WorldWideScience

Sample records for activator appliances

  1. Treatment with active orthodontic appliance in adult patient

    Radeska, Ana; Radeski, Josif; Zlatanovska, Katerina; Papakoca, Kiro; Zarkova, Julija

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Showing the efficiency of orthodontic mobile appliance in treatment of adult patient Case summary: The patient A.K. Age 25 years whit forced progenia, bilateral hypodontia of the maxillary incisors and cross bite of 2 mm in front. The patient was treated with active orthodontic appliance whit bitten ridge and down labial arch. The treatment lasted 18 months after which periods is reached normal occlusion with normal overlap in front and closed diastema mediana. The hypodontia of the m...

  2. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    2013-02-01

    ..., 2013. The subzone (``GE Appliance Park'') currently has authority to produce household appliances, including dishwashers, refrigerator- freezers, freezers, apparel washing machines and dryers,...

  3. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  4. Energy and CO2 efficient scheduling of smart appliances in active houses equipped with batteries

    Paridari, Kaveh; Parisio, Alessandra; Sandberg, Henrik; Johansson, Karl Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for scheduling smart appliances and batteries, in order to reduce both the electricity bill and the CO2 emissions. Mathematically, the scheduling problem is posed as a multi-objective Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP), which can be solved by using standard algorithms. A case study is performed to assess the performance of the proposed scheduling framework. Numerical results show that the new formulation can decrease both the CO2 emissions and the...

  5. Home Appliance Kingdom

    JUMBO; ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    With 900 chain stores and three retail brands, Gome, China’s largest home appliance retail group, is pursuing grandiose dreams of becoming a home appliance kingdomOn November 22, 2006, Chinese home appliance retail heavyweights Beijing-based Gome Electri

  6. Arch development with trans-force lingual appliances.

    Clark, William J

    2005-01-01

    Trans-Force lingual appliances are designed to correct arch form in patients with contracted dental arches. Interceptive treatment with this new series of pre-activated lingual appliances offers new possibilities for arch development, in combination with fixed appliances. Palatal and lingual appliances insert in horizontal lingual sheaths in molar bands. No activation is required after the appliance is fitted, and this principle is extended to a series of appliances for sagittal and transverse arch development. Both sagittal and transverse appliances have additional components to achieve 3-way expansion where this is indicated. The invisible lingual appliances may be used in correction of all classes of malocclusion at any stage of development, from mixed dentition through permanent dentition, and this approach has wide indications in adult treatment. PMID:15794037

  7. Energy reduction of the switches TRIAC type applied to appliances

    Benabdelaziz, Ghafour

    2006-01-01

    A major problem of our time concerns electrical energy. If the industry represents a large part of electricity consumption, the domestic sector is no exception. The appliance industry is developing in the country at the rate of increase in living standards of residents. Appliances integrate more and more electronic functions both consuming energy in active mode than in "sleep" mode. In an effort to reduce the energy consumed by appliances, it is important to use all the possibilities that can...

  8. Oral radiation protector appliance

    An appliance for protecting teeth, gingiva, periodontal or alveola bone, salivary glands, and adjacent body areas against the harmful side effects of radiation therapy consists of an intraoral portion and an extraoral portion that may be selectively attached. The intraoral portion is substantially u-shaped to encompass the teeth and adjacent areas. The intraoral part may be made of lead sheet coated with plastic; the extraoral portion may be of lead sheet

  9. Self ligating lingual appliance.

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S S; Jayan, B K

    2015-12-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  10. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  11. Comparison of efficacy between modified forsus appliance and activator appliance in the treatment of class Ⅱ patients with madibular retrusion%改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器治疗下颌后缩的疗效比较

    叶静; 寇波; 王春玲

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器(Activator)治疗安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩患者的临床疗效.方法 分别用Forsus矫治器(A组)和肌激动器(B组),联合固定矫治器对两组安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩患者进行功能性矫形治疗,治疗前后拍摄头颅侧位片,并进行Pancherz头影测量和分析.结果 A组患者治疗时间(21.4±2.0)个月,B组治疗时间(27.3±2.5)个月,差异具有统计学意义.两组经过改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器联合固定矫治器治疗后,患者软组织改善明显,下颌后缩面型显著改善.前牙覆盖均减少,磨牙关系纠正为Ⅰ类关系.SNB角增大,ANB角缩小,软组织侧貌改善较大,两组测量项目治疗前后比较,差异均有统计学意义,但组间差异无统计学意义.治疗后,B组骀平面的变化较明显.结论 改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器均可以有效地促进下颌骨的生长发育,协调上下颌骨的位置关系,显著改善Ⅱ类咬合关系以及下颌后缩面型.但改良式Forsus矫治器24 h发挥作用,不依赖于患者的配合性,能够更好地进行生长改良,缩短患者的矫治疗程,在矫治效率和矫治时间方面,明显优于肌激动器.%Objective To evaluate and analyze the effects between with modified Forsus appliance and activator in the treatment of class Ⅱ madibular retrusion.Methods 70 children with class Ⅱ malocclusion and mandibular retrusion were selected and divided into two groups:35 patients treated with this modified Forsus appliance (group A) and other 35 treated with activator (group B).Cephalometric radiographs were taken and analyzed at the pre-treatment time (T0) and the post-treatment time (T1) with the Pancherz analysis.Results The course of treatment was obviously different:the course of group A was (21.4±2.0) months,and group B was (27.3±2.5) months; the treatment course of group A was shorter than that of group B.After treatment,profiles of the two groups were obviously

  12. Non-intrusive appliance recognition

    Hoogsteen, G; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, V.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system. Th

  13. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  14. Remote repair appliance

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs

  15. Remote Control of Home Appliances

    Mayola Reena Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled "Remote Control of Home Appliances" aims at providing access to home appliances from a far-off location over the Internet. The paper is designed and implemented to achieve control on the appliances such as light bulbs, fans, serial lights and a dot-matrix display over the internet. The paper is deployed by dividing it into three major modules namely Input, Computation and Output where the modules interact with each other to bring out the overall functionality the paper desires to. The significance of implementing the paper is, the remote control of home appliances over the internet. The other important advantages are: It eliminates re-programming the microcontroller of the dot-matrix display and also it eliminates the need for a person to be present to operate and control any of the home appliances, thus reducing the labor.

  16. The analysis of the treatment to Class Ⅲ patients between with modified forsus appliance and with Activator appliance by pancherz%改良Forsus矫治器与肌激动器治疗安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩疗效对比研究

    叶静; 张勇; 王春玲; 肖水清

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and analysize the effects between with modified Forsus appliance and activator in the treatment of Class Ⅱ madibular retrusion by Pancherz. Method: 40 children with Class Ⅱ malocclusion and mandibular retrusion were selected and divided into two groups.20 patients treated with this new appliance and other 20 treated with activator. Cephalometric radiographs were taken and analyzed at the pre-treatment time(Tl) and the post-treatment time (T2) with the Pancherz analysis. Students' t-test was used to determine if there were significant differences between the 2 time periods. Result: After treatment, profiles of the two groups were obviously improved. The trends were similar in overjet and the molar relationship, SNB and ANB.all had significant differences. Conclusion: Both the modified Forsus appliance and activator appliance combined with straight wire appliance can effectively stimulate the mandibular growth, balance the jaw relationship, and correct the Class Ⅱ mandibular retrusion.%目的:比较改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器治疗安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩病例的临床疗效.方法:应用改良式Forsus 矫治器(F组)与肌激动器(A组)联合固定矫治器分别对20例安氏Ⅱ类下颌后缩病例进行功能性矫治,治疗前后摄头颅定位侧位片,进行Pancherz头影测量分析.SPSS 12.0统计学软件进行配对t检验.结果:F组治疗时间(20.5±2.1)个月,A组治疗时间(26.6±2.7)个月,差异具有显著性.两组病例治疗后患者下颌后缩面型显著改善.前牙覆盖减小,磨牙关系纠正为Ⅰ类关系.SNB增大,ANB减小,以上测量项目治疗前后比较,均具有显著的统计学差异,但组间差异并不显著.治疗后,?平面的变化A组较明显.结论:改良式Forsus矫治器与肌激动器均可以有效促进下颌骨的生长发育,协调上下颌骨的位置关系,显著改善Ⅱ类咬合关系和下颌后缩面型.两者的矫治效率和矫治疗效均无明显差异.

  17. Using Computer Vision to Access Appliance Displays

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Ladner, Richard E.; Coughlan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties accessing a growing array of everyday appliances, needed to perform a variety of daily activities, because they are equipped with electronic displays. We are developing a “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display, to address this problem. The current prototype analyzes video from the smartphone’s camera, providing real-time feedback to guide the user until a satisfa...

  18. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  19. Clash of the Appliance Titans

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Even while serving out a sentence behind bars,Chinese billionaire Huang Guangyu fought for control of Gome,the appliance chain he built up in the late 1980s,but lost the high-profile war to sack current chairman,Chen Xiao.The fact that Huang remains Gome's largest shareholder has paved the way for future power struggles over the appliance giant.

  20. Economics of appliance efficiency

    Several significant developments occurred in 2001 that affect the impact of market transformation programs. This paper presented and applied an econometric approach to the identification and estimation of market models for refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers and room air conditioners. The purpose of the paper was to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient appliances. The paper discussed the approach with particular reference to building a database of sales and drivers of sales using publicly available information; estimation of the determinants of sales using econometric models; and estimation of the individual impacts of prices, gross domestic product (GDP) and energy conservation policies on sales using regression results. Market and policy developments were also presented, such as change a light, save the world promotion; the California energy crisis; and the Pacific Northwest drought induced hydro power shortage. It was concluded that an increase in GDP increased the sales of both more efficient and less efficient refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. An increase in electricity price increased sales of Energy Star refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...... materials and environments. This has been done by the use of existing hardware technologies in novel combinations, controlled and mediated in the software applications we have developed. These developments, (the SpacePanel, the TagTable and ProjecTable , the SitePack and the software application Topos...

  2. Functional processes when wearing the SII appliance during the day.

    Sander, F G

    2001-07-01

    In 20 subjects the neuromuscular activity during the day was divided into six different activities and recorded. In the case of typical application of the SII appliance for 4 hours in the afternoon and the free organization of this time by the patient himself, most of the time fell into the area "intellectual activity" followed by the area "manual activity". Since the term "functional orthodontics" naturally describes the function, this should be realized most impressively when wearing such an appliance during the day. During the day there are mouth opening and closing movements of varying frequency with quite different amplitudes. Conversation as well as reading a text aloud can be considered favorable in terms of neuromuscular adaptation. Obviously, the relatively short habituation period soon results in the patient not needing the bars as guiding bars any more (this is in contrast to investigations during nocturnal sleep). In other words, the patient needs them only for a brief time to influence the muscles in such a way that the neuromuscular masticatory pattern is virtually independent of the bars. Only during intellectual and practical activity does the patient rest on the inclined plane with the help of the bars and execute small movements. Consequently, wearing the SII appliance during the day can be regarded as extremely important to the success of treatment. Important neuromuscular influences occur while doing homework as well as during intellectual activity. Wearing the appliance during the day corresponds to neuromuscular programming, so that the term "functional orthodontic appliance" is completely correct. Since there are only about 600 biting actions during the night, a functional orthodontic appliance should definitely be worn for a certain time during the day too, in order not to jeopardize the neuromuscular adaptation. PMID:11508103

  3. Appliance management for federated cloud environments

    Airaj M.; Blanchet C.; Kenny S.; Loomis C.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud infrastructures provide compelling features for scientific and engineering applications. Federated clouds additionally promise improved scalability via access to a larger pool of resources and improved service availability through geographically distributed redundant servers. Effective use of federated clouds requires the creation of portable appliances and consistent appliance management techniques. The StratusLab Marketplace, a platform-agnostic appliance registry, facilitates applian...

  4. Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

  5. Appliance design for pervasive computing

    Roussos, George

    2003-01-01

    The First International Conference on Appliance Design offered the opportunity for computer scientists, electronic engineers, designers, architects, and business strategists to discuss and to blend all the perspectives of design—physical, functional, interaction, graphical, and information—of pervasive computing systems and infrastructures.

  6. Status of European appliance standards

    Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de L`Environnement et de la Maitrise de L`Energie, Valbonne (France)

    1992-05-01

    The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

  7. Designing appliances for mobile commerce and retailtainment

    Roussos, George; Kourouthanassis, P.; Moussouri, T.

    2003-01-01

    In the emerging world of the new consumer and the `anytime, anywhere' mobile commerce, appliances are located at the collision point of the retailer and consumer agendas. The consequence of this is twofold: on the one hand appliances that were previously considered plain and utilitarian become entertainment devices and on the other, for the effective design of consumer appliances it becomes paramount to employ multidisciplinary expertise. In this paper, we discuss consumer perceptions of a re...

  8. Overview on PIV Application to Appliances

    Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Paone, Nicola; Rossi, Massimiliano; Castellini, Paolo

    The term appliances describes a wide range of products that are used to perform a wide variety of tasks. In the home environment, household appliances like refrigerators, ovens, washing machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, hair driers are sold in million pieces per year; they also have commercial and industrial application. Typical products of the appliance industry have a relatively low industrial cost and the appliance market shows a strong competition, in which appliance technical performance plays a role together with aesthetics and costs. Therefore, efforts in applied research for product technical improvement can be done only if the ratio cost to benefits is advantageous. Many such appliances have complex fluid-dynamic problems; it is important that any experimental technique bears inherent characteristics of simplicity, provides a rapid means to collect experimental data, provides information that engineers can readily exploit for product enhancement, and mostly for computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code validation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) satisfies most of the above-mentioned requirements and therefore appears as a good candidate experimental technique to be proposed in the field of appliances. Nevertheless, PIV applications are rare. The PIVNet2 workshop on "PIV application to appliances" that took place in Ancona on June 2003 intended to illustrate the great potential for application of the PIV technique in this sector. This chapter presents an overview of PIV application to appliances according to the outcome from this workshop.

  9. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    Reji Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA, designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

  11. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  12. Algorithms for appliance usage prediction

    Truong, Ngoc Cuong

    2014-01-01

    Demand-Side Management (DSM) is one of the key elements of future Smart Electricity Grids. DSM involves mechanisms to reduce or shift the consumption of electricity in an attempt to minimise peaks. By so doing it is possible to avoid using expensive peaking plants that are also highly carbon emitting. A key challenge in DSM, however, is the need to predict energy usage from specific home appliances accurately so that consumers can be notified to shift or reduce the use of high energy-consumin...

  13. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    to secure materially a quite good everyday life. In other climates and cultures the preferred mix of services might be different. Barriers for implementing energy saving technologies and behaviors, and policies to overcome these barriers and aim for a sustainable society are outlined. The most severe...... barriers for saving energy in general are in different ways caused by the political insistence on eternal economic expansion, in some aspects against the public preferences. Of the many ‘here and now’ policies to promote the dissemination of energy efficient appliances, buildings and other end...

  14. Scheduling home appliances for energy efficient buildings

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk;

    2010-01-01

    appliances is proposed and analyzed. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption threshold, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where....... The trade-off was a delay of approximately 25 min for the aggregated low priority class....

  15. 49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.

    2010-10-01

    ... strength. (2) All safety appliances shall be securely fastened to the car body structure with mechanical... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety appliances. 238.429 Section 238.429..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier II...

  16. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  17. Minat Masyarakat dalam Menggunakan Smart Appliances

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga sumber energi yang semakin naik dari tahun ke tahun dan kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong perkembangan smart grid. Smart appliance merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam smart grid. Penerapan smart appliance sejalan dengan kebijakan untuk mengurangi konsumsi energi, mengurangi emisi karbon dan penyediaan energi dari energi terbarukan. Penetrasi telepon bergerak turut memudahkan manajemen energi dan otomatisasi home appliance. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis minat masyarakat, yang merupakan aktor aktif dalam konsumsi dan manajemen energi di rumah tangga. Data penelitian dianalisis  dengan menggunakan metode structural equation modeling (SEM Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel enjoyment memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat dalam menggunakan smart appliance. Sedangkan, variabel compatibility ease of use, relative advantage dan image tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat menggunakan smart appliance.

  18. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean [Economic and Social Research Institute, Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson' s Quay, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available. (author)

  19. A Comparison of Generative and Discriminative Appliance Recognition Models for Load Monitoring

    Appliance-level Load Monitoring (ALM) is essential, not only to optimize energy utilization, but also to promote energy awareness amongst consumers through real-time feedback mechanisms. Non-intrusive load monitoring is an attractive method to perform ALM that allows tracking of appliance states within the aggregated power measurements. It makes use of generative and discriminative machine learning models to perform load identification. However, particularly for low-power appliances, these algorithms achieve sub-optimal performance in a real world environment due to ambiguous overlapping of appliance power features. In our work, we report a performance comparison of generative and discriminative Appliance Recognition (AR) models for binary and multi-state appliance operations. Furthermore, it has been shown through experimental evaluations that a significant performance improvement in AR can be achieved if we make use of acoustic information generated as a by-product of appliance activity. We demonstrate that our a discriminative model FF-AR trained using a hybrid feature set which is a catenation of audio and power features improves the multi-state AR accuracy up to 10 %, in comparison to a generative FHMM-AR model

  20. Retrospective evaluation of therapeutic outcomes of functional appliances combined with headgear

    José Pedro Tavares; Afonso Pinhão Ferreira; Paula Vaz; Maria João Ponces; Eugénio Joaquim Pereira Martins

    2013-01-01

    Functional appliances were developed to correct mainly Class II malocclusions in growing children but the influence of those appliances on craniofacial growth is still controversial, even when used in combinations with headgear. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate skeletal, dental and tegumental cephalometric modifications induced by Teuscher activator. This study was accomplished in a mixed dentition sample of Class II malocclusions subjects with mandibular retrognatism. T...

  1. Generating power footprints without appliance interaction : an enabler for privacy intrusion

    Sintoni, Alex; Schoofs, Anthony; Doherty, A.; Alan F. SMEATON; O'Hare, G. M. P.; Ruzzelli, Antonio G.

    2011-01-01

    Appliance load monitoring (ALM) systems are systems capable of monitoring appliances’ operation within a building using a single metering point. As such, they uncover information on occupants’ activities of daily living and subsequently an exploitable privacy leak. Related work has shown monitoring accuracies higher than 90% ̇ achieved by ALM systems, yet requiring interaction with appliances for system calibration. In the context of external privacy intrusion, ALM systems have the following ...

  2. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  3. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Italy

    Aurelio Volpe

    2014-01-01

    This report, yearly published, has reached its xx edition and analyzes the behaviour of the Italian buyers of built-in appliances taking into consideration: the sales performance for kitchens and built-in appliances, purchasing criteria by major buyers of built-in appliances, development of brand-name image and customer satisfaction of major built-in appliances purchasers. The study is based on 117 telephone interviews with kitchen furniture manufacturers, built-in appliances wholesalers and ...

  4. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi;

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  5. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    Cartwright, R.A

    1999-07-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  6. Fabrication of a resin appliance with alloy components using digital technology without an analog impression.

    Al Mortadi, Noor; Jones, Quentin; Eggbeer, Dominic; Lewis, Jeffrey; Williams, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a resin appliance incorporating "wire" components without the use of an analog impression and dental casts using an intraoral scanner and computer technology to build the appliance. This unique alignment of technology offers an enormous reduction in the number of fabrication steps when compared with more traditional methods of manufacture. The prototype incorporated 2 Adams clasps and a fitted labial bow. The alloy components were built from cobalt-chromium in an initial powdered form using established digital technology methods and then inserted into a build of a resin base plate. This article reports the first known use of computer-aided design and additive manufacture to fabricate a resin and alloy appliance, and constitutes proof of the concept for such manufacturing. The original workflow described could be seen as an example for many other similar appliances, perhaps with active components. The scan data were imported into an appropriate specialized computer-aided design software, which was used in conjunction with a force feedback (haptic) interface. The appliance designs were then exported as stereolithography files and transferred to an additive manufacturing machine for fabrication. The results showed that the applied techniques may provide new manufacturing and design opportunities in orthodontics and highlights the need for intraoral-specific additive manufacture materials to be produced and tested for biocompatibility compliance. In a trial, the retainer was fitted orally and judged acceptable by the clinician according to the typical criteria when placing such appliances in situ. PMID:26522047

  7. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Hellen Soares Teixeira; Stella Maris Oliveira Kaulfuss; Jucienne Salgado Ribeiro; Betina do Rosário Pereira; João Armando Brancher; Elisa Souza Camargo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25); and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measure...

  8. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  9. Advances in household appliances- A review

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R and D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R and D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to 'level' the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers. - Highlights: → This paper presents latest developments/status of advanced residential appliances. → Stringent minimum energy performance standards can reduce appliance energy use. → There is a potential to reduce energy use in appliances by up to 50%.

  10. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  11. A century of the edgewise appliance

    James L Vaden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The edgewise appliance, born in the mind of Dr. Edward Angle and first introduced on June 2, 1925, has withstood the test of almost a century of time and usage. The 022 standard appliance that Angle described in a series of four articles in Dental Cosmos is being used by many orthodontic clinicians in fundamentally the same form as it was presented in 1928 and 1929 in Dental Cosmos. Yes, it has been modified in innumerable ways. However, to use one of the modifications, the clinician must understand and respect the fundamentals of its use. This treatise describes the appliance′s evolution from Angle to its use today. The force system of today is simpler and more refined than what Angle envisioned but the appliance is "intact." It is as modern as tomorrow and will continue to be used as long as the specialty exists. It was Angle′s greatest contribution.

  12. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Russia

    Aurelio Volpe; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Russia as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Russian market. The research also includes an overview of the Russian kitchen furniture market providing data on production, consumption international trade, distribution and prices. Tables and data show the sales breakdown of built-in appliances purchases by supplier (appliance ...

  13. Activator reloaded - Myofunctional appliance at its best

    Anil S Malik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontics from time immemorial has always been considered as the first speciality of dentistry. Diagnosis and treatment planning from Dr. Tweed′s time always required extraction of four vital and functional premolar teeth. However, many patients, parents and general dentists have failed to understand that orthodontic treatment at an early age can help save the extraction teeth to achieve a full functional and esthetic harmonius dentition. Our case demonstrates a non-extraction orthodontic treatment plan of a developing skeletal Class II malocclusion. The results of this case show a successful correction of Class II molar malocclusion with excellent form and function, which resulted in improvement of the patient′s frontal and facial profile, which, thereby boosted her personality and self-confidence.

  14. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    2010-07-02

    ... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. Because modern... Task Force is developing new industry standards for safety appliance arrangements on new car... alternative standards relating to the safety appliance arrangements on any passenger car type considered to...

  15. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non...

  16. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  17. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    2011-04-28

    ... Process. See 66 FR 4104, 4198 (January 17, 2001). To FRA's knowledge this requirement has not presented... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety Appliance Standards AGENCY... establishing a process for the review and approval of existing industry standards. This process will...

  18. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  19. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  20. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  1. Modelling the effects of U.S. ENERGY STARR appliance programs

    Numerous U.S. utilities and market transformation organizations have invested heavily in the ENERGY STAR program, designed to increase market penetration of energy-efficient products (e.g., home appliances, lighting products, windows). Major activities involve stimulating production and promotion of qualifying models, as well as stocking, sales support and financial incentives to customers-all of which entail considerable investments of public funds. Several studies have shown that customer awareness of ENERGY STAR has increased across the country, particularly where energy-efficiency programs have been most active. Furthermore, studies in regions with aggressive programs have shown that the market penetration of qualifying products has increased rapidly. Until recently, however, policy makers have lacked reliable studies that compare changes in market penetration across regions with and without programs while factoring out effects of demographic and other background factors (e.g., education, income, and climate). Also lacking have been attempts to assess whether heavy promotion of the ENERGY STAR brand with some appliances (e.g., clothes washers) has affected the market penetration of less-promoted qualifying appliances. In this paper, the authors address these issues, using a database of the market penetration of four major home appliances at national retailers in each of the individual states over a multi-year period, based on multivariate statistical models. Results include both analyses of the overall trend of market penetration (1998-2002) for the appliances considered and the incremental effects of the 2003 program. The results lead to recommendations regarding the design of programs supporting ENERGY STAR compliant appliances and the key components of those programs

  2. Powder electrostatic enamelling of household appliances

    Bragina, L.; Shalygina, O.; Kuryakin, N.; Annenkov, V.; Guzenko, N.; Kupriyanenko, K.; Hudyakov, V.; Landik, A.

    2011-12-01

    Principles and practices of contemporary resource and energy saving technology of powder electrostatic application (POESTA)of vitreous enamel coatings are described. Its technological, economic and ecological advantages over slip enamelling in household appliances manufacture are discussed. We develop the principles of synthesis of special glass frits with high electric resistivity for POESTA and discuss the results of studies aimed at the development and industrial implementation of ground, direct-on and coloured cover enamels for household appliances and direct-on thermally resistant chemically durable coatings with antibacterial effect for protection of inner tanks of water heaters. Finally, we describe the development of compositions for easy-to-clean, catalytic and pyrolytic coatings.

  3. What's driving energy efficient appliance label awareness and purchase propensity?

    The EU appliance energy consumption labeling scheme is a key component of efforts to increase the diffusion of energy-efficient household appliances. In this paper, the determinants of consumer knowledge of the energy label for household appliances and the choice of class-A energy-efficient appliances are jointly estimated using data from a large survey of more than 20,000 German households. The results for five major appliances suggest that lack of knowledge of the energy label can generate considerable bias in both estimates of rates of uptake of class-A appliances and in estimates of the underlying determinants of choice of class-A appliance. Simulations of the choice to purchase a class-A appliance, given knowledge of the labeling framework, reveal that residence characteristics and, in several cases, regional electricity prices strongly increase the propensity to purchase a class-A appliance, but socio-economic characteristics have surprisingly little impact on appliance energy-class choice. (author)

  4. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  5. An Efficient, Scalable Time-Frequency Method for Tracking Energy Usage of Domestic Appliances Using a Two-Step Classification Algorithm

    Paula Meehan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Load monitoring is the practice of measuring electrical signals in a domestic environment in order to identify which electrical appliances are consuming power. One reason for developing a load monitoring system is to reduce power consumption by increasing consumers’ awareness of which appliances consume the most energy. Another example of an application of load monitoring is activity sensing in the home for the provision of healthcare services. This paper outlines the development of a load disaggregation method that measures the aggregate electrical signals of a domestic environment and extracts features to identify each power consuming appliance. A single sensor is deployed at the main incoming power point, to sample the aggregate current signal. The method senses when an appliance switches ON or OFF and uses a two-step classification algorithm to identify which appliance has caused the event. Parameters from the current in the temporal and frequency domains are used as features to define each appliance. These parameters are the steady-state current harmonics and the rate of change of the transient signal. Each appliance’s electrical characteristics are distinguishable using these parameters. There are three Types of loads that an appliance can fall into, linear nonreactive, linear reactive or nonlinear reactive. It has been found that by identifying the load type first and then using a second classifier to identify individual appliances within these Types, the overall accuracy of the identification algorithm is improved.

  6. Switch green : Energy Star appliance feebate

    Between 1990 and 2004, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the residential sector have grown by 10 per cent, and are likely to continue growing unless a policy aimed at reducing emissions is introduced. The residential sector is a significant contributor to Canada's overall GHG emissions, and an important source for potential reductions. This report presented the results of a study that described and evaluated a new economic instrument aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption in Canada from household appliances, such as air conditioners, furnaces and boilers. Results of a quantitative analysis to determine the effect of changing taxation of residential appliances to reflect energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions were presented. In addition, the report presented the results of a qualitative evaluation of the policy, using the criteria established in the 2005 budget plan, a framework for evaluating environmental tax proposals. The report outlined the context for the tax proposal that was evaluated and provided a summary of trends in Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption as well as a discussion of important trends in residential energy consumption. A review of policies already in place to address energy consumption from household appliances was also presented. 11 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  8. Electric household appliances lighting. Synthesis; Electromenager eclairage. Note de synthese

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French behavior concerning the electric household appliances and the lighting of their accommodation. The document presents statistically the answers to the questions on the electric household in the accommodation, the choice criteria, the use conditions, the washing temperatures, the nature of the electric household appliances, the microwave ovens, the influence of the energy-label on the appliances and the lighting. (A.L.B.)

  9. Clinical application of palatal lift appliance in velopharyngeal incompetence

    S Premkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nasal air leak in cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal incompetence leads to characteristic nasal snort. The efficacy of the palatal lift appliance in patients with adequate velopharyngeal tissue with incompetence was tested. Speech quality improved after the wearing of palatal lift appliance. Palatal lift appliances are simple and efficient in reducing the nasal air leak. Ongoing speech therapy is necessary and advised for patients receiving palatal lift.

  10. Energy policy turnaround with household appliances?; Energiewende mit Haushaltsgeraeten?

    Arquit Niederberger, Anne [Policy Solutions, San Francisco, CA (United States); Shiroff, Samuel; Boehm, Peter [BSH Bosch und Siemens Hausgeraete GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Household appliances and other electrical devices offer the widest possibilities for a cost-effective reduction of the energy consumption in Germany. Home appliances and other electrical devices are one of the crucial factors for an energy policy turnaround in Germany. The contribution under consideration reports on the reasons. Proposals for an energy efficiency program for the transformation of the market for household appliances are presented.

  11. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  12. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Denmark

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Denmark as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Danish market. The research also includes an overview of the Danish kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (supply ...

  13. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Belgium

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Belgium as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Belgian market. The research also includes an overview of the Belgian kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (suppl...

  14. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Hungary

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Hungary as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Hungarian market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption and international trade. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (supply and sales) are analysed by customer type (appli...

  15. Measurement of HTO permeability of materials for protective appliances

    Tritiated water (HTO) vapor permeabilities were measured for plastic and rubber films used for protective appliances (suits, gloves, wrappings, etc.). The measurement data prove that polyehylene and butyl rubbers are materials suitable for HTO protective appliances with their lower permeability. The data also indicate that desiccating protective appliances before reuse is effective for restoring their original resistances to penetrating HTO vapor when they are repeatedly used. (author)

  16. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    René Chalon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  17. Effects of mandibular protraction appliance associated to fixed appliance in adults

    Bruno D'Aurea Furquim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to conduct a cephalometric evaluation of the skeletal, dental and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment of adult patients presenting Class II malocclusion, performed with a Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed orthodontic appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of teleradiographs obtained before and after treatment of 9 adult patients (initial mean age of 22.48 years with bilateral Class II, division 1, malocclusion. Paired t test (p < 0.05 was applied to compare initial and final values. RESULTS: t test revealed an increase in anteroinferior facial height and posterior facial height. The dental changes include: extrusion of upper incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion of lower incisors, mesialization and extrusion of mandibular molars. Regarding the soft tissue component, there was an increase in nasolabial angle in addition to upper lip retrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of treating Class II malocclusion adult patients, by means of using Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed appliance were mostly observed in the mandibular arch, and consisted of buccal inclination, protrusion and intrusion of incisors, and mesialization and extrusion of the molars.

  18. User interface design of electronic appliances

    Baumann, Konrad

    2002-01-01

    This simple and manageable guide to user interface design is written for the professional in industry working on product development and the decision process. It is directed not only to the human factors specialists, but also to technicians, designers, marketing and product managers and students.The book presents guidelines for user interface design including a catalogue of input and output devices for electronic appliances, adding material on the design process, interaction design, advanced input, speech interfaces, evaluation, standards, the move from usability to pleasure and cultural diffe

  19. CONTROLLING HOME APPLIANCES REMOTELY THROUGH VOICE COMMAND

    Marriam Butt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available the main concern in systems development is the integration of technologies to increase customer satisfaction. Research presented in this paper focuses mainly in three things first to understand the speech or voice of user second is to control the home appliances through voice call and third is to finds intrusion in the house. The user can make a voice call in order to perform certain actions such as switching lights on/off, getting the status of any appliance etc. And when system finds intrusion it sends an alert voice message to preconfigured cell when the user is away from the place. The proposed system is implemented using voice Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM and wireless technology based on .NET framework and Attention (AT commands. Microsoft speech reorganization engine, speech SDK 5.1 is used to understand the voice command of user. As it is wireless so more cost effective and easy to use. The GSM technology used in system provide the everywhere access of the system for security. Experimental results show that the system is more secure and cost effective as compared to existing systems. We conclude that this system provides solution for the problems faced by home owner in daily life and make their life easy and comfortable by proposing cost effective and reliable solution.

  20. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  1. Corrosion of weldments in orthodontic appliances

    The study of corrosion-related problems of dental materials has undergone a considerable development in recent years in order to avoid the use of materials with insufficient corrosion resistance in patients mouth. The subject of the present work was to study a particular type of corrosion: galvanic corrosion. One of the most common case of galvanic couples in patients mouth are the orthodontic appliances. The materials studied in the present work were stainless steel strips and silver-copper wires, isolated and welded between them. The electrochemical tests were performed in a NaCl 0.1M and Lactic Acid 0.1 M solution (pH2.3), and after test, the specimens were observed using the optical and scanning electron microscope. The results show that when stainless steel is coupled with a silver solder, the last is the anode of the galvanic couple. As a consequence of this, the silver solder undergone a severe attack. Stainless steel orthodontic appliances with silver solder are feasibly destroyed due to a severe attack on the filler metal disjoining the welded parts. (author) 9 refs

  2. Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management

    Neumann, Peter; Mahlknecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management, bringing together for the first time a multidisciplinary blend of topics from embedded systems, information technology and power engineering.  Coverage includes challenges for future resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.   Provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management; Equips researchers and engineers with information required to succeed in designing energy management for smart appliances; Includes coverage of resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.  

  3. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  4. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  5. A Comparative Survey on Importance of Marketing Communications between European Companies and Eastern Asian Companies for Home Appliances in Iran

    Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communications or promotion is one of the elements which can have an effect on consumers’ behavior through five important and effective marketing elements. Among all commercial products, household appliances are significantly noteworthy based on their strategic nature. Exploiting marketing communications mix in selling domestic appliances produced in other countries, in an attempt to sell them in Iran could effectively entice customers into buying such products through the manipulation of their tastes and wants. The present study with focus on related literature on marketing communications, aims at investigating the degree of importance of marketing communications on selling the foreign household appliances in Iran based on a descriptive-applied research through pair wise comparison. Using a pair wise comparison questionnaire, including 60 questions in three parts, the researcher collected data from the senior managers of big household appliances companies in Europe and East Asia who are active in Iran as well, under the basis of present and desirable circumstances. It was concluded that there is a difference between companies producing household appliances in Europe and East Asia considering the importance of elements of marketing communications.

  6. Thermal plumes of kitchen appliances: cooking mode

    Kosonen, R. [Halton Oy, Kausala (Finland); Koskela, H.; Saarinen, P. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The main method in the design practice of kitchen ventilation has been the calculation of the airflow rate, which is sufficient to extract the convective heat and contaminants. Undersized airflow rates could lead into indoor air problems and oversized ventilation system increases unnecessary energy consumption and the life-cycle costs of the system. In the most accurate design method, the design of a kitchen ventilation system is based on the airflow rate of the thermal plume. When the convection flow is calculated, the influence of the cooking process is ignored. In this paper, the actual measured plume characteristics of typical kitchen appliances are presented during cooking mode. The conducted measurements show that the generic plume equation gives a suitable platform for practical applications during the cooking mode as well. The critical factors affecting the accuracy are the estimation of the actual convection load and the proper adjustment of the virtual origin. (author)

  7. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Zdenek Bradac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  8. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  9. Decision-making in electrical appliance use in the home

    This paper presents the results of a survey as well as an argument from the viewpoint of behavioral economics with the aim of clarifying how consumers make decisions about electrical appliance use in the home. A survey of consumers showed that most have little awareness of the energy efficiency of appliances, the price of the services produced by electrical appliances, or electricity rates. These findings indicate that price does not function as a signal in electricity consumption through electrical appliance use. Rather, we found that consumer decision-making in electricity consumption is dependent on the characteristics of the particular electrical appliances they use. Additionally, we argue that the payment system for home electricity consumption plays an important role in decision-making, causing biases due to aspects of human psychology discussed here in terms of satisficing and heuristics, payment decoupling, and budgeting. We conclude that decision-making about electrical appliance use and electricity consumption in the home is not always rational and is affected both by the particular characteristics of appliances and the payment system for electricity consumption along with human psychology

  10. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  11. Strategies of Internalization in the Industry of Mining Ma-chines and Appliances

    Izabela Jonek-Kowalska

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the industry of mining machines and appliances in Poland, as a result of considerable economic improvement on the market of energetic resources, gains an incredible opportunity for further development. However, its use is de-pendent on the intensification of activity internationalization. Polish sales mar-ket, due to hard coal mining decrease and financial problems of mining enter-prises, does not guarantee sales increase.Therefore, the basic objective of this article is to assess ...

  12. Follow-up problems with fixed appliances in pediatric dentistry.

    Ari, Timucin

    2015-03-01

    Fixed appliances are commonly used in managing early orthodontic problems. Despite their widespread use, they have the potential to impinge on the soft tissues, interfere with the eruption of adjacent teeth and become dislodged or broken. These two case reports present the poor outcomes of fixed appliance treatments if the patient fails to attend follow-up appointments. A successful outcome of treatment with fixed appliances depends upon proper patient selection and the communication skills of the dentist to help patients/parents understand the importance of regular checkups. PMID:25928968

  13. Simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances

    DING Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Simulation technology has been widely used for performance prediction and optimal design of refrigeration and air conditioning appliances. A brief history of simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is reviewed. The models for evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube and thermal insulation layer are summarized, and a fast calculation method for thermodynamic properties of refrigerant is introduced in this paper. The model-based intelligent simulation technology and the simulation technology based on graph theory are also illustrated. Finally, an updated trend of simulation technology development for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is discussed.

  14. Periodontal effects with self ligating appliances and laser biostimulation

    Gianluigi Caccianiga

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The combination between self ligating appliances and laser′s biostimulation could improve the differentiation of periodontal ligaments stem cells in fibroblasts, able to promote attached gingiva around the crown of the teeth erupted in oral vestibular mucosa.

  15. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good oppourtunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode.

  16. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good opportunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode

  17. Analysis and optimisation of virtual DataPower appliances

    JANŠA, JURE

    2014-01-01

    Thesis describes the market of IBM DataPower appliances and their corresponding functionalities. We explain the benefits of these devices in the SOA (Services Oriented Architecture) environments. Case study of testing environment configuration is demonstrated on the physical XI50 and XI52 models and various configurations of virtual DataPower appliance. The analysis of the data obtained with these configurations is performed. At the end we provide the principles and guidelines for the proper ...

  18. Integration of Legacy Appliances into Home Energy Management Systems

    Egarter, Dominik; Monacchi, Andrea; Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The progressive installation of renewable energy sources requires the coordination of energy consuming devices. At consumer level, this coordination can be done by a home energy management system (HEMS). Interoperability issues need to be solved among smart appliances as well as between smart and non-smart, i.e., legacy devices. We expect current standardization efforts to soon provide technologies to design smart appliances in order to cope with the current interoperability issues. Neverthel...

  19. Brand Loyalty and Marketing Strategy: An Application to Home Appliances

    Barry L. Bayus

    1992-01-01

    In the academic literature, the modelling of brand choice and switching behavior has a long history for frequently purchased packaged goods. Comparable efforts with consumer durable goods, however, are generally absent. This paper presents an application of the brand switching model proposed by Colombo and Morrison (1989) to a set of four major home appliances. Appliance brand loyalty, however, is shown to be a function of the timing of replacements, a factor that has not entered into the mod...

  20. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Poland

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Poland as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Polish market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, production, consumption, international trade, distribution channels, the leading Polish and foreign kitchen furniture manufacturers as wel...

  1. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Greece

    Aurelio Volpe

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Greece as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Greek market. The research also includes an overview of the Greek kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Short profiles of the main distributors by type (appl...

  2. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Spain

    Aurelio Volpe; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Spain as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Spanish market. The research also includes an overview of the Spanish kitchen furniture market providing data on kitchen furniture production and consumption, international trade, supply structure, distribution, sales and market share of the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers...

  3. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in France

    Aurelio Volpe

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in France as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the French market. The research also includes an overview of the French kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, trade and leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distributors.Special attention is given to the 'cuisinistes...

  4. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Aioob Ghanbary; Ehsan Habibi; Arezou Abbaspour Darbandy

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention ac...

  5. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  6. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  7. Improved Appliance Coordination Scheme with Waiting Time in Smart Grids

    Firas A. Al Balas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids aim to merge the advances in communications and information technologies with traditional power grids. In smart grids, users can generate energy and sell it to the local utility supplier. The users can reduce energy consumption by shifting appliances’ start time to off-peak hours. Many researchers have proposed techniques to reduce the previous issue for home appliances, such as the Appliances Coordination (ACORD scheme and Appliances Coordination with Feed In (ACORD-FI scheme. The goal of this work is to introduce an efficient scheme to reduce the total cost of energy bills by utilizing the ACORD-FI scheme to obtain an effective solution. In this work three scheduling schemes are proposed: the Appliances Coordination by Giving Waiting Time (ACORD-WT, the Appliances Coordination by Giving Priority (ACORD-P, and using photovoltaic (PV with priority and waiting time scheduling algorithms. A simulator written in C++ is used to test the performance of the proposed schemes using. The performance metric used is the total savings in the cost of the energy bill in dollars. The first comparison for the proposed schemes with the ACORD-FI, and the results show that the efficiency of the proposed ACORD-WT is better than the ACORD-FI, regardless of the number of appliances. Moreover, the proposed ACORD-P, is also better than the standard ACORD-FI.

  8. Thermal plumes of kitchen appliances: idle mode

    Kosonen, R. [Halton Oy, Kausala (Finland); Koskela, H.; Saarinen, P. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Turku (Finland)

    2006-09-15

    In the kitchen environment, pollutant fumes of the cooking process are released into the ambient air by the convection plumes. The practical problem is to compute the requested extract air flow rate to maintain good indoor air quality in an energy efficient manner. In the most accurate design method, the design of a kitchen ventilation system is based on the flow rate of the thermal plume. In this method, the amount of heat carried in a convective plume over a cooking appliance at a certain height is calculated. The heat load is then assumed to be a point heat source and the velocity and temperature profiles are approximated to be Gaussian distributed. In commercial kitchens, the location of the extraction point is at a height of 0.9-1.4 m above the heat source where the convection flow is not yet fully developed. This paper demonstrates that the generic plume equation, derived in the region of complete flow similarity, is not accurate in this intermediate zone. However, it gives a reasonable accuracy for practical applications when an individually adjusted empirical factor of the virtual origin is applied. The power intensity of the heat gain has a much more significant effect on the plume characteristic than the previous studies indicate. The plumes are narrower and the spreading angle is smaller with higher heat gains. (author)

  9. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Hellen Soares Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25; and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25. Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p<0.05; there was also an increase in glucose, amylase and protein concentrations in the saliva of the Experimental Group, but the differences were insignificant. There was insignificant correlation between calcium ion concentration and salivary flow or between buffering capacity and salivary flow. CONCLUSION: The saliva of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances had lower pH, buffering capacity and calcium concentration than that of individuals without any type of orthodontic appliance. These oral changes are enough to cause tooth demineralization. Patients with orthodontic appliances should adopt additional oral hygiene procedures.

  10. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  11. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  12. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  13. Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.

    Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

    2011-06-01

    The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation. PMID:20630942

  14. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  15. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  16. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  17. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  18. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence de l`Environnement and de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 6 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  19. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk;

    2011-01-01

    should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... by means of simulation and by using real data for power consumption and operation hours. The defined maximum power limit of 750 and 1000 Watt was not exceeded during peak demand hours. The trade‐off was an average delay of 36,1 and 12,36 minutes, respectively, for the aggregated low priority class....

  20. [Microbial colonization and various cleaning procedures for orthodontic appliances].

    Diedrich, P

    1989-06-01

    The cleaning of removable appliances was analysed in three groups: 1. cleaning with tooth-brush/toothpaste, 2. self-acting cleansing agent, 3. ultrasonic treatment. In the same patient group identical plates were fitted each for one month and cleaned by the different procedures. The microbial population and the cleansing effects were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The findings shows clearly, that the toothbrush alone is unsatisfactory for achieving effective decontamination in the hygiene-critical areas of the plates. In contrast to this cleansing tablets and ultrasonic treatment were more effective in plaque-accumulating areas. None of the cleansing procedures effected complete decontamination of the removable appliances. PMID:2767590

  1. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  2. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  3. Unsupervised Training Methods for Non-intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring from Smart Meter Data

    Parson, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is the process of disaggregating a household’s total electricity consumption into its contributing appliances. Smart meters are currently being deployed on national scales, providing a platform to collect aggregate household electricity consumption data. Existing approaches to NIALM require a manual training phase in which either sub-metered appliance data is collected or appliance usage is manually labelled. This training data is used to build ...

  4. Design and Implementation of the Information Appliance's Home Gateway Based on CORBA

    ZHU Zhu; LIU Hong

    2010-01-01

    With the emergence of a variety of IA (information appliances) and the development of network technology, a convenient and effective platform is needed to control home appliances.This paper presents a "Web_CORBA home gateway" ,provides an inter-face definition of information appliances and eventually complete the internet remote control.Information Appliance refrigerator to be given as an example of the specific design process.

  5. Three case reports demonstrating treatment of relatively complex orthodontic cases using a completely customised lingual appliance.

    Buckley, John

    2016-01-01

    It is a commonly held misconception among Irish dentists that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. This article demonstrates the use of contemporary completely customised lingual orthodontic appliances to treat a diverse range of malocclusions, to a satisfactory level, and thereby may disabuse clinicians of the belief that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. PMID:27197371

  6. Measures for improving the adoption of higher efficiency appliances in Indonesian households: An analysis of lifetime use and decision-making in the purchase of electrical appliances

    Highlights: ► We observe human psychosocial variables regarding purchase of electrical appliances. ► Two cities with different cultures are subject of this study – Bandung and Yogyakarta. ► Differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural. ► Ads and store’s staff have the greatest impact on people’s choice of appliances. ► Adoption of higher-efficiency appliances could be implemented based on each culture. - Abstract: One approach to decreasing electricity consumption is to facilitate the replacement of older appliances with new, higher-efficiency. The objectives of this paper are to compare and analyse the replacement of appliances in two cities of Indonesia – Yogyakarta and Bandung – that are characterised by different cultural backgrounds, ethnicities, and decision-making processes in the household purchase of electrical appliances. A questionnaire survey method was employed to obtain information on behavioural economics and human psychosocial variables such as attitudes, beliefs and perceived benefits regarding the replacement and purchase of electrical appliances. The results show that refrigerators in Yogyakarta have a longer lifetime than in Bandung. However, in Bandung, air conditioners, electric fans, rice cookers, and water pumps have a longer lifetime than in Yogyakarta. These differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural differences within the two cities that are reflected in the manner in which people use electrical appliances as well as to their lack of knowledge regarding appliance operation. An analysis of the factors influencing the purchase of appliances indicated that people in Yogyakarta show a greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than do persons in Bandung. The following suggestions could be implemented to improve the strategy of encouraging the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances: (1) in Yogyakarta, energy labelling could be

  7. Procool - eco-efficient cold appliances for the commercial use

    Pro-Cool is an EU-wide demonstration project which supports the development and market penetration of eco-efficient plug-in cold appliances for the commercial use. These products should be both highly energy efficient, free of HFC-containing refrigerants and -foaming agents and eco-efficient in a general sense. Thus the project corresponds with the EU Integrated Product Policy which aims at improving products by considering the ecological impact along the product life cycle. Besides ecological criteria, which are central for the project, other aspects relevant for purchasers like warranty and functionality are taken into account to guarantee the acceptance of the products by the demand side target groups. The so called 'voice of the customer' has been considered in the development of the criteria To achieve the necessary stimulation of the supply and demand side market a combined competition and procurement approach is developed addressing both manufacturers and buyers respectively users of the products. The central measure of the project is a European competition for suppliers what offers leading manufacturers of the market the opportunity to present themselves as innovative companies which provide eco-efficient equipment. Eight leading manufacturers which have a high market share in the selected product categories are taking part in the competition. Furthermore three large companies representing the demand side branches of super market chains and drinks industry already have signed a general agreement to support the project and to consider the products resulting from the competition in their procurement activities. Thus major supply and demand side target groups which are capable to support market transformation have joined the project. The competition terminates by December 2005 and the award of the winning products takes place in spring 2006 at an international fair or conference event. The paper presents the objectives and the concept of the project. Relevant

  8. Procool - eco-efficient cold appliances for the commercial use

    Schaeppi, Bernd; Ritter, Herbert [The Austrian Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Barthel, Claus [Wuppertal Institut for Climate, Environment and Energy (Germany); Hermann, Laurenz [Deutsche Energieagentur, Berlin (Germany); Streif, Oswald [Verein fuer Konsumenteninformation, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    Pro-Cool is an EU-wide demonstration project which supports the development and market penetration of eco-efficient plug-in cold appliances for the commercial use. These products should be both highly energy efficient, free of HFC-containing refrigerants and -foaming agents and eco-efficient in a general sense. Thus the project corresponds with the EU Integrated Product Policy which aims at improving products by considering the ecological impact along the product life cycle. Besides ecological criteria, which are central for the project, other aspects relevant for purchasers like warranty and functionality are taken into account to guarantee the acceptance of the products by the demand side target groups. The so called 'voice of the customer' has been considered in the development of the criteria To achieve the necessary stimulation of the supply and demand side market a combined competition and procurement approach is developed addressing both manufacturers and buyers respectively users of the products. The central measure of the project is a European competition for suppliers what offers leading manufacturers of the market the opportunity to present themselves as innovative companies which provide eco-efficient equipment. Eight leading manufacturers which have a high market share in the selected product categories are taking part in the competition. Furthermore three large companies representing the demand side branches of super market chains and drinks industry already have signed a general agreement to support the project and to consider the products resulting from the competition in their procurement activities. Thus major supply and demand side target groups which are capable to support market transformation have joined the project. The competition terminates by December 2005 and the award of the winning products takes place in spring 2006 at an international fair or conference event. The paper presents the objectives and the concept of the project

  9. Causes and consequences of backdrafting of vented gas appliances.

    Nagda, N L; Koontz, M D; Billick, I H; Leslie, N P; Behrens, D W

    1996-09-01

    House depressurization occurs when household equipment such as a kitchen or bathroom fan or a fireplace exhausts air from the house and lowers the pressure indoors with respect to the outside. The operation of air handlers for forced-air heating or cooling systems also can have a depressurization effect. This depressurization can hinder the natural draft from vented combustion appliances and lead to backdrafting, which in turn can result in combustion gases spilling into the indoor airspace. Extensive spillage can cause elevated indoor levels of combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor, as well as contaminants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The focus of this paper is to review studies on depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage from gas-fired, drafthood equipped furnaces and domestic hot water heaters. Qualitative and quantitative techniques that were used in depressurization and backdrafting studies conducted in Canada, Europe, and the United States are analyzed. These studies have shown that exhaust fans operated simultaneously with fireplaces depressurize houses by 3 to 8 Pa on average. The CO indoor concentrations due to spillage, as reported in these studies, generally have been lower than 5 ppm. However, such low CO concentrations do not necessarily imply that a potential problem associated with backdrafting does not exist. Other combustion products, such as NO2, rarely have been measured in prior backdrafting studies. It can be concluded from the literature review that causes of house depressurization are well understood. However, more comprehensive research is needed to better understand the frequency, duration, and severity of depressurization-induced spillage in a broad cross section of houses. Efforts in this direction have begun recently in the United States through a workshop to define research issues, pilot studies to develop comprehensive measurement protocols, and consensus standard

  10. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    2010-04-01

    ... of the vented type and vented to the outside. (c) Fuel-burning appliances shall not be converted from... of Household Automatic Electric Storage Type Water Heaters, ANSI C72.1-1972. (2) All gas and oil... are not required: (1) External switches or remote controls which shut off the burner or the flow...

  11. The Next Generation of Appliances: Visions for Sustainability

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The suggestions for future generations of appliances presented in this paper are based on the assumption of an increasing awareness of the environmental problems and of real human well-being. In some sense it will reflect the author´s personal preferences. A future refrigerator can be designed to...

  12. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  13. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    Warsaw: ESMRMB, 2006. s. 342-343. ISBN 10334-006-0043-1. [ESMRMB 2006 - 23rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology. 21.09.2006-23.09.2006, Warsaw] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  14. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7. E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  15. Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

  16. Compatibility of Fixed Dental Appliances with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Hubálková, H.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Linetskiy, I.; Starčuková, Jana; Mazánek, J.

    London: European Prosthodontic Association, 2006. O41. [EPA 2006. Annual Conference of the European Prosthodontic Association /30./. 02.11.2006-04.11.2006, London] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Keywords : fixed dental appliance * MRI * MR compatibility * image artefacts * radiofrequency heating Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  17. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources. PMID:26076540

  18. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  19. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  20. Treatment of severe rotations of maxillary central incisors with whip appliance: Report of three cases

    Iman Parisay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The routine treatment for rotated maxillary incisor is a fixed appliance, but in some instance the use of this method is impossible. In addition, in only limited cases of rotation, removable appliance is applicable. In this study, the use of a semi-removable appliance is presented, which has some benefits over the other methods. In this study, the corrections of about 70-90° rotation of the maxillary central incisors in different phases of mixed dentition were performed in three patients using whip appliance. This method was performed using a simple removable appliance such as Hawley appliance and whip spring that forced the couple to derotate the tooth. In all cases, treatment was successfully completed in relative short duration. Whip appliance can be recommended as an effective method to correct rotation of maxillary incisor in mixed dentition with several advantages like rapid correction.

  1. A System for Smart Home Control of Appliances based on Timer and Speech Interaction

    Haque, S M Anamul; Islam, Md Ashraful

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to design and construct a microcomputer based system: to control electric appliances such as light, fan, heater, washing machine, motor, TV, etc. The paper discusses two major approaches to control home appliances. The first involves controlling home appliances using timer option. The second approach is to control home appliances using voice command. Moreover, it is also possible to control appliances using Graphical User Interface. The parallel port is used to transfer data from computer to the particular device to be controlled. An interface box is designed to connect the high power loads to the parallel port. This system will play an important role for the elderly and physically disable people to control their home appliances in intuitive and flexible way. We have developed a system, which is able to control eight electric appliances properly in these three modes.

  2. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  3. Householders’ Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity

    Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people’s energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders’ perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally ‘went together’, there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people’s categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  4. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice. PMID:20651044

  5. DSP Based Speech Operated Home Appliances Using Zero Crossing Features

    Deepali Y Loni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to build a simple speech recognition system using Digital SignalProcessor (DSP that controls home appliances (i.e. turning on/off by processing the spokenword. The method used is simple, involving a plain count of the frequency of zero crossings. Twofeatures of zero-crossing are used namely: maxima & running sum that increases the accuracy ofrecognition. The DSP calculates the zero crossings of the spoken words and accordinglygenerates different analog signals at its output. These analog signals are further processed so asto operate the appliances. The words chosen for recognition are ‘ONE’, ‘TWO’ and ‘THREE’.The paper includes two approaches for implementation of speech recognition into DSP, usingMatlab Simulink approach and secondly using Code Composer Studio (CCS. Moreover the firstapproach performs offline processing and the other performs real time processing of words. Theresults at the end describe the efficiency of the system.

  6. Hoisting appliances and fuel handling equipment at nuclear facilities

    The guide is followed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) in regulating hoisting and handling equipment Class 3 at nuclear facilities. The guide is applied e.g. to the following equipment: reactor building overhead cranes, hoisting appliances at nuclear fuel storages, fuel handling machines, other hoisting appliances, which because of nuclear safety aspects are classified in Safety Class 3, and load-bearing devices connected with the above equipment, such as replaceable hoisting tools and auxiliary lifting devices. The regulating of hoisting and handling equipment comprises the following stages: handling of preliminary and final safety analysis reports, inspection of the construction plan, supervision of fabrication and construction inspection, and supervision of initial start-up and commissioning inspection

  7. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  8. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Kaushik, Noopur; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most challenging tasks for a pediatric dentist is the management of deleterious oral habits which adversely affect the dentofacial complex. However, if these habits can be intercepted and diagnosed well in time, they can save the patient from the psychological impact of undergoing long treatment therapies. One such rare deleterious oral habit is cheek biting that affects the buccal mucosa. Presented here is a case report which describes the interception of this deleterious habit in a 15-year-old female child who was a bilateral cheek biter with the help of an innovative intraoral appliance: The cheek plumper. How to cite this article: Rana V, Srivastava N, Kaushik N, Panthri P. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):146-148. PMID:27365937

  9. Extent of inspections for lifting appliances in nuclear installations

    During in-service inspections of lifting appliances, the test specifications, principles, and guidelines included in the technical rules are to be applied for the inspection of elevators and cranes. In annex 1 these specifications, principles, and guidelines are compiled. For lifting appliances in nuclear installations, which according to KTA rule 3902, edition 11/75, have to meet additional and more rigorous requirements, no. 10.3 is relevant. In nos. 2 and 3 of this direction, those in-service inspections are listed in detail which go beyond the general requirements according to no. 10.3.3 rule KTA 3902, edition 11/75. The extent of the inspections has to be set up between licensee and inspecting expert in a program for in-service inspections. (orig./HP)

  10. Exploration on the Development of Waste Household Appliance Reverse Logistics

    刘云; 王志玲

    2014-01-01

    China is not only the largest producer of electrical and electronic products, but also a big consumer. Over a long time, many products have reached the peak of being abandoned, with the increasingly awareness of environmental protection, developing an efficient recycling logistics system can not be delayed. It mainly leads to the concept of reverse logistics through analyzing the current situation of waste household appliances, and puts forward several suggestions for the current status and future development of reverse logistics.

  11. Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances

    Mo, Sung-Seo; Kim, Seong-Hun; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied...

  12. Adaptive Kalman filtering for anomaly detection in software appliances

    Knorn, Florian; Leith, Douglas J.

    2008-01-01

    Availability and reliability are often important features of key software appliances such as firewalls, web servers, etc. In this paper we seek to go beyond the simple heartbeat monitoring that is widely used for failover control. We do this by integrating more fine grained measurements that are readily available on most platforms to detect possible faults or the onset of failures. In particular, we evaluate the use of adaptive Kalman Filtering for automated CPU usage prediction that...

  13. Key Account Management Practices in Home Appliance Industry of Pakistan

    Razzaq, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Key account management (KAM) is considered as an important marketing trend since last few years. The purpose of this thesis orients to the discussion about key account management practices from selling company’s perspectives in home appliance market of Pakistan. The study is carried through with four steps: elements of key accounts management, identification and analysis of key accounts, strategies for key accounts, and operational level capabilities used in key account management fo...

  14. SUPPORTIVE FACTORS FOR SYRIAN HOME APPLIANCES MANUFACTURERS (ADVERTISING, BRAND, &VALUE)

    KHACHROUM, Mohammad; ALİ, Suleiman; HİLLY, Karam M.

    2010-01-01

    Syrian industries are facing very critical era nowadays. Therefore, this research aims to address the following questions first of all, which brands will be attracted by Syrian consumers? How can Syrian companies gain local customers' trust and preferences? And which factors could affect Syrian consumer’s decision making? To answer these questions home appliances industry will be a field of study. Two approaches have been conducted in this study; qualitative research including interviews with...

  15. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Aioob Ghanbary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention action to reduce musculoskeletal disorders was carried out. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 workers of the appliance manufacturing industry. These Individuals were included 15 persons from foam injection workshop, 17 persons from molding workshop, 17 operators of presses, 17 persons from packaging, 17 person from cutting unit and 17 operators of rivet. The Nordic questionnaire was completed by Individuals for the organs of arm, back, leg and wrist and Posture analysis was performed by OWAS method. The data were analyzed using Spss software version 18 and descriptive statistics and Anova test. Nordic questionnaire results revealed that highest disorders were observed in the arm (25%, back (22% and leg (21%. Also Anova test showed that was observed a significant correlation respectively between age and work experience with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.02 (p<0.01. The results showed based on the level of risk OWAS for each job respectively, the highest level of risk associated with foam injection unit, packaging and cutting unit (risk level 4 and the lowest level of risk associated with molding workshop unit (risk level 2.The results of this study showed that household appliances Manufacturing workers due to the nature of their jobs are at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and Ergonomic interventions to do such as workstation redesign, reduced working hours, cycle of rest-work development.

  16. Possibilities to prevent gingivitis during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy

    Matić Sava; Ivanović Mirjana; Mandić Jelena; Nikolić Predrag

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: During orthodontic treatment, the risk of gingivitis, periodontal disease and dental caries is increased. For good gingival health during orthodontic therapy, patients must be educated about the importance of daily oral hygiene and also given instructions on plaquecontrol techniques and how to use plaque removal devices properly. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present risk factors for gingivitis during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances as well as methods and ...

  17. Condition of periodontium in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Anđelić Jasminka; Matijević Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. Orthodontic patients should be familiar with techniques of maintaining oral hygiene as well as with proper methods of checking maintenance of oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between condition of periodontium and techniques of maintaining oral hygiene in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The research population included 100 patients, aged 15-25, treated by the orthodontist from 200...

  18. Scheduling Smart Home Appliances in the Stockholm Royal Seaport

    Wu, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the optimal scheduling of smart home appliances with respect to economic benefits (electricity bill) and reducing environmental impacts (CO 2 emissions) for the Stockholm Royal Seaport project. The aim of this project is to develop a new urban district developing in the eastern Stockholm which will house 10,000 new apartments and 30,000 new office spaces where modern living is combined with environmental thinking to create sustainable living. In a previous work the sc...

  19. Trapping Parallel Port to Operate 220V Appliances

    Prateek Sharma; Kapil Kumar; Ajay Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    With advancement of technology things arebecoming simpler and easier for us. Automation is the use ofTechnology to reduce Human work. Automatic systems are beingpreferred over manual system. Internet controlling offers a newapproach to control electric appliances from a remote terminal,using the Internet, Bluetooth and Local Area Networkconnection. This system is accomplished by personal computers,parallel port, local area network connection, internet connection,mobile phone and Bluetooth dev...

  20. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  1. Development of Wireless Electric Concept Powering Electrical Appliances

    Hanita Daud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a concept of harvesting and transferring energy to a low power electrical appliances using wireless technology where interconnecting wires are not available. This study was a ground work for the future alternative energy supply especially to the areas where supplying direct energy is a challenge such as in deep sea exploration as well as to the area where power interruption is a problem. Research was carried out to study how the waste signal and energy in the air could be collected and converted into useful energy which later could be used to supply power to electrical appliances. The approach of this research started by simulation work using PSPICE full edition that was performed to develop the design and later was used as guidelines in developing the prototype. We then harvested the Radio Frequency (RF signal that was available in air by using RF energy harvesting circuit. This circuit harvested the energy and converted them into electricity. It was accomplished by using an antenna to capture the RF energy and a voltage doublers circuit to convert and magnify the AC input signal to larger DC output. For a start we managed to capture a 3V voltage which was stored in a rechargeable battery. The energy in this rechargeable battery was then utilized to power up low-powered electrical appliances. Germanium and Silicon diodes have been used to harvest and amplify the voltage so that a better and higher output can be achieved.

  2. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  3. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  4. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. Estimating the impact of the home appliances trade-in policy on WEEE management in China.

    Zhu, Shuguang; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Juwen; Liang, Honggen; Han, Yuebin

    2012-11-01

    The ever-increasing amount of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a global problem. In view of the deleterious effects of WEEE on the environment and the valuable materials that can be reused in them, many countries have focused their attention on the management of WEEE and the recovery technologies of WEEE. The Chinese government has been active in creating a legislative and institutional framework to realize WEEE recycling. In June 2009, Chinese government launched home appliances and electronics trade-in implementation solution. This paper elaborates the home appliances trade-in policy and its significant impact on the WEEE management. The trade-in policy is not only conducive to expanding the consumption demand and promoting the balance of domestic and overseas demand, but also favorable to improving the energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution. Under this policy, China has successfully established an effective WEEE recycling system, using the financial means and network design. Experiences gained from the trade-in policy have shown that management systems of WEEE need to be designed and implemented in a multi-stakeholder dialogue. PMID:22492263

  6. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions. (authors)

  7. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  8. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  9. Classification of Household Appliance Operation Cycles: A Case-Study Approach

    Zeyu Wang; Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of power grid system, referred to as the Smart Grid, with an aim of managing electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, and economical manner has emerged. With greater knowledge of operational characteristics of individual appliances, necessary automation control strategies can be developed in the Smart Grid to operate appliances in an efficient manner. This paper provides a way of classifying different operational cycles of a household appliance by intro...

  10. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the Czech Republic

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the Czech Republic as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Czech market. The research includes an overview of the kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution channels. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (...

  11. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the Netherlands

    Aurelio Volpe

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the Netherlands as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Dutch market. The research also includes an overview of the Dutch kitchen furniture market providing data on the supply and trade of kitchen furniture, consumption, the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers and distribution. Distribution flows of built-in appliances (s...

  12. ASSESSING THE "ENGINES OF LIBERATION": HOME APPLIANCES AND FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V.; José Tavares

    2004-01-01

    The secular rise in female labor force participation, highlighted in the recent macroeconomics literature on growth and structural change, has been associated with the declining price and wider availability of home appliances. This paper uses a new and unique country dataset on the price of home appliances to test its impact on female labor supply. We assess the role of the price of appliances in raising participation by comparing it to the impact of fertility and other macroeconomic factors....

  13. Assessing the 'Engines of Liberation': Home Appliances and Female Labour Force Participation

    Cavalcanti, Tiago; TAVARES, José

    2006-01-01

    The secular rise in female labour force participation, highlighted in the recent macroeconomics literature on growth and structural change, has been associated with the declining price and wider availability of home appliances. This paper uses a new and unique country dataset on the price of home appliances to test its impact on female labour supply. We assess the role of the price of appliances in raising participation by comparing it to other structural determinants such as average male inc...

  14. Frog Appliance- An Innovative Treatment Option for the Replacement of Missing Teeth in An Epileptic Child

    Raghavendra M Shetty; Goyal, Anita; Reddy, Hanumanth; Sajjnar, Arun B; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which may result in various oro-facial injuries among which fracture of crown and avulsion of tooth are commonly reported. Challenges come in growing epileptic children where fixed prosthesis could not be delivered and it demands a fixed semi-permanent prosthesis that needs strength along with esthetics. The present paper reports an innovative appliance which has fulfilled fore mentioned criteria; with the appliance named-frog appliance.

  15. Design and explanation of organizational excellence model in home appliances industry

    Seyed Abbas Kazemi; Gholamhossein Nikokar; Jamshid Salehi Sadaghiani; Majid Rahimimazraehshahi

    2012-01-01

    Home appliances are considered as one of low margin and competitive industry in the world. This industry often needs significant amount of investment and resources and it often faces with some challenges during economic crises. In this paper, we present a framework for organizational excellence to detect any possible problems in home appliances industry. The proposed framework of this paper is used for a real-world case study of Iranian home appliances. The results of our survey indicate that...

  16. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  17. A modified palatal crib appliance for children with predetermined thumb-sucking habit - Case report

    The aim of this case report was to introduce a modified design of palatal crib habit breaking appliance that can be used for children with predetermined thumb-sucking habit. The appliance is made of two bands on the upper first permanent molars and an extended metal framework to cover the anterior of the palatal roof. The appliance was applied for 4 months on an 8-year-old boy who persistently continued the habit of thumb-sucking. The appliance proved to be very effective for arresting thumb-sucking habit. (author)

  18. When do energy-efficient appliances generate energy savings? Some evidence from Canada

    Improvements in the energy efficiency of household appliances have the potential to decrease residential energy use, but these reductions accrue gradually over time as newer appliances replace older models. SHEU-2003 data are used to examine appliance replacement patterns in Canada for refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers and clothes dryers. The data indicate that the ages at which appliances are replaced tend to be lowest for dishwashers and highest for freezers, with over 40% of freezers in use for more than 20 years before being retired. The life spans of Canadian appliances are compared to the underlying assumptions regarding appliance lifetimes used in models of residential energy demand. We find that Canadian appliance retirement patterns differ from those assumed in the previous literature. Socioeconomic factors related to appliance replacement are also examined. We find that replacement patterns can be sensitive to household characteristics such as income, providing evidence that there may be scope for targeted policies aimed at inducing earlier replacements of older household appliances with new energy-efficient models

  19. Management of severe Class II malocclusion with sequential modified twin block and fixed orthodontic appliances

    Sonal Chowdhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional appliance is an effective way of treating skeletal Class II malocclusion in children and adolescents. A 12 months stepwise mandibular advancement protocol with Herbst appliance has been proved to enhance condylar growth and improve mandibular prognathism. The present case report documents a 12-year-old boy presenting with Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion associated with excessive overjet (11 mm, 100% deep bite, and retrognathic mandible. He was treated by a phase I growth modification therapy using twin block appliance with lip pads in a stepwise mandibular advancement protocol followed by a phase II preadjusted Edgewise appliance therapy.

  20. Intelligent Control of Home Appliances via Network

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    platform which guaranties interoperability, as well as scalability and flexibility. Therefore, a home gateway prototype has been developed in JAVA. This implementation offers the required capabilities for a Home Energy Management System, i.e. it enables the user to monitor and control the home devices, in...... getaway of the Home Energy Management System. This exchange of information between the customers and the utilities is important as customers will have a more active role in the Smart Grid by participating in Demand Response mechanisms. The presented Home Energy Management System in this thesis......'s management of the Home Energy Management settings in order to fulfil his preferences. The herein Home Energy Management System and AMI and DR proposed architecture have taken into consideration all the objectives and requirements to create a successful solution....

  1. Energy star appliances and energy efficiency

    In previous studies, econometric methods have been used to analyze the impact of market transformation programs. This paper reviewed the results of a detailed assessment of United States lighting markets. The study utilized market analysis to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient screw-type lamps and linear fluorescent lamps. The paper described the methods used and hypotheses for the study. The study approach involved three steps. First, a database of product sales and drivers of product sales by efficiency type information from annual surveys of sales of lighting products was built. In order to model the impact of gross domestic product, electricity prices and demand side management on product sales for energy efficient and standard products, ordinary least squares regression analysis was used. The regression output was then used alongside the database information to estimate the impact of changes in electricity prices, gross domestic product and demand side marketing activity on sales of energy efficient and standard products. Results were presented for annual sales and market share information for screw-type lamps purchased by residential and small business customers; lamp sales regressions and compact fluorescent lamp sales analysis; an analysis of incandescent lamp sales and regressions of linear fluorescent tubes sales; and annual sales and market share information for linear fluorescent tubes purchased by residential and small business customers as well as regression results. It was concluded that the total effect was an increase in sales of compact fluorescent lamps of 13.3 million units in 2002, 17.7 million units in 2003 and 22.7 million units in 2004. 5 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. Prediction of appliances energy use in smart homes

    This paper presents methods for prediction of energy consumption of different appliances in homes. The aim is to predict the next day electricity consumption for some services in homes. Historical data for a set of homes in France was used. Two basic predictors are tested and a stochastic based predictor is proposed. The performance of the predictors is studied and it shows that the proposed predictor gives better results than other approaches. Two processings are proposed to improve the performance of the predictor, segmentation and aggregation of data. Application results are provided.

  3. Mechanical appliances, mechanical movements and novelties of construction

    Hiscox, Gardner D

    2008-01-01

    From the devices that power ships and trains to the workings of clocks, typewriters, and guns, this engrossing visual narrative profiles the specific and unique properties of hundreds of mechanical devices. Nearly 1,000 detailed illustrations depict steam-powered appliances, spring-powered devices, hydraulic equipment, and other machines, many of which remain in common use today. Each apparatus features a detailed line drawing and an informative explanation of its workings and uses. A final chapter chronicles 400 years of impassioned but futile searching for a perpetual motion machine.The comp

  4. New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances; FINAL

    Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances

  5. REACH Basics for Chinese Producers of Electric Household Appliances

    Dr.Klaus W.Mehl

    2008-01-01

    The following article explains the EU chemical regulation "REACH', explicates the requirements that Chinese producers are facing, and shows how they can fulfill the requirements and secure their access to the EU market. The consequences of failing to fulfill REACH requirements are given in REACH Article 5: No data, no market: ... substances ... in articles ... shall not be ... placed on the market unless they have been registered In other words: Without registration of chemicals Chinese producers of electric household appliances may loose their EU market.

  6. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  7. Pulmonary inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung after exposure to PM samples from biomass heating appliances of old and modern technologies.

    Happo, Mikko S; Uski, Oskari; Jalava, Pasi I; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2013-01-15

    Current levels of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. In residential areas wood combustion is one of the main sources of PM(2.5) emissions, especially during wintertime. However, the adverse health effects of particulate emissions from the modern heating appliances and fuels are poorly known. In this study, health related toxicological properties of PM(1) emissions from five modern and two old technology appliances were examined. The PM(1) samples were collected by using a Dekati® Gravimetric Impactor (DGI). The collected samples were weighed and extracted with methanol for chemical and toxicological analyses. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally exposed to a single dose of 1, 3, 10 or 15 mg/kg of the particulate samples for 4, 18 or 24h. Thereafter, the lungs were lavaged and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Lungs of 24h exposed mice were collected for inspection of pulmonary tissue damage. There were substantial differences in the combustion qualities of old and modern technology appliances. Modern technology appliances had the lowest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but they induced the highest inflammatory, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities. In contrast, old technology appliances had clearly the highest PM(1) (mg/MJ) emissions, but their effect in the mouse lungs were the lowest. Increased inflammatory activity was associated with ash related components of the emissions, whereas high PAH concentrations were correlating with the smallest detected responses, possibly due to their immunosuppressive effect. PMID:23201646

  8. Analyzing price and efficiency dynamics of large appliances with the experience curve approach

    Large appliances are major power consumers in households of industrialized countries. Although their energy efficiency has been increasing substantially in past decades, still additional energy efficiency potentials exist. Energy policy that aims at realizing these potentials faces, however, growing concerns about possible adverse effects on commodity prices. Here, we address these concerns by applying the experience curve approach to analyze long-term price and energy efficiency trends of three wet appliances (washing machines, laundry dryers, and dishwashers) and two cold appliances (refrigerators and freezers). We identify a robust long-term decline in both specific price and specific energy consumption of large appliances. Specific prices of wet appliances decline at learning rates (LR) of 29±8% and thereby much faster than those of cold appliances (LR of 9±4%). Our results demonstrate that technological learning leads to substantial price decline, thus indicating that the introduction of novel and initially expensive energy efficiency technologies does not necessarily imply adverse price effects in the long term. By extending the conventional experience curve approach, we find a steady decline in the specific energy consumption of wet appliances (LR of 20-35%) and cold appliances (LR of 13-17%). Our analysis suggests that energy policy might be able to bend down energy experience curves.

  9. Analyzing price and efficiency dynamics of large appliances with the experience curve approach

    Large appliances are major power consumers in households of industrialized countries. Although their energy efficiency has been increasing substantially in past decades, still additional energy efficiency potentials exist. Energy policy that aims at realizing these potentials faces, however, growing concerns about possible adverse effects on commodity prices. Here, we address these concerns by applying the experience curve approach to analyze long-term price and energy efficiency trends of three wet appliances (washing machines, laundry dryers, and dishwashers) and two cold appliances (refrigerators and freezers). We identify a robust long-term decline in both specific price and specific energy consumption of large appliances. Specific prices of wet appliances decline at learning rates (LR) of 29±8% and thereby much faster than those of cold appliances (LR of 9±4%). Our results demonstrate that technological learning leads to substantial price decline, thus indicating that the introduction of novel and initially expensive energy efficiency technologies does not necessarily imply adverse price effects in the long term. By extending the conventional experience curve approach, we find a steady decline in the specific energy consumption of wet appliances (LR of 20-35%) and cold appliances (LR of 13-17%). Our analysis suggests that energy policy might be able to bend down energy experience curves. (author)

  10. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  11. Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

    V R Cilil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1, and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2. Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality.

  12. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    2010-01-01

    ..., clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters, comfort heating equipment, and television... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION §...

  13. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S4: FINAL REPORT

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates from household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy consumption is therefore a matter of managing and optimizi

  14. Created in Close Interaction with the Industry: The Smart Appliances REFerence (SAREF) Ontology

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Around two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings can be traced back to the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Today, most appliances are highly intelligent and networked devices, in principle being able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing

  15. 78 FR 1779 - Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other...

    2013-01-09

    ...The Commission proposes to amend the Appliance Labeling Rule (``Rule'') by updating ranges of comparability and unit energy cost figures for many EnergyGuide labels. The Commission also seeks comment on a proposed exemption request by the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) to help consumers compare the labels on refrigerators and clothes washers after the implementation of......

  16. Launch of new or improved gas appliances onto the Dutch market

    In the Netherlands the market for both natural gas and gas appliances is highly saturated. In such a market it is difficult but not impossible to introduce new technological developments and new gas appliances. Close cooperation between the different market parties is essential for successful introduction. (au)

  17. What to Do If Your Appliances Are Wet After a Disaster

    2006-08-10

    If your home was flooded, look for signs that your appliances have gotten wet. Throw away wet or flooded appliances to protect from shock and fire.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  18. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsors to distribute copies of this book worldwide at no charge for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.CLASPonline.org and can be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  19. CernVM - a virtual software appliance for LHC applications

    CernVM is a Virtual Software Appliance capable of running physics applications from the LHC experiments at CERN. It aims to provide a complete and portable environment for developing and running LHC data analysis on any end-user computer (laptop, desktop) as well as on the Grid, independently of Operating System platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOS). The experiment application software and its specific dependencies are built independently from CernVM and delivered to the appliance just in time by means of a CernVM File System (CVMFS) specifically designed for efficient software distribution. The procedures for building, installing and validating software releases remains under the control and responsibility of each user community. We provide a mechanism to publish pre-built and configured experiment software releases to a central distribution point from where it finds its way to the running CernVM instances via the hierarchy of proxy servers or content delivery networks. In this paper, we present current state of CernVM project and compare performance of CVMFS to performance of traditional network file system like AFS and discuss possible scenarios that could further improve its performance and scalability.

  20. Non-compliance Appliances for Upper Molar Distalization: An Overview.

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Tooth Size Arch-length Discrepancy (TSALD) is a common problem in orthodontics. Its clinical signs are tooth crowding, impaction and incisor proclination. The treatment options are dental arch expansion or tooth mass reduction (stripping or extraction). The "extraction versus non-extraction" controversy has been widely debated in the orthodontic literature. Distalization is a kind of arch expansion in anetro-posterior dimension. Several studies have evaluated both the therapeutic effectiveness and the side effects of the appliances for this method of space gaining. In some cases molar distalization is preferred, e.g., a patient with acceptable profile and skeletal pattern and half cusp Class II molar malocclusion or even less. In some cases molar distalization is the only way, e.g., the patient with previous upper premolar extraction and excessive overijet, or a skeletal Class III patient with previous upper premolar extraction needed upper anterior teeth retraction to create reverse overjet aspre surgical orthodontic decompensation. In this review article, we described non-compliance upper molar distalizing appliances. PMID:26720949

  1. Consumer Behaviour when Purchasing Household Appliances from the Aspect of Energy Consumption in the Times of Crisis

    Vuković, Dijana; Jurić, Boris; Ojdenić, Robertino

    2014-01-01

    The key to success of producers of energy saving household appliances is in respecting the consumers’ changed way of thinking and behaviour and their individual needs after the times of crisis and recession. Nowadays, consumers have total control over buying household appliances and a far larger choice. Consumers of household appliances, whose consumption was the driving force before the times of crisis and recession, today, when making a decision about buying household appliances take more f...

  2. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers re...

  3. Study on the Dynamic Efficiency of Listed Household Appliances Companies Based on the Malmquist-DEA Model

    Ruyin Long; Fei Wang

    2009-01-01

    Based on data from16 listed household appliances companies, we use the Malmquist-DEA model to estimate the dynamic change of the total factor productivity (TFP) in the household appliance industry from 2002 to 2006, and analyze the scale efficiency and the input congestion level of household appliance industry. The results show that the TFP of household appliance industry was improved slightly, and the technical progress was obvious, but the pure technical efficiency and the scale efficiency ...

  4. Investigating and Comparing the Colonization of mutans Streptococus in Different Parts of Removable Orthodontic Appliances

    A Haerian-Ardakani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients receiving orthodontic treatment get some alterations in their oral cavity environment such as an increase in the levels of microorganism in oral cavity and dental biofilms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate as well as to compare the colonization of mutans streptococci in different parts of removable orthodontic appliances. Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, samples were obtained before and after use of removable appliance plaque and amount of colonization of streptococci mutan was determined in 3 areas including Biteplaque in proximity of first molar teeth, spring, inner surface of removable appliance in proximity of first molar Results: Results showed that plague index increased significantly after use of removable appliance. (P<0.001; There was a significant difference in amount of colonization of streptococci mutans between spring and biteplaque (p= 0.028 Conclusion: This study indicated importance of a precise oral hygiene control in patients under treatment with removable orthodontic appliances for prevention of dental caries.

  5. Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.

    Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

    2011-08-01

    Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items

  6. 76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    2011-09-12

    ... Parts 430 and 431 Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation...'' appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards, as well as in test procedures used to... on ``smart'' appliances published August 5, 2011 (76 FR 47518) if they are received no later...

  7. Study on Incineration/ Pyrolysis/ Gasification Characteristics of Urethane/ Styrofoam Generated from Home Appliances Waste

    According to the report of the Korean Association of Electronics Environment (KAEE), 1.44 million units of refrigerators, 1.15 million units of washing machines, 886 thousand units of televisions, and 327 thousand units of air conditioners were discarded in 2006. From such wastes more than 90 wt.% of valuable materials are recovered. Polyurethane/ styrofoam, used to reduce noise and thermally insulating agent in such electric appliances is hard to recycle and handle by any treatment processes. Urethane/ Styrofoam waste recycling consists of 3 parts material recycling, mechanical recycling and energy recycling. The material recycling involves shredding polyurethane for using as raw materials preparing various appliances. This is not easy however, active attempts are being made. The chemical recycling using thermal depolymerization is reduction from polyurethane to raw material polymer. The energy recycling is incineration of polyurethane for cogeneration, RDF (refuse dericed fuel) etc. Most of Urethane/ Styrofoam waste in Korea is sent to cement kilns as auxiliary fuel or is disposed off at landfill sites. Considering the limited landfill capacity and environmental problems associated to land filling, alternative treatment methods such as incineration, pyrolysis and gasification are evaluated for polyurethane/styrofoam disposal. In this study, we considered recovery and recycling of polyurethane/ styrofoam using 3 thermal treatment process (incineration, pyrolysis and gasification). The evaluation of 3 experimental conditions will suggest the energy recovery possibility and the hazard analysis of generated gas and residues. In addition, heating value of oil generated by pyrolysis will also be assessed. Results on possibility of energy recovery by analyzing syngas composition, heating value and carbon conversion efficiency during gasification experiment will also be presented. (author)

  8. Burning of electrical household appliances. An experimental Study

    Hietaniemi, J.; Mangs, J.; Hakkarainen, T. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    2001-03-01

    Burning characteristics of electrical household appliances of four different types, TV sets, washing machines, dishwashers and refrigerator-freezers, have been studied experimentally. Results obtained comprise rate of heat release, mass loss and generation of smoke and some chemical substances as well as the quantities derived from these data such as the effective heat of combustion. The experiments are comprehensively documented by written records of events and photographs. High intensities of burning were detected. The highest rates of heat release (RHR), up to 2000 kW, were found for refrigerator-freezers. The peak RHR values for the other apparatuses were: dishwashers 350-750 kW, washing machines 300-450 kW and TVs 250-300 kW. Generally, the development of the burning of the apparatuses towards full burning has two phases. The first phase involves low-RHR incipient burning and during the second phase RHR grows rapidly towards the peak values. TV set fires develop rapidly: the first phase lasts ca. 1,5-3 minutes and, after it, the peak RHR value may be reached within 1-1,5 minutes from the initiation of the rapid RHR growth. For washing machines the period of incipient burning was rather long, 10-20 minutes depending on the way the apparatus was ignited (ignition in the motor space or at the control panel). For the dishwashers the delay was 5-10 minutes. A similar delay was found also in three refrigerator-freezer experiments. In one refrigerator- freezer experiment, the delay time was clearly shorter, only 2-3 minutes. A computational analysis of the development of room fires originating from ignited electrical household appliances was conducted to study the significance of the measured burning characteristics. The RHR of refrigerator-freezers is so high that fires originating from these apparatuses probably lead to flashover. In the case of dishwasher fires, the likelihood of flashover is considerable. The probability of flashover TV set fires in relatively

  9. The semiotics of smart appliances and pervasive computing

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2007-01-01

    for representing semi-formal models. We then give a short overview of selected theories of play and gaming and apply the framework to an implemented simple pervasive game. Finally, we put it all together by using the framework in a constructive manner to produce a concrete design of a new game. The result......This paper presents Digital Habitats, a conceptual and methodological framework for analyzing and designing smart appliances in the context of pervasive computing. The concrete topic is a project in pervasive gaming for children. The paper is semiotic in two senses: on the one hand, it is based...... on the linguistic theory of semantic roles; on the other hand, it focuses on signs, their referents, and their mode of signifying. After an introductory discussion of smart technology and networks of stupidity, we present our framework which consists of a set of theoretical concepts supplemented by diagrams...

  10. Cartographic conic projections and their appliance in national cartography

    Borisov Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the mapping of conic projections and their appliance in producing maps of our state cartography. So far they were often applied, and will be used precisely coned, polyconed and modified polyconed projections for the official mapping (1:500 000, 1:750 000, 1:1000 000 and 1:1500 000. In particular, they cartographic conical projection at a scale of 1:1000 000 were taken into consideration. Those are the Lambert conformal conical projection with two standard parallels and the Modified polyconic projections. In addition to these cartographic conical projections, is described Boneo`s pseudoconic equivalent projections. This is one of the cartographic conical map projection that is commonly used in the preparation of thematic maps as well as for atlas editions of geographic maps both in Serbia and abroad.

  11. Sensors Applications, Volume 5, Sensors in Household Appliances

    Tschulena, Guido; Lahrmann, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    A competent and comprehensive survey of current and future sensors applied in electronic household devices. Engineers and scientists will find here reports of an increase in product safety, efficiency and consumer comfort, coupled with a decrease in power consumption and water/wastewater. The book also looks at the customer appeal of advanced "intelligent" appliances, showing the heightened need for comprehensive information on their potentials and limitations. Taken as a whole, this series covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. As such the series does not treat bulk sensors, but rather places strong emphasis on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor packages. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevant branch of industry.

  12. Characterization of particle emission from household electrical appliances.

    Schripp, Tobias; Kirsch, Ina; Salthammer, Tunga

    2011-06-01

    The release of ultra-fine particles from equipment of daily use is currently a topic of high public concern. The present study reports on the measurement of 12 household appliances such as toasters, grills, and hair dryers in an emission test chamber regarding the release of particles between 5.6 and 560 nm. The devices were new at the time experiments started and had never been used for their original purpose. For instance, toasters and sandwich-makers were tested without the presence of food or residues from prior usage. During the experiments the devices released aerosols with count mean diameters mainly below 100 nm. Within the operating phase high quantities of 10 nm particles are released which form larger particles by agglomeration. The origin of the particles can be attributed to the heated surfaces but cleaning these surfaces only had a minor influence on the emission strength. The released particles are evaporated in a thermodenuder between 150 °C and 200 °C. These findings indicate the particles to be formed from semi-volatile organic compounds. However, the compounds are not located on the heated surfaces and are not released as supersaturated vapor because emission is continuous over the operating phase of the device. Furthermore, the contribution of oxygen to the formation process can be neglected because the emission can also be detected in a nitrogen atmosphere. However, the presence of additional organic compounds in the surrounding air was found to be influencing the growth of the particles within the operating phase. All in all the tested household appliances were strong particle emission sources even when there was no contact with food or clothing. PMID:21497374

  13. Appliances and technologies on mechanical welding of reactor shells

    Nowadays, welded joints of spherical reactor safety shells are generally and to a large extent produced by manual arc-welding. Mechanized welding methods are to be developed aiming at obtaining better technological quality values, more safety with regard to susceptibility to pores and cracks and more independence from human insufficiency. Due to the lack of special machinery for the required purpose and due to the fact that expensive machinery developments should be avoided, a worldwide search on the market has been effected on the basis of given specifications in order to find convenient welding appliances which can be modified. The problems of the search for machinery as well as of laboratory experiments are shown in this report. An electro-gas/slag vertical welding method shall be developed being economic and assuring the quality values required for the vertical welding. For the welding of the upper and lower parts of the sphere a MIG/MAG-shielded arc-welding method with weld centerline and height-control is required which has to meet the same demands as well as a proper guiding on the shell. The initial experiments at the selected appliances shows the possibility to improve the welding quality considerably by mechanizing. The following topics are discussed in detail: sensor systems, oscillating systems, subsequent systems, electro-slag-high-speed-welding in single pass technique, machinery developments, pass and capping pass electro-slag-high-speed welding. Analysis of the used starting-, admixture- and auxilary material, testing conditions and welding parameters, quality values achieved at electro-slag-welds. Automatic MIG/MAG oscillating machines with electronic weld centerline and height control. Systems with the electric arc acting as sensor. Sources of current. (orig.)

  14. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  15. Home Appliances as Home Controllers: Concepts and Set-Top Box Implementation

    Z. Jovanovic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel softwarebased home control platform suitable as an extension to digital home appliances that are equipped with a CPU (settop boxes, home theatre systems, TV sets, gaming consoles, etc. By using an appliance they are already accustomed to, users become able to control lights, appliances and media playback in their homes. Intelligence and awareness are achieved with a support for execution of recipes – preprepared scripts that define timely actions and respond to triggers obtained from sensors. Software abstraction layer facilitates integration of any desired communication protocol. In our prototype, we supported Zigbee and DMX for light control, X10 for light/appliances control over power line, as well as Ethernet-based optical cameras as motion/presence sensors and UPnP/DLNA based equipment for distributed media playback.

  16. Technical Appliance in E-Learning: Student’s Perception on the Usage of Online Learning

    Siti Sarah Mohd Johari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insights into student’s perception on the usage of technical appliances on online learning. The study took place in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM based on the sample of 1084 student s with the experiences of using E-learning Portal as one of the distance education academic programme. The students were surveyed on the participation needs based on respondent’s personal background, such as age, gender, ethnic groups, education streams and year-of-study. Results of the study showed even though most of the students felt uncertain about the technical appliances in E-learning Portal, the study illustrates the true nature of the student’s perceptions with respect to the functionality and effectiveness of technical appliance in E-learning Portal. This research is essential to elucidate the functions of technical appliances in facilitating the process of learning through the portal.

  17. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    Łatuszyńska, Małgorzata; Furaiji, Fatimah; Wawrzyniak, Agata

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable) in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data e...

  18. Scheduling policies for two-state smart-home appliances in dynamic electricity pricing environments

    Vardakas, John S.; Zorba, Nizar; Verikoukis, Christos V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyze online and offline scheduling models for the determination of the maximum power consumption in a smart grid environment. The proposed load models consider that each consumer's residence is equipped with a certain number of appliances of different power demands and different operational times, while the appliances' feature of alternating between ON and OFF states is also incorporated. Each load model is correlated with a scheduling policy that aims to the r...

  19. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults

    Daniela Feu; Fernanda Catharino; Candice Belchior Duplat; Jonas Capelli Junior

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the esthetic perception of different appliances by Brazilian lay adults and its influence in the attributed value of orthodontic treatment, considering evaluators' socioeconomic status, age and gender. METHODS: Eight different combinations of orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners were placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile. Standardized frontal photographs were captured and incorporated into a research album. A sample of adults (n = 252, median = 26 y...

  20. Investigating and Comparing the Colonization of mutans Streptococus in Different Parts of Removable Orthodontic Appliances

    A Haerian-Ardakani; L Ghatre Samani; Z Tabatabaei; H Zandi; MH Toode zaem; A Emami

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Patients receiving orthodontic treatment get some alterations in their oral cavity environment such as an increase in the levels of microorganism in oral cavity and dental biofilms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate as well as to compare the colonization of mutans streptococci in different parts of removable orthodontic appliances. Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, samples were obtained before and after use of removable appliance plaque and amount of colonizatio...

  1. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference EEDAL'11 Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting

    2013-01-01

    This book contains the papers presented at the sixth international conference on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting. EEDAL'11 was organised in Copenhagen, Denmark in May 2011. This major international conference, which was previously been staged in Florence 1997, Naples 2000, Turin 2003, London 2006, Berlin 200h9a s been very successful in attracting an international community of stakeholders dealing with residential appliances, equipment, metering liagnhdti ng ...

  2. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  3. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in the United Kingdom

    Aurelio Volpe; Stefania Pelizzari; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in the United Kingdom as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the British market. The research also includes an overview of the British kitchen furniture market providing data on production, consumption, international trade, distribution, prices, sales and market share of the leading kitchen furniture manufacturers. Distribution flo...

  4. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  5. Effects of maxillary expansion and placebo effect of appliances on nocturnal enuresis – preliminary results

    Oshagh, Morteza; Bahramnia, Fateme; Aminsharifi, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ghodrati, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal enuresis has been found a common symptom among children with breathing problems and sleep apnea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and placebo effects of slow maxillary expansion on nocturnal enuresis. Material and methods Four children with enuresis aged 7–12 years were selected. Rigid acrylic expansion appliances were fabricated and delivered to them. Frequency of enuresis was recorded by the parents during three stages: 1) before appliance del...

  6. Gas at work. Vision on decentralized gas appliances in the built environment

    Various platforms operate within the SenterNovem programme Creative Energy. This report is the first version of the vision document of the working group Decentralized gas appliances of the Platform New Gas, in which the following aspects of the various promising innovative gas appliances are indicated: the development stage, the intended energy saving, the CO2 reduction, the bottlenecks for large scale market introduction and the solutions for these bottlenecks. [mk

  7. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins de; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Pereira, Luciano José; Maria Letícia RAMOS-JORGE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. Material and Methods Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the s...

  8. Fixed Appliance with Expansion Screw for the Treatment of Primary Anterior Crossbite

    Paul, Sanchit; Rao, Ashwin; Mony, Saranya

    2016-01-01

    Anterior crossbite occurring during the primary dentition stage needs immediate correction so that functional, aesthetic and skeletal complications may be avoided in the future. This article describes a fixed appliance with an expansion screw that was successfully used for the treatment of primary anterior crossbite. Crossbite correction was achieved in about six weeks. A detailed description with regard to fabrication of the appliance has also been discussed. PMID:27437372

  9. The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics

    Christos Livas

    2013-01-01

    In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic d...

  10. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S4: FINAL REPORT

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates from household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy consumption is therefore a matter of managing and optimizing the energy utilization on a system level. These systems need standardized interfaces on a sensor and device level. Many of the required standards already exist, but a common architecture does no...

  11. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer

    Arab, S.; Rafighii, A.; M. S. Ahmad Akhoundi; Sodagar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD) which is a simple molar distalizing appliance. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys) with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth patt...

  12. Comparative evaluation of sagittal anchorage loss in lingual and labial appliances during space closure: A pilot study

    Shivanand Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to assess and compare the anchorage loss between labial and lingual appliance systems during space closure. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects were part of the study among which 10 subjects (mean age 21 ± 3.6 years were treated using lingual appliance system (0.018" slot-STb™ and 10 subjects (mean age 19 ± 6.1 years were treated using labial preadjusted edgewise appliance system (0.018" slot-MBT™ . First premolar extractions were performed to enable retraction of anterior teeth. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at two intervals, before starting space closure and after space closure that were connoted as T0 and T1 and were analyzed using the method described by Pancherz to measure anchorage loss. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to evaluate intraexaminer reliability of the measurements. Student′s t-test was performed to verify any statistical significant correlation between the labial and lingual appliance systems. Statistical differences were determined at the 95% confidence level (P < 0.05. Results: The results showed that all ICC for lingual and labial group were ≥0.90 showing good repeatability of the measurements. Mean anchorage loss of 1.238 ± 0.17 mm in lingual appliance system and an anchorage loss of 2.06 ± 0.39 mm occurred with the labial appliance system. On the comparison between the two appliance systems, lingual appliance demonstrated a significantly lesser anchorage loss than did the labial appliance. Interpretation and Conclusion: This prospective study concludes with the fact that lingual appliance provided better anchorage control than labial appliance during space closure. Use of lingual appliance could be considered in critical anchorage cases when compared with labial appliance.

  13. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  14. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances. PMID:26038069

  15. Moments with the edgewise appliance: incisor torque control.

    Isaacson, R J; Lindauer, S J; Rubenstein, L K

    1993-05-01

    Traditional edgewise orthodontic mechanics are significantly limited in their ability to provide incisor torque control because of the limitations of bracket-to-bracket mechanics and the poorly defined reciprocal actions inherently produced. Attempts to address this issue clinically have been largely empirical. The science of mechanics dictates that all incisor torque control mechanisms must act through one of two basic principles: the moment of a couple or the moment of a force. The torquing arch is a modification of the traditional edgewise system and employs the moment of a couple to achieve incisor torque control and precise definition of reciprocal effects. The torquing arch force system includes a large moment to rotate incisors in a crown facial/root lingual direction, and concurrent equilibrium forces to extrude incisors and intrude molars. Alternatively, the base arch uses the moment of a force to also rotate incisors in a crown facial/root lingual direction. The base arch, however, includes a large moment to rotate molars in a crown distal/root mesial direction, and concurrent equilibrium forces to intrude incisors and extrude molars. Depending on how they are employed, torquing arches and base arches may also rotate molars in a faciolingual direction, enhance or diminish posterior anchorage, and increase or conserve arch perimeter. Contemporary quality orthodontic care requires an awareness and control of all of the forces created by orthodontic appliances. PMID:8480711

  16. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    Maria De Lourdes Rabelo Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed, Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents.

  17. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from furniture and electrical appliances].

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto; Furukawa, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Therefore, furniture and other household products as well as building products may influence the indoor air quality. This study was performed to estimate quantitatively influence of household products on indoor air quality. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were investigated for 10 products including furniture (chest, desk, dining table, sofa, cupboard) and electrical appliances (refrigerator, electric heater, desktop personal computer, liquid crystal display television and audio) by the large chamber test method (JIS A 1912) under the standard conditions of 28 degrees C, 50% relative humidity and 0.5 times/h ventilation. Emission rate of total VOC (TVOC) from the sofa showed the highest; over 7900 microg toluene-equivalent/unit/h. Relatively high TVOC emissions were observed also from desk and chest. Based on the emission rates, the impacts on the indoor TVOC were estimated by the simple model with a volume of 17.4 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment for the sofa was 911 microg/m3, accounting for almost 230% of the provisional target value, 400 microg/m3. The values of estimated increment of toluene emitted from cupboard and styrene emitted from refrigerator were 10% and 16% of guideline values, respectively. These results revealed that VOC emissions from household products may influence significantly indoor air quality. PMID:21381398

  18. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  19. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 1, appendix A: Bibliography. [manned space shuttle orbiter environmental control and life support systems

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A review of crew appliance related literature was made to provide background engineering information for development of conceptual appliance systems for the shuttle orbiter and the modular space station. From this review, a file containing abstracts of 299 appliance-related documents coded according to subject was developed along with a computerized bibliography of 682 references. Trade studies were conducted using information from these references to determine the optimum concepts to satisfy the shuttle and space station mission requirements. An appliance system was devised for each vehicle which has minimum impact to the respective environmental control system with the smallest possible weight, volume, and electrical penalty. Engineering parameters for each appliance concept considered are presented along with the total thermal and electrical loads and weight and volume penalties for each of the optimized appliance systems.

  20. The response of periodontal ligament collagen fibres and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Noengki Prameswari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that there were several reactions in cellular activity and periodontal ligament collagen fibre as a response after orthodontic force application. Cementum has function to give attachment to collagen fibres of the periodontal ligament, maintaining the integrity of the root, helping to maintain the tooth in its functional position in the mouth, and being involved in tooth repair and regeneration so in the orthodontic tooth movement can induce changes in the cementum. The aim of this research is to investigate that fixed orthodontic appliance can change the amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at pressure site of cementum. This experimental study was held in laboratory with post test only control group design. Twenty two (22 premolar sample from 11 patient were divided into 2 groups. K group as control group (without treatment and P group as treatment group (with using fixed orthodontic appliance. The amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles was examined by light microscopy and measured by image tool program. In the summary, there are increasing amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites as a normal response to remodeling and regenerating to orthodontic appliance and have function for strengthen adhering tooth cementum to the periodontal ligament.

  1. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  2. Temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: treatment with an orthodontic appliance

    M. Gattinara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: About 65% of children suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA shows a more or less marked involvement of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ with altered mandibular growth, resorption of the condyles, occlusary instability, reduced chewing ability and facial dysmorphia. The purpose of our study is to prevent and to treat the progressive evolution of JIA on craniofacial growth and morphology with a functional appliance; surgery should be considered only in so far as the adequacy of TMJ movement is concemed. Methods: From 1992 until now 72 children with proved JIA and TMJ involvement have been treated (50 females, 22 males, aged 6 to 16 years old. TMJ involvement was bilateral in 61% and unilateral in 39% of patients. A diagnostic workup was carried out involving tomograms of TMJ and cephalometric radiograph and analysis. The authors used a bimaxillary activator in the attempt to modify the unfavourable growth pattern and provide a gradual ante-rotation of the jaw. Results: Almost all JIA patients showed satisfactory long term results, easing of pain, reduced skeletal discrepancy, increased function and good facial profile. Conclusions: The long term results of this study indicate that orthopaedic therapy might control the vicious circle of the malocclusion in children with JIA, preventing exacerbation of mandibular clockwise rotation. Surgical intervention for the improvement of TMJ function should be considered only if a severe restricted state is imminent.

  3. Performance evaluation of the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance (PerMMA).

    Wang, Hongwu; Xu, Jijie; Grindle, Garrett; Vazquez, Juan; Salatin, Ben; Kelleher, Annmarie; Ding, Dan; Collins, Diane M; Cooper, Rory A

    2013-11-01

    The Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance (PerMMA) is a recently developed personal assistance robot created to provide people with severe physical disabilities enhanced assistance in both mobility and manipulation. PerMMA aims to improve functional independence when a personal care attendant is not available on site. PerMMA integrates both a smart powered wheelchair and two dexterous robotic arms to assist its users in completing essential mobility and manipulation tasks during basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL). Two user interfaces were developed: a local control interface and a remote operator controller. This paper reports on the evaluation of PerMMA with end users completing basic ADL tasks. Participants with both lower and upper extremity impairments (N=15) were recruited to operate PerMMA and complete up to five ADL tasks in a single session of no more than two hours (to avoid fatigue or frustration of the participants). The performance of PerMMA was evaluated by participants completing ADL tasks with two different control modes: local mode and cooperative control. The users' task completion performance and answers on pre/post-evaluation questionnaires demonstrated not only the ease in learning and usefulness of PerMMA, but also their attitudes toward assistance from advanced technology like PerMMA. As a part of the iterative development process, results of this work will serve as supporting evidence to identify design criteria and other areas for improvement of PerMMA. PMID:23769146

  4. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  5. Implementationof Single Phasing, Over Voltage, Under Voltage, Protection of Three Phase Appliances without Using Microcontroller

    Girish Chandra Thakur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to develop for protection for costly appliances which require three-phase AC supply for operation. Failure of any of the phases or sudden change in voltage makes the appliance prone to erratic functioning and may even lead to failure. Hence it is of paramount importance to monitor the availability of the three-phase supply and proper voltage supply and switch off the appliance in the event of failure of one or two phases or if required voltage level is not available. The power to the appliance should resume with the availability of all phases of the supply with proper voltage level. The main advantage of this protector circuit is that it protects three-phase appliances from failure of any phase as well as from fluctuation of voltage. The concept in future can be extended to developing a mechanism to send message to the authority via SMS by interfacing GSM modem. Details description of all types of faults is given below.

  6. DNA damage in oral mucosa cells of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test.The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336.Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.

  7. Measured results and assessment of personal protection appliances against ionizing radiation

    Objective: To monitor the protective qualities of personal protective appliances and to ensure the health and safety of radiological working personnel. Methods: The lead-equivalent thickness of personal protective appliances and materials was measured by means of standard lead slices. The lead equivalent thickness represents in terms of mm Pb. Results: 77 pieces of products and samples were measured altogether. The results indicate that the specific lead equivalents of lead-rubber plates were between 0.20-0.39 mm Pb/mm for 37 pieces of lead-rubber plates and the values of 6 pieces of samples were less than 0.25 mm Pb/mm, which did not accord with the requirement of the relational standard. 27 pieces of personal protection appliances were measured altogether. They were 12 pieces of protective clothes, 4 pieces of protective headgears, 5 pieces of protective neckpieces, 4 pieces of protective gloves and 2 pieces of protective masks. 13 pairs of lead-glass spectacles among them were measured altogether. The measured results for personal protective appliances and lead-glass spectacles showed that actually measured lead-equivalent were higher than the nominal lead-equivalent. Conclusions: The protective qualities are reliable for personal protection materials and appliances to be made in home and imported abroad. But the protective qualities of interventional protection gloves should be improved and made them better. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  9. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  10. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM. CONCLUSION: FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  11. Environmental emission mitigation potential of efficient electrical appliances in Sri Lanka

    Shrestha, R.M.; Shrestha, R. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers` Association, Colombo (Slovakia)

    1998-08-01

    This study assesses the techno-economic potential of selected efficient demand-side appliances to mitigate emission of air pollutants from the power sector of Sri Lanka. The study shows that through the use of the selected efficient appliances a total of about 38 646 GWh (i.e. 18.5% of total electricity generation) and about 25.6% (29 541,000 tons), 34.2% (293,000 tons) and 34.6% (374,000 tons) of the total COsub(2), SOsub(2) and NOsub(x) emission respectively could be avoided during 1997-2015 with the use of the efficient appliances from the technical and national economic perspectives. (author)

  12. Remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy for advanced maxillary cancer. Treatment with individual appliances

    Seven advanced maxillary cancers, 5 squamous cell carcinomas, and 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas were treated with remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy. For treatment, we fabricated individual dental acrylic appliances for the postoperative area of the oral cavity. Because the appliance was specially matched to the remaining maxillary structures, radiation doses to the treated area were easily reproduced without distress to the patient. However, minor or major complications (moderate or severe mucositis and osteoradionecrosis) were observed in all patients. In this study, the number of patients was too small to assess the significance of this treatment. Nevertheless, with improvements, we think that remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy with a dental acrylic appliance will soon be used to treat advanced maxillary carcinoma. (author)

  13. Removable functional appliances effective in patients with Class II malocclusions.

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy

    2016-03-01

    Data sourcesMedline (Pubmed), Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Evidence-based Medicine, Scopus, LILACS database, Ovid database, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontolgogia, Bandolier, Atypon Link, African Journals Online, ProQuest, Conference Paper Index, German National Library of Medicine, metaRegister of Controlled Trials.Study selectionRandomised Controlled Trials (RCT) or prospective Controlled Clinical Trials (pCCT) in patients with Class II malocclusions that compared at least one removable functional appliance (RFA) with a non-intervention control. Primary outcomes were angular measurements of skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes as measured by lateral cephalographs.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third author assessed bias across studies. Pooling of data was done if similar control groups were used and if the same angular cephalometric measurements were reported. A random-effects model was used to analyse pooled estimates and results were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The extent and impact of heterogeneity was assessed.ResultsData were pooled from seventeen studies (seven RCTs and ten pCCT) involving 1031 patients with a mean age of 10.6 years. Most of the RCTs were associated with high risk of bias while most of the pCCTs were without serious methodological limitations. RFA treatment in Class II malocclusions was shown to have a statistically significant short-term effect on skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationships when compared to untreated controls. There is a minimal reduction of SNA (MD=-0.26 degree/year, 95% CI=-0.44 to -0.12 degree/year), minimal increase of SNB (MD=0.62 degree/year, 95% CI=0.36 to 0.88 degree/year) and a small decrease in ANB (MD= -1.14degree/year, 95% CI=-1.52 to 0.77 degree/year). Maxillary incisors were significantly

  14. Changes in subgingival microflora after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Živković-Sandić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The placement of fixed orthodontic appliances may lead to increased plaque accumulation and changes in subgingival microflora. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in frequency of subgingival microflora that occur after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods. This study included 33 orthodontic patients, who were divided into two groups. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the right upper incisor (U1 and right upper first molar (U6. In group A, the samples were taken three times: before placement appliance (T1, after one month (T2, and after 3 months (T3. In group B the samples were also taken three times: before appliance removal (T1, after one month (T2, and after three months (T3. PCR method was used to determine the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia. Results. In group A the frequency of P. gingivalis showed statistically significant decrease at U1 (p=0.049 and U6 (p=0.008, from T1 to T2, and at U1 (p=0.048 from T1 to T3. In group B only the frequency of T. forsythia showed a statistically significant decrease, at U6 (T1 vs. T2, p=0.004; T1 vs. T3, p=0.0003. Regarding other analyzed bacteria, changes in the presence were noticed but no statistical significance was found. Conclusion. Placement of fixed appliances may have an impact on subgingival microflora, but in the first months after the placement and removal of the appliance changes were not significant, probably due to good oral hygiene. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  15. Low level laser intensity improves propulsive appliance effects on condylar cartilage

    Figueiredo, Augusto C. R.; dos Santos, Fernanda C. A.; Capeletti, Lucas R.; Galdino, Marcos V. B.; Araújo, Renan V.; Marques, Mara R.

    2012-01-01

    Mandibular propulsive appliance (MPA) stimulates cell proliferation and gene expression on mandible condylar cartilage (Marques et al., 2008). However, its association with low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT associated to MPA on mandibular condyle. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I received any treatment. Group II was bilaterally irradiated on temporomandibular joint with 10 J/cm2 low level laser (780nm, 40mW and 10s) on alternate days. Group III used the propulsive appliance for ten hours daily and Group IV used the appliance daily and was irradiated on alternate days. After 15 days the animals were killed by lethal doses of anesthetics. The condyles were fixed in Methacarn solution and decalcified in 4.13% EDTA solution for 30 days. Seriate saggital 5 μm-thick sections were stained by the hematoxilin-eosin method. Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed to measure the length and the height of the mandibular condyle, the thickness of the condilar cartilage and the bone mass. Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-test.) The appliance increased all measures compared to the control group, except bone mass. Alone, LLLT had no effects on all measures, however, the association of the appliance with the LLLT increased condylar cartilage and bone mass significantly compared to the others groups. These results suggest that LLLT improves the effects of mandibular propulsive appliance in the condylar cartilage growth and formation of bone mass.

  16. Using smart meter to monitor the energy consumption of home appliances

    A smart meter provides the foundation for the smart grid, which represent the future electric system in terms of communications, sensors and automation to improve the flexibility, reliability and efficiency of power systems. Smart meters are installed at the utility-customer interface point to provide real-time power usage and price data to each electricity user. The purpose is to create customer awareness on electricity consumption and help users to conserve energy. Smart meters are being deployed throughout North America to replace most traditional meters. However, this paper discussed a major technical gap of the smart meter. Existing smart meters do not provide households with enough feedback needed to achieve effective energy saving. In order to support the energy conservation effort of a customer, the whole house energy data must be displayed on minute or second basis, and it must also be broken down into individual appliance levels. The data of an appliance's energy usage is the most useful information for users to modify their actions and conserve energy. This paper proposed to make the smart meter capable of reporting the overall consumption of a household, as well as monitoring how individual appliances use electricity. It presented a method on using different appliance signatures to identify appliances and make energy estimations on their respective consumptions. Paired with time-of-use or other real time pricing mechanisms, the method enables customers to save energy. This paper also demonstrated how to implement an algorithm on the smart meter platform. Future work will focus on making the algorithm more accurate and faster, and on integrating the smart meter with an appliance energy monitoring system. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  18. Impact of functional mandibular advancement appliances on the temporomandibular joint - a systematic review

    Ivorra-Carbonell, Laura; Montiel-Company, José-María; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many orthodontists have no doubts about the effectiveness of functional appliances for mandibular advancement, the impact on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is still in dispute. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the main effects on the TMJ of using functional appliances, both in healthy patients and in patients with a pre-existing disorder. Material and Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Only systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), case-control studies and cohort studies were included. A detailed language-independent electronic search was conducted in the Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Embase databases. All studies published between 2000 and 2015 were included. Results A total of 401 articles were identified. Of these, 159 were duplicates and were excluded. On reading the title and abstract, 213 articles were excluded because they did not answer the research question, leaving a total of 29 articles. These articles were read and assessed. Following critical reading of the full text, eight articles were excluded: seven because they were considered of low quality and one because it published redundant data. As a result, 21 articles were included. Conclusions After treatment with functional appliances, the condyle was found to be in a more advanced position, with remodelling of the condyle and adaptation of the morphology of the glenoid fossa. No significant adverse effects on the TMJ were observed in healthy patients and the appliances could improve joints that initially presented forward dislocation of the disk. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, TMJ, orthodontic appliances, functional, mandibular advancement, herbst appliance, bionator. PMID:27475694

  19. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea patients using oral appliances: Our experiences

    Miljuš Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. It is recognized as a serious risk factor for car and workplace accidents due to daytime sleepiness, and factor for coronary heart diseases and stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of oral appliances for mandibular advance in treating mild to moderate OSA. Methods. A total of 15 patients were included in this study, all diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA. Oral appliances were custom made for each patient in protrusive position at 50% of maximum mandibular advancement. The patients were given instructions not to sleep on their backs and avoid alcohol consumption during the study as these are the factors that can contribute to symptoms progression. Results. Complete and partial treatment success was achieve in 14 of the patients. Apnea-hypopnea index values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 at the end of a 6-month observation period compared to those at the treatment beginning. A great improvement in symptoms was observed, with daytime sleepiness index values significantly reduced already within the first month of the treatment. Conclusion. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances has proven successful. Patients were comfortable using oral appliances and were ready to wear them for prolonged period of time. Use of oral appliances is very common in the world and should not be discarded. They are also very comfortable, practical and affordable comparing to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP apparatus, not to mention surgery. Use of oral appliances is safe and very well tolerated, and ought to be offered to patients with OSA.

  20. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  1. A retrospective cephalometric study of the effects of the Harvold appliance in the treatment of 20 patients with a Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    McNamara, C M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the Harvold appliance on the dentoalveolar and skeletal structures and note the changes produced. The primary impact of the Harvold appliance as shown in this study was dentoalveolar.

  2. 76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    2011-08-05

    ... Appliances, EERE-2011-BT-NOA-0038, 1000 ] Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Phone: (202.... Phone: (202) 586-2945. Please submit one signed paper original. Instructions: All submissions received... appliance to change its normal operating behavior in response to a signal from a utility or another...

  3. The visible problems of the invisible computer: A skeptical look at information appliances

    Odlyzko, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The future is said to belong to information appliances, specialized and easy to use devices that will have the car tell the coffee pot to brew a cup of coffee just in time for our arrival home. These gadgets are supposed to eliminate the complexity and resulting frustrations of the PC. The thesis of this essay is that while information appliances will proliferate, they will not lessen the perception of an exasperating electronic environment. The interaction of the coffee pot, the car, the sma...

  4. Mini-screws, a viable adjunct along with Incognito lingual appliance: A case series

    Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invisible orthodontics have been around for too long, and with the advent of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology appliances such as Incognito TM has made the whole treatment experience more pleasant and aesthetic. However, even in lingual orthodontics, biomechanics play the most important role, and the use of temporary anchorage devices (TADs has made the whole treatment more effective and efficient. This article focuses on cases where TADs in lingual appliances play a critical role in the treatment of various malocclusions.

  5. A High-Sensitivity Hydraulic Load Cell for Small Kitchen Appliances

    Franc Novak; Roman Pačnik

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a hydraulic load cell made from hydroformed metallic bellows. The load cell was designed for a small kitchen appliance with the weighing function integrated into the composite control and protection of the appliance. It is a simple, low-cost solution with small dimensions and represents an alternative to the existing hydraulic load cells in industrial use. A good non-linearity and a small hysteresis were achieved. The influence of temperature leads to an error of 7.5%...

  6. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    , development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsor to distribute copies of this book worldwide, at no charge, for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.clasponline.org and may be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  7. New Focus of Information Industry——Information Household Appliances%信息产业的新视点——信息家电

    王菲

    2000-01-01

    Information household appliances have been the new focus of information industry, which comes with the "Venus'Plan. This article introduces the definition of information household appliances, and then their software and hardware technologies. Information household appliances will become the main products of information industry in the 21~(st) century, which will also promote the informatization process of the world.

  8. Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2003-09-01

    The South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI/Energy) calls for a series of activities to promote Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) of end use appliances in the region. In pursuit of this goal, the project supports several seminars and meetings that bring together policymakers and stakeholders from throughout the region. The purpose of these gatherings is to encourage a dialogue among participants as to the benefits and barriers associated with EES&L programs. In addition, it is the role of the program organizers to provide participants with the technical details necessary to make progress towards effective efficiency programs. One component of the initiative is to encourage the harmonization (alignment) of existing program components, and the pursuit of new programs coordinated at the regional level. In support of this goal, the report provides information aimed at motivating and enabling cooperative activities which will provide concrete benefits to programs in each country, whether well developed, or still in the initial planning stage. It should be emphasized that the underlying objective of the harmonization component of the SARI/Energy project is to increase the potential for success of EES&L programs of all countries involved, and to reduce burdens on manufacturers, exporters and importers in each country. Harmonization ''for it's own sake'' is not desirable, nor is it suggested that policymakers should bring their programs in line with international norms if doing so would present a disadvantage to their own efficiency programs, or to commercial interests within their country. If there is no such disadvantage, however, the program encourages alignment of policies and provides a forum at which this alignment can be pursued. The report covers several main topics, with varying emphasis. First, a general discussion of the motivation for an explicit policy of regional harmonization is given. Next, the current status

  9. Space Maintenance with an Innovative “Tube and Loop” Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance)

    Grover, Jyotika; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limitations both for operators and for patients. Presented in this article is an innovative “Tube and Loop” SM (Nikhil appliance) which offers several advantages over the conventional band and loop SM. It is not only easy and quick to fabricate but can also be completed in a single sitting and cumbersome steps like impression making and laboratory procedures namely soldering are eliminated. How to cite this article: Srivastava N, Grover J, Panthri P. Space Maintenance with an Innovative “Tube and Loop” Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):86-89. PMID:27274163

  10. Distributed demand side management via smart appliances contributing to frequency control

    ZHANG Wei-chen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays renewable energy has become a trend for energy production but its variable nature has made balancing of demand and supply of the power grid difficult. Dynamic demand management using smart appliances is proposed to serve as a way that part of the regulation burden of balancing demand and supply is shifted to the demand side. However, if all appliances respond to the same frequency deviation, they may start to synchronize, causing large power overshoots and instability of the power grid. Therefore, the idea of implementing randomness into the frequency control of the appliances is proposed and this is what we call a stochastic approach. Simulators are built from scratch to model both scenarios. The effect of synchronization is analyzed and the parameters that can affect the synchronization are investigated. It has been found that the larger the contribution from the smart appliances to the power grid, the easier and faster the synchronization takes place. The stochastic approach solves the problem of synchronization and averages out the large power overshoot. However, the overall performance of stochastic operations is unacceptable due to the randomness in the operation though the mean and variance are as expected. More advanced feedback policies and schemes may be designed to achieve a better performance.

  11. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  12. Regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances using reversible fair scheduling

    Kardaras, Georgios; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Iversen, Villy Bæk;

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances. To achieve this objective, we will make use of the reversible fair scheduling algorithm originally developed for telecommunication networks. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation...

  13. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  14. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users

  15. The stoma appliances market in five European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio

    2002-01-01

    This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market. PMID:14618747

  16. Refrigerator efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa

    In some cases, a simple replication of developed country appliance efficiency labels and standards may not be completely feasible in Ghana, Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developed country appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should be possible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true in developed countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiency improvements provide the greatest energy savings potential in the residential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like many African countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does not have manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approach may hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of used appliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges of the Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energy efficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigerator market transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an average energy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetary savings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modified refrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaian context. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be an example for many other African countries

  17. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances : A proof of concept

    van der Meer, W. Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. METHODS: The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (

  18. Classification of Household Appliance Operation Cycles: A Case-Study Approach

    Zeyu Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a new generation of power grid system, referred to as the Smart Grid, with an aim of managing electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, and economical manner has emerged. With greater knowledge of operational characteristics of individual appliances, necessary automation control strategies can be developed in the Smart Grid to operate appliances in an efficient manner. This paper provides a way of classifying different operational cycles of a household appliance by introducing an unsupervised learning algorithm called k-means clustering. An intrinsic method known as silhouette coefficient was used to measure the classification quality. An identification process is also discussed in this paper to help users identify the operation mode each types of operation cycle stands for. A case study using a typical household refrigerator is presented to validate the proposed method. Results show that the proposed the classification and identification method can partition and identify different operation cycles adequately. Classification of operation cycles for such appliances is beneficial for Smart Grid as it provides a clear and convincing understanding of the operation modes for effective power management.

  19. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... equivalent to that provided by the TSO designated in § 21.305(b); and (2) The manufacturer has submitted...

  20. 77 FR 14008 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)

    2012-03-08

    ... connection with the performance of duties imposed upon the Department of Energy by law and agreement. The... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  1. Application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene in waste-appliances

    Highlights: → Polypropylene is mechanically recycled from waste-appliances. → Recycled polypropylene (RPP) is impact enhanced polypropylene with ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). → Performance evaluation shows that RPP is applicable to refrigerator plastics. -- Abstract: For the application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene (PP) in waste-appliances, it needs to identify the degradation and heterogeneity of recycled polypropylene (RPP). It is applicable the thermal analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), spectroscopic analysis such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and morphological analysis such as scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The analysis results show that RPP from waste-appliances is the polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) copolymer enhanced impact property (Impact-PP) and it is possible to apply refrigerator plastics with good impact property at low temperature. Finally, the performance evaluation of RPP is estimated by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis and is performed by the various mechanical and physical testing methods. It shows that RPP has relatively high molecular weight and balanced properties with strength and toughness. It is expected that RPP by the mechanical recycling from waste-appliances will have about 50% cost-merit.

  2. 46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    2010-10-01

    ... remotely controlled from a normally manned control station, and be operable locally from both sides of the... station. (2) Each closing appliance must remain watertight under the design water pressure of the... met. In either case, control systems for watertight doors must have power supplies, power...

  3. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    2010-01-01

    .... Product means an aircraft, aircraft engine, or aircraft propeller. Record means any writing, drawing, map... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally false statements. When conveying information related to an advertisement or sales transaction, no person may...

  4. 78 FR 51100 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar

    2013-08-20

    .../Webinar AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open Teleconference/Webinar. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Appliance Standards and..., 2013 at 1:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. (EDT). ADDRESSES: Webinar Only, you may register at...

  5. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months : a controlled observational study

    Maret, Delphine; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Hamel, Olivier; Georgelin-Gurgel, Marie; Van Der Sluis, Lucas; Sixou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eigh

  6. 78 FR 57139 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...

    2013-09-17

    ... storage, suggesting that this temperature is presumed to be representative of expected consumer use. 77 FR... Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America Corporation (PAPRSA) From the Department of Energy... Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America (PAPRSA) a waiver from the DOE electric refrigerator...

  7. Helping Repair "Orphans" of Electrical Household Appliances--Galanz's Third Battlefield

    2005-01-01

    @@ In the first week of March, Beijing with gradual wakening of Spring, Yu Yaochang, an important figure in China's electrical household appliances industry, appeared in chatting rooms of different big websites such as Yahoo and Sohu to release a"project".

  8. Helping Repair "Orphans" of Electrical Household Appliances--Galanz's Third Battlefield

    2005-01-01

      In the first week of March, Beijing with gradual wakening of Spring, Yu Yaochang, an important figure in China's electrical household appliances industry, appeared in chatting rooms of different big websites such as Yahoo and Sohu to release a"project".……

  9. A Fuzzy Inference System Design for ICP Protocol Optimization in Cache Appliances Hierarchies

    Oscar Linares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A cache appliance is a network terminal which provides cache memory functions, such as object queries service from a user; such objects could be stored in one cache or in a cache hierarchy, trying to avoid carry out service from an origin server. This cache appliance structure improves network performance and quality of service. These appliances use ICP protocol (Internet Cache Protocol to support interoperation between existing cache hierarchies and web servers, through implementation of a message format to communicate web caches. One cache sends an ICP query to its neighbors. The neighbors send back ICP replies indicating "HIT" or "MISS". When one cache faces an excessive traffic situation, that is, a very high number of service queries from users, ICP protocol may allocate the service to cache which has the desired object. Because of traffic conditions, specific appliance may congests and the requests may be refused, which can decrease network's quality of service. So, a system designed for optimizing cache allocation, considering factors as traffic and priority could be useful. This paper presents a fuzzy inference system design, which uses entries such as number of queries over a time interval and traffic tendency, and as output, the web cache allocation decision that will provides the service; this design is proposed to optimize allocation of caches into a hierarchy for network services performance, so balancing out requesting among hierarchy members and improving services performance.

  10. FIXED OR REMOVABLE APPLIANCE FOR EARLY ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT OF FUNCTIONAL ANTERIOR CROSSBITE.

    Wiedel, Anna-Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Anterior crossbite with functional shift also called pseudo Class III is a malocclusion in which the incisal edges of one or more maxillary incisors occlude with the incisal edges of the mandibular incisors in centric relationship: the mandible and mandibular incisors are then guided anteriorly in central occlusion resulting in an anterior crossbite. Early correction, at the mixed dentition stage, is recommended, in order to avoid a compromising dentofacial condition which could result in the development of a true Class III malocclusion and temporomandibular symptoms. Various treatment options are available. The method of choice for orthodontic correction of this condition should not only be clinically effective, with long-term stability, but also cost-effective and have high patient acceptance, i.e. minimal perceived pain and discomfort. At the mixed dentition stage, the condition may be treated by fixed (FA) or removable appliance (RA). To date there is insufficient evidence to determine the preferred method. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to compare and evaluate the use of FA and RA for correcting anterior crossbite with functional shift in the mixed dentition, with special reference to clinical effectiveness, stability, cost-effectiveness and patient perceptions. Evidence-based, randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology was used, in order to generate a high level of evidence. The thesis is based on the following studies: The material comprised 64 patients, consecutively recruited from the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden and from one Public Dental Health Service Clinic in Malmö, Skane County Council, Sweden. The patients were no syndrome and no cleft patients. The following inclusion criteria were applied: early to late mixed dentition, anterior crossbite affecting one or more incisors with functional shift, moderate space deficiency in the maxilla, no inherent skeletal Class III discrepancy, ANB

  11. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset. PMID:25984347

  12. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea: results of a randomised placebo controlled trial using parallel group design

    Petri, N.; Svanholt, P.; Solow, B.;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non......-advancement appliance (MNA); and (c) no intervention. The appliances were custom made, in one piece. The MAAs had a mean protrusion of the mandible of 74% (range 64-85%). Outcome measures, assessed after continuous use for 4 weeks, were AHI (polysomnography), daytime sleepiness (Epworth) and quality of life (SF-36...

  13. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults

    Daniela Feu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the esthetic perception of different appliances by Brazilian lay adults and its influence in the attributed value of orthodontic treatment, considering evaluators' socioeconomic status, age and gender. METHODS: Eight different combinations of orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners were placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile. Standardized frontal photographs were captured and incorporated into a research album. A sample of adults (n = 252, median = 26 years old were asked to rate each image for (1 its attractiveness on a visual analog scale and (2 the willingness to pay (WTP for a cosmetic appliance when compared to a standard metalic appliance and a clear tray aligner. Comparisons between the appliances' attractiveness were performed using the Friedman's test and Dann's post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances' attributed value, socioeconomic status, age, gender, and esthetic perception was assessed using Spearman's correlation analysis. RESULTS: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied significantly in the following hierarchy: Clear aligners>sapphire brackets>self-ligating/conventional stainless steel brackets>and golden metal appliances. The correlation between WTP and esthetic perception was week. However, for individuals with better socioeconomic status and aged between 17-26 years old significantly, a significantly higher WTP was found. CONCLUSION: Clear aligners and sapphire brackets with esthetic archwire were considered better esthetic options in this sample. Nevertheless, patients were not willing to pay more money for appliances they deemed more esthetic, however, they were significantly influenced by their socioeconomic level and age.OBJETIVO: avaliar a percepção de brasileiros adultos leigos para diferentes aparelhos ortodônticos e sua influência na valorização econômica do tratamento, considerando o nível socioeconômico, idade e sexo dos avaliadores. M

  14. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  15. Electricity saving possibilities in household and office appliances including lighting; Kotitalouksien ja toimistotilojen laitesaehkoen kaeytoen tehostaminen

    Korhonen, A.; Sillanpaeae, L. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Pihala, H.; Ranne, A.; Ahponwn, V. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The task was to assess the penetration of new technology and its effects on energy efficiency by 2010 of household electricity consumption, excluding leisure time dwelling and space and water heating, and electricity consumption of office appliances and lighting in the service sector. The work was based on secondary analysis. The BAU scenario showed that in Finland refrigeration appliances and lighting will consume the biggest shares of household electricity in 2010, followed by cooking, sauna, and consumer electronics, which will increase proportionally most. Using the existing best energy efficient technologies, not always economically feasible, will decrease the expected consumption, e.g. that of consumer electronics by 20 %, of lighting by 65 %, and of refrigeration by 14 % compared to the BAU scenario. Refrigeration appliances will still consume the biggest share. In the area of lighting, bringing into use the best technical solutions will produce bigger savings in consumption than in other areas altogether. However, accounting for the additional heat the appliances and lighting are producing, the technically possible savings, 2 050 GWh/a, of household electricity in 2010 will decrease by 15 % meaning a total amount of 1 740 GWh/a, and increase non- electric heating energy by 580 GWh/a. In offices, electricity consumption of 720 GWh/a of present equipment is quite possible to decrease by 30 %, by utilizing the power management of the appliances. Compared to the BAU scenario, it is possible yearly to save 480 GWh/a, 67 % of the consumption of the office equipment, 690 GWh/a, 75 % of the consumption of lighting by the year 2010 by using the best technologies in all offices. Calculations on the office equipment are based on present consumption and on present best technologies. Savings in consumption of lighting are based on estimations on office spaces in 2010 on the presumption of using the best technologies in all uses. This development will, in one hand

  16. What can we learn from high-frequency appliance-level energy metering? Results from a field experiment

    This study uses high-frequency appliance-level electricity consumption data for 124 apartments over 24 months to provide a better understanding of appliance-level electricity consumption behavior. We conduct our analysis in a standardized set of apartments with similar appliances, which allows us to identify behavioral differences in electricity use. The Results show that households' estimations of appliance-level consumption are inaccurate and that they overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate plug-load use by 29%. We find that similar households using the same major appliances exhibit substantial variation in appliance-level electricity consumption. For example, households in the 75th percentile of HVAC usage use over four times as much electricity as a user in the 25th percentile. Additionally, we show that behavior accounts for 25–58% of this variation. Lastly, we find that replacing the existing refrigerator with a more energy-efficient model leads to overall energy savings of approximately 11%. This is equivalent to results from behavioral interventions targeting all appliances but might not be as cost effective. Our findings have important implications for behavior-based energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Hourly electricity usage was collected from 124 comparable apartments for 24 months. • Households overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate HVAC usage by 29%. • Households using the same appliances show substantial variations in electricity use. • Plug load accounts for the largest share of electricity use at all hours of the day. • Savings of 11% were achieved by replacing old refrigerators

  17. Do you do Damon®? What is the current evidence base underlying the philosophy of this appliance system?

    Wright, Natasha; Modarai, Faranak; Cobourne, Martyn T; Dibiase, Andrew T

    2011-09-01

    Self-ligating bracket systems are increasing in popularity amongst orthodontists. This reflects their high quality engineering, improved reliability and relative ease of use. However, it might also be related to claims of superior function made by the manufacturers of these appliances. In particular, the Damon(®) appliance system claims to offer significant advantages to both orthodontist and patient over conventional-ligation and other forms of self-ligated appliances. We have reviewed current literature relating to use of the Damon(®) appliance system. There is some evidence to suggest this appliance may lead to reductions in chairside time for the orthodontist, particularly those experienced with this system, in comparison to conventional-ligation. However, evidence that pain experience is reduced for the patient when using Damon(®) brackets is not conclusive. In the presence of identical archwire sequences, there is no evidence that Damon(®) brackets can align teeth faster or in a qualitatively differently manner, when compared with conventional-ligation. There is no high quality evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance takes place more rapidly or leads to a superior occlusal or aesthetic result. Indeed, the best available evidence would suggest there is no difference in treatment outcome or time, at least in extraction cases. There is no evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance is more stable. Claims relating to improved clinical performance of the Damon(®) appliance system are currently being made to orthodontists and patients that are not substantiated in the scientific literature. PMID:21875995

  18. A Comparative Survey on Importance of Marketing Communications between European Companies and Eastern Asian Companies for Home Appliances in Iran

    Ali Akbar Farhangi; Sepideh Irani; Ali Reza Irani

    2013-01-01

    Marketing communications or promotion is one of the elements which can have an effect on consumers’ behavior through five important and effective marketing elements. Among all commercial products, household appliances are significantly noteworthy based on their strategic nature. Exploiting marketing communications mix in selling domestic appliances produced in other countries, in an attempt to sell them in Iran could effectively entice customers into buying such products through the manipulat...

  19. Functional appliance treatment for bilateral condylar fracture in a pediatric patient.

    Medina, Aida Carolina

    2009-01-01

    Trauma to the mandible may cause condylar fracture (CF). The prevalence of CF in children is low and treatment must focus on possible long-term effects on the growing facial skeleton and soft tissues. Consequences may include functional disturbances, facial asymmetry, mandibular retrusion, temporomandibular joint dysfunction and ankylosis. Conservative treatment, including close observation, soft diet, physiotherapy, and functional appliances, is advised in most cases. The purpose of this report was to describe the case of a pediatric female patient with bilateral condylar fracture. Treatment consisted of physiotherapy and hybrid functional appliances. Satisfactory remodeling of both condyles occurred and normal occlusion and jaw movements were obtained. Close monitoring will continue throughout the 6-year follow-up period and completion of growth. The conservative treatment approach proved successful in this case. PMID:19947140

  20. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  1. A study to detect important factors influencing purchasing product: A case study of home appliances

    Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.

  2. Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    Dušan Gošnik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some natural sources, technological break-through, fulfilment of the market and strong competition direct us towards new innovations which will in their development consider also the social and environmental aspect as well.

  3. Database Are Not Toasters: A Framework for Comparing Data Warehouse Appliances

    Trajman, Omer; Crolotte, Alain; Steinhoff, David; Nambiar, Raghunath Othayoth; Poess, Meikel

    The success of Business Intelligence (BI) applications depends on two factors, the ability to analyze data ever more quickly and the ability to handle ever increasing volumes of data. Data Warehouse (DW) and Data Mart (DM) installations that support BI applications have historically been built using traditional architectures either designed from the ground up or based on customized reference system designs. The advent of Data Warehouse Appliances (DA) brings packaged software and hardware solutions that address performance and scalability requirements for certain market segments. The differences between DAs and custom installations make direct comparisons between them impractical and suggest the need for a targeted DA benchmark. In this paper we review data warehouse appliances by surveying thirteen products offered today. We assess the common characteristics among them and propose a classification for DA offerings. We hope our results will help define a useful benchmark for DAs.

  4. Market Sentiment Deterioration and Stock Returns: The Case of the Japanese Electric Appliances Industry

    Chikashi Tsuji

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the characteristics of the return dynamics of the Japanese electric appliances industry stocks in markets with deteriorated investor sentiment. The contributions derived by our empirical analysis are as follows. First, this paper newly clarifies that high beta stocks show conjunctional behavior when investor sentiment is deteriorated in stock markets. Second, we also clarify that high size stocks also exhibit conjunctional behaviors in markets with deteriorated sent...

  5. Evaluation of a prevention programme efficiency for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Matić Sava; Ivanović Mirjana; Nikolić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Orthodontic treatment enables the establishment of functional occlusion and improvement of oral health, however, it increases the risk of periodontal disease development. The aim of this paper was to examine the efficiency of the applied programme for the prevention of gingivitis in children undergoing the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy and to determine the most efficient devices and techniques for maintaining oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. Methods. The ...

  6. Strategic decision support for marketing communication : an agentbased simulation of consumer attitudes to smart home appliances

    Dam, Koen H. van; Sanden, Maarten C.A. van der; Stragier, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Marketing and communication professionals are responsible for building long term relationships with customers and managing the information exchange. The roll-out of smart energy meters to households presents a particular challenge as network and energy companies would benefit from the smart grid while the advantages for households are less visible. In this study we use survey data from a pilot project on smart home appliances to create an agent-based social simulation which can provide decisi...

  7. Appliance Recognition in an OSGi-Based Home Energy Management Gateway

    Federica Paganelli; Francesca Paradiso; Stefano Turchi; Antonio Luchetta; Pino Castrogiovanni; Dino Giuli

    2015-01-01

    The rational use and management of energy is considered a key societal and technological challenge. Home energy management systems (HEMS) have been introduced especially in private home domains to support users in managing and controlling energy consuming devices. Recent studies have shown that informing users about their habits with appliances as well as their usage pattern can help to achieve energy reduction in private households. This requires instruments able to monitor energy consumptio...

  8. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead Evaluation Volume II - Appendices

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report included the appendices for 1992-1993 Bonneville appliance efficiency program: showerhead evaluation. It consists of nine appendices, titled: Bonneville documents; overview of research projects; Puget Power and Light persistence study; hot-water flow analyses and assumptions documentation; regional end-use metering program; showerhead and faucet aerator performance assessment; Bonneville showerhead program distribution methods by participating utility; water- and energy-saving measure distribution methods literature review; REMP study load shape results.

  9. Cash for Coolers : Evaluating a Large-Scale Appliance Replacement Program in Mexico

    Lucas W. Davis; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a large-scale appliance replacement program in Mexico that from 2009 to 2012 helped 1.9 million households replace their old refrigerators and air conditioners with energy-efficient models. Using household-level billing records from the universe of Mexican residential customers, we find that refrigerator replacement reduces electricity consumption by 8 percent, about one-quarter of what was predicted by ex ante analyses. Moreover, we find that air conditioning replacement...

  10. Do first mover advantages for producers of energy efficient appliances exist? The case of refrigerators

    Cleff, Thomas; Rennings, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency regulation is an important driver for innovations in environmental technologies. Improvements of energy efficiency do not only contribute to reach envi-ronmental policy targets, they can be furthermore economically profitable. E.g. private households can reduce their costs in the long term by using efficient household appli-ances. But how can the specific competitive position on this market be assessed for German producers, and how strong is the competitiveness from firms co...

  11. Application of shape changing smart materials in household appliances: A fragmented and inconsistent uptake

    Bin Kassim, A.; Horvath, I.; Gerritsen, B.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shape changing smart materials (SCSM) have a wide range of applications, supporting product functions through material features. Surprisingly, their application in consumer durables such as household appliances is not as expected. This phenomenon could be related to a possible SCSM knowledge gap among designers, or unidentified design constraints; literature does not provide a convincing explanation. Our objective is to describe this phenomenon more accurately as a first step towards future a...

  12. Temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: treatment with an orthodontic appliance

    Gattinara, M; Gerloni, V; P. Ghiringhelli; C. Bellintani; G. Farronato; F. Fantini

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and purpose: About 65% of children suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) shows a more or less marked involvement of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) with altered mandibular growth, resorption of the condyles, occlusary instability, reduced chewing ability and facial dysmorphia. The purpose of our study is to prevent and to treat the progressive evolution of JIA on craniofacial growth and morphology with a functional appliance; surgery should be considered only in so fa...

  13. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  14. Standby and Off-Mode Energy Losses In New Appliances Measured in Shops

    De Almeida, Anibal T.; Patrão, Carlos; Fonseca, Paula; Araújo, Rui; Nunes, Urbano; Rochas, Claudio; Bulgakova, Julija; Rivière, Philippe; Da Silva, David; Rahbar, Ali; Fjordbak, Troels; Schlomann, Barbara; Lazar, Iuliana; Burlacu, Camelia; Valentova, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the most important results of the Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) Project SELINA - Standby and Off-Mode Energy Losses In New Appliances Measured in Shops. Standby power is a general term commonly used to describe the low power modes in which many electrical and electronic products are, when not performing their main function. For more than a decade, it has been recognized that the energy consumption in low power modes for electrical and electronic product...

  15. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance . Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility.

  16. What is the suitable marketing strategy for Electrolux China Small Home Appliance Co. Ltd

    Wu, Yuzhen

    2011-01-01

    Electrolux Small Home Appliance Co. Ltd is facing increasing competitions in China and should update its outdated marketing plan as soon as possible. This study focuses on analyzing the main marketing issues of the company, such as the target markets, the brand and the distribution channels. Furthermore, concrete counter measures are introduced in the study. The research is based on the analysis of the marketing environment, the main competitors and Electrolux‟s resources and capability. A...

  17. Objective measurement of compliance during oral appliance therapy for sleep-disordered breathing

    Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Dieltjens, Marijke; Wouters, Kristien; De Backer, Wilfried A.; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Braem, Marc J

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral appliance (OA) therapy is increasingly prescribed as a non-continuous positive airway pressure treatment modality for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Although OA therapy is reported to be efficacious for the treatment of SDB, data on compliance remain limited to self-report. Methods In this 3-month prospective clinical trial, the main outcome was to assess the safety and feasibility of an objective measurement of compliance during OA therapy using an embedded microsensor the...

  18. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead evaluation. Volume I - report

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) provides wholesale electric power to over 100 retail distribution utilities in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville is faced with meeting growing loads from these utilities. It acquires conservation as one means of meeting this load growth. Bonneville has offered a variety of conservation programs since 1980. Efficient showerheads have been a feature in residential conservation programs ever since. Bonneville launched the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program to focus on water-heater energy conservation opportunities in 1992. The Residential Appliance Efficiency Program consists of two parts, a water-heater efficiency program, and a hot-water efficiency program. This report evaluates the savings and costs of the first two years of the showerhead portion of the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program (the showerhead program). Although it is not a formal evaluation of the program limited to implementation or a {open_quotes}process{close_quotes} evaluation, observations about program design and implementation are included as appropriate. Results of this evaluation are limited to program participants within the Bonneville service territory.

  19. Present status and problems of electron beam sterilization of medical appliances

    With the remarkable progress of medical techniques and polymer technology, various plastic medical appliances have been developed and employed. So far, these medical appliances have been sterilized mainly by the heating in autoclaves and the fumigation with ethylene oxide gas, but there have been the problems of the heat resistance of materials, residual chemicals, secondary contamination and so on, and the concentration of residual ethylene oxide in working environment is strictly regulated because of its toxicity. It was recognized that radiation sterilization is extremely safe and reliable, and also in Japan, eight facilities using Co-60 gamma ray have been in operation, but since Co-60 is not produced in Japan, the practical use of electron beam sterilization technology is desirable. The history and present status of radiation sterilization are described. As compared with gamma ray sterilization, the features of electron beam sterilization are the energy can be changed continuously in wide range, the efficiency of energy utilization is very high, and the power output is very large, accordingly the irradiation cost is lowered as the quantity of treatment increases. The index bacteria for electron beam sterilization and the effect of electron beam to the materials of medical appliances are discussed. (K.I.)

  20. Energy Efficiency of Electrical Appliances - Effects of Instruments and Measures; Energieeffizienz bei Elektrogeraeten

    Brunner, C.U.; Bush, E.; Gasser, S.; Lingenhel, S.; Nipkow, J.

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of an analysis made of the market for electrical appliances in Switzerland with the aim of understanding the instruments and measures needed to improve energy efficiency better. The paper reports on reviews made of previous studies that were made in Switzerland and Germany and on interviews made with important persons and institutions in this field. Eight basic findings are listed concerning market expansion, technical progress, user behaviour, efficiency, possibilities for intervention, market forces, efficient appliances as a niche market and the competence lacking in the energy-efficiency area. Twelve basic points to be considered in the implementation of an energy-efficiency strategy are discussed and a list of requirements to be fulfilled by politics is presented. The results of the analysis for various sectors and the recommendations made for an implementation organisation are presented in detail. The report is concluded with a extract from the data base on the energy consumption of electrical appliances.

  1. The geography teacher's set of appliances - `GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' - Self improved school equipment used in teaching geography

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The multimedia application and the use of Internet are becoming more and more common at schools and at homes due to the widespread of computers. The multimedia programs offer a great help for geography teachers because with their use all the visual aids are not needed in the classroom. They mix the advantages of blacboards, slides, displays, overhead projectors and VCR-s. At the same time offering other opportunities which could not be provided by the aids mentioned above because of their limits. Using a projector connected to a computer students can see the visual aids prepared by the teacher projected. Their use is justified because student's books cannot contain all the increasing amount of knowledge. Success is guaranteed because students are sensitive to new approaches. Digitalizing the material and finding it on the internet that way preparing a colourful, varied geography lesson is a time-consuming process. Being the methodologist and didactic information technologist at the Geography Department of Eszterházy Károly College I have been working for years on facilitating the work of my students, colleagues and my own activity using varied visual aids and types of equipment as preparation for the geography lesson. I have created an electronic set of appliances using the Dreamweaver MX program (‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT', from the 1st September 2006 on the Internet), it can be a real help for the teacher in each teaching situation. The ‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' is a multimedia, Internet service which can be loaded free, the teacher gets into a virtual office clicking to the different pieces (drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, Tv set etc.) the teacher can continue with the necessary school equipment. Such equipment like: lesson plans for the lessons using digital technology, photos, video clips, animation, illustrations, pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database, diagrams, charts, bibliography, student's books, geography lexicons, magazines

  2. Bioinformatics pipelines for targeted resequencing and whole-exome sequencing of human and mouse genomes: a virtual appliance approach for instant deployment.

    Jason Li

    Full Text Available Targeted resequencing by massively parallel sequencing has become an effective and affordable way to survey small to large portions of the genome for genetic variation. Despite the rapid development in open source software for analysis of such data, the practical implementation of these tools through construction of sequencing analysis pipelines still remains a challenging and laborious activity, and a major hurdle for many small research and clinical laboratories. We developed TREVA (Targeted REsequencing Virtual Appliance, making pre-built pipelines immediately available as a virtual appliance. Based on virtual machine technologies, TREVA is a solution for rapid and efficient deployment of complex bioinformatics pipelines to laboratories of all sizes, enabling reproducible results. The analyses that are supported in TREVA include: somatic and germline single-nucleotide and insertion/deletion variant calling, copy number analysis, and cohort-based analyses such as pathway and significantly mutated genes analyses. TREVA is flexible and easy to use, and can be customised by Linux-based extensions if required. TREVA can also be deployed on the cloud (cloud computing, enabling instant access without investment overheads for additional hardware. TREVA is available at http://bioinformatics.petermac.org/treva/.

  3. Evidence regarding lingual fixed orthodontic appliances' therapeutic and adverse effects is insufficient.

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Virtual Health Library and Web of Science were systematically searched up to July 2015 without limitations. Scopus, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, the ISRCTN registry as well as reference lists of the trials included and relevant reviews were manually searched.Study selectionRandomised (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised clinical trials (non-RCTs) on human patients that compared therapeutic and adverse effects of lingual and labial appliances were considered. One reviewer initially screened titles and subsequently two reviewers independently screened the selected abstracts and full texts.Data extraction and synthesisThe data were extracted independently by the reviewers. Missing or unclear information, ongoing trials and raw data from split-mouth trials were requested from the authors of the trials. The quality of the included trials and potential bias across studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. For parallel trials, mean difference (MD) and the relative risk (RR) were used for continuous (objective speech performance, subjective speech performance, intercanine width, intermolar width and sagittal anchorage loss) and binary outcomes (eating difficulty), respectively. The standardised mean difference (SMD) was chosen to pool, after conversion, the outcome (oral discomfort) that assessed both binary and continuous. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses.ResultsThirteen papers pertaining to 11 clinical trials (three parallel RCTs, one split-mouth RCT and seven parallel prospective non-RCTs) were included with a total of 407 (34% male/66% female) patients. All trials had at least one bias domain at high risk of bias. Compared with labial appliances

  4. Changes in soft tissue profile following the treatment using a Herbst appliance: A photographic analysis

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Aesthetics is the reason for most of the class II malocclusion patients to opt for orthodontic treatment. In order to regulate retrognathic profile Herbst appliance for anterior movement of the mandible can be a treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue profile changes following Herbst appliance therapy on before and after treatment photos, using the computer program. Methods. This investigation was performed on profile photographs of 20 class II patients (12 females and 8 males aged 18-23 years. Analysis of the changes in soft tissue facial structure relationships evident on the photographs before and after the Herbst appliance therapy was performed using Bentley Micro Station program. The first contour of the soft tissue profile was marked. The following reference lines were subsequently traced: Ricketts aesthetic E line and Juanita line. The area enclosed by these two lines included the nose, upper and lower lip, chin and free space in front of the lips. Using the computer program, the surfaces of the soft tissue structures and free space defined by the reference lines and profile contours were measured. Calculation of the relative proportion of surfaces was done for each photograph. The data obtained were then compared for each patient before and after the treatment. Skeletal and dentoalveolar treatment effects that support soft tissue changes were presented by the profile cephalometric parameters of sagital occlusion (SO analysis. Results. A reduction in the relative surface of the upper lip in males (p < 0.01 and females (p < 0.05 was shown by the pictures. The space occupied by the chin was reduced after the treatment for females only (p < 0.05. The relative surface of the nasal soft tissues, that was included in the reference space was increased (p < 0.01 in both genders. The relationship between the soft tissue and empty surface was changed in favor of the empty surface (p < 0.05 in

  5. A Cost-based Placement Algorithm for Multiple Virtual Security Appliances in Cloud using SDN: MO-UFLP(Multi-Ordered Uncapacitated Facility Location Problem)

    Murukan, Prajeesh; Jamaluddine, Dana; Kolhapure, Shalaka; Mikhael, Fady; Nouzari, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN), has introduced many advanced platforms for managing networks and adopting different security tools with them, but the cost of these platforms should be considered as well. In this paper, we present an extension of the existing approach to the optimal placement of virtual security appliances in a pre-defined network setting. The approach proposed by Bouet [1] only considered one security appliance, we extended his approach to several virtual security applianc...

  6. Development and evaluation of a new depressurization spillage test for residential gas-fired combustion appliances : final report

    This paper presented a newly developed combustion depressurization spillage test for residential combustion appliances. The test uses carbon dioxide (CO2) that is produced in the fuel combustion process as a tracer gas. The test accurately measures the amount of combustion spillage from residential combustion appliances and their venting systems when they operate at certain levels of depressurization. Seven commonly used gas-fired appliances were used to evaluate the new test as well as the appliances. These included 2 power-vented storage-tank water heaters, 1 mid-efficiency furnace, 2 high-efficiency condensing furnaces, and 2 direct-vent gas fireplaces. Tests were performed for each unit with the test room initially depressurized by 50 Pa compared with the pressure outside the room. If the combustion spillage exceeded 2 per cent, the test was repeated with the room depressurized by 20 Pa, and then by 5 Pa. Each appliance was operated for 5 minutes of burner operation during which time the burner fuel consumption, the concentration of CO2 and the exhaust fan flow rate were monitored. Measurements were taken for 2 minutes following burner shut off. The amount of CO2 that was released into the test room from the appliance and its venting system was determined from the measurements and then compared with the amount of CO2 that would be produced by combustion of the fuel that was consumed during the test. The ratio of the 2 provided a direct measure of the combustion spillage of the appliance and its venting system. The study revealed that 3 products had undetectable levels of combustion spillage, 3 products had low, but measurable combustion spillage, and 1 product had significant combustion spillage. refs., tabs., figs

  7. The Appliance Pervasive of Internet of Things in Healthcare Systems

    Mir Sajjad Hussain Talpur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In fact, information systems are the foundation of new productivity sources, medical organizational forms, and erection of a global economy. IoT based healthcare systems play a significant role in ICT and have contribution in growth of medical information systems, which are underpinning of recent medical and economic development strategies. However, to take advantages of IoT, it is essential that medical enterprises and community should trust the IoT systems in terms of performance, security, privacy, reliability and return-on-investment, which are open challenges of current IoT systems. For heightening of healthcare system; tracking, tracing and monitoring of patients and medical objects are more essential. But due to the inadequate healthcare situation, medical environment, medical technologies and the unique requirements of some healthcare applications, the obtainable tools cannot meet them accurately. The tracking, tracing and monitoring of patients and healthcare actors activities in healthcare system are challenging research directions for IoT researchers. State-of-the-art IoT based healthcare system should be developed which ensure the safety of patients and other healthcare activities. With this manuscript, we elaborate the essential role of IoT in healthcare systems; immense prospects of Internet of things in healthcare systems; extensive aspect of the use of IoT is dissimilar among different healthcare components and finally the participation of IoT between the useful research and present realistic applications. IoT and few other modern technologies are still in underpinning stage; mainly in the healthcare system.

  8. Real-Time Recognition Non-Intrusive Electrical Appliance Monitoring Algorithm for a Residential Building Energy Management System

    Kofi Afrifa Agyeman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The concern of energy price hikes and the impact of climate change because of energy generation and usage forms the basis for residential building energy conservation. Existing energy meters do not provide much information about the energy usage of the individual appliance apart from its power rating. The detection of the appliance energy usage will not only help in energy conservation, but also facilitate the demand response (DR market participation as well as being one way of building energy conservation. However, energy usage by individual appliance is quite difficult to estimate. This paper proposes a novel approach: an unsupervised disaggregation method, which is a variant of the hidden Markov model (HMM, to detect an appliance and its operation state based on practicable measurable parameters from the household energy meter. Performing experiments in a practical environment validates our proposed method. Our results show that our model can provide appliance detection and power usage information in a non-intrusive manner, which is ideal for enabling power conservation efforts and participation in the demand response market.

  9. Sports: As an Appliance of Incorporation toward Malaysian Society

    Abdul H.H. Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research investigated the elements of sport that led to social integration in Malaysian society and identified the steps taken to achieve social integration through sports. As a multi racial country, Malaysia consisting of three major races, the Malays, Chinese and Indians were seen practicing the sport cultures that were inherited by their forefathers. History shows that colonization by the western powers i.e., the Portuguese, Dutch and the British were claimed to have great impact on the segregation of these three races. The Chinese congregated around the town areas specially controlling the tin mines industry, the Malays were seen mostly in the paddy plantation industry while the Indians dominating the rubber plantation industry. The differences are not only seen in their choice of occupation and living areas but even seen in their choice of sporting activities. With such differences and diversity in beliefs and practices one would think it would be difficult for these different Races to work together as a team. Approach: To clarify this statement, the study employed an ethnographic approach to assist the case study which was conducted on 30 athletes, selected using propulsive sampling, 10 from each of the 3 main races. The data collecting methods used were interviews, observation and document analysis. Results: Triangulation technique helped to support the validity of the findings. Its aimed to capture the athletes’ cultural practices and investigated whether the implementation of the national sports policy is effective in contributing towards the integration of the different races in Malaysia. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of the study showed some very interesting results which further strengthen the claims that sports not only can be an agent of integration but also acts as a catalyst to bring people of different races to compete with one goal in mind, striving for the nation rather than for one’s race

  10. Introducing mandatory standards for select household appliances in Lebanon: A cost-benefit analysis

    Lebanon's energy sector crisis leads to a lack of access to uninterrupted, basic modern electricity services that affects all sectors of the economy. Energy conservation measures are nearly inexistent yet they can potentially lead to substantial reductions in energy demand growth, environmental damages and public expenditures. This paper presents an analysis of the costs and benefits associated with the introduction of mandatory standards for energy efficiency for four different household appliances (refrigerator/freezers, AC split units, washing machines and lighting) over the period 2013–2027. Our results show potential savings in electricity consumption reaching 2054 GW h annually in 2027 as well as a reduction of subsidies paid to the public utility of 3.6 billion USD in 2027 while CO2 emissions avoided amount to 8.9 million tons over the period of analysis. Furthermore, we propose a financially attractive refrigerator/freezer replacement program for low income households. If this program would cover all existing low-income households in 2013, the savings in electricity consumption would lead to a reduction in subsidies of 9 billion USD (NPV) over the period 2013–2027, while full funding for this program would cost the government 223.8 million USD. This program would thereby benefit consumers, the government and further economic development. - Highlights: ► We model the effect of mandatory appliance standards on electricity consumption. ► We present a refrigerator replacement program contributing to economic development. ► We show that economic efficiency favors the introduction of standards for appliances.

  11. Investigation of transient behaviour of combi boiler type appliances for domestic hot water

    Combi boiler type appliances heating both space and water demanded for use and consuming natural gas as the energy source are one of the most common branches of the household goods. This study touches mainly on two types of combi boiler concepts to investigate only domestic hot water (DHW) heating function since highly efficient condensing appliances have been manufactured in terms of space heating. First concept has the normal working configuration of the heat exchangers of a standard combi boiler; whereas, the second has the opposite operation order of the heat exchangers. 1D transient energy equations have been constructed with the help of the laws of thermodynamics in order to model the heat exchangers in a standard combi boiler. After obtaining a general mathematical model for the standard combi boiler, the energy equations have been discretised with finite difference scheme, and solved numerically in Matlab®. Subsequently, numerical results are validated experimentally in different working modes of a standard appliance. As the last step, similar results are obtained for the second proposed concept using the related equations of the standard combi model to compare both concepts on a numerical basis. - Highlights: • 1D theoretical model of a combi boiler was constructed and verified experimentally. • Preliminary estimations will be obtained from the model about the laboratory tests. • Number of the laboratory tests will be decreased thanks to the theoretical model. • The model was used to compare the transient behaviour of two kinds of combi boilers. • The second combi boiler alternative to standard one has a higher comfort potential

  12. Domestic appliances and life style. Consequences for domestic electricity consumption in 2010

    Jeeninga, H. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-08-01

    ECN Policy Studies in cooperation with Van Holsteijn and Kemna has carried out a study to investigate the possible trends in utilisation and ownership of domestic appliances, more specifically new or renewed types of appliances, in the Netherlands. An estimate of the consequences of life-style trends for future energy use is also made. It is important that policy makers have an indication of the range in development of domestic energy consumption. The robustness of specific trends in energy use can be helpful in setting priorities for energy saving policies. First, the interaction between technological development and consumer behaviour is assessed by screening several theoretical concepts as well as examining empirical evidence. Subsequently, actual robust trends in consumer technology and life-styles are investigated and assessed in terms of likely consequences for developments in ownership and use of such new appliances in addition to residential electricity consumption. The assessment of the development of future electricity consumption depends on historical trends and on the type of model used. Therefore, the historical development of domestic electricity consumption is analysed. The objective of this analysis is to identify the factors which determine the development of residential electricity consumption. Also the methods and results of some forecasting studies in the Netherlands are compared. The range of the development of domestic electricity use is assessed by varying a number of model parameters such as growth of GDP, energy prices and efficiency improvement. Special attention is paid to the interaction between life-style trends, e.g. a raise in disposable income, scarcity of spare time, raising the convenience level and the increase in electricity consumption. Finally, possible policies are identified which could contribute to a diminished growth of domestic electricity consumption

  13. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The

  14. The Brave Little Toaster from Print to Film: Obsolescent Appliances and Capitalist Allegories

    Margaret Diane Stetz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In The Brave Little Toaster (1980, a tale of household appliances confronting and resisting obsolescence, Thomas M. Disch warns audiences against mistaking his anthropomorphic creations for images of themselves. It proves impossible nonetheless for those who read this comic fable or who see the later animated film adapted from it to avoid this temptation, for both works are allegories of the plight of industrial labour under late-twentieth-century capitalism. But while Disch’s narrative emphasises the importance of the solidarity among workers, the Disney Studio’s cinematic version instead teaches young viewers to trust their ‘masters’—a dangerous lesson in passivity.

  15. Long-term clinical and bacterial effects of xylitol on patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Masoud, Mohamed I; Allarakia, Reem; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Nalliah, Romesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical and bacterial effects of using 6 g of xylitol per day for 3 months on patients with full fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods The study was a pilot clinical trial that included 41 subjects who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A received xylitol chewing gum, group B received xylitol dissolvable chewable tablets, and Group C served as the control group and...

  16. Development of the Optimum Operation Scheduling Model of Domestic Electric Appliances for the Supply-Demand Adjustment in a Power System

    Ikegami, Takashi; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    The high penetration of variable renewable generation such as Photovoltaic (PV) systems will cause the issue of supply-demand imbalance in a whole power system. The activation of the residential power usage, storage and generation by sophisticated scheduling and control using the Home Energy Management System (HEMS) will be needed to balance power supply and demand in the near future. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HEMS as a distributed controller for local and system-wide supply-demand balances, we developed an optimum operation scheduling model of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming. Applying this model to several houses with dynamic electricity prices reflecting the power balance of the total power system, it was found that the adequate changes in electricity prices bring about the shift of residential power usages to control the amount of the reverse power flow due to excess PV generation.

  17. Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliance and exercise training in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Teresa Cristina Barros Schutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments. METHODS: Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n = 9, oral appliance (n = 9 and physical exercise (n = 7. Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392 RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.

  18. Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task II, report

    1979-09-28

    The research and analysis program at Vitro Labs. in support of the appliance certification and enforcement program provides Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement (C/E). The approach established the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy-efficiency performance for 13 categories of consumer products (furnaces, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, television, clothes washers, freezers, air conditioners, stoves, refrigerators, water heaters). Section 2 summarizes the recommended approach. Section 3 contains detailed evaluations and comparisons for four independent alternative approaches considered (minimal government intevention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, and mixed certification/enforcement). The fifth C/E approach (strong remedy/deterrent) involves the remedies available to the government should non-compliance be discovered and could affect the choice among the approaches, but this approach has not been evaluated. Section 4 summarizes the analysis methodology used to select the recommended approach. Additional information is provided in 6 appendices.

  19. Smart meter deployment optimisation and its analysis for appliance load monitoring

    Ahmed Shaharyar Khwaja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors study the problem of smart meter deployment optimisation for appliance load monitoring, that is, to monitor a number of devices without any ambiguity using the minimum number of low-cost smart meters. The importance of this problem is due to the fact that the number of meters should be reduced to decrease the deployment cost, improve reliability and decrease congestion. In this way, in future, smart meters can provide additional information about the type and number of distinct devices connected, besides their normal functionalities concerned with providing overall energy measurements and their communication. The authors present two exact smart meter deployment optimisation algorithms, one based on exhaustive search and the other based on efficient implementation of the exhaustive search. They formulate the problem mathematically and present computational complexity analysis of their algorithms. Simulation scenarios show that for a typical number of home appliances, the efficient search method is significantly faster compared to the exhaustive search and can provide the same optimal solution. The authors also show the dependency of their method on the distribution of the load pattern that can potentially be in a typical household.

  20. Energy efficiency and appliance purchases in Europe: Consumer profiles and choice determinants

    This study seeks to the following: (1) understand the factors/characteristics typically considered when purchasing electrical appliances, (2) analyse the differences between consumer profiles regarding these and (3) understand the factors driving the consideration of energy efficiency class by purchasers. Results indicate a preference for first considering cost, followed by quality and energy consumption considerations. These are correlated positively with the consideration of energy efficiency class in consumer choices. Also, regression analysis shows environmental attitudes to be negative predictors of energy efficiency class consideration, while specific environmental behaviours were positive predictors. Finally, consumer profiles were identified based on gender, age and whether or not the purchaser was accompanied when decisions were made. Implications for retail employee training and the development of persuasive messages for consumers based on established profiles are discussed. - Highlights: → We assessed factors typically considered by consumers in electrical appliances choice. → Characteristics identified as most important for choice were as follows: cost, quality and energy consumption. → These correlated positively with the consideration of energy efficiency class. → Differences between consumer profiles regarding the characteristics consideration were identified. → Differences imply persuasive messages adaption to these, to increase energy class consideration.

  1. Orthodontic treatment of nongrowing patient with class II division 2 malocclusion by Herbst appliance

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inheritance is most casual etiological factor of Class II division 2 malocclusion. This kind of malocclusion is very difficult for treatment specially in older patients. Case report. In the female patient, 20 years old, at the beginning of the treatment at the School of Dentistry in Belgrade, lateral cephalogram showed skeletal and dentoalveolar Class II division 2 malocclusion. She was in the Herbst treatment for 8 months and 12 months more with a fixed multibracket appliance. The measurements were performed on lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment: ii, is, mi, ms, Pg and ss. The distance from these points to occlusal perpendicular line (Olp were measured and compared from cephalogram before to cephalogram after the treatment. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ tomograms were compared from before and after the treatment by superimposition. Correction was found in molar and incisor relation, overjet and overbite. There were found sagital skeletal changes and soft tissue profile improvement. Conclusion. Herbst appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients. Dental and skeletal changes as a result of Herbst treatment could be good choice instead of camouflage orthodontics or surgical decision.

  2. EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

    2008-11-17

    Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

  3. CernVM – a virtual software appliance for LHC applications

    Buncic, P; Blomer, J; Franco, L; Harutyunian, A; Mato, P; Yao, Y

    2010-01-01

    CernVM is a Virtual Software Appliance capable of running physics applications from the LHC experiments at CERN. It aims to provide a complete and portable environment for developing and running LHC data analysis on any end-user computer (laptop, desktop) as well as on the Grid, independently of Operating System platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOS). The experiment application software and its specific dependencies are built independently from CernVM and delivered to the appliance just in time by means of a CernVM File System (CVMFS) specifically designed for efficient software distribution. The procedures for building, installing and validating software releases remains under the control and responsibility of each user community. We provide a mechanism to publish pre-built and configured experiment software releases to a central distribution point from where it finds its way to the running CernVM instances via the hierarchy of proxy servers or content delivery networks. In this paper, we present current state of...

  4. Energy efficiency and appliance purchases in Europe: Consumer profiles and choice determinants

    Gaspar, Rui, E-mail: Rui.Gaspar@iscte.pt [Factor Social,Psychosociology and the Environment, Rua Latino Coelho, 87, 1050 - 134 Lisbon (Portugal); Antunes, Dalila [Factor Social, Psychosociology and the Environment, Rua Latino Coelho, 87, 1050 - 134 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    This study seeks to the following: (1) understand the factors/characteristics typically considered when purchasing electrical appliances, (2) analyse the differences between consumer profiles regarding these and (3) understand the factors driving the consideration of energy efficiency class by purchasers. Results indicate a preference for first considering cost, followed by quality and energy consumption considerations. These are correlated positively with the consideration of energy efficiency class in consumer choices. Also, regression analysis shows environmental attitudes to be negative predictors of energy efficiency class consideration, while specific environmental behaviours were positive predictors. Finally, consumer profiles were identified based on gender, age and whether or not the purchaser was accompanied when decisions were made. Implications for retail employee training and the development of persuasive messages for consumers based on established profiles are discussed. - Highlights: > We assessed factors typically considered by consumers in electrical appliances choice. > Characteristics identified as most important for choice were as follows: cost, quality and energy consumption. > These correlated positively with the consideration of energy efficiency class. > Differences between consumer profiles regarding the characteristics consideration were identified. > Differences imply persuasive messages adaption to these, to increase energy class consideration.

  5. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    Małgorzata Łatuszyńska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data employed to analyse the factors influencing consumers’ purchase decision-making processes were obtained through a questionnaire that was conducted in December 2011 in Basra, a city in southern Iraq. The major findings of the study indicated that, overall, the set of independent variables are weakly associated with the dependent variable. However, the in-depth analysis found that social factors, physical factors, and marketing mix elements are strongly associated with consumer buying behaviour. These analyses make it possible to discover consumer decision-making rules. The results may assist producers and retailers in understanding consumer behaviour and improving consumer satisfaction.

  6. Class II malocclusion treatment using Jasper Jumper appliance associated to intermaxillary elastics: a case report

    Francyle Simões Herrera-Sanches

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Skeletal, dental and profile discrepancies can be amended by using functional orthodontic appliances. OBJECTIVE: This study is a report of the treatment of a patient, 11 years and 4 months old, with Class II, division 1, malocclusion, convex profile, protrusion of upper incisors, pronounced overjet and overbite, and mild crowding. METHODS: The patient was treated with a Jasper Jumper associated to fixed appliances for 6 months and Class II intermaxillary elastics (3/16in during the last 4 months. After debonding, a Hawley retainer was used during daytime and a modified Bionator for night use during one year. In the lower dental arch a bonded lingual retainer was used. This treatment combination improved the profile, as well as the overjet, overbite and molar relation. RESULTS: There was clockwise mandibular rotation and increase of lower anterior facial height. The lower incisors were protruded and extruded and the lower molars were extruded. The centric occlusal relation was checked and it was coincident to the maximum usual intercuspation. CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that the Jasper Jumper is an efficient alternative to Class II malocclusion treatment, providing improvement in the facial profile, although the changes are more dentoalveolar than skeletal.

  7. DSP Based Speech Operated Home Appliances UsingZero Crossing Features

    Deepali Y Loni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to build a simple speech recognition system using Digital Signal Processor (DSP that controls home appliances (i.e. turning on/off by processing the spoken word. The method used is simple, involving a plain count of the frequency of zero crossings. Two features of zero-crossing are used namely: maxima & running sum that increases the accuracy of recognition. The DSP calculates the zero crossings of the spoken words and accordingly generates different analog signals at its output. These analog signals are further processed so as to operate the appliances. The words chosen for recognition are ‘ONE’, ‘TWO’ and ‘THREE’. The paper includes two approaches for implementation of speech recognition into DSP, using Matlab Simulink approach and secondly using Code Composer Studio (CCS. Moreover the first approach performs offline processing and the other performs real time processing of words. The results at the end describe the efficiency of the system.

  8. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  9. Can negotiated agreements replace efficiency standards as an instrument for transforming the electrical appliance market?

    Without reinforced energy saving policies, residential consumption of electricity will increase sharply over the next 20 years, in particular, as a result of expected growth in the specific uses of electricity. The main problem is not a lack of energy-efficient technologies, which do indeed exist for electrical appliances, but one of slow diffusion of existing technologies due to the weakness of the price signal and the purchasing behaviour of consumers. In association with energy labelling, minimum energy performance standards have proved to be very effective in stimulating technological progress and organising market transformation. But standards also suffer from long and often difficult implementation periods because of the resistance of the industrial sector. For manufacturers, similar results could be obtained more easily and more rapidly with voluntary agreements because they introduce flexibility margins in the achievement of commitments. This paper analyses the specific advantages of voluntary agreements for improving energy efficiency in the domestic appliances sector. We conclude that voluntary agreements may be an effective instrument for market transformation in certain conditions, but the alternative of regulatory measures must remain a credible, realistic threat if voluntary agreements are to have a really significant impact on performance improvement

  10. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs. (letter)

  11. 78 FR 38696 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential...

    2013-06-27

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Decision and Order In the Matter of: GE Appliances (Case No. RF-028) I. Background and Authority Title III, Part B of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), Public Law 94-163 (42 U.S.C. 6291-6309, as codified) established the Energy Conservation Program for...

  12. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  13. 78 FR 38699 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential...

    2013-06-27

    ... major household appliances, which includes the residential electric refrigerators and refrigerator... pertaining to the use of shared dual compressor-equipped refrigerators. See 76 FR 71335 (November 17, 2011) (interim waiver) and 77 FR 5784 (February 6, 2012) (Decision and Order). DOE has also granted an...

  14. Effects of Two-Phase Treatment with the Herbst and Preadjusted Edgewise Appliances on the Upper Airway Dimensions

    Koay, Woei Li; Tse, Christine Shuk Kwan; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To assess the effects of two-phase treatment with the Herbst and the preadjusted edgewise appliances on upper airway dimensions and to investigate the correlation between changes in the upper airway dimensions and skeletal morphologies. Methods. A total of 27 Chinese male adolescents aged 12.8 ± 1.3 years were selected. Lateral cephalograms were collected to assess the skeletal morphology and upper airway dimensions. Results. Following Herbst appliance treatment, the upper airway space was significantly enlarged, with the retropalatal (U-MPW) increasing by 1.1 ± 1.6 mm (P 0.05) in upper airway dimensions during the second-phase treatment. Conclusions. Herbst appliance treatment increased the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal airway dimensions among adolescents with Class II malocclusion, and the effects were maintained throughout the second treatment phase with a preadjusted edgewise appliance. There was a negative correlation between the change in the depth of the retroglossal pharynx and the mandibular plane angle. PMID:27073805

  15. 80 FR 45206 - Notice of LG Electronics Tianjin Appliance Co., Ltd. and LG Electronics USA Inc., Provisional...

    2015-07-29

    ... LG Electronics USA Inc. A footnote was omitted from the SUMMARY paragraph of the document. FOR... COMMISSION Notice of LG Electronics Tianjin Appliance Co., Ltd. and LG Electronics USA Inc., Provisional... a document in the Federal Register of July 24, 2015, concerning the provisional acceptance of...

  16. Emergencies in orthodontics. Part 1: Management of general orthodontic problems as well as common problems with fixed appliances.

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Fixed appliance treatment is a popular treatment modality with a burgeoning increase in the numbers of children and adults realizing the benefits that can be gained. Appliance breakage is an unavoidable nuisance which is at best inconvenient, and at worst may result in significant pain or discomfort for the patient. General dental practitioners (GDPs) should have the practical knowledge of how to provide timely and appropriate orthodontic 'emergency treatment'. This will significantly reduce the sometimes considerable inconvenience and discomfort for both the patient and his/her parents, and the inevitable frustration for the clinician providing ongoing care. This first paper will deal with general orthodontic problems that commonly present, as well as some issues specific to fixed appliances. The second paper will deal with the other orthodontic appliances that may be encountered by GDPs in their daily practice. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the general practitioner will, on many occasions, provide immediate relief of pain and distress for the patient. This will in turn allow treatment to continue moving in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources. PMID:26058226

  17. CPR Appliance:Applications and Prospects%心肺复苏器的应用及展望

    郭凯; 张源波; 周荣斌

    2014-01-01

    心肺复苏器是有望替代传统人工胸外按压的器材,正逐步应用于现场急救和临床抢救工作当中。本文介绍了胸外按压泵机制的理念沿袭、不同心肺复苏器设计的理论依据和国内外常见心肺复苏器的使用方法及特点;同时对心肺复苏器的发展趋势和改进方向进行了展望。以期为心肺复苏器更有效地应用于临床抢救中提供有益借鉴和推广。%Cardiopulmonary resuscitation appliance is a promising substitution for traditional artificial compression and it is gradual y applied in the fields of first aid and salvage.This paper introduces the conception of pump mechanism of chest compression,the theoretical basis of design in various CPR appliance and application procedure as wel as characteristics of common CPR appliance at home and abroad.Besides,the paper shows future outlook in development tendency and improvement direction of the apparatus.Al this can be made use for reference and promotion of CPR appliance in the application of clinical emergency treatment.

  18. The enactment of thermal efficiency standard for domestic gas appliances and its foreground of Implementing in Chongqing

    PENGShini; PENGLuo; FUXiuping

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the principles we should obey and the problems we should be confronted with when thermal efficiency standards for instantaneous gas water heaters and gas ranges are enacted. It is considered that enactment of thermal efficiency standards for domestic gas appliances could intensify economization on domestic gas utilization and marked economic and environmental benefits could be generated consequently.

  19. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  20. Treatment effects of R-appliance and Anterior Inclined Bite Plate in Class II, Division I malocclusion

    Rahman Showkatbakhsh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a differently designed functional appliance (R-appliance and the Anterior Inclined Bite Plate (AIBP in Class II Division I (Cl II Div I cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty patients (28 girls, 22 boys were chosen for the study: 25 patients (13 girls, 12 boys with mean age of 10.4±0.8 years were treated with R-appliance for 11±2 months, the other 25 patients (15 girls, 10 boys with mean age of 9±1.2 years were treated with AIBP for 10±2 months. All patients had Cl II Div I malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the beginning (T1, T 1 and end of the study (T2, T 2. RESULTS: Paired T-test showed that SNB had a significant increase in both groups. The same test revealed that IMPA was reduced in R-appliance for 3.1±4.7 (p<0.01, but it was increased for 0.1±5.1 (p<0.9 in AIBP group. T-test showed that the inter-group difference of IMPA was statistically significant (p<0.05. SNA showed an increase in both groups (p<0.9. Ar-B and Ar-Pog showed an increase in both groups and the differences between them were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mandibular advancement was achieved in both groups, but R-appliance achieved this result without lingual tipping of lower incisors.

  1. The effects of torque control spurs in twin-block appliances.

    Harradine, N W; Gale, D

    2000-11-01

    The study compared the effects of torque control spurs on upper incisor retroclination and extrusion with two designs of a twin-block functional appliance in Class II/1 cases. The two designs were also compared with respect to anchorage loss in the lower arch and for patient compliance rates. Consecutively started cases were chosen - 90 patients with a design incorporating a labial bow (CTB group) and 110 with upper incisor 'torquing' spurs (STB group) and used to calculate failure rates. Thirty consecutive patients with satisfactory records from each group were analysed cephalometrically. The STB group experienced substantially less upper incisor retroclination, reduced upper incisor extrusion and slightly more favourable mandibular growth. The labial movement of lower incisors and the patient compliance were not significantly different in the two groups. Overall, 82.5% of patients fully reduced their overjet with 9% failing to reduce the overjet below 6 mm.Fig. 1f PMID:11553075

  2. Estimating sales and sales market share from sales rank data for consumer appliances

    Touzani, Samir; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our motivation in this work is to find an adequate probability distribution to fit sales volumes of different appliances. This distribution allows for the translation of sales rank into sales volume. This paper shows that the log-normal distribution and specifically the truncated version are well suited for this purpose. We demonstrate that using sales proxies derived from a calibrated truncated log-normal distribution function can be used to produce realistic estimates of market average product prices, and product attributes. We show that the market averages calculated with the sales proxies derived from the calibrated, truncated log-normal distribution provide better market average estimates than sales proxies estimated with simpler distribution functions.

  3. A test procedure for energetic and performance analysis of cold appliances for the food industry

    Armani, F.; Boscolo, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this article we present a novel approach for the characterization of cold appliances and in particular of refrigerators based on the standard vapour compression cycle with a reciprocating on/off compressor. The test procedure is based on a virtual instrument that perform both the stimulus and the data acquisition on the device under test. Acquired data is elaborated to fit a semi-empirical model based on the energetic balances between thermal and electrical sub systems and the heat exchanged with the environment. This approach results in a simple method to calculate useful parameters of the refrigerator, such as energetic performance, cooling effect and limit values of thermal loads. The test procedure requires only a few temperatures and the electric power consumption to be monitored, resulting in a low impact on the refrigerator. Preliminary tests showed a good estimation of parameters and prediction of energy consumption and heat extraction capacity of the refrigerator under test.

  4. Magic Ring: A Finger-Worn Device for Multiple Appliances Control Using Static Finger Gestures

    Tongjun Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named Magic Ring (MR, which is an original compact wireless sensing mote in a ring shape that can recognize various finger gestures. A scenario of wireless multiple appliances control is selected as a case study to evaluate the usability of such a gestural interface. Experiments comparing the MR and a Remote Controller (RC were performed to evaluate the usability. From the results, only with 10 minutes practice, the proposed paradigm of gestural-based control can achieve a performance of completing about six tasks per minute, which is in the same level of the RC-based method.

  5. Alternatives for OSAHS treatment: selection of patients for upper airway surgery and oral appliances

    A. Boudewyns

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is considered to represent the standard treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS, poor treatment compliance and/or refusal is an issue in 20–30% of these patients. As an alternative to life-long CPAP treatment, conservative procedures exist with dental appliances for mandibular advancement, as well as curative surgical techniques. Surgical treatment of OSAHS can be divided into the following two main groups: 1 upper airway surgery by soft tissue resection (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, etc., and 2 skeletal procedures, such as maxillo-mandibular advancement. Proper selection of patients for the different treatment modalities is the key for full treatment success. Patient-related factors, such as the site of upper airway collapse, craniofacial characteristics, dental health, obesity, age, profession and positional dependence, as well as treatment-related factors, should be evaluated before a final proposal for these treatment alternatives is formulated.

  6. Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Karlsson, Lena;

    2012-01-01

    amount of milk without fluoride. The intervention period was 12 weeks and the end-point was mineral gain or loss in enamel, assessed by QLF on two selected sites from each individual. The attrition rate was 12.5% and 112 sites were included in the final evaluation. Results. There was no statistically......Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodontic...... treatment with fixed appliances were enrolled and randomly allocated to a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to drink one glass of milk (~ 200 ml) supplemented with fluoride (5 ppm) once daily and the subjects of the control group to drink the same...

  7. A test procedure for energetic and performance analysis of cold appliances for the food industry

    In this article we present a novel approach for the characterization of cold appliances and in particular of refrigerators based on the standard vapour compression cycle with a reciprocating on/off compressor. The test procedure is based on a virtual instrument that perform both the stimulus and the data acquisition on the device under test. Acquired data is elaborated to fit a semi-empirical model based on the energetic balances between thermal and electrical sub systems and the heat exchanged with the environment. This approach results in a simple method to calculate useful parameters of the refrigerator, such as energetic performance, cooling effect and limit values of thermal loads. The test procedure requires only a few temperatures and the electric power consumption to be monitored, resulting in a low impact on the refrigerator. Preliminary tests showed a good estimation of parameters and prediction of energy consumption and heat extraction capacity of the refrigerator under test

  8. Do customized orthodontic appliances and vibration devices provide more efficient treatment than conventional methods?

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of technological advances in the field of clinical orthodontics to increase treatment efficiency has led to the development of customized appliances (Insignia®), archwires (Suresmile®), and the production of devices to enhance tooth movement (Acceledent®). This review presents a comprehensive study of the literature concerning these products, and analyzes the available evidence of their efficiency. To date, one pilot study has evaluated the efficiency of the Insignia® system, three retrospective studies have assessed the efficiency of the Suresmile® system, and a few Acceledent® reports have described its effect on treatment time. Critical appraisal of the reviewed papers revealed that the efficiency of the Insignia® system cannot be confirmed based on the available evidence, while the use of Suresmile® can reduce overall treatment time in simple cases. The acceleration of tooth movement by Acceledent® devices has not yet been confirmed. PMID:27226964

  9. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  10. TiArA: a virtual appliance for the analysis of Tiling Array data.

    Jason A Greenbaum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic tiling arrays have been described in the scientific literature since 2003, yet there is a shortage of user-friendly applications available for their analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tiling Array Analyzer (TiArA is a software program that provides a user-friendly graphical interface for the background subtraction, normalization, and summarization of data acquired through the Affymetrix tiling array platform. The background signal is empirically measured using a group of nonspecific probes with varying levels of GC content and normalization is performed to enforce a common dynamic range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TiArA is implemented as a standalone program for Linux systems and is available as a cross-platform virtual machine that will run under most modern operating systems using virtualization software such as Sun VirtualBox or VMware. The software is available as a Debian package or a virtual appliance at http://purl.org/NET/tiara.

  11. PAT portable appliance testing : in-service inspection and testing of electrical equipment

    Scaddan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 requires any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required. This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam. It is also an ideal revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff and caretakers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.

  12. Development of the consumption behavior that promotes sustainable society: Focusing on recycling of small waste home appliances

    Ichinose, Takae

    2015-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) became the first UNESCO Associated School in Japan in 1953, and since then it has practiced ESD in various educational activities in all ranges of education. As a teacher of home economics, I have focused on consumer affairs and encouraged my students to consider what each of them can do as an individual consumer in order to create a sustainable society. In Japan, several acts related to consumer affairs have been enforced in recent years. "Act on Promotion of Consumer Education" was enforced in December 2012, and construction of the "Consumer Citizen Society" was proposed. It places emphasis not only on environmental concerns but also on the initiative of consumers and its influence on social and economic trends. In addition, "Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment" was enforced in April, 2013. It aims at protecting living environment and healthy development of the national economy by appropriate treatment of waste materials and effective use of resources. For my lessons on "food, clothing and shelter in relation to consumption behavior and environmental problems", I took up "the recycling of small waste home appliances" as the teaching materials to raise awareness on resources recycling. The purpose of the lessons is three-fold: (1) to make students aware of environmental load; (2) to deepen the understanding of the influence which excessive consumption has on developing countries; (3) to encourage the students to think positively toward the solution of the problems. I am currently practicing the lessons, and I have shown below the summary of the instruction. Lesson 1: Give a quiz based on the database on environmental label from Ministry of the Environment website. Then show a film on whereabouts of the hi-tech industrial waste (e-waste). After the film, show some everyday products for which mineral resources are used in order to impress the idea of "urban mine". Lesson 2: Show a

  13. Evaluation of China's local enforcement of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs for appliances and equipment

    Aims: This paper aims to evaluate local enforcement of China's mandatory appliance and equipment energy efficiency standards and labeling programs, two increasingly important policies for meeting national energy and carbon reduction targets. The expected energy savings of efficiency standards and labels can be fully realized only with strong enforcement to ensure compliance for all products sold. This paper provides comprehensive retrospective evaluation of the methodologies, results, progress and remaining challenges in pilot enforcement projects initiated in the absence of consistent national check-testing focused on energy efficiency. Scope: This paper's scope is focused on 2006–2009 pilot local check-tests conducted to verify appliance and equipment compliance with China's mandatory energy label and efficiency standards. Conclusions: This paper finds both improvement and some backsliding in compliance rates over time. Compared to earlier efforts, 2009 check-tests covered a wider regional and product scope but demonstrated greater variation in compliance rates. Labeling display and energy efficiency compliance was generally high across regions and most products, but lower compliance rates were observed in less economically developed regions and for lighting and industrial products. Based on these findings, areas for improvement in local awareness, product sampling methodology, check-testing tools and procedures are identified. - Highlights: • China's mandatory standards and labeling crucial to national energy saving goals. • China's 2006–2009 pilot efficiency check-testing for standards and labeling evaluated. • Wider geographic and product scope in 2009, but greater variation in compliance. • Generally high compliance, but lower rates for less economically developed region. • Local check-test capacity improving but methodological challenges remain

  14. Evaluation of a prevention programme efficiency for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Matić Sava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Orthodontic treatment enables the establishment of functional occlusion and improvement of oral health, however, it increases the risk of periodontal disease development. The aim of this paper was to examine the efficiency of the applied programme for the prevention of gingivitis in children undergoing the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy and to determine the most efficient devices and techniques for maintaining oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. Methods. The study included 80 patients of both genders - 60 patients comprised the experimental group and 20 patients comprised the control group. All of them were patients of the Clinic for Orthodontics at the School of Dentistry in Belgrade, aged between 13 and 18. The Silness-Löe Plaque Index (PI was utilised for the assessment of oral hygiene quality and Silness-Löe Gingival Index (GI and Mühlemann Papilla Bleeding Index (PBI were utilised for the assessment of gingival state. Checkups were conducted as a single-blind study at the beginning and after the first, the third and the sixth month of the preventive and prophylactic programme. Results. During the observed period, a statistically significant change in PI, GI and PBI values was noticed (p < 0.005, as well as the difference in the dynamics of value changes during the periods between the observed groups. Conclusion. The preventive programme, applied to children undergoing the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy, had a positive effect both on oral hygiene quality and gingival state. The values of the examined parameters of the patients from the experimental group were significantly lower in comparison with those of the patients from the control group. The most efficient combination of devices for oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment was: a Curaprox CP5460 toothbrush, CD Ortho 60 orthodontic toothbrush and Curaprox CPS 14 interdental brush.

  15. Discussion on The Safety Capacitor of Household Electric Appliance%浅谈家用电器中的安规电容

    蓝春浩

    2015-01-01

    随着科技进步,家用电器的功能越来越完善,功能也越来越智能化,很多家用电器采用复杂的电子电路,为保证家用电器安全,使用安规电容,下面对家用电器中的安规电容进行简单的介绍。%With the progress of science and technology, the functions of household electrical appliances are more perfect and intelligent. Most household electrical appliances adopt complex electronic circuits. To ensure the safety of household appliance, the safety capacitor is needed. This paper briefly introduces the safety capacitor in household ap-pliances.

  16. Use of appliances in stand-alone PV power supply systems: problems and solutions. Task 3 use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications

    Vallve, X.; Gafas, G. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Spain); Villoz, M. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Switzerland); Wilshaw, A. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (United Kingdom); Jacquin, P. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (France)

    2002-09-15

    In Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems (SAPV systems), special attention must be paid to the used appliances and loads. Inappropriate loads are very often the origin of PV system malfunction or failure. Start-up power peaks, or reactive power and harmonic distortion can cause system signal instability and protective devices will close the system down. A well-matched load together with a carefully selected choice of appliances can lead to significant savings in terms of reduced need for PV and electricity storage capacity. Conversely, inefficient appliances and processes, standby loads and inappropriate loads will increase the requirement for expensive PV and storage capacity. This paper presents a survey of real cases with load related problems in worldwide applications, their effect on quality and cost of the service and the solutions that were adopted and suggested alternative solutions. One of the main conclusions of the work is the importance to integrate the choice of the appliance while designing the SAPV system. (author)

  17. Four novel prosthodontic methods for managing upper airway resistance syndrome: An investigative analysis revealing the efficacy of the new nasopharyngeal aperture guard appliance

    Venkat R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Obstructive sleep apnea is the most frequent cause for insomnia in the populace. Snoring is mulled over as the potential factor that can lead the sequel to obstructive sleep apnea. Although the etiology and deterrence measures for snoring are yet to be undoubtedly clarified by our scientific sorority, various means of surgical corrections have been affirmed and put into practice, with a substantial degree of success. Despite this, it is implicit that a noninvasive method of managing obstructive sleep apnea is more relevant for overcoming this condition. Purpose: This manuscript intends to establish how snoring can be controlled prosthodontically by different modalities of scientifically defensible approaches. The most effective among the modalities was affirmed as the investigative analyses of the treatment outcomes with each modality. Novel Methods: Four new methods of managing obstructive sleep apnea - uvula lift appliance, uvula and velopharynx lift appliance, nasopharyngeal aperture guard, and soft palate lift appliance were demonstrated through this article. Clinical Reports: The four new modalities stated and one conventional modality of mandibular advancement appliance for managing obstructive sleep apnea, a total of five types of appliance therapies, were described with case reports for each. Investigation: Five individuals undergoing the appliance therapy were chosen for each modality. The treatment outcome with each modality was examined by analysis of clinical predictors and also by means of standard investigation, with nasal and oral endoscopic analyses. Result: Among the five types of appliance therapies, the nasopharyngeal aperture guard provided the best treatment outcome in terms of clinical predictors and endoscopic analyses. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal aperture guard, the novel method stated in this article is the better modality for managing obstructive sleep apnea, among the five different appliance

  18. Predictors of long-term stability of maxillary dental arch dimensions in patients treated with a transpalatal arch followed by fixed appliances

    Raucci, Gaetana; Elyasi, Maryam; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Grassia, Vincenzo; d’Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Perillo, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective study was to identify which dental and/or cephalometric variables were predictors of long-term maxillary dental arch stability in patients treated with a transpalatal arch (TPA) during the mixed dentition phase followed by full fixed appliances in the permanent dentition. Methods Thirty-six patients, treated with TPA followed up by full fixed appliances, were divided into stable and relapse groups based on the long-term presence or not of relapse. Inte...

  19. 福州市废旧家电回收量预测%Fuzhou Predict Recovery of Waste Household Appliances

    陈勇

    2014-01-01

    文中分析五种家电的平均使用寿命和数据可得性,采用了市场供给A模型和斯坦福模型来预测福州五种废旧家电产生的总量,结合我国废旧家电的回收率获得福州2016~2020年五种家电的回收总量。%This paper analyses the five waste home appliances’ average life and data availability, Adopting the market supply A model and Stanford model to forecast the total generating amount of Fuzhou’s five waste household appliances. Finally, Considering Chinese waste household appliances’ recovery and achieving the total recovery of Fuzhou’s five waste household appliances in 2016 to 2020.

  20. The Extreme Decline of Investor Sentiment and Market Efficiency: Evidence from the Electric Appliances Industry in Japan

    Chikashi TSUJI

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify whether weak form market efficient hypothesis holds in markets with deteriorated investor sentiment by focusing on the return dynamics of the Japanese electric appliances industry stocks. The contributions derived by our empirical analysis are as follows. First, this paper revealed that when investor sentiment is very stable, two successive days’ returns have no relation. Hence in markets with very stable sentiment, weak form market efficient hypothesis holds. Secon...

  1. Decomposing price differentials due to ENERGY STARR labels and energy efficiency features in appliances: proxy for market share tracking?

    This paper summarizes recent work using statistical methods to examine the portions of the apparent price differences for a variety of appliances that are attributable to efficiency labels or components of efficient measures. The work stems from research examining progress in market transformation. The goal was to monitor market progress in the premium associated with efficient equipment compared to standard equipment - and potentially track these changes (hopefully, according to logic, declining) over time. However, the incremental cost metric is always confounded by the fact that the 'feature bundle' on appliances and lighting is not consistent ( i.e. , many efficient products are loaded up with other, high-end features). Based on work conducted by the authors some years ago, we adapted statistical models to decompose the price differentials for efficient and standard refrigerators, clothes washers, and dish washers. The authors used site visits and web searches to gather data on appliance prices and features for a set of efficient and standard models. The authors first examined apparent (raw) price differentials between efficient and standard models. Then, using regression techniques to control for differences in features on the measures, the differences attributable to various features - and in particular to energy efficient features and logos - were estimated. The results showed that while the apparent (gross) price differences for efficient measures are high, the percentage and dollar differences decrease dramatically when the price differences statistically attributable to other features of the measure are accounted for. The work illustrates a promising approach for three important applications in program planning and evaluation: tracking market progress within and between states or service territories, using a proxy variable that is less expensive and complicated to measure than direct indicators of sales or market share, identifying appropriate levels for

  2. Oral Hygiene and Gingival Health in Patients with Fixed Prosthodontic Appliances – A 12-Month Follow-Up

    Milardović Ortolan, Slađana; Viskić, Joško; Štefančić, Sanja; Rener Sitar, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Denis; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and observe the oral hygiene and gingival condition in patients before and after fixed prosthodontic therapy through a 12-month period in combination with oral hygiene instructions. It was also analysed how factors, such as type of fixed prosthodontic appliance, constructive material, the position of a fixed partial denture (FPD) in the mouth, age and gender influenced oral hygiene. The dental arches were divided into three segments each and teeth and gingi...

  3. Seeing the self in the washing machine: the deep affordance of 2.0 philosophy in the household appliance domain

    c.Calefato; E.Frumento; M. Milani; Montanari, R.

    2010-01-01

    The acceleration of rhythm of everyday life requires efficiency and flexibility in daily routines. The real expectations and needs of people concerning intelligent home devices should be carefully researched. The project Moon 2.0 by Indesit Company presents alternative ways of producing household appliance services developing a 2.0 HMI and programs setting unit for washing machines, totally manageable by smart phones or iPhones. Users can’t explicitly control washing m...

  4. Effect of fixed space maintainers and removable appliances on oral microflora in children: An in vivo study

    Ritesh Kundu; Abhay M Tripathi; Jagdish Narain Jaiswal; Ujjala Ghoshal; Madhuchanda Palit; Sonali Khanduja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral habits and caries if left untreated may result in crowding and arch length discrepancy in developing dentition. Therefore, appliances are used to maintain the arch length and for proper relationship between dental arches. However, its insertion may cause an increase in bacterial concentration. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., and Candida albicans in saliva during the first 6 months of orthodontic therapy. Materials and M...

  5. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  6. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  7. Development of an Interface System Based on Hand Gesture Recognition for Electrical Appliance Operation in Daily Life Scene

    Iwashita, Jun-Ichi; Tozawa, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Akio

    We develop an interface system using hand gestures to operate electrical appliances intuitively in a daily life scene. Hand-waving detected in the image is used as a cue to start the system, to distinguish gestures based on the user's intension of operation from other daily-life motions, and to specify the position of the user's hand. Hand-waving detection is implemented based on combination of dynamic background subtraction method and skin color extraction. In addition, we focus on changes of brightness value in each pixel. The user selects a target appliance to operate by pointing out with a hand under a ceiling camera with fisheye lens. The appliance within the region that the user indicates is decided as target one. A PTZ camera is also used to zoom in the user's hand area and to observe hand gestures. The shape of the hand is basically recognized using HLAC features. We add a size of hand region as a new feature to the HLAC and employ a coarse-to-fine strategy using image pyramid. Robustness and the success rate of gesture recognition, consequently, are improved. In this paper, we prepare seven types of hand shapes to operate the channel of TV. Effectiveness of the proposed system is shown through experiments.

  8. Comparison of transverse dental changes induced by the palatally applied Frog appliance and buccally applied Karad's integrated distalizing system

    Kaygisiz, Emine; Unver, Fatih; Tortop, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the transverse dental changes induced by the palatally applied Frog appliance and buccally applied Karad's integrated distalizing system (KIDS). Methods We evaluated the pre- and post distalization orthodontic models of 39 patients, including 19 treated using the Frog appliance, which is palatally positioned (Frog group), and 20 treated using KIDS, which is buccally positioned (KIDS group). Changes in intermolar and interpremolar distances and the amount of maxillary premolar and molar rotation were evaluated on model photocopies. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical evaluations. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Significant distopalatal rotation of premolars and distobuccal rotation of molars were observed in Frog group (p < 0.05), while significant distopalatal rotation of molars (p < 0.05), with no significant changes in premolars, was observed in KIDS group. The amount of second premolar and first molar rotation was significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, expansion in the region of the first molars and second premolars was significantly greater in KIDS group than in Frog group (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions Our results suggest that the type and amount of first molar rotation and expansion vary with the design of the distalization appliance used. PMID:27019824

  9. An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L.

    2005-07-01

    Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ± 0.02 µT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 ± 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 ± 21% and 21 ± 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure. This work is supported by the charity CHILDREN with LEUKAEMIA, registered charity number 298405.

  10. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  11. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    Kristina Lopatiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results: 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15. Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs (P < 0.05; fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.

  12. O aparelho quadrihélice (Quad-helix e suas variações The Quad-helix appliance and their variations

    Mario Sergio Duarte

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou mostrar a eficiência dos vários desenhos do aparelho quadrihélice, de Ricketts, na correção das desarmonias dentoalveolares. Devido às suas várias formas de confecção, assim como de sua ativação, o quadrihélice tornou-se um acessório útil não somente na sobrecorreção da discrepância transversal e sagital, mas também no tratamento das más oclusões da Classe II, divisão 1, de Angle, principalmente nos casos em que a rotação do molar é desejada como parte do tratamento. Também é relevante o seu efeito no tratamento das mordidas abertas anteriores, atuando como coadjuvante no tratamento dos fatores ambientais que contribuem, muitas vezes, para exacerbar o desenvolvimento das más oclusões. Em relação ao alinhamento do arco dentário, o quadrihélice abrevia essa fase do tratamento em 4 a 5 meses (o tratamento convencional levaria muito mais tempo e pelo menos uma grande série de troca de arcos em mecânicas de nivelamento. Portanto, este trabalho tem a intenção de mostrar algumas das ativações possíveis do aparelho quadrihélice, bem como algumas de suas variações, que contribuem para conseguir resultados estáveis em longo prazo.The aim of this present article was to show the efficiency of several drawings of Ricketts Quad-helix appliance in the correction of dentoalveolar disharmonies. Due its varied forms, as well as its activation, the Quad-helix became a useful accessory not only in overcorrecting the transversal discrepancy and sagittal, but also in treating Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusions, mainly when molar rotation is a necessary part of the treatment. It is also relevant its effect in the treatment of anterior open-bites. It gives support in the treatment of environmental factors that contribute to exacerbate the development of malocclusions. In relation to dental arch alignment, the Quad-helix appliance abbreviate this treatment phase in 4 to 5 months, what would

  13. www.topten.info goes European. How to get Mr. Smith hooked to energy efficient appliances

    Topten is a consumer-oriented online search tool first created in Switzerland, which presents the 'best appliances' in various categories of products (white and brown goods, ITC, cars, lighting...). Energy efficiency is the key criteria. But Topten is more than an internet platform. It is a communication tool which helps to show how our energy consumption causes climate change and what we can do personally to reduce our impact. It is also a powerful instrument to influence manufacturers. Topten is independent of producers and retailers and relies on neutral tests and analyses of independent institutions and standardized declarations of manufacturers. The paper presents: The tool itself: what can be seen on www.topten.ch, why it has been developed in this way, how it is constantly updated, who is behind it with which goals... The results in Switzerland after five years of growing success, the media's central role in rising awareness, Topten's role as a reference for energy efficiency policies, manufacturers' reactions,... The new policy orientation taken by Topten with the support of WWF Europe: the extension to other countries through a Topten.info platform - in order to create multinational pressure at the European level to influence manufacturers while working specifically on national markets and adapting the concept to the specific needs of each country

  14. Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task I report

    1979-02-12

    The structure and features of selected certification programs were evaluated, their operational characteristics determined, and primary program problems and successes identified. An initial review of 50 certification programs in the Federal, state, and private sectors was performed, followed by a detailed review of 8 of the programs (EPA New Product noise; EPA Automobile Emissions, AHAM Room Air Conditioners; ARI Unitary Air Conditioners/Heat Pump; NHTSA Automobile Tire Safety; California Applicance Standards; Underwriters Laboratories Product Safety; and Ford's Quality-Assurance Program for Suppliers). Flow charts are presented to illustrate each program's structure and major characteristics. Matrices are developed to list the operating and control features of each program. Analyses of the 8 selected programs were performed to the degree necessary to develop and propose 5 potential approaches to an appliance certification/enforcement program (minimal intervention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, balanced certification and enforcement and strong enforcement remedies and deterrents). The approaches are documented in Section 3. The evaluation framework is described in Section 4, while a review of final test procedures and related public testimony are given in Section 5. (MCW)

  15. Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances

    This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ► An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ► PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ► Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ► Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

  16. An analysis on effecting factors of ultra-violet imaging appliance in corona discharge

    Han, Xiao; Yang, Ning; Yuan, Shuai; Bi, Jiangang

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the operating principle of daylight UV imagers was introduced first, emphasizing the SBUV(solar blind UV) technology, which utilizes the fact that ultra violet between 240nm~280nm is being absorbed by the ozone so that signals detected on earth in this spectral range originate on earth. And then several influencing factors were explained, including observation distance, observing angle, imager gain settings and environmental conditions. Experimental data measured in the UHV(ultra high-voltage) DC converter station in Changzhi, Shanxi, China were analyzed using SRA(single regression analysis) method, and mathematical equations with acceptable deviation were calculated, with simulating curves plotted. The results show that environmental conditions including humidity and temperature, observation distance and imager gain settings all contribute to the measuring result, exhibiting as exponential function and convex function respectively. Concluded from the above analysis and calculation, observing conditions of a clear observing angle at the same observation distance with mediate gain settings on days of low humidity were recommended. This conclusion may guide further ultra-violet imaging appliance in high-voltage electrical devices corona discharge sensing.

  17. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  18. Thermochemical treatment of E-waste from small household appliances using highly pre-heated nitrogen-thermogravimetric investigation and pyrolysis kinetics

    The EU directive on waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) 2002/96/EC has set a goal of recovering 70-80% in terms of materials and energy. Nowadays, thermal cracking (pyrolysis) of such waste streams is receiving renewed attention, due to the energy and material recovery that can be achieved and therefore the sustainable waste management. However, it still lacks the kinetic background which is of great importance for a successful design of thermochemical processes. In this study the kinetic parameters of WEEE (originating from small household appliances) pyrolysis using highly pre-heated nitrogen under six different heating rates (1-2.5 K/s) have been estimated using a combination of model-free and model fitted methods. Even though WEEE is heterogeneous material, similar behavior at each of the six different heating rates applied was observed. The activation energy of the pyrolysis process determined with two different model-free methods gave comparable results. Pre-exponential factor and reaction order were determined using the Coats-Redfern method. The estimated kinetic parameters for the WEEE pyrolysis are: E = 95.54 kJ/mol, A = 1.06 x 108 and n = 3.38.

  19. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  20. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  1. INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.

    Maya Rashkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1 Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2 Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17 selected by their general diseases and conditions influencing the oral risk environment. The children were divided into 4 groups: 30 children with diabetes, 25 children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, 27 healthy children with orthodontic treatment, 34 children as a control group (healthy children. The saliva of the children was tested with the help of “Saliva Check” of GC company. The instructions of the company producer were followed.Results. Stimulated saliva current is reliably lower for children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, diabetes and children with orthodontic appliances. Saliva pH is with lower values for children with diabetes and asthma – diseases predisposing to acid oral environment. The decreased saliva buffer capacity for children with diabetes and asthma is an indicator for the difficult regulation of the dynamically changing oral electrolytic balance of those children.Conclusion. The saliva parameters studied can be used as biomarkers of the liquid oral environment with regard to the risks for caries and periodontal diseases in children. General health status influences saliva qualities increasing thus indirectly the caries risk.

  2. Oral appliance treatment in moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnoea patients non-adherent to CPAP.

    Gjerde, K; Lehmann, S; Berge, M E; Johansson, A-K; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of individually adjusted custom-made mandibular advancement device/oral appliance (OA) in treatment of patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), who were non-adherent to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. During 2007-2013, 116 patients with moderate (n = 82) and severe (n = 34) OSA non-adherent to CPAP treatment were referred for dental management with an individually adjusted OA at a specialist sleep clinic. Ten of the participants (8·6%) were lost to follow-up, leaving the data set to consist of 106 patients (71 men/35 women, mean age 57 year, range 28-90). Nocturnal respiratory polygraphic recordings were performed at baseline and follow-up. Average time between baseline polygraphy and follow-up was 12 months. A successful OA treatment outcome was based on polygraphy at the follow-up and divided into three groups: 1 = AHI 50% reduction in baseline AHI; and 3. >50% reduction in baseline AHI. If there was a ≤ 50% reduction in baseline AHI at the follow-up, the treatment was considered as a failure. The overall treatment success rate was 75%. There was no significant difference in success rates between patients in the moderate and severe categories (69% and 77%, respectively). Low oxygen saturation (SpO2 nadir) had a high predictive value for OA treatment failure. OA treatment of patients non-adherent to CPAP is efficient and especially promising for the severe OSA group who are at greatest risks for developing serious comorbidities, if left untreated. PMID:26707632

  3. Design of incentive programs for accelerating penetration of energy-efficient appliances

    Incentives are policy tools that sway purchase, retail stocking, and production decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentives complement mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating market penetration of products that are more energy efficient than required by existing standards and by preparing the market for more stringent future mandatory requirements. Incentives can be directed at different points in the appliance's supply chain; one point may be more effective than another depending on the technology's maturity and market penetration. This paper seeks to inform future policy and program design by categorizing the main elements of incentive programs from around the world. We identify advantages and disadvantages of program designs through a qualitative overview of incentive programs worldwide. We find that financial incentive programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies with a small market share, and that program designs depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context. No program design is inherently superior to another. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and identification of the most important local obstacles to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies. - Highlights: • We researched incentive programs design and implementation worldwide. • This paper seeks to inform future policy and program design. • We identify design and identify advantages and disadvantages. • We find that incentive programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient products. • Program designs depend on the market barriers addressed and the local market context

  4. Application of Life Cycle Measures to Increase Efficiency of Domestic Cooling Appliances

    Erika ELIJOŠIŪTĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Eco-design refers to systematic incorporation of environmental factors into the product design and development with the aim to reduce environmental impact of products throughout their whole life cycle. Electric power consumption of electrical and electronic equipment is one of the principal environmental aspects throughout the product exploitation time. The objective of this study is the application of eco-design methodology for development of improvement of domestic cooling appliances. Refrigeration systems as energy using products have a negative impact on the environment: emissions to air (including greenhouse gases, soil, water, and energy consumption on the whole. Reduction in energy consumption in product use phase is a very important issue due to both environmental impact when equipment operates and to costs of electricity. The accomplished analysis demonstrates the way how global problems related to refrigeration systems could be resolved using the life cycle assessment (LCA as a measure for finding out significant environmental impact during all product life time.

  5. 家电连锁零售企业存货管理存在的问题及对策%Home appliance retail chain enterprise inventory management problems and countermeasures

    焦栋

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, China's domestic home appliance manufacturing industry rapid development, become the world's manufacturing market. At the same time, such as suning, gome, the domestic home appliance retail chain enterprises also got great development. Industrial restructuring, enhance productivity, diversity of products and after-sales service guaranteed. But the development of such enterprises requires strategic inventory management mode to adapted. At present many home appliance retail chain enterprises haven't innovation strategy concept and scientific inventory management mode, as the market gradually saturated, and competition, inventory management mode backward question highlights, backlog of inventory, cash flow difficulties and stock out due to product technology updates fast, inevitably caused great obstacles to the business activities of enterprises. Strengthen the management of inventory, to establish high efficient inventory management model has become the urgent matter. Article mainly through the study of home appliance enterprise inventory management model, to the current our country home appliance retail chain enterprise inventory management problems were analyzed, and finally put forward the corresponding Suggestions for improvement on the existing problems and measures.%近些年来,中国的国内家电制造业迅速发展,成为世界的制造市场。与此同时,诸如苏宁、国美这样的国内的家电零售连锁企业也得到了很大的发展。产业重组,生产力增强,产品多样且售后服务有保障。但是这样企业的发展要求有战略性的存货管理模式与之相适应。现阶段许多家电零售连锁企业还没有创新战略理念和科学的存货管理模式,随着市场的逐渐饱和和竞争加剧,存货管理模式落后问题更加凸显,存货积压、资金周转困难以及由于产品技术更新过快造成的存货淘汰,必然给企业的经营活动造成了极大的障

  6. Analysis of potential energy saving and CO2 emission reduction of home appliances and commercial equipments in China

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products, and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'frozen efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best-practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO2 emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower. - Highlights: → Strengthened efficiency standards decelerate electricity demand growth but total demand rises through 2030. → Continuous improvement of current standards can achieve cumulative reduction of 9503 TWh by 2030. → International best-practice efficiency for selected products reduces 5450 TWh cumulatively by 2030. → Regularly updated standards can achieve most of energy savings as best practice by 2014.

  7. Factors Affecting the Formation, Severity and Location of White Spot Lesions during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances

    Khaled Khalaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the formation, severity and location of white spot lesions in patients completing fixed appliance therapy. Material and Methods: A total of 45 patients (19 males and 26 females, mean age 15.81 years, standard deviation 2.89 years attending consecutively Aberdeen Dental Hospital (ADH between January and June 2013 to have their fixed appliances removed were given a questionnaire to elicit information regarding their dental care and diet. They were then examined clinically as well as their pre-treatment photographs to record treatment data and white spot lesion (WSL location and severity using a modified version of Universal Visual Scale for Smooth Surfaces (UniViSS Smooth. Absolute risk (AR and risk ratios (RR were also calculated. Results: The incidence of at least one WSL observed in patients was 42%, with males displaying a higher incidence than females. The highest incidence of WSLs was recorded on the maxillary canines and lateral incisors, and on the maxillary and mandibular premolars and first molars. The gingival areas of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were the most affected surfaces. Significant (P < 0.05 relationships were found between the presence of WSLs and the following factors: poor oral hygiene (OH, males, increased treatment length, lack of use of fluoride supplements, use of carbonated soft drinks and/or fruit juices and the use of sugary foods. Poor OH posed the highest risk of developing WSL (RR = 8.55. Conclusions: 42% of patients have developed white spot lesions during fixed appliance therapy. Various contributing risk factors were identified with the greatest risk posed by a poor oral hygiene.

  8. Evaluation of heating performances and associated variability of domestic cooking appliances (oven-baking and pan-frying)

    By comparison with those in industry, domestic cooking processes are rarely studied with respect to heat transfer although they can drastically modify the quality of heated products. In order to compensate for this lack of information in the literature, the aim of this work was to propose test procedures to evaluate the variability of domestic appliance heating performances in the case of oven-baking and pan-frying. The measurements included the continuous recording of pan temperature during pan-frying using different types of hobs (electric, halogen, gas, induction) and pans; the continuous recording of air temperature and measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient and equivalent radiative temperature during oven-baking using different types of ovens. The results revealed broad variations in heating conditions depending on the type of appliance used and on consumer behaviour. For pan-frying, it was shown that pan temperature varied constantly during heating. From an initial value of 200 °C and a given product load, it could fall to 150 °C or rise to 330 °C at medium or high heat, respectively. For oven-baking, heating was sometimes performed at an actual air temperature that differed considerably from the air temperature set on the oven. These measurements also showed relatively low convective heat transfer coefficient values, ranging from 6 W/m2 K under free convection to 16 W/m2 K under forced convection. -- Highlights: • Domestic oven baking and pan-frying are thermally chracterised. • Quantitative data on the variability of domestic heating conditions are given. • Variability due to domestic appliances and cooking practices is very large

  9. Severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion in an adolescent patient, treated with a novel sagittal-guidance Twin-block appliance.

    Li, Peilun; Feng, Jing; Shen, Gang; Zhao, Ning

    2016-07-01

    Class II malocclusion is a challenging anomaly in orthodontic practice. Various types of functional appliances are used to correct Class II skeletal and occlusal disharmonies in growing patients, including the Twin-block. We used a modified sagittal-guidance Twin-block appliance combined with a fixed appliance and microimplant anchorage to treat a 13-year-old Chinese boy with a severe skeletal Class II malocclusion and mandibular retrognathia. Normal overjet and a Class I molar relationship were achieved because of the advancement of mandibular development, the restriction of maxillary growth, and dentoalveolar modifications in both the maxilla and the mandible. Favorable skeletal, dental, and soft tissue relationships were accomplished after 24 months of treatment. After 2 years of retention, the results remained stable. PMID:27364217

  10. Exploration on the Recycling Mechanism of Waste Household Appliances and Electronic Products in China%我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理机制探讨

    唐少艺

    2012-01-01

    我国因人口众多,电子电器产品的实际拥有量非常大,当这些产品被淘汰或换代时,产品废弃的数量同样巨大。如何有效地进行废旧电器电子的资源化回收处理,已经成为当前关系到我国经济、社会和环境可持续发展及我国再生资源回收利用面临的一个新课题。分析了我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理现状及存在问题,提出建立相关的法律、法规、市场机制及出台积极的经济政策,同时利用经济政策和利益驱动刺激回收市场发展,并加大绿色技术投入,使得废旧家电回收利用规模化发展。%Our country has a large population, electronic appliances products with the actual ownership is very big, when these products are eliminated or generation, the number of waste products also great. How to effectively carry out of waste electrical and electronic resources recycling processing, already became current relates our country economy, society and the environment sustainable development and our country renewable resource recycling faces a new topic. This article has analyzed our country waste household appliances and electronic products recycling status and problems, proposed the establishment of relevant laws, regulations, the market mechanism and the introduction of active economic policy, while the use of economic policy and interest drive stimulus recycling market development, and increase the green technology investment, the scale development of waste house-hold appliances recycling.

  11. A REVIEW OF ASSUMPTIONS AND ANALYSIS IN EPRI EA-3409,"HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE CHOICE: REVISION OF REEPS BEHAVIORAL MODELS"

    Wood, D.J.; Ruderman, H.; McMahon, J. E.

    1989-05-01

    This paper revises and extends EPRI report EA-3409, ''Household Appliance Choice: Revision of REEPS Behavioral Models.'' That paper reported the results of an econometric study of major appliance choice in new residential construction. Errors appeared in two tables of that report. We offer revised versions of those tables, and a brief analysis of the consequences and significance of the errors. The present paper also proposes several possible extensions and re-specifications of the models examined by EPRI. Some of these are judged to be highly successful; they both satisfy economic intuition more completely than the original specification and produce a better quality fit to the dependent variable. We feel that inclusion of these modifications produces a more useful set of coefficients for economic modeling than the original specification. This paper focuses on EPRI's models of residential space heating technology choice. That choice was modeled as a nested logit structure, with consumers choosing whether to have central air conditioning or not, and, given that choice, what kind of space heating system to have. The model included five space heating alternatives with central cooling (gas, oil, and electric forced-air; heat pumps; and electric baseboard) and eight alternatives without it (gas, oil, and electric forced-air; gas and oil boilers and non-central systems; and electric baseboard heat). The structure of the nested logit model is shown in Figure 1.

  12. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  13. [Determination of bisphenol A in plastic parts of small household appliances by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Xiaofei; Lü, Pin; Li, Hui; Lu, Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of bisphenol A in the plastic parts of small household appliances by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample was extracted with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and purified by Sep-Pak C18 solid phase extraction. Bisphenol A was separated and detected using LC-MS/MS in negative ion mode with the mobile phases of methanol and water (containing 0.05% ammonia water). The linearity of the method was good in the range of 5 μg/L to 100 μg/L. The recoveries for the spiked sample were from 95.2% to 109.7% at the three levels, 10, 25 and 75 μg/kg. The relative standard deviations were less than 3.8%. The limit of detection was 10 μg/kg. The method is easy-handling, time-saving, sensitive and suitable for the determination of the residual bisphenol A in the plastic parts of household appliances. PMID:22667100

  14. Evaluation of effects of laser irradiation therapy (λ=830 nm) on oral ulceration induced by fixed orthodontic appliances

    Twenty patients presenting fixed orthodontic appliance - induced oral ulceration were randomly chosen for this study. These patients were then divided into two groups. In Group ,1 the ulceration was submitted to low intensity infrared laser (λ=830 nm), at 30 mW fluency per point 1,3 J/cm2 at an exposure time ranging from 3s to 33s, depending on ulceration size. Ulceration was irradiated on the first day, the process being repeated 24 and then 48 hours later. Evaluations were made seven days after the first irradiation. Group 2 comprised of patients who were exposed to conventional treatment where wax was used to cover the afflicted area. These patients also took triancinolona. Evaluation was made on the same day. In both groups the cause of irritation was eliminated whenever was possible. Clinical results pointed out that the healing process was slightly faster in cases of LILT treated oral ulceration. The latter also presented significant decrease in symptoms of pain. Comparative statistical evaluation results between both groups has shown that in the case of Group 1 patients (those submitted to low-intensity infrared laser beam): 1) Healing process was faster with reduction of sore areas; 2) immediate relief of pain following first irradiation, as stated by patients. Taking into consideration the vast amount of patients who are bearers of fixed orthodontic appliances and whose most usual and frequent complaint is pain and irritation, the use of LILT is highly recommended due to its simplicity and efficacy. (author)

  15. Creating and Implementing a Regularized Monitoring and EnforcementSystem for China's Mandatory Standards and Energy Information Label forAppliances

    Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    National Institute of Standardization (CNIS), the China Administration for Quality, Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and relevant stakeholders in the industry to develop a stronger system of monitoring and enforcement. In November 2005, CNIS and LBNL (a CLASP implementing partner) with funding from the Energy Foundation jointly organized an international workshop to present the international best practices in S&L monitoring and enforcement. Currently, CNIS is developing a guideline for monitoring and enforcement for appliance standards. With support from METI, CLASP has been able to expand the on-going collaboration with CNIS to include enforcement needs for the mandatory energy information label and to accelerate the progress of the project to develop a more robust monitoring and enforcement for S&L programs in China. This expanded effort has included: (1) Holding an enforcement and monitoring roadmap planning workshop with key S&L stakeholders; (2) Interviews with S&L stakeholders on the need and scope of national compliance tests; (3) Research on past enforcement activities; (4) An analysis of compliance data from the mandatory energy information labeling program; (5) Interviews with stakeholders on the need and scope of testing infrastructure; and (6) Development of a roadmap for future activities. This report summarizes the findings of these activities and identifies the progress that China is making, and can make, toward developing a stronger system of monitoring and enforcement (M&E). In sum, it outlines a vision of moving forward with more vigorous M&E in China.

  16. Evaluation of an oral appliance in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure use: Preliminary results.

    Cantore, S; Ballini, A; Farronato, D; Malcangi, G; Dipalma, G; Assandri, F; Garagiola, U; Inchingolo, F; De Vito, D; Cirulli, N

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a phenomenon of repeated, episodic reduction, or cessation of airflow (hypopnea/apnea) as a result of upper airways obstruction. First-line treatment in younger children is adenotonsillectomy, although other available treatment options in middle-aged adults include continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) and airway adjuncts. Oral appliances (OA) are a viable treatment alternative in patients with OSAS.The objective of this study was to assess, in a 1-year follow-up study, an OA in OSAS patients. The participants were subjected to polysomnographic examination with a validated device (MicroMESAM). Eight participants were fitted with a Thornton Adjustable Positioner (TAP). The participants were asked to wear the test appliance for 7 nights, and in case of compliance, for 6 months. The selected patients record their usage of the appliance and any adverse effects in a treatment journal. The research focused on the following outcomes: sleep apnea (i.e. reduction in the apnea/hypopnea index) and the effect of oral appliances on daytime function.In conclusion, the results suggest that OA have a definite role in the treatment of snoring and sleep apnea. PMID:26684627

  17. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    Soon-Yong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model.

  18. RELOCATION OF HOME APPLIANCES FACTORY BY USING SYSTEMATICAL LAYOUT PLANNING (SLP COMBINED WITH FLOW ANALYSIS AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS DESIGN

    Yosef Adji Baskoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every manufacturing company must have experiencing building a layout. Fred.E Meyers has stated that only death and taxes are certain, there exist a third certainty-a plant layout will change, thus many methods to generate layout are established and each has its own purposes and benefits. This research focused on the design of manufacturing facilities supported by in-depth analysis of Assembly process design with a high stresses on the Systematical Layout Planning ( SLP and Flow Analysis method to facilitate an outcome of layout accordingly to the system needs. This is a real case study conducts with an objective of generating a recommendation layout for Home Appliances Company specifically for television plant.

  19. RELOCATION OF HOME APPLIANCES FACTORY BY USING SYSTEMATICAL LAYOUT PLANNING (SLP COMBINED WITH FLOW ANALYSIS AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS DESIGN

    Yosef Adji Baskoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every manufacturing company must have experiencing building a layout. Fred.E Meyers has stated that only death and taxes are certain, there exist a third certainty-a plant layout will change, thus many methods to generate layout are established and each has its own purposes and benefits. This research focused on the design of manufacturing facilities supported by in-depth analysis of Assembly process design with a high stresses on the Systematical Layout Planning ( SLP and Flow Analysis method to facilitate an outcome of layout accordingly to the system needs. This is a real case study conducts with an objective of generating a recommendation layout for Home Appliances Company specifically for television plant

  20. Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing

    Saeed Mirzamohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to identify factors affecting productivity and the role of CRM systems. We perform an empirical study for a case study of home appliance manufacturing and using a questionnaire computed present status and compared with desired status of CRM components such as customer leadership, strategy, skill and motivation of labor work, effective use of information technology and process management.

  1. Orchestrating utility supply and demand in real-time via the Internet, home networks, and smart appliances

    This paper presented a model to illustrate the efficient coordination between the supply-side and demand-side of household electricity use and the magnitude of demand that can be managed using real-time pricing. In real-time supply and demand side management, a variable price for service is sent via Internet from the supply-side to the demand-side. The 3 benefits to this type of demand-side management are that traditional fossil-fuelled electrical capacity can operate less of the time and more efficiently; renewable electrical capacity such as wind and solar power can be put to use more efficiently when it becomes available; and additional means are available to protect the transmission and distribution infrastructure of the utility. A critical requirement is that pricing should change frequently throughout the day so that budget conscious consumers do not have to wait too long for favourable pricing to use their appliances. 12 refs., 9 figs

  2. Treatment of anterior open bite and multiple missing teeth with lingual fixed appliances, double jaw surgery, and dental implants.

    Jung, Min-Ho; Baik, Un-Bong; Ahn, Sug-Joon

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of adult patients with severe anterior open bite frequently requires orthognathic surgery, especially when the chin is retruded severely. If a patient has multiple missing posterior teeth, it is difficult to control the occlusal plane because it is challenging to obtain anchorage during orthodontic treatment. We report on a 25-year-old woman who had a skeletal Class II malocclusion, severe anterior open bite, vertical maxillary asymmetry, and severe dental caries on her molars. There was no posterior occlusal contact between the maxillary and mandibular molars since 5 of her molars had to be extracted because of severe caries. Lingual fixed appliances and double jaw surgery were performed to treat her skeletal and dental problems, and dental implants helped restore her masticatory function. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and retention photographs demonstrate effective, esthetically pleasing, and stable treatment results. PMID:23540629

  3. Orchestrating utility supply and demand in real-time via the Internet, home networks, and smart appliances

    Cruickshank, R.F. III [Power Networks, Big Indian, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a model to illustrate the efficient coordination between the supply-side and demand-side of household electricity use and the magnitude of demand that can be managed using real-time pricing. In real-time supply and demand side management, a variable price for service is sent via Internet from the supply-side to the demand-side. The 3 benefits to this type of demand-side management are that traditional fossil-fuelled electrical capacity can operate less of the time and more efficiently; renewable electrical capacity such as wind and solar power can be put to use more efficiently when it becomes available; and additional means are available to protect the transmission and distribution infrastructure of the utility. A critical requirement is that pricing should change frequently throughout the day so that budget conscious consumers do not have to wait too long for favourable pricing to use their appliances. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  4. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  5. Effect of fixed space maintainers and removable appliances on oral microflora in children: An in vivo study

    Ritesh Kundu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral habits and caries if left untreated may result in crowding and arch length discrepancy in developing dentition. Therefore, appliances are used to maintain the arch length and for proper relationship between dental arches. However, its insertion may cause an increase in bacterial concentration. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., and Candida albicans in saliva during the first 6 months of orthodontic therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty children in the age group of 6-15 years were selected with regard to indication of orthodontic treatment, and subsequently grouped as patients to be treated with fixed space maintainers or removable appliances. Unstimulated saliva was collected in a sterile container at baseline and at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month recalls for every selected child. Samples collected were processed for bacterial culture in different culture media at different time intervals. Statistical Analysis: SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0 statistical software was carried for bacterial counts. Chi-square test and t-test were performed to know the effects of each variable and to reveal the statistical significance. Result: Bacterial counts of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., and Candida albicans were found to be statistically significant (P 0≤ 0.001, (P < 0.05, and (P < 0.001, respectively in both the groups at all intervals. Conclusion: At different time intervals, the total numbers of bacterial count of Streptococcus mutans were comparatively higher, followed by Lactobacillus sp. and Candida albicans.

  6. Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust-A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances

    Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems due to high emission levels often related to small scale wood combustion. In this study, simultaneous combustion particle deposition and heat recovery from the exhaust of two commercially available wood-fired appliances has been investigated. The experiments were performed with a miniature pipe bundle heat exchanger operating in the exhaust gas lines of a fully automated pellet burner or a closed fireplace. The system has been characterised for a wide range of aerosol inlet temperatures (135-295 deg. C) and flow velocities (0.13-1.0ms-1), and particle deposition efficiencies up to 95% have been achieved. Deposition was dominated by thermophoresis and diffusion and increased with the average temperature difference and retention time in the heat exchanger. The aerosols from the two different appliances exhibited different deposition characteristics, which can be attributed to enhanced deposition of the nucleation mode particles generated in the closed fire place. The measured deposition efficiencies can be described by simple linear parameterisations derived from laboratory studies. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of thermophoretic particle removal from biomass burning flue gas and support the development of modified heat exchanger systems with enhanced capability for simultaneous heat recovery and particle deposition

  7. Después de cien años de uso: ¿las férulas oclusales tienen algún efecto terapéutico? After a century of use: do the occlusal appliances have any therapeutic effects?

    H Santander

    2011-04-01

    relation and its determination as a starting point of treatment; the use of splints to deprogram; their effect on the oral motor behaviour known as bruxism are discussed. Their effect on EMG activity during resting, swallowing and maximal clenching in the masticatory and neck muscles; their effect on muscular eficiency; their effect decreasing the joint overload; and experimental evidence of the use of several appliances on speciic symptoms such as pain and joint noise, are also treated. The true challenge is to generate new knowledge about joint degenerative changes, the craniocervical relationships, tilt and curvature of the cervical spine. In conclusion, it's necessary to use an occlusal appliance designed for the specific condition of the patient, and its real therapeutic value is demonstrated by the improvement of some signs and symptoms in masticatory and cervical muscles. However, the action mechanisms of occlusal appliances are not fully understood. The lack of scientiic support contributes to the persistent controversy of the use of these appliances in the treatment of temporomandibular joint sounds and reversing degenerative changes. It is still a challenge to carry out new researches supporting the use of these appliances as an effective method to treat our patients using management protocols and periodic evaluations.

  8. 家电产品回收物流网络模型优化研究%Study on Optimization of Household Appliance Recycling Logistics Network Model

    吴景新; 李杰

    2013-01-01

    In this paper through analyzing the problems in household appliance recycling in China, we analyzed in depth the recycling network for waste household appliances, established the mixed integer linear programming model with profit maximization as the objective function, and then optimized the model of the recycling network of these products.%通过分析我国家电回收所存在的问题,对废旧家电产品回收网络进行了探讨和分析,并通过对废旧家电回收网络模型的构建建立了以利润最大化为目标函数的混合整数线性规划模型,进而对废旧家电产品回收物流的网络模型进行了优化.

  9. Activities.

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  10. Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals regarding the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances

    Luc Gauthier; Fernanda Almeida; Patrick Arcache; Catherine Ashton-McGregor; David Côté; Helen Driver; Kathleen Ferguson; Gilles Lavigne; Philippe Martin; Jean-François Masse; Florence Morisson; Jeffrey Pancer; Charles Samuels; Maurice Schachter; Frédéric Sériès

    2012-01-01

    The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe O...

  11. A comparison of the treatment effects of the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device and the Twin Block appliance in patients with class II malocclusions

    Hanoun A; Al-Jewair TS; Tabbaa S; Allaymouni MA; Preston CB

    2014-01-01

    Abdulfatah Hanoun,1 Thikriat S Al-Jewair,1,2 Sawsan Tabbaa,1 Mhd Amer Allaymouni,1 Charles B Preston1 1Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA; 2College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia Objectives: We evaluated the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device (FRD) and the Twin Block appliance (TB) in comparison with nontreated controls in the treatment of patients with class II divi...

  12. Investigating the Effects of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Competitive Advantage by Considering the Merits of Marketing and Innovation Capability (Case Study: Isfahan Province Appliances Companies)

    Mohammad Reza Dalvi; Akram Gholami Ahangaran

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is "investigating the effects of entrepreneurship and sustainable competitive advantage by considering the merits of marketing and innovation capability in Isfahan Province appliances companies". This research is descriptive-survey in the field branch. Data were collected by using a questionnaire with the help of statistical software such as SPSS statistical test of normality test of data distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test), regression, and ANOVA was analyzed. The...

  13. Investigation of steam reformation of natural gas for the very small scale production of hydrogen fuel for light duty vehicles in appliance-type refueling systems

    Lomax, Franklin D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel cell propulsion systems fueled directly with hydrogen are being seriously considered as a means of powering future light-duty vehicles. One of the greatest impediments to the introduction of such vehicles is the perception that transitional infrastructure to supply hydrogen will be an insurmountable obstacle. This transitional infrastructure requirement might be met through the introduction of very small scale refueling appliances which provide compressed hydrogen for eith...

  14. The effects of the repetitive and reinforced oral hygiene motivation methods on plaque and inflammation markers of adolescents with fixed appliances

    Yetkin Ay, Zuhal; Sayın, M.Özgür; ÖZAT, YENER; SERT, TUBA; Kırzıoğlu, F. Yeşim; ,

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: High standard of oral hygiene is essential for patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the repetitive and reinforced oral hygiene motivation methods (OHMM) will result in lower plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) scores in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods: The study group, composed of 90 patients, was divided into three groups; Group I: Only verbal inform...

  15. 家用电器电磁辐射污染危害及防护%Hazard and Prevention of Electromagnetic Radiation Pollution of Household Appliances

    张经纬

    2012-01-01

    科技的发展使得家庭中使用的电器和电子产品越来越多,给我们的日常生活带来了很大的方便。然而,科学研究表明,家用电器和电子产品在使用过程中产生一定的电磁辐射,对人体健康不利。本文对家用电器电磁辐射对人身体的危害性进行分析,提出日常生活中防护电磁辐射的一些具体做法。%There are more and more household appliances and electronic products due to the development of science and technology, which brings great convenience to our daily life. However, a scientific research shows that household appliances and electronic products in use may produce certain electromagnetic radiation harmful to hu- man body. This paper analyzes the degree of the electromagnetic radiation harm of different household appliances and proposes some concrete practices to prevent electromagnetic radiation in daily life.

  16. On the development of an innovative gas-fired heating appliance based on a zeolite-water adsorption heat pump; system description and seasonal gas utilization efficiency

    The main objective of this work is to introduce an innovative hybrid heating appliance incorporating a gas condensing boiler and a zeolite-water adsorption heat pump. The condensing boiler is applied to drive the zeolite-water heat pump for the heating base-load and to assist the heat pump in the so called “mixed operation” mode, in which both the heat pump and the condensing boiler are working in series to cover medium heating demands. Peak heating demands are covered by the condensing boiler in the so called “direct heating” mode. The three operation modes of the hybrid heating appliance have been technically described. In addition, the laboratory test conditions for estimating the seasonal heating performance according to the German Guideline VDI 4650-2 have been introduced. For both heating systems 35/28 °C and 55/45 °C, which represent the typical operating conditions of floor and high temperature radiating heating systems in Europe, seasonal heating gas utilization efficiencies of 1.34 and 1.26 have been measured, respectively with a ground heat source. In two field test installations in one-family houses in Germany, the introduced heating appliance showed 27% more seasonal gas utilization efficiency for heating and domestic hot water production, which is equivalent to a CO2-emission reduction of 20% compared to the gas condensing boiler technology

  17. Ultrafine particles from electric appliances and cooking pans: experiments suggesting desorption/nucleation of sorbed organics as the primary source.

    Wallace, L A; Ott, W R; Weschler, C J

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafine particles are observed when metal surfaces, such as heating elements in electric appliances, or even empty cooking pans, are heated. The source of the particles has not been identified. We present evidence that particles >10 nm are not emitted directly from the heating elements or the metal surfaces. Using repeated heating of an electric burner, several types of cooking pans, and a steam iron, the increase in the number of particles (>10 nm) can be reduced to 0. After the devices are exposed to indoor air for several hours or days, subsequent heating results in renewed particle production, suggesting that organic matter has sorbed on their surfaces. Also, after a pan has been heated to the point that no increase in particles is observed, washing with detergent results in copious production of particles the next time the pan is heated. These observations suggest that detergent residue and organics sorbed from indoor air are the sources of the particles. We hypothesize that organic compounds are thermally desorbed from the hot surface as gaseous molecules; as they diffuse from the hot air near the pan into cooler air, selected compounds exceed their saturation concentration and nucleation occurs. PMID:25250820

  18. Economics of End-of-Life Materials Recovery: A Study of Small Appliances and Computer Devices in Portugal.

    Ford, Patrick; Santos, Eduardo; Ferrão, Paulo; Margarido, Fernanda; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Olivetti, Elsa

    2016-05-01

    The challenges brought on by the increasing complexity of electronic products, and the criticality of the materials these devices contain, present an opportunity for maximizing the economic and societal benefits derived from recovery and recycling. Small appliances and computer devices (SACD), including mobile phones, contain significant amounts of precious metals including gold and platinum, the present value of which should serve as a key economic driver for many recycling decisions. However, a detailed analysis is required to estimate the economic value that is unrealized by incomplete recovery of these and other materials, and to ascertain how such value could be reinvested to improve recovery processes. We present a dynamic product flow analysis for SACD throughout Portugal, a European Union member, including annual data detailing product sales and industrial-scale preprocessing data for recovery of specific materials from devices. We employ preprocessing facility and metals pricing data to identify losses, and develop an economic framework around the value of recycling including uncertainty. We show that significant economic losses occur during preprocessing (over $70 M USD unrecovered in computers and mobile phones, 2006-2014) due to operations that fail to target high value materials, and characterize preprocessing operations according to material recovery and total costs. PMID:27019006

  19. Willingness to pay and price elasticities of demand for energy-efficient appliances: Combining the hedonic approach and demand systems

    This article proposes a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for the attributes represented by energy efficiency labels and providing reliable price elasticities of demand (own and cross) for close substitutes (e.g. those with low energy efficiency and those with higher energy efficiency). This is done by using the results of the hedonic approach together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. The elasticity results obtained with the latter are then compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain: it is found that 15.6% of the final price is actually paid for the energy efficiency attribute. This accounts for about Euro 80 of the average market price. The elasticity results confirm that energy efficient appliances are more price elastic than regular ones. - Highlights: → The article shows a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for energy efficiency labels and price elasticities. → The results of the hedonic approach is used together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. → The elasticity results are compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). → The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain.

  20. Effect of Cervitec varnish on the salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in the patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Eronat, C; Alpöz, A R

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of a 1% chlorhexidine-containing varnish (Cervitec, Vivadent, Liechtenstein) on the levels of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances using the Dentocult-SM (Vivadent, Liechtenstein) technique for the microbiological investigation. Eighty subjects participated in the study and, divided randomly into two equal groups in which one group was treated with the placebo varnish (Vivadent, Liechtenstein) for negative controls. Streptococcus mutans in saliva of the subject was sampled and enumerated by using the Dentocult-SM dip-slide technique for periods of one, two four and twelve weeks after a single varnish application. The results were evaluated statistically. After the chlorhexidine containing varnish treatment the levels of Streptococcus mutans in saliva were significantly reduced after one week (p 0.05). The results suggested that Cervitec varnish reduces salivary Streptococcus mutans levels and that the application should be repeated every 3 months to get antibacterial effect. PMID:9569785

  1. Willingness to pay and price elasticities of demand for energy-efficient appliances: Combining the hedonic approach and demand systems

    Galarraga, Ibon, E-mail: ibon.galarraga@bc3research.org; Gonzalez-Eguino, Mikel, E-mail: mikel.gonzalez@bc3research.org; Markandya, Anil, E-mail: anil.markandya@bc3research.org

    2011-12-15

    This article proposes a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for the attributes represented by energy efficiency labels and providing reliable price elasticities of demand (own and cross) for close substitutes (e.g. those with low energy efficiency and those with higher energy efficiency). This is done by using the results of the hedonic approach together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. The elasticity results obtained with the latter are then compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain: it is found that 15.6% of the final price is actually paid for the energy efficiency attribute. This accounts for about Euro 80 of the average market price. The elasticity results confirm that energy efficient appliances are more price elastic than regular ones. - Highlights: > The article shows a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for energy efficiency labels and price elasticities. > The results of the hedonic approach is used together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. > The elasticity results are compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). > The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain.

  2. Evaluation of the Effective Factors on Customers' Satisfaction Using INDSAT Model; Case Study: Household Appliances' Customers of Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Ali Kazemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers and consumers are always looking for suppliers who offer better products or services to their clients. Lots of documents show that in today's competitive world, exploring and meeting customers' needs and and requirements before other competitors, is the essential condition for companies to be successful. vices provided by organizations is the assessment of customer satisfaction. this study deals with identification and investigation of factors affecting industrial customer's satisfaction at Mobarake Steel Company of Esfahan. Statistical population included 125 company of the Household Appliances' Customers of Mobarakeh Steel Company. Field methods and questionnaire were used to gather essential information. In this study, 161 questionnaires were randomly distributed to Customers. Eventually 117 questionnaires were returned. SPSS and Amos were used to analyze data descriptively, assess the credibility of the model and test hypotheses. Results indicated that all satisfaction factors (product- sales people- product-related information- order handling- technical services- interaction with supplier's internal staff- complaint handling as the aspects of have positive effects on overall customer satisfaction. Also, all of these factors are not of the same preference to the customers; sales staff and product satisfactions the scored highest and complaint handling the lowest.

  3. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    2011-06-01

    ... procedure final rule (74 FR 13318 (March 27, 2009)), did not measure battery charger energy consumption in... time. 71 FR 71340, 71360. The battery charger active mode test procedure in today's final rule removes... definitions into appendices Y and Z. 74 FR 13318. In today's final rule, DOE amends the battery charger...

  4. Government’s Incentive Mechanism for Recycling the Used Household Appliances%废旧家电回收再利用的政府激励机制研究

    郭军华; 张威; 朱佳翔

    2014-01-01

    以激励提高废旧家电回收量为目的,基于第三方处理商和第三方回收商的废旧家电回收模式,设计政府和处理商以及回收商之间的激励函数,讨论了废旧家电回收主体的政府激励机制设计问题。建立了三种情形下的激励模型并比较分析了激励效果,结果表明废旧家电回收需要政府的积极参与和激励机制。在政府无任何激励机制的情形下,回收价最低,回收量最少。而政府给予处理商或回收商的激励机制的情形下,随着奖励力度的加大,回收量不断增加,回收商和处理商的利润也逐渐增长。政府给予回收商激励机制效果最好,回收量最高,并能够刺激提高处理率。%This paper studies government's incentive mechanism of the main body for recycling used household appliances in order to improve the recovery quantity. An incentive function between the government and recy-clers or processors is designed based on a recycling model which is comprised of third-party processors and third-party recyclers. Three incentive models are established and the incentive results of these models are com-pared. The results show that used household appliances reverse logistics need government's active participation and economic incentives. There would be the lowest recovery price and least recovery quantity without govern-ment's incentive mechanism. When government gives recyclers or processors incentive mechanism,the recov-ery price,recovery quantity and profits of recyclers or processors would increase with the growth of incentive in-tensity. And there would be the best incentive effort when the incentive mechanism is given to recyclers,which leads to the highest recovery quantity for improving their processing rate.

  5. Results of active cycle of breathing techniques and conventional physiotherapy in mucociliary clearance in children with cystic fibrosis

    Hristara-Papadopoulou, A; Tsanakas, J

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is the comparison of the results of the appliance of two methods of respiratory physiotherapy; the active cycle of breathing techniques in drainage positions and the conventional physiotherapy, regarding their effects on mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis.

  6. Treatment effects of myofunctional appliances in different jaw rotations in Class II division 1 malocclusion

    Kyumi V Shethiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This retrospective study was conducted to determine skeletal, dentoalveolar changes in children treated with Twin Block or activator for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion with different jaw rotations. Materials and Methods: Standardized lateral cephalograms of 32 patients (18 boys, 14 girls between the ages of 11 and 14 years were chosen and divided into two groups, high angle (FMA >27 and low angle (FMA <20. Cephalograms were taken at T1 (pre-treatment and T2 (after one year of myofunctional therapy.These were manually traced and analysed. Results: The results showed statistically significant increase in SNB angle, VRP-Pog due to forward movement of the mandible. The overjet reduced significantly due to retroclination of upper incisors and proclination of lower incisors in both groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that both high angle and low angle groups responded equally well to myofunctional therapy showing significant skeletal and dentoalveolar changes.

  7. Analysis and simulation of heat transfer in human tooth during the curing of orthodontic appliance and food ingestion

    J Velazquez-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze and simulate the heat transfer in the human tooth undergoing fixed orthodontic appliances and food intake. An in vivo representative mathematic model of a layered thermographic profile was developed during the LED curing of Gemini bracket 0.022 in slot (conventional ligating system and Transbond XT adhesive. The characterization of the layered thermic response allowed to identify if during the LED curing process, according to manufacturer's specification (light curing unit, adhesive can induce pulpar necrosis. The profile's thermographic model was the simulation basis of many conditions such as food intake, due to in vivo metrology is affected by the impossibility of a correct apparatus position and the physiologic function of the oral cavity which is exposed to uncontrollable temperature changes. The metrology was carried out with a T-440 thermographic camera during LED curing bracket, using a LED curing light (Elipar S10 placed at 3 ± 1 mm for 5 s at each mesial and distal surface. The thermography outcomes were analyzed in the FLIR Tools Software, Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS 22. To adjust the mathematic model error, in vitro studies were performed on third molars for the purpose of realizing extreme exposition temperature condition tests caused by the LED curing unit without jeopardizing the human tooth vitality as would it be on in vivo experimentation. The bracket curing results according to manufacturer's conditions reached 39°C in vivo temperatures and 47°C on in vitro tests, which does not jeopardize human tooth vitality as said by previous researches, although, an LED curing precise protocol established by the manufacturer's LED curing light is sustained.

  8. Using a Google Search Appliance (GSA to search digital library collections: a case study of the INIS Collection Search

    Dobrica Savic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are facing many challenges today. In addition to diminishing funding and increased user expectations, the use of classic library catalogues is becoming an additional challenge. Library users require fast and easy access to information resources regardless whether the format used is paper or electronic. Google search, with its speed and simplicity, set up a new standard for information retrieval which is hard to achieve with the previous generation of library search facilities. Put in a position of David versus Goliath, many small, and even larger libraries, are losing the battle with Google and letting many of its users use Google rather than library catalogues.The International Nuclear Information System (INIS hosts one of the world’s largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. It offers online access to a unique collection of 3.6 million bibliographic records and 320,000 full-texts of non-conventional (grey literature. This large digital library collection suffered from most of the well-known shortcomings of the classic library catalogue. Searching was complex and complicated, required some training in using Boolean logic, full-text searching was not an option, and the response time was slow. An opportune moment came with the retirement of the previous catalogue software and with the adoption of Google Search Appliance (GSA as an organization-wide search engine standard. INIS was quick to realize a great potential in using such a well-known application as a replacement for its online catalogue and this paper presents the advantages and disadvantages encountered during three years of GSA use. Based on specific INIS-based practice and experience, this paper also offers some guidelines on ways to improve classic collections of millions of bibliographic and full-text documents, while achieving multiple benefits such as increased use, accessibility, usability, expandability and

  9. Design and Optimization of a Telemetric system for appliance in earthquake prediction

    Bogdos, G.; Tassoulas, E.; Vereses, A.; Papapanagiotou, A.; Filippi, K.; Koulouras, G.; Nomicos, C.

    2009-04-01

    while triggering the scientific community to pay attention on seismic activities in Greece watching it on-line.

  10. Research on Sustainable Development of Haier Appliance Brand%海尔家电品牌的可持续发展研究

    王瑞辉

    2012-01-01

    我国家电品牌建设了20多年,最成功也最有代表性的就是海尔。海尔先建名牌再创品牌、先难后易的品牌战略成为众多企业争相模仿的对象。然而,海尔品牌管理成功的背后也难免存在诸多失误和不足,其中既有品牌延伸方向的错乱,也有品牌延续的危机,更有企业文化深层与品牌定位的矛盾等。如何进行更有效的品牌管理,使海尔走上品牌的可持续发展之路,打造中国的家电百年品牌,对海尔自身和家电行业的纵深发展都具有重要意义。%Chinese appliance brand construction has over 20 years,the most successful and most representative is Haier.It's brand strategy,as build famous fame firstly before create a brand,difficult target in front of easy target make itself become the object imitated by many enterprises.However,behind the success of Haier's brand management also unavoidably exists many mistakes and the insufficiency,both brand extension direction in disorder,also has crisis of the brand continuation,what's more,deep corporate culture and brand positioning contradictions.For Haier itself and household electrical appliance industry's further development,it's significant how to manage brands more effectively,make Haier embarked on the road of sustainable development of the brand,and to build Chinese home appliance century-brand.

  11. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. - Highlights: • Weather, location and floor area are the most important determinants of residential electricity use. • Daily minimum and maximum are explained by different factors. • Number of refrigerators and entertainment devices explain daily minimum the best. • Number of occupants and high-consumption appliances explain daily maximum the best. • Other factors such as energy efficient features and household's socioeconomic status are examined

  12. Effect of Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB and non-extraction fixed mechano-therapy on the pharyngeal dimensions of growing children

    Batool Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Narrow airway dimensions due to mandibular deficiency can predispose an individual to severe respiratory distress. Hence, treatment with mandibular advancement devices at an early age might help improving the pharyngeal passage and reduce the risk of respiratory difficulties. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the mean changes in the pharyngeal dimensions of children with mandibular deficiency treated with Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB followed by fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods: Orthodontic records of 42 children with mandibular deficiency were selected. Records comprised three lateral cephalograms taken at the start of CTB treatment, after CTB removal and at the end of fixed appliance treatment, and were compared with 32 controls from the Bolton-Brush study. Friedman test was used to compare pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment pharyngeal dimensions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the airway between pre-treatment and post follow-up controls. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to compare the mean changes in pharyngeal dimensions between treatment group and controls from T2 to T0. Post-hoc Dunnet T3 test was used for multiple comparisons of treatment outcomes after CTB and fixed appliances, taking a p-value of ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Superior pharyngeal space (p < 0.001 and upper airway thickness (p = 0.035 were significantly increased after CTB, and the change in superior pharyngeal space remained stable after fixed mechano-therapy. Conclusion: CTB can have a positive effect in improving pharyngeal space and the resultant increase in airway remains stable on an average of two and a half years.

  13. 品管圈提高青少年固定正畸患者刷牙依从性的效果%Effects of QCC on improving the compliance of tooth brushing in adolescent patients with orthodontic treatment of fixed appliance

    张建凤; 李志菊; 汪星; 杜玉; 王芳云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the methodology and effects of quality control circle ( QCC ) on improving the compliance of tooth brushing in adolescent patients with orthodontic treatment of fixed appliance. Methods A QCC activity conducted from February to August in 2014, focused on improving the compliance of tooth brushing in adolescent patients with orthodontic treatment of fixed appliance. The study investigated 90 participants and compared their compliance of tooth brushing, plaque index ( PLI) and gingival index ( GI) before and after QCC. Results After the activity, the score of tooth brushing compliance was (10. 68 ± 2. 78), PLI (1. 29 ± 0. 41) and GI (0. 86 ± 0. 37). All the assessment indexes and the comprehensive quality were significantly improved after QCC (P<0. 05). Conclusions QCC is efficient to promote the compliance of tooth brushing and oral hygiene, and to improve the comprehensive ability of adolescent patients with orthodontic treatment of fixed appliance.%目的:探讨品管圈在提高青少年固定正畸患者刷牙依从性中的应用方法和效果。方法于2014年2—8月开展以“提高青少年固定正畸患者刷牙依从性”为主题的品管圈活动,选择佩戴固定矫治器的90例青少年口腔正畸患者,运用自身前后对照,对比品管圈活动开展前后患者刷牙依从性、菌斑指数、牙龈指数。结果品管圈活动后患者刷牙依从性得分为(10.68±2.78)分,菌斑指数为(1.29±0.41),牙龈指数为(0.86±0.37),均优于活动前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。圈成员综合素质得分高于活动前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论品管圈活动能提高青少年口腔正畸患者刷牙依从性,保持患者口腔清洁,同时有效提高圈员综合素质。

  14. Design and preliminary clinical applications of modified Frog Appliance%改良蛙式矫治器的研制与初步临床应用

    李文星; 李强; 刘晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design a new type of appliance-modified Frog Appliance and to evaluate its clinical applications in upper molar diatalization. Methods Germany Frog Appliance was modified by connecting the expansion screw with a self-made miniature plastic palatal base supported by two palatal miniscrew implants. Anchored in palatal miniscrew implants, upper molars were distalized. A finished case was presented to introduce its clinical application. Results Upper molars were effectively distalized by 3. 5 mm with premolars migrating distally and labial movement of incisors was avoided. Conclusions Modified Frog Appliance could effectively distalize upper molars.%目的 研制一种新型远中移动上颌磨牙矫治器,即改良蛙式矫治器,并评价其初步临床应用的效果.方法 在德国蛙式矫治器基础上,通过自制微型塑料腭托将支抗种植钉与螺旋开大器相连接,腭部加力丝以种植钉为支抗推磨牙向远中.并通过典型病例介绍改良蛙式矫治器的初步临床应用要点.结果 改良蛙式矫治器各组成部分之间形成稳定连接,能以种植钉为支抗,通过加力丝的弹性形变施力,有效远中移动上颌磨牙3.5 mm,同时带动前磨牙远中漂移,而治疗中未发生前牙唇倾.结论 改良蛙式矫治器是一种有效远中移动上颌磨牙的新型矫治器,还可避免传统推磨牙向远中矫治器的缺陷,有广阔的临床应用前景.

  15. Influence of FAME on the emission of pollutants and particulate matter at oil-burning domestic heating appliances; Einfluss von FAME auf die Schadstoff- und Staubemissionen oelbefeuerter Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

    Edenhofer, R.; Dirks, H.; Lucka, K.; Koehne, H. [Oel Waerme Institut gGmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany); Urban, H.; Huebner, C.; Ellinger, R. [Laboratorium fuer Umweltanalytik GesmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    The influence of the addition of up to 20% FAME to low sulphur and standard fuel oil on the emission of gaseous pollutants and particles in the exhaust gas of oil-burning domestic heating appliances is considerably lower than those of other fuel-related parameters and operating conditions. Chemical analyses of particulate emissions show, that operating conditions have a greater impact on the composition of particles (carbonaceous compounds), than the content of FAME in fuel oil. For Potassium only a significant difference in the chemical composition of particulate emissions was observed due to the addition of 20% FAME. (orig.)

  16. 对厨房火灾危险性及其灭火装置的思考%The dangers of kitchen fire and fire extinguishing equipment of cooking appliance

    杨陶

    2011-01-01

    基于厨房火灾的特点及危险性,文章论述了商用厨房应设置厨房设备灭火装置的必要性,并结合国内厨房设备灭火装置的发展,介绍了厨房设备灭火装置的工作原理及分类。%The paper analyzes the feature of the kitchen fire and explains kitchen fire risk, then it discusses the necessity of fire extinguishing equipment of cooking appliance should be set on commercial kitchen, combines with the domestic development of fire extinguishing equipment of cooking appliance, introduces the working principle and classification of fire extinguishing equipment of cooking appliance.

  17. Inspection of the Spirometric Parameters and the Frequency of Respiratory Symptoms in Soldering Workers of a Factory Producing Electronic Appliances

    E Safavi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding the numerous problems of solderers in electronic industries because of their exposure to Acids, bases and fumes of soldering ,a study was carried out on107 solderers and administrative personels of a factory producing electronic appliances in Tehran to inspect the long term effects of soldering on lung functions Inspection. Methods: At first ,47 solderers and 66 controls (totally 107 persons were selected randomly. All the solderers were working in the manual soldering section and used the soldering wire made of an alloy (composed of plumbum, Stannum and special oil of soldering called flux . The persons controls worked in the administrative sections of the same factory and for the same hours as the solderers , but they did not have any soldering experience. After they filled the standard respiratory questionnaire , spirometry was done at least 3 times on each of them under the same conditions and according to the ACT criteria (No smokers included in the study Results:The spirometry parameters of the two groups were compared . There was a significant difference in the average FEF 25 : 75% (P=0.03.Also ,there was a significant difference in the average FEV1/FVC P=0.026 and PEFR (P=0.04between two groups .After controling the altering age factor . ameaningful relation between the years of work in soldering section and decrease in the spirometry parameters related to FED 25-75% and FEV1/FVC was seem . Also . the frequency of the signs of nasal and eyes initation in the solderer group was more than the other group (p=0.007 Cough and Asthma related to ork had no meaningful difference in the two groups . Conclsion :It seem that in the above study , soldering is a factor decreasing the spirometry parameters with a blocking pattern , especilly in smal airways . This study was done in the direction of the former studies done in other countries and emphasizes on the need for necessary preventive action in this profession , uch as

  18. A Study of the Mediating Role of Product Management on Relationship between Market orientation and firm Performance (Case Study: Home appliances manufacturing companies in Esfahan Province

    Hassan Ghorbani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, titled ‘A Study of the Effect of market orientation on SME firm performance the mediating role of product management’ Seek to answer the question Which aspects of product management how affect the firm performance Thus the product management literature, as well as market orieantation and performance in home appliances factories in Isfahan Province are examined. This research, in terms of its purpose, is an applied one; and in terms of implementation method, is a survey with a correlation approach. The statistical population include 84 managers (senior, marketing, manufacturing and R&D of the home appliances manufacturing companies in Esfahan Province. The data collection tool is a researcher-made questionnaire containing 30 items, of which the validity has been confirmed using the comments from advisors, professionals and experts; and the reliability, determined through Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 90% The questionnaire includes personal data and main, specialized items for examining the research hypotheses. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software programs through statistical tests at descriptive (frequency, percentage, accumulated percentage, average and standard deviation and inferential (regression modeling, variance analysis, non- parametric Kolmogorov and Smirnov test, and Freedman non-parametric test levels. According to the results obtained, all hypotheses were supported. Therefore, it was concluded that the product management as a mediator has a significant effect on the relationship between market orientation and performance.

  19. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations.

    Mullen, N A; Li, J; Russell, M L; Spears, M; Less, B D; Singer, B C

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX , NO2 , formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6-day periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, although bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde. PMID:25647016

  20. Oral Appliances Therapy

    ... for travel Easy to care for How a Dentist Can Help: The First Visit Dentists work closely with physicians to treat snoring and sleep apnea. At your first visit, your dentist will talk to you about the benefits of ...

  1. PC Controlled Home Appliances

    Laxmi Soni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With advancement of technology things are becoming simpler and easier for us. Automated systems are being preferred over manual system. PC based control systems are highly reliable, accurate and time saving systems. They provide number of features like quick data storage, transfer data and data securities which helps in industries to work in sufficient manner. A microcontroller based controller is designed to control a number of electrical equipment. To control and monitor connected equipment through the PC.

  2. PAT portable appliance testing

    Scaddan, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This book details UK regulations on testing electrical equipment. The legal requirements for regular testing of all electrical equipment in work environments and public places have made testing a major growth area for electricians over recent years. Many staff without electrical training, such as maintenance staff and caretakers, are also being nominated by their employers to carry out electrical safety testing.This book is ideal for electricians administering PAT, and non-specialists following a City & Guilds course. It has been written specifically to meet the demands of the City & Guilds 23

  3. Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume II. Combustion tests of blends in burners and appliances. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31% hydrogen

    None

    1977-10-01

    The emerging ''hydrogen economy'' is a strong contender as one method to supplement or extend the domestic natural gas supply. This volume of the subject study ''Blending Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes combustion studies to determine the maximum amount of hydrogen that can be blended in natural gas and utilized satisfactorily in typical appliances with no adjustment or conversion. Eleven pilot burners and twenty-three main burners typical of those in current use were operated on hydrogen-natural gas mixtures containing approximately 8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31 percent, by volume, hydrogen. The eleven pilot burners and thirteen main burners were tested outside the appliance they were a part of. Ten main burners were tested in their respective appliances. Performance of the various burners tested are as follows: (1) Gas blends containing more than 6 to 11% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for target type pilot burners. (2) Gas blends containing more than 20 to 22% hyrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners operating in the open. (3) Gas blends containing more than 22 to 25% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners tested in appliances. (4) Modification of the orifice in target pilots or increasing the supply pressure to a minimum of 7 inches water column will permit the use of gas blends with 20% hydrogen.

  4. 基于电力载波的家电网络控制电路的设计%Design of Household Appliances Network Control Circuit Based on Power Line Carrier

    李兴宁; 陈震

    2012-01-01

    利用电力线MODEM芯片ST7536,采用电力载波形式,设计了一种家电网络控制电路,对家电网络进行远程集中控制,可以对多路家用电器的运行情况进行实时监测和控制。文中论述了基于电力载波的家电通讯系统的组成、工作原理、主控单元和受控单元的电路设计。实践证明,应用电力载波通讯技术,可以有效地控制家用电器。%A remote-control system of household appliances network based on power line carrier is presented,and the control system used modem chip ST7536 is designed.The system can monitor and control a group of household appliances running condition in real time.This article discusses the composition of the household appliances communication based by power carrier,working principle,the main control unit and controlled unit circuit design,the practice has proved that the application of power line carrier communication technology can effectively control household appliances.

  5. 网购对家电企业渠道的影响分析及发展建议%Analysis and development proposals of channels for household electrical appliance enterprises by online shopping

    蒋良骏

    2012-01-01

    随着我国网络购物的快速发展,越来越多的消费者纷纷通过网络来购买家电,网络即将成为家电市场的第三大渠道形态。网购对于家电企业的渠道而言具有拓展销售渠道、增强渠道控制力、降低渠道成本、加剧渠道冲突等影响。为此,家电企业可以采取密切与网络渠道的合作、加强对网络渠道的管控、在城镇及农村市场构建多元化的渠道体系、拓展新兴渠道举措来应对,最终使家电企业渠道得到更好的发展。%With the rapid development of online shopping in China,more and more consumers buy electrical appliances through internet,thus network appliances market will soon become the third largest channel.Online shopping influences channels for household electrical appliance enterprises so as to expand sales channels,enhance channel control,reduce costs of distribution and exacerbate channel conflict.To this end,the household electrical appliance enterprises can take close cooperation with the network channels,strengthen the management and control of network channels,build a wide range of channels system in urban and rural markets,develop new channel initiatives,and ultimately make channels for household electrical appliance enterprises be stronger.

  6. Modificaciones en la articulación de fones en pacientes con aparato ortodóncico fijo lingual Speech changes in lingual orthodontic appliances patients

    Pía Villanueva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: el presente trabajo pretende evaluar el efecto de los aparatos ortodóncicos fijos linguales en la articulación de los fones, en pacientes que hablen español chileno, y la adaptación a estos efectos dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos. MÉTODOS: la muestra consistió en 13 pacientes que acudieron para instalación de aparato ortodóncico fijo lingual. Se realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio en condiciones estandarizadas, en 5 momentos diferentes: previo a la instalación de los aparatos fijos (E0, inmediatamente después de realizada esta (E1, a las 24 horas posteriores (E2, a los 7 días (E3 y un mes después de la instalación (E4. Se determinaron los fones afectados en los distintos momentos de examen respecto a la línea base dada por el examen previo, y se analizó su resolución. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios significativos en el punto de articulación de los fones [d], [s] y [r] Los fones [d] y [s] mostraron una resolución favorable dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos. El fone vibrante múltiple [r] no mostró una recuperación de la alteración una vez cumplido un mes de uso de los aparatos ortodóncicos. CONCLUSIONES: la instalación de aparato ortodóncico fijo lingual produce modificaciones en el punto de articulación de los fones consonánticos, las cuales tienden a mejorar dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos, con excepción del fone vibrante múltiple [r].PURPOSE: this study evaluated the effect of lingual orthodontics appliances on speech performance in native Chilean spanish speakers, and their adaptation to these effects during the first month. METHODS: phone production was recorded in a standardized test, in 13 patients with lingual orthodontic brackets, in 5 different times: before (E0, immediately after (E1, within 24 hours after (E2, within 7 days after (E3 and 1 month after (E4 the placement of fixed orthodontic lingual appliances, for assessment by speech professionals. RESULTS

  7. 一次性使用光学窥喉镜在困难气道的应用%The appliance of disposable optical laryngoscope in difficult trachea

    刘宗英; 朱宏玮(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the appliance of optical laryngoscope in difficult trachea . Methods This group of case is inserted with optical laryngoscope. Results all successfully inserted. Conclusions This method is smooth to master/respectively safe.%目的观察一次性使用光学窥喉镜在困难气道中的应用。方法本组病例全部采用一次性使用光学窥喉镜气管插管。结果本组病例顺利完成气管插管,且对血压影响较小。结论本方法易掌握、较安全。

  8. The Electrostatic Hazard and Electrostatic Prevention of Household Appliance%家用电器中的静电危害及预防措施

    朱云青

    2014-01-01

    本文讨论了几种家用电器产品中可能出现的静电放电(ESD)等静电危害,并提出相关的静电预防措施,论述总结了家电产品的防静电设计方法,静电限值标准,以及实际应用注意点。%This paper discusses some electrostatic hazards like electrostatic discharge (ESD) that might be happened in several kinds of household appliances, and puts forward some precaution. This discussion summarizes the design method of electrostatic prevention, electrostatic limiting value standard and some points of practice in order to instruct the designer to electrostatic prevention design in a better way.

  9. Mechanism of Press Scar on Appliance Prepainted Steel Sheet%家电用彩涂板表面压斑缺陷形成机理

    温乃盟; 任玉苓; 张星

    2012-01-01

    家电用彩涂板在生产卷曲后表面常常会产生压斑缺陷。为了控制压斑缺陷的发生,在对压斑缺陷影响因素进行研究的基础上,通过压斑微观形貌以及漆膜涂层玻璃化温度(Tg)的分析测试,探讨了压斑缺陷的形成机理。结果表明,压斑缺陷的产生及其形貌特征与彩涂板上/下表面光泽度的差异等相关,光泽度差值绝对值越大、环境温度越高,越易产生压斑缺陷;漆膜涂层的Tg对压斑缺陷形成具有显著性的影响。%Defects of press scar often occur after the appliance prepainted steel sheets are coiled.In order to prevent the defects from occurring,the influencing factors and the surface appearance of the press scar on the appliance prepainted steel sheet were studied and the glass transition temperature(Tg) of the prepainted coating was measured,and the formation mechanism of the press scar was discussed.The results show that the occurring and the properties of appearance of the defect were related to the difference in the gloss of the prepainted coating surface between the up and down sides.The press scar would become more severe as the difference in the surface gloss on the up and down sides and the environmental temperature was higher.In addition,the effect of Tg of the prepainted coating was also noticeable.

  10. Combining Activity Recognition and AI Planning for Energy-Saving Offices

    Georgievski, Ilche; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving offices require autonomous and optimised control of integrated devices and appliances with the objective of saving energy while the occupant comfort and productivity are preserved. We propose an approach that analyses and controls an office space and accounts for the objectives of energy-saving offices. The approach considers ontology-based occupant activity recognition using simple sensors to process the context information, and employs Artificial Intelligence planning to contr...

  11. Assessment of the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 in 11-14 years old

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cl II malocclusion is one of the most common abnormalities in human societies and using a simple, affordable and accessible treatment that can be provided by general practitioners or specialists, to prevent future malocclusion complications is vital. Cl II malocclusion treatment using functional appliances such as twin block and anterior inclined bite plan have less cost, side effects and complications compared to fixed orthodontic or orthosurgery. Until now, the dentoskeletal changes resulting from the application of twin block and anterior inclined bite plan in patients with Class II malocclusion has not been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 during mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort trial, 60 patients with the definitive diagnosis of Class II div. 1 malocclusion having ANB>2 and FMA angel between 20 and 30 and without any previous treatment or syndrome who were treated with twin-block or inclined anterior bite plan appliance were selected and their lateral cephalometries were traced before and after treatment. Selected distance and angular landmarks were measured on the cephalograms with the good reliability (ICC=0.953 and the changes occurred in the landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Due to the increased mandibular growth, most of the landmarks experienced significant changes following the treatment with twin-block and inclined bite plan (P0.05, however, SNA (P=0.04, overjet (P=0.007 and wits appraisal (P=0.004 changed differently after using the appliances. Conclusion: Despite with most similarities of both twin-block and anterior inclined bite plan to correct class II div. 1 malocclusion, Due to the advantages of anterior inclined bite plan such as less size, good

  12. Evaluation of the stability of open bite treatment using a removable appliance with palatal crib combined with high-pull chincup

    Fernando Pedrin Carvalho Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to cephalometrically analyze the stability of dentoalveolar and skeletal changes produced by a removable appliance with palatal crib associated to high-pull chincup in individuals with anterior open bite treated for 12 months, and compare them to individuals with similar malocclusion and age, not submitted to orthodontic treatment, also followed for the same period. METHODS: Nineteen children with a mean age of 9.78 years old treated for 12 months with a removable appliance with palatal crib associated with chincup therapy were evaluated after 15 months (post-treatment period and compared with a control group of 19 subjects with mean age of 9.10 years with the same malocclusion that was followed-up for the same period. Seventy-six lateral cephalograms were evaluated at T1 (after correction and T2 (follow-up and cephalometric variables were analyzed by statistical tests. RESULTS: The results did not show significant skeletal, soft tissue or maxillary dentoalveolar changes. Overall, treatment effects on the experimental group were maintained at T2 evaluation with an increase of 0.56 mm in overbite. Overjet and maxillary incisors/molars position (vertical and sagittal remained essentially unchanged during the study period. Only mandibular incisors showed significant changes (labial inclination and protrusion compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, it can be concluded that the early open bite treatment with a removable appliance and palatal crib associated with high-pull chincup therapy provided stability of 95%.OBJETIVO: avaliar cefalometricamente a estabilidade das alterações dentoesqueléticas e tegumentares, no protocolo de tratamento com o aparelho removível com grade palatina associado à mentoneira, em jovens portadores de mordida aberta anterior tratados por 12 meses, comparando-os com um grupo de jovens portadores de má oclusão semelhante que não foram submetidos ao tratamento

  13. Web interactive non intrusive load disaggregation system for active demand in smart grids

    G.M. Tina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Smart Grid combines the use of traditional technology with innovative digital solutions, making the management of the electricity grid more flexible. It allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication within the supply chain to improve efficiency, reduce the energy consumption and cost, and maximize the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. The optimization of energy consumption in Smart Grids is possible by using an innovative system based on Non Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring (NIALM algorithms, in which individual appliance power consumption information is disaggregated from single-point measurements, that provide a feedback in such a way to make energy more visible and more amenable to understanding and control. We contribute with an approach for monitoring consumption of electric power in households based on both a NILM algorithm, that uses a simple load signatures, and a web interactive systems that allows an active role played by users.

  14. Research on the Competitive Situation of Chain Industry of Domestic Appliance Based on the Five Forces Model%基于五力模型的家电连锁行业竞争态势研究

    赵宝山

    2013-01-01

    Chain store has become the major channel of domestic appliance retail.Applying Porter's Five Forces Model,the paper analyzes the competitive situation of chain industry of domestic appliance,brings up the major problems which domestic chain enterprises are facing,and presents a series of strategic pro-posals about the problems to promote the healthy development of domestic chain enterprises.%家电连锁渠道已经成为当前主要的家电零售渠道。采用波特的五力模型分析了当前家电连锁行业的竞争态势及家电连锁企业面临的主要问题,并针对这些问题提出了一系列促进家电连锁企业健康发展的策略建议。

  15. 我国知名体育品牌广告语的文化学审视%The Research on the Culture Characters of Sports Appliances Advertisements Words in China

    戴志鹏; 宋惠明; 彭妍琪

    2011-01-01

    The sports appliances industry has been developing fast during the last 20 years in China and the advertising acts as a positive role during this process. Using the research methods of documentary,statics and logics,this essay makes a research on the advertisement words of sports appliances in China from the culture view.%在我国体育品牌快速发展的三十年时间里,产品广告语也成为一种新生体育文化元素。运用文献资料法、数理统计法和逻辑推理法,从文化学的视角对我国知名体育品牌广告语进行了探讨。

  16. Household consumption of different generations. Purchase of electric appliances and energy; Hushaallens konsumtion i olika generationer. Inkoep av eldriven hushaallsutrustning och energi

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Stenerus, Ann-Sofie

    2008-02-15

    Considering that energy efficiency is an important task for the future, this study shows to what extent generation affiliation and other household characteristics affect consumption of primarily electrical household appliances and energy. The material used is a number of studies concerning household expenditures as well as average prices for goods and energy. Material from 1958, 1978, 1985, 1995 and 2003-2005 have been used. This report also includes a discussion regarding opportunities for energy efficiency. The term generation is explained in this context and earlier studies with relevance to generation affiliation and energy are summarized. An analysis of consumption habits among different generations highlights that the generations living in Sweden today experienced substantially different consumption opportunities during childhood and youth. Some generations have memories of much lower consumption levels, memories which could be recalled with the right policy instruments. The consumption experiences of the veteran generation are studied from 1958 up to 2003-2005, and this study also includes a comparison between the consumption levels in families with children in the 1950s and today. The current Swedish population have very different frames of reference concerning possible consumption styles. However, no generation would easily accept a more energy efficient lifestyle, because all generations have adapted to the increased consumption opportunities with high mobility and easy access. The analysis of household purchases of electrical appliances is based on information from 6 700 households (2003-2005) and 4 400 households (1985). The results are both surprising and expected. Generation affiliation is important for explaining expenditure levels for equipment for entertainment and information, where the youngest generations spend the most. But there are also differences related to gender as well as differences related to income and dwelling type. The differences

  17. 三四级家电市场物流服务存在问题与对策研究%The problems and countermeasures of logistics service of third and fourth level home appliance markets

    汪晔

    2012-01-01

    分析国内三四级家电市场的物流服务现状及存在问题,并提出改进三四级家电市场物流服务的对策。%This paper analyses the problems of logistics service of third and fourth level home appliance markets and puts forward coun- termeasures.

  18. 传动直丝弓矫治技术在牙周病正畸治疗中的初步应用%Preliminary Application of Transmission Straight Wire Appliance in Orthodontictreatment of Periodon-tal Diseases

    郑辉; 唐晓东

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察传动直丝弓矫治技术矫治伴有牙周炎错颌畸形的临床疗效,探讨其作用机制。方法选择13例牙周病患者,经牙周系统治疗3~6月后上传动直丝弓矫治器,对治疗前后的牙周健康状况及美学进行评价。结果13例患者平均疗程13.6个月,散在间隙完全关闭,唇齿关系改善,患者满意度高,牙周状况良好。结论传动直丝弓矫治器是一种快速低摩擦矫治器,价格远低于自锁托槽,尤其适用于牙周病患者。%Objective To observe the clilic effect of Drive Straight Wire appliance correcting malocclusion with peri -odontitis,probing the mechanism.Methods Select 13 cases of periodontal disease to correct by the Drive Straight Wire appliance after systemic periodontal therapy after 3~6 months, evaluating aesthetic and periodontal health status before and after treatment.Results 13 cases of patients with an average 13.6 months of treatment ,scattered completely closed the gap,lips and teeth relationship improved ,patient satisfaction is high ,periodontal good condition.Conclusions Drive Straight Wire appliance is a fast low -friction appliance ,the price is much lower than the self -ligating bracket,espe-cially adapted to periodnotal disease.

  19. Different toxic mechanisms are activated by emission PM depending on combustion efficiency

    Uski, O.; Jalava, P. I.; Happo, M. S.; Leskinen, J.; Sippula, O.; Tissari, J.; Mäki-Paakkanen, J.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air levels of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 μm) are associated with mortality and morbidity. In addition to traffic, large quantities of fine and ultrafine particles (UFPs ≤ 100 nm) are emitted by residential wood combustion. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot-rich emissions from small scale heating appliances have been linked with a plethora of toxicological effects. Recently, new technology appliances have been introduced into use although there are several uncertainties related to the toxicological properties of those emissions. In this study, PM1 (PM ≤ 1 μm) emissions from three different biomass combustion situations were compared. PM samples were produced in a novel adjustable biomass combustion reactor to avoid the problems encountered if one uses different appliances to generate the desired combustion conditions. The combustion conditions represented efficient, intermediate and smoldering situations. The concentration related effects of the particles (15, 50,150 and 300 μg ml-1) were investigated in a RAW264.7 macrophage cell line after 24 h' exposure. We analyzed cellular metabolic activity, cell cycle, and indicators of genotoxicty, oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses. Interestingly, the particles collected from smoldering and intermediate combustion conditions decreased cellular metabolic activity less than those from efficient combustion (10-fold difference). However, the samples from intermediate and smoldering combustion evoked greater DNA damage in the comet assay (2.5-fold difference). In contrast, only the particulate samples from efficient combustion triggered G2-cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in the macrophages. These results indicate that ash rich PM emissions from appliances with almost complete combustion may still exert health impacts. However, particulate emissions from efficient combustion were small when compared to the two other situations. Thus, even with their faults and the obvious

  20. 家电行业绿色供应链的政企博弈模型%Game Model between Governments and Enterprises in the Green Supply Chain of the Home Appliance Industry

    徐爱; 胡祥培; 高树风

    2012-01-01

    Green supply chain management is an effective management approach for the home appliance industry to pursue the strategy of sustainable development and improve product international competitiveness. In this paper, a game model is proposed to study the relationship and game status between governments and enterprises in the green supply chain of the home appliance industry. Through the equilibrium analysis of the game model, some countermeasures are put forward, which can be adopted by the government to improve the construction of the green supply chain in the home appliance industry.%绿色供应链管理是家电行业推行可持续发展战略、提高产品国际竞争力的一种有效管理模式.文章构建了一个博弈模型以研究家电行业绿色供应链中政府与家电企业之间的关系以及博弈状态.通过对博弈模型的均衡分析,给出了一些政府可以采取的措施以推进家电行业绿色供应链的建设.

  1. Treatment of maxillary diastema in children using eruption guidance appliance and three-dimensional analysis%萌出诱导矫治器治疗儿童上颌中切牙间隙的临床初探及三维数字化技术分析

    王郁; 赵一姣; 李成皓; 王宇光; 王勇; Juha Eerik Varrela; 岳江; 葛立宏

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨萌出诱导矫治器治疗儿童上颌中切牙间隙的效果,并借助三维数字化技术进行分析.方法 对13例存在上颌中切牙间隙的病例应用萌出诱导矫治器进行矫治,应用SmartOptics Activity 880牙颌模型扫描仪,获取患儿治疗前后三维牙颌数字模型,应用三维逆向工程软件测量上、下中切牙在三维方向上的移动变化.对矫治前后覆(牙合)覆盖的测量值,应用配对t检验进行比较,以双侧P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 11例病例上中切牙间隙完全关闭,左右上中切牙平均近中位移量分别为1.17±0.20 mm和1.23±0.22 mm,平均覆(牙合)由治疗前的4.97±1.49 mm减小为治疗后的2.61±0.79 mm(t=8.083,P<0.05),平均覆盖由治疗前的4.95±1.86 mm减小为治疗后的2.66±0.58 mm(t=5.723,P<0.05),差异均有显著性.结论 萌出诱导矫治器可以治疗儿童上颌中切牙间隙,在关闭牙间隙的同时有改善覆(牙合)覆盖的作用.%Objective To evaluate the effect of eruption guidance appliance in the treatment of maxillary diastema in children using three-dimensional imaging registration and superimposition techniques.Methods 13 children with maxillary diastema were treated with eruption guidance appliance.The pre-and post-treatment dental casts were digitized with SmartOptics Activity 880 scanner,and the three-dimensional movement of the upper and lower central incisors were analyzed using reverse engineering software.The overbite and overjet were statistically analyzed using paired samples t test (P<0.05).Results The diastema in 11 children was closed successfully.The average distance of mesial movement for left and right upper central incisors were 1.17±0.20 mm and 1.23± 0.22 mm,respectively.After treatment,the average overbite changed from 4.97±1.49 mm to 2.61±0.79 mm (t=8.083,P<0.05.The average overjet changed from 4.95±1.86 mm to 2.66± 0.58 mm after the treatment (t=5.723,P<0.05).Conclusions The

  2. A quantile approach to assess the effectiveness of the subsidy policy for energy-efficient home appliances: Evidence from Rizhao, China

    A one-year subsidy program for energy-efficient home appliances has been implemented in China. We construct a dataset consisting of participant and non-participant households in both urban and rural areas of Rizhao city. By applying a quantile regression and counterfactual analysis, this study disentangles the impact of this subsidy program and inherent household attributes on per capita residential electricity consumption. First, contrary to the mean regression, the elasticity of electricity consumption to household's income, age, education and energy-saving awareness, varies markedly across the electricity consumption distribution and shows discrepancy between urban and rural areas. Second, while inherent household attributes are identified as a primary determinant to the changes in residential electricity consumption, the effect induced by the subsidy incentive is more significant at the middle of the electricity consumption distribution than at the tails. Third, there are significant rebound effects that lead to overall increase in household electricity consumption. Our results suggest that the disparity between urban and rural regions and targeted consumer behavior changes should be taken into account to ensure the effectiveness of a future energy-efficient subsidy program. - Highlights: • The effect of the subsidy policy on electricity consumption is assessed with a quantile regression. • Policy induced effect is more significant at the middle of the distribution than at the tails. • The rebound effects lead to overall increase in electricity consumption. • The impact of households attributes varies markedly across electricity consumption distribution

  3. Skeletal and Dentoalveolar changes concurrent to use of Twin Block appliance in Class II division I cases with a deficient mandible: A cephalometric study

    A K Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality, is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of present study was to cephalometrically evaluate skeletal and dentoalveolar changes following the use of Twin-Block appliance in 10 growing children of age group 9-13 years (mean 11.1 year ± SD 1.37 of Class II division 1 malocclusion with a deficient mandible. Cephalometric pre- and post-functional treatment measurements (angular and linear were done and statistically analyzed using student′s paired t-test. The results of the present study showed that maxilla (SNA was restricted sagittally (head gear effect with marked maxillary dental retraction. Significant mandible sagittal advancement (SNB with minimum dental protraction was observed with significant increase in the mandibular length. The maxillomandibular skeletal relation (ANB and WITS appraisal reduced considerably which improved the profile and facial esthetics. Pronounced correction of overjet and overbite was seen. The present study concluded that Class II correction occurs by both skeletal and dentoalveolar changes.

  4. O aparelho pré-ajustado: sua evolução e suas prescrições The pre-adjusted appliance: evolution and prescriptions

    Vicente de Sousa Brito Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho revisou as prescrições de braquetes pré-ajustados existentes no mercado, abordando as variações dos valores de inclinação, angulação e rotação dentária. A revisão reporta desde a origem do conceito de uso de arcos retangulares em acessórios com secções retangulares até os atuais modelos de braquetes autoligados e outros braquetes com formatos diferenciados.This research intended to review all the available prescriptions of pre-adjusted orthodontic appliances in the market and to discuss the justification of the authors as to the prescribed angulation, inclination and rotation suggested. The review encompassed the rectangular wire application in Edgewise brackets, until the implementation of self ligation, and many other kinds of brackets with distinct shapes according to the utilized technique. It was clear the great variety of many orthodontic mechanotherapy and brackets prescriptions, demonstrating that Orthodontics is a science with many possible alternatives.

  5. Synthesis of Depo-Medrol-chitosan hydrogel as new drug slow-release appliance and investigation of release kinetics by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Alizadeh, Reza; Jabbari, Sara Majd; Zarnani, Amir H; Barghi, Hamidreza

    2016-09-01

    The present study deals with preparation and optimization of a novel chitosan hydrogel-based matrix by suspension cross-linking method for controlled release of Depo-Medrol. The controlled release of Depo-Medrol for effective Rheumatoid arthritis disease has become an imperative field in the drug delivery system. In this context, it was intended to optimize loading circumstances by experimental design and also study the release kinetics of Depo-Medrol entrapped in the chitosan matrix in order to obtain maximal efficiency for drug loading. The optimum concentrations of chitosan (2.5 g), glutaraldehyde (3.05 μL) and Depo-Medrol (0.1 mg) were set up to achieve the highest value of drug loaded and the most sustained release from the chitosan matrix. In vitro monitoring of drug release kinetic using high-performance liquid chromatography showed that 73% of the Depo-Medrol was released within 120 min, whereas remained drug was released during the next 67 h. High correlation between first-order and Higuchi's kinetic models indicates a controlled diffusion of Depo-Medrol through the surrounding media. Moreover, recovery capacity >82% and entrapment efficiency of 58-88% were achieved under optimal conditions. Therefore, the new synthesized Depo Medrol-chitosan is an applicable appliance for arthritis therapy by slow release mechanism. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26713406

  6. Position Paper by Canadian Dental Sleep Medicine Professionals Regarding the Role of Different Health Care Professionals in Managing Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliances

    Luc Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  7. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    2011-09-01

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  8. Comparison of facing cleanness and orthodontic attention between treatments of invisible orthodontics and fixed appliance%隐形矫治与固定矫治牙面清洁度和矫治关注度的比较

    赵春艳; 范捷; 李亚明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨隐形矫治与固定矫治牙面清洁度和矫治关注度的差异.方法 随机检测采用隐形矫治器与固定矫治器(金属托槽和陶瓷托槽)的错合畸形病例共60例,其中金属托槽20例,陶瓷托槽20例,隐形矫治20例,每次复诊时检测两组的牙面软垢指数(DI)、牙石指数(CI)及菌斑指数(PLI),比较两组牙面清洁度;第1次复诊时通过问卷调查,了解患者及周围人对矫治器的关注度.结果 隐形矫治组牙面的DI、CI、PLI均小于固定矫治组,且受到患者及周围人的关注程度比固定矫治组低.结论 隐形矫治器牙面清洁度远优于固定矫治器,关注度低于固定矫治器.%Objective To discuss the differences of facing cleanness and orthodontic attention between the invisible orthodontic treatment and the fixed appliance. Methods Random detection was made among 60 cases of malocclusion deformity who received the treatment by metal bracket ( 20 cases ), ceramic bracket ( 20 ones ), and invisible orthodontics ( 20 ones ). At every time of their returning visit, detections were made in the facing soft debris index ( DI ), calculus index ( CI ), and plaque index ( PLI ). The degree of facing cleanness was compared between the two groups. Their and the surrounding peoples attention degree on the appliance was investigated through questionnaire at the fist - time revisiting. Results The DI, CI, and PLI of the invisible orthodontic treatment group were smaller than those of the fixed appliance group, and the attention degree was also lower than that of the fixed treatment group. Conclusion The facing cleanness of people with the invisible orthodontic appliance was significantly better than that of people with the fixed appliance, and the attention degree of the former one was lower than that of the latter one.

  9. 2×4矫治器配合下后牙(袷)面树脂垫治疗乳前牙反(殆)的临床研究%Treatment effects of 2 × 4 appliance with posterior occlusal acrylic blocks in correction of deciduous anterior crossbites

    葛元输; 韩剑丽; 刘进; 郭鑫; 何燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to investigate the outcome of early interceptive treatment of deciduous anterior crossbites with a 2 x 4 appliance and posterior occlusal acrylic resin blocks, and to examine the changes of dentofacial morphology after treatment. Methods Forty-six ( 17 males, 29 females; 4. 2 ±0. 6 years old) subjects with deciduous anterior crossbites were treated with a 2 × 4 appliance and posterior occlusal acrylic resin blocks. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before and immediately after treatment. The differences in the cephalometric characteristics were compared using a paried t-test. Results All subjects obtained a positive overjet after active treatment of about 6 months. UA-SN increased 11. 57° (P < 0. 001); is-ms increased 2. 26 mm (P < 0. 01); LA-MP decreased 4. 38° (P<0.01) ; ii-mi decreased 1.04 mm (P < 0.01). ANB increased 1.44° ( P < 0.01). Conclusion Posterior bite raising and 2×4 appliance therapy are effective interceptive treatments of deciduous anterior crossbites. The young children are cooperative during the treatment period. After treatment the retroclined upper incisors that may cause dental interference during the path of closure of the mandible were proclined. And the lower incisors were tipped lingually to achieve normal overjet which might provide a favorable environment for the maxillary growth.%目的 探讨2×4矫治器配合下后牙(验)面树脂垫早期阻断矫治乳前牙反(袷)的临床效果.方法 乳牙期前牙反(胎)患者46例,平均年龄(4.2±0.6)岁,采用2×4矫治器配合下后牙(给)面树脂垫高咬合进行早期阻断矫治.配对t检验比较头颅定位侧位片的牙、颌、面测量值在矫治前后的差异.结果 矫治后所有患者乳前牙反(胎)解除.与矫治前相比,上中切牙角(UA-SN)增加11.57° (P <0.001),上牙弓长度(is-ms)增加2.26 mm(P<0.01);下中切牙角(LA-MP)减小4.38°(P<0.01),下牙弓长度(ii-mi)减少1.04 mm(P <0.01).ANB

  10. Test households' experiences with a feedback system for power consumption of appliances designed on the basis of user driven innovation. A qualitative study; Testhusholdningers erfaringer med et feedbacksystem for elforbrug paa apparatniveau designet paa basis af brugerdrevet innovation - en kvalitativ undersoegelse

    Groenhoej, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2010-03-15

    In the project a system was developed and tested to provide electricity consumers detailed feedback on their electricity consumption at equipment level. In twenty test households equipment was installed for collecting consumption data at equipment level, and a 7 inch screen was installed, which showed the household's consumption in (kWh). Electricity consumption could be read continuously and compared with earlier periods, both in total and at appliance level. The evaluation of the families' use of the system was performed both by interviewing the twenty families personally in their homes and by calculating the change in power consumption during the period of the feedback device, based on consumption data supplied by the electric utility. For most households the newly developed system caused many technical problems in the beginning. Yet, consumption data showed that the 19 families, who had no business activities at home, saved an average of approx. 8% on their electricity consumption compared to the previous year. A comparable control group achieved a saving of 0.8% over the same period. Overall, the project shows that if power companies are better to visualize the power consumption to their customers by remote meters and user feedback, this will very likely result in more informed and educated consumers and thus result in electricity savings. The project shows, however, that there are still major technical and design challenges inherent in making such a system effectively. (ln)

  11. [The clinical and microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of oral irrigation on the periodontal tissues of patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances].

    Di Murro, C; Paolantonio, M; Petti, S; Tomassini, E; Festa, F; Grippaudo, C; Sbolgi, S

    1992-11-01

    The aim of the present study has been the evaluation of the effectiveness of oral irrigation with or without toothbrushing and dental flossing, in individuals treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, on controlling the development of dental plaque and, hence, of gingivitis. Eight individuals with a good general and oral status have been chosen. Before the experimental period, they received instructions about oral hygiene with toothbrushing and dental flossing and then they have been monitored to verify they were doing well. At the time T0, the upper tooth have been banded, three Periodontal Indexes (Plaque Index according to Silness and Loe, Modified Gingival Index according to Lobene and Gingival Bleeding Index according to Ainamo and Bay) registered and subgingival plaque samples from the premolars' gingival sulcus collected in order to point out the total anaerobes bacterial counts, the rates of motile bacteria, spirochetes, Gram positive and Gram negative cocci and bacteria, by means of optical and dark field microscopy and of cultural methods. For their oral hygiene, the patients had to use, in the right side toothbrush and dental floss (Control 1), in the left side the oral irrigator alone (Test 1). One month later (time T1), the lower teeth have been banded, too. In the right side the patients had to use toothbrush and dental floss (Control 2), while in the left one they used the same devices as Control 2 plus the oral irrigator (Test 2). At the time T1 Periodontal Indexes and Microbiological analyses have been extended to all the four quadrants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1294872

  12. The Application of PASCALTM Polyurethane Foam Technology in the Household Appliances%PASCALTM聚氨酯发泡技术在家电中的应用

    2012-01-01

    The paper showcases the results achieved by industrial commercialization of Dow PAS-CALTM Polyurethane Foam Technology using the environmentally friendly blowing agent Cyclo-pentane, which has zero Ozone Depletion Potential ( ODP) and low Global Warming Potential ( GWP) . Among al-ternative solutions, Dow PASCALTM Technology offers the global appliance industry a cost effective solu-tion that helps to address the challenge of energy conservation and climate change, matching government standards while satisfying the consumer demand for higher quality refrigerators without compromising in fashion designs.%  本文主要讲述了采用环保型发泡剂环戊烷的陶氏PASCALTM聚氨酯真空发泡技术在商业化进程中所取得的成果。环戊烷具有零臭氧损耗潜势和低全球变暖潜势等十分卓越的环保属性。与其他替代方案相比,陶氏PASCALTM技术为全球家电行业带来了有助于缓解节能与气候变化挑战的高成本效益解决方案,在符合政府标准的同时,亦能满足消费者的需求,即在不影响时尚设计的前提下,带来品质更为卓越的冰箱产品。

  13. Investigation of electrostriction appliance and its application for bionics flapping aircraft%电致伸缩器的研制及其在仿生扑翼飞行器中的应用

    金晓怡; 颜景平; 夏雨阳; 李德选

    2006-01-01

    A novel design for an electrostriction appliance derived from the theory and application of electromagnetics is presented. The working principle, that is the application of gravitation and elasticity together to realize the "shrinking" and "extending" effect from the distortion and transforming power into mechanical energy, is briefly explained. The characteristic parameter relationships are established and the experimental research is performed. Experimental results show that this sort of electrostriction appliance can perform well as regards driving force and beeline displacement, and furthermore, its self-weight is smaller. This makes it suitable for beeline drivers with a high application value, especially for the driver of the bionic appliance. In the application of the electrostriction appliance to a bionics-flapping aircraft, the wings can work with a flapping angle in the range of a certain value by controlling the "shrinking" and "extending" of the electrostriction appliance. It can reduce the startup power and the impact load of the driver. The flapping extent of the wings will change when the voltage which is put into the electrostriction appliance varies. This makes it more flexible as the bionics-flapping aircraft realizes different actions of flying.%提出了一种源于电磁铁理论和应用的电致伸缩器的新颖构思,简述了电致伸缩器采用引力与弹力互联以形变产生伸缩效应、将电量转化为机械量的工作原理,建立了电致伸缩器的特性参数关系,进行了电致伸缩器的实验研究.研究表明,这种电致伸缩器能获得较好的驱动力和较大的直线位移且自重较小,是一种具有较高应用价值的直线驱动器,尤其适用于生物器件的驱动.将电致伸缩器应用于仿生扑翼飞行器,通过控制电致伸缩器的"缩"和"伸",能实现翼在一定角度范围内的上下拍动.该驱动方式能减小驱动器的启动功率和整个系统的冲击载荷,通过改

  14. Development and Application of New Generation of Low GWP Energy Efficient Blowing Agent for Appliance%新一代高效节能环保家电发泡剂技术的开发与应用

    2012-01-01

    SolsticeTM Liquid Blowing Agent (LBA), a new generation of Low GWP and energy efficient blowing agent from Honeywell is presented in this paper. It shows excellent insulation property, Polyurenthane foam using Solstice LBA can give the greatest reduction in energy consumption in appliance, and it also is non-flammable and has no impact on stratospheric ozone, GWP is less than 5, as well as ensure safety in the pro-duction process. And low environmental impact solution is becoming the trend in household appliance industry in the world, especially in Europe, American and Japan. But current blowing agents all have defects and can-not cost effectively meet these strict requirements, so Solstice LBA will be likely a standard of household appli-ance to replace current blowing agents in future.%  本文介绍的霍尼韦尔新一代低温室效应高效节能发泡剂SolsticeTM LBA,具有优异的隔热保温性能,在家电应用中可以最大限度地降低能耗,并且不燃、环保(不破坏臭氧层,GWP值小于5),在生产和使用过程中降低安全隐患。目前,在全球范围内,家电的节能环保已成为趋势,欧盟各国及美国和日本等发达国家都已制定了相关法规加以限制,现有冰箱发泡剂因为各种不足而无法全面满足要求,因此,SolsticeTM LBA极有可能成为未来家电发泡剂最理想的选择。

  15. Acute systemic and lung inflammation in C57Bl/6J mice after intratracheal aspiration of particulate matter from small-scale biomass combustion appliances based on old and modern technologies.

    Uski, Oskari J; Happo, Mikko S; Jalava, Pasi I; Brunner, Thomas; Kelz, Joachim; Obernberger, Ingwald; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-12-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism behind mortality and morbidity experienced by cardiorespiratory patients exposed to urban air particulate matter (PM). Small-scale biomass combustion is an important source of particulate air pollution. In this study, we investigated association between inflammatory responses and chemical composition of PM(1) emissions from seven different small-scale wood combustion appliances representing old and modern technologies. Healthy C57Bl/6J mice were exposed by intratracheal aspiration to single dose (10 mg/kg) of particulate samples. At 4 and 18 h after the exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as serum was collected for subsequent analyses of inflammatory indicators (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-10; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant (KC), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)) in multiplexing assay. When the responses to the PM(1) samples were compared on an equal mass basis, the PM from modern technology appliances increased IL-6, KC, and IL-1β levels significantly in BALF at 4 and 18 h after the exposure. In contrast, these responses were seen only at 4 h time point in serum. Increased cytokine concentrations correlated with metal-rich ash related compounds which were more predominant in the modern technology furnaces emissions. These particles induced both local and systemic inflammation. Instead, polycyclic hydrocarbon (PAH) rich PM(1) samples from old technology (OT) evoked only minor inflammatory responses. In conclusion, the combustion technology largely affects the toxicological and chemical characteristics of the emissions. The large mass emissions of old combustion technology should be considered, when evaluating the overall harmfulness between the appliances. However, even the small emissions from modern technologies may pose significant toxic risks. PMID:23216156

  16. 正畸牙刷在固定正畸治疗中口腔卫生维护的临床观察%Clinical study of oral hygiene during orthodonic treament with fixed appliance

    王春; 向学熔; 余兴华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the cleaning efficiency of two kinds of brushers to teeth during orthodonic treatment with fixed appliance. Methods 68 patients with fixed appliance was individed into study(35 individuals) and control(35 individuals) groups, and comparing the cleaning efficiency of two kinds of brushers by evaluating the plaque index(PI) and bleeding index(BI) at the first,second,third,fourth and sixth months before the appliance was fixed. Results The plaque index(PI) and bleeding index (BI) of control group were more lower than those of the study control at the five observating times,by statistics analysis the difference have a significant deviation (P<0.05). Conclusion Orthodonic brusher has a greater cleaning efficiency than common brusher during orthodonic treament with fixed appliance.%目的 对比研究市售普通牙刷与正畸专用牙刷在固定矫正期间对口腔健康的保护作用.方法 将符合要求的68例固定矫治的患者随机分实验组(n=34)与对照组(n=34),分别采用市售普通牙刷与正畸专用牙刷刷牙,通过比较在戴矫治器前及戴矫治器后的第1月、2月、3月、4月、6月时菌斑指数(PI)与牙龈出血指数(BI)来评价其在治疗中对口腔卫生的清洁作用.结果 实验组在戴矫治器后的5个检测点上其菌斑指数(PI)与牙龈出血指数(BI)明显低于对照组,经两样本t检验,检验两者差异具有统计学意义 (P<0.05).结论 固定矫治期间,正畸专用牙刷对口腔健康维护优于普通牙刷.

  17. Effect of dental water jet on oral hygiene maintenance in orthodontic patients with fixed appliances%冲牙器对固定正畸患者口腔卫生维护的效果评价

    钟春梅; 葛元输; 周佳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of dental water jet on oral hygiene maintenance in orthodontic patients with fixed appliances. Methods One hundred and twenty orthodontic patients with fixed appliances were randomly assigned into the manual toothbrush group and the dental water jet group. Dental plaque was evaluated and compared before the bonding of orthodontic appliances, three months and six months after the treatment. Results There was no significant difference between two groups before treatment. But the dental water jet group was superior than the manual toothbrush group in dental plaque index 3 and 6 months after treatment. Conclusions Dental water jet can reduce dental plaque and im -prove the oral hygiene of patients with fixed appliances.%目的 评价冲牙器对固定正畸患儿口腔卫生维护的效果.方法 将120例固定正畸治疗患儿按不同口腔清洁方式分为常规刷牙组80例和使用冲牙器组40例.在固定正畸治疗前、治疗后第3个月和第6个月对2组患儿进行口腔卫生检查并对3个阶段的牙菌斑指数进行比较.结果 治疗前2组患儿的菌斑染色指数比较无显著差异,但治疗后3个月及治疗后6个月全部指标牙位的菌斑染色指数评价结果冲牙器组均显著优于常规刷牙组.结论 冲牙器能够减少菌斑附着,改善固定正畸患儿的口腔卫生状况.

  18. Tratamento das ulcerações traumáticas bucais causadas por aparelhos ortodônticos Treatment of the mouth traumatic ulcers caused by orthodontic appliances

    Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As lesões de aspecto ulcerado na mucosa bucal são um achado comum na clínica odontológica e geralmente são ocasionados por trauma mecânico devido a próteses mal adaptadas, aparelhos ortodônticos e dentes com coroas ou restaurações fraturadas. Contudo, os indivíduos nos quais a lesão persiste por mais de três semanas deverão ser submetidos à biopsia ou outros exames para excluir algumas lesões de caráter neoplásico ou outras condições, tais como as infecções crônicas e as doenças de caráter imunológico. Durante o tratamento ortodôntico, a dor e o desconforto da mucosa bucal podem acontecer como resultado do traumatismo mecânico dos aparelhos, ocasionado pela fricção aumentada entre o tecido da mucosa e a superfície dos braquetes. Atualmente, o ortodontista possui poucos recursos para prevenir ou aliviar esta irritação na mucosa. O objetivo deste artigo é orientar o ortodontista para o manejo mais adequado destas lesões visando o seu diagnóstico correto, o alívio dos sintomas que estas costumam provocar e o tratamento mais adequado para cada tipo de caso.Mouth ulcers are one of the most commom complaints in the dental clinic. They are, in general, caused for mechanic traumatism induced by non-fitted dentures, orthodontic appliances and fracturated crowns and fillings. Nevertheless, those lesions that have persisted for more than three weeks should be submitted to biopsy or other exams to exclude neoplasic, infectious or immunologic lesions. During the orthodontic treatment, pain and soreness of the oral mucosa can occur as the result of mechanic traumatism caused by increased friction between soft tissues and brackets. Nowadays, the professional owns few resources to prevention or relieve this irritation on the oral mucosa. The aim of this article is to guide the orthodontist to realize the correct diagnoses of the mouth ulcers, the relieve the symptoms and the exact treatment for each type of case.

  19. A Study of the Information Transmission Obstacles Existed Chinese Home Appliance Manufacturers' Sales Teams%我国家电厂商销售团队信息传递障碍研究

    平志兰; 宋小敏; 刘磊

    2012-01-01

    The information transmission standard of sales teams plays very important role in the operation efficiency of Chinese home appliance manufacturers.And whether the core members and users as well as among core members can undertake sufficient information communication decides the success of an enterprise directly.From the view of helping enterprises save transaction cost,this paper tries to enclose the information transmission obstacles existed in Chinese home appliance manufacturers and the causes so as to provide suggestions to fasten information transmission.%销售团队的信息传递水平对于我国家电厂商运营效率起着至关重要的作用,而骨干成员与用户以及骨干成员之间能否进行充分的信息交流,直接决定着企业的成败。本文以促进企业节省交易费用为研究视角,试图揭示我国家电厂商销售团队信息传递的障碍及成因,由此给出加速信息传递的对策建议。

  20. A one-time primitive device has turned into a high-tech product - the image change and paradigm of the robust gas heating appliance; Vom ``Kellerkind`` zur High-Tech-Saeule - Imagewandel und das Leitbild der ``robusten Therme``

    Nann, S. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Wernau (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Thermotechnik

    1999-11-01

    Modern gas heating appliances have an energy output sufficient to heat a whole one-family house, yet are so small and compact as to make a separate heating room superfluous. They can easily be fitted in a niche in the kitchen, bathroom or corridor. For instance Junkers` wall-mounted gas-and-boiler heating appliance Cerastar with its novel lamella burner ThermoStar and the generously dimensioned gas nozzles makes so little noise even at peak load that it can be installed in the residential area itself. Because of its modern electronics, this system offers more ease and comfort of operation to the layman than any other one before. Integrating it into building automation systems opens up a new dimension in matters of heating comfort. (orig.) [Deutsch] Moderne Gas-Heizgeraete sind bei Leistungen, die fuer ein ganzes Einfamilienhaus reichen, so klein und kompakt, dass ein separater Heizraum ueberfluessig ist. Die Geraete passen genauso gut in eine Nische in der Kueche, im Badezimmer oder auf dem Flur. Die wandhaengende Gas-Kesseltherme Cerastar von Junkers beispielsweise arbeitet mit dem neuartigen Lamellenbrenner ThermoStar und den grosszuegig dimensionierten Gasduesen selbst bei Vollast so leise, dass sie problemlos auch im Wohnbereich installiert werden kann. Dank moderner Elektronik ist die Heizung auch fuer Laien so einfach und komfortabel wie nie zuvor zu bedienen. Und die Einbindung in Systeme der Hausleittechnik eroeffnet eine neue Dimension in Sachen Heizkomfort. (orig.)