach is developed addressing both manufacturers and buyers respectively users of the products. The central measure of the project is a European competition for suppliers what offers leading manufacturers of the market the opportunity to present themselves as innovative companies which provide eco-efficient equipment. Eight leading manufacturers which have a high market share in the selected product categories are taking part in the competition. Furthermore three large companies representing the demand side branches of super market chains and drinks industry already have signed a general agreement to support the project and to consider the products resulting from the competition in their procurement activities. Thus major supply and demand side target groups which are capable to support market transformation have joined the project. The competition terminates by December 2005 and the award of the winning products takes place in spring 2006 at an international fair or conference event. The paper presents the objectives and the concept of the project

  10. Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

  11. The Next Generation of Appliances: Visions for Sustainability

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The suggestions for future generations of appliances presented in this paper are based on the assumption of an increasing awareness of the environmental problems and of real human well-being. In some sense it will reflect the author´s personal preferences. A future refrigerator can be designed to...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    2010-04-01

    ... of the vented type and vented to the outside. (c) Fuel-burning appliances shall not be converted from... of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2) All gas and oil... are not required: (1) External switches or remote controls which shut off the burner or the flow...

  13. Compatibility of Fixed Dental Appliances with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Hubálková, H.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Linetskiy, I.; Starčuková, Jana; Mazánek, J.

    London: European Prosthodontic Association, 2006. O41. [EPA 2006. Annual Conference of the European Prosthodontic Association /30./. 02.11.2006-04.11.2006, London] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Keywords : fixed dental appliance * MRI * MR compatibility * image artefacts * radiofrequency heating Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  14. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    Warsaw: ESMRMB, 2006. s. 342-343. ISBN 10334-006-0043-1. [ESMRMB 2006 - 23rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology. 21.09.2006-23.09.2006, Warsaw] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  15. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7. E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  16. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  17. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  18. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources. PMID:26076540

  19. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  20. Treatment of severe rotations of maxillary central incisors with whip appliance: Report of three cases

    Iman Parisay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The routine treatment for rotated maxillary incisor is a fixed appliance, but in some instance the use of this method is impossible. In addition, in only limited cases of rotation, removable appliance is applicable. In this study, the use of a semi-removable appliance is presented, which has some benefits over the other methods. In this study, the corrections of about 70-90° rotation of the maxillary central incisors in different phases of mixed dentition were performed in three patients using whip appliance. This method was performed using a simple removable appliance such as Hawley appliance and whip spring that forced the couple to derotate the tooth. In all cases, treatment was successfully completed in relative short duration. Whip appliance can be recommended as an effective method to correct rotation of maxillary incisor in mixed dentition with several advantages like rapid correction.

  1. A System for Smart Home Control of Appliances based on Timer and Speech Interaction

    Haque, S M Anamul; Islam, Md Ashraful

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to design and construct a microcomputer based system: to control electric appliances such as light, fan, heater, washing machine, motor, TV, etc. The paper discusses two major approaches to control home appliances. The first involves controlling home appliances using timer option. The second approach is to control home appliances using voice command. Moreover, it is also possible to control appliances using Graphical User Interface. The parallel port is used to transfer data from computer to the particular device to be controlled. An interface box is designed to connect the high power loads to the parallel port. This system will play an important role for the elderly and physically disable people to control their home appliances in intuitive and flexible way. We have developed a system, which is able to control eight electric appliances properly in these three modes.

  2. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  3. Householders’ Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity

    Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people’s energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders’ perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally ‘went together’, there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people’s categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  4. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice. PMID:20651044

  5. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Kaushik, Noopur; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most challenging tasks for a pediatric dentist is the management of deleterious oral habits which adversely affect the dentofacial complex. However, if these habits can be intercepted and diagnosed well in time, they can save the patient from the psychological impact of undergoing long treatment therapies. One such rare deleterious oral habit is cheek biting that affects the buccal mucosa. Presented here is a case report which describes the interception of this deleterious habit in a 15-year-old female child who was a bilateral cheek biter with the help of an innovative intraoral appliance: The cheek plumper. How to cite this article: Rana V, Srivastava N, Kaushik N, Panthri P. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):146-148. PMID:27365937

  6. Extent of inspections for lifting appliances in nuclear installations

    During in-service inspections of lifting appliances, the test specifications, principles, and guidelines included in the technical rules are to be applied for the inspection of elevators and cranes. In annex 1 these specifications, principles, and guidelines are compiled. For lifting appliances in nuclear installations, which according to KTA rule 3902, edition 11/75, have to meet additional and more rigorous requirements, no. 10.3 is relevant. In nos. 2 and 3 of this direction, those in-service inspections are listed in detail which go beyond the general requirements according to no. 10.3.3 rule KTA 3902, edition 11/75. The extent of the inspections has to be set up between licensee and inspecting expert in a program for in-service inspections. (orig./HP)

  7. DSP Based Speech Operated Home Appliances Using Zero Crossing Features

    Deepali Y Loni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to build a simple speech recognition system using Digital SignalProcessor (DSP that controls home appliances (i.e. turning on/off by processing the spokenword. The method used is simple, involving a plain count of the frequency of zero crossings. Twofeatures of zero-crossing are used namely: maxima & running sum that increases the accuracy ofrecognition. The DSP calculates the zero crossings of the spoken words and accordinglygenerates different analog signals at its output. These analog signals are further processed so asto operate the appliances. The words chosen for recognition are ‘ONE’, ‘TWO’ and ‘THREE’.The paper includes two approaches for implementation of speech recognition into DSP, usingMatlab Simulink approach and secondly using Code Composer Studio (CCS. Moreover the firstapproach performs offline processing and the other performs real time processing of words. Theresults at the end describe the efficiency of the system.

  8. Hoisting appliances and fuel handling equipment at nuclear facilities

    The guide is followed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) in regulating hoisting and handling equipment Class 3 at nuclear facilities. The guide is applied e.g. to the following equipment: reactor building overhead cranes, hoisting appliances at nuclear fuel storages, fuel handling machines, other hoisting appliances, which because of nuclear safety aspects are classified in Safety Class 3, and load-bearing devices connected with the above equipment, such as replaceable hoisting tools and auxiliary lifting devices. The regulating of hoisting and handling equipment comprises the following stages: handling of preliminary and final safety analysis reports, inspection of the construction plan, supervision of fabrication and construction inspection, and supervision of initial start-up and commissioning inspection

  9. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  10. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  11. Key Account Management Practices in Home Appliance Industry of Pakistan

    Razzaq, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Key account management (KAM) is considered as an important marketing trend since last few years. The purpose of this thesis orients to the discussion about key account management practices from selling company’s perspectives in home appliance market of Pakistan. The study is carried through with four steps: elements of key accounts management, identification and analysis of key accounts, strategies for key accounts, and operational level capabilities used in key account management fo...

  12. SUPPORTIVE FACTORS FOR SYRIAN HOME APPLIANCES MANUFACTURERS (ADVERTISING, BRAND, &VALUE)

    KHACHROUM, Mohammad; ALİ, Suleiman; HİLLY, Karam M.

    2010-01-01

    Syrian industries are facing very critical era nowadays. Therefore, this research aims to address the following questions first of all, which brands will be attracted by Syrian consumers? How can Syrian companies gain local customers' trust and preferences? And which factors could affect Syrian consumer’s decision making? To answer these questions home appliances industry will be a field of study. Two approaches have been conducted in this study; qualitative research including interviews with...

  13. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Aioob Ghanbary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention action to reduce musculoskeletal disorders was carried out. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 workers of the appliance manufacturing industry. These Individuals were included 15 persons from foam injection workshop, 17 persons from molding workshop, 17 operators of presses, 17 persons from packaging, 17 person from cutting unit and 17 operators of rivet. The Nordic questionnaire was completed by Individuals for the organs of arm, back, leg and wrist and Posture analysis was performed by OWAS method. The data were analyzed using Spss software version 18 and descriptive statistics and Anova test. Nordic questionnaire results revealed that highest disorders were observed in the arm (25%, back (22% and leg (21%. Also Anova test showed that was observed a significant correlation respectively between age and work experience with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.02 (p<0.01. The results showed based on the level of risk OWAS for each job respectively, the highest level of risk associated with foam injection unit, packaging and cutting unit (risk level 4 and the lowest level of risk associated with molding workshop unit (risk level 2.The results of this study showed that household appliances Manufacturing workers due to the nature of their jobs are at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and Ergonomic interventions to do such as workstation redesign, reduced working hours, cycle of rest-work development.

  14. Trapping Parallel Port to Operate 220V Appliances

    Prateek Sharma; Kapil Kumar; Ajay Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    With advancement of technology things arebecoming simpler and easier for us. Automation is the use ofTechnology to reduce Human work. Automatic systems are beingpreferred over manual system. Internet controlling offers a newapproach to control electric appliances from a remote terminal,using the Internet, Bluetooth and Local Area Networkconnection. This system is accomplished by personal computers,parallel port, local area network connection, internet connection,mobile phone and Bluetooth dev...

  15. Exploration on the Development of Waste Household Appliance Reverse Logistics

    刘云; 王志玲

    2014-01-01

    China is not only the largest producer of electrical and electronic products, but also a big consumer. Over a long time, many products have reached the peak of being abandoned, with the increasingly awareness of environmental protection, developing an efficient recycling logistics system can not be delayed. It mainly leads to the concept of reverse logistics through analyzing the current situation of waste household appliances, and puts forward several suggestions for the current status and future development of reverse logistics.

  16. Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances

    Mo, Sung-Seo; Kim, Seong-Hun; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied...

  17. Adaptive Kalman filtering for anomaly detection in software appliances

    Knorn, Florian; Leith, Douglas J.

    2008-01-01

    Availability and reliability are often important features of key software appliances such as firewalls, web servers, etc. In this paper we seek to go beyond the simple heartbeat monitoring that is widely used for failover control. We do this by integrating more fine grained measurements that are readily available on most platforms to detect possible faults or the onset of failures. In particular, we evaluate the use of adaptive Kalman Filtering for automated CPU usage prediction that...

  18. Possibilities to prevent gingivitis during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy

    Matić Sava; Ivanović Mirjana; Mandić Jelena; Nikolić Predrag

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: During orthodontic treatment, the risk of gingivitis, periodontal disease and dental caries is increased. For good gingival health during orthodontic therapy, patients must be educated about the importance of daily oral hygiene and also given instructions on plaquecontrol techniques and how to use plaque removal devices properly. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present risk factors for gingivitis during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances as well as methods and ...

  19. Condition of periodontium in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Anđelić Jasminka; Matijević Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. Orthodontic patients should be familiar with techniques of maintaining oral hygiene as well as with proper methods of checking maintenance of oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between condition of periodontium and techniques of maintaining oral hygiene in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The research population included 100 patients, aged 15-25, treated by the orthodontist from 200...

  20. Scheduling Smart Home Appliances in the Stockholm Royal Seaport

    Wu, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the optimal scheduling of smart home appliances with respect to economic benefits (electricity bill) and reducing environmental impacts (CO 2 emissions) for the Stockholm Royal Seaport project. The aim of this project is to develop a new urban district developing in the eastern Stockholm which will house 10,000 new apartments and 30,000 new office spaces where modern living is combined with environmental thinking to create sustainable living. In a previous work the sc...

  1. Development of Wireless Electric Concept Powering Electrical Appliances

    Hanita Daud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a concept of harvesting and transferring energy to a low power electrical appliances using wireless technology where interconnecting wires are not available. This study was a ground work for the future alternative energy supply especially to the areas where supplying direct energy is a challenge such as in deep sea exploration as well as to the area where power interruption is a problem. Research was carried out to study how the waste signal and energy in the air could be collected and converted into useful energy which later could be used to supply power to electrical appliances. The approach of this research started by simulation work using PSPICE full edition that was performed to develop the design and later was used as guidelines in developing the prototype. We then harvested the Radio Frequency (RF signal that was available in air by using RF energy harvesting circuit. This circuit harvested the energy and converted them into electricity. It was accomplished by using an antenna to capture the RF energy and a voltage doublers circuit to convert and magnify the AC input signal to larger DC output. For a start we managed to capture a 3V voltage which was stored in a rechargeable battery. The energy in this rechargeable battery was then utilized to power up low-powered electrical appliances. Germanium and Silicon diodes have been used to harvest and amplify the voltage so that a better and higher output can be achieved.

  2. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  3. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  4. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions. (authors)

  6. Estimating the impact of the home appliances trade-in policy on WEEE management in China.

    Zhu, Shuguang; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Juwen; Liang, Honggen; Han, Yuebin

    2012-11-01

    The ever-increasing amount of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a global problem. In view of the deleterious effects of WEEE on the environment and the valuable materials that can be reused in them, many countries have focused their attention on the management of WEEE and the recovery technologies of WEEE. The Chinese government has been active in creating a legislative and institutional framework to realize WEEE recycling. In June 2009, Chinese government launched home appliances and electronics trade-in implementation solution. This paper elaborates the home appliances trade-in policy and its significant impact on the WEEE management. The trade-in policy is not only conducive to expanding the consumption demand and promoting the balance of domestic and overseas demand, but also favorable to improving the energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution. Under this policy, China has successfully established an effective WEEE recycling system, using the financial means and network design. Experiences gained from the trade-in policy have shown that management systems of WEEE need to be designed and implemented in a multi-stakeholder dialogue. PMID:22492263

  7. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  8. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  9. Frog Appliance- An Innovative Treatment Option for the Replacement of Missing Teeth in An Epileptic Child

    Raghavendra M Shetty; Goyal, Anita; Reddy, Hanumanth; Sajjnar, Arun B; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which may result in various oro-facial injuries among which fracture of crown and avulsion of tooth are commonly reported. Challenges come in growing epileptic children where fixed prosthesis could not be delivered and it demands a fixed semi-permanent prosthesis that needs strength along with esthetics. The present paper reports an innovative appliance which has fulfilled fore mentioned criteria; with the appliance named-frog appliance.

  10. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the Czech Republic

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the Czech Republic as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Czech market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution channels. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (...

  11. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the Netherlands

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the Netherlands as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Dutch market. The research also includes an overview of the Dutch kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (s...

  12. ASSESSING THE "ENGINES OF LIBERATION": HOME APPLIANCES AND FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V.; José Tavares

    2004-01-01

    The secular rise in female labor force participation, highlighted in the recent macroeconomics literature on growth and structural change, has been associated with the declining price and wider availability of home appliances. This paper uses a new and unique country dataset on the price of home appliances to test its impact on female labor supply. We assess the role of the price of appliances in raising participation by comparing it to the impact of fertility and other macroeconomic factors....

  13. Classification of Household Appliance Operation Cycles: A Case-Study Approach

    Zeyu Wang; Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of power grid system, referred to as the Smart Grid, with an aim of managing electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, and economical manner has emerged. With greater knowledge of operational characteristics of individual appliances, necessary automation control strategies can be developed in the Smart Grid to operate appliances in an efficient manner. This paper provides a way of classifying different operational cycles of a household appliance by intro...

  14. Assessing the 'Engines of Liberation': Home Appliances and Female Labour Force Participation

    Cavalcanti, Tiago; TAVARES, José

    2006-01-01

    The secular rise in female labour force participation, highlighted in the recent macroeconomics literature on growth and structural change, has been associated with the declining price and wider availability of home appliances. This paper uses a new and unique country dataset on the price of home appliances to test its impact on female labour supply. We assess the role of the price of appliances in raising participation by comparing it to other structural determinants such as average male inc...

  15. Design and explanation of organizational excellence model in home appliances industry

    Seyed Abbas Kazemi; Gholamhossein Nikokar; Jamshid Salehi Sadaghiani; Majid Rahimimazraehshahi

    2012-01-01

    Home appliances are considered as one of low margin and competitive industry in the world. This industry often needs significant amount of investment and resources and it often faces with some challenges during economic crises. In this paper, we present a framework for organizational excellence to detect any possible problems in home appliances industry. The proposed framework of this paper is used for a real-world case study of Iranian home appliances. The results of our survey indicate that...

  16. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  17. Management of severe Class II malocclusion with sequential modified twin block and fixed orthodontic appliances

    Sonal Chowdhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional appliance is an effective way of treating skeletal Class II malocclusion in children and adolescents. A 12 months stepwise mandibular advancement protocol with Herbst appliance has been proved to enhance condylar growth and improve mandibular prognathism. The present case report documents a 12-year-old boy presenting with Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion associated with excessive overjet (11 mm, 100% deep bite, and retrognathic mandible. He was treated by a phase I growth modification therapy using twin block appliance with lip pads in a stepwise mandibular advancement protocol followed by a phase II preadjusted Edgewise appliance therapy.

  18. A modified palatal crib appliance for children with predetermined thumb-sucking habit - Case report

    The aim of this case report was to introduce a modified design of palatal crib habit breaking appliance that can be used for children with predetermined thumb-sucking habit. The appliance is made of two bands on the upper first permanent molars and an extended metal framework to cover the anterior of the palatal roof. The appliance was applied for 4 months on an 8-year-old boy who persistently continued the habit of thumb-sucking. The appliance proved to be very effective for arresting thumb-sucking habit. (author)

  19. When do energy-efficient appliances generate energy savings? Some evidence from Canada

    Improvements in the energy efficiency of household appliances have the potential to decrease residential energy use, but these reductions accrue gradually over time as newer appliances replace older models. SHEU-2003 data are used to examine appliance replacement patterns in Canada for refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers and clothes dryers. The data indicate that the ages at which appliances are replaced tend to be lowest for dishwashers and highest for freezers, with over 40% of freezers in use for more than 20 years before being retired. The life spans of Canadian appliances are compared to the underlying assumptions regarding appliance lifetimes used in models of residential energy demand. We find that Canadian appliance retirement patterns differ from those assumed in the previous literature. Socioeconomic factors related to appliance replacement are also examined. We find that replacement patterns can be sensitive to household characteristics such as income, providing evidence that there may be scope for targeted policies aimed at inducing earlier replacements of older household appliances with new energy-efficient models

  20. Intelligent Control of Home Appliances via Network

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    platform which guaranties interoperability, as well as scalability and flexibility. Therefore, a home gateway prototype has been developed in JAVA. This implementation offers the required capabilities for a Home Energy Management System, i.e. it enables the user to monitor and control the home devices, in...... getaway of the Home Energy Management System. This exchange of information between the customers and the utilities is important as customers will have a more active role in the Smart Grid by participating in Demand Response mechanisms. The presented Home Energy Management System in this thesis......'s management of the Home Energy Management settings in order to fulfil his preferences. The herein Home Energy Management System and AMI and DR proposed architecture have taken into consideration all the objectives and requirements to create a successful solution....

  1. Energy star appliances and energy efficiency

    In previous studies, econometric methods have been used to analyze the impact of market transformation programs. This paper reviewed the results of a detailed assessment of United States lighting markets. The study utilized market analysis to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient screw-type lamps and linear fluorescent lamps. The paper described the methods used and hypotheses for the study. The study approach involved three steps. First, a database of product sales and drivers of product sales by efficiency type information from annual surveys of sales of lighting products was built. In order to model the impact of gross domestic product, electricity prices and demand side management on product sales for energy efficient and standard products, ordinary least squares regression analysis was used. The regression output was then used alongside the database information to estimate the impact of changes in electricity prices, gross domestic product and demand side marketing activity on sales of energy efficient and standard products. Results were presented for annual sales and market share information for screw-type lamps purchased by residential and small business customers; lamp sales regressions and compact fluorescent lamp sales analysis; an analysis of incandescent lamp sales and regressions of linear fluorescent tubes sales; and annual sales and market share information for linear fluorescent tubes purchased by residential and small business customers as well as regression results. It was concluded that the total effect was an increase in sales of compact fluorescent lamps of 13.3 million units in 2002, 17.7 million units in 2003 and 22.7 million units in 2004. 5 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. REACH Basics for Chinese Producers of Electric Household Appliances

    Dr.Klaus W.Mehl

    2008-01-01

    The following article explains the EU chemical regulation "REACH', explicates the requirements that Chinese producers are facing, and shows how they can fulfill the requirements and secure their access to the EU market. The consequences of failing to fulfill REACH requirements are given in REACH Article 5: No data, no market: ... substances ... in articles ... shall not be ... placed on the market unless they have been registered In other words: Without registration of chemicals Chinese producers of electric household appliances may loose their EU market.

  3. Prediction of appliances energy use in smart homes

    This paper presents methods for prediction of energy consumption of different appliances in homes. The aim is to predict the next day electricity consumption for some services in homes. Historical data for a set of homes in France was used. Two basic predictors are tested and a stochastic based predictor is proposed. The performance of the predictors is studied and it shows that the proposed predictor gives better results than other approaches. Two processings are proposed to improve the performance of the predictor, segmentation and aggregation of data. Application results are provided.

  4. Mechanical appliances, mechanical movements and novelties of construction

    Hiscox, Gardner D

    2008-01-01

    From the devices that power ships and trains to the workings of clocks, typewriters, and guns, this engrossing visual narrative profiles the specific and unique properties of hundreds of mechanical devices. Nearly 1,000 detailed illustrations depict steam-powered appliances, spring-powered devices, hydraulic equipment, and other machines, many of which remain in common use today. Each apparatus features a detailed line drawing and an informative explanation of its workings and uses. A final chapter chronicles 400 years of impassioned but futile searching for a perpetual motion machine.The comp

  5. New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances; FINAL

    Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances

  6. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  7. Pulmonary inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung after exposure to PM samples from biomass heating appliances of old and modern technologies.

    Happo, Mikko S; Uski, Oskari; Jalava, Pasi I; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2013-01-15

    Current levels of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. In residential areas wood combustion is one of the main sources of PM(2.5) emissions, especially during wintertime. However, the adverse health effects of particulate emissions from the modern heating appliances and fuels are poorly known. In this study, health related toxicological properties of PM(1) emissions from five modern and two old technology appliances were examined. The PM(1) samples were collected by using a Dekati® Gravimetric Impactor (DGI). The collected samples were weighed and extracted with methanol for chemical and toxicological analyses. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally exposed to a single dose of 1, 3, 10 or 15 mg/kg of the particulate samples for 4, 18 or 24h. Thereafter, the lungs were lavaged and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Lungs of 24h exposed mice were collected for inspection of pulmonary tissue damage. There were substantial differences in the combustion qualities of old and modern technology appliances. Modern technology appliances had the lowest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but they induced the highest inflammatory, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities. In contrast, old technology appliances had clearly the highest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but their effect in the mouse lungs were the lowest. Increased inflammatory activity was associated with ash related components of the emissions, whereas high PAH concentrations were correlating with the smallest detected responses, possibly due to their immunosuppressive effect. PMID:23201646

  8. Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

    V R Cilil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1, and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2. Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality.

  9. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    2010-01-01

    ..., clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION §...

  10. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S4: FINAL REPORT

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates from household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy consumption is therefore a matter of managing and optimizi

  11. Created in Close Interaction with the Industry: The Smart Appliances REFerence (SAREF) Ontology

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Around two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings can be traced back to the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Today, most appliances are highly intelligent and networked devices, in principle being able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing

  12. Analyzing price and efficiency dynamics of large appliances with the experience curve approach

    Large appliances are major power consumers in households of industrialized countries. Although their energy efficiency has been increasing substantially in past decades, still additional energy efficiency potentials exist. Energy policy that aims at realizing these potentials faces, however, growing concerns about possible adverse effects on commodity prices. Here, we address these concerns by applying the experience curve approach to analyze long-term price and energy efficiency trends of three wet appliances (washing machines, laundry dryers, and dishwashers) and two cold appliances (refrigerators and freezers). We identify a robust long-term decline in both specific price and specific energy consumption of large appliances. Specific prices of wet appliances decline at learning rates (LR) of 29±8% and thereby much faster than those of cold appliances (LR of 9±4%). Our results demonstrate that technological learning leads to substantial price decline, thus indicating that the introduction of novel and initially expensive energy efficiency technologies does not necessarily imply adverse price effects in the long term. By extending the conventional experience curve approach, we find a steady decline in the specific energy consumption of wet appliances (LR of 20-35%) and cold appliances (LR of 13-17%). Our analysis suggests that energy policy might be able to bend down energy experience curves.

  13. Analyzing price and efficiency dynamics of large appliances with the experience curve approach

    Large appliances are major power consumers in households of industrialized countries. Although their energy efficiency has been increasing substantially in past decades, still additional energy efficiency potentials exist. Energy policy that aims at realizing these potentials faces, however, growing concerns about possible adverse effects on commodity prices. Here, we address these concerns by applying the experience curve approach to analyze long-term price and energy efficiency trends of three wet appliances (washing machines, laundry dryers, and dishwashers) and two cold appliances (refrigerators and freezers). We identify a robust long-term decline in both specific price and specific energy consumption of large appliances. Specific prices of wet appliances decline at learning rates (LR) of 29±8% and thereby much faster than those of cold appliances (LR of 9±4%). Our results demonstrate that technological learning leads to substantial price decline, thus indicating that the introduction of novel and initially expensive energy efficiency technologies does not necessarily imply adverse price effects in the long term. By extending the conventional experience curve approach, we find a steady decline in the specific energy consumption of wet appliances (LR of 20-35%) and cold appliances (LR of 13-17%). Our analysis suggests that energy policy might be able to bend down energy experience curves. (author)

  14. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  15. Launch of new or improved gas appliances onto the Dutch market

    In the Netherlands the market for both natural gas and gas appliances is highly saturated. In such a market it is difficult but not impossible to introduce new technological developments and new gas appliances. Close cooperation between the different market parties is essential for successful introduction. (au)

  16. 78 FR 1779 - Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other...

    2013-01-09

    ...The Commission proposes to amend the Appliance Labeling Rule (``Rule'') by updating ranges of comparability and unit energy cost figures for many EnergyGuide labels. The Commission also seeks comment on a proposed exemption request by the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) to help consumers compare the labels on refrigerators and clothes washers after the implementation of......

  17. What to Do If Your Appliances Are Wet After a Disaster

    2006-08-10

    If your home was flooded, look for signs that your appliances have gotten wet. Throw away wet or flooded appliances to protect from shock and fire.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  18. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsors to distribute copies of this book worldwide at no charge for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.CLASPonline.org and can be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  19. Non-compliance Appliances for Upper Molar Distalization: An Overview.

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Tooth Size Arch-length Discrepancy (TSALD) is a common problem in orthodontics. Its clinical signs are tooth crowding, impaction and incisor proclination. The treatment options are dental arch expansion or tooth mass reduction (stripping or extraction). The "extraction versus non-extraction" controversy has been widely debated in the orthodontic literature. Distalization is a kind of arch expansion in anetro-posterior dimension. Several studies have evaluated both the therapeutic effectiveness and the side effects of the appliances for this method of space gaining. In some cases molar distalization is preferred, e.g., a patient with acceptable profile and skeletal pattern and half cusp Class II molar malocclusion or even less. In some cases molar distalization is the only way, e.g., the patient with previous upper premolar extraction and excessive overijet, or a skeletal Class III patient with previous upper premolar extraction needed upper anterior teeth retraction to create reverse overjet aspre surgical orthodontic decompensation. In this review article, we described non-compliance upper molar distalizing appliances. PMID:26720949

  20. CernVM - a virtual software appliance for LHC applications

    CernVM is a Virtual Software Appliance capable of running physics applications from the LHC experiments at CERN. It aims to provide a complete and portable environment for developing and running LHC data analysis on any end-user computer (laptop, desktop) as well as on the Grid, independently of Operating System platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOS). The experiment application software and its specific dependencies are built independently from CernVM and delivered to the appliance just in time by means of a CernVM File System (CVMFS) specifically designed for efficient software distribution. The procedures for building, installing and validating software releases remains under the control and responsibility of each user community. We provide a mechanism to publish pre-built and configured experiment software releases to a central distribution point from where it finds its way to the running CernVM instances via the hierarchy of proxy servers or content delivery networks. In this paper, we present current state of CernVM project and compare performance of CVMFS to performance of traditional network file system like AFS and discuss possible scenarios that could further improve its performance and scalability.

  1. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers re...

  2. Consumer Behaviour when Purchasing Household Appliances from the Aspect of Energy Consumption in the Times of Crisis

    Vuković, Dijana; Jurić, Boris; Ojdenić, Robertino

    2014-01-01

    The key to success of producers of energy saving household appliances is in respecting the consumers’ changed way of thinking and behaviour and their individual needs after the times of crisis and recession. Nowadays, consumers have total control over buying household appliances and a far larger choice. Consumers of household appliances, whose consumption was the driving force before the times of crisis and recession, today, when making a decision about buying household appliances take more f...

  3. Study on the Dynamic Efficiency of Listed Household Appliances Companies Based on the Malmquist-DEA Model

    Ruyin Long; Fei Wang

    2009-01-01

    Based on data from16 listed household appliances companies, we use the Malmquist-DEA model to estimate the dynamic change of the total factor productivity (TFP) in the household appliance industry from 2002 to 2006, and analyze the scale efficiency and the input congestion level of household appliance industry. The results show that the TFP of household appliance industry was improved slightly, and the technical progress was obvious, but the pure technical efficiency and the scale efficiency ...

  4. Investigating and Comparing the Colonization of mutans Streptococus in Different Parts of Removable Orthodontic Appliances

    A Haerian-Ardakani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients receiving orthodontic treatment get some alterations in their oral cavity environment such as an increase in the levels of microorganism in oral cavity and dental biofilms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate as well as to compare the colonization of mutans streptococci in different parts of removable orthodontic appliances. Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, samples were obtained before and after use of removable appliance plaque and amount of colonization of streptococci mutan was determined in 3 areas including Biteplaque in proximity of first molar teeth, spring, inner surface of removable appliance in proximity of first molar Results: Results showed that plague index increased significantly after use of removable appliance. (P<0.001; There was a significant difference in amount of colonization of streptococci mutans between spring and biteplaque (p= 0.028 Conclusion: This study indicated importance of a precise oral hygiene control in patients under treatment with removable orthodontic appliances for prevention of dental caries.

  5. Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.

    Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

    2011-08-01

    Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items

  6. 76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    2011-09-12

    ... Parts 430 and 431 Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation...'' appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards, as well as in test procedures used to... on ``smart'' appliances published August 5, 2011 (76 FR 47518) if they are received no later...

  7. Study on Incineration/ Pyrolysis/ Gasification Characteristics of Urethane/ Styrofoam Generated from Home Appliances Waste

    According to the report of the Korean Association of Electronics Environment (KAEE), 1.44 million units of refrigerators, 1.15 million units of washing machines, 886 thousand units of televisions, and 327 thousand units of air conditioners were discarded in 2006. From such wastes more than 90 wt.% of valuable materials are recovered. Polyurethane/ styrofoam, used to reduce noise and thermally insulating agent in such electric appliances is hard to recycle and handle by any treatment processes. Urethane/ Styrofoam waste recycling consists of 3 parts material recycling, mechanical recycling and energy recycling. The material recycling involves shredding polyurethane for using as raw materials preparing various appliances. This is not easy however, active attempts are being made. The chemical recycling using thermal depolymerization is reduction from polyurethane to raw material polymer. The energy recycling is incineration of polyurethane for cogeneration, RDF (refuse dericed fuel) etc. Most of Urethane/ Styrofoam waste in Korea is sent to cement kilns as auxiliary fuel or is disposed off at landfill sites. Considering the limited landfill capacity and environmental problems associated to land filling, alternative treatment methods such as incineration, pyrolysis and gasification are evaluated for polyurethane/styrofoam disposal. In this study, we considered recovery and recycling of polyurethane/ styrofoam using 3 thermal treatment process (incineration, pyrolysis and gasification). The evaluation of 3 experimental conditions will suggest the energy recovery possibility and the hazard analysis of generated gas and residues. In addition, heating value of oil generated by pyrolysis will also be assessed. Results on possibility of energy recovery by analyzing syngas composition, heating value and carbon conversion efficiency during gasification experiment will also be presented. (author)

  8. Burning of electrical household appliances. An experimental Study

    Hietaniemi, J.; Mangs, J.; Hakkarainen, T. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    2001-03-01

    Burning characteristics of electrical household appliances of four different types, TV sets, washing machines, dishwashers and refrigerator-freezers, have been studied experimentally. Results obtained comprise rate of heat release, mass loss and generation of smoke and some chemical substances as well as the quantities derived from these data such as the effective heat of combustion. The experiments are comprehensively documented by written records of events and photographs. High intensities of burning were detected. The highest rates of heat release (RHR), up to 2000 kW, were found for refrigerator-freezers. The peak RHR values for the other apparatuses were: dishwashers 350-750 kW, washing machines 300-450 kW and TVs 250-300 kW. Generally, the development of the burning of the apparatuses towards full burning has two phases. The first phase involves low-RHR incipient burning and during the second phase RHR grows rapidly towards the peak values. TV set fires develop rapidly: the first phase lasts ca. 1,5-3 minutes and, after it, the peak RHR value may be reached within 1-1,5 minutes from the initiation of the rapid RHR growth. For washing machines the period of incipient burning was rather long, 10-20 minutes depending on the way the apparatus was ignited (ignition in the motor space or at the control panel). For the dishwashers the delay was 5-10 minutes. A similar delay was found also in three refrigerator-freezer experiments. In one refrigerator- freezer experiment, the delay time was clearly shorter, only 2-3 minutes. A computational analysis of the development of room fires originating from ignited electrical household appliances was conducted to study the significance of the measured burning characteristics. The RHR of refrigerator-freezers is so high that fires originating from these apparatuses probably lead to flashover. In the case of dishwasher fires, the likelihood of flashover is considerable. The probability of flashover TV set fires in relatively

  9. Sensors Applications, Volume 5, Sensors in Household Appliances

    Tschulena, Guido; Lahrmann, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    A competent and comprehensive survey of current and future sensors applied in electronic household devices. Engineers and scientists will find here reports of an increase in product safety, efficiency and consumer comfort, coupled with a decrease in power consumption and water/wastewater. The book also looks at the customer appeal of advanced "intelligent" appliances, showing the heightened need for comprehensive information on their potentials and limitations. Taken as a whole, this series covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. As such the series does not treat bulk sensors, but rather places strong emphasis on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor packages. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevant branch of industry.

  10. The semiotics of smart appliances and pervasive computing

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2007-01-01

    for representing semi-formal models. We then give a short overview of selected theories of play and gaming and apply the framework to an implemented simple pervasive game. Finally, we put it all together by using the framework in a constructive manner to produce a concrete design of a new game. The result......This paper presents Digital Habitats, a conceptual and methodological framework for analyzing and designing smart appliances in the context of pervasive computing. The concrete topic is a project in pervasive gaming for children. The paper is semiotic in two senses: on the one hand, it is based...... on the linguistic theory of semantic roles; on the other hand, it focuses on signs, their referents, and their mode of signifying. After an introductory discussion of smart technology and networks of stupidity, we present our framework which consists of a set of theoretical concepts supplemented by diagrams...

  11. Cartographic conic projections and their appliance in national cartography

    Borisov Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the mapping of conic projections and their appliance in producing maps of our state cartography. So far they were often applied, and will be used precisely coned, polyconed and modified polyconed projections for the official mapping (1:500 000, 1:750 000, 1:1000 000 and 1:1500 000. In particular, they cartographic conical projection at a scale of 1:1000 000 were taken into consideration. Those are the Lambert conformal conical projection with two standard parallels and the Modified polyconic projections. In addition to these cartographic conical projections, is described Boneo`s pseudoconic equivalent projections. This is one of the cartographic conical map projection that is commonly used in the preparation of thematic maps as well as for atlas editions of geographic maps both in Serbia and abroad.

  12. Appliances and technologies on mechanical welding of reactor shells

    Nowadays, welded joints of spherical reactor safety shells are generally and to a large extent produced by manual arc-welding. Mechanized welding methods are to be developed aiming at obtaining better technological quality values, more safety with regard to susceptibility to pores and cracks and more independence from human insufficiency. Due to the lack of special machinery for the required purpose and due to the fact that expensive machinery developments should be avoided, a worldwide search on the market has been effected on the basis of given specifications in order to find convenient welding appliances which can be modified. The problems of the search for machinery as well as of laboratory experiments are shown in this report. An electro-gas/slag vertical welding method shall be developed being economic and assuring the quality values required for the vertical welding. For the welding of the upper and lower parts of the sphere a MIG/MAG-shielded arc-welding method with weld centerline and height-control is required which has to meet the same demands as well as a proper guiding on the shell. The initial experiments at the selected appliances shows the possibility to improve the welding quality considerably by mechanizing. The following topics are discussed in detail: sensor systems, oscillating systems, subsequent systems, electro-slag-high-speed-welding in single pass technique, machinery developments, pass and capping pass electro-slag-high-speed welding. Analysis of the used starting-, admixture- and auxilary material, testing conditions and welding parameters, quality values achieved at electro-slag-welds. Automatic MIG/MAG oscillating machines with electronic weld centerline and height control. Systems with the electric arc acting as sensor. Sources of current. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of particle emission from household electrical appliances.

    Schripp, Tobias; Kirsch, Ina; Salthammer, Tunga

    2011-06-01

    The release of ultra-fine particles from equipment of daily use is currently a topic of high public concern. The present study reports on the measurement of 12 household appliances such as toasters, grills, and hair dryers in an emission test chamber regarding the release of particles between 5.6 and 560 nm. The devices were new at the time experiments started and had never been used for their original purpose. For instance, toasters and sandwich-makers were tested without the presence of food or residues from prior usage. During the experiments the devices released aerosols with count mean diameters mainly below 100 nm. Within the operating phase high quantities of 10 nm particles are released which form larger particles by agglomeration. The origin of the particles can be attributed to the heated surfaces but cleaning these surfaces only had a minor influence on the emission strength. The released particles are evaporated in a thermodenuder between 150 °C and 200 °C. These findings indicate the particles to be formed from semi-volatile organic compounds. However, the compounds are not located on the heated surfaces and are not released as supersaturated vapor because emission is continuous over the operating phase of the device. Furthermore, the contribution of oxygen to the formation process can be neglected because the emission can also be detected in a nitrogen atmosphere. However, the presence of additional organic compounds in the surrounding air was found to be influencing the growth of the particles within the operating phase. All in all the tested household appliances were strong particle emission sources even when there was no contact with food or clothing. PMID:21497374

  14. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  15. Home Appliances as Home Controllers: Concepts and Set-Top Box Implementation

    Z. Jovanovic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel softwarebased home control platform suitable as an extension to digital home appliances that are equipped with a CPU (settop boxes, home theatre systems, TV sets, gaming consoles, etc. By using an appliance they are already accustomed to, users become able to control lights, appliances and media playback in their homes. Intelligence and awareness are achieved with a support for execution of recipes – preprepared scripts that define timely actions and respond to triggers obtained from sensors. Software abstraction layer facilitates integration of any desired communication protocol. In our prototype, we supported Zigbee and DMX for light control, X10 for light/appliances control over power line, as well as Ethernet-based optical cameras as motion/presence sensors and UPnP/DLNA based equipment for distributed media playback.

  16. Technical Appliance in E-Learning: Student’s Perception on the Usage of Online Learning

    Siti Sarah Mohd Johari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insights into student’s perception on the usage of technical appliances on online learning. The study took place in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM based on the sample of 1084 student s with the experiences of using E-learning Portal as one of the distance education academic programme. The students were surveyed on the participation needs based on respondent’s personal background, such as age, gender, ethnic groups, education streams and year-of-study. Results of the study showed even though most of the students felt uncertain about the technical appliances in E-learning Portal, the study illustrates the true nature of the student’s perceptions with respect to the functionality and effectiveness of technical appliance in E-learning Portal. This research is essential to elucidate the functions of technical appliances in facilitating the process of learning through the portal.

  17. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S4: FINAL REPORT

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates from household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy consumption is therefore a matter of managing and optimizing the energy utilization on a system level. These systems need standardized interfaces on a sensor and device level. Many of the required standards already exist, but a common architecture does no...

  18. Investigating and Comparing the Colonization of mutans Streptococus in Different Parts of Removable Orthodontic Appliances

    A Haerian-Ardakani; L Ghatre Samani; Z Tabatabaei; H Zandi; MH Toode zaem; A Emami

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Patients receiving orthodontic treatment get some alterations in their oral cavity environment such as an increase in the levels of microorganism in oral cavity and dental biofilms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate as well as to compare the colonization of mutans streptococci in different parts of removable orthodontic appliances. Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, samples were obtained before and after use of removable appliance plaque and amount of colonizatio...

  19. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference EEDAL'11 Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting

    2013-01-01

    This book contains the papers presented at the sixth international conference on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting. EEDAL'11 was organised in Copenhagen, Denmark in May 2011. This major international conference, which was previously been staged in Florence 1997, Naples 2000, Turin 2003, London 2006, Berlin 200h9a s been very successful in attracting an international community of stakeholders dealing with residential appliances, equipment, metering liagnhdti ng ...

  20. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  1. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the United Kingdom

    Aurelio Volpe; Stefania Pelizzari; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the United Kingdom as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the British market. The research also includes an overview of the British kitchen furniture market providing data on production, consumption, international trade, distribution, prices, sales and market share of the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers. Distribution flo...

  2. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  3. Effects of maxillary expansion and placebo effect of appliances on nocturnal enuresis – preliminary results

    Oshagh, Morteza; Bahramnia, Fateme; Aminsharifi, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ghodrati, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal enuresis has been found a common symptom among children with breathing problems and sleep apnea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and placebo effects of slow maxillary expansion on nocturnal enuresis. Material and methods Four children with enuresis aged 7–12 years were selected. Rigid acrylic expansion appliances were fabricated and delivered to them. Frequency of enuresis was recorded by the parents during three stages: 1) before appliance del...

  4. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    Łatuszyńska, Małgorzata; Furaiji, Fatimah; Wawrzyniak, Agata

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable) in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data e...

  5. Scheduling policies for two-state smart-home appliances in dynamic electricity pricing environments

    Vardakas, John S.; Zorba, Nizar; Verikoukis, Christos V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyze online and offline scheduling models for the determination of the maximum power consumption in a smart grid environment. The proposed load models consider that each consumer's residence is equipped with a certain number of appliances of different power demands and different operational times, while the appliances' feature of alternating between ON and OFF states is also incorporated. Each load model is correlated with a scheduling policy that aims to the r...

  6. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults

    Daniela Feu; Fernanda Catharino; Candice Belchior Duplat; Jonas Capelli Junior

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the esthetic perception of different appliances by Brazilian lay adults and its influence in the attributed value of orthodontic treatment, considering evaluators' socioeconomic status, age and gender. METHODS: Eight different combinations of orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners were placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile. Standardized frontal photographs were captured and incorporated into a research album. A sample of adults (n = 252, median = 26 y...

  7. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer

    Arab, S.; Rafighii, A.; M. S. Ahmad Akhoundi; Sodagar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD) which is a simple molar distalizing appliance. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys) with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth patt...

  8. The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics

    Christos Livas

    2013-01-01

    In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic d...

  9. Fixed Appliance with Expansion Screw for the Treatment of Primary Anterior Crossbite

    Paul, Sanchit; Rao, Ashwin; Mony, Saranya

    2016-01-01

    Anterior crossbite occurring during the primary dentition stage needs immediate correction so that functional, aesthetic and skeletal complications may be avoided in the future. This article describes a fixed appliance with an expansion screw that was successfully used for the treatment of primary anterior crossbite. Crossbite correction was achieved in about six weeks. A detailed description with regard to fabrication of the appliance has also been discussed. PMID:27437372

  10. Gas at work. Vision on decentralized gas appliances in the built environment

    Various platforms operate within the SenterNovem programme Creative Energy. This report is the first version of the vision document of the working group Decentralized gas appliances of the Platform New Gas, in which the following aspects of the various promising innovative gas appliances are indicated: the development stage, the intended energy saving, the CO2 reduction, the bottlenecks for large scale market introduction and the solutions for these bottlenecks. [mk

  11. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins de; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Pereira, Luciano José; Maria Letícia RAMOS-JORGE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. Material and Methods Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the s...

  12. Comparative evaluation of sagittal anchorage loss in lingual and labial appliances during space closure: A pilot study

    Shivanand Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to assess and compare the anchorage loss between labial and lingual appliance systems during space closure. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects were part of the study among which 10 subjects (mean age 21 ± 3.6 years were treated using lingual appliance system (0.018" slot-STb™ and 10 subjects (mean age 19 ± 6.1 years were treated using labial preadjusted edgewise appliance system (0.018" slot-MBT™ . First premolar extractions were performed to enable retraction of anterior teeth. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at two intervals, before starting space closure and after space closure that were connoted as T0 and T1 and were analyzed using the method described by Pancherz to measure anchorage loss. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to evaluate intraexaminer reliability of the measurements. Student′s t-test was performed to verify any statistical significant correlation between the labial and lingual appliance systems. Statistical differences were determined at the 95% confidence level (P < 0.05. Results: The results showed that all ICC for lingual and labial group were ≥0.90 showing good repeatability of the measurements. Mean anchorage loss of 1.238 ± 0.17 mm in lingual appliance system and an anchorage loss of 2.06 ± 0.39 mm occurred with the labial appliance system. On the comparison between the two appliance systems, lingual appliance demonstrated a significantly lesser anchorage loss than did the labial appliance. Interpretation and Conclusion: This prospective study concludes with the fact that lingual appliance provided better anchorage control than labial appliance during space closure. Use of lingual appliance could be considered in critical anchorage cases when compared with labial appliance.

  13. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  14. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances. PMID:26038069

  15. Moments with the edgewise appliance: incisor torque control.

    Isaacson, R J; Lindauer, S J; Rubenstein, L K

    1993-05-01

    Traditional edgewise orthodontic mechanics are significantly limited in their ability to provide incisor torque control because of the limitations of bracket-to-bracket mechanics and the poorly defined reciprocal actions inherently produced. Attempts to address this issue clinically have been largely empirical. The science of mechanics dictates that all incisor torque control mechanisms must act through one of two basic principles: the moment of a couple or the moment of a force. The torquing arch is a modification of the traditional edgewise system and employs the moment of a couple to achieve incisor torque control and precise definition of reciprocal effects. The torquing arch force system includes a large moment to rotate incisors in a crown facial/root lingual direction, and concurrent equilibrium forces to extrude incisors and intrude molars. Alternatively, the base arch uses the moment of a force to also rotate incisors in a crown facial/root lingual direction. The base arch, however, includes a large moment to rotate molars in a crown distal/root mesial direction, and concurrent equilibrium forces to intrude incisors and extrude molars. Depending on how they are employed, torquing arches and base arches may also rotate molars in a faciolingual direction, enhance or diminish posterior anchorage, and increase or conserve arch perimeter. Contemporary quality orthodontic care requires an awareness and control of all of the forces created by orthodontic appliances. PMID:8480711

  16. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    Maria De Lourdes Rabelo Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed, Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents.

  17. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from furniture and electrical appliances].

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Furukawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Therefore, furniture and other household products as well as building products may influence the indoor air quality. This study was performed to estimate quantitatively influence of household products on indoor air quality. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were investigated for 10 products including furniture (chest, desk, dining table, sofa, cupboard) and electrical appliances (refrigerator, electric heater, desktop personal computer, liquid crystal display television and audio) by the large chamber test method (JIS A 1912) under the standard conditions of 28 degrees C, 50% relative humidity and 0.5 times/h ventilation. Emission rate of total VOC (TVOC) from the sofa showed the highest; over 7900 microg toluene-equivalent/unit/h. Relatively high TVOC emissions were observed also from desk and chest. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment for the sofa was 911 microg/m3, accounting for almost 230% of the provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. The values of estimated increment of toluene emitted from cupboard and styrene emitted from refrigerator were 10% and 16% of guideline values, respectively. These results revealed that VOC emissions from household products may influence significantly indoor air quality. PMID:21381398

  18. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  19. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 1, appendix A: Bibliography. [manned space shuttle orbiter environmental control and life support systems

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A review of crew appliance related literature was made to provide background engineering information for development of conceptual appliance systems for the shuttle orbiter and the modular space station. From this review, a file containing abstracts of 299 appliance-related documents coded according to subject was developed along with a computerized bibliography of 682 references. Trade studies were conducted using information from these references to determine the optimum concepts to satisfy the shuttle and space station mission requirements. An appliance system was devised for each vehicle which has minimum impact to the respective environmental control system with the smallest possible weight, volume, and electrical penalty. Engineering parameters for each appliance concept considered are presented along with the total thermal and electrical loads and weight and volume penalties for each of the optimized appliance systems.

  20. The response of periodontal ligament collagen fibres and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Noengki Prameswari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that there were several reactions in cellular activity and periodontal ligament collagen fibre as a response after orthodontic force application. Cementum has function to give attachment to collagen fibres of the periodontal ligament, maintaining the integrity of the root, helping to maintain the tooth in its functional position in the mouth, and being involved in tooth repair and regeneration so in the orthodontic tooth movement can induce changes in the cementum. The aim of this research is to investigate that fixed orthodontic appliance can change the amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at pressure site of cementum. This experimental study was held in laboratory with post test only control group design. Twenty two (22 premolar sample from 11 patient were divided into 2 groups. K group as control group (without treatment and P group as treatment group (with using fixed orthodontic appliance. The amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles was examined by light microscopy and measured by image tool program. In the summary, there are increasing amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites as a normal response to remodeling and regenerating to orthodontic appliance and have function for strengthen adhering tooth cementum to the periodontal ligament.

  1. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  2. Temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: treatment with an orthodontic appliance

    M. Gattinara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: About 65% of children suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA shows a more or less marked involvement of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ with altered mandibular growth, resorption of the condyles, occlusary instability, reduced chewing ability and facial dysmorphia. The purpose of our study is to prevent and to treat the progressive evolution of JIA on craniofacial growth and morphology with a functional appliance; surgery should be considered only in so far as the adequacy of TMJ movement is concemed. Methods: From 1992 until now 72 children with proved JIA and TMJ involvement have been treated (50 females, 22 males, aged 6 to 16 years old. TMJ involvement was bilateral in 61% and unilateral in 39% of patients. A diagnostic workup was carried out involving tomograms of TMJ and cephalometric radiograph and analysis. The authors used a bimaxillary activator in the attempt to modify the unfavourable growth pattern and provide a gradual ante-rotation of the jaw. Results: Almost all JIA patients showed satisfactory long term results, easing of pain, reduced skeletal discrepancy, increased function and good facial profile. Conclusions: The long term results of this study indicate that orthopaedic therapy might control the vicious circle of the malocclusion in children with JIA, preventing exacerbation of mandibular clockwise rotation. Surgical intervention for the improvement of TMJ function should be considered only if a severe restricted state is imminent.

  3. Performance evaluation of the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance (PerMMA).

    Wang, Hongwu; Xu, Jijie; Grindle, Garrett; Vazquez, Juan; Salatin, Ben; Kelleher, Annmarie; Ding, Dan; Collins, Diane M; Cooper, Rory A

    2013-11-01

    The Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance (PerMMA) is a recently developed personal assistance robot created to provide people with severe physical disabilities enhanced assistance in both mobility and manipulation. PerMMA aims to improve functional independence when a personal care attendant is not available on site. PerMMA integrates both a smart powered wheelchair and two dexterous robotic arms to assist its users in completing essential mobility and manipulation tasks during basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL). Two user interfaces were developed: a local control interface and a remote operator controller. This paper reports on the evaluation of PerMMA with end users completing basic ADL tasks. Participants with both lower and upper extremity impairments (N=15) were recruited to operate PerMMA and complete up to five ADL tasks in a single session of no more than two hours (to avoid fatigue or frustration of the participants). The performance of PerMMA was evaluated by participants completing ADL tasks with two different control modes: local mode and cooperative control. The users' task completion performance and answers on pre/post-evaluation questionnaires demonstrated not only the ease in learning and usefulness of PerMMA, but also their attitudes toward assistance from advanced technology like PerMMA. As a part of the iterative development process, results of this work will serve as supporting evidence to identify design criteria and other areas for improvement of PerMMA. PMID:23769146

  4. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  5. DNA damage in oral mucosa cells of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test.The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336.Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.

  6. Implementationof Single Phasing, Over Voltage, Under Voltage, Protection of Three Phase Appliances without Using Microcontroller

    Girish Chandra Thakur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to develop for protection for costly appliances which require three-phase AC supply for operation. Failure of any of the phases or sudden change in voltage makes the appliance prone to erratic functioning and may even lead to failure. Hence it is of paramount importance to monitor the availability of the three-phase supply and proper voltage supply and switch off the appliance in the event of failure of one or two phases or if required voltage level is not available. The power to the appliance should resume with the availability of all phases of the supply with proper voltage level. The main advantage of this protector circuit is that it protects three-phase appliances from failure of any phase as well as from fluctuation of voltage. The concept in future can be extended to developing a mechanism to send message to the authority via SMS by interfacing GSM modem. Details description of all types of faults is given below.

  7. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  8. Measured results and assessment of personal protection appliances against ionizing radiation

    Objective: To monitor the protective qualities of personal protective appliances and to ensure the health and safety of radiological working personnel. Methods: The lead-equivalent thickness of personal protective appliances and materials was measured by means of standard lead slices. The lead equivalent thickness represents in terms of mm Pb. Results: 77 pieces of products and samples were measured altogether. The results indicate that the specific lead equivalents of lead-rubber plates were between 0.20-0.39 mm Pb/mm for 37 pieces of lead-rubber plates and the values of 6 pieces of samples were less than 0.25 mm Pb/mm, which did not accord with the requirement of the relational standard. 27 pieces of personal protection appliances were measured altogether. They were 12 pieces of protective clothes, 4 pieces of protective headgears, 5 pieces of protective neckpieces, 4 pieces of protective gloves and 2 pieces of protective masks. 13 pairs of lead-glass spectacles among them were measured altogether. The measured results for personal protective appliances and lead-glass spectacles showed that actually measured lead-equivalent were higher than the nominal lead-equivalent. Conclusions: The protective qualities are reliable for personal protection materials and appliances to be made in home and imported abroad. But the protective qualities of interventional protection gloves should be improved and made them better. (authors)

  9. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM. CONCLUSION: FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  10. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.