WorldWideScience

Sample records for activation utilizing auto-catalytic

  1. LASER INDUCED SELECTIVE ACTIVATION UTILIZING AUTO-CATALYTIC ELECTROLESS PLATING ON POLYMER SURFACE

    Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Tang, Peter Torben;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for selective micro metallization of polymers induced by laser. An Nd: YAG laser was employed to draw patterns on polymer surfaces using a special set-up. After subsequent activation and auto-catalytic electroless plating, copper only deposited on the laser tracks....... Induced by the laser, porous and rough structures are formed on the surface, which favours the palladium attachment during the activation step prior to the metallization. Laser focus detection, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other instruments were used to analyze the topography of the laser track....... Characterization of the deposited copper layer was used to select and improve laser parameters. Several types of polymers with different melting points were used as substrate. Using the above mentioned laser treatment, standard grades of thermoplastic materials such as ABS, SAN, PE, PC and others have been...

  2. Removal of platinum group metals from the used auto catalytic converter

    A. Fornalczyk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of platinum group metals from the used auto catalytic converters is profitable from ecological and also economical point of view. This work presents the analysis of the chances of removing the platinum group metals (PGM from the used auto catalytic converters applying pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods. The characteristics of auto catalytic converter is shown as well the available technologies used for processing the auto catalytic converters are also presented.

  3. Removal of platinum group metals from the used auto catalytic converter

    A. Fornalczyk; M. Saternus

    2009-01-01

    Recycling of platinum group metals from the used auto catalytic converters is profitable from ecological and also economical point of view. This work presents the analysis of the chances of removing the platinum group metals (PGM) from the used auto catalytic converters applying pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods. The characteristics of auto catalytic converter is shown as well the available technologies used for processing the auto catalytic converters are also presented.

  4. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  5. The influence of platinum washing-out time on its recovery from used auto catalytic converters

    A. Fornalczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The used catalytic converters contain small amounts of precious metals. Recovery of these metals is essential for environmental and economic reasons. This work presents a method of Platinum Group Metals (PGM recovery from auto catalytic converters in which they are washed out by a liquid metal. The magneto-hydro-dynamic pump was used to force circulation of liquid metal under the influence of electromagnetic fields The influence of process time on platinum recovery was also carried out.

  6. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Auglaire, M. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Boeck, B. de [Association Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium); Braillard, O. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Eckardt, B. [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Ferroni, F. [Electrowatt Engineering Limited, Zurich (Switzerland); Moffett, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Pinawa (Canada); Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  7. A novel auto-catalytic deposition methodology to produce calcium-phosphate coatings on polymeric biomaterials

    Leonor, I.B.; Reis, R.L. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Dept. of Polymer Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a new methodology to obtain bioactive coatings on bioinert and biodegradable polymers that are not intrinsically bioactive. In this study three types of materials were used as substrates: (i) high molecular weight polyethylene (HMWPE) and two different types of biodegradable starch based blends (ii) starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol blends, SEVA-C and (iii) starch/cellulose acetate blends, SCA, both from Novamont, Italy. These materials were obtained by injection moulding. Two types of baths were studied to produce the novel proposed auto-catalytic Ca-P, coatings: (i) alkaline and (ii) acid bath. The obtained results indicated that it was possible to coat the materials surfaces with Ca-P layer with only 60 min of immersion in both types of auto-catalytic solutions. These new methodologies allow for the production of an adherent bioactive film on the polymeric surfaces. Furthermore, it was possible observe the clear bioactive nature of the Ca-P coatings after different immersion periods in a simulated body fluid (SBF). (orig.)

  8. CFD simulation of hydrogen mixing and mitigation by means of passive auto-catalytic recombiners

    Kelm, S.; Reinecke, E-A.; Jahn, W., E-mail: s.kelm@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Allelein, H-J. [RWTH Aachen Univ.. Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Modeling of passive auto-catalytic recombiners (PARs) operation in containment geometries involves a large variety of scales; thus, a CFD calculation resolving all these scales would be much too expensive. Therefore, the mechanistic PAR model REKO-DIREKT, developed at Forschungszentrum Juelich, has been coupled with the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX in order to simulate PAR operation as well as the induced flow and transport phenomena. Based on a short introduction of REKO-DIREKT, its interface to CFX and the explicit coupling scheme is discussed. The paper is finalized by a first demonstration of simulation capabilities on the basis of the ThAI PAR-4 experiment (Becker Technologies GmbH, Eschborn, Germany). (author)

  9. Analysis of using magneto-hydro-dynamic pump for the platinum recovery from spent auto catalytic converters

    A. Fornalczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Applying the catalytic converters allow to eliminate the compounds harmful to the environment. Typical catalytic converter is built from the metallic or ceramic carrier with porous structure covered with the PGM metals especially platinum, palladium and rhodium. The content of these metals is on average about 2 grams. Catalytic converters have limited life time, and then they are scrapped. The necessity of waste disposal and very high prices of PGM metals are the reason why recovery of PGM metals from used auto catalytic converters has become more and more profitable.Design/methodology/approach: This work presents method of PGM metals recovery from auto catalytic converters by means of solving them in the liquid metal. Liquid metal is put in motion using magneto-hydrodynamic pump, and then the PGM metals are eluted from channels of the used auto catalytic converters.Findings: All over the world the used auto catalytic converters are preceded by the use of pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or mixed methods. Each method has some disadvantages. Pyrometallurgical methods need to use units which assure the necessary temperature. This is as expensive as energy consuming. Applying hydrometallurgical methods involve danger of creating many waste solutions which are harmful to the natural environment.Practical implications: The way PGM metals are recovered from used auto catalytic converters by their dissolution in the liquid rotating metal allows to increase concentration of PGM metals in the solution by means of applying the same metal collector to flush other catalytic collectors. Motion of the metal essentially shorten the time of PGM metals elution from catalytic converters; whereas the flow of liquid metal in closed cycle limits the unfavorable influence of the process on the environment.Originality/value: Method presented in this article is an innovative method and has never been applied. Additionally it is protected by a patent.

  10. Modeling of Auto-Catalytic Halogen Release and Ozone Depletion in Polar Regions

    This article concerns the modeling of the tropospheric ozone depletion event in polar spring where the aim is an improved understanding of the underlying physical and chemical processes. For this purpose, a model based on OpenFOAM 1.7.1 is developed, where two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically by finite volume method to predict the effects of turbulent mixing, advection of the fluid, and detailed chemical reactions. The present chemical reaction mechanism consists of 53 chemical reactions among 33 species to model the auto-catalytic process considering halogen species X, X2, XY, XO, HOX, where X and Y denote halogen atoms - here Br is studied. Large eddy simulation is applied to account for the turbulence and the Smagorinsky model is employed as sub-grid model. Good agreement with literature and experimental data is obtained for the profiles of the chemical species. In particular, the correct time scale of the phenomenon is captured. It is confirmed that the mixing ratio of ozone in the troposphere drops to a value near zero within several days. Moreover, it is shown that the well-mixed air is confined inside the boundary layer. A parameter study shows that the ozone depletion event happens even at reduced initial values of molecular bromine. Also, the study of coupled transport and chemistry shows that the turbulent mixing enhances the ozone depletion in the lowest layer above the earth's surface.

  11. Passive auto-catalytic recombiners operation in the presence of hydrogen and carbon monoxide: Experimental study and model development

    Highlights: • We studied the hydrogen conversion in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO). • CO recombines at a lower efficiency than hydrogen. • Under the given conditions, hydrogen conversion is not affected by CO. • We used three different numerical codes to simulate the experimental findings. • All codes are reproducing the experimental data well. -- Abstract: In a LWR severe accident, carbon monoxide (CO) may be generated inside the containment due to molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI). As a component of the accident atmosphere, CO will interact with passive auto-catalytic recombiners (PARs) which are installed inside LWR containments for hydrogen (H2) removal. Depending on the boundary conditions, CO may either react with oxygen to carbon dioxide (CO2) or act as catalyst poison, reducing the catalyst activity and hence the hydrogen conversion efficiency. A new experimental test programme performed in co-operation between JÜLICH and RWTH investigates these aspects aiming at providing data for model development for advanced severe accident analyses. In the first test series presented here, the parallel catalytic reaction of H2 and CO on the catalyst surface has been studied, i.e. the hydrogen recombination reaction was started before CO was injected. In total, 33 steady state measurements have been performed. The test series was jointly evaluated by JÜLICH, RWTH and IRSN. The test results show that under the given conditions the conversion of CO into CO2 has no negative impact on the parallel hydrogen conversion. The efficiency of the CO recombination in terms of molar rates is significantly smaller (by a factor of ∼2) than the corresponding H2 conversion efficiency. Due to the exothermal reaction, the parallel CO conversion may also have an impact on the possible ignition of the flammable gases at hot PAR surfaces. The authors have used three different numerical codes for the simulation of the parallel CO/H2 recombination. The codes REKO

  12. Vapour Treatment Method Against Other Pyro- and Hydrometallurgical Processes Applied to Recover Platinum From Used Auto Catalytic Converters

    Agnieszka FORNALCZYK; Mariola SATERNUS

    2013-01-01

    Today more and more cars are produced every year.All of them have to be equipped with catalytic converters,the main role of which is to obtain substances harmless to the environment instead of exhausted gases.Catalytic converters contain platinum group metals (PGM) especially platinum,palladium and rhodium.The price of these metals and their increasing demand are the reasons why today it is necessary to recycle used auto catalytic converters.There are many available methods of recovering PGM metals from them,especially platinum.These methods used mainly hydrometallurgical processes; however pyrometallurgical ones become more and more popular.The article presents results of the research mainly concerning pyrometallurgical processes.Two groups of research were carried out.In the first one different metals such as lead,magnesium and copper were used as a metal collector.During the tests,platinum went to those metals forming an alloy.In other research metal vapours were blown through catalytic converter carrier (grinded or whole).In the tests metals such as calcium,magnesium,cadmium and zinc were applied.As a result white or grey powder (metal plus platinum) was obtained.The tables present results of the research.Processing parameters and conclusions are also shown.To compare efficiency of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods catalytic converter carrier and samples of copper with platinum obtained from pyrometallurgical method were solved in aqua regia,mixture of aqua regia and fluoric acid.

  13. Reliability Tests of Aluminium Wedge Wire Bonding on Auto-catalytic Silver Immersion Gold (ASIG) PCB Metallization

    Drozd, A; Kaufmann, S; Manolescu, F; McGill, I

    2011-01-01

    The Auto-catalytic Silver Immersion Gold (ASIG) PCB metallization is a new process that has clear advantages for PCB assembly especially with regard to lead-free soldering. As it may become a popular process in the future for electronics used in physics experiments, the quality of this metallization for aluminium wire bonding has been studied. Aluminium wedge wire bonding continues to be the interconnection method of choice for many physics detector sensors, for high density signal routing and for unpackaged die. Although advertised as having good quality for aluminium wire bonding, this study was performed to verify this claim as well as to test the longer term reliability of the wire bonds taking into consideration the environmental conditions and life-expectancy of devices, in particular for high energy physics detector applications. The tests were performed on PCBs made with the ASIG and ENIG (Electro-less Nickel Immersion Gold) processes at the same time in order to make a comparison with the current ind...

  14. Formation of palladium concave nanocrystals via auto-catalytic tip overgrowth by interplay of reduction kinetics, concentration gradient and surface diffusion

    Su, Na; Chen, Xueying; Yue, Bin; He, Heyong

    2016-04-01

    A clear understanding of the growth mechanism involved in the shape-controlled synthesis of noble-metal nanocrystals with concave surfaces can provide useful information for the rational design of novel anisotropic nanostructures with controllable properties. In this paper, we conducted a systematic study of the detailed growth mechanism of the Pd arrow-headed tripods and revealed how the formation of the concave Pd nanocrystals was collectively controlled by the reduction kinetics, concentration gradient of Pd precursors, and surface diffusion of atoms. The formation of the arrow-headed tripods can be attributed to an auto-catalytic tip overgrowth process, where the Pd triangular nanoplate seeds formed under a suitably slow reduction rate can auto-catalyze the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to generate hydrogen atoms [H]. The presence of [H] further dramatically accelerates the reduction of Pd(acac)2, which introduces a concentration gradient of Pd precursors in our non-stirring synthesis system and facilitates the kinetically-controlled tip overgrowth under a concentration gradient to form tripods with troughs on the arms. The final shapes of the concave nanocrystals depend on the relative rate of atom deposition and surface diffusion of atoms, which can be tuned by manipulating the reaction conditions such as the reaction temperature and the stirring conditions. This study presents a new possibility for the rational synthesis of various Pd nanostructures by manipulating the auto-catalytic process and tuning the relative rate of atom deposition and surface diffusion of atoms, which provides useful information for understanding the growth mechanism and the design of other anisotropic noble-metal nanostructures.

  15. Start-up behaviour of a passive auto-catalytic recombiner under counter flow conditions: Results of a first orienting experimental study

    Highlights: • We studied the start-up behaviour of a PAR located in a downward-directed flow. • We performed several identical experiments with and without counter flow. • A temporary interference of the establishing chimney flow is observed. • An earlier local start-up of the catalytic reaction occurs under downward flow. • The overall performance of the PAR is not significantly affected. - Abstract: A downward directed wall-near flow represents a typical thermal hydraulic condition inside the LWR containment during a severe accident. In order to efficiently remove hydrogen released into the containment, passive auto-catalytic recombiners (PARs) located close to the containment wall have to establish an internal upward directed chimney flow against this counter flow. In cooperation between RWTH Aachen and the Research Center Jülich, the effect of a downward directed flow on the PAR start-up has been investigated in the REKO-4 test facility at Jülich. The test series includes experiments with identical boundary conditions performed under counter flow conditions as well as in quiescent atmosphere as reference case. Under counter flow conditions, an earlier local start-up of the catalytic reaction on the upper edge of the catalyst sheets was observed. However, the establishment of full PAR operation required more time compared to the reference case. This delay is attributed to a partial inflow of the counter flow into the PAR outlet which interferes with the establishing of a chimney flow promoted by the exothermal catalytic reaction. Once a developed chimney flow inside the PAR is established, no negative effect on the PAR performance could be observed. As expected, the counter flow mixes immediately with the PAR outlet flow dissolving the characteristic plume of hot gases at the PAR outlet

  16. Start-up behaviour of a passive auto-catalytic recombiner under counter flow conditions: Results of a first orienting experimental study

    Simon, Berno, E-mail: simon@lrst.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology (LRST), 52072 Aachen (Germany); Reinecke, Ernst-Arndt, E-mail: e.reinecke@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kubelt, Christian, E-mail: kubelt@lrst.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology (LRST), 52072 Aachen (Germany); Allelein, Hans-Josef, E-mail: allelein@lrst.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology (LRST), 52072 Aachen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We studied the start-up behaviour of a PAR located in a downward-directed flow. • We performed several identical experiments with and without counter flow. • A temporary interference of the establishing chimney flow is observed. • An earlier local start-up of the catalytic reaction occurs under downward flow. • The overall performance of the PAR is not significantly affected. - Abstract: A downward directed wall-near flow represents a typical thermal hydraulic condition inside the LWR containment during a severe accident. In order to efficiently remove hydrogen released into the containment, passive auto-catalytic recombiners (PARs) located close to the containment wall have to establish an internal upward directed chimney flow against this counter flow. In cooperation between RWTH Aachen and the Research Center Jülich, the effect of a downward directed flow on the PAR start-up has been investigated in the REKO-4 test facility at Jülich. The test series includes experiments with identical boundary conditions performed under counter flow conditions as well as in quiescent atmosphere as reference case. Under counter flow conditions, an earlier local start-up of the catalytic reaction on the upper edge of the catalyst sheets was observed. However, the establishment of full PAR operation required more time compared to the reference case. This delay is attributed to a partial inflow of the counter flow into the PAR outlet which interferes with the establishing of a chimney flow promoted by the exothermal catalytic reaction. Once a developed chimney flow inside the PAR is established, no negative effect on the PAR performance could be observed. As expected, the counter flow mixes immediately with the PAR outlet flow dissolving the characteristic plume of hot gases at the PAR outlet.

  17. Industry activities to resolve utility procurement issues

    There are several industry organizations which are active in assisting the utilities in their equipment procurement enhancement. They include the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). The products include the NUMARC Procurement Initiatives, EPRI procurement related guidelines and databases, and NUPIC joint audits and commercial grade surveys. The industry procurement activities and products are reviewed, and their use by utilities to enhance their procurement process is related. 1 fig

  18. Recent activities on neutron beam utilization

    In Japan, the utilization of neutron beam brought out in research reactors had mainly been carried out in KUR of Kyoto University and JRR-2 of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in the fields of neutron scattering experiment, neutron radiography, neutron induced prompt-gamma ray analysis, medical and biological irradiation and so on. After the completion of upgrading work of JRR-3 in JAERI in 1990 (JRR-3M), the quality and quantity for the neutron beam experiments are extremely improved by means of its high intensity of neutron flux and high signal-to-noise ratio of cold and thermal neutron beams at more than twenty neutron beam ports. Especially, the cold neutron beam has brought the field of the utilization expanded and the neutron guide tubes have increased the number of neutron beam facilities as if there are three research reactors. These facilities induced to more active use of research reactors and increased the researchers in the many fields. At present, research reactors are utilized widely in various fields of not only nuclear researches but also non-nuclear researches and industrial uses. The JRR-3M has been operated only for about three years, however, interesting results have already been obtained using cold and thermal neutron beams. The current status of the neutron beam utilization using the research reactors in JAERI is reported and also several research topics obtained at JRR-3M are introduced in this presentation. (author)

  19. Progress activities of reactor utilization in 2000

    Charoen, Sakda [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-03-01

    Thai Research Reactor - 1/Modification 1(TRR-1/M1) is a multipurpose research reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. The reactor is a swimming pool type, cooled and moderate with light water, using the LEU-fuel. The reactor has been utilized for radioisotope production, neutron beam experiments and reactor physic experiments. The reactor operation data and reactor utilization in 2000 are presented. (author)

  20. Progress activities of reactor utilization in 2000

    Thai Research Reactor - 1/Modification 1(TRR-1/M1) is a multipurpose research reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. The reactor is a swimming pool type, cooled and moderate with light water, using the LEU-fuel. The reactor has been utilized for radioisotope production, neutron beam experiments and reactor physic experiments. The reactor operation data and reactor utilization in 2000 are presented. (author)

  1. Activation of Air and Utilities in the National Ignition Facility

    Khater, H; Pohl, B; Brererton, S

    2010-04-08

    Detailed 3-D modeling of the NIF facility is developed to accurately simulate the radiation environment within the NIF. Neutrons streaming outside the NIF Target Chamber will activate the air present inside the Target Bay and the Ar gas inside the laser tubes. Smaller levels of activity are also generated in the Switchyard air and in the Ar portion of the SY laser beam path. The impact of neutron activation of utilities located inside the Target Bay is analyzed for variety of shot types. The impact of activating TB utilities on dose received by maintenance personnel post-shot is analyzed. The current NIF facility model includes all important features of the Target Chamber, shielding system, and building configuration. Flow of activated air from the Target Bay is controlled by the HVAC system. The amount of activated Target Bay air released through the stack is very small and does not pose significant hazard to personnel or the environment. Activation of Switchyard air is negligible. Activation of Target Bay utilities result in a manageable dose rate environment post high yield (20 MJ) shots. The levels of activation generated in air and utilities during D-D and THD shots are small and do not impact work planning post shots.

  2. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  4. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water

    Bing-Joe Hwang; Hsiao-Chien Chen; Fu-Der Mai; Hui-Yen Tsai; Chih-Ping Yang; John Rick; Yu-Chuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed ‘green technique’. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HE...

  5. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified

  6. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  7. Lunar in situ resource utilization by activated thermites

    Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen

    2011-10-01

    NASA's anticipated returns to the Moon by 2020, subsequent establishment of lunar in situ resource utilization technologies are essential. The surface of Moon is covered with small eroded particles of regolith called lunar dust that adheres electro-statically to everything coming in contact with it, and is of much concern for future lunar base because of its continual mitigation. The next major concern is the protection of equipment and personnel in long term expeditions from harmful UV radiation, which can be made by constructing protective buildings. For construction of permanent structures it is highly desired to have regular shaped sintered regolith with utilization of local materials and with minimum energy consumption. In this study the concept of sintering of lunar regolith with activated thermite reactions is discussed. The thermodynamic calculations as well as the experimental procedure is provided to prove the effectiveness of activated thermites for regolith sintering using local lunar resources with a low (15 wt. %) concentration of aluminum or magnesium. The thermite method is much more energy efficient than the other sintering methods suggested in literature.

  8. Early oxygen-utilization and brain activity in preterm infants.

    Maria Luisa Tataranno

    Full Text Available The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and quantitative aEEG/EEG parameters has not yet been investigated. Our aim was to study the association between oxygen utilization during the first 6 h after birth and simultaneously continuously monitored brain activity measured by aEEG/EEG. Forty-four hemodynamically stable babies with a GA < 28 weeks, with good quality NIRS and aEEG/EEG data available and who did not receive morphine were included in the study. aEEG and NIRS monitoring started at NICU admission. The relation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2 and cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE, and quantitative measurements of brain activity such as number of spontaneous activity transients (SAT per minute (SAT rate, the interval in seconds (i.e. time between SATs (ISI and the minimum amplitude of the EEG in μV (min aEEG were evaluated. rScO2 was negatively associated with SAT rate (β=-3.45 [CI=-5.76- -1.15], p=0.004 and positively associated with ISI (β=1.45 [CI=0.44-2.45], p=0.006. cFTOE was positively associated with SAT rate (β=0.034 [CI=0.009-0.059], p=0.008 and negatively associated with ISI (β=-0.015 [CI=-0.026- -0.004], p=0.007. Oxygen delivery and utilization, as indicated by rScO2 and cFTOE, are directly related to functional brain activity, expressed by SAT rate and ISI during the first hours after birth, showing an increase in oxygen extraction in preterm infants with increased early electro-cerebral activity. NIRS monitored oxygenation may be a useful biomarker of brain vulnerability in high-risk infants.

  9. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping; Rick, John; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed ‘green technique’. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HERs in acidic, basic and neutral systems, photocatalytic system with a g-C3N4 (graphite carbon nitride) electrode, as well as in an inert system with an ITO (indium tin oxide) electrode. Compared to deionized water, the efficiency of HER increases by 48% based on activated water ex situ on a Pt electrode. Increase in energy efficiency from activated water is 18% at a specific current yield of -20 mA in situ on a nanoscale-granulated Au electrode. Moreover, the onset potential of -0.023 V vs RHE was very close to the thermodynamic potential of the HER (0 V). The measured current density at the corresponding overpotential for HER in an acidic system was higher than any data previously reported in the literature. This approach establishes a new vista in clean green energy production.

  10. 34 CFR 350.17 - What must a grantee do in carrying out a utilization activity?

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must a grantee do in carrying out a utilization activity? 350.17 Section 350.17 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... a grantee do in carrying out a utilization activity? In carrying out a utilization activity...

  11. Routine activities and alcohol use: constraints on outlet utilization.

    Gruenewald, P J; Treno, A J; Nephew, T M; Ponicki, W R

    1995-02-01

    Studies of consumers' use of alcohol beverage outlets have provided a basis for understanding drinking behaviors in different drinking environments. These studies have shown that drinking environments are related to both demographic and drinking pattern measures. Absent from these studies has been a theoretical basis on which to make predictions regarding drinking patterns and choices of drinking environments under the various social, economic, and environmental constraints typically confronting alcohol consumers. This study presents one such theoretical approach. The approach assumes that, in the context of individual preferences for alcohol, drinking choices are constrained by consumers' economic and time-energy budgets for consumption. All other things being equal, it is suggested that greater budgets for consumption will be related to greater alcohol use, quality of beverages purchased, amenity values of purchase locations, or all three. Because on-premise drinking entails greater economic costs, greater drinking levels will be related to lower utilization of on-premise establishments. The predictions of this approach were tested using data obtained from telephone surveys of consumers conducted in 1990 and 1991. The results showed that controlling for income, variables related to greater time-energy budgets for consumption (i.e., marital status and household composition) were related to greater consumption levels and greater utilization of on-premise establishments. Controlling for demographic measures, greater income was related to greater utilization of restaurants and increased beverage quality. Controlling for all other measures, frequencies of consumption were inversely related to consumption at on-premise establishments, reflecting the expected moderation in costs for heavier consumers on a limited alcohol budget. PMID:7771662

  12. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  13. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Juho Yliniemi; Paivo Kinnunen; Pasi Karinkanta; Mirja Illikainen

    2016-01-01

    Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW) and glass wool (GW) were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated w...

  14. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    Shangkun Deng; Takashi Mitsubuchi; Akito Sakurai

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as pe...

  15. Utilization of locally available bentonites for water purification by activation

    Acid activation of commercial bentonite was conducted and tested for adsorption of impurities in water and industrial products. The properties of adsorption/absorption of bentonite are also used to remove impurities for the processing of edible oils and fats, as well as for the purification of products like honey and alcohol. The design of various experiments in order to assess and simulate the effects of acid activation of commercial bentonite on the adsorption capacity of methylene blue dye is described in this paper. The key parameters of the acid activation, namely acid concentration, contact time, temperature and type of acid, were established. The results indicated effects of these variables on the effectiveness of adsorption. The Swelling Index value of activated bentonite was 20 ml per 2 gram in deionized water as compared to 8 ml per 2 gm in unactivated samples. The acid concentration exerts a predominant individual effect as compared to other parameters. Bentonite activated by 5N HCl has more adsorption capacity than 40% HSO. Excessive 2 4 activation is discussed in terms of loss in both porosity and acid strength. (author)

  16. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Juho Yliniemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  17. The Activity of Antimicrobial Surfaces Varies by Testing Protocol Utilized

    Campos, Matias D.; Zucchi, Paola C.; Phung, Ann; Leonard, Steven N.; Hirsch, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Contaminated hospital surfaces are an important source of nosocomial infections. A major obstacle in marketing antimicrobial surfaces is a lack of efficacy data based on standardized testing protocols. Aim We compared the efficacy of multiple testing protocols against several “antimicrobial” film surfaces. Methods Four clinical isolates were used: one Escherichia coli, one Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two Staphylococcus aureus strains. Two industry methods (modified ISO 22196 and ASTM E2149), a “dried droplet”, and a “transfer” method were tested against two commercially available antimicrobial films, one film in development, an untreated control, and a positive (silver) control film. At 2 (only ISO) and 24 hours following inoculation, bacteria were collected from film surfaces and enumerated. Results Compared to untreated films in all protocols, there were no significant differences in recovery on either commercial brand at 2 or 24 hours after inoculation. The silver surface demonstrated significant microbicidal activity (mean loss 4.9 Log10 CFU/ml) in all methods and time points with the exception of 2 hours in the ISO protocol and the transfer method. Using our novel droplet method, no differences between placebo and active surfaces were detected. The surface in development demonstrated variable activity depending on method, organism, and time point. The ISO demonstrated minimal activity at 2 hours but significant activity at 24 hours (mean 4.5 Log10 CFU/ml difference versus placebo). The ASTEM protocol exhibited significant differences in recovery of staphylococci (mean 5 Log10 CFU/ml) but not Gram-negative isolates (10 fold decrease). Minimal activity was observed with this film in the transfer method. Conclusions Varying results between protocols suggested that efficacy of antimicrobial surfaces cannot be easily and reproducibly compared. Clinical use should be considered and further development of representative methods is needed. PMID

  18. Clinical utility of chitotriosidase enzyme activity in nephropathic cystinosis

    Elmonem, M.A.; Makar, S.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Abdelaziz, H.; Abdelrahman, S.M.; Bossuyt, X; Janssen, M.C.; Cornelissen, E.; Lefeber, D.J.; Joosten, L.; Nabhan, M.M.; Arcolino, F.O.; Hassan, F. A. [فكري حسن; Chevronnay, H.P. Gaide; Soliman, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundNephropathic cystinosis is an inherited autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the pathological accumulation and crystallization of cystine inside different cell types. WBC cystine determination forms the basis for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring with the cystine depleting drug (cysteamine). The chitotriosidase enzyme is a human chitinase, produced by activated macrophages. Its elevation is documented in several lysosomal storage disorders. Although...

  19. Utilizing Wisconsin Afterschool Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    Cavanagh, Bradley D.; Meinen, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 31.7% of children in the United States are overweight or obese. Interventions in the afterschool setting may help combat childhood obesity. Research exists on interventions in school settings, but a few data exist for interventions about afterschool programs. This study investigates increasing physical activity (PA) in…

  20. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  1. Status of research reactor utilization and other related activities

    The report covers two parts; the first is on the progress of the cooperative projects planned for 2002 under the FNCA and the other part on the activities related to the PRR1, Philippine Research Reactor. In the 2001 Workshop at Beijing, the Country agreed to participate in the three areas for collaboration. A brief reports on these three projects are included. The Country representatives during this 2002 Workshop will do a more detailed presentation on Radioisotope Production (TcG) and Neutron Activation Analysis projects. The second part of this report deals with the issues/concerns impeding the rehabilitation of PRR1. In January 2002, the Institute created the PRR1 Strategic Plan Committee to look deeply into these issues and concerns. The results of the Committee's work are discussed. (author)

  2. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  3. Activation analysis utilizing fast radiochemical separations and portable neutron generators

    Experience at the University of Michigan in adapting radiochemical procedures to short-half-lived radioisotopes and in working with neutron generators indicates that activation analysis can become a rapid routine industrial method for certain types of analysis. Portable neutron generators with thermal fluxes approaching 108 to 109 n/cm2 s, which have recently become available, offer the large analytical laboratory its own source of neutrons for activation analysis at a cost of about $ 20 000. In addition, rapid radiochemical procedures permit separation of activated products in a matter of minutes and completion of analyses for many elements in less than an hour. Rapid radiochemical separations have been devised for several elements. The sensitivities obtained from a 6-min irradiation of these elements are at least of the same order of magnitude and often better than those obtained with lengthy irradiations. Typical separation times are for vanadium 4 min and for silver 5 min. Thus it has been possible to make a complete analysis of samples ranging from meteorites to rat liver tissue, from marine biological ashes to crude petroleum, all within periods of 1/2 h to 1 h. These fast radiochemical techniques are also being applied to an evaluation of a Texas Nuclear Corporation neutron generator for use in activation analysis. This Cockcroft-Walton machine is small and compact; portable concrete shielding blocks suffice for protection. Although the present flux obtainable is less than 0.1% of the flux available in the pneumatic tube positions of the Michigan reactor, it is still sufficient to determine microgram amounts of an element such as vanadium. (author)

  4. Stock price change rate prediction by utilizing social network activities.

    Deng, Shangkun; Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques. PMID:24790586

  5. Thermally activated retainer means utilizing shape memory alloy

    Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor); Hartz, Leslie S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A retainer member suitable for retaining a gap filler placed in gaps between adjacent tile members is presented. One edge of the retainer member may be attached to the gap filler and another edge may be provided with a plurality of tab members which in an intermediate position do not interfere with placement or removal of the gap filler between tile members. The retainer member may be fabricated from a shape memory alloy which when heated to a specified memory temperature will thermally activate the tab members to predetermined memory positions engaging the tile members to retain the gap filler in the gap. This invention has particular application to the thermal tiles on space vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  6. Enhancement of research reactor utilization for neutron activation analysis

    Analytical Chemistry Division has been utilising NAA for the past 4 decades for trace analysis of a number of materials. Some of the procedures developed recently for the trace element determination of high purity hi-tech and nuclear pure materials, geological, environmental and forensic samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) are discussed here. Nearly complete characterization of high purity (>4N) As and Ga is possible by the procedures developed which are simple, rapid and elegant and can be used easily for the process samples. It is to be emphasised that though the INAA is simple and being widely followed, the RNAA alone can address the problems of analysis for elements present at ultra trace levels in many matrices. (author)

  7. Circulating polymerase chain reaction chips utilizing multiple-membrane activation

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Chen, Yi-Yu; Liao, Chia-Sheng; Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lee, Huei-Huang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports a new micromachined, circulating, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip for nucleic acid amplification. The PCR chip is comprised of a microthermal control module and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic control module. The microthermal control modules are formed with three individual heating and temperature-sensing sections, each modulating a specific set temperature for denaturation, annealing and extension processes, respectively. Micro-pneumatic valves and multiple-membrane activations are used to form the microfluidic control module to transport sample fluids through three reaction regions. Compared with other PCR chips, the new chip is more compact in size, requires less time for heating and cooling processes, and has the capability to randomly adjust time ratios and cycle numbers depending on the PCR process. Experimental results showed that detection genes for two pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes, 777 bps) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, 273 bps), can be successfully amplified using the new circulating PCR chip. The minimum number of thermal cycles to amplify the DNA-based S. pyogenes for slab gel electrophoresis is 20 cycles with an initial concentration of 42.5 pg µl-1. Experimental data also revealed that a high reproducibility up to 98% could be achieved if the initial template concentration of the S. pyogenes was higher than 4 pg µl-1. The preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 19th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2006), Istanbul, Turkey, 22-26 January, 2006.

  8. Utilization of HTGR on active carbon recycling energy system

    A new energy transformation concept based on carbon recycling, called as active carbon recycling energy system, ACRES, was proposed for a zero carbon dioxide emission process. The ACRES is driven availably by carbon dioxide free primary energy. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is a candidate of the energy sources for ACRES. A smart ironmaking system with ACRES (iACRES) is one of application examples. The contribution of HTGR on iACRES was discussed thermodynamically in this study. A carbon material is re-used cyclically as energy carrier media in ACRES. Carbon monoxide (CO) had higher energy densities than hydrogen and was compatible with conventional process. Thus, CO was suitable recycling media for ACRES. Efficient regeneration of CO was a key technology for ACRES. A combined system of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and CO2 hydrogen reduction was candidate. CO2 direct electrolysis was also one of the candidates. HTGR was appropriate heat source for both water and CO2 electrolysises, and CO2 hydrogen reduction. Thermodynamic energy balances were calculated for both systems with HTGR for an ironmaking system. The direct system showed relatively advantage to the combined system in the stand point of enthalpy efficiency and simplicity of the process. One or two plants of HTGR are corresponding with ACRES system for one unit of conventional blast furnace. The proposed ACRES system with HTGR was expected to form the basis of a new energy industrial process that had low CO2 emission

  9. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  10. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors. Japanese Fiscal Year, 1998

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Koyama, Yoshimi [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    This is the second issue of the activity report on the utilization of research reactors in the fields of neutron beam experiments, neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, etc., performed during Japanese Fiscal Year 1998 (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999). All reports in this volume were described by users from JAERI and also users from the other organizations, i.e., universities, national research institutes and private companies, who have utilized our research reactor utilization facilities for the purpose of the above studies. (author)

  11. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors. Japanese Fiscal Year, 1998

    This is the second issue of the activity report on the utilization of research reactors in the fields of neutron beam experiments, neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, etc., performed during Japanese Fiscal Year 1998 (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999). All reports in this volume were described by users from JAERI and also users from the other organizations, i.e., universities, national research institutes and private companies, who have utilized our research reactor utilization facilities for the purpose of the above studies. (author)

  12. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors. Japanese Fiscal Year, 1999

    Toyoda, Masayuki [ed.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    This is the second issue of the activity report on the utilization of research reactors in the fields of neutron beam experiments, neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, etc., performed during Japanese Fiscal Year 1999 (April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000). All reports in this volume were described by users from JAERI and also users from the other organizations, i.e., universities, national research institutes and private companies, who have utilized our research reactor utilization facilities for the purpose of the above studies. (author)

  13. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors. Japanese Fiscal Year, 1999

    This is the second issue of the activity report on the utilization of research reactors in the fields of neutron beam experiments, neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, etc., performed during Japanese Fiscal Year 1999 (April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000). All reports in this volume were described by users from JAERI and also users from the other organizations, i.e., universities, national research institutes and private companies, who have utilized our research reactor utilization facilities for the purpose of the above studies. (author)

  14. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors. Japanese fiscal year, 2003

    During the fiscal year 2003, the Tokai Research Establishment research reactors carried out 8 cycles of joint use reactor operation at JRR-3 and 42 cycles at JRR-4. The research reactors are being utilized for various purposes including experimental studies such as neutron scattering, prompt gamma analysis, neutron radiography and medical irradiation (BNCT), and irradiation utilization such as neutron activation analysis of various samples, Irradiation Test of Reactor Materials and fission track. This volume contains 246 activity reports, which are categorized into the fields of neutron scattering (9 subcategories), neutron radiography, neutron activation analysis, reactor materials, prompt analysis, and others, submitted by the users in JAERI and from other organizations. (author)

  15. Risk management activities of a non-industrial private forest owner with a bivariate utility function

    Brunette, Marielle; Couture, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to analyse the choice of risk management activity made by a nonindustrial private forest owner who derives utility from consumption and from the sentimental value of the forest that bears a risk of disaster. We consider a bivariate utility function depending on consumption and sentimental value of forest. In this context, we analyse insurance and/or self-insurance decisions. We show that, under fair premium, full insurance is optimal only if the cross derivative of t...

  16. Effects of Obesity and Physical Activity on Health Care Utilization and Costs

    Jan Häußler

    2014-01-01

    The study analyses the combined influence of obesity and lifestyle behaviors on health care utilization and health care costs. Therefore I analyze the interaction of obesity, nutrition and physical activity based on a community level dataset from a German city. In addition to the expected convex effects of age and chronic diseases for utilization, the results indicate that BMI and physical inactivity have an independent influence on G.P. visits as well as for hospitalization. The key finding ...

  17. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  18. Aspirin inhibits vascular plasminogen activator activity in vivo. Studies utilizing a new assay to quantify plasminogen activator activity.

    Levin, R I; Harpel, P C; Weil, D; T. S. Chang; Rifkin, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Vascular or tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA) is a key enzyme in physiologic fibrinolysis. To study the role of prostaglandins in modulating the synthesis and release of TPA in vivo, we prospectively studied the effect of aspirin (650 mg/d X 2) on TPA activity in 13 human subjects before and after 10 min of forearm venous occlusion. TPA activity was quantified by a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that both measures and differentiates between TPA and urokinase (UK)-like...

  19. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  20. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  1. Effective Utilization of Waste Activated Sludge For Bioremediation and Bioenergy Production

    Nazlina Haiza Mohd Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is widely used in treating wastewater. However, this system creates a lot of waste activated sludge (WAS). The abundance of WAS creates serious problem to municipalities and industries in term of treatment cost and waste management. Hence, the purpose of my Ph. D. study is to seek an appropriate means for WAS management. Here, four approaches for utilizing WAS effectively are investigated; 1) WAS reduction at low temperature by using low temperature tolerant bacteria, ...

  2. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications. PMID:27219497

  3. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors. Japanese fiscal year, 2004

    During the fiscal year 2004, the Nuclear Science Research Institute research reactors carried out 7 cycles of joint use reactor operation at JRR-3 and 41 cycles at JRR-4. The research reactors are being utilized for various purposes including experimental studies such as neutron scattering, prompt gamma analysis, neutron radiography and medical irradiation (BNCT), and irradiation utilization such as neutron activation analysis of various samples, RI production, Irradiation Test of Reactor Materials and fission track, advanced Science Research. This volume contains 235 activity reports, which are categorized into the fields of neutron scattering (10 subcategories), neutron radiography, neutron activation analysis, RI Production, prompt gamma analysis, and others, submitted by the users in JAEA and from other organizations. (author)

  4. Spatial variability of microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns in top- and subsoils under European beech

    Niebuhr, Jana; Heinze, Stefanie; Mikutta, Robert; Mueller, Carsten W.; Preusser, Sebastian; Marschner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    The role of subsoils in the global carbon cycle is poorly understood and probably underestimated. This is due to an incomplete understanding of processes and mechanisms that influence carbon storage and decomposition in deeper soil horizons. Microbial communities play an important role in these processes, as their presence, structure and function are crucial for the decomposition and/or stabilization of organic compounds. In this study, carried out in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest on a podzolic Cambisol near Hannover, the spatial variability of microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns were investigated in the subsoil. For this purpose, samples were taken from regular grids at dm distances in three soil profiles of 1.85 m depth and 3.15 m length, totaling 192 soil samples. Activities of 9 extracellular enzymes of the C-, S-, P- and N-cycle were determined with a multi-substrate enzymatic assay and for substrate utilization patterns the MicroRespTM method was applied. The results showed a strong decline of microbial activity from topsoil to subsoil. Enzyme activities varied greatly at the dm scale. The correlation of the variability of both microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns with depth and soil parameters such as pH, soil water content, total and dissolved organic carbon was tested with a principal component analysis. Existing dependencies of the variabilities on these parameters help to verify the hypotheses that microbial activity is spatially highly variable in the subsoil and this variability is due to the existence of certain hot spots of substrate availability and that outside these 'hot spots' the microbial activity and thus the decomposition of SOM are mainly limited by substrate availability.

  5. Use of radio-active phosphorus in determining the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by cacao plantation

    Both 32P labelled phosphate solution and superphosphate were used in studying 1) in situ root distribution and activity of twenty year old Amelonado cacao (Theobroma Cacao L.) during wet and dry seasons, and 2) the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by the cacao plantation. The 32P content of the leaves was used to determine patterns of root activity. Uptake of 32P was greatest during the wet season and root activity highest within the upper 3 cm soil layer in both wet and dry seasons. Highest 32P activity was obtained at a distance of 120-160 cm, and lowest at 91 cm from the base of the tree. For maximum utilization of phosphate fertilizer by a plantation of twenty year old Amelonado cacao, planted at 240 cm x 240 cm spacing, the fertilizer should be broadcast during the wet season. Under low soil moisture conditions, the placement of 32P labelled superphosphate provides information on the relative availability of fertilizer or soil phosphorus and does not necessarily reflect the activity of the root profile. Active roots of cacao tend to be more extensive and are capable of exploring a much larger area than hitherto expected

  6. Study of the possibility of dielectric detectors' utilization for the measurement of radon's activity

    At present, much attention has been paid to the measurement of concentration of radon in water, soil and atmosphere as radon-222 is decay product of uranium and can give information on the pollution of atmosphere, geophysical and geochemical process taking place in earth. Alpha activity of radon is registered by the different method including dielectric detector. This method differs simplicity and economical utilization. Irradiated detectors etched in 20 per cent solution Na OH at temperature 60 degrees centigrade during 80 minutes

  7. Active exercises utilizing a facilitating device in the treatment of lymphedema resulting from breast cancer therapy

    de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction in volume of arm lymphedema secondary to breast cancer therapy utilizing an exercise facilitating device. Twenty-one women with arm lymphedema resulting from the surgical and radiotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer were randomly selected. Evaluation was made by water-displacement volumetry before and after each session. The patients were submitted to a series of active exercises using a facilitating device for four 12-minute sessions with intervals of 3 minutes between sessions in the sitting position with alignment of the spinal column. The lymphedematous arm was maintained under compression using a cotton-polyester sleeve. The active exercising device used was a mobile flexion bar fixed on a metal base at a height of 30 cm from the tabletop and at a distance of 10 cm from the patient’s body. The paired t-test was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (p-value ≤0.05 being considered significant. The initial mean volume of the arms was 2,089.9 and the final volume was 2,023.0 mL with a mean loss of 66.9 mL (p-value <0.001. In conclusion, active exercises utilizing facilitating devices can contribute to a reduction in size of lymphedematous limbs.

  8. Twenty Five Years of Neutron Activation Analysis: A Personal Perspective on Utilization of the Techniques

    Since the late 1970's there have been enormous changes in the methods, techniques and applications of neutron activation analysis. Having been a research scientist at the National Research Council of Canada and the McMaster Nuclear Reactor, as well as a professor for ten years at the University of Illinois and 15 years at the University of Texas, I have a unique perspective on the research performed by my many MS, PhD and even undergraduate students. Below is a personal perspective on the utilization of the neutron activation analysis. (author)

  9. Inferring activities from context measurements using Bayesian inference and random utility models

    Hurtubia, Ricardo; Bierlaire, Michel; Flötteröd, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Smartphones collect a wealth of information about their users. This includes GPS tracks and the MAC addresses of devices around the user, and it can go as far as taking visual and acoustic samples of the user's environment. We present a framework to identify a smartphone user's activities in a Bayesian setting. As prior information, we us a random utility model that accounts for the type of activity a user is likely to perform at any given location and time; this model was estimated for the w...

  10. The utilization of mesh meteorological data maps for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area

    Hilly and mountainous areas occupy approximately 70% of Japan, and the area of farmland in these regions is decreasing; these areas are defined as those from the outer plains to the mountains. The development of strategies for the revitalization of local agriculture in hilly and mountainous areas is therefore a significant problem in Japan. Systematic agriculture is efficient in hilly and mountainous areas, and distribution maps are effective planning tools for evaluating the meteorological conditions for individual farms in those areas where farms are small and interspersed. Public agricultural research centers in each prefecture of Japan have developed mesh meteorological data maps with some kilometers grid cell resolutions for local agriculture, and have been made many studies using mesh meteorological data maps. However, critical variations exist between estimated mesh data and actual meteorological condition within the area of each grid cell. To address this problem, methods of estimating air temperature and solar radiation on a 50 m mesh (latitude 1.5 sec x longitude 2.25 sec) were developed. While many studies with mesh meteorological data maps have been made, numbers of concrete examples of utility for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous areas have been few. This paper presents therefore some studies for utilization facilitated of mesh meteorological data maps in hilly and mountainous areas. And furthermore, it is proposed some guides to utilize mesh meteorological data maps for the purpose of revitalizing an agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area with concrete examples

  11. Gradient Descent Learning for Utility Current Compensation using Active Regenerative PWM Filter

    R. Balamurugan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Harmonic analysis is a primary matter of power quality assessment. Its main intention is to check the utility whether it is delivering the loads without any deviations in voltages and currents. The problem is due to proliferation of Electronic converters and power electronics which gave birth to numerous new applications, offering unmatched comfort to the customers. Approach: Harmonics should be maintained within the limits said in standards like IEEE 519 and others such as IEEE 1159 for safeguarding the utility. This was provided by many mitigation technologies like passive, shunt and series filtering, active conditioners, but they were lack of some demerits like huge cost, many controllers and circuit components. So for controlling the harmonic loads the converter with four quadrant characteristics was implemented and this converter act as shunt active filter as well as rectifier simultaneously without any additional circuitry. For having better harmonic reduction in addition, many controllers like p-q Theorem based controller, Fuzzy and gradient descent based neural network is also used. Results: The simulation results gives the compared source current wave forms for various controllers with individual harmonic mitigations. Conclusion: The pure utility current is obtained by using this intelligent neural filter without any additional components and without any extra controllers than the conventional methods.

  12. The utilization of some iron and zinc compounds as regulators of catalase activity at Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Efremova, N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of some zinc and iron compounds as oxidative stress factors on catalase activity, which is known to be important defense system of microorganisms to metal stress. For the investigation was used baker's yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 previously selected as a source of protein and catalase. The obtained results have revealed that compounds of iron and zinc with citrate and acetate contributes to the accumulation of yeast biomass and have beneficial effect on the catalase activity at selected yeast strain. The maximum increase of catalase activity in yeast biomass was established in case of iron and zinc citrate supplementation to the nutritive medium in optimal concentration of 15.0 mg/l. Results of the present study could be used for the elaboration of new procedures of catalase obtaining by directed synthesis with the utilization of selected metal compounds.

  13. Clinical utility of the liposteroid therapy: Potential effects on the macrophage activation.

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohga, Shouichi

    2016-01-01

      Liposteroid, a lipid emulsion containing dexamethasone, was developed in Japan. This drug is effective against rheumatoid arthritis, and has fewer side effects than dexamethasone. Moreover, at high dosage, liposteroid has been effectively used for the treatment of macrophage activation syndrome, because the lipid emulsions are easily taken up by phagocytes, and are retained in macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory effect was found to be 2-5 times higher than that of dexamethasone in arthritis and granuloma rat models. Japanese researchers have reported the clinical efficacy and utility of liposteroid in the treatment of diseases with macrophage activation. These include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, graft-versus-host disease, and pulmonary hemosiderosis. Here, we describe the clinical effects of liposteroid on macrophage activation syndrome and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients. PMID:27320934

  14. PV market in Germany and activities of the metropolitan utility of Karlsruhe

    The introduction of the Renewable Energy Law in Germany in combination with the 100,000 roof program lead to an explosion of the market for grid-connected PV systems, with all possible effects such as the formation of new PV companies, job creation and the installation of a huge number of PV systems. But there is also one negative aspect: higher prices for the modules due to production bottle-necks. The Municipal Utility of Karlsruhe (SWK) commits itself to the sector of renewable energy especially PV. Some of these activities are also described in the paper

  15. Utilization of the Dalat Research Reactor for Radioisotope Production, Neutron Activation Analysis, Research and Training

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW pool type reactor loaded with a mixed core of HEU (36% enrichment) and LEU (19.75% enrichment) fuel assemblies. The reactor is used as a neutron source for the purposes of radioisotopes production, neutron activation analysis, basic and applied research and training. The reactor is operated mainly in continuous runs of 108 hours for cycles of 3–4 weeks for the above mentioned purposes. The current status of safety, operation and utilization of the reactor is given and some aspects for improvement of commercial products and services of the DNRR are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. Electrodes and electrochemical storage cells utilizing tin-modified active materials

    Anani, Anaba; Johnson, John; Lim, Hong S.; Reilly, James; Schwarz, Ricardo; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    1995-01-01

    An electrode has a substrate and a finely divided active material on the substrate. The active material is ANi.sub.x-y-z Co.sub.y Sn.sub.z, wherein A is a mischmetal or La.sub.1-w M.sub.w, M is Ce, Nd, or Zr, w is from about 0.05 to about 1.0, x is from about 4.5 to about 5.5, y is from 0 to about 3.0, and z is from about 0.05 to about 0.5. An electrochemical storage cell utilizes such an electrode as the anode. The storage cell further has a cathode, a separator between the cathode and the anode, and an electrolyte.

  17. Determination of the activity of pulmonary tuberculosis : the utility of high-resolution computed tomography

    Chung, Myung Hee; Lee, Hae Giu; Yu, Won Jong; Chung, Hong Jun; Yang, Bo Sung; Kwon, Soon Suck; Park, Seog Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), as used to determine the activity of tuberculosis, and to analyze the HRCT findings in active and in inactive tuberculosis. We analyzed the HRCT findings of 100 patients (54 men, 46 women; average age, 54 years) who according to the results of chest radiography had pulmonary tuberculosis of undetermined activity. We assessed HRCT findings such as the presence of a centrilobular, macro-, or micronodule; consolidation, ground-glass opacity, cavity, interlobular septal thickening, irregular linear opacities, bronchial wall thickening, bronchovascular bundle distortion, bronchiectasis, atelectasis, and pericicatrical emphysema. We compared the ratio of the area of nodule and consolidation to that of whole lung, and compared the findings between active and inactive tuberculosis. Eleven of 100 patients were excluded because the final diagnosis was other than tuberculosis. In 59 patients, the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis was proven by positive sputum smear and/or culture for mycobacterium tuberculosis. On the basis of the negative results of these tests, pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be inactive in 30 patients; serial chest radiographs indicated that their condition remained stable over a 6-month period. For HRCT, sensitivity was 96.6%, specificity 56.7%, positive predictive value 81.4%, negative predictive value 89.5%, and accuracy 83.1%. For active tuberculosis, the presence of centrilobular nodules, tree-in-bud, macronodules, cavity within the nodule, and consolidations was statistically significant, while for inactive tuberculosis, that of irregular linear opacities, micronodules, bronchiectasis, and cicatrization atectasis was similarly significant. The CT score for the area of nodules and consolidations was higher in active than in inactive tuberculosis, but only the nodule score showed statistical significance. HRCT can be a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating the activity

  18. Determination of the activity of pulmonary tuberculosis : the utility of high-resolution computed tomography

    To evaluate the utility of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), as used to determine the activity of tuberculosis, and to analyze the HRCT findings in active and in inactive tuberculosis. We analyzed the HRCT findings of 100 patients (54 men, 46 women; average age, 54 years) who according to the results of chest radiography had pulmonary tuberculosis of undetermined activity. We assessed HRCT findings such as the presence of a centrilobular, macro-, or micronodule; consolidation, ground-glass opacity, cavity, interlobular septal thickening, irregular linear opacities, bronchial wall thickening, bronchovascular bundle distortion, bronchiectasis, atelectasis, and pericicatrical emphysema. We compared the ratio of the area of nodule and consolidation to that of whole lung, and compared the findings between active and inactive tuberculosis. Eleven of 100 patients were excluded because the final diagnosis was other than tuberculosis. In 59 patients, the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis was proven by positive sputum smear and/or culture for mycobacterium tuberculosis. On the basis of the negative results of these tests, pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be inactive in 30 patients; serial chest radiographs indicated that their condition remained stable over a 6-month period. For HRCT, sensitivity was 96.6%, specificity 56.7%, positive predictive value 81.4%, negative predictive value 89.5%, and accuracy 83.1%. For active tuberculosis, the presence of centrilobular nodules, tree-in-bud, macronodules, cavity within the nodule, and consolidations was statistically significant, while for inactive tuberculosis, that of irregular linear opacities, micronodules, bronchiectasis, and cicatrization atectasis was similarly significant. The CT score for the area of nodules and consolidations was higher in active than in inactive tuberculosis, but only the nodule score showed statistical significance. HRCT can be a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating the activity

  19. Integrated high voltage power supply utilizing burst mode control and its performance impact on dielectric electro active polymer actuators

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Lorenzen, K. P.; Mangeot, C.; Steenstrup, A. R.

    Through resent years new high performing Dielectric Electro Active Polymers (DEAP) have emerged. To fully utilize the potential of DEAPs a driver with high voltage output is needed. In this paper a piezoelectric transformer based power supply for driving DEAP actuators is developed, utilizing a...

  20. Utility of passive photography to objectively audit built environment features of active transport journeys: an observational study

    Oliver, Melody; Doherty, Aiden R.; Kelly, Paul; Badland, Hannah M; Mavoa, Suzanne; Shepherd, Janine; Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Hamilton, Alexander; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Active transport can contribute to physical activity accumulation and improved health in adults. The built environment is an established associate of active transport behaviours; however, assessment of environmental features encountered during journeys remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of wearable cameras to objectively audit and quantify environmental features along work-related walking and ...

  1. Batch Tests To Determine Activity Distribution and Kinetic Parameters for Acetate Utilization in Expanded-Bed Anaerobic Reactors

    Fox, Peter; Suidan, Makram T.

    1990-01-01

    Batch tests to measure maximum acetate utilization rates were used to determine the distribution of acetate utilizers in expanded-bed sand and expanded-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) reactors. The reactors were fed a mixture of acetate and 3-ethylphenol, and they contained the same predominant aceticlastic methanogen, Methanothrix sp. Batch tests were performed both on the entire reactor contents and with media removed from the reactors. Results indicated that activity was evenly distrib...

  2. Research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources

    Highlights: • A review on the development and modeling of active hollow core slab is presented. • The applications and performance evaluation of the slab in building are reviewed. • Finite element or finite difference method is often used in multidimensional model. • Performance evaluations of building using active slabs for ventilation are limited. • More works on the active hollow core slab are worthwhile. - Abstract: The society and the building professionals have paid much concern in recent years on building energy efficiency and the development and applications of low energy technologies for buildings/green buildings allowing the elimination, or at least reduction of dependence on electricity or fossil fuel while maintaining acceptable indoor environment. Utilizations of favorable diurnal temperature difference and ground thermal source for air conditioning are among these low energy technologies. Utilization of the hollow cores in the prefabricated slab for ventilation and the mass of the slab for thermal storage is widely used in building systems in Europe by exploiting the low energy source of the ambient air. These hollow core slabs aim at enlarging the heat transfer surface between the slab mass and the air in the core, which permits substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. This, in turn, allows the use of low energy cooling or heating sources, such as the ground, outside air or recovered process heat. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources. The principle and development of active hollow core slabs in building systems for leveling the indoor temperature fluctuation by ventilation air passing the cores are described. Calculation models of the active hollow core concrete slab as well as the practical applications and performance evaluation of the slab applied in building systems for air

  3. Electroless Plating on Plastic Induced by Selective Laser Activation

    Zhang, Yang; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2009-01-01

    surface property’s point of view, the basic polymer surface tends to attract palladium in an acidic solution. Using the laser treatment mentioned above, standard grades of thermoplastic materials such as ABS, SAN, PE, PC and others have been successfully metalized. The metalized tracks are down to 300 μm......This paper presents a new method for selective micro metallization of polymers. A Nd:YAG laser is employed to draw patterns on polymer surfaces that are submerged in a liquid (usually water). After subsequent activation with palladium chloride and followed by auto-catalytic electroless plating......, copper deposit only on the laser tracks. The mechanism of the palladium activation step is analyzed based on experimental results and theoretical calculations. It is believed that the laser introduces porous and rough structures on the surface, which favours the palladium attachment. Looking from the...

  4. SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION IS INFLUENCED BY ACUTE DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE IN ACTIVE, HEALTHY FEMALES

    Sara Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC and low-fat (LF meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP, and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G, insulin (IN, triglycerides (TG, and free fatty acids (FFA during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein. The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein. No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (µU·mL-1 levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1 vs. 26.0 (21.0]. Postexercise (PE FFA (mEq·L-1 levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3 vs. 0.5 (0.3]. PE TG (mg·dL-1 levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1 vs. 114.4 (40.9]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization.

  5. Utilizing the Trispyrazolyl Borate Ligand for the Mimicking of O2-Activating Mononuclear Nonheme Iron Enzymes.

    Sallmann, Madleen; Limberg, Christian

    2015-10-20

    Mononuclear, O2-activating nonheme iron enzymes are a fascinating class of metalloproteines, capable of realizing the most different reactions, ranging from C-H activation, via O atom transfer to C-C bond cleavage, in the course of O2 activation. They can lead us the way to achieve similar reactions with comparable efficiency and selectivity in chemical laboratories, which would be highly desirable aiming at accessing value-added products or to achieve degradation of unwanted compounds. Hence, these enyzmes motivate attempts to construct artificial low-molecular weight analogues, mimicking structural or functional characteristics. Such models can, for instance, provide insights about which of the features inherent to an active site are essential and guarantee the enzyme function, and from this kind of information the minimal requirements for a biomimetic or bioinspired complex that may be applied in catalysis can be derived. On the other hand, they can contribute to an understanding of the enzyme functioning. In order to create such replicates, it is important to faithfully mimic the surroundings of the iron centers in their active sites. Most of them feature two histidine residues and one carboxylate donor, while a few exhibit a deceptively simple (His)3Fe active site. For the simulation of these, the trispyrazolyl borate ligand (Tp) particularly offers itself, as the facial arrangement of three pyrazole donors is reminiscent of the three histidine-derived imidazole donors. The focus of this Account will be on bioinorganic/biomimetic research from our laboratory utilizing Tp ligands to develop molecular models for (i) two representatives of the (His)3Fe-enzyme family, namely, the cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and acetyl acetone dioxygenase (Dke1), (ii) a related but less well-explored variant of the CDO-the 2-aminoethanethiol dioxygenase-as well as (iii) the 2-His-1-carboxylate representative 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO). The CDO catalyzes the

  6. Two propanediol utilization-like proteins of Moorella thermoacetica with phosphotransacetylase activity.

    Breitkopf, Ronja; Uhlig, Ronny; Drenckhan, Tina; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Moorella thermoacetica is one of the model acetogenic bacteria for the resolution of the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway in which CO2 is autotrophically assimilated yielding acetyl-CoA as central intermediate. Its further conversion into acetate relies on subsequent phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase reactions. However, the genome of M. thermoacetica contains no pta homologous gene. It has been speculated that the moth_0864 and moth_1181 gene products sharing similarities with an evolutionarily distinct phosphotransacylase involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization (PDUL) of Salmonella enterica act as PTAs in M. thermoacetica. Here, we demonstrate specific PTA activities with acetyl-CoA as substrate of 9.05 and 2.03 U/mg for the recombinant enzymes PDUL1 (Moth_1181) and PDUL2 (Moth_0864), respectively. Both showed maximal activity at 65 °C and pH 7.6. Native proteins (90 kDa) are homotetramers composed of four subunits with apparent molecular masses of about 23 kDa. Thus, one or both PDULs of M. thermoacetica might act as PTAs in vivo catalyzing the penultimate step of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway toward the formation of acetate. In silico analysis underlined that up to now beside of M. thermoacetica, only Sporomusa ovata contains only PDUL like class(III)-PTAs but no other phosphotransacetylases or phosphotransbutyrylases (PTBs). PMID:27338272

  7. Geospatial Relationships between Awareness and Utilization of Community Exercise Resources and Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults

    Christopher J. Dondzila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is unclear if community-based fitness resources (CBFR translate to heightened activity levels within neighboring areas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether awareness and utilization of fitness resources and physical activity differed depending on residential distance from CBFR. Methods. Four hundred and seventeen older adults (72.9±7.7 years were randomly recruited from three spatial tiers (≤1.6, >1.6 to ≤3.2, and >3.2 to 8.0 km surrounding seven senior centers, which housed CBFR. Participants completed questionnaires on health history, CBFR, and physical activity, gathering data on CBFR awareness, utilization, and barriers, overall levels, and predictors to engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Results. Across spatial tiers, there were no differences in positive awareness rates of CBFR or CBFR utilization. Engagement in MVPA differed across spatial tiers P3.2 to 8.0 km radius having the highest mean energy expenditure. Across all sites, age and income level P<0.05 were significant predictors of low and high amounts of MVPA, respectively, and current health status and lack of interest represented barriers to CBFR utilization P<0.05. Conclusion. Closer proximity to CBFR did not impact awareness or utilization rates and had an inverse relationship with physical activity.

  8. Utilization of a TRIGA nuclear reactor for neutron activation analysis and isotope production

    In this paper, some examples of utilization of the TRIGA reactor at Casaccia research center of ENEA are described, including neutron activation analysis (NAA), isotope production and tritium release studies. 1) NAA - Determination of trace elements by NAA has been performed, in the last years upon a variety of matrices: a) environmental: suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments collected in some Italian seas and rivers were analyzed for about 30 elements. Different types of filters were also tested to choose the most suitable for the collection of SPM. b) forensic: many applications of NAA have been performed on request of Italian Courts for determination of gunshot residues; firing distances were also determined in some cases. c) agricultural: the uptake of Zn and Co by cereals has been studied in pot in co-operation with the Istituto per la Cerealicoltura of Rome. d) geological: some USGS reference materials were analyzed by thermal and epithermal NAA, for evaluating accuracy and precision of both methods. Rock samples from the basaltic plateau of Kenya were then analyzed by ENAA, chiefly for rare earth elements, whose concentration patterns can give useful informations about petrogenesis. e) reference materials: several elements have been determined in lake and river sediment samples and in three plant materials (tobacco, apple-tree and peach-tree), in order to provide data for their certification as reference materials to be used in different fields. f) nuclear materials: trace elements have been determined in LiAlO2 to be used in the blanket of fusion reactors, as well as in cements for building nuclear plants, in order to evaluate the activity at the time of plant decommissioning. 2) Isotope production a) A program for the utilization of TRIGA reactor at Casaccia to prepare a 191m-Ir generator to be used in pediatric angiography has been drawn up. b) Preparation of 18-F to be used in positron emission tomography (PET) for studies of cerebral diseases

  9. Research Activities of the SEP (Dutch cooperation of electric utilities) in the field of wind energy

    The Dutch electric utilities are actively involved in the development of the wind energy technology. The Dutch Integral research Program Wind energy (IPW) is an important stimulator for the development and the market of cost-effective wind turbines. The successful introduction of wind turbines however depends also on the expectations of potential users on the possible benefits which can be realized by the implementation of wind turbines. The wind pattern of a specific site is of great interest in the decision making, as well as the electric power demand and the availability of alternatives. Next to reliable data on wind potentials good simulation methods and evaluation techniques play important parts. The SEP realized a wind measuring network to collect data on the availability of wind on relevant heights. In combination with calculation models to analyze wind energy, thorough studies in the field of wind energy applications have been carried out during the last few years. Some results of these studies are presented. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  11. Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time

    Swayampakala Kamala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed park assessment to examine these associations. Methods Twenty urban schoolyards in the Midwest, ten of which were renovated, were included in this study. Using a detailed environmental assessment tool (i.e., Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces, information on a variety of playground attributes was collected. Using direct observation (i.e., System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth, the number of adults, girls and boys attending each schoolyard and their physical activity levels were recorded. Each schoolyard was observed ten times for 90 minutes each time outside of school hours. Clustered multivariable negative binomial regressions and linear regressions were completed to examine the association between playground attributes and utilization of the schoolyard and the proportion active on the playground, respectively. Effect modification by renovation status was also examined. Results At renovated schoolyards, the total number of play features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and girls; overall cleanliness was significantly associated with less utilization in girls and boys; and coverage/shade for resting features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and boys. At unrenovated schoolyards, overall safety was significantly associated with greater utilization in boys. No playground attribute was associated with the proportion active on the playground after adjusting for all

  12. Dental utilization of active duty/previous active duty US military: a cross-sectional analysis of the 2010 Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey

    Wiener, R. Constance; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Jurevic, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to understand dental utilization of 1) individuals serving/having served in active duty in the U.S. military as compared with the general public and 2) individuals who are currently serving as compared with individuals who are no longer active duty, but have been in active duty within the previous year. Methods The Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey, 2010, was used in cross-sectional analyses to determine the comparisons. Chi square and multivariab...

  13. Content and Perceived Utility of Mental Imagery by Older Adults in a Peer-Delivered Physical Activity Intervention

    Giacobbi, P. R.; Buman, M. P.; Dzierzewski, J.; Aiken-Morgan, A. T.; Roberts, B.; Marsiske, M.; Knutson, N.; Smith-McCrae, C

    2013-01-01

    Imagery interventions intended to increase exercise behavior are rare. The Active Adult Mentoring Program (AAMP) was a randomized controlled trial with imagery content. The purposes of this study were to examine the content and perceived utility of mental imagery with 24 AAMP participants (Mage = 65.00, SD = 8.79 years). Digital recordings of AAMP sessions and post-intervention interviews were content-analyzed. Emergent themes included images of the physical activity context and negative impr...

  14. Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time

    Swayampakala Kamala; Maslow Andréa L; Colabianchi Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed...

  15. Assessing the Influence of the Built Environment on Physical Activity for Utility and Recreation in Suburban Metro Vancouver

    Oliver Lisa; Schuurman Nadine; Hall Alexander; Hayes Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical inactivity and associated co-morbidities such as obesity and cardiovascular disease are estimated to have large societal costs. There is increasing interest in examining the role of the built environment in shaping patterns of physical activity. However, few studies have: (1) simultaneously examined physical activity for leisure and utility; (2) selected study areas with a range of built environment characteristics; and (3) assessed the built environment using hig...

  16. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Discussion of impact of relics activation on protection and utilization approaches-take the old summer palace as an example

    Xiaoqi, J.

    2015-08-01

    As the popularization of cultural relics and the rapid development of cultural tourism industry, a large number of cultural relic tourism resources goes into public eyes. Activation of relics has became an important way for tourist to contact and understand culture relics. The way of how to properly interpret the historical sense and cultural uniqueness to the masses of tourists in order to achieve social service functions of relic resources has always been research focal point of site protection and utilization, so nowadays it has important significance to protection and utilization of heritage resources in our country. From the point of activation of relics and based on the analysis of resource characteristic, the paper in depth discuss ways of activation of relics of the Old Summer Palace, in order to provide reference for sustainable development of sites tourism in China.

  19. Microbial network for waste activated sludge cascade utilization in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis and anaerobic fermentation

    Liu, Wenzong; He, Zhangwei; Yang, Chunxue;

    2016-01-01

    integrated system of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste activated sludge (WAS). Microbial communities in integrated system would build a thorough energetic and metabolic interaction network regarding fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities. The...... Parabacteroides, which showed a delayed contribution to the extracellular electron transport leading to a slow cascade utilization of WAS. Conclusions: Efficient pretreatment could supply more short-chain fatty acids and higher conductivities in the fermentative liquid, which facilitated mass transfer in anodic...

  20. Validity and practical utility of accelerometry for the measurement of in-hand physical activity in horses

    Morrison, R.; Sutton, D.G.M.; Ramsoy, C.; Hunter-Blair, N.; Carnwath, J.; Horsfield, E.; Yam, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accelerometers are valid, practical and reliable tools for the measurement of habitual physical activity (PA). Quantification of PA in horses is desirable for use in research and clinical settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate a triaxial accelerometer for objective measurement of PA in the horse by assessment of their practical utility and validity. Horses were recruited to establish both the optimal site of accelerometer attachment and questionnaire designed...

  1. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it's evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it's risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed

  2. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  3. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors (JRR-3 and JRR-4). Japanese fiscal year, 2006

    In the fiscal year 2006, the research reactor JRR-3 was operated 7 cycles (cycle operation: 26 days/cycle) for utilization sharing of the facility. And JRR-4 was operated 37 cycles (daily operation: 151 days). JRR-3 is used for the purposes below; Experimental studies such as neutron scattering, prompt gamma-ray analyses, neutron radiography, Irradiation for activation analyses, radioisotope (RI) productions, fission tracks, Irradiation test of reactor materials, etc. JRR-4 is used for the purposes below; Medical irradiation (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy : BNCT), Prompt gamma-ray analyses, Sensitivity measurement of radiation detectors, Experiment in the nuclear reactor training, Practice of Reactor operation, Irradiation for activation analyses, RI productions, fission tracks, etc. The volume contains 294 activity reports, which are categorized into the fields of neutron scattering (11 subcategories), neutron radiography, neutron activation analyses, RI productions, prompt gamma-ray analyses, and others submitted by the users in JAEA and from other organizations. (author)

  4. Estimation of Viable Biomass In Wastewater And Activated Sludge By Determination of ATP, Oxygen Utilization Rate And FDA Hydrolysis

    Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Eriksen, T.; Jensen, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    wastewater plants, it was found that ATP content and respiration rate estimated viable biomass to range from 81 to 293 mg dw/g SS for raw wastewater and from 67 to 187 mg dw/g SS for activated sludge with a rather weak correlation between ATP and respiration measurements. The FDA hydrolysis estimated viable......ATP content, oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were tested for the ability to express the amount of viable biomass in wastewater and activated sludge. The relationship between biomass and these activity parameters was established in growth cultures made by...... inoculating a nutrient medium with either wastewater or activated sludge. Biomass was then determined directly by measurement of dry weight of growth culture (dw), and compared to data obtained by using the previously mentioned methods. In the exponential growth phase, ATP content showed the best correlation...

  5. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors (JRR-3 and JRR-4). Japanese fiscal year, 2005

    In the fiscal year 2005, The research reactor JRR-3 was operated 7 cycles (cycle operation : 26days/cycle) for utilization sharing of the facility. And JRR-4 was operated 37 cycles (daily operation : 137 days). JRR-3 is used for the purposes below; Experimental studies such as neutron scattering, prompt gamma-ray analyses, neutron radiography. Irradiation for activation analyses, radioisotope (RI) productions, fission tracks. Irradiation test of reactor materials etc. JRR-4 is used for the purposes below; Medical irradiation (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy : BNCT). Prompt gamma-ray analyses. Sensitivity measurement of radiation detectors. Experiment in the nuclear reactor training. Practice of Reactor operation. Irradiation for activation analyses, RI productions, fission tracks etc. The volume contains 100 activity reports, which are categorized into the fields of neutron scattering (9 subcategories), neutron radiography, neutron activation analyses, RI productions, prompt gamma-ray analyses, and others submitted by the users in JAEA and from other organizations. (author)

  6. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors (JRR-3 and JRR-4). Japanese fiscal year, 2009

    JRR-3 is used for the purposes below; Experimental studies such as neutron scattering, prompt gamma-ray analyses, neutron radiography, Irradiation for activation analyses, radioisotope (RI) productions, fission tracks, Irradiation test of reactor materials, etc. JRR-4 is used for the purposes below; Medical irradiation (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy : BNCT), Prompt gamma-ray analyses, Sensitivity measurement of radiation detectors, Experiment in the nuclear reactor training, Practice of Reactor operation, Irradiation for activation analyses, RI productions, fission tracks, etc. In the fiscal year 2009, The research reactor JRR-3 was operated 7 cycles (cycle operation : 26days/cycle) for utilization sharing of the facility. And JRR-4 was operated 6 cycles (daily operation : 24 days). The volume contains 138 activity reports, which are categorized into the fields of neutron scattering (11 subcategories), neutron radiography, prompt gamma-ray analyses, neutron activation analyses, RI productions, and others submitted by the users in JAEA and from other organizations. (author)

  7. Utilization of Human Urine as Fertilizer with Magnesium Oxide (MgO, Zeolite and Activated Carbon as Absorbent

    Hijrah Purnama Putra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine is residual fluid excreted by kidneys through urinary tract to outside of the human body, to maintain homeostasis of fluid in the body. Normally urine still contains high amount of nitrogen, which is 87%, phosphor 50%, potassium 54% and low bacterial content. With these contents urine potentially becomes organic fertilizer rich with nitrogen, phosphor and potassium contents and is beneficial to plants. However, until today the utilization or urine in Indonesia is very low. The urine produced is dispose with feces in toilets. This study aimed to utilize urine as solid organic fertilizer using magnesium oxide (MgO, zeolite, and actived carbon as absorbents of ammonium and phosphor. The study started with collecting urine, time variations of urine storage were 24; 48 and 72 hours, and urine was mixed with water as an assumption that urine mixes with water when flushed in urinals. The result showed effectiveness of optimum urine absorption in urine stored for 48 hours by adding 8 gram MgO, producing ammonium and phosphor contents 56.100 ppm and 3.610 ppm, respectively. From environmental perspective, utilization of urine as organic fertilizer was applicable because it satisfied the ecological principle of sanitation to prevent soil pollution, ground and surface water pollution and its utilization as agricultural resources.

  8. Activities of Oarai Branch IMR of Tohoku University as an open facility for utilizing JMTR

    Hot cell facilities in a university open facility of Oarai Branch of IMR, Tohoku University (Oarai Branch) will be described briefly, for general aspects and a beta-gamma handling facility. A related topics concerning alpha-gamma facility will be described in a separate paper. Hot cell works in Oarai Branch is related strongly with utilization of Japan materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) in Oarai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Steady efforts are made to develop advanced techniques for studies of nuclear materials utilizing a JMTR and its related hot cells in Oarai Branch and JAERI. One of examples will be mentioned in the paper. Acquisition of systematic irradiation data is essential for understanding fundamental processes of irradiation effects and for establishment of reliable database of irradiation effects in fusion reactor materials. It will take several years with expensive several different irradiation rigs in a fission reactor irradiation. There, it will take seriously long time to carry out needed iterations between irradiation tests and evaluation and materials developments. An irradiation rig was developed to carry out irradiation in multiple conditions of temperatures and irradiation fluences. Irradiation tests of fusion reactor materials were successfully carried out in JMTR. (author)

  9. Epimerase and Reductase Activities of Polyketide Synthase Ketoreductase Domains Utilize the Same Conserved Tyrosine and Serine Residues.

    Xie, Xinqiang; Garg, Ashish; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T; Khosla, Chaitan; Cane, David E

    2016-03-01

    The role of the conserved active site tyrosine and serine residues in epimerization catalyzed by polyketide synthase ketoreductase (PKS KR) domains has been investigated. Both mutant and wild-type forms of epimerase-active KR domains, including the intrinsically redox-inactive EryKR3° and PicKR3° as well as redox-inactive mutants of EryKR1, were incubated with [2-(2)H]-(2R,3S)-2-methyl-3-hydroxypentanoyl-SACP ([2-(2)H]-2) and 0.05 equiv of NADP(+) in the presence of the redox-active, epimerase-inactive EryKR6 domain. The residual epimerase activity of each mutant was determined by tandem equilibrium isotope exchange, in which the first-order, time-dependent washout of isotope from 2 was monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with quantitation of the deuterium content of the diagnostic pantetheinate ejection fragment (4). Replacement of the active site Tyr or Ser residues, alone or together, significantly reduced the observed epimerase activity of each KR domain with minimal effect on substrate binding. Our results demonstrate that the epimerase and reductase activities of PKS KR domains share a common active site, with both reactions utilizing the same pair of Tyr and Ser residues. PMID:26863427

  10. Utility of serum thymidine kinase activity measurements for cases of bovine leukosis with difficult clinical diagnoses.

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of serum thymidine kinase (TK) activity for diagnosing bovine leukosis cases for which clinical diagnosis was difficult ('BL with difficult diagnosis'). Median TK activity values in 24 'BL with difficult diagnosis' and 36 cattle for which BL was clinically confirmed by cytology findings of enlarged superficial lymph nodes ('clinically confirmed BL') were 36.8 and 39.4 U/l, respectively (no significant difference). The percentage with positive TK activity (> 5.4 U/l) was also similar in both groups (83.3% for 'BL with difficult diagnosis' and 97.2% for 'clinically confirmed BL'). TK activity was significantly higher in cows with 'BL with difficult diagnosis' compared to those with other tumors (N = 13) and those with inflammatory diseases (N = 14). Maximum TK activity in cows with other tumors and inflammatory diseases was not high (cows with other tumors and those with inflammatory diseases were 1.8 and 1.4 IU/l, respectively. Positive TK activity was found in a significantly higher percentage of cows with 'BL with difficult diagnosis' (83.3%) relative to the percentages of cows with other tumors (15.3%) and inflammatory diseases (21.4%). Thus, TK activity is an appropriate marker for detecting BL onset in cows with 'BL with difficult diagnosis' as well as 'clinically confirmed BL' group. While the specificity of TK activity required for BL diagnosis is not clear, simultaneous evaluation of serum lactate dehydrogenase activity may assist in the differential diagnoses of other tumors and inflammatory diseases from BL. PMID:23628971

  11. The Utilization of Activated Sludge Polyhydroxyalkanoates for the Production of Biodegradable Plastics

    Punrattanasin, Warangkana

    2001-01-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems were used for the development of a system and operating procedures for the high production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by wastewater treatment (activated sludge) bacterial cultures. It was found that unbalanced growth conditions stimulated massive PHA production in activated sludge biomass. Operating conditions had a significant effect on PHA production and the composition of the accumulated copolymer when either laboratory prepared mixtures of org...

  12. Utility of a fluorescent vitamin E analog as a probe for tocopherol transfer protein activity

    Morley, Samantha; Cross, Valerie; Cecchini, Matt; Nava, Phil; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Manor, Danny

    2006-01-01

    The tocopherol transfer protein (TTP1) is a member of the CRAL-TRIO family of lipid binding proteins that facilitates vitamin E transfer between membrane vesicles in vitro. In cultured hepatocytes, TTP enhances the secretion of tocopherol to the media; presumably, tocopherol transfer is at the basis of this biological activity. The mechanism underlying ligand transfer by TTP is presently unknown, and available tools for monitoring this activity suffer from complicated assay procedure and poor...

  13. The Limited Utility of Multiunit Data in Differentiating Neuronal Population Activity.

    Corey J Keller

    Full Text Available To date, single neuron recordings remain the gold standard for monitoring the activity of neuronal populations. Since obtaining single neuron recordings is not always possible, high frequency or 'multiunit activity' (MUA is often used as a surrogate. Although MUA recordings allow one to monitor the activity of a large number of neurons, they do not allow identification of specific neuronal subtypes, the knowledge of which is often critical for understanding electrophysiological processes. Here, we explored whether prior knowledge of the single unit waveform of specific neuron types is sufficient to permit the use of MUA to monitor and distinguish differential activity of individual neuron types. We used an experimental and modeling approach to determine if components of the MUA can monitor medium spiny neurons (MSNs and fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs in the mouse dorsal striatum. We demonstrate that when well-isolated spikes are recorded, the MUA at frequencies greater than 100Hz is correlated with single unit spiking, highly dependent on the waveform of each neuron type, and accurately reflects the timing and spectral signature of each neuron. However, in the absence of well-isolated spikes (the norm in most MUA recordings, the MUA did not typically contain sufficient information to permit accurate prediction of the respective population activity of MSNs and FSIs. Thus, even under ideal conditions for the MUA to reliably predict the moment-to-moment activity of specific local neuronal ensembles, knowledge of the spike waveform of the underlying neuronal populations is necessary, but not sufficient.

  14. Antioxidant, antityrosinase and antitumor activity comparison: the potential utilization of fibrous root part of Bletilla striata (Thunb. Reichb.f.

    Fusheng Jiang

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the utilization probability of the fibrous root part (FRP of Bletilla striata, which was usually discarded and harvesting pseudobulb part (PSP. The chemical composition, total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and tyrosinase inhibition activity were compared between FRP and PSP. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effect as well as antitumor effect of the extract of FRP and PSP were analyzed by in vitro cell system as well. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the chemical compositions in the two parts were similar, but the content in FRP was much higher than PSP. Meanwhile, the FRP extracts showed higher phenolic content, stronger DPPH scavenging activity, Ferric-reducing antioxidant capacity and tyrosinase inhibition activity. Sub-fraction analysis revealed that the distribution characteristic of phenolic components and other active constituents in FRP and PSP were consistent, and mainly deposited in chloroform and acetoacetate fractions. Especially, the chloroform sub-fraction (sch of FRP showed extraordinary DPPH scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity, with IC50 0.848 mg/L and 4.3 mg/L, respectively. Besides, tyrosinase inhibition activity was even stronger than the positive compound arbutin (31.8 mg/L. Moreover, In vitro cell system analysis confirmed that FRP extract exerts comparable activity with PSP, especially, the sub-fraction sch of FRP showed better antioxidant activity at low dosage and stronger per-oxidant activity at high dosage, and both sch of FRP and PSP can dose-dependent induce HepG2 cells apoptosis, which implied tumor therapeutic effect. Considering that an additional 0.3 kg FRP would be obtained when producing 1.0 kg PSP, our work demonstrated that FRP is very potential to be used together with PSP.

  15. Utility of Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Children Attending an Obesity Treatment Intervention

    Wendy Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the use of accelerometers to monitor change in physical activity in a childhood obesity treatment intervention. Methods. 28 children aged 7–13 taking part in “Families for Health” were asked to wear an accelerometer (Actigraph for 7-days, and complete an accompanying activity diary, at baseline, 3-months and 9-months. Interviews with 12 parents asked about research measurements. Results. Over 90% of children provided 4 days of accelerometer data, and around half of children provided 7 days. Adequately completed diaries were collected from 60% of children. Children partake in a wide range of physical activity which uniaxial monitors may undermonitor (cycling, nonmotorised scootering or overmonitor (trampolining. Two different cutoffs (4 METS or 3200 counts⋅min-1 for minutes spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA yielded very different results, although reached the same conclusion regarding a lack of change in MVPA after the intervention. Some children were unwilling to wear accelerometers at school and during sport because they felt they put them at risk of stigma and bullying. Conclusion. Accelerometers are acceptable to a majority of children, although their use at school is problematic for some, but they may underestimate children's physical activity.

  16. Utilization and facility of neutron activation analysis in HANARO research reactor

    The facilities of neutron activation analysis within a multi-purpose research reactor (HANARO) are described and the main applications of Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in Korea are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system, are installed at three irradiation holes. One irradiation hole is lined with a cadmium tube for epithermal-nal NAA. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of tube transfer system, irradiation sites and polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron flux with each irradiation site are in the range of 3.9x1013-1.6x1014 n/cm2·s and cadmium ratios are 15-250. Neutron activation analysis has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials and various polymers for research and development. Analytical services and the latest analytical results are summarized. (author)

  17. Utilizing Technology to Improve the Administration of Instructional Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education

    Melton, Bridget; Burdette, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide examples of how technology is being used in one university to increase the organization and effectiveness of instructional physical activity programs (IPAPs). The article outlines ways in which technology can organize materials for students, instructors, and programs. Additionally, the article describes…

  18. Teaching Critical Thinking in an Introductory Leadership Course Utilizing Active Learning Strategies: A Confirmatory Study

    Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Fritz, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    Critical thinking is often seen as a universal goal of higher education but is seldom confirmed as an outcome. This study was conducted to determine whether an introductory level college leadership course that encouraged active learning increased critical thinking skills. A pre- and post-assessment of critical thinking skills was conducted using…

  19. Examples of utilizing high flux, high dose irradiation in activation analysis

    The science group of Kanazawa University has carried out the analysis of the main trace elements in meteorites and geochemically interesting rocks and minerals by the activation process using reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons and 30 - 100 MeV bremsstrahlung. Also it has taken part in the international joint analysis of geochemical standard rock samples. As for a number of the samples among those, the high flux, high dose irradiation in the KUR core and the JMTR has been required, and the many objectives of activation analysis can be attained easily. In this report, why and in what case is the irradiation like this necessary is shown by examples. The meaning of activation analysis includes both the case of the assay of formed radionuclides and the case of the assay of rare gas isotopes by mass analysis among the cases of formed nuclides being stable. In most of the case of activation analysis, the assay of formed radionuclides is carried out by gamma ray spectrometry using (n, gamma) reaction, and high flux, high dose irradiation is required by specific reasons. In the analysis of trace elements by rare gas-forming nuclides, 40Ar/39Ar method in K-Ar age measurement is a well known example. Those examples are shown. (K.I.)

  20. Photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide modified concrete materials - influence of utilizing recycled glass cullets as aggregates.

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2009-08-01

    Combining the use of photocatalysts with cementitious materials is an important development in the field of photocatalytic air pollution mitigation. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on assessing the effectiveness of pollutant degradation by concrete surface layers that incorporate a photocatalytic material - Titanium Dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of the concrete samples was determined by photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the laboratory. Recycled glass cullets, derived from crushed waste beverage bottles, were used to replace sand in preparing the concrete surface layers. Factors, which may affect the pollutant removal performance of the concrete layers including glass color, aggregate size and curing age, were investigated. The results show a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic activity due to the use of glass cullets as aggregates in the concrete layers. The samples fabricated with clear glass cullets exhibited threefold NO removal efficiency compared to the samples fabricated with river sand. The light transmittance property of glass was postulated to account for the efficiency improvement, which was confirmed by a separate simulation study. But the influence of the size of glass cullets was not evident. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of concrete surface layers decreased with curing age, showing a loss of 20% photocatalytic activity after 56-day curing. PMID:19540649

  1. Utilizing the Active and Collaborative Learning Model in the Introductory Physics Course

    Nam, Nguyen Hoai

    2014-01-01

    Model of active and collaborative learning (ACLM) applied in training specific subject makes clear advantage due to the goals of knowledge, skills that students got to develop successful future job. The author exploits the learning management system (LMS) of Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) to establish a learning environment in the…

  2. Utilization of Enzyme-Immobilized Mesoporous Silica Nanocontainers (IBN-4 in Prodrug-Activated Cancer Theranostics

    Bau-Yen Hung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To develop a carrier for use in enzyme prodrug therapy, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (IBN-4: Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, where the nanoparticle surfaces were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and further conjugated with glutaraldehyde. Consequently, the enzymes could be stabilized in nanochannels through the formation of covalent imine bonds. This strategy was used to protect HRP from immune exclusion, degradation and denaturation under biological conditions. Furthermore, immobilization of HRP in the nanochannels of IBN-4 nanomaterials exhibited good functional stability upon repetitive use and long-term storage (60 days at 4 °C. The generation of functionalized and HRP-immobilized nanomaterials was further verified using various characterization techniques. The possibility of using HRP-encapsulated IBN-4 materials in prodrug cancer therapy was also demonstrated by evaluating their ability to convert a prodrug (indole-3- acetic acid (IAA into cytotoxic radicals, which triggered tumor cell apoptosis in human colon carcinoma (HT-29 cell line cells. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay revealed that cells could be exposed to the IBN-4 nanocomposites without damaging their membranes, confirming apoptotic cell death. In summary, we demonstrated the potential of utilizing large porous mesoporous silica nanomaterials (IBN-4 as enzyme carriers for prodrug therapy.

  3. The Utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 in Air Quality Decision-Making Activities

    Duncan, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss a novel and practical application of the OMI HCHU and NO2 data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. In addition, the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may be used to define new emission control strategies as the photochemical environments of urban areas evolve over time. I will demonstrate the utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 over the U.S. for air quality applications with support from simulations with both a regional model and a photochemical box model. These results support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. However, I'm attending the meeting as the Aura Deputy Project Scientist, so I don't technically need to present anything to justify the travel.

  4. Quantifying the impact of PWR primary side chemistry regime utilizing surface activity data

    The collection of gamma spectroscopic data, known as gamma scanning in the US, allows for identification and quantification of radionuclides contributing to shutdown dose rates. Based on such data, plants can quantitatively assess the impact of operational and chemistry changes and optimize their source term reduction programs.. To quantify the effect of PWR primary side chemistry on activity incorporation including zinc addition, a simplistic activity balance assessment of Co-58 activity incorporation and release rate constants was developed. Under steady state conditions, the sum of the net release rates of corrosion product radionuclides to the primary coolant from fuel cladding/crud and steam generator tubing and stainless steel surfaces must be equal to the net removal rates from the coolant. Release and re-incorporation of activated corrosion products can occur from each of the referenced primary surfaces, and isotopic (and mass) balances are developed based on the net value of these processes. Net deposition is expected locally in high duty boiling regions, but the reverse is expected in regions where the boiling rate has decreased as fuel burnup occurs during the cycle, i.e., there could be a net release of nickel and iron from such regions. Although transport rates of non-radioactive species such as iron and nickel can be modelled, it is difficult to validate the models since significant transport occurs during shutdowns, surface analysis results are currently only performed after shutdown. However, release of radionuclides from out-of-core surfaces has been shown to be minimal during the shutdown evolution; and non-destructive surface analyses performed following shutdown can be used to reasonably approximate surface activity during power operation prior to the shutdown. From these measurements, net deposition or release rates from out-of-core surfaces and the core during power operation can be estimated. The observed reductions in RCS piping surface

  5. The utilization of some iron and zinc compounds as regulators of catalase activity at Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Efremova, N.; E. Molodoi; Usatîi, A.; Fulga, L.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of some zinc and iron compounds as oxidative stress factors on catalase activity, which is known to be important defense system of microorganisms to metal stress. For the investigation was used baker's yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 previously selected as a source of protein and catalase. The obtained results have revealed that compounds of iron and zinc with citrate and acetate contributes to the accumulation of yeast bi...

  6. Utilizing the Active and Collaborative Learning Model in the Introductory Physics Course

    Nam, Nguyen H.

    2014-01-01

    Model of active and collaborative learning applied in training specific subject makes clear advantage due to the goals of knowledge, skills that students got to develop successful future job. The author exploits the learning management system of Hanoi National University of Education to establish a learning environment in the Introductory Physics course Part 2, which supports to the blended learning, for the 1st year student. The method of pattern languages is taken to redesign learning conte...

  7. Maximizing semi-active vibration isolation utilizing a magnetorheological damper with an inner bypass configuration

    A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) semi-active vibration control system based on a magnetorheological (MR) damper with an inner bypass is investigated in this paper. The MR damper employing a pair of concentric tubes, between which the key structure, i.e., the inner bypass, is formed and MR fluids are energized, is designed to provide large dynamic range (i.e., ratio of field-on damping force to field-off damping force) and damping force range. The damping force performance of the MR damper is modeled using phenomenological model and verified by the experimental tests. In order to assess its feasibility and capability in vibration control systems, the mathematical model of a SDOF semi-active vibration control system based on the MR damper and skyhook control strategy is established. Using an MTS 244 hydraulic vibration exciter system and a dSPACE DS1103 real-time simulation system, experimental study for the SDOF semi-active vibration control system is also conducted. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements

  8. Maximizing semi-active vibration isolation utilizing a magnetorheological damper with an inner bypass configuration

    Bai, Xian-Xu, E-mail: bai@hfut.edu.cn [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wereley, Norman M.; Hu, Wei [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) semi-active vibration control system based on a magnetorheological (MR) damper with an inner bypass is investigated in this paper. The MR damper employing a pair of concentric tubes, between which the key structure, i.e., the inner bypass, is formed and MR fluids are energized, is designed to provide large dynamic range (i.e., ratio of field-on damping force to field-off damping force) and damping force range. The damping force performance of the MR damper is modeled using phenomenological model and verified by the experimental tests. In order to assess its feasibility and capability in vibration control systems, the mathematical model of a SDOF semi-active vibration control system based on the MR damper and skyhook control strategy is established. Using an MTS 244 hydraulic vibration exciter system and a dSPACE DS1103 real-time simulation system, experimental study for the SDOF semi-active vibration control system is also conducted. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements.

  9. Analysis of Platinum Content in Used Auto Catalytic Converter Carriers and the Possibility of its Recovery

    Saternus M.; Fornalczyk A.; Cebulski J.

    2014-01-01

    Obecnie każdy wyprodukowany samochód musi być wyposażony w katalizator, w którym metale szlachetne takie jak platyna, pallad czy rod pełnią funkcje katalityczne. Czas życia katalizatorów jest ograniczony, zatem zostają one zastąpione nowymi, a stare stanowią ważne źródło platynowców. Zużyte katalizatory samochodowe przerabiane są hydrometalurgicznie lub pirometalurgicznie. Jednakże pierwszym etapem takiego przerobu powinna być analiza chemiczna. W pracy analizie na zawartość platyny poddano k...

  10. Hydrogen Recombination Rates of Plate-type Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiner

    The hydrogen mitigation system may include igniters, passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR), and venting or dilution system. Recently PAR is commonly used as a main component of HMS in a NPP containment because of its passive nature. PARs are categorized by the shape and material of catalytic surface. Catalytic surface coated by platinum is mostly used for the hydrogen recombiners. The shapes of the catalytic surface can be grouped into plate type, honeycomb type and porous media type. Among them, the plate-type PAR is well tested by many experiments. PAR performance analysis can be approached by a multi-scale method which is composed of micro, meso and macro scales. The criterion of the scaling is the ratio of thickness of boundary layer developed on a catalytic surface to representative length of a computational domain. Mass diffusion in the boundary layer must be resolved in the micro scale analysis. In a lumped parameter (LP) analysis using a system code such as MAAP or MELCOR, the chamber of the PAR is much smaller than a computational node. The hydrogen depletion by a PAR is modeled as a source of mass and energy conservation equations. Te catalytic surface reaction of hydrogen must be modeled by a volume-averaged correlation. In this study, a micro scale analysis method is developed using libraries in OpenFOAM to evaluate a hydrogen depletion rate depending on parameters such as size and number of plates and plate arrangement. The analysis code is validated by simulating REKO-3 experiment. And hydrogen depletion analysis is conducted by changing the plate arrangement as a trial of the performance enhancement of a PAR. In this study, a numerical code for an analysis of a PAR performance in a micro scale has been developed by using OpenFOAM libraries. The physical and numerical models were validated by simulating the REKO-3 experiment. As a try to enhance the performance of the plate-type PAR, it was proposed to apply a staggered two-layer arrangement of the catalytic plates. The hydrogen concentration at PAR exit was calculated using the developed numerical method

  11. Hydrogen Recombination Rates of Plate-type Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiner

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hong [Kyungwon E-C Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The hydrogen mitigation system may include igniters, passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR), and venting or dilution system. Recently PAR is commonly used as a main component of HMS in a NPP containment because of its passive nature. PARs are categorized by the shape and material of catalytic surface. Catalytic surface coated by platinum is mostly used for the hydrogen recombiners. The shapes of the catalytic surface can be grouped into plate type, honeycomb type and porous media type. Among them, the plate-type PAR is well tested by many experiments. PAR performance analysis can be approached by a multi-scale method which is composed of micro, meso and macro scales. The criterion of the scaling is the ratio of thickness of boundary layer developed on a catalytic surface to representative length of a computational domain. Mass diffusion in the boundary layer must be resolved in the micro scale analysis. In a lumped parameter (LP) analysis using a system code such as MAAP or MELCOR, the chamber of the PAR is much smaller than a computational node. The hydrogen depletion by a PAR is modeled as a source of mass and energy conservation equations. Te catalytic surface reaction of hydrogen must be modeled by a volume-averaged correlation. In this study, a micro scale analysis method is developed using libraries in OpenFOAM to evaluate a hydrogen depletion rate depending on parameters such as size and number of plates and plate arrangement. The analysis code is validated by simulating REKO-3 experiment. And hydrogen depletion analysis is conducted by changing the plate arrangement as a trial of the performance enhancement of a PAR. In this study, a numerical code for an analysis of a PAR performance in a micro scale has been developed by using OpenFOAM libraries. The physical and numerical models were validated by simulating the REKO-3 experiment. As a try to enhance the performance of the plate-type PAR, it was proposed to apply a staggered two-layer arrangement of the catalytic plates. The hydrogen concentration at PAR exit was calculated using the developed numerical method.

  12. Analysis of Platinum Content in Used Auto Catalytic Converter Carriers and the Possibility of its Recovery

    Saternus M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obecnie każdy wyprodukowany samochód musi być wyposażony w katalizator, w którym metale szlachetne takie jak platyna, pallad czy rod pełnią funkcje katalityczne. Czas życia katalizatorów jest ograniczony, zatem zostają one zastąpione nowymi, a stare stanowią ważne źródło platynowców. Zużyte katalizatory samochodowe przerabiane są hydrometalurgicznie lub pirometalurgicznie. Jednakże pierwszym etapem takiego przerobu powinna być analiza chemiczna. W pracy analizie na zawartość platyny poddano kilka różnych nośników katalitycznych pochodzących z różnych samochodów. Do tego celu posłużył elektronowy mikroskop skaningowy. Przedstawiono strukturę analizowanych nośników katalitycznych, ich analizę chemiczną jak również wykresy EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrum. Przeprowadzono dyskusję wyników i możliwych metod odzysku platyny.

  13. Autogenous regulation of ethanolamine utilization by a transcriptional activator of the eut operon in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Roof, D M; Roth, J R

    1992-01-01

    The genes required for use of ethanolamine as a carbon and nitrogen source are encoded by a single operon (eut) whose expression is induced by the simultaneous presence of both ethanolamine and cobalamin (vitamin B12). The action of B12 as an inducer of this operon reflects the fact that this cofactor is required by the degradative enzyme ethanolamine lyase (eutBC). The eutR gene encodes a protein that activates transcription of the eut operon in response to the simultaneous presence of B12 a...

  14. The Utilization of Waste Date Seed as Bio-Oil and Activated Carbon by Pyrolysis Process

    Mohammad Uzzal Hossain Joardder; Md. Shazib Uddin; Mohammad Nurul Islam

    2012-01-01

    The renovation of biomass waste in the form of date seed waste into activated carbon and biofuel by fixed bed pyrolysis reactor has been focused in this study to obtain gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The date seed in particle form is pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed bed reactor with nitrogen as the carrier gas. The reactor is heated from 400°C to 600°C. A maximum liquid yield of 50 wt.% and char of 30 wt.% are obtained at a reactor bed temperature of 500°C with a running time of ...

  15. Synthesis of 6,8-dichloroquinolones utilizing new method and evaluation of their antibacterial activities

    2007-01-01

    Several 6,8-dichloroquinolone analogues were synthesized from the key intermediate compound of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene carbonyl chloride, which was obtained from the starting material of tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. Their in vitro antibacterial activities were evaluated. As a result of this study, compounds 21c and 21d were twofold more potent than ciprofloxacin (CPFX)and norfloxacin (NFLX) against Staphylococcus aureus-9, and with the same potent as CPFX and NFLX while against Escherichia coli-2, but were less potent than references in against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-17.

  16. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  17. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  18. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Yp/s) was highest (0.184 g g-1 COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  19. Solid state photon upconversion utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules as triplet sensitizer

    Wu, Tony C.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Baldo, Marc A., E-mail: baldo@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The ability to upconvert light is useful for a range of applications, from biological imaging to solar cells. But modern technologies have struggled to upconvert incoherent incident light at low intensities. Here, we report solid state photon upconversion employing triplet-triplet exciton annihilation in an organic semiconductor, sensitized by a thermally activated-delayed fluorescence (TADF) dye. Compared to conventional phosphorescent sensitizers, the TADF dye maximizes the wavelength shift in upconversion due to its small singlet-triplet splitting. The efficiency of energy transfer from the TADF dye is 9.1%, and the conversion yield of sensitizer exciton pairs to singlet excitons in the annihilator is 1.1%. Our results demonstrate upconversion in solid state geometries and with non-heavy metal-based sensitizer materials.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  1. Utility experiences in redevelopment of formerly used sites -- Wisconsin Electric's risk management and economic development activities

    Wisconsin Electric Power Company, which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, has actively promoted the redevelopment of its former sites as well as those of its customers. Serving Milwaukee and southeast Wisconsin, Wisconsin Electric's (WE) sites include former power plants, landfills, right-of-ways, and manufactured gas plant sites. In setting an example for others, as well as seeking to maximize the economic value of these sites, WE has either redeveloped or promoted the redevelopment of these sites by others. Examples include the East Wells Power Plant (now home of the Milwaukee Repertory Theater), the Lakeside Power Plant Site (now the home of Harnischfeger Corporation's headquarters), and the Commerce Street Power Plant located on the Milwaukee River near downtown Milwaukee. In each case the company evaluated the potential environmental liabilities against the unrealized asset value derived from facility location, site size, architectural uniqueness, or other characteristics. At the Commerce Street Power Plant, walking distance to the downtown Milwaukee business district combined with river frontage, were significant site values leveraged against a $5 million asbestos and lead-based paint removal project done to prepare the plant for marketing. More recently, WE has used its experience in promoting the redevelopment of the Menomonee River Valley, the original core of Milwaukee's industrial community, and in advancing a more practical regulatory approach to redeveloping older sites. Finally, the company is working with a non-profit community health clinic, community groups and local foundations in linking these redevelopment activities with the economic and physical health of inner city residents

  2. Changing the paradigm: a radiation protection model for utilizing active systems in homeland defense applications

    Full text: The emerging threat from non-state actors and terrorist organizations openly asserting the use of weapons of mass destruction has led to an increased global emphasis on homeland defense and national security. The threat is real and thus many states are spending large amounts of resources to combat the problem. Issues such as unsecured radioactive sources, illicit movement of nuclear material, the use of radioactive sources in the medical and industrial sectors are just a few of the areas being examined. Countering these threats involves a major paradigm shift in the manner in which radiation is viewed. Radiation-based technologies are playing a key role in this emerging area from the development of new passive detection modalities to the use of active systems for detecting illicit materials. The screening of humans, baggage and cargo present overwhelming challenges. With these developments comes the concern from both governmental agencies and the public as to the safety of such systems. This paper will explore one such modality; the employment of radiation-based illicit material detection systems. The authors will present a review of the international (IAEA) and US regulatory and statutory documents as well as recommendations from scientific bodies such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. This review coupled with sound scientific data are used to develop a proposed framework for the future employment of active systems for homeland defense applications. Issues considered include the ability to effectively measure and/or predict dose, is the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept appropriate?, how much dose should be allowed relative to national security?, where does the linear-no-threshold hypothesis fit in? The authors use this analysis to develop a model which examines the trade-offs and cost-benefits in using the proposed systems. The major findings of

  3. An Electric Propulsion "Shepherd" for Active Debris Removal that Utilizes Ambient Gas as Propellant

    Matney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among the space debris technical community that limiting the long-term growth of debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) requires that space users limit the accumulation of mass in orbit. This is partially accomplished by mitigation measures for current and future LEO systems, but there is now interest in removing mass that has already accumulated in LEO from more than 50 years of space activity (termed "Active Debris Removal", or ADR). Many ADR proposals face complex technical issues of how to grapple with uncooperative targets. Some researchers have suggested the use of conventional ion thrusters to gently "blow" on objects to gradually change their orbits, without ever having to come into physical contact with the target. The chief drawback with these methods is the cost per object removed. Typically, a space "tug" or an ion-drive "shepherd" can only remove a few objects per mission due to limited propellant. Unless a cost-effective way that removes tens of objects per mission can be found, it is not clear that any of the ideas so far proposed will be economically viable. In this paper, a modified version of the ion-drive "shepherd" is proposed that uses ambient atmospheric gases in LEO as propellant for the ion drives. This method has the potential to greatly extend the operational lifetime of an ADR mission, as the only mission limit is the lifetime of the components of the satellite itself, not on its fuel supply. An ambient-gas ion-drive "shepherd" would enhance the local atmospheric drag on an object by ionizing and accelerating the ambient gas the target would have encountered anyway, thereby hastening its decay. Also, the "shepherd" satellite itself has a great deal of flexibility to maneuver back to high altitude and rendezvous with its next target using the ion drive not limited by fuel supply. However, the amount of available ambient gas is closely tied to the altitude of the spacecraft. It may be possible to use a "hybrid

  4. A Novel Colorimetric Immunoassay Utilizing the Peroxidase Mimicking Activity of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Hyun Gyu Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple colorimetric immunoassay system, based on the peroxidase mimicking activity of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, has been developed to detect clinically important antigenic molecules. MNPs with ca. 10 nm in diameter were synthesized and conjugated with specific antibodies against target molecules, such as rotaviruses and breast cancer cells. Conjugation of the MNPs with antibodies (MNP-Abs enabled specific recognition of the corresponding target antigenic molecules through the generation of color signals arising from the colorimetric reaction between the selected peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB and H2O2. Based on the MNP-promoted colorimetric reaction, the target molecules were detected and quantified by measuring absorbance intensities corresponding to the oxidized form of TMB. Owing to the higher stabilities and economic feasibilities of MNPs as compared to horseradish peroxidase (HRP, the new colorimetric system employing MNP-Abs has the potential of serving as a potent immunoassay that should substitute for conventional HRP-based immunoassays. The strategy employed to develop the new methodology has the potential of being extended to the construction of simple diagnostic systems for a variety of biomolecules related to human cancers and infectious diseases, particularly in the realm of point-of-care applications.

  5. Utilization of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in risk assessment: Alkylphenols

    Beck, B.D.; Toole, A.P.; Callahan, B.G.; Siddhanti, S.K. (Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Alkylphenols are a class of environmentally pervasive compounds, found both in natural (e.g., crude oils) and in anthropogenic (e.g., wood tar, coal gasification waste) materials. Despite the frequent environmental occurrence of these chemicals, there is a limited toxicity database on alkylphenols. The authors have therefore developed a 'toxicity equivalence approach' for alkylphenols which is based on their ability to inhibit, in a specific manner, the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Enzyme-inhibiting ability for individual alkylphenols can be estimated based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship developed by Dewhirst (1980) and is a function of the free hydroxyl group, electron-donating ring substituents, and hydrophobic aromatic ring substituents. The authors evaluated the toxicological significance of cyclooxygenase inhibition by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of alkylphenols with the inhibitory capacity of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, a compound whose low-level effects are due to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since nearly complete absorption for alkylphenols and aspirin is predicted, based on estimates of hydrophobicity and fraction of charged molecules at gastrointestinal pHs, risks from alkylphenols can be expressed directly in terms of 'milligram aspirin equivalence,' without correction for absorption differences. They recommend this method for assessing risks of mixtures of alkylphenols, especially for those compounds with no chronic toxicity data.38 references.

  6. Utilization of recycled neutron source to teach prompt gamma analysis activation-PGNA

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Munera, Hector

    2008-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis based on prompt gamma ray emission has significantly developed during the past twenty years. The technique is particularly suited for the identification of low atomic number elements, as nitrogen that is a main component of drugs and explosives. Identification of these substances is important in the context of humanitarian demining, and in the control of illicit traffic of drugs and explosives. As a good example of recycling of radioactive sources, a ^241Am-Be neutron source emitting 10^7neutron/s, that was not longer in use for other purposes at Ingeominas, was used to build a neutron irradiator that can be used to teach prompt gamma ray analysis, and other nuclear techniques. We irradiated individual samples, each about 4 gram, of three different elements: nitrogen in urea, silicon in milled rock, and cadmium in cadmium oxide. The prompt gamma rays emitted in the nuclear reactions ^112Cd (neutron,gamma) ^113Cd, ^28Si (neutron,gamma) ^29Si and ^14N (neutron,gamma) ^15N were identified using a well-type NaI (Tl) detector, connected to a multi-channel analyzer.

  7. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors (JRR-3 and JRR-4). Japanese fiscal year, 2008

    JRR-3 is used for the purposes below; Experimental studies such as neutron scattering, prompt gamma-ray analyses, neutron radiography, Irradiation for activation analyses, radioisotope (RI) productions, fission tracks, Irradiation test of reactor materials, etc. JRR-4 is used for the purposes below; Medical irradiation (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy : BNCT), Prompt gamma-ray analyses, Sensitivity measurement of radiation detectors, Experiment and practice in the nuclear reactor training, Irradiation for activation analyses, RI productions, fission tracks etc. In the fiscal year 2008, the research reactor JRR-3 was operated for 7 cycles (cycle operation : 26days/cycle) for utilization sharing of facility. The research reactor JRR-4 was not operated in 2008. Because a crack was found on the weld of the aluminum cladding of a graphite reflector element. JRR-4 has remained shutdown until the reflector elements were replaced. The volume contains 250activity reports, which are categorized into the fields of neutron scattering (11 subcategories), neutron radiography, neutron activation analyses, and others submitted by the users in JAEA and other Organizations. (author)

  8. Active CO2 Reservoir Management for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Sequestration: Impact on Permitting, Monitoring, and Public Acceptance

    Buscheck, T. A.; Chen, M.; Sun, Y.; Hao, Y.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.; Wolery, T.; Aines, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) integrated with geothermal energy production in deep geological formations can play an important role in reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and thereby mitigate global climate change. For industrial-scale CO2 injection in saline formations, pressure buildup can limit storage capacity and security. Active CO2 Reservoir Management (ACRM) combines brine production with CO2 injection to relieve pressure buildup, increase injectivity, manipulate CO2 migration, constrain brine leakage, and enable beneficial utilization of produced brine. Therefore, ACRM can be an enabler of carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration (CCUS). Useful products may include freshwater, cooling water, make-up water for pressure support in oil, gas, and geothermal reservoir operations, and geothermal energy production. Implementation barriers to industrial-scale CCS include concerns about (1) CO2 sequestration security and assurance, (2) pore-space competition with neighboring subsurface activities, (3) CO2 capture costs, and (4) water-use demands imposed by CCS operations, which is particularly important where water resources are already scarce. CCUS, enabled by ACRM, has the potential of addressing these barriers. Pressure relief from brine production can substantially reduce the driving force for potential CO2 and brine migration, as well as minimize interference with neighboring subsurface activities. Electricity generated from geothermal energy can offset a portion of the parasitic energy and financial costs of CCS. Produced brine can be used to generate freshwater by desalination technologies, such as RO, provide a source for saltwater cooling systems or be used as make-up water for oil, gas, or geothermal reservoir operations, reducing the consumption of valuable freshwater resources. We examine the impact of brine production on reducing CO2 and brine leakage. A volumetric balance between injected and produced fluids minimizes the spatial

  9. Assessing the influence of the built environment on physical activity for utility and recreation in suburban metro Vancouver

    Oliver Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity and associated co-morbidities such as obesity and cardiovascular disease are estimated to have large societal costs. There is increasing interest in examining the role of the built environment in shaping patterns of physical activity. However, few studies have: (1 simultaneously examined physical activity for leisure and utility; (2 selected study areas with a range of built environment characteristics; and (3 assessed the built environment using high-resolution land use data. Methods Data on individuals used for this study are from a survey of 1602 adults in selected sites across suburban Metro Vancouver. Four types of physical activity were assessed: walking to work/school, walking for errands, walking for leisure and moderate physical activity for exercise. The built environment was assessed by constructing one-kilometre road network buffers around each respondent's postal code. Measures of the built environment include terciles of recreational and park land, residential land, institutional land, commercial land and land use mix. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that walking to work/school and moderate physical activity were not associated with any built environment measure. Living in areas with lower land use mix, lower commercial and lower recreational land increased the odds of low levels of walking for errands. Individuals living in the lower third of land use mix and institutional land were more likely to report low levels of walking for leisure. Conclusions These results suggest that walking for errands and leisure have a greater association with the built environment than other dimensions of physical activity.

  10. Near Real-Time Nondestructive Active Inspection Technologies Utilizing Delayed γ-Rays and Neutrons for Advanced Safeguards

    In this two year project, the research team investigated how delayed γ-rays from short-lived fission fragments detected in the short interval between irradiating pulses can be exploited for advanced safeguards technologies. This program contained experimental and modeling efforts. The experimental effort measured the emitted spectra, time histories and correlations of the delayed γ-rays from aqueous solutions and solid targets containing fissionable isotopes. The modeling effort first developed and benchmarked a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation technique based on these experiments. The benchmarked simulations were then extended to other safeguards scenarios, allowing comparisons to other advanced safeguards technologies and to investigate combined techniques. Ultimately, the experiments demonstrated the possible utility of actively induced delayed γ-ray spectroscopy for fissionable material assay.

  11. Near Real-Time Nondestructive Active Inspection Technologies Utilizing Delayed γ-Rays and Neutrons for Advanced Safeguards

    Hunt, Alan [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Idaho Accelerator Center, Dept. of Physics; Reedy, E. T.E. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Dept. of Phyics, Idaho Accelerator Center; Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tobin, S. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Nonproliferation

    2015-02-12

    In this two year project, the research team investigated how delayed γ-rays from short-lived fission fragments detected in the short interval between irradiating pulses can be exploited for advanced safeguards technologies. This program contained experimental and modeling efforts. The experimental effort measured the emitted spectra, time histories and correlations of the delayed γ-rays from aqueous solutions and solid targets containing fissionable isotopes. The modeling effort first developed and benchmarked a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation technique based on these experiments. The benchmarked simulations were then extended to other safeguards scenarios, allowing comparisons to other advanced safeguards technologies and to investigate combined techniques. Ultimately, the experiments demonstrated the possible utility of actively induced delayed γ-ray spectroscopy for fissionable material assay.

  12. In vitro activity of bortezomib in cultures of patient tumour cells--potential utility in haematological malignancies.

    Wiberg, Kristina; Carlson, Kristina; Aleskog, Anna; Larsson, Rolf; Nygren, Peter; Lindhagen, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Bortezomib represents a new class of anti-cancer drugs, the proteasome inhibitors. We evaluated the in vitro activity of bortezomib with regard to tumour-type specificity and possible mechanisms of drug resistance in 115 samples of tumour cells from patients and in a cell-line panel, using the short-term fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Bortezomib generally showed dose-response curves with a steep slope. In patient cells, bortezomib was more active in haematological than in solid tumour samples. Myeloma and chronic myeloid leukaemia were the most sensitive tumour types although with great variability in drug response between the individual samples. Colorectal and kidney cancer samples were the least sensitive. In the cell-line panel, only small differences in response were seen between the different cell lines, and the proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and MG 262, showed an activity pattern similar to that of bortezomib. The cell-line data suggest that resistance to bortezomib was not mediated by MRP-, PgP, GSH-; tubulin and topo II-associated MDR. Combination experiments indicated synergy between bortezomib and arsenic trioxide or irinotecan. The data support the current use of bortezomib but also points to its potential utility in other tumour types and in combination with cytotoxic drugs. PMID:19016012

  13. Combination of Asymmetric Supercapacitor Utilizing Activated Carbon and Nickel Oxide with Cobalt Polypyridyl-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Highlights: • Dye Solar Cell and supercapacitor are integrated into a single device capable of generation and storage of energy. • The solar cell part of the device utilizes the Co-based electrolyte and nickel/PEDOT counter electrode. • A cobalt-doped nickel oxide together with activated carbon is used in the capacitor part of the device. • The integrated photocapacitor is characterized by the capacitance of 32 F g−1 and the total efficiency of 0.6%. - Abstract: A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) based on the metal-free organic sensitizer and the cobalt (II, III) polypyridyl electrolyte was integrated here within an asymmetric supercapacitor utilizing cobalt-doped nickel oxide and activated carbon as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. A low cost nickel foil served as intermediate (auxiliary) bifunctional electrode separating two parts of the device and permitting the DSC electrolyte regeneration at one side and charge storage within cobalt-doped nickel oxide at the other. The main purpose of the research was to develop an integrated photocapacitor system capable of both energy generation and its further storage. Following irradiation at the 100 mW cm−2 level, the solar cell generated an open-circuit voltage of 0.8 V and short-circuit current of 8 mA cm−2 which corresponds to energy conversion efficiency of 4.9%. It was further shown that upon integration with asymmetric supercapacitor, the photogenerated energy was directly injected into porous charge storage electrodes thus resulting in specific capacitance of 32 F g−1 and energy density of 2.3 Wh kg−1. The coulumbic and total (energy conversion and charge storage) efficiency of photocapacitor were equal to 54% and 0.6%, respectively

  14. Handling qualities of a wide-body transport airplane utilizing Pitch Active Control Systems (PACS) for relaxed static stability application

    Grantham, William D.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Brown, Philip W.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Hunt, George E.; Rising, J. J.; Davis, W. J.; Willey, C. S.; Weaver, W. A.; Cokeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two pitch active control systems (PACS) on the flying qualities of a wide-body transport airplane when operating at negative static margins. These two pitch active control systems consisted of a simple 'near-term' PACS and a more complex 'advanced' PACS. Eight different flight conditions, representing the entire flight envelope, were evaluated with emphasis on the cruise flight conditions. These studies were made utilizing the Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS) which has six degrees of freedom. The simulation tests indicated that (1) the flying qualities of the baseline aircraft (PACS off) for the cruise and other high-speed flight conditions were unacceptable at center-of-gravity positions aft of the neutral static stability point; (2) within the linear static stability flight envelope, the near-term PACS provided acceptable flying qualities for static stabilty margins to -3 percent; and (3) with the advanced PACS operative, the flying qualities were demonstrated to be good (satisfactory to very acceptable) for static stabilty margins to -20 percent.

  15. Predicting mercury retention in utility gas cleaning systems with SCR/ESP/FGD combinations or activated carbon injection

    Krishnakumar, Balaji; Naik, Chitralkumar V.; Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Fujiwara, Naoki [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd, Chiba (Japan). Coal and Environment Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents validations of the Hg speciation predicted by NEA's MercuRator trademark package with an American field test database for 28 full-scale utility gas cleaning systems. It emphasizes SCR/ESP/FGD combinations and activated carbon injection because these two applications present the best long- term prospects for Hg control by coal-burning utilities. Validations of the extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation across SCRs and of Hg retention in wet FGDs gave correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 for both units. A transport-based FGD analysis correctly assessed the potential for Hg{sup 0} re-emission in one limestone wet FGD. Among the ten stations in the SCR/ESP/FGD validations, the simulations correctly identified 3 of 4 of the relatively high Hg emissions rates; all four of the sites with moderate emissions rates; and both sites with the lowest emission rates. The validations for ACI applications demonstrated that Hg removals can be accurately estimated for the full domain of coal quality, LOI, and ACI rates for both untreated and brominated carbon sorbents. The predictions for ACI depict the test-to-test variations in most cases, and accurately describe the impact of ACI configuration and sorbent type. ACI into FFs is the most effective configuration, although ACI into ESPs often removes 90% or more Hg, provided that there is sufficient residence time and Cl in the flue gas. Brominated sorbents perform better than untreated carbons, unless SO{sub 3} condensation inhibits Hg adsorption.

  16. Recently-developed neutron activation analysis techniques utilizing the University of California at Irvine TRIGA Mark I reactor

    The University of California at Irvine (UCI) 250 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor is used extensively for neutron activation analysis (NAA) studies. These particularly include basic technique studies and application studies in the fields of environmental pollution, crime investigation, archaeology, oceanography, and geochemistry. In recent NAA studies at UCI, a number of techniques have been developed which considerably improve the usefulness of such a research reactor for NAA work, and which should be of interest and use to others. Six of these techniques will be described in further detail in the full paper. They are as follows: development and use of (1) an automated high-precision rapid transfer system for instrumental NAA measurements with induced activities having half lives as short as 0.5 second, (2) an automated measurement system and computer program for making accurate dead-time corrections under conditions where the Ge(Li) spectrometer deadtime is changing rapidly during the counting period, (3) a technique to minimize the loss of mercury from samples during reactor irradiation via the use of dry-ice-packed, vented TRIGA rotary rack tubes, (4) a technique for compacting powdered samples, by pre-irradiation treatment with a solution of paraffin in carbon disulfide, to provide reproducible irradiation and counting geometries, (5) a method utilizing hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) as a pre-irradiation treatment material for removal of sodium from aqueous and wet-ashed samples, and (6) a computerized system for predicting in advance of activation, from approximate known elemental compositions, the total counting rate, deadtime, spectrum shape, principal photopeaks, and approximate actual lower limits of instrumental NAA detection of designated elements for any selected irradiation and decay times. (author)

  17. Preface: Terrestrial Fieldwork to Support in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Robotic Resource Prospecting for Future Activities in Space

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-05-01

    Finding, extracting, and using resources at the site of robotic and human exploration activities holds the promise of enabling sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids, and eventually allow humans to expand their economy and habitation beyond the surface of the Earth. Commonly referred to as in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), mineral and volatile resources found in space can be converted into oxygen, water, metals, fuels, and manufacturing and construction materials (such as plastics and concrete) for transportation, power, life support, habitation construction, and part/logistics manufacturing applications. For every kilogram of payload landed on the surface of the Moon or Mars, 7.5-11 kg of payload (mostly propellant) needs to be launched into low Earth orbit. Therefore, besides promising long-term self-sufficiency and infrastructure growth, ISRU can provide significant reductions in launch costs and the number of launches required. Key to being able to use space resources is knowing where they are located, how much is there, and how the resources are distributed. While ISRU holds great promise, it has also never been demonstrated in an actual space mission. Therefore, operations and hardware associated with each ISRU prospecting, excavation, transportation, and processing step must be examined, tested, and finally integrated to enable the end goal of using space resources in future human space missions.

  18. Enhanced hydrogen production from waste activated sludge by cascade utilization of organic matter in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Liu, Bingfeng; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-03-15

    Fermentative hydrogen production from waste activated sludge (WAS) has low H2 yield because WAS contains limited amounts of carbohydrate suitable for use by hydrogen-producing bacteria. Here, augmentation of hydrogen production from WAS by microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) was implemented. H2 yields of 3.89±0.39 mg-H2/g-DS (5.67±0.61 mg-H2/g-VSS) from raw WAS and 6.78±0.94 mg-H2/g-DS (15.08±1.41 mg-H2/g-VSS) from alkaline-pretreated WAS were obtained in the two-chamber MECs (TMECs). This was several times higher than yields obtained previously by fermentation. Single-chamber MECs (SMECs) with low internal resistance showed a H2 production rate that 13 times that of TMECs with similar H2 yield when alkaline-pretreated WAS was used. However, methanogenesis was detected after several batch cycles. A yield balance calculation revealed that carbohydrates were not the only substrates for electrohydrogenesis. Protein and its acidification products, such as volatile fatty acids are also responsible for a portion of H2 generation in MEC. Characterization of WAS in TMECs by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis indicated that electrohydrogenesis reacted on the extracellular polymeric substances and intracellular substances of WAS. Cascade utilization of organic matter in MECs increased hydrogen production from WAS. MECs showed high hydrogen yield from WAS, fewer H2 sinks, and insensitivity to temperature. Optimizing MEC configurations and operation conditions and improving the pretreatment processes of WAS are necessary before practical application can take place on a large scale. PMID:22197264

  19. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 4. Utility's Activities for Better Safety Culture After the JCO Accident

    The criticality accident at the JCO plant prompted the Government to enact a law for nuclear emergency preparedness. The nuclear industry established NSnet to facilitate opportunities for peer review among its members. This paper describes the activities by NSnet and TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station (NPS) for a better safety culture. Created as a voluntary organization by the nuclear industry in 1999, NSnet has 35 members and is assisted by CRIEPI and NUPEC for its activities relevant to human factors. Given the fact that nuclear facility operators not belonging to WANO had no institutional system available for exchange of experiences and good practices for better safety among themselves, NSnet's activities focus on peer review by member organizations and onsite seminars. Starting April 2000 with visits to three fuel fabricators, NSnet intends to have 23 peer-review visits in 2 yr (Ref. 1). The six-member review team stays on-site for 4 days, during which time they review-using guidelines available from WANO and IAEA-OSART-six areas: organization/management, emergency preparedness, education/training, operation/ maintenance, protection against occupational radiation exposure, and prevention of accidents. A series of on-site seminars is held at members' nuclear facilities, to which NSnet dispatches experts for lectures. NSnet plans to hold such seminars twice per month. Other activities include information-sharing through a newsletter, a Web site (www. nsnet.gr.jp), and others. Although considerable differences exist in the design and the practices in operation/maintenance between power reactors and JCO, utilities can extract lessons from the accident that will be worth consideration for their own facilities in the areas of safety culture, education and training, and interface between design and operation. This thinking prompted the Nuclear Safety Promotion Center at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS, to which the author belonged at that time, to launch the

  20. IAEA research reactors activities - small research reactors, their role as first step in nuclear technology programme, and cooperation to maximize utilization

    A large number of the existing research reactors in the world are currently under utilized, in many cases because of an overly narrow assessment on the need for the research reactors at the time they were acquired, and an absence of mechanisms to ensure sustainability. On the other hand, operating and utilizing research reactor is often taken as a first step in the preparation for nuclear power program, as both the former and the latter require personnel with similar skills sets and the support of the same/similar infrastructure including regulatory body. This presentation summarizes activities conducted by member states under IAEA's Research Reactor programmes, with more focused discussion on three areas: Reduction in the use of HEU in research reactors;The role of low power critical facilities and small research reactor as a a first step in the development of nuclear energy programmes; and The need for international and regional cooperation to maximize utilization of existing research reactor facilities.

  1. High-Performance Harmonic Isolation and Load Voltage Regulation of the Three-Phase Series Active Filter Utilizing the Waveform Reconstruction Method

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a waveform reconstruction method (WRM) for high accuracy and bandwidth signal decomposition of voltage-harmonic-type three-phase diode rectifier load voltage into its harmonic and fundamental components, which are utilized in the series active filter (SAF) control algorithms....... The SAF-compensated system utilizing WRM provides highperformance load harmonic voltage isolation and load voltage regulation at steady-state and during transients compared to the system utilizing the synchronous reference-frame-based signal decomposition. In addition, reducing the line current...... sampling delay in the discrete-time implementation enhances the stability of the SAF. The simulations and experimental studies of a 10-kW three-phase SAF-compensated system prove the theory....

  2. Activities of research-reactor-technology project in FNCA from FY2005 to FY2007. Sharing neutronics calculation technique for core management and utilization of research reactors

    RRT project (Research-Reactor-Technology Project) was carried out with the theme of 'sharing neutronics calculation technique for core management and utilization of research reactors' in the framework of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) from FY2005 to FY2007. The objective of the project was to improve and equalize the level of neutronics calculation technique for the reactor core management among participating countries to assure the safe and stable operation of research reactors and the promotion of the effective utilization. Neutronics calculation codes, namely SRAC code system and MVP code, were adopted as common codes. Participating countries succeeded in applying the common codes to analyzing the core of each domestic research reactor. Some participating countries succeeded in applying the common codes to analyzing for utilization of own research reactors. Activities of RRT project have improved and equalized the level of neutronics calculation technique among participating countries. (author)

  3. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Research highlights: → POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. → Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. → Δpor1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the Δpor1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  4. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ohta, Akinori, E-mail: aaohta@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  5. THE EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID AND GIBBERELLIN ON SEED RESERVE UTILIZATION, GERMINATION AND ENZYME ACTIVITY OF SORGHUM ( SORGHUM BICOLOR L.) SEEDS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou; Saeede Rahimzadeh; Omid Ansari; Mohammad Sedghi

    2014-01-01

    Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin) and the second f...

  6. PTS regulation domain-containing transcriptional activator CelR and sigma factor σ(54) control cellobiose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Nie, Xiaoqun; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Yang; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Chen

    2016-04-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) regulation domain (PRD)-containing enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) are an important class of σ(54) -interacting transcriptional activators. Although PRD-containing EBPs are present in many Firmicutes, most of their regulatory functions remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptional regulons of about 50 PRD-containing EBPs in diverse Firmicutes species are reconstructed by using a comparative genomic approach, which contain the genes associated with utilization of β-glucosides, fructose/levan, mannose/glucose, pentitols, and glucosamine/fructosamine. We then present experimental evidence that the cel operon involved in cellobiose utilization is directly regulated by CelR and σ(54) (SigL) in Clostridium acetobutylicum. The predicted three CelR-binding sites and σ(54) promoter elements upstream of the cel operon are verified by in vitro binding assays. We show that CelR has an ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated by the presence of DNA containing the CelR-binding sites. Moreover, mutations in any one of the three CelR-binding sites significantly decreased the cel promoter activity probably due to the need for all three DNA sites for maximal ATPase activity of CelR. It is suggested that CelR is regulated by PTS-mediated phosphorylation at His-551 and His-829, which exerts a positive effect and an inhibitory effect, respectively, on the CelR activity. PMID:26691835

  7. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Jun, B. J. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future.

  8. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2008

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. -The neutron usage fee in HANARO -Achievements of HANARO utilization -Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO -HANARO Symposium -Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index -Operation and Management of HANARO Server -Management of HANARO related committees -Training of HANARO users -Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. Proposal for Application. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  9. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2004

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, Operation and Management of HANARO Homepage, HANARO Workshop 2004, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  10. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  11. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2002

    Object and importance to activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for activation of the research using HANARO, Management of HANARO homepage, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Establishment of user-room, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  12. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2003

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. - The neutron usage fee in HANARO - Achievements of HANARO utilization - Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO - Management of HANARO Homepage - HANARO Workshop 2003 - Operation and Management of HANARO related committees - Training of HANARO users - Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  13. The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N; Zhao, X D;

    2001-01-01

    Exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation of these compounds prior to metabolic utilization proceeds through the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Faa1p or Faa4p are esse...

  14. Estimating Utility

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially, with...

  15. Utility of Self-Made Crossword Puzzles as an Active Learning Method to Study Biochemistry in Undergraduate Education

    Coticone, Sulekha Rao

    2013-01-01

    To incorporate an active learning component in a one-semester biochemistry course, students were asked to create crossword puzzles using key concepts. Student observations on the use of self-made crossword puzzles as an active-learning instructional tool were collected using a 5-point Likert survey at the end of the semester. A majority of the…

  16. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors (JRR-3 and JRR-4). Japanese fiscal year, 2007

    In the fiscal year 2007, the research reactor JRR-3 was operated for 7 cycles (cycle operation : 26days/cycle) and the JRR-4 was operated for 92 days. JRR-3 is used for the purposes below; Experimental studies such as neutron scattering, prompt gamma-ray analyses, neutron radiography, Irradiation for activation analyses, radioisotope (RI) productions, fission tracks, Irradiation test of reactor materials, etc. JRR-4 is used for the purposes below; Medical irradiation (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy : BNCT), Prompt gamma-ray analyses, Sensitivity measurement of radiation detectors, Experiment and practice in the nuclear reactor training, Irradiation for activation analyses, RI productions, fission tracks, etc. The volume contains 262 activity reports, which are categorized into the fields of neutron scattering (10 subcategories), neutron radiography, neutron activation analyses, prompt gamma-ray analyses, and others submitted by the users in JAEA and other Organizations. (author)

  17. Radioiostope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical application of activation analysis. Progress report

    The main emphasis of these studies is the development of methods (hardware and software) for the quantitation of body and specific organ burdens of radioactivity. Current work is directed toward the evaluation of radiation dose distributions in human beings from new radioactive tracers and new procedures used in nuclear medicine. Dosimetry and clinical studies will be carried out on patients using new radiopharmaceuticals where dosimetry data are lacking. Future efforts will be directed toward the development of systems that will facilitate the collection of dosimetry data using less specialized facilities. The availability of instrumentation and analytic techniques that provide clinical images as well as dosimetry data should enhance the rate of collection of data on human exposures in medicine and assist in the optimization of diagnostic strategies. In parallel with these efforts, we are developing a new computer assisted technique for diagnostic decision making. The basic aim is to utilize efficiently all the available data to maximize information gain while minimizing cost factors

  18. Market research for electric utilities

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  19. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach

    Lynch, BA; Jones, A; Biggs, BK; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8–14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. Methods This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Results Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) “very easy” or “easy” to use. Conclusion The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies. PMID:27042382

  20. Utilization of activated carbon produced from fruit juice industry solid waste for the adsorption of Yellow 18 from aqueous solutions.

    Angin, Dilek

    2014-09-01

    The use of activated carbon obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) stones for the removal of a basic textile dye, which is Yellow 18, from aqueous solutions at different contact times, pH values and solution temperatures was investigated. The surface area and micropore volume of chemically modified activated carbon were 1704 m(2) g(-1) and 0.984 cm(3) g(-1), respectively. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation and the calculated adsorption capacity was 75.76 mg g(-1) at 318 K. The adsorption kinetic of Yellow 18 obeys the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 0.71-2.36 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal of Yellow 18 from wastewater. PMID:24656549

  1. A Case of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Diagnostic Utility of ADAMTS-13 Activity

    Risa Yamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP caused by a deficiency in ADAMTS-13 activity is considered to involve a subset of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA. Although concept of TTP is included under the umbrella of TMA, discrimination of TTP from TMA is occasionally difficult in an autoimmune disorder. Herein, we report a case with TTP associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In this case, it was difficult to discriminate TTP from TMA and the measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity was useful for obtaining an accurate diagnosis. SLE patients having thrombocytopenia in complication with anemia should be considered a monitoring of ADAMTS-13 activity even though the patients lacked symptoms of TTP related to the microvascular coagulation.

  2. Realization Utility

    Nicholas C. Barberis; Wei Xiong

    2008-01-01

    A number of authors have suggested that investors derive utility from realizing gains and losses on assets that they own. We present a model of this "realization utility," analyze its predictions, and show that it can shed light on a number of puzzling facts. These include the disposition effect, the poor trading performance of individual investors, the higher volume of trade in rising markets, the effect of historical highs on the propensity to sell, the individual investor preference for vo...

  3. [Evaluation of dreams by the neuropsychological approach. Utility in the characterization of cerebral correlates in oneiric activity by functional neuroimaging].

    Maquet, P; Schwartz, M S

    2002-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that human REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. While being usually interpreted in relation to physiological and cellular mechanisms, the regionally-specific distribution of brain activity during REM sleep may also be linked to specific dream features. Remarkably, several bizarre features of dreams present similarities with wellknown neuropsychological syndromes after brain damage, such as delusional misidentifications for faces and places. We propose that neuropsychological analysis of dream content might offer new ways of interpreting neuroimaging maps, as well as specific predictions for future neuroimaging studies. PMID:12508717

  4. Quality of life, activity impairment, and healthcare resource utilization associated with atrial fibrillation in the US National Health and Wellness Survey.

    Amir Goren

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study builds upon current studies of atrial fibrillation (AF and health outcomes by examining more comprehensively the humanistic burden of illness (quality of life, activity impairment, and healthcare resource utilization among adult patients with AF, using a large, nationally representative sample and matched controls. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Internet-based 2009 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Outcomes were Mental and Physical Component Summary (MCS and PCS and health utility scores from the SF-12, activity impairment, hospitalizations, and healthcare provider and emergency room (ER visits. Patients with self-reported diagnosis of AF were matched randomly on age and gender with an equal number of respondents without AF. Generalized linear models examined outcomes as a function of AF vs. non-AF status, controlling for CHADS2 score, comorbidity counts, demographics, and clinical variables. Exploratory structural equation modeling assessed the above in an integrated model of humanistic burden. RESULTS: Mean age of AF patients (1,296 from a total sample of 75,000 was 64.9 years and 65.1% were male. Adjusting for covariates, compared with non-AF patients, AF patients had lower MCS, PCS, and utility scores, greater activity impairment (rate ratio = 1.26, more traditional provider visits (rate ratio = 1.43, and increased odds of ER visits (OR = 2.53 and hospitalizations (OR = 2.71. Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses revealed that persons with AF experienced a significantly higher overall humanistic burden. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights and clarifies the substantial burden of AF and its implications for preparing efficacious AF management plans to address the imminent rise in prevalence.

  5. Quality of Life, Activity Impairment, and Healthcare Resource Utilization Associated with Atrial Fibrillation in the US National Health and Wellness Survey

    Goren, Amir; Liu, Xianchen; Gupta, Shaloo; Simon, Teresa A.; Phatak, Hemant

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study builds upon current studies of atrial fibrillation (AF) and health outcomes by examining more comprehensively the humanistic burden of illness (quality of life, activity impairment, and healthcare resource utilization) among adult patients with AF, using a large, nationally representative sample and matched controls. Methods Data were analyzed from the Internet-based 2009 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Outcomes were Mental and Physical Component Summary (MCS and PCS) and health utility scores from the SF-12, activity impairment, hospitalizations, and healthcare provider and emergency room (ER) visits. Patients with self-reported diagnosis of AF were matched randomly on age and gender with an equal number of respondents without AF. Generalized linear models examined outcomes as a function of AF vs. non-AF status, controlling for CHADS2 score, comorbidity counts, demographics, and clinical variables. Exploratory structural equation modeling assessed the above in an integrated model of humanistic burden. Results Mean age of AF patients (1,296 from a total sample of 75,000) was 64.9 years and 65.1% were male. Adjusting for covariates, compared with non-AF patients, AF patients had lower MCS, PCS, and utility scores, greater activity impairment (rate ratio = 1.26), more traditional provider visits (rate ratio = 1.43), and increased odds of ER visits (OR = 2.53) and hospitalizations (OR = 2.71). Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses revealed that persons with AF experienced a significantly higher overall humanistic burden. Conclusions This study highlights and clarifies the substantial burden of AF and its implications for preparing efficacious AF management plans to address the imminent rise in prevalence. PMID:23951122

  6. Utilizing assumption for project of stand for solid state targets activation on inner beams of AIC-144 cyclotron

    General assumptions for project of target activation stand at AIC-144 cyclotron are presented. The project predicts production of 67Ga, 111In, 201Tl, 139Ce, 88Y, 123I and 211At isotopes using various target backings. Directions concerning target cooling and beam parameters are also described

  7. Utilization of biochar and activated carbon to reduce Cd, Pb and Zn phytoavailability and phytotoxicity for plants.

    Břendová, Kateřina; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlíková, Daniela; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the content of risk elements and content of free amino acids were studied in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) subsequently grown on uncontaminated and contaminated soils (5 mg Cd/kg, 1000 mg Pb/kg and 400 mg Zn/kg) with the addition of activated carbon (from coconut shells) or biochar (derived from local wood residues planted for phytoextaction) in different seasons (spring, summer and autumn). The results showed that activated carbon and biochar increased biomass production on contaminated site. Application of amendments decreased Cd and Zn uptake by spinach plants. Mustard significantly increased Pb accumulation in the biomass as well in subsequently grown autumn spinach. Glutamic acid and glutamine were major free amino acids in leaves of all plants (15-34% and 3-45%) from total content. Application of activated carbon and biochar increased content of glutamic acid in all plants on uncontaminated and contaminated soils. Activated carbon and biochar treatments also induced an increase of aspartic acid in spinach plants. Biochar produced from biomass originated from phytoextraction technologies promoted higher spinach biomass yield comparing unamended control and showed a tendency to reduce accumulation of cadmium and zinc and thus it is promising soil amendment. PMID:27544477

  8. Inserting CO2 into Aryl C-H Bonds of Metal-Organic Frameworks: CO2 Utilization for Direct Heterogeneous C-H Activation.

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Wu, Haifan; Leng, Kunyue; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-04-25

    Described for the first time is that carbon dioxide (CO2 ) can be successfully inserted into aryl C-H bonds of the backbone of a metal-organic framework (MOF) to generate free carboxylate groups, which serve as Brønsted acid sites for efficiently catalyzing the methanolysis of epoxides. The work delineates the very first example of utilizing CO2 for heterogeneous C-H activation and carboxylation reactions on MOFs, and opens a new avenue for CO2 chemical transformations under mild reaction conditions. PMID:27080057

  9. Theory of municipal competition enterprises. About the profit-making activity of municipal energy utilities; Theorie kommunaler Wettbewerbsunternehmen. Zur erwerbswirtschaftlichen Taetigkeit kommunaler Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVU)

    Walendy, J.

    2008-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit-making activity of municipal energy utilities. Especially the author reports on the subsequent aspects: (a) Definition of a public enterprise; (b) Purpose of public enterprises; (c) Public enterprises in the discussion of constitutional law; (d) Public enterprises in the discussion of the community law; (e) Range and meaning of he municipal autonomy; (f) Protection area of Art. 28 sect. 2, clause 1 Constitutional Law; (g) Economic-functionaldoubts against public competition enterprises; (h) The theory of the democratic control of public enterprises. In the last chapter the author summarizes the results by means of nine thesis.

  10. Evaluation of a Trapezoidal Predictive Controller for a Four-Wire Active Power Filter for Utility Equipment of Metro Railway, Power-Land Substations

    Sergio Salas-Duarte; Ismael Araujo-Vargas; Jazmin Ramirez-Hernandez; Marco Rivera

    2016-01-01

    The realization of an improved predictive current controller based on a trapezoidal model is described, and the impact of this technique is assessed on the performance of a 2 kW, 21.6 kHz, four-wire, Active Power Filter for utility equipment of Metro Railway, Power-Land Substations. The operation of the trapezoidal predictive current controller is contrasted with that of a typical predictive control technique, based on a single Euler approximation, which has demonstrated generation of high-qu...

  11. Utilization of fodder yeast and agro-industrial by-products in production of spores and biologically - active endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Salama, H S; Foda, M S; Selim, M H; El-Sharaby, A

    1983-01-01

    A number of newly-devised fermentation media were evaluated with respect to their ability to support sporulation and biosynthesis of endotoxins by strains of Bacillus thuringiensis that are biologically active against Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis armigera, and Spodoptera exigua. Fodder yeast from dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used as a complete mono-component medium for production of highly active spore-delta-endotoxin complexes from B. thur., vars. entomocidus, kurstaki and galleriae. Highest sporulation titers were obtained at 2% fodder yeast concentration with endotoxin yields ranging between 7 to 9 grams per liter of medium. Ground horse beans and kidney bean seeds could also be used successfully as complete media for sporulation and endotoxin production. Extracts of potato tubers and sweet potato roots were efficient media for active endotoxin production from B. thur. var. kurstaki, although the obtained yields were much lower than those produced in fodder yeast media. The utilization of fish meal, cotton seed meal, and residues of chicken from the slaughter-house as media for the production of endotoxins active against Spodoptera littoralis, was not successful. On the other hand, minced citrus peels, ground seeds of dates, and wheat bran could be successfully used in combination with fodder yeast as media for production of endotoxins, active against Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera exigua. Re-utilization of culture supernatants in a second fermentation cycle after supplementation with some nutrients gave promising results with some of the strains tested. The data obtained are discussed in view of their feasibility of application. PMID:6666415

  12. Towards rice bran protein utilization: In silico insight on the role of oryzacystatins in biologically-active peptide production.

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-01-15

    Rice bran proteins (RBP) have been demonstrated to harbour biologically active peptides, which can be released by proteases and applied in human health promotion. In this study, the roles of rice bran cysteine protease inhibitors, oryzacystatins, were considered for efficient production of bioactive peptides from RBP. In silico evidence demonstrates that aspartate protease (pepsin at pH>2) and metalloproteinase (thermolysin) have strong prospects for use in simultaneously cleaving the QXVXGX motif of oryzacystatins, which can lead to their inactivation, and in releasing bioactive sequences from the protease inhibitors. The cleaved bioactive peptides are known to possess activities that can be applied in the management of hypertension, oxidative stress, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other aberrant cellular processes. Moreover, several potentially bioactive di- and tripeptides were identified in oryzacystatin peptide pools. This study provides an important consideration and a direction that can lead to efficient release of bioactive peptides from rice bran proteins for functional food applications. PMID:26258712

  13. Utilization of a combined activated sludge fixed film media system for treatment of a high strength, high ammonia, industrial wastewater

    Louis, Richard Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Combined activated sludge-fixed film media treatment systems are an interesting innovation in treatment technology. By adding media into the aeration basin, increased biomass concentrations may be maintained with little or no increase in solids loading to the clarifier. The ideal combined system can treat higher organic and ammonia loadings than a conventional system, and is more resistant to temperature changes and shock loadings. Overloaded plants can be outfitted wi...

  14. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

  15. High utility of contact investigation for latent and active tuberculosis case detection among the contacts: a retrospective cohort study in Tbilisi, Georgia, 2010-2011.

    Tsira Chakhaia

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NCTBLD in Tbilisi, Georgia.To assess the utility of contact investigation for tuberculosis (TB case detection. We also assessed the prevalence and risk factors for active TB disease and latent TB infection (LTBI among contacts of active pulmonary TB cases.A retrospective cohort study was conducted among the contacts of active pulmonary TB cases registered in 2010-2011 at the NCTBLD in Tbilisi, Georgia. Contacts of active TB patients were investigated according to an "invitation model": they were referred to the NCTBLD by the index case; were queried about clinical symptoms suggestive of active TB disease; tuberculin skin testing and chest radiographs were performed. Demographic, laboratory, and clinical data of TB patients and their contacts were abstracted from existing records up to February 2013.869 contacts of 396 index cases were enrolled in the study; a median of 2 contacts were referred per index case. Among the 869 contacts, 47 (5.4% were found to have or developed active TB disease: 30 (63.8% were diagnosed with TB during the baseline period (co-prevalent cases and 17 (36.2% developed active TB disease during the follow-up period (mean follow up of 21 months (incident TB cases. The incidence rate of active TB disease among contacts was 1126.0 per 100,000 person years (95% CI 655.7-1802.0 per 100,000 person-years. Among the 402 contacts who had a tuberculin skin test (TST performed, 52.7% (95% CI 47.7-57.7% had LTBI.A high prevalence of LTBI and active TB disease was found among the contacts of TB cases in Tbilisi, Georgia. Our findings demonstrated that an "invitation" model of contact investigation was an effective method of case detection. Therefore, contact investigation should be scaled up in Georgia.

  16. Urea Utilization in the Phototrophic Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus Is Regulated by the Transcriptional Activator NtrC

    Masepohl, Bernd; Kaiser, Björn; Isakovic, Nazila; Richard, Cynthia L.; Kranz, Robert G.; Klipp, Werner

    2001-01-01

    The phototrophic nonsulfur purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can use urea as a sole source of nitrogen. Three transposon Tn5-induced mutations (Xan-9, Xan-10, and Xan-19), which led to a Ure− phenotype, were mapped to the ureF and ureC genes, whereas two other Tn5 insertions (Xan-20 and Xan-22) were located within the ntrC and ntrB genes, respectively. As in Klebsiella aerogenes and other bacteria, the genes encoding urease (ureABC) and the genes required for assembly of the nickel metallocenter (ureD and ureEFG) are clustered in R. capsulatus (ureDABC-orf136-ureEFG). No homologues of Orf136 were found in the databases, and mutational analysis demonstrated that orf136 is not essential for urease activity or growth on urea. Analysis of a ureDA-lacZ fusion showed that maximum expression of the ure genes occurred under nitrogen-limiting conditions (e.g., serine or urea as the sole nitrogen source), but ure gene expression was not substrate (urea) inducible. Expression of the ure genes was strictly dependent on NtrC, whereas ς54 was not essential for urease activity. Expression of the ure genes was lower (by a factor of 3.5) in the presence of ammonium than under nitrogen-limiting conditions, but significant transcription was also observed in the presence of ammonium, approximately 10-fold higher than in an ntrC mutant background. Thus, ure gene expression in the presence of ammonium also requires NtrC. Footprint analyses demonstrated binding of NtrC to tandem binding sites upstream of the ureD promoter. Phosphorylation of NtrC increased DNA binding by at least eightfold. Although urea is effectively used as a nitrogen source in an NtrC-dependent manner, nitrogenase activity was not repressed by urea. PMID:11133958

  17. High-valued Utilization of China Fir Sawdust Extracted Essential Oil: Preparation of Granular Activated Carbons for n-Butane Adsorption

    ZHU Guang-zhen; DENG Xian-lun; LIU Xiao-min

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study on the high-valued utilization of China Fir sawdust extracted essential oil. [Method] In the field of fir essential oil extraction, the processed China fir sawdust was used to prepare low-valued products. The high-valued utilization of China fir sawdust extracted essential oil (CFSEEO), namely as a precursor to prepare granular activated carbons (GACs), was attempted. The materials were characterized by ultimate analysis, SEM and XRD. [Rusult] A butane working capacity (BWC) of 14.3 g/100 ml was obtained by using the GACs with apparent density of 0.25 g/ml. It was available to introduce the technology of extracting essential oil from the China fir sawdust (CFS) in the industrial production process of activated carbons with high BWC (12.0 -16.5 g/100 ml) and high surface area (2 000 -2 630m2/g) using phosphoric acid based on previous studies of the authors. [Conclusion] The resulting carbon prepared with the raw materials containing lower moisture exhibited a better property on n-butane adsorption.

  18. The Next Generation Non-competitive Active Polyester Nanosystems for Transferrin Receptor-mediated Peroral Transport Utilizing Gambogic Acid as a Ligand.

    Saini, P; Ganugula, R; Arora, M; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The current methods for targeted drug delivery utilize ligands that must out-compete endogenous ligands in order to bind to the active site facilitating the transport. To address this limitation, we present a non-competitive active transport strategy to overcome intestinal barriers in the form of tunable nanosystems (NS) for transferrin receptor (TfR) utilizing gambogic acid (GA), a xanthanoid, as its ligand. The NS made using GA conjugated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have shown non-competitive affinity to TfR evaluated in cell/cell-free systems. The fluorescent PLGA-GA NS exhibited significant intestinal transport and altered distribution profile compared to PLGA NS in vivo. The PLGA-GA NS loaded with cyclosporine A (CsA), a model peptide, upon peroral dosing to rodents led to maximum plasma concentration of CsA at 6 h as opposed to 24 h with PLGA-NS with at least 2-fold higher levels in brain at 72 h. The proposed approach offers new prospects for peroral drug delivery and beyond. PMID:27388994

  19. Human Control Law and Brain Activity of Voluntary Motion by Utilizing a Balancing Task with an Inverted Pendulum

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human characteristics concerning voluntary motion control are investigated, because this motion is fundamental for the machine operation and human-computer system. Using a force feedback haptic device and a balancing task of a virtual inverted pendulum, participants were trained in the task, and hand motion/force was measured, and brain activity was monitored. First, through brain analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and motion analysis of the pendulum, we identified a participant who was the most expert. Next, control characteristics of the most expert were investigated by considering the operational force and delay factor of a human. As a result, it was found that predictive control based on velocity information was used predominantly although a perception feedback control against the pendulum posture worked. And it was shown that an on-off intermittency control, which was a strategy for the skilled balancing, can be described well by a liner model involving two types of time shifts for the position and velocity. In addition, it was confirmed that the cortex activity for observation in an ocular motor control area and visual processing area was strong to enhance above-mentioned control strategies.

  20. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    P.P. Wakker; J. Miyamoto

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  1. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    A.M. Stiggelbout; P.P. Wakker

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  2. Utilization of durian peel activated carbon (DPAC) for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal from landfill leachate

    Leachate is a liquid produced from the mixture of solid and liquid wastes at landfill sites. It needs to undergo special treatment before discharging it into water bodies. Some of the parameters in leachate such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metal and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) have resulted in high toxicity of the contaminants which create harmful condition to the environment. The high content of these parameters such as NH3-N in stabilized leachate has caused significant problem in leachate treatment. The aim of this study to investigate the ability of durian peel activated carbon (DPAC) in removing NH3-N from landfill leachate to replace the commercially available AC as media filter. DPAC was prepared by physical activation method. The raw durian peel (DP) was carbonized at 700 degree Celsius under N2 gas for 1 hour. DPAC was then characterized with Elemental Analyzer which indicates that DP, DPC and DPAC contain 42.33 %, 63.33 % and 64.16 % carbon respectively. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicates that DP, DPC and DPAC contain 26.13 %, 47.94 % and 62.15 % fixed carbon. Batch study was carried out to determine the effects of DPAC in removing N-NH3 from landfill leachate. The results indicated that up to 50 % removal of NH3-N from leachate with concentration of 1883 mg/ L can be achieved up via DPAC. The result was promising in term of replacement of commercial AC in leachate treatment for NH3-N removal at lower cost. (author)

  3. Active induction balance method for metal detector sensing head utilizing transmitter-bucking and dual current source

    A central problem in a design of frequency domain electromagnetic induction sensors used in landmine detection is an effective suppression of a direct inductive coupling between the transmitter and the receiver coil (induction balance, IB). In sensing heads based on the transmitter-bucking configuration, IB is achieved by using two concentric transmitter coils with opposing exciter fields in order to create a central magnetic cavity for the receiver coil. This design has numerous advantages over other IB methods in terms of detection sensitivity, spatial resolution, sensor dimensions and suitability for model-based measurements. However, very careful design and precise sensing head geometry are required if a single excitation source is used for driving both transmitter coils. In this paper we analyze the IB sensitivity to small perturbations of geometrical properties of coils. We propose a sensor design with dual current source and active induction balance scheme which overcomes the limitations of geometry-based balancing and potentially provides more efficient compensation of soil effects.

  4. "Lunar Phases Project" as a Foundation for the Development of Innovative Inquiry Based ASTRO 101 Activities Utilizing Existing Concept Inventories as Assessment Tools

    Mon, M. J.; Meyer, A. O.

    2012-08-01

    The cause and process of the lunar phases are difficult concepts for undergraduates and non-science majors to grasp. At Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU) we have combined an inquiry-based instructional method (Mental Model Building) which can be more effective increasing students' conceptual understanding of the lunar phase cycle, together with the students' own observations. Undergraduate and non-science major students completed a hands-on project designed to integrate real observations, application of the scientific method, and Mental Model Building to connect the students' own observations to the Earth-Sun-Moon orientations responsible for their findings. Students' learning was assessed by administering the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (developed by Rebecca S. Lindell and James P. Olsen, Southern Illinois University) before and after students completed the project, with positive results. We describe the methodology and activities utilized in our Lunar Phases Project, and propose their expansion to a variety of astronomical topics for undergraduate non-science majors and pre-service teachers. We emphasize developing and implementing new instructional strategies through the expansion of the Mental Model Building and similar pedagogical methodologies to develop innovative inquiry-based projects and activities in a variety of astronomical topics for undergraduate non-science majors and pre-service teachers. In order to meaningfully assess the new curriculum tools, we recommend utilizing already existing research-validated concept inventories specific to the astronomy content in the curriculum tools. These inventories can be analyzed to determine the conceptual learning gains achieved by the participating students and with further analysis can be used to refine portions of the activity under study.

  5. The Utility of the OMI HCHO and NO2 Data Products in Air Quality Decision- Making Activities

    Duncan, Bryan N.

    2010-01-01

    We will present three related air quality applications of the OMI HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data products, which we us to support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. First, we will discuss a novel and practical application of the data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2, which we use as an air quality indicator, may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. Second, we will discuss how we use variations in the OMI HCHO product as a proxy for variability in the biogenic hydrocarbon, isoprene, which is an important player for the formation of high levels of ozone and the dominant source of HCHO in the eastern U.S. Third, we will discuss the variability of NO2 in the U.S. as indicated by the OMI NO2 product. In addition, we will show the impact of the 2005 hurricanes on pollutant emissions, including those associated with the intensive oil extraction and refining activities, in the Gulf of Mexico region using the OMI NO2 product. The variability of HCHO and NO2 as indicated by OMI helps us to understand changes in the OMI HCHO/NO2 and the implications for ozone formation.

  6. Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon

    Dahdouh-Guebas Farid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. Results The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb. Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Conclusion Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60% reported that mangrove marketed wood

  7. Identifying Low pH Active and Lactate-Utilizing Taxa within Oral Microbiome Communities from Healthy Children Using Stable Isotope Probing Techniques

    McLean, Jeffrey S.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Majors, Paul D.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Allen, Lisa Z.; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2012-03-05

    Many human microbial infectious diseases including dental caries are polymicrobial in nature and how these complex multi-species communities evolve from a healthy to a diseased state is not well understood. Although many health- or disease-associated oral microbes have been characterized in vitro, their physiology in vivo in the presence of the complex oral microbiome is difficult to determine with current approaches. In addition, about half of these oral species remain uncultivated to date and little is known except their 16S rRNA sequence. Lacking culture-based physiological analyses, the functional roles of uncultivated microorganisms will remain enigmatic despite their apparent disease correlation. To start addressing these knowledge gaps, we applied a novel combination of in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) with RNA and DNA based Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) to oral plaque communities from healthy children for temporal monitoring of carbohydrate utilization, organic acid production and identification of metabolically active and inactive bacterial species.

  8. Community resource utilization, psychosocial health, and sociodemographic factors associated with diet and physical activity among low-income obese Latino immigrants.

    Drieling, Rebecca Lucia; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Ma, Jun; Stafford, Randall Scott

    2014-02-01

    Low-socioeconomic-status (SES) Latinos are disproportionately represented among the 78 million obese Americans. Tailored behavioral weight-loss interventions show promise, but there is limited adaptation to lower-SES Latino immigrants. This study provides guidance for tailoring obesity-reduction strategies for this population by evaluating food security, educational community resource utilization, education level, depression, sex, and length of US residence as predictors of diet and physical activity. The cross-sectional study used baseline data collected in July 2009 through September 2010 for a weight-loss trial among lower-SES obese (body mass index 30 to 55) Latino immigrants who were enrolled at a community health clinic (n=207). Physical activity was measured using 7-day pedometer recording. Dietary intake was measured using an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Factors assessed by questionnaire included education community resource use (nutrition and physical activity classes), education level, US residence (years), food security, and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using multivariate-adjusted linear regression models. More than one third of participants were sedentary (fast-food intake (P=0.04). Fewer depressive symptoms were associated with lower sweet-beverage intake (P=0.05). In conclusion, obesity-reduction strategies among low-SES Latino immigrants might effectively emphasize educational community resource use and interventions tailored for psychosocial and sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:24119533

  9. Evaluation of a Trapezoidal Predictive Controller for a Four-Wire Active Power Filter for Utility Equipment of Metro Railway, Power-Land Substations

    Sergio Salas-Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The realization of an improved predictive current controller based on a trapezoidal model is described, and the impact of this technique is assessed on the performance of a 2 kW, 21.6 kHz, four-wire, Active Power Filter for utility equipment of Metro Railway, Power-Land Substations. The operation of the trapezoidal predictive current controller is contrasted with that of a typical predictive control technique, based on a single Euler approximation, which has demonstrated generation of high-quality line currents, each using a 400 V DC link to improve the power quality of an unbalanced nonlinear load of Metro Railway. The results show that the supply current waveforms become virtually sinusoidal waves, reducing the current ripple by 50% and improving its power factor from 0.8 to 0.989 when the active filter is operated with a 1.6 kW load. The principle of operation of the trapezoidal predictive controller is analysed together with a description of its practical development, showing experimental results obtained with a 2 kW prototype.

  10. [Clinical study using activity-based costing to assess cost-effectiveness of a wound management system utilizing modern dressings in comparison with traditional wound care].

    Ohura, Takehiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Mino, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of cost-effectiveness, including medical delivery and health service fee systems, has become widespread in Japanese health care. In the field of pressure ulcer management, the recent introduction of penalty subtraction in the care fee system emphasizes the need for prevention and cost-effective care of pressure ulcer. Previous cost-effectiveness research on pressure ulcer management tended to focus only on "hardware" costs such as those for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, while neglecting other cost aspects, particularly those involving the cost of labor. Thus, cost-effectiveness in pressure ulcer care has not yet been fully established. To provide true cost effectiveness data, a comparative prospective study was initiated in patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Considering the potential impact of the pressure reduction mattress on clinical outcome, in particular, the same type of pressure reduction mattresses are utilized in all the cases in the study. The cost analysis method used was Activity-Based Costing, which measures material and labor cost aspects on a daily basis. A reduction in the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) score was used to measure clinical effectiveness. Patients were divided into three groups based on the treatment method and on the use of a consistent algorithm of wound care: 1. MC/A group, modern dressings with a treatment algorithm (control cohort). 2. TC/A group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) with a treatment algorithm. 3. TC/NA group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) without a treatment algorithm. The results revealed that MC/A is more cost-effective than both TC/A and TC/NA. This suggests that appropriate utilization of modern dressing materials and a pressure ulcer care algorithm would contribute to reducing health care costs, improved clinical results, and, ultimately, greater cost-effectiveness. PMID:14999922

  11. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    Miyamoto, John; Wakker, Peter

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. The standard development of these results is based on expected utility theory which is now known to be descriptively invalid. The empirical violations of expected utility impair the credib...

  12. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2009

    I. Object and Importance To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. · The neutron usage fee in HANARO · Achievements of HANARO utilization · Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO · HANARO Symposium · Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index · Operation and Management of HANARO Server · Management of HANARO related committees · Training of HANARO users · Related activities of HANARO publicity. Result The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  13. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2005

    Object and Importance To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. Scope and Contents In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, HANARO Symposium, Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index, Operation and Management of HANARO Server, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users and Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  14. Distributed H2 Supply for Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles Year 6 - Activity 3.5 - Development fo a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Almlie, Jay

    2012-04-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a high-pressure hydrogen production system that reforms a liquid organic feedstock and water at operating pressures up to 800 bar (~12,000 psig). The advantages of this system include the elimination of energy-intensive hydrogen compression, a smaller process footprint, and the elimination of gaseous or liquid hydrogen transport. This system could also potentially enable distributed hydrogen production from centralized coal. Processes have been investigated to gasify coal and then convert the syngas into alcohol or alkanes. These alcohols and alkanes could then be easily transported in bulk to distributed high-pressure water-reforming (HPWR)-based systems to deliver hydrogen economically. The intent of this activity was to utilize the EERC’s existing HPWR hydrogen production process, previously designed and constructed in a prior project phase, as a basis to improve operational and production performance of an existing demonstration unit. Parameters to be pursued included higher hydrogen delivery pressure, higher hydrogen production rates, and the ability to refill within a 5-minute time frame.

  15. European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter (EuCPAD), a novel dosimetry system utilizing operational and scientific synergies for the benefit of humans in space

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas

    A significant expansion of Human presence in space can be recognized over the last decade. Not only the frequency of human space mission did rise, but also time in space, mission duration with extended flights lasting half a year or more are becoming "standard". Despite the challenges to human health and well-being are still significant, or may even increase with mission length and work density. Also radiation exposure in space remains one of the inevitable and dominating factors relevant to crew- health, -safety and therefore mission success. The radiation environment that the space crews are exposed to differs significantly as compared to earth. Exposure in flight exceed doses that are usually received by terrestrial radiation workers on ground. Expanding "medical" demands are not a solely characteristics of current and current and upcoming mission scenarios. Likewise the margins for what is understood as "efficient utilization" for the fully operational science platform ISS, are immense. Understanding, accepting and approaching these challenges ESA-HSO did choose a particular pass of implementation for one of their current developments. Exploiting synergies of research, science and medical operational aspects, the "European Crew Personal Active Dosimeter for Astronauts (EuCPAD)" development exactly addresses these circumstances. It becomes novel part of ESA Radiation Protection Initiative for astronauts. The EuCPAD project aims at the development and manufacturing of an active (powered) dosimeter system to measure astronaut's exposures, support risk assessment dose management by providing a differentiated data set. Final goal is the verification of the system capabilities for medical monitoring at highest standards. The EuCPAD consists of several small portable Personal Active Dosimeters (MU = Mobile Unitas) and a rack mounted docking station “Personal Storage Device (PSD)” for MU storage, data read out and telemetry. The PSD furthermore contains a Tissue

  16. Identifying low pH active and lactate-utilizing taxa within oral microbiome communities from healthy children using stable isotope probing techniques.

    Jeffrey S McLean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many human microbial infectious diseases including dental caries are polymicrobial in nature. How these complex multi-species communities evolve from a healthy to a diseased state is not well understood. Although many health- or disease-associated oral bacteria have been characterized in vitro, their physiology within the complex oral microbiome is difficult to determine with current approaches. In addition, about half of these species remain uncultivated to date with little known besides their 16S rRNA sequence. Lacking culture-based physiological analyses, the functional roles of uncultivated species will remain enigmatic despite their apparent disease correlation. To start addressing these knowledge gaps, we applied a combination of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS with RNA and DNA based Stable Isotope Probing (SIP to oral plaque communities from healthy children for in vitro temporal monitoring of metabolites and identification of metabolically active and inactive bacterial species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Supragingival plaque samples from caries-free children incubated with (13C-substrates under imposed healthy (buffered, pH 7 and diseased states (pH 5.5 and pH 4.5 produced lactate as the dominant organic acid from glucose metabolism. Rapid lactate utilization upon glucose depletion was observed under pH 7 conditions. SIP analyses revealed a number of genera containing cultured and uncultivated taxa with metabolic capabilities at pH 5.5. The diversity of active species decreased significantly at pH 4.5 and was dominated by Lactobacillus and Propionibacterium species, both of which have been previously found within carious lesions from children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach allowed for identification of species that metabolize carbohydrates under different pH conditions and supports the importance of Lactobacilli and Propionibacterium in the development of childhood caries. Identification of species within

  17. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute ut

  18. System 80+ - the utility perspective

    To ensure that utilities views are reflected in the System 80+ standard design, ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB C-E) organized the System 80+ Executive Advisory Committee in 1989. The committee includes utility executives with substantial nuclear experience from the United States, Europe, and Asia as well as ABB C-E's president of nuclear systems. The primary functions of the committee are to review the design and licensing activities being performed for System 80+ and to provide advice, from a utility management perspective, on how ABB C-E's program should be directed to address utility needs. Much of the committee's attention has been focused on the major policy issues that affect the System 80+ program. Because the System 80+ design is being certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before any purchase by a utility, it is essential that ABB C-E be given input about utility needs before the design features are locked in by a commission rulemaking

  19. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  20. Managing the nuclear utility

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  1. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.)

  2. Health care utilization and outpatient, out-of-pocket costs for active convulsive epilepsy in rural northeastern South Africa: a cross-sectional Survey

    Wagner, Ryan G.; Bertram, Melanie Y; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Tollman, Stephen M; Lindholm, Lars; Charles R. Newton; Hofman, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, with over 80 % of cases found in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Studies from high-income countries find a significant economic burden associated with epilepsy, yet few studies from LMICs, where out-of-pocket costs for general healthcare can be substantial, have assessed out-of-pocket costs and health care utilization for outpatient epilepsy care. Methods Within an established health and socio-demographic surveillance system in ...

  3. Tumor marker utility and prognostic relevance of cathepsin B, cathepsin L, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, CEA and CA 19-9 in colorectal cancer

    Cathepsin B and L (CATB, CATL), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 play an important role in colorectal cancer invasion. The tumor marker utility and prognostic relevance of these proteases have not been evaluated in the same experimental setting and compared with that of CEA and CA-19-9. Protease, CEA and CA 19-9 serum or plasma levels were determined in 56 patients with colorectal cancer, 25 patients with ulcerative colitis, 26 patients with colorectal adenomas and 35 tumor-free control patients. Protease, CEA, CA 19-9 levels have been determined by ELISA and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively; their sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy have been calculated and correlated with clinicopathological staging. The protease antigen levels were significantly higher in colorectal cancer compared with other groups. Sensitivity of PAI-1 (94%), CATB (82%), uPA (69%), CATL (41%) were higher than those of CEA or CA 19-9 (30% and 18%, respectively). PAI-1, CATB and uPA demonstrated a better accuracy than CEA or CA 19-9. A combination of PAI-1 with CATB or uPA exhibited the highest sensitivity value (98%). High CATB, PAI-1, CEA and CA 19-9 levels correlated with advanced Dukes stages. CATB (P = 0.0004), CATL (P = 0.02), PAI-1 (P = 0.01) and CA 19-9 (P = 0.004) had a significant prognostic impact. PAI-1 (P = 0.001), CATB (P = 0.04) and CA 19-9 (P = 0.02) proved as independent prognostic variables. At the time of clinical detection proteases are more sensitive indicators for colorectal cancer than the commonly used tumor markers. Determinations of CATB, CATL and PAI-1 have a major prognostic impact in patients with colorectal cancer

  4. Dealing with the difficult utility

    STS HydroPower, Ltd. (STS) is an independent hydroelectric power developer involved in the full scope of hydroelectric activities. This includes the permitting, design, financing, turbine design and manufacturing, site construction and operation of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites across the United States. At the present time, STS owns and operates nine sites in four states with a combined capacity of 20 megawatts. In dealing with the implementation of these sites, STS has dealt with five different utilities. In addition, in pursuing additional development opportunities throughout the United States, STS has had contact with numerous other utilities. During this time it would be fair to conclude that each of these utilities has exhibited its own personality with respect to dealing with independent developers. To the credit of the utility industry, the majority of these utilities have been helpful and supportive of independent projects, but a small number of utilities have approached projects from an initial and continuing adversarial position. The purpose of this paper is to examine those options and procedures available to the developer when a utility is encountered with a negative predisposition

  5. Atomic energy utilization

    As observed worldwide, sufficient consensus has not been obtained on the peaceful utilization of atomic energy, but why has only France showed the relatively smooth advance ? Is it the result of the PR activities by enterprises ? The author visited two French nuclear facilities in June-July, 1990, and experienced the way of acceptance of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy and the action of enterprises in France. The French Electric Power Corp. (EDF) already clarified the guideline to the society about 'How to obtain the trust of public for atomic energy'. The gist of the contents of this EDF guideline is shown. The investigation by the authors can be judged as illustrating concretely the posture of enterprises to endeavor for the realization of this EDF guideline. The serious consideration on communication and community, the opening of information to public and sincere response, the fostering of the expression techniques of those in charge of PR, the immediate notice at the time of accidents, the maintenance of information transmission systems and so on carried out for 30 years contributed to the fostering of trust. The points of social psychology for national consensus and the investigation in the La Hague reprocessing plant and the Super Phenix in Creys Malville are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Utility of N-aryl 2-aroylhydrazono-propanehydrazonoyl chlorides as precursors for synthesis of new functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazoles with potential antimicrobial activity

    Abdou O. Abdelhamid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from N-aryl 2-aroylhydrazono-propanehydrazonoyl chlorides, a series of new functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazoles were prepared. The structures of the compounds prepared were confirmed by both elemental and spectral analyses as well as by alternate synthesis. The mechanisms of the studied reactions are outlined. The antimicrobial activities of the compounds prepared were screened and the results showed that most of such compounds exhibit considerable activities.

  7. Chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 Receptors Highlight the Similar Mechanism of Activation Utilizing Their N-Terminal Low-Density Lipoprotein Class A Modules

    Bruell, Shoni; Kong, Roy C. K.; Petrie, Emma J.; Hoare, Brad; John D Wade; Scott, Daniel J.; Gooley, Paul R.; Bathgate, Ross A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors 1 and 2 are unique G-protein coupled receptors in that they contain an N-terminal low-density lipoprotein type A (LDLa) module which is necessary for receptor activation. The current hypothesis suggests that upon ligand binding the LDLa module interacts with the transmembrane (TM) domain of a homodimer partner receptor to induce the active receptor conformations. We recently demonstrated that three residues in the N-terminus of the RXFP1 LDLa module are...

  8. Chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors highlight the similar mechanism of activation utilizing their N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A modules

    RossBathgate; EmmaJunePetrie; JohnDWade

    2013-01-01

    Relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors 1 and 2 are unique G-protein coupled receptors in that they contain an N-terminal low density lipoprotein type A (LDLa) module which is necessary for receptor activation. The current hypothesis suggests that upon ligand binding the LDLa module interacts with the transmembrane (TM) domain of a homodimer partner receptor to induce the active receptor conformations. We recently demonstrated that three residues in the N-terminus of the RXFP1 LDLa module are...

  9. Demonstration of posturographic parameters of squat-stand activity in hemiparetic patients on a new multi-utility balance assessing and training system

    Lu, Rong-rong; Li, Fang; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yong-Shan; Xu, Xiu-Lin; Zou, Ren-Lin; Hu, Xiu-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Quantitative evaluation of position control ability in stroke patients is needed. Here we report a demonstration of position control ability assessment and test-retest reliability during squat-stand activity on a new system in hemiparetic patients and controls. Methods Sixty-two healthy adults and thirty-four hemiparetics were enrolled. All of the participants were required to complete five repeated squat-stand activities under three different conditions: partial weight support, st...

  10. Teacher Didactic Content Knowledge and its relation with the utilization of practical activities in chemistry classes: A study with expert teachers of the Angolan educational system

    Laurinda Baca; Marcos Onofre; Fátima Paixão

    2014-01-01

    This study was developed within the Angolan educational system, with chemistry expert teachers who teach the 7th grade (12 years old). Aiming to characterize the didactic content knowledge and relate it with the quality of teaching and with the development of practical activities that ensure the active participation of students in the construction of knowledge, we observed and analyzed the classes of a group of expert teachers, specifically in the content of chemical reactions and chemical...

  11. Utility of a Protein Fraction with Cathepsin L-Like Activity Purified from Cysticercus Fluid of Taenia solium in the Diagnosis of Human Cysticercosis

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Rueda, Daniel; López, César; Arana, Yanina; Castillo, Yesenia; Calderón, Maritza; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sheen, Patricia; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gonzales, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, an endemic parasitic disease in most developing countries, is caused by Taenia solium and compromises the human central nervous system. Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including T. solium and constitute important antigens for immunodiagnostics. A protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity was purified from the cysticercus fluid by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Cathepsin L-like activity was measured fluorometrically by det...

  12. Teacher Didactic Content Knowledge and its relation with the utilization of practical activities in chemistry classes: A study with expert teachers of the Angolan educational system

    Laurinda Baca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed within the Angolan educational system, with chemistry expert teachers who teach the 7th grade (12 years old. Aiming to characterize the didactic content knowledge and relate it with the quality of teaching and with the development of practical activities that ensure the active participation of students in the construction of knowledge, we observed and analyzed the classes of a group of expert teachers, specifically in the content of chemical reactions and chemical equations. In a quasi-experimental design methodology, the used technique was the observation from the capture of images in the classes. An element we paid particular attention in the analysis of the classes was the implementation of strategies that involve practical activities, since the didactic research has amply demonstrated that they are likely to generate active learning in science education, with particular emphasis in chemistry. The results revealed that the expert teachers often use practical activities in their classrooms, using group work procedures, work front and questions oral and written.

  13. Changes in activity of industrial enzyme preparations irradiated with sterilizing doses. Part of a coordinated programme on factors influencing the utilization of food irradiation process

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the efficacy of irradiation to sterilize enzyme preparations. Irradiation doses up to 25 kGy caused no changes in basic organoleptic properties of commercial rennin preparations. Dose rate (from 0.5 to 13.5 kGy/hr) has no influence on the changes in enzyme activity during the storage period of 3 months. Doses ranging from 8 to 12 kGy are sufficient to sterilize commercial enzyme preparations. Non-purified, crude rennin preparations appear to be more resistant to radiation than purified samples. Rennin preparations purified by dialysis and treated with 25 kGy resulted in a reduction of activity of 20%. The activity of preparations purified by gel filtration was reduced to 50% when treated with the same dose

  14. The Relaxin Receptor (RXFP1) Utilizes Hydrophobic Moieties on a Signaling Surface of Its N-terminal Low Density Lipoprotein Class A Module to Mediate Receptor Activation*

    Kong, Roy C. K.; Petrie, Emma J.; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Ling, Jason; Lee, Jeremy C. Y.; Gooley, Paul R.; Bathgate, Ross A. D.

    2013-01-01

    The peptide hormone relaxin is showing potential as a treatment for acute heart failure. Although it is known that relaxin mediates its actions through the G protein-coupled receptor relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which relaxin binding results in receptor activation. Previous studies have highlighted that the unique N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) module of RXFP1 is essential for receptor activation, and it has been hypothesized that this module is the true “ligand” of the receptor that directs the conformational changes necessary for G protein coupling. In this study, we confirmed that an RXFP1 receptor lacking the LDLa module binds ligand normally but cannot signal through any characterized G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, we comprehensively examined the contributions of amino acids in the LDLa module to RXFP1 activity using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutational analysis together with NMR structural analysis of recombinant LDLa modules. Gain-of-function studies with an inactive RXFP1 chimera containing the LDLa module of the human LDL receptor (LB2) demonstrated two key N-terminal regions of the module that were able to rescue receptor signaling. Loss-of-function mutations of residues in these regions demonstrated that Leu-7, Tyr-9, and Lys-17 all contributed to the ability of the LDLa module to drive receptor activation, and judicious amino acid substitutions suggested this involves hydrophobic interactions. Our results demonstrate that these key residues contribute to interactions driving the active receptor conformation, providing further evidence of a unique mode of G protein-coupled receptor activation. PMID:23926099

  15. The relaxin receptor (RXFP1) utilizes hydrophobic moieties on a signaling surface of its N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A module to mediate receptor activation.

    Kong, Roy C K; Petrie, Emma J; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Ling, Jason; Lee, Jeremy C Y; Gooley, Paul R; Bathgate, Ross A D

    2013-09-27

    The peptide hormone relaxin is showing potential as a treatment for acute heart failure. Although it is known that relaxin mediates its actions through the G protein-coupled receptor relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which relaxin binding results in receptor activation. Previous studies have highlighted that the unique N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) module of RXFP1 is essential for receptor activation, and it has been hypothesized that this module is the true "ligand" of the receptor that directs the conformational changes necessary for G protein coupling. In this study, we confirmed that an RXFP1 receptor lacking the LDLa module binds ligand normally but cannot signal through any characterized G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, we comprehensively examined the contributions of amino acids in the LDLa module to RXFP1 activity using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutational analysis together with NMR structural analysis of recombinant LDLa modules. Gain-of-function studies with an inactive RXFP1 chimera containing the LDLa module of the human LDL receptor (LB2) demonstrated two key N-terminal regions of the module that were able to rescue receptor signaling. Loss-of-function mutations of residues in these regions demonstrated that Leu-7, Tyr-9, and Lys-17 all contributed to the ability of the LDLa module to drive receptor activation, and judicious amino acid substitutions suggested this involves hydrophobic interactions. Our results demonstrate that these key residues contribute to interactions driving the active receptor conformation, providing further evidence of a unique mode of G protein-coupled receptor activation. PMID:23926099

  16. Survey by senior NRC management to obtain veiwpoints on the safety impact of regulatory activities from representative utilities operating and constructing nuclear power plants

    A survey of licensee staff members representing the several organizational elements in different licensee corporate and plant staffs was conducted by senior NRC management to obtain licensee views on the potential safety consequences and impact of NRC regulatory activities. The comments received addressed the full scope of NRC activities and the negative impact of agency actions on licensee resources, staff performance, planning and scheduling, and organizational effectiveness. The findings of the survey is that the pace and nature of regulatory actions have created a potential safety problem which deserves further evaluation by the agency

  17. A Promotion Program of Academic-Industrial Collaboration with Active and Joint Participation by Technical College Students Utilizing the Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs

    Furusaki, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Shigeta; Kojima, Yoichiro; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi; Abe, Tsukasa; Yoshizawa, Kousuke; Tada, Mitsuhiro

    Since 2005, Tomakomai National College of Technology has been conducting “A Promotion Program of Academic-Industrial Collaboration with Active and Joint Participation by Technical College Students” , in which the students actively challenged to resolve technical problems of local companies through internships and graduation researches. This project was adopted as part of the Support Program for Contemporary Educational Needs by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. It has been revealed that the program is practical and effective engineering education for the students, i.e. “Future Engineers” . In addition, it leads to the revitalization of local companies which carried out collaborative researches with the participating students.

  18. Entrez Programming Utilities

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  19. An Analysis of Success Factors in the Utilization of Learning Activity Packages Employed as Vehicles for Individualizing Science Instruction at Nova High School.

    Campbell, Roy Franklin

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether "Learning Activity Packages" (LAPs) could be used as the basic instructional material of individualized instruction for certain types of students and not for others. A sample of 133 biology students was selected at random and assigned to one of three groups, low, medium or high, on the basis of…

  20. Utilization of Different Bmy1 Intron III Alleles for Predicting ß-Amylase Activity and Thermostability in Wild and Cultivated Barley

    Polymorphisms in intron III of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific beta-amylase (Bmy1) have been associated with beta-amylase activity and thermostability and are thought to have potential as a selective marker for breeding elite malting cultivars. The third intron of Bmy1 was sequenced ...

  1. Utilizing Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to engage middle school teachers and students in storm water management practices to mitigate human impacts of land development

    Tazaz, A.; Wilson, R. M.; Schoen, R.; Blumsack, S.; King, L.; Dyehouse, M.

    2013-12-01

    'The Integrating STEM Project' engaged 6-8 grade teachers through activities incorporating mathematics, science and technology incorporating both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and Common Core State Standards-Mathematics (CCSS-Math). A group of researchers from Oceanography, Mathematics, and Education set out to provide middle school teachers with a 2 year intensive STEM integration professional development with a focus on environmental topics and to monitor the achievement outcomes in their students. Over the course of 2 years the researchers created challenging professional development sessions to expand teacher knowledge and teachers were tasked to transform the information gained during the professional development sessions for classroom use. One lesson resource kit presented to the teachers, which was directly applicable to the classroom, included Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to explore the positive and negative effects land development has on climate and the environment, and how land development impacts storm water management. MEA's were developed to encourage students to create models to solve complex problems and to allow teachers to investigate students thinking. MEA's are a great curriculum technique used in engineering fields to help engage students by providing hands on activities using real world data and problems. We wish to present the Storm Water Management Resource toolkit including the MEA and present the outcomes observed from student engagement in this activity.

  2. The transcriptional activator GaaR of Aspergillus niger is required for release and utilization of D-galacturonic acid from pectin

    Alazi, Ebru; Niu, Jing; Kowalczyk, Joanna E; Peng, Mao; Aguilar Pontes, Maria Victoria; van Kan, Jan A L; Visser, Jaap; de Vries, Ronald P; Ram, Arthur F J

    2016-01-01

    We identified the D-galacturonic acid (GA) responsive transcriptional activator GaaR of the saprotrophic fungus Aspergillus niger, which was found to be essential for growth on GA and polygalacturonic acid (PGA). Growth of the ΔgaaR strain was reduced on complex pectins. Genome-wide expression analy

  3. The transcriptional activator GaaR of Aspergillus niger is required for release and utilization of d-galacturonic acid from pectin

    Alazi, Ebru; Niu, Jing; Kowalczyk, Joanna E.; Peng, Mao; Aguilar Pontes, Maria Victoria; Kan, Van Jan A.L.; Visser, Jaap; Vries, De Ronald P.; Ram, Arthur F.J.

    2016-01-01

    We identified the d-galacturonic acid (GA)-responsive transcriptional activator GaaR of the saprotrophic fungus, Aspergillus niger, which was found to be essential for growth on GA and polygalacturonic acid (PGA). Growth of the ΔgaaR strain was reduced on complex pectins. Genome-wide expression anal

  4. Increased Na+/K(+)-pump activity and adenosine triphosphate utilization after compound 48/80-induced histamine secretion from rat mast cells

    Johansen, Torben; Praetorius, Birger Hans

    1994-01-01

    -production were measured by the bioluminescence technique (firefly lantern) and by measurement of the lactate production under anaerobic conditions (antimycin A, oligomycin), respectively. There was an increased requirement for ATP after the secretory response associated with an increased activity of the Na...

  5. Information, evolution and utility

    Larry Samuelson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human utility embodies a number of seemingly irrational aspects. The leading example in this paper is that utilities often depend on the presence of salient unchosen alternatives. Our focus is to understand why an evolutionary process might optimally lead to such seemingly dysfunctional features in our motivations and to derive implications for the nature of our utility functions.

  6. Chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors highlight the similar mechanism of activation utilizing their N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A modules

    Shoni eBruell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Relaxin family peptide (RXFP receptors 1 and 2 are unique G-protein coupled receptors in that they contain an N-terminal low density lipoprotein type A (LDLa module which is necessary for receptor activation. The current hypothesis suggests that upon ligand binding the LDLa module interacts with the transmembrane (TM domain of a homodimer partner receptor to induce the active receptor conformations. We recently demonstrated that three residues in the N-terminus of the RXFP1 LDLa module are potentially involved in hydrophobic interactions with the receptor to drive activation. RXFP2 shares two out of three of the residues implicated, suggesting that the two LDLa modules could be interchanged without adversely affecting activity. However, in 2007 it was shown that a chimera consisting of the RXFP1 receptor with its LDLa swapped for that of RXFP2 did not signal. We noticed this construct also contained the RXFP2 region linking the LDLa to the leucine-rich repeats. We therefore constructed chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors with their LDLa modules swapped immediately C-terminally to the final cysteine residue of the module, retaining the native linker. In addition, we exchanged the TM domains of the chimeras to explore if matching the LDLa module with the TM domain of its native receptor altered activity. All of the chimeras were expressed at the surface of HEK293T cells with ligand binding profiles similar to the wild-type receptors. Importantly, as predicted, ligand binding was able to induce cAMP based signalling. Chimeras of RXFP1 with the LDLa of RXFP2 demonstrated reduced H2 relaxin potency with the pairing of the RXFP2 TM with the RXFP2 LDLa necessary for full ligand efficacy. In contrast the ligand mediated potencies and efficacies on the RXFP2 chimeras were similar suggesting the RXFP1 LDLa module has similar efficacy on the RXFP2 TM domain. Our studies demonstrate the LDLa modules of RXFP1 and RXFP2 modulate receptor activation via a

  7. Chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 Receptors Highlight the Similar Mechanism of Activation Utilizing Their N-Terminal Low-Density Lipoprotein Class A Modules.

    Bruell, Shoni; Kong, Roy C K; Petrie, Emma J; Hoare, Brad; Wade, John D; Scott, Daniel J; Gooley, Paul R; Bathgate, Ross A D

    2013-01-01

    Relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors 1 and 2 are unique G-protein coupled receptors in that they contain an N-terminal low-density lipoprotein type A (LDLa) module which is necessary for receptor activation. The current hypothesis suggests that upon ligand binding the LDLa module interacts with the transmembrane (TM) domain of a homodimer partner receptor to induce the active receptor conformations. We recently demonstrated that three residues in the N-terminus of the RXFP1 LDLa module are potentially involved in hydrophobic interactions with the receptor to drive activation. RXFP2 shares two out of three of the residues implicated, suggesting that the two LDLa modules could be interchanged without adversely affecting activity. However, in 2007 it was shown that a chimera consisting of the RXFP1 receptor with its LDLa swapped for that of RXFP2 did not signal. We noticed this construct also contained the RXFP2 region linking the LDLa to the leucine-rich repeats. We therefore constructed chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors with their LDLa modules swapped immediately C-terminally to the final cysteine residue of the module, retaining the native linker. In addition, we exchanged the TM domains of the chimeras to explore if matching the LDLa module with the TM domain of its native receptor altered activity. All of the chimeras were expressed at the surface of HEK293T cells with ligand binding profiles similar to the wild-type receptors. Importantly, as predicted, ligand binding was able to induce cAMP-based signaling. Chimeras of RXFP1 with the LDLa of RXFP2 demonstrated reduced H2 relaxin potency with the pairing of the RXFP2 TM with the RXFP2 LDLa necessary for full ligand efficacy. In contrast the ligand-mediated potencies and efficacies on the RXFP2 chimeras were similar suggesting the RXFP1 LDLa module has similar efficacy on the RXFP2 TM domain. Our studies demonstrate the LDLa modules of RXFP1 and RXFP2 modulate receptor activation via a similar mechanism. PMID

  8. Novel assay utilizing fluorochrome-tagged physostigmine (Ph-F) to in situ detect active acetylcholinesterase (AChE) induced during apoptosis.

    Huang, Xuan; Lee, Brian; Johnson, Gary; Naleway, John; Guzikowski, Anthony; Dai, Wei; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    It was recently reported that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is expressed in cells undergoing apoptosis and that its presence is essential for assembly of the apoptosome and subsequent caspase-9 activation. To obtain a marker of active AChE that could assay this enzyme in live intact cells and be applicable to fluorescence microscopy and cytometry, the fluorescein-tagged physostigmine (Ph-F), high affinity ligand (inhibitor) reactive with the active center of AChE, was constructed and tested for its ability to in situ label AChE and measure its induction during apoptosis. Ph-F inhibited cholinesterase activity in vitro (IC50 = 10(-6) and 5 x 10(-6) M for equine butyrylcholinesterase and human erythrocyte AChE, respectively) and was a selective marker of cells and structures that were AChE-positive. Thus, exposure of mouse bone marrow cells to Ph-F resulted in the exclusive labeling of megakaryocytes, and of the diaphragm muscle, preferential labeling of the nerve-muscle junctions (end-plates). During apoptosis of carcinoma HeLa cells and leukemic HL-60 or Jurkat cells triggered either by the DNA topoisomerase 1 inhibitor topotecan (TPT) or by oxidative stress (H2O2), the cells become reactive with Ph-F. Their Ph-F derived fluorescence was measured by flow and laser scanning cytometry. The appearance of Ph-F binding sites during apoptosis was preceded by the loss of mitochondrial potential, was concurrent with the presence of activated caspases, and was followed by loss of membrane integrity. At a very early stage of apoptosis, when nucleolar segregation was apparent, the Ph-F binding sites were distinctly localized within the nucleolus and at later stages of apoptosis in the cytoplasm. During apoptosis triggered by TPT, Ph-F binding was preferentially induced in S-phase cells. Our data on megakaryocytes and end-plates indicate that Ph-F reacts with active sites of AChE, and can be used to reveal the presence of this enzyme in live cells and possibly to study its

  9. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  10. The clinical utility of tuberculin skin test and interferon-γ release assay in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis among young adults: a prospective observational study

    Lee Sei Won

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of the tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT-IT in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB are not clear in young adults. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TST and QFT-IT in smear-negative TB among young adults with no underlying disease. Methods We prospectively enrolled 166 young participants 20-29 years of age with suspected active TB in a military hospital of South Korea. The TST and QFT-IT were performed for all participants. Results Of the 143 patients included in the analysis, active TB was diagnosed in 100 (69.9%. There were 141 male patients, none of whom had immunosuppressive disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of TST were 94% (95% CI, 87-98%, 88% (95% CI, 74-96%, 95% (95% CI, 88-98%, and 86% (95% CI, 72-94%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the QFT-IT were 93% (95% CI, 86-97%, 95% (95% CI, 81-99%, 98% (95% CI, 92-99%, and 84% (95% CI, 69-93%, respectively. No significant differences were found between the TST and QFT-IT in any statistic. Conclusions Both the TST and QFT-IT showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating active TB from other diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of these two tests did not differ significantly when applied to this clinical population of young, immunocompetent adults in whom neonatal BCG vaccination was common, there was no history of previous TB and in whom suspicion of TB was high. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00982969