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Sample records for activation regulates caspase-3

  1. Uterine Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Its Unfolded Protein Response May Regulate Caspase 3 Activation in the Pregnant Mouse Uterus

    Suresh, Arvind; Subedi, Kalpana; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Condon, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously proposed that uterine caspase-3 may modulate uterine contractility in a gestationally regulated fashion. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which uterine caspase-3 is activated and consequently controlled in the pregnant uterus across gestation. Utilizing the mouse uterus as our gestational model we examined the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response as potential activators of uterine caspase-3 at the transcriptional and translational level. Our study revealed robust activation of the uterine myocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress response and its adaptive unfolded protein response during pregnancy coinciding respectively with increased uterine caspase-3 activity and its withdrawal to term. In contrast the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways remained inactive across gestation. We speculate that physiological stimuli experienced by the pregnant uterus likely potentiates the uterine myocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in elevated caspase-3 activation, which is isolated to the pregnant mouse myometrium. However as term approaches, activation of an elevated adaptive unfolded protein response acts to limit the endoplasmic reticulum stress response inhibiting caspase-3 resulting in its decline towards term. We speculate that these events have the capacity to regulate gestational length in a caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:24058658

  2. Uterine endoplasmic reticulum stress and its unfolded protein response may regulate caspase 3 activation in the pregnant mouse uterus.

    Arvind Suresh

    Full Text Available We have previously proposed that uterine caspase-3 may modulate uterine contractility in a gestationally regulated fashion. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which uterine caspase-3 is activated and consequently controlled in the pregnant uterus across gestation. Utilizing the mouse uterus as our gestational model we examined the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response as potential activators of uterine caspase-3 at the transcriptional and translational level. Our study revealed robust activation of the uterine myocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress response and its adaptive unfolded protein response during pregnancy coinciding respectively with increased uterine caspase-3 activity and its withdrawal to term. In contrast the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways remained inactive across gestation. We speculate that physiological stimuli experienced by the pregnant uterus likely potentiates the uterine myocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in elevated caspase-3 activation, which is isolated to the pregnant mouse myometrium. However as term approaches, activation of an elevated adaptive unfolded protein response acts to limit the endoplasmic reticulum stress response inhibiting caspase-3 resulting in its decline towards term. We speculate that these events have the capacity to regulate gestational length in a caspase-3 dependent manner.

  3. Uterine Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Its Unfolded Protein Response May Regulate Caspase 3 Activation in the Pregnant Mouse Uterus

    Suresh, Arvind; Subedi, Kalpana; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Condon, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously proposed that uterine caspase-3 may modulate uterine contractility in a gestationally regulated fashion. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which uterine caspase-3 is activated and consequently controlled in the pregnant uterus across gestation. Utilizing the mouse uterus as our gestational model we examined the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response as potential activators of uterine cas...

  4. Quercetin induces apoptosis by activating caspase-3 and regulating Bcl-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways in human HL-60 cells

    Guomin Niu; Songmei Yin; Shuangfeng Xie; Yiqing Li; Danian Nie; Liping Ma; Xiuju Wang; Yudan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Quercetin is one of the naturally occurring dietary flavo-nol compounds. It is present abundantly in plants and has chemopreventive and anticancer effects. To investigate its anticancer mechanism, we examined the activity of quercetin against acute leukemia cell line, HL-60. Our results showed that quercetin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, quercetin down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax. Caspase-3 was also activated by quercetin, which started a caspase-3-depended mitochodrial pathway to induce apoptosis. It was also found that quercetin inhibited the expression of the cycloocygenase-2 (Cox-2) mRNA and Cox-2 protein. Taken together, these findings suggested that quercetin induces apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent pathway by inhibiting Cox-2 expression and regulates the expression of downstream apoptotic components, including Bcl-2 and Bax. Quercetin can be a potent and promising medicine which might be safely used in leukemia therapy.

  5. Differential Activity of Caspase-3 Regulates Susceptibility of Lung and Breast Tumor Cell Lines to Paclitaxel

    Odonkor, Charles Amoatey; Achilefu, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    Recent development of tumor resistance to paclitaxel presents a major problem to cancer treatment. An unsettled controversy in the cancer chemotherapy field, however, is whether caspases play a prominent role in paclitaxel-induced death in tumors. Previous studies suggest that cleavage of caspase-3 is not instrumental for the execution of death in tumors treated with paclitaxel, while other reports indicate that caspase-dependent pathways may be critical for paclitaxel cytotoxicity. In this s...

  6. Negative regulation of caspase 3-cleaved PAK2 activity by protein phosphatase 1

    2008-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is activated by binding of small G proteins, Cdc42 and Rac, or through proteolytic cleavage by caspases or caspase-like proteases. Activation by both small G protein and caspase requires autophosphorylation at Thr-402 of PAK2. Although activation of PAK2 has been investigated for nearly a decade, the mechanism of PAK2 downregulation is unclear. In this study, we have applied the kinetic theory of substrate reaction during modification of enzyme activity to study the regulation mechanism of PAK2 activity by the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1α). On the basis of the kinetic equation of the substrate reaction during the reversible phosphorylation of PAK2, all microscopic kinetic constants for the free enzyme and enzyme-substrate(s) complexes have been determined. The results indicate that (1) PP1α can act directly on phosphorylated Thr-402 in the activation loop of PAK2 and down-regulate its kinase activity; (2) binding of the exogenous protein/peptide substrates at the active site of PAK2 decreases both the rates of PAK2 autoactivation and inactivation. The present method provides a novel approach for studying reversible phosphorylation reactions. The advantage of this method is not only its usefulness in study of substrate effects on enzyme modification but also its convenience in study of modification reaction directly involved in regulation of enzyme activity. This initial study should provide a foundation for future structural and mechanistic work of protein kinases and phosphatases.

  7. Negative regulation of caspase 3-cleaved PAK2 activity by protein phosphatase 1

    2008-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is activated by binding of small G proteins, Cdc42 and Rac, or through proteolytic cleavage by caspases or caspase-like proteases. Activation by both small G protein and caspase requires autophosphorylation at Thr-402 of PAK2. Although activation of PAK2 has been investigated for nearly a decade, the mechanism of PAK2 downregulation is unclear. In this study, we have applied the kinetic theory of substrate reaction during modification of enzyme activity to study the regulation mechanism of PAK2 activity by the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1α). On the basis of the kinetic equation of the substrate reaction during the reversible phosphorylation of PAK2, all microscopic kinetic constants for the free enzyme and enzyme-substrate(s) complexes have been determined. The results indicate that (1) PP1α can act directly on phosphorylated Thr-402 in the acti-vation loop of PAK2 and down-regulate its kinase activity; (2) binding of the exogenous protein/peptide substrates at the active site of PAK2 decreases both the rates of PAK2 autoactivation and inactivation. The present method provides a novel approach for studying reversible phosphorylation reactions. The advantage of this method is not only its usefulness in study of substrate effects on enzyme modifica-tion but also its convenience in study of modification reaction directly involved in regulation of enzyme activity. This initial study should provide a foundation for future structural and mechanistic work of protein kinases and phosphatases.

  8. Zinc-mediated regulation of caspases activity: dose-dependent inhibition or activation of caspase-3 in the human Burkitt lymphoma B cells (Ramos).

    Schrantz, N; Auffredou, M T; Bourgeade, M F; Besnault, L; Leca, G; Vazquez, A

    2001-02-01

    Divalent cations, including Zinc and Manganese ions, are important modulators of cell activation. We investigated the ability of these two divalent cations to modulate apoptosis in human Burkitt lymphoma B cells line (Ramos). We found that Zinc (from 10 to 50 microM) inhibited Manganese-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis of Ramos cells. Higher concentration of Zinc (50 to 100 microM) did not prevent Manganese-mediated apoptosis but rather increased cell death among Ramos cells. This Zinc-mediated cell death was associated with apoptotic features such as cell shrinkage, the presence of phosphatidylserine residues on the outer leaflet of the cells, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Zinc-mediated apoptosis was associated with caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation as revealed by the appearance of active p35 fragment of caspase-9 and p19 and p17 of caspase-3 as well as in vivo cleavage of PARP and of a cell-permeable fluorogenic caspase-3 substrate (Phiphilux-G(1)D(2)). Both Zinc-mediated apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were prevented by the cell-permeable, broad-spectrum inhibitor of caspases (zVAD-fmk) or overexpression of bcl-2. In addition, we show that Zinc-induced loss of transmembrane mitochondrial potential is a caspase-independent event, since it is not modified by the presence of zVAD-fmk, which is inhibited by overexpression of bcl-2. These results indicate that depending on its concentration, Zinc can exert opposite effects on caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in human B lymphoma cells: concentrations below 50 microM inhibit caspase-3 activation and apoptosis whereas higher concentrations of Zinc activate a death pathway associated with apoptotic-like features and caspase-3 activation. PMID:11313717

  9. Resveratrol and clofarabine induces a preferential apoptosis-activating effect on malignant mesothelioma cells by Mcl-1 down-regulation and caspase-3 activation.

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that resveratrol and clofarabine elicited a marked cytotoxicity on malignant mesothelioma (MM) MSTO-211H cells but not on the corresponding normal mesothelial MeT-5A cells. Little is known of the possible molecules that could be used to predict preferential chemosensitivity on MSTO-211H cells. Resveratrol and clofarabine induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein level in MSTO-211H cells. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132 suggested that Mcl-1 protein levels were regulated at the post-translational step. The siRNA-based knockdown of Mcl-1 in MSTO-211H cells triggered more growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects with the resultant cleavages of procaspase-3 and its substrate PARP, increased caspase-3/7 activity, and increased percentage of apoptotic propensities. However, the majority of the observed changes were not shown in MeT-5A cells. Collectively, these studies indicate that the preferential activation of caspase cascade in malignant cells might have important applications as a therapeutic target for MM. PMID:24924397

  10. Activation of A2b adenosine receptor regulates ovarian cancer cell growth: involvement of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3.

    Hajiahmadi, Sima; Panjehpour, Mojtaba; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Shabani, Mahdi

    2015-08-01

    A2b adenosine receptor (A2bAR) acts as a potent regulator of cell growth in various cell lines. The present study was designed to understand the controlling mechanism of A2bAR agonist (NECA)-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting assays were used to evaluate the gene and protein expression profiles of A2bAR, respectively. MTT assay was used to study the cell proliferation effect of A2bAR agonist (NECA). Detection of apoptosis was conducted using annexin V-FITC/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins analysis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM) was analyzed by employing JC-1 prob. The mRNA and protein expression levels of A2bAR in ovarian cancer cells were detected. NECA significantly reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in OVCAR-3 and Caov-4 cell lines. The growth inhibition effect of NECA was related to the induction of cell apoptosis, which was manifested by annexin V-FITC staining, activation of caspase-3, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potentials (ΔΨm). In addition, downregulation of the regulatory protein Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax protein by NECA were also observed. These findings demonstrated that NECA induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway. Thus, A2bAR agonists may be a potential agent for induction of apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25877700

  11. MSX2 overexpression inhibits gemcitabine-induced caspase-3 activity in pancreatic cancer cells

    Shin Hamada; Kennichi Satoh; Kenji Kimura; Atsushi Kanno; Atsushi Masamune; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of MSX2 on gemcitabineinduced caspase-3 activation in pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1.METHODS: Using V5-tagged MSX2 expression vector,stable transfectant of MSX2 was generated from Panc-1cells (Px14 cells). Cell viability under gemcitabine administration was determined by MTT assay relative to control cell line (empty-vector transfected Panc-1 cells;P-3EV cells). Hoechst staining was used for the detection of apoptotic cell. Activation of caspase-3 was assessed using Western blotting analysis and direct measurement of caspase-3 specific activities.RESULTS: MSX2 overexpression in Panc-1 cells resulted in decreased gemcitabine-induced caspase-3 activation and increased cell viability under gemcitabine treatment in Px14 cells.CONCLUSION: MSX2 exerts repressive effects on gemcitabine-induced apoptotic pathway. This novel apoptosis-regulating function of MSX2 may provide a new therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

  12. Caspase-3 activation as a bifurcation point between plasticity and cell death

    Shikha Snigdha; Erica D Smith; G Aleph Prieto; Carl W Cotman

    2012-01-01

    Death-mediating proteases such as caspases and caspase-3 in particular,have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes,aging and Alzheimer's disease.However,emerging evidence suggests that in addition to their classical role in cell death,caspases play a key role in modulating synaptic function.It is remarkable that active caspases-3,which can trigger widespread damage and degeneration,aggregates in structures as delicate as synapses and persists in neurons without causing acute cell death.Here,we evaluate this dichotomy,and discuss the hypothesis that caspase-3 may be a bifurcation point in cellular signaling,able to orient the neuronal response to stress down either pathological/apoptotic pathways or towards physiological cellular remodeling.We propose that temporal,spatial and other regulators of caspase activity are key determinants of the ultimate effect of caspase-3 activation in neurons.This concept has implications for differential roles of caspase-3 activation across the lifespan.Specifically,we propose that limited caspase-3 activation is critical for synaptic function in the healthy adult brain while chronic activation is involved in degenerative processes in the aging brain.

  13. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CASPASE-3 ACTIVITY IN LIVER BIOPSIES OF PATIENTS WITH MONO AND MIXED INFECTIONS

    I. I. Tokin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the activity of proapoptotic signal protein caspase-3 for determination of peculiarities of apoptosis regulation under liver chronic diseases.Subjects and methods. The immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3 activity in 5 liver biopsies of the patients with mono infection of chronic hepatitis B and 5 liver biopsies of the patients with mixed infection of tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus was fulfilled. Morphological and morphometric analysis of serial microphotographs was performed using an image analysis system (microscope Leica DM 2500, digital camera Leica DFC320 R2 and a computer.Results. The activity of caspase-3 as dark brown granularity was revealed in all tis-sue components of liver (hepatocytes, epithelium of bile ducts, endotheliocytes, Kupffer cells of sinusoids, in compositions of lymphohistiocyte infiltrations. The maximal activity was discovered in hepatocytes nuclei. The expression of caspase-3 was significantly higher in liver biopsies of the patients with mixed infection. It is typical that the immunoreactive hepatocytes had not any morphological marks of apoptosis.Conclusion. The caspase-3 expression of proapoptotic signal protein caspase-3 may serve as an early marker of liver damage including the possibilities of apoptosis development.

  14. Caspase 3 chemiluminiscence activity determination in apoptotic cells and design of Caspase 3 sensor

    Lišková, Marcela; Klepárník, Karel; Pazdera, P.; Foret, František

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.; Boček, P.), s. 344-348 ISBN 978-80-904959-1-3. [CECE 2012. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /9./. Brno (CZ), 01.11.2012-02.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR GAP206/11/2377; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182; GA ČR GA203/08/1680 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Caspase 3 * apoptosis * chemiluminescence * FRET Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0215649

  15. CONSTRUCTION OF ACTIVE RECOMBINANT CASPASE-3 EUKARYOTIC EXPRESSION PLA SMID AND EFFECT OF r-CASPASE-3 ON APOPTOSIS OF PANCREATIC CARCINOMA CELLS

    2001-01-01

    Objective To construct active recombinant cas pa ses-3 gene(r-caspases-3)eukaryotic expression plasmid and observe the apoptos is inducing activity of r-caspase-3 in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Methods pcDNA3.1(+)/r-caspase-3 was constructed and pan creatic carcinoma cells(PC-Ⅱ)were transfected with the pcDNA3.1(+)/r-caspases -3 by liposomes(LipofectAMINE).The expression of r-Caspase-3 mRNA in pancreat ic carcinoma cells was detected by reverse transcription process of the polymera se chain reaction(RT-PCR), and the signs of apoptosis were examined in pancreat ic carcinoma cells by the methods of the DNA electrophoresis and flow cytometry analysis(FACS).Results The sequence inserted in pBlueSKM/r-Caspase-3 p lasmid was coincident with that of the r-caspases-3. The evaluation result of pcDNA3.1(+)/r-caspases-3 through enzyme cutting was correct. A 894bp strap was observed by RT-PCR after pancreatic carcinoma cells being transfected with the pcDNA3.1(+)/r-caspases-3 by liposomes. No strap was found in control groups. A characteristic DNA ladder was observed in pancreatic carcinoma cells DNA elect r ophoresis, and transparent hypodiploid karyotype peak was found by FACS. Conclusion The plasmid of pcDNA3.1(+)/r-Caspase-3 was c onstructed successfully, the expression of r-Caspase-3 mRMA in pancreatic carc inoma cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, and pcDNA3.1(+)/r-Caspase-3 can induce a poptosis in pancreatic carcinoma cells.

  16. Resveratrol and clofarabine induces a preferential apoptosis-activating effect on malignant mesothelioma cells by Mcl-1 down-regulation and caspase-3 activation

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jin; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that resveratrol and clofarabine elicited a marked cytotoxicity on malignant mesothelioma (MM) MSTO-211H cells but not on the corresponding normal mesothelial MeT-5A cells. Little is known of the possible molecules that could be used to predict preferential chemosensitivity on MSTO-211H cells. Resveratrol and clofarabine induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein level in MSTO-211H cells. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG...

  17. Peripheral neuropathy in the Twitcher mouse involves the activation of axonal caspase 3

    Ernesto R Bongarzone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Infantile Krabbe disease results in the accumulation of lipid-raft-associated galactosylsphingosine (psychosine, demyelination, neurodegeneration and premature death. Recently, axonopathy has been depicted as a contributing factor in the progression of neurodegeneration in the Twitcher mouse, a bona fide mouse model of Krabbe disease. Analysis of the temporal-expression profile of MBP (myelin basic protein isoforms showed unexpected increases of the 14, 17 and 18.5 kDa isoforms in the sciatic nerve of 1-week-old Twitcher mice, suggesting an abnormal regulation of the myelination process during early postnatal life in this mutant. Our studies showed an elevated activation of the pro-apoptotic protease caspase 3 in sciatic nerves of 15- and 30-day-old Twitcher mice, in parallel with increasing demyelination. Interestingly, while active caspase 3 was clearly contained in peripheral axons at all ages, we found no evidence of caspase accumulation in the soma of corresponding mutant spinal cord motor neurons. Furthermore, active caspase 3 was found not only in unmyelinated axons, but also in myelinated axons of the mutant sciatic nerve. These results suggest that axonal caspase activation occurs before demyelination and following a dying-back pattern. Finally, we showed that psychosine was sufficient to activate caspase 3 in motor neuronal cells in vitro in the absence of myelinating glia. Taken together, these findings indicate that degenerating mechanisms actively and specifically mediate axonal dysfunction in Krabbe disease and support the idea that psychosine is a pathogenic sphingolipid sufficient to cause axonal defects independently of demyelination.

  18. Bioluminescence determination of active caspase-3 in single apoptotic cells

    Lišková, Marcela; Klepárník, Karel; Matalová, Eva; Hegrová, Jitka; Přikryl, Jan; Švandová, Eva; Foret, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 12 (2013), s. 1772-1777. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/2377 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/12/1285 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : apoptosis * bioluminescence * caspase-3 Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  19. Allitridi induces apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activity in human gastric cancer cells

    Hong LAN; You-yong LU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of allitridi-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823.METHODS: Growth inhibition by allitridi was analyzed using cell growth curve and MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were detected using staining with Hoechst 33342, and confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation analysis. The protein expression affected by allitridi was determined using Western blot. The activity of caspase-3 was measured using a fluorescence assay. RESULTS: Allitridi induced apoptosis, and then inhibited cells proliferation in human gastric cancer cell line BGC823. The protein level of Bcl-2 was decreased dramatically,while Bax and p53 were not significantly affected by allitridi. The expression and activity of caspase-3 started to increase after allitridi treatment for 72 h. CONCLUSION: Allitridi induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Bcl-2, and increased caspase-3 expression and its activity.

  20. Radiolabeled isatin binding to caspase-3 activation induced by anti-Fas antibody

    Introduction: Noninvasive imaging methods that can distinguish apoptosis from necrosis may be useful in furthering our understanding of diseases characterized by apoptotic dysregulation as well as aiding drug development targeting apoptotic pathways. We evaluated the ability of radiolabeled isatins to quantify caspase-3 activity induced by the activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway by the anti-Fas antibody in mice. Methods: The behavior of three different radiolabeled isatins ([18F]WC-II-89, [18F]WC-IV-3 and [11C]WC-98) was characterized in mice with and without anti-Fas antibody treatment by microPET imaging and biodistribution studies. The activity of [18F]WC-II-89 was also compared with [99mTc]mebrofenin. The effect of pan-caspase inhibition with quinolyl-valyl-O-methylaspartyl-[2,6-difluorophenoxy]-methyl ketone (Q-VD-OPh) on [18F]WC-II-89 uptake was studied. Caspase-3 activity was confirmed by a fluorometric enzyme assay. Results: All three tracers behaved similarly in microPET and biodistribution studies. Increased retention of all tracers was observed in the livers of treated animals and several other organs, all of which demonstrated increased caspase-3 enzyme activity; however, impaired hepatobiliary excretion made attribution of these findings to caspase-3 activity difficult. The isatin [18F]WC-II-89 was retained at statistically significantly higher levels in the organs after anti-Fas antibody treatment while [99mTc]mebrofenin activity cleared, suggesting specific binding to activated caspase-3, but the magnitude of increased binding was still relatively low. Caspase inhibition with Q-VD-OPh partially blocked [18F]WC-II-89 retention but completely blocked caspase-3 enzyme activity in the liver. Conclusions: The radiolabeled isatins appear to bind specifically to caspase-3 in vivo, but their sensitivity is limited. Further optimization is required for these tracers to be useful for clinical applications.

  1. Elevated Levels of Uterine Anti-Apoptotic Signaling May Activate NFKB and Potentially Confer Resistance to Caspase 3-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death During Pregnancy in Mice1

    Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Subedi, Kalpana; Suresh, Arvind; Condon, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Preserving the uterus in a state of relative quiescence is vital to the maintenance of a successful pregnancy. Elevated cytoplasmic levels of uterine caspase 3 during pregnancy have been proposed as a potential regulator of uterine quiescence through direct targeting and disabling of the uterine contractile architecture. However, despite highly elevated levels of uterine caspase 3 during pregnancy, there is minimal evidence of apoptosis. This current study defines the mechanism whereby the pregnant uterine myocyte may harness the tocolytic activity of active caspases while avoiding apoptotic cell death. Using the pregnant mouse model, we have analyzed the uterus for changes in pro- and antiapoptotic signaling patterns associated with the advancing stages of pregnancy. Briefly, we have found that members of the IAP family, such as SURVIVIN and XIAP, and the Bcl2 family members, such as MCL1, are elevated in the uterine myocyte during late gestation. The IAP family members are the only endogenous inhibitors of active caspase 3, and MCL1 limits activation of caspase 3 by suppressing proapoptotic signaling. Elevated XIAP levels partner with SURVIVIN, resulting in increased levels of the antiapoptotic MCL1 via NFKB activation; these together have the potential to limit both the activity and level of active caspase 3 in the pregnant uterus as term approaches. We propose that modification of these antiapoptotic signaling partners allows the pregnant uterus to escape the apoptotic action of elevated active caspase 3 levels but also functions to limit the levels of active uterine caspase 3 near term. PMID:21566000

  2. Morphometric alterations, steatosis, fibrosis and active caspase-3 detection in carbamate bendiocarb treated rabbit liver

    Petrovová, E.; Purzyc, H.; Mazenský, D.; Luptáková, L.; Torma, N.; Sopoliga, I.; Sedmera, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2015), s. 212-222. ISSN 1520-4081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bendiocarb * caspase-3 activity * fibrosis * toxicity * rabbit * liver Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.197, year: 2014

  3. An efficient piecewise linear model for predicting activity of caspase-3 inhibitors

    Firoozpour Loghman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study Multimodal distribution of descriptors makes it more difficult to fit a single global model to model the entire data set in quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR studies. Methods The linear (Multiple linear regression; MLR, non-linear (Artificial neural network; ANN, and an approach based on “Extended Classifier System in Function approximation” (XCSF were applied herein to model the biological activity of 658 caspase-3 inhibitors. Results Various kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structures of the compounds. The original data set was partitioned into the training and test sets by the K-means classification method. Prediction error on the test data set indicated that the XCSF as a local model estimates caspase-3 inhibition activity, better than the global models such as MLR and ANN. The atom-centered fragment type CR2X2, electronegativity, polarizability, and atomic radius and also the lipophilicity of the molecule, were the main independent factors contributing to the caspase-3 inhibition activity. Conclusions The results of this study may be exploited for further design of novel caspase-3 inhibitors.

  4. An Efficient Piecewise Linear Model for Predicting Activity of Caspase-3 Inhibitors

    Alireza Foroumadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study Multimodal distribution of descriptors makes it more difficult to fit a single global model to model the entire data set in quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR studies.Methods:The linear (Multiple linear regression; MLR, non-linear (Artificial neural network; ANN, and an approach based on "Extended Classifier System in Function approximation" (XCSF were applied herein to model the biological activity of 658 caspase-3 inhibitors. Results:Various kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structures of the compounds. The original data set was partitioned into the training and test sets by the K-means classification method. Prediction error on the test data set indicated that the XCSF as a local model estimates caspase-3 inhibition activity, better than the global models such as MLR and ANN. The atom-centered fragment type CR2X2, electronegativity, polarizability, and atomic radius and also the lipophilicity of the molecule, were the main independent factors contributing to the caspase-3 inhibition activity. Conclusions:The results of this study may be exploited for further design of novel caspase-3 inhibitors.

  5. Vitamin C Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Caspase-3 Activation and Cognitive Impairment.

    Cheng, Baiqi; Zhang, Yiying; Wang, Arthur; Dong, Yuanlin; Xie, Zhongcong

    2015-12-01

    Anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce caspase-3 activation. The underlying mechanism(s) and targeted intervention(s), however, remain largely to be determined. Vitamin C (VitC) inhibits oxidative stress and apoptosis. We therefore employed VitC to further determine the up-stream mechanisms and the down-stream consequences of the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation. H4 human neuroglioma cells overexpressed human amyloid precursor protein (H4-APP cells) and rat neuroblastoma cells were treated either with (1) 2% isoflurane or (2) with the control condition, plus saline or 400 μM VitC for 3 or 6 h. Western blot analysis and fluorescence assay were utilized at the end of the experiments to determine caspase-3 activation, levels of reactive oxygen species and ATP, and mitochondrial function. The interaction of isoflurane (1.4% for 2 h) and VitC (100 mg/kg) on cognitive function in mice was also assessed in the fear conditioning system. Here, we show for the first time that the VitC treatment attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation. Moreover, VitC mitigated the isoflurane-induced increases in the levels of reactive oxygen species, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, and the reduction in ATP levels in the cells. Finally, VitC ameliorated the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in the mice. Pending confirmation from future studies, these results suggested that VitC attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation and cognitive impairment by inhibiting the isoflurane-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduction in ATP levels. These findings would promote further research into the underlying mechanisms and targeted interventions of anesthesia neurotoxicity. PMID:25367886

  6. Apoptosis in Heart Failure: Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria and Activation of Caspase-3 in Human Cardiomyopathy

    Narula, Jagat; Pandey, Pramod; Arbustini, Eloisa; Haider, Nezam; Narula, Navneet; Kolodgie, Frank D.; dal Bello, Barbara; Semigran, Marc J.; Bielsa-Masdeu, Anna; Dec, G. William; Israels, Sara; Ballester, Manel; Virmani, Renu; Saxena, Satya; Kharbanda, Surender

    1999-07-01

    Apoptosis has been shown to contribute to loss of cardiomyocytes in cardiomyopathy, progressive decline in left ventricular function, and congestive heart failure. Because the molecular mechanisms involved in apoptosis of cardiocytes are not completely understood, we studied the biochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of upstream regulators of apoptosis in hearts explanted from patients undergoing transplantation. Sixteen explanted hearts from patients undergoing heart transplantation were studied by electron microscopy or immunoblotting to detect release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. The hearts explanted from five victims of motor vehicle accidents or myocardial ventricular tissues from three donor hearts were used as controls. Evidence of apoptosis was observed only in endstage cardiomyopathy. There was significant accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol, over myofibrils, and near intercalated discs of cardiomyocytes in failing hearts. The release of mitochondrial cytochrome c was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of its substrate protein kinase C δ but not poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. By contrast, there was no apparent accumulation of cytosolic cytochrome c or caspase-3 activation in the hearts used as controls. The present study provides in vivo evidence of cytochrome c-dependent activation of cysteine proteases in human cardiomyopathy. Activation of proteases supports the phenomenon of apoptosis in myopathic process. Because loss of myocytes contributes to myocardial dysfunction and is a predictor of adverse outcomes in the patients with congestive heart failure, the present demonstration of an activated apoptotic cascade in cardiomyopathy could provide the basis for novel interventional strategies.

  7. Oridonin induces apoptosis of HeLa cells via altering expres sion of Bcl-2/Bax and activating caspase-3/ICAD pathway

    Chun-ling ZHANG; Li-jun WU; Shin-ichi TASHIRO; Satoshi ONODERA; Takashi IKEJIMA

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanisms by which oridonin inhibited HeLa cell growth in vitro. METHODS: Viability of oridonin-induced HeLa cells was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei were visualized by phase contrast microscopy. Nucleosomal DNA fragmentation was assayed by agarose gel electrophoresis.Caspase activity was assayed using fiuorometric protease assay. ICAD, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins expression were detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Oridonin induced oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA and increased caspase-3 activity, on the other hand, reduced the expression of inhibitor of caspase-3-activated DNase (ICAD), a caspase-3 substrate, at 12 h in HeLa cells. Oridonin-induced DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and down-regulation of ICAD expression were effectively inhibited by a caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk (z-AspGlu-Val-Asp-fmk). However, pretreatment with an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), 3, 4-dihydro5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxy]-1 (2H)-isoquinolinone (DPQ), did not suppress oridonin-induced HeLa cell death. In addition, oridonin-induced apoptosis was associated with an increase in the expression of the apoptosis inducer Bax, and a significant reduction in expression of the apoptosis suppressor Bcl-2 in mitochondria. CONCLUSION:Oridonin induces HeLa cells apoptosis by altering balance of Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression and activation of caspase-3/ICAD pathway.

  8. An efficient piecewise linear model for predicting activity of caspase-3 inhibitors

    Alireza Foroumadi; Eslam Pourbasheer; Sholeh Dehghani; Khadijeh Sadatnezhad; Loghman Firoozpour; Abbas Shafiee; Massoud Amanlou

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study Multimodal distribution of descriptors makes it more difficult to fit a single global model to model the entire data set in quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies. Methods The linear (Multiple linear regression; MLR), non-linear (Artificial neural network; ANN), and an approach based on “Extended Classifier System in Function approximation” (XCSF) were applied herein to model the biological activity of 658 caspase-3 inhibitors....

  9. Ginsenoside Rg1 Attenuates Isoflurane-induced Caspase-3 Activation via Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    MIAO Hui Hui; ZHEN Yu; DING Guan Nan; HONG Fang Xiao; XIE Zhong Cong; TIAN Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is reported to be neuroprotective. We therefore set out to determine whether ginsenoside Rg1 can attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase activation via inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods We investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 at concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 µmol/L and pretreatment times of 12 h and 24 h on isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4 naïve and stably transfected H4 human neuroglioma cells that express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP) (H4-APP cells). For mitochondrial dysfunction, we assessed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) levels. We employed Western blot analysis, chemiluminescence, and flowcytometry. Results Here we show that pretreatment with 50 µmol/L ginsenoside Rg1 for 12 h attenuated isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in H4-APP cells, while pretreatment with 25 and 50 µmol/L ginsenoside Rg1 for 24 h attenuated isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in both H4 naïve and H4-APP cells. Conclusion These data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 may ameliorate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings might recommend the use of ginsenoside Rg1 in preventing and treating isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

  10. Continuous monitoring of caspase-3 activation induced by propofol in developing mouse brain.

    Konno, Ayumi; Nishimura, Akiko; Nakamura, Shiro; Mochizuki, Ayako; Yamada, Atsushi; Kamijo, Ryutaro; Inoue, Tomio; Iijima, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    The neurotoxicity of anesthetics on the developing brain has drawn the attention of anesthesiologists. Several studies have shown that apoptosis is enhanced by exposure to anesthesia during brain development. Although apoptosis is a physiological developmental step occurring before the maturation of neural networks and the integration of brain function, pathological damage also involves apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that prolonged exposure to anesthetics causes apoptosis. Exactly when the apoptotic cascade starts in the brain remains uncertain. If it starts during the early stage of anesthesia, even short-term anesthesia could harm the brain. Therefore, apoptogenesis should be continuously monitored to elucidate when the apoptotic cascade is triggered by anesthesia. Here, we describe the development of a continuous monitoring system to detect caspase-3 activation using an in vivo model. Brain slices from postnatal days 0-4 SCAT3 transgenic mice with a heterozygous genotype (n=20) were used for the monitoring of caspase-3 cleavage. SCAT3 is a fusion protein of ECFP and Venus connected by a caspase-3 cleavable peptide, DEVD. A specimen from the hippocampal CA1 sector was mounted on a confocal laser microscope and was continuously superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol, 1μM or 10μM), and dimethyl sulfoxide. Images were obtained every hour for five hours. A pixel analysis of the ECFP/Venus ratio images was performed using a histogram showing the number of pixels with each ratio. In the histogram of the ECFP/Venus ratio, an area with a ratio>1 indicated the number of pixels from caspase-3-activated CA1 neurons. We observed a shift in the histogram toward the right over time, indicating caspase-3 activation. This right-ward shift dramatically changed at five hours in the propofol 1μM and 10μM groups and was obviously different from that in the control group. Thus, real-time fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) imaging

  11. Study on HepG-2 apoptosis induced by saponins isolated from Asparagus and the effects on the activities of caspase-3,8,9

    JI Yu-bin; XU He; JI Chen-feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of saponins of asparagus on apoptosis and the variations of caspaseS, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity in the process of asparagus induced apoptosis in HepG-2, to investigate the apoptosis mechanism further. Methods Asparagus on apoptosis effects on tumor cells cultured-HepG-2 with different concentrations at different time, IC50 value was measured by MTT assay, the apoptosis rate was determined by FCM with AnnexinV/PI staining, their apoptotic morphology were observed by electron microscopy and Colorimetric method was used to measure caspase-8,9 and caspase-3 activities. Results Experiments of antitumour in vivo showed that saponins of asparagus can inhibit the growth of tumor cell of HepG-2 in evidence, IC50 was 101.15 mg·L-1. Cultured for 72 h, the apoptosis rate had positive increased with concentrations. Apoptotic morphology was observed by electron microscopy. The activities of caspase-8, easpase-9 and caspase-3 had positive increased with concentrations. And have significant difference compared with negative control group(P<0.01). The activities of caspase-8 were high at 24 h, but the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 is high at 48 h. Conclusions Aaponins of asparagus can inhibit the growth of tumor cell of HepG2, and the underlying mechanism might be related to up regulation of caspase-8, 9 activity which subsequently transforms caspase-3 into its active form.

  12. Axonal outgrowth is associated with increased ERK 1/2 activation but decreased caspase 3 linked cell death in Schwann cells after immediate nerve repair in rats

    Kanje Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2 is activated by nerve damage and its activation precedes survival and proliferation of Schwann cells. In contrast, activation of caspase 3, a cysteine protease, is considered as a marker for apoptosis in Schwann cells. In the present study, axonal outgrowth, activation of ERK1/2 by phosphorylation (p-ERK 1/2 and immunoreactivity of cleaved caspase 3 were examined after immediate, delayed, or no repair of transected rat sciatic nerves. Results Axonal outgrowth, detected by neurofilament staining, was longer after immediate repair than after either the delayed or no repair conditions. Immediate repair also showed a higher expression of p-ERK 1/2 and a lower number of cleaved caspase 3 stained Schwann cells than after delayed nerve repair. If the transected nerve was not repaired a lower level of p-ERK 1/2 was found than in either the immediate or delayed repair conditions. Axonal outgrowth correlated to p-ERK 1/2, but not clearly with cleaved caspase 3. Contact with regenerating axons affected Schwann cells with respect to p-ERK 1/2 and cleaved caspase 3 after immediate nerve repair only. Conclusion The decreased regenerative capacity that has historically been observed after delayed nerve repair may be related to impaired activation of Schwann cells and increased Schwann cell death. Outgrowing axons influence ERK 1/2 activation and apoptosis of Schwann cells.

  13. miR-155 targets Caspase-3 mRNA in activated macrophages.

    De Santis, Rebecca; Liepelt, Anke; Mossanen, Jana C; Dueck, Anne; Simons, Nadine; Mohs, Antje; Trautwein, Christian; Meister, Gunter; Marx, Gernot; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Ostareck, Dirk H

    2016-01-01

    To secure the functionality of activated macrophages in the innate immune response, efficient life span control is required. Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces downstream signaling pathways, which merge to induce the expression of cytokine genes and anti-apoptotic genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important inflammatory response modulators, but information about their functional impact on apoptosis is scarce. To identify miRNAs differentially expressed in response to LPS, cDNA libraries from untreated and LPS-activated murine macrophages were analyzed by deep sequencing and regulated miRNA expression was verified by Northern blotting and qPCR. Employing TargetScan(TM) we identified CASPASE-3 (CASP-3) mRNA that encodes a key player in apoptosis as potential target of LPS-induced miR-155. LPS-dependent primary macrophage activation revealed TLR4-mediated enhancement of miR-155 expression and CASP-3 mRNA reduction. Endogenous CASP-3 and cleaved CASP-3 protein declined in LPS-activated macrophages. Accumulation of miR-155 and CASP-3 mRNA in miRNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISC) was demonstrated by ARGONAUTE 2 (AGO2) immunoprecipitation. Importantly, specific antagomir transfection effectively reduced mature miR-155 and resulted in significantly elevated CASP-3 mRNA levels in activated macrophages. In vitro translation assays demonstrated that the target site in the CASP-3 mRNA 3'UTR mediates miR-155-dependent Luciferase reporter mRNA destabilization. Strikingly, Annexin V staining of macrophages transfected with antagomir-155 and stimulated with LPS prior to staurosporine (SSP) treatment implied that LPS-induced miR-155 prevents apoptosis through CASP-3 mRNA down-regulation. In conclusion, we report that miR-155-mediated CASP-3 mRNA destabilization in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages suppresses apoptosis, as a prerequisite to maintain their crucial function in inflammation. PMID:26574931

  14. Fluorescence-quenching-based homogeneous caspase-3 activity assay using photon upconversion

    Vuojola, Johanna, E-mail: johanna.vuojola@utu.fi [Department of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Tykistoekatu 6A, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Riuttamaeki, Terhi; Kulta, Essi; Arppe, Riikka; Soukka, Tero [Department of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Tykistoekatu 6A, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)

    2012-05-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the use of photon upconversion in a caspase-3 activity assay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The separation-free assay uses an internally quenched substrate peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCPs enable simple instrumentation and total elimination of autofluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sensitive assay with high signal-to-background ratios was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suitable for high-throughput screening through miniaturization and white plates. - Abstract: Caspase proteases are key mediators in apoptosis and thus of great interest in pharmaceutical industry. Enzyme-activity assays are commonly employed in the screening of protease inhibitors that are potential drug candidates. Conventional homogeneous fluorescence-based assays are susceptible to autofluorescence originating from biological material. This background autofluorescence can be eliminated by using upconverting phosphors (UCPs) that emit visible light upon excitation at near-infrared. In the assay energy was transferred from a UCP-donor to a conventional fluorophore acceptor that resided at one end of a caspase-3-specific substrate peptide. Attached to the other end was a quencher molecule that was used to attenuate the acceptor emission through intramolecular energy transfer in an intact peptide. In non-inhibitory conditions the enzyme reaction separated the fluorophore from the quencher and the emission of the fluorophore was recovered. The method was applied for the detection and characterization of a known caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK, and the assay gave IC{sub 50} values of approximately 13 nM for this inhibitor. We have demonstrated the applicability of UCPs on a fluorescence-quenching-based homogeneous enzyme-activity assay for the detection of caspase-3 inhibitors. The use of near-infrared excitable UCPs enables inexpensive instrumentation and total elimination of autofluorescence, while the use of an

  15. Large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 in E. coli by designing its thrombin-activatable precursors

    Park Sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3, a principal apoptotic effector that cleaves the majority of cellular substrates, is an important medicinal target for the treatment of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Large amounts of the protein are required for drug discovery research. However, previous efforts to express the full-length caspase-3 gene in E. coli have been unsuccessful. Results Overproducers of thrombin-activatable full-length caspase-3 precursors were prepared by engineering the auto-activation sites of caspase-3 precursor into a sequence susceptible to thrombin hydrolysis. The engineered precursors were highly expressed as soluble proteins in E. coli and easily purified by affinity chromatography, to levels of 10–15 mg from 1 L of E. coli culture, and readily activated by thrombin digestion. Kinetic evaluation disclosed that thrombin digestion enhanced catalytic activity (kcat/KM of the precursor proteins by two orders of magnitude. Conclusion A novel method for a large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 was developed by a strategic engineering to lack auto-activation during expression with amino acid sequences susceptible to thrombin, facilitating high-level expression in E. coli. The precursor protein was easily purified and activated through specific cleavage at the engineered sites by thrombin, generating active caspase-3 in high yields.

  16. Allopurinol’s effect on caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity in hypoxic-ischemic newborn rats

    Kenan Özcan; Mehmet Satar; Necmiye Canacankatan; Erdal Taşkın; Kenan Dağlıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: During reperfusion period of hypoxia-ischemia, cyclooxygenase and xanthine oxidase pathways are induced. A xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol has been shown to be neuroprotective in hypoxic- ischemic encephalopathy. Caspase-8 and caspase-3 have a key role in neuronal apoptosis. We aimed to test repeated doses of allopurinol’s effect on caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities in newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Material and Method: Seven days old newborn rats were taken ...

  17. Caspase 3 involves in neuroplasticity, microglial activation and neurogenesis in the mice hippocampus after intracerebral injection of kainic acid

    Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Tsay, Huey-Jen; Chang, Luping; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Lai, Tzu-Hsuan; Huang, Fong-Lee; Shiao, Young-Ji

    2013-01-01

    Background The roles of caspase 3 on the kainic acid-mediated neurodegeneration, dendritic plasticity alteration, neurogenesis, microglial activation and gliosis are not fully understood. Here, we investigate hippocampal changes using a mouse model that receive a single kainic acid-intracerebral ventricle injection. The effects of caspase 3 inhibition on these changes were detected during a period of 1 to 7 days post kainic acid injection. Result Neurodegeneration was assessed by Fluoro-Jade ...

  18. Activation of caspase-3 and its correlation with shear force in bovine skeletal muscles during postmortem conditioning.

    Cao, J-X; Ou, C-R; Zou, Y-F; Ye, K-P; Zhang, Q-Q; Khan, M A; Pan, D-D; Zhou, G

    2013-09-01

    The study was aimed at exploring the mechanism of tenderization by establishing a correlation between caspase-3 activity and shear force, verifying the activation occurring by analyzing active caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fragments, and understanding the pathways involved in activation of caspase-3 by evaluating its correlation with caspase-8 and -9 activities in LM, semitendinosus (STN), and psoas minor (PM) muscles. The results indicated that shear force decreased at 48 h in PM (P < 0.01), LM (P < 0.01), and STN (P < 0.05). We detected p22, p23, p20, and p18 caspase fragments as well as distinctive PARP fragments of 24 kDa by caspase-3 and 36 kDa by µ-calpain. Caspase-3 activity correlated with shear force negatively at 24 and 48 h in STN (P < 0.01 at 24 h; P < 0.01 at 48 h), PM (P < 0.001 at 24 h; P < 0.01 at 48 h), and LM muscles (P < 0.05 at 24 h; P < 0.01 at 48 h). The greatest activities of caspase-8 (P < 0.001 in PM and STN; P < 0.01 in LM) and caspase-9 (P < 0.001 in muscles) appeared at 4 h whereas that of caspase-3 was at 24 h (P < 0.001 in muscles). Caspase-9 activity correlated positively with caspase-3 at 4, 24, and 48 h in STN (P < 0.01 at 4 h; P < 0.05 at 24 h; P < 0.001 at 48 h) and at 4 and 96 h in PM (P < 0.001 at 4 h; P < 0.05 at 96 h) and LM muscles (P < 0.001 at 4 h; P < 0.001 at 96 h). The caspase-8 activity correlated with caspase-3 at 4, 48, and 96 h in STN (P < 0.05 at 4 h; P < 0.001 at 48 h; P < 0.05 at 96 h), at 4 and 24 h in PM (P < 0.001 at 4 h; P < 0.05 at 24 h), and at 4 and 96 h in LM (P < 0.001 at 4 h; P < 0.01 at 96 h). We concluded that caspase-3 was associated with the decline of shear force; the activation of caspase-3 was mediated by caspases -8 and -9 in muscles. However, more detailed studies are needed to define the precise mechanism for the cleavage of pro-caspases -8 and -9 during conditioning. PMID:23893998

  19. Glucosidase II β-subunit, a novel substrate for caspase-3-like activity in rice, plays as a molecular switch between autophagy and programmed cell death.

    Cui, Jing; Chen, Bing; Wang, Hongjuan; Han, Yue; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy. However, prolonged, severe stresses activate programmed cell death (PCD) in both animal and plant cells. Compared to the well-studied UPR pathway, the molecular mechanisms of ER-stress-induced PCD are less understood. Here, we report the identification of Gas2, the glucosidase II β subunit in the ER, as a potential switch between PCD and autophagy in rice. MS analysis identified Gas2, GRP94, and HSP40 protein in a purified caspase-3-like activity from heat stressed rice cell suspensions. The three corresponding genes were down-regulated under DTT-induced ER stress. Gas2 and GRP94 were localized to the ER, while HSP40 localized to the cytoplasm. Compared to wild-type, a Gas2 RNAi cell line was much sensitive to DTT treatment and had high levels of autophagy. Both caspase-3 and heat-stressed cell suspension lysate could cleave Gas2, producing a 14 kDa N-terminal fragment. Conditional expression of corresponding C-terminal fragment resulted in enhanced caspase-3-like activity in the protoplasts under heat stress. We proposed that mild ER stress causes down-regulation of Gas2 and induces autophagy, while severe stress results in Gas2 cleavage by caspase-3-like activity and the cleavage product amplifies this activity, possibly participating in the initiation of PCD. PMID:27538481

  20. Glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons is inhibited by equine estrogens via down-regulation of caspase-3 and prevention of mitochondrial cytochrome c release

    Zhang YueMei

    2005-02-01

    absence of 17β-estradiol or Δ8, 17β-estradiol (10 nM-10 μM resulted in the prevention of cell death and was associated with a significant dose-dependent decrease in caspase-3 protein levels, with Δ8, 17β-E2 being more potent than 17β-E2. Protein levels of Fas receptor remained unchanged in the presence of glutamate. In contrast, treatment with glutamate induced, in a time-dependent manner, the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Cytosolic cytochrome c increased as early as 1.5 h after glutamate treatment and these levels were 5 fold higher after 6 h, compared to levels in the untreated cells. Concomitant with these changes, the levels of cytochrome c in mitochondria decreased significantly. Both 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 reduced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and this decrease in cytosolic cytochrome c was associated with inhibition of glutamate-induced cell death. Conclusion In the primary cortical cells, glutamate-induced apoptosis is accompanied by up-regulation of caspase-3 and its activity is blocked by caspase protease inhibitors. These effects of glutamate on caspase-3 appear to be independent of changes in Fas receptor, but are associated with the rapid release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, which precedes changes in caspase-3 protein levels leading to apoptotic cell death. This process was differentially inhibited by estrogens with the novel equine estrogen Δ8, 17β-E2 being more potent than 17β-E2. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that equine estrogens can prevent glutamate-induced translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol in rat primary cortical cells.

  1. Imaging of caspase-3 activation by a novel FRET probe composed of CFP and DsRed

    Lin, Juquiang; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Caspases-3 is a kind of cysteine proteases and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. It has been reported that caspase-3 activation can be real-time detected in living cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. However, the large spectral overlap between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) emission and the highly sensitivity to pH of YFP restricted their detecting sensitivity and reliability. CFP and red fluorescent protein (DsRed) possess superb wavelength separation of donor and acceptor emission spectra and DsRed was insensitive to pH, so the FRET probe composed of CFP and DsRed would be more suitable for imaging caspase-3 activation than the FRET probe composed of CFP and YFP. We constructed a vector that encoded CRS (caspase-3 recognition site) fused with CFP and DsRed (CFP-CRS-DsRed). In CFP-CRS-DsRed expressing tumor cells, FRET from CFP to DsRed could be detected. In the Clinical applications of cancer chemotherapy, cisplatin is one of the most broadly used drugs. It was already confirmed that caspase-3 was activated in HeLa cell treated by cisplatin. When the cells were stimulated with cisplatin, we found that the FRET efficient was remarkably decreased and then disappeared. It indicated that actived caspase-3 cleaved the CFP-CRS-DsRed fusion protein at CRS site. Thus, the FRET probe of CFP-CRS-DsRed could sensitively and reliably monitor caspase-3 activation in living cell. This probe will be highly useful for rapid-screening potential drugs that may target the apoptotic process and for imaging tumors in vivo.

  2. Prostaglandin F2alpha- and FAS-activating antibody-induced regression of the corpus luteum involves caspase-8 and is defective in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Flavell Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We recently demonstrated that caspase-3 is important for apoptosis during spontaneous involution of the corpus luteum (CL. These studies tested if prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α or FAS regulated luteal regression, utilize a caspase-3 dependent pathway to execute luteal cell apoptosis, and if the two receptors work via independent or potentially shared intracellular signaling components/pathways to activate caspase-3. Wild-type (WT or caspase-3 deficient female mice, 25–26 days old, were given 10 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG intraperitoneally (IP followed by 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG IP 46 h later to synchronize ovulation. The animals were then injected with IgG (2 micrograms, i.v., the FAS-activating antibody Jo2 (2 micrograms, i.v., or PGF2α (10 micrograms, i.p. at 24 or 48 h post-ovulation. Ovaries from each group were collected 8 h later for assessment of active caspase-3 enzyme and apoptosis (measured by the TUNEL assay in the CL. Regardless of genotype or treatment, CL in ovaries collected from mice injected 24 h after ovulation showed no evidence of active caspase-3 or apoptosis. However, PGF2α or Jo2 at 48 h post-ovulation and collected 8 h later induced caspase-3 activation in 13.2 ± 1.8% and 13.7 ± 2.2 % of the cells, respectively and resulted in 16.35 ± 0.7% (PGF2α and 14.3 ± 2.5% TUNEL-positive cells when compared to 1.48 ± 0.8% of cells CL in IgG treated controls. In contrast, CL in ovaries collected from caspase-3 deficient mice whether treated with PGF2α , Jo2, or control IgG at 48 h post-ovulation showed little evidence of active caspase-3 or apoptosis. CL of WT mice treated with Jo2 at 48 h post-ovulation had an 8-fold increase in the activity of caspase-8, an activator of caspase-3 that is coupled to the FAS death receptor. Somewhat unexpectedly, however, treatment of WT mice with PGF2α at 48 h post-ovulation resulted in a 22-fold increase in caspase-8 activity in the CL, despite the fact

  3. A facile method to prepare large quantities of active caspase-3 overexpressed by auto-induction in the C41(DE3) strain.

    Hwang, Dohyeon; Kim, Sang Ah; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Song, Hyun Kyu; Chung, Hak Suk

    2016-10-01

    Since human Caspase-3, a member of the cysteine protease family, plays important roles not only in the apoptosis pathway as an executioner protein, but also in neurological disorders as a critical factor, biomedical researchers have been interested in the development of modulators of caspase-3 activity. Such studies require large quantities of purified active caspase-3. So far, purification of soluble caspase-3 from full-length human caspase-3 in Escherichia coli (E. coli) yields only several mg from a liter of culture media. Therefore, a number of alternative strategies to purify active caspase-3 have been described in the literature, including refolding and protein engineering. In this study, we systematically study the effects of host E. coli strains and growth conditions on purifications of active caspase-3 from full-length human caspase-3. Using a combination of conditions that include use of the C41(DE3) strain, low-temperature expression, and auto-induction that induces caspase-3 expression depending on metabolic state of the individual host cell, we are able to obtain 14-17 mg caspase-3 per liter of culture, an amount that is about 7 times larger than published results. This optimized expression and purification method for caspase-3 can be easily scaled up to facilitate the demand for active enzyme. PMID:27320415

  4. Complementary optical and nuclear imaging of caspase-3 activity using combined activatable and radio-labeled multimodality molecular probe

    Lee, Hyeran; Akers, Walter J.; Cheney, Philip P.; Edwards, W. Barry; Liang, Kexian; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-07-01

    Based on the capability of modulating fluorescence intensity by specific molecular events, we report a new multimodal optical-nuclear molecular probe with complementary reporting strategies. The molecular probe (LS498) consists of tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA) for chelating a radionuclide, a near-infrared fluorescent dye, and an efficient quencher dye. The two dyes are separated by a cleavable peptide substrate for caspase-3, a diagnostic enzyme that is upregulated in dying cells. LS498 is radiolabeled with 64Cu, a radionuclide used in positron emission tomography. In the native form, LS498 fluorescence is quenched until caspase-3 cleavage of the peptide substrate. Enzyme kinetics assay shows that LS498 is readily cleaved by caspase-3, with excellent enzyme kinetic parameters kcat and KM of 0.55+/-0.01 s-1 and 1.12+/-0.06 μM, respectively. In mice, the initial fluorescence of LS498 is ten-fold less than control. Using radiolabeled 64Cu-LS498 in a controlled and localized in-vivo model of caspase-3 activation, a time-dependent five-fold NIR fluorescence enhancement is observed, but radioactivity remains identical in caspase-3 positive and negative controls. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using radionuclide imaging for localizing and quantifying the distribution of molecular probes and optical imaging for reporting the functional status of diagnostic enzymes.

  5. Allopurinol’s effect on caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity in hypoxic-ischemic newborn rats

    Kenan Özcan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: During reperfusion period of hypoxia-ischemia, cyclooxygenase and xanthine oxidase pathways are induced. A xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol has been shown to be neuroprotective in hypoxic- ischemic encephalopathy. Caspase-8 and caspase-3 have a key role in neuronal apoptosis. We aimed to test repeated doses of allopurinol’s effect on caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities in newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Material and Method: Seven days old newborn rats were taken and there were 10 rats in each group. After Ethical Committee was approved (TIBDAM-25, rats were subjected to left carotid artery ligation and hypoxia (8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for two and half hours. Hypoxic ischemic rats treated with 24 mg/kg allopurinol 30 minutes and 12 hours (AL48 group, and 30 minutes, 12 and 24 hours (AL72 group after hypoxic- ischemic insult. Twenty four hours after last dose, rats were decapitated. The others groups were sham and saline- treated hypoxic- ischemic (H-I group. Caspase- 3 and caspase- 8 activities were measured in both hemispheres.Results: There was no difference in caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities between right and left brain hemispheres in each group (p>0.05. Caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities were significantly lower in sham group when compared to H-I group, AL48 and AL72 groups (all of it, p=0.0001. Even though there were no difference activities of caspase- 3 and caspase- 8 between H-I group and AL48 group (p>0.05, activities of caspase- 3 and caspase- 8 in AL72 group were significantly lower than H-I group and AL48 group (respectively p= 0.0001, p=0.001. Conclusions: Decreased activities of caspase- 3 and caspase- 8 in AL72 group may suggest that totally dosage of 72 mg/kg allopurinol may be effective for reducing neuronal apoptosis in newborn rats with hypoxic- ischemic insult. (Turk Arch Ped 2013; 48: 48-52

  6. Propofol and magnesium attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation via inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Zhang Yiying

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP and induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Cyclosporine A, a blocker of mPTP opening might attenuate the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening, lessening its ripple effects. Magnesium and anesthetic propofol are also mPTP blockers. We therefore set out to determine whether propofol and magnesium can attenuate the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and mPTP opening. Methods We investigated the effects of magnesium sulfate (Mg2+, propofol, and isoflurane on the opening of mPTP and caspase activation in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP (H4 APP cells and in six day-old wild-type mice, employing Western blot analysis and flowcytometry. Results Here we show that Mg2+ and propofol attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4-APP cells and mouse brain tissue. Moreover, Mg2+ and propofol, the blockers of mPTP opening, mitigated the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening in the H4-APP cells. Conclusion These data illustrate that Mg2+ and propofol may ameliorate the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting its mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings may suggest the use of Mg2+ and propofol in preventing and treating anesthesia neurotoxicity.

  7. Inhibition of Corydalis decumbens Alkaloids on Hydrogen Peroxideinduced Apoptosis of PC12 Cells through Down-regulating Caspase-3 Expression

    YAN Ren-jie; YANG Yi-fang; LUO Yong-ming; WU Chun-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To extract alkaloids from Corydalis decumbens (AsCD) by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE) and to evaluate protective effects of AsCD against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in rat PC12 cells.Methods AsCD were extracted by SFE and oxidative damage PC12 cells model was induced by H2O2.The survival rate of the cells was determined by MTT assay; Lactate dehydrogenase release was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry; Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis; Caspase-3 mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting assay,respectively.Results AsCD remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity,prevented membrane damage,and inhibited cell apoptosis.AsCD inhibited Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression induced by H2O2 in PC12 cells.Conclusion AsCD possess protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells,and the mechanism of AsCD responsible to the inhibition of apoptosis is possibly attributed to thedown-regulating Caspase-3 expression.AsCD might be useful in the treatment of oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Wood dusts induce the production of reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 activity in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Wood dusts are associated with several respiratory symptoms, e.g. impaired lung function and asthma, in exposed workers. However, despite the evidence from epidemiological studies, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated different wood dusts for their capacity to induce cytotoxicity and production of radical oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of the apoptotic caspase-3 enzyme in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Dusts from three different tree species widely used in wood industry were studied; birch and oak represented hardwood species, and pine a common softwood species. All the experiments were carried out in three different concentrations (10, 50, and 500 μg/ml) and the analysis was performed after 0.5, 2, 6, and 24 h exposure. All wood dusts studied were cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner after 2 and 6 h treatment. Exposure to pine, birch, or oak dust had a significant stimulating effect on the production of ROS. Also an induction in caspase-3 protease activity, one of the central components of the apoptotic cascade, was seen in BEAS-2B cells after 2 and 6 h exposure to each of the wood dusts studied. In summary, we demonstrate that dusts from pine, birch and oak are cytotoxic, able to increase the production of ROS and the apoptotic response in human broncho-epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, our current data suggest oxidative stress by ROS as an important mechanism likely to function in wood dust related pulmonary toxicity although details of the cellular targets and cell-particle interactions remain to be solved. It is though tempting to speculate that redox-regulated transcription factors such as NFκB or AP-1 may play a role in this wood dust-evoked process leading to apparently induced apoptosis of target cells.

  9. Effects of camptothecin, etoposide and Ca2+ on caspase-3 activity and myofibrillar disruption of chicken during postmortem ageing.

    Chen, Lin; Feng, Xian Chao; Lu, Feng; Xu, Xing Lian; Zhou, Guang Hong; Li, Qing Yun; Guo, Xiang Ying

    2011-03-01

    Recently, a novel consideration has focused on the potential relationship of apoptosis and the protease caspases and the underlying mechanism for meat postmortem tenderization. In this study, apoptosis inducers, camptothecin and etoposide as well as Ca(2+) were used to treat chicken muscle immediately after slaughter and follow the changes in caspase-3 activities and changes in the myofibrillar structures during 7 days of ageing. All three treatments resulted in significantly higher caspase-3 activities during storage (p<0.05), with the natural substrates, whereas Western blotting analysis of the α-spectrin cleavage product, 120 kDa peptide (SBDP 120), showed that Ca(2+) was more effective than either camptothecin or etopside, and all were most active up to day 3 (p<0.01). According to SDS-PAGE, each treatment enhanced the accumulation of the 30 kD Troponin-T degradation product, especially during the first 3 days (p<0.05), and this was supported by the degradation of myofibrils observed by electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images showed the treatments resulted in enlargement of the I-bands and shrinkage of A-bands; however Z-lines were only slightly affected, even at day 7. The findings revealed that the three apoptosis inducers could increase myofibrillar dissociation and proteolysis during the first 3 days of chicken meat ageing. Because of the high activity of caspase-3 during the early postmortem period, it is possible that caspase-3 contributes to the conversion of muscle into meat. PMID:21055882

  10. Homocysteine thiolactone induces apoptotic DNA damage mediated by increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide and caspase 3 activation in HL-60 cells.

    Huang, R F; Huang, S M; Lin, B S; Wei, J S; Liu, T Z

    2001-05-11

    The cytotoxicity of homocysteine derivatives on chromosomal damage in somatic cells is not well established. The present study used reactive homocysteine derivative of homocysteine thiolactone (Hcy) to investigate its causal effect on apoptotic DNA injury in human promyeloid HL-60 cells. Our results demonstrated that Hcy induced cell death and features of apoptosis including increased phosphotidylserine exposure on the membrane surface, increased apoptotic cells with hypoploid DNA contents, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, all of which occurred in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Hcy treatment also significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species H2O2, which coincided with the elimination of caspase 3 proenzyme levels and increased caspase 3 activity at the time of the appearance of apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Preincubation of Hcy-treated HL-60 cells with catalase completely scavenged intracellular H2O2, thus inhibiting caspase 3 activity and protecting cells from apoptotic DNA damage. In contrast, superoxide dismutase failed to inhibit Hcy-induced DNA damage. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Hcy exerted its genotoxic effects on HL-60 cells through an apoptotic pathway, which is mediated by the activation of caspase 3 activity induced by an increase in intracellular hydrogen peroxide. PMID:11432446

  11. Isolation and characterization of a Solanum tuberosum subtilisin-like protein with caspase-3 activity (StSBTc-3).

    Fernández, María Belén; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteases with caspase-like enzymatic activity have been widely studied during the last decade. Previously, we have reported the presence and induction of caspase-3 like activity in the apoplast of potato leaves during Solanum tuberosum- Phytophthora infestans interaction. In this work we have purified and identified a potato extracellular protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity from potato leaves infected with P. infestans. Results obtained from the size exclusion chromatography show that the isolated protease is a monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 70 kDa approximately. Purified protease was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, showing a 100% of sequence identity with the deduced amino acid sequence of a putative subtilisin-like protease from S. tuberosum (Solgenomics protein ID: PGSC0003DMP400018521). For this reason the isolated protease was named as StSBTc-3. This report constitutes the first evidence of isolation and identification of a plant subtilisin-like protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity. In order to elucidate the possible function of StSBTc-3 during plant pathogen interaction, we demonstrate that like animal caspase-3, StSBTc-3 is able to produce in vitro cytoplasm shrinkage in plant cells and to induce plant cell death. This result suggest that, StSBTc-3 could exert a caspase executer function during potato- P. infestans interaction, resulting in the restriction of the pathogen spread during plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:25486023

  12. Regulation of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 Expression in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Cells by Abrin

    V. Ramnath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of abrin, a toxic lectin isolated from seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn in inducing apoptosis in murine Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA cells was evaluated. Abrin when incubated at the concentration of 10 ng per million DLA cells could bring about cell death as typical morphological changes with apoptosis. However, necrotic cell death dominated when a higher dose of abrin was used. DNA samples, isolated from DLA cells treated with abrin showed fragmentation. Abrin brought about induction of apoptosis by stimulating the expression of pro-apoptotic Caspase-3, at the same time blocking the expression of Bcl-2, which is an anti apoptotic gene. However, the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 has not been observed in control and abrin-treated DLA cells. Results suggested that abrin effectively induced apoptotic changes in the tumor cells that led to cellular death.

  13. Dioscin-induced apoptosis of human LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells through activation of caspase-3 and modulation of Bcl-2 protein family.

    Chen, Jing; Li, Hui-min; Zhang, Xue-nong; Xiong, Chao-mei; Ruan, Jin-lan

    2014-02-01

    Dioscin is a natural steroid saponin derived from several plants, showing potent anti-cancer effect against a variety of tumor cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of dioscin against human LNCaP cells, and evaluated the possible mechanism involved in its antineoplastic action. It was found that dioscin (1, 2 and 4 μmol/L) could significantly inhibit the viability of LNCaP cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry revealed that the apoptosis rate was increased after treatment of LNCaP cells with dioscin for 24 h, indicating that apoptosis was an important mechanism by which dioscin inhibited cancer. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax in LNCaP cells. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly increased, and meanwhile procaspase-3 was markedly decreased. The expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated, whereas the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was up-regulated. Moreover, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was drastically decreased. These results suggested that dioscin possessed potential anti-tumor activity in human LNCaP cells through the apoptosis pathway, which might be associated with caspase-3 and Bcl-2 protein family. PMID:24496691

  14. Caspase-3 dependent nitrergic neuronal apoptosis following cavernous nerve injury is mediated via RhoA and ROCK activation in major pelvic ganglion.

    Hannan, Johanna L; Matsui, Hotaka; Sopko, Nikolai A; Liu, Xiaopu; Weyne, Emmanuel; Albersen, Maarten; Watson, Joseph W; Hoke, Ahmet; Burnett, Arthur L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2016-01-01

    Axonal injury due to prostatectomy leads to Wallerian degeneration of the cavernous nerve (CN) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Return of potency is dependent on axonal regeneration and reinnervation of the penis. Following CN injury (CNI), RhoA and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) increase in penile endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Previous studies indicate that nerve regeneration is hampered by activation of RhoA/ROCK pathway. We evaluated the role of RhoA/ROCK pathway in CN regulation following CNI using a validated rat model. CNI upregulated gene and protein expression of RhoA/ROCK and caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG). ROCK inhibitor (ROCK-I) prevented upregulation of RhoA/ROCK pathway as well as activation of caspase-3 in the MPG. Following CNI, there was decrease in the dimer to monomer ratio of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and lowered NOS activity in the MPG, which were prevented by ROCK-I. CNI lowered intracavernous pressure and impaired non-adrenergic non-cholinergic-mediated relaxation in the penis, consistent with ED. ROCK-I maintained the intracavernous pressure and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic-mediated relaxation in the penis following CNI. These results suggest that activation of RhoA/ROCK pathway mediates caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of nitrergic neurons in the MPG following CNI and that ROCK-I can prevent post-prostatectomy ED. PMID:27388816

  15. Caspase 3 activation in the primary enamel knot of developing molar tooth

    Matalová, Eva; Kovářů, František; Míšek, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, 2 (2006), s. 183-188. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/04/0101; GA AV ČR KJB500450503; GA MŠk OC B23.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : apoptosis * caspase 3 * primary enamel knot Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  16. Colorimetric Detection of Caspase 3 Activity and Reactive Oxygen Derivatives: Potential Early Indicators of Thermal Stress in Corals

    Mickael Ros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop and implement rapid assessments of coral health to allow effective adaptive management in response to coastal development and global change. There is now increasing evidence that activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis plays a key role during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this study, a “clinical” approach was used to assess coral health by measuring the activity of caspase 3 using a commercial kit. This method was first applied while inducing thermal bleaching in two coral species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora damicornis. The latter species was then chosen to undergo further studies combining the detection of oxidative stress-related compounds (catalase activity and glutathione concentrations as well as caspase activity during both stress and recovery phases. Zooxanthellae photosystem II (PSII efficiency and cell density were measured in parallel to assess symbiont health. Our results demonstrate that the increased caspase 3 activity in the coral host could be detected before observing any significant decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the algal symbionts and/or their expulsion from the host. This study highlights the potential of host caspase 3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities as early indicators of stress in individual coral colonies.

  17. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments. PMID:27130972

  18. Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus microRNAs Target Caspase 3 and Regulate Apoptosis

    Guillaume Suffert; Georg Malterer; Jean Hausser; Johanna Viiliäinen; Aurélie Fender; Maud Contrant; Tomi Ivacevic; Vladimir Benes; Frédéric Gros; Olivier Voinnet; Mihaela Zavolan; Ojala, Päivi M.; Haas, Juergen G.; Sébastien Pfeffer

    2011-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a cluster of twelve micro (mi)RNAs, which are abundantly expressed during both latent and lytic infection. Previous studies reported that KSHV is able to inhibit apoptosis during latent infection; we thus tested the involvement of viral miRNAs in this process. We found that both HEK293 epithelial cells and DG75 cells stably expressing KSHV miRNAs were protected from apoptosis. Potential cellular targets that were significantly down-regulated upon KS...

  19. Elevated Levels of Uterine Anti-Apoptotic Signaling May Activate NFKB and Potentially Confer Resistance to Caspase 3-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death During Pregnancy in Mice1

    Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Subedi, Kalpana; Suresh, Arvind; Condon, Jennifer C.

    2011-01-01

    Preserving the uterus in a state of relative quiescence is vital to the maintenance of a successful pregnancy. Elevated cytoplasmic levels of uterine caspase 3 during pregnancy have been proposed as a potential regulator of uterine quiescence through direct targeting and disabling of the uterine contractile architecture. However, despite highly elevated levels of uterine caspase 3 during pregnancy, there is minimal evidence of apoptosis. This current study defines the mechanism whereby the pr...

  20. Active caspase-3 detection to evaluate apoptosis induced by Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells

    Laura De Martino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Verbena officinalis L., Verbenaceae, commonly known as vervain, is a plant widely used in medicine. Despite of its widespread use in different traditional practices, the mechanisms of pharmacological actions of the plant and its volatile oil are still unclear. We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of V. officinalis essential oil and of its main component, citral, on lymphocytes collected from ten patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, a disease in which a faulty apoptotic mechanism is still retained one of the primary pathogenic events, by adding to treated mononuclear cells, annexin-V, propidium iodide, and CD19. Apoptosis was also evaluated using anti-active-caspase-3 monoclonal antibody after permeabilization of the cells. Both V. officinalis essential oil and citral were found able to induce apoptosis in CLL cells and to activate caspase-3, which is considered the way by means they active apoptosis in B neoplastic cells. This data further support evidences that indicate natural compounds as possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents for CLL.

  1. Elevated caspase 3 activity and cytosolic cytochrome c in NT2 cybrids containing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis subject mtDNA.

    Shrivastava, Mohita; Subbiah, Vivekanandhan

    2016-09-01

    Apoptosis of motor neurons is an important feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A vital role of mitochondria in apoptosis and cell survival is well documented. Eventually mitochondria have shown to be an early target in the pathogenesis of ALS. On account of these facts, we investigated the involvement of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in ALS and control (CTR) cybrids, generated fusing human platelets with mitochondrial DNA-depleted NT2-neuroteratocarcinoma cells. After a 6 week selection process during which transferred subject mtDNA repopulated the NT2 cells and restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, we assessed cell viability and two programmed cell death parameters, caspase 3 activity and cytosolic cytochrome c levels. Compared to the control cybrid lines (n = 5), the ALS cybrid lines (n = 10) showed 45% less XTT reduction and higher caspase 3 activity ( p ALS cybrid lines (n = 8) than in CTR (n = 4) ( p ALS. Our findings support the view that in ALS, subject's mitochondria are altered in non-degenerating tissues in such a way that intrinsic apoptotic pathway activity is relatively increased. PMID:26268635

  2. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca2+]i elevation

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca2+]i increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca2+ chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca2+]i increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca2+-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation

  3. ERK activation promotes neuronal degeneration predominantly through plasma membrane damage and independently of caspase-3

    Subramaniam, Srinivasa; Zirrgiebel, Ute; von Bohlen und Halbach, Oliver; Strelau, Jens; Laliberté, Christine; Kaplan, David R.; Unsicker, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Our recent studies have shown that extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) promotes cell death in cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) cultured in low potassium. Here we report that the “death” phenotypes of CGN after potassium withdrawal are heterogeneous, allowing the distinction between plasma membrane (PM)–, DNA-, and PM/DNA-damaged populations. These damaged neurons display nuclear condensation that precedes PM or DNA damage. Inhibition of ERK activation either by U0126 or by dominant-n...

  4. LPS inhibits caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by the AMPK activator AICAR

    Highlights: • AMPK-activation induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. • Apoptosis is associated with decreased mTOR and increased p21 levels. • All effects can be significantly inhibited by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. - Abstract: AMP-activated kinase is a cellular energy sensor which is activated in stages of increased ATP consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decreasing inflammatory processes and the disease progress of diabetes and obesity, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activation has been linked with induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer and vascular cells, indicating that it might have a therapeutic impact for the treatment of cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the impact of AMPK on the proliferation of macrophages, which also play a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and in inflammatory processes, has not been focused so far. We have assessed the influence of AICAR- and metformin-induced AMPK activation on cell viability of macrophages with and without inflammatory stimulation, respectively. In cells without inflammatory stimulation, we found a strong induction of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis associated with decreased mTOR levels and increased expression of p21. Interestingly, these effects could be inhibited by co-stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by other proinflammatory cytokines suggesting that AICAR induces apoptosis via AMPK in a TLR4-pathway dependent manner. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK activation is not only associated with positive effects but might also contribute to risk factors by disturbing important features of macrophages. The fact that LPS is able to restore AMPK-associated apoptosis might indicate an important role of TLR4 agonists in preventing unfavorable cell death of immune cells

  5. LPS inhibits caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by the AMPK activator AICAR

    Russe, Otto Quintus, E-mail: quintus@russe.eu; Möser, Christine V., E-mail: chmoeser@hotmail.com; Kynast, Katharina L., E-mail: katharina.kynast@googlemail.com; King, Tanya S., E-mail: tanya.sarah.king@googlemail.com; Olbrich, Katrin, E-mail: Katrin.olbrich@gmx.net; Grösch, Sabine, E-mail: groesch@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Geisslinger, Gerd, E-mail: geisslinger@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Niederberger, Ellen, E-mail: e.niederberger@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • AMPK-activation induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. • Apoptosis is associated with decreased mTOR and increased p21 levels. • All effects can be significantly inhibited by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. - Abstract: AMP-activated kinase is a cellular energy sensor which is activated in stages of increased ATP consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decreasing inflammatory processes and the disease progress of diabetes and obesity, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activation has been linked with induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer and vascular cells, indicating that it might have a therapeutic impact for the treatment of cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the impact of AMPK on the proliferation of macrophages, which also play a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and in inflammatory processes, has not been focused so far. We have assessed the influence of AICAR- and metformin-induced AMPK activation on cell viability of macrophages with and without inflammatory stimulation, respectively. In cells without inflammatory stimulation, we found a strong induction of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis associated with decreased mTOR levels and increased expression of p21. Interestingly, these effects could be inhibited by co-stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by other proinflammatory cytokines suggesting that AICAR induces apoptosis via AMPK in a TLR4-pathway dependent manner. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK activation is not only associated with positive effects but might also contribute to risk factors by disturbing important features of macrophages. The fact that LPS is able to restore AMPK-associated apoptosis might indicate an important role of TLR4 agonists in preventing unfavorable cell death of immune cells.

  6. Expression of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and caspase-3 in pituitary adenomas

    Dong Li; Gang Huo; Liang Wang; Qinglin Feng; Maoyuan Tang

    2011-01-01

    Studies concerning correlations between pituitary adenomas and cell apoptosis have mainly focused on upstream apoptosis signaling, but seldom on downstream mediators. In the present study, second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and caspase-3 protein were qualitatively analyzed using imrnunohistochemistry, and quantified by western blot. Smac, XIAP, and caspase-3 mRNA expressions were detected by reverse transcription-PCR. Results showed that XIAP protein and mRNA expressions were greater in the invasive pituitary adenoma group compared with the noninvasive pituitary adenoma group. However, Smac and caspase-3 protein and mRNA expressions were lower in the invasive pituitary adenoma group compared with the noninvasive pituitary adenoma group. In the invasive pituitary adenomas, Smac expression was positively correlated with caspase-3 protein and mRNA expression (Protein: r=0.55, P<0.01;mRNA: r=0.50, P<0.01). Smac and caspase-3 expressions were negatively correlated with XIAP protein and mRNA expression (Protein: r=-0.56, -0.64, P<0.01;mRNA:r=-0.69,-0.67,P<0.01). However, no significant differences in correlation among Srnac, XIAP, and caspase-3 were detectable in noninvasive pituitary adenomas. These data indicated that high expression of XIAP and low expression of Smac and caspase-3 suppressed cell apoptosis and led to enhanced invasiveness of pituitary adenomas. Thus, Smac, XIAP, and caspase-3 may be useful markers in determining the invasive behavior of pituitary adenomas.

  7. Proteolytic activation of latent TGF-beta precedes caspase-3 activation and enhances apoptotic death of lung epithelial cells.

    Solovyan, Victor T; Keski-Oja, Jorma

    2006-05-01

    Transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betas) are multifunctional cytokines, which are secreted in latent forms in large latent TGF-beta complexes (LL-TGF-beta) with subsequent deposition to the extracellular matrix (ECM). While a variety of mechanisms capable of activating latent TGF-beta in vitro have been described, the physiological conditions, which promote the activation of TGF-beta in vivo are poorly understood. Mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) are a widely used model for evaluation of the effects of exogenous TGF-beta both in transcriptional and growth inhibitor assays. We find here that apoptosis of Mv1Lu cells, induced either by staurosporine or serum deprivation, is accompanied by proteolytic processing of LL-TGF-beta and the activation of endogenous TGF-beta. Activation of TGF-beta preceded caspase-3 activation and was almost completely suppressed by the serine protease inhibitor, AEBSF. Both exogenous and endogenously activated TGF-betas were able to enhance the apoptotic response of Mv1Lu cells leading to potentiation of cell death. Potentiation of cell death by activated TGF-beta was associated with downregulation of Akt and p38 MAPK, which were both activated at the initial stages of Mv1Lu apoptosis and were suppressed by exogenous TGF-beta. Pharmacological interruption of either phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt or p38 MAPK signaling by the specific inhibitors mimicked the effect of TGF-beta leading to potentiation of cell death. Current results suggest that proteolytic activation of endogenous TGF-beta is a component of the apoptotic response, capable of modulating the death of Mv1Lu cells by inhibition of both PI-3K/Akt and p38 MAPK-dependent survival pathways. PMID:16447253

  8. Highly sensitive detection of caspase-3 activities via a nonconjugated gold nanoparticle-quantum dot pair mediated by an inner-filter effect.

    Li, Jingwen; Li, Xinming; Shi, Xiujuan; He, Xuewen; Wei, Wei; Ma, Nan; Chen, Hong

    2013-10-01

    We describe here a simple fluorometric assay for the highly sensitive detection of caspase-3 activities on the basis of the inner-filter effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The method takes advantage of the high molar absorptivity of the plasmon band of gold nanoparticles as well as the large absorption band shift from 520 to 680 nm upon nanoparticle aggregation. When labeled with a peptide possessing the caspase-3 cleavage sequence (DEVD), the monodispersed Au-Ps (peptide-modified AuNPs) exhibited a tendency to aggregate when exposed to caspase-3, which induced the absorption band transition from 520 to 680 nm and turned on the fluorescence of the CdTe QDs for caspase-3 sensing. Under optimum conditions, a high sensitivity towards caspase-3 was achieved with a detection limit as low as 18 pM, which was much lower than the corresponding assays based on absorbance or other approaches. Overall, we demonstrated a facile and sensitive approach for caspase-3 detection, and we expected that this method could be potentially generalized to design more fluorescent assays for sensing other bioactive entities. PMID:24015837

  9. CYP24A1 exacerbated activity during diabetes contributes to kidney tubular apoptosis via caspase-3 increased expression and activation.

    Alexandre Tourigny

    Full Text Available Decreases in circulating 25,hydroxyl-vitamin D3 (25 OH D3 and 1,25,dihydroxyl-vitamin D3 (1,25 (OH2 D3 have been extensively documented in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, the molecular reasons behind this drop, and whether it is a cause or an effect of disease progression is still poorly understood. With the skin and the liver, the kidney is one of the most important sites for vitamin D metabolism. Previous studies have also shown that CYP24A1 (an enzyme implicated in vitamin D metabolism, might play an important role in furthering the progression of kidney lesions during diabetic nephropathy. In this study we show a link between CYP24A1 increase and senescence followed by apoptosis induction in the renal proximal tubules of diabetic kidneys. We show that CYP24A1 expression was increased during diabetic nephropathy progression. This increase derived from protein kinase C activation and increased H(2O(2 cellular production. CYP24A1 increase had a major impact on cellular phenotype, by pushing cells into senescence, and later into apoptosis. Our data suggest that control of CYP24A1 increase during diabetes has a beneficial effect on senescence induction and caspase-3 increased expression. We concluded that diabetes induces an increase in CYP24A1 expression, destabilizing vitamin D metabolism in the renal proximal tubules, leading to cellular instability and apoptosis, and thereby accelerating tubular injury progression during diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Application of a FRET probe for Caspase-3 activation in living HeLa cells by sequentially treated cisplatin and TRAIL

    Lin, Juqiang; Zhang, Zhihong; Yi, Qiushi; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2006-02-01

    Caspase-3 is a kind of cysteine proteases that plays an important role in cell apoptosis. We have constructed a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) probe fused with ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescence protein) and DsRed (Discosoma red fluorescent protein) with a linker containing a caspase-3 cleavage sequence (CCS, DEVD).It could be observed much change in fluorescence emission ratio when the probe was cleaved by caspase-3. Therefore, application of this probe we can real-time detected the activation of caspase-3. It was already confirmed that caspase-3 was activated in HeLa cells treated by cisplatin or TRAIL (Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). In the present study, we detected the activation of caspase-3 during cisplatin or TRAIL induced apoptosis in living HeLa cells, and also observed the activation of caspase-3 caused by both cisplatin and TRAIL combined treatment. Our results demonstrated a synergistic effect between cisplatin and TRAIL. Cisplatin is one of the most broadly used drugs in the Clinical applications of cancer chemotherapy, and TRAIL, which belongs to the TNF family proteins, can selectively induce apoptosis in many transformed cells but not in normal cells. Therefore, TRAIL is a very valuably prospective utility as its potential tumor-specific cancer therapeutic. Most of anticancer drugs can induce apoptosis which mediated by the activation of caspase pathway. We can select the best synergistic effect group by our FRET probe. This finding would be useful in the design of treatment modalities for patients.

  11. Punicalagin attenuated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion insult via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of Bcl-2, down-regulation of Bax, and caspase-3.

    Yaidikar, Lavanya; Thakur, Santhrani

    2015-04-01

    Punicalagin (PG) is a hydrolysable tannin compound found in Punica granatum L. The purpose of the present work is to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of PG against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were randomly divided into sham, MCAO, and PG-treated groups. PG (15 and 30 mg/kg), the vehicle was administered orally for 7 days prior to MCAO. Rats were anesthetised with ketamine (100 mg/kg/im), xylazine (10 mg/kg/im) and subjected to 2 h occlusion and 22 h reperfusion. The effects of PG on behavioral deficit and infarct volume, the levels of glutamate and calcium as well as the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated. Moreover, the expressions of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax were detected by Western blotting. As compared with MCAO group, PG-treated rats showed dose-dependent reduction in infarct volume and substantial improvement in behavioral deficit. The levels of glutamate, calcium, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were restored significantly. The Western blotting results revealed that the expression of Bcl-2 was up-regulated and that of caspase-3, Bax were down-regulated when exposed to PG. From our results, it can be concluded that PG showed an ameliorative effect against cerebral I/R injury in rats through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant actions besides it inhibits excitotoxicity. It also suppresses apoptosis through regulating, Bcl-2, caspase-3, and Bax protein expressions, perhaps another mechanism by which PG employs its neuroprotective action. PMID:25555468

  12. Allosteric modulation of caspase 3 through mutagenesis

    Jad Walters

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mutation in the allosteric site of the caspase 3 dimer interface of Val266 to histidine abolishes activity of the enzyme, and models predict that the mutation mimics the action of small molecule allosteric inhibitors by preventing formation of the active site. Mutations were coupled to His266 at two sites in the interface, E124A and Y197C. We present results from X-ray crystallography, enzymatic activity and molecular dynamics simulations for seven proteins, consisting of single, double and triple mutants. The results demonstrate that considering allosteric inhibition of caspase 3 as a shift between discrete ‘off-state’ or ‘on-state’ conformations is insufficient. Although His266 is accommodated in the interface, the structural defects are propagated to the active site through a helix on the protein surface. A more comprehensive view of allosteric regulation of caspase 3 requires the representation of an ensemble of inactive states and shows that subtle structural changes lead to the population of the inactive ensemble.

  13. Genetically Encoded FRET-Sensor Based on Terbium Chelate and Red Fluorescent Protein for Detection of Caspase-3 Activity

    Goryashchenko, Alexander S.; Maria G. Khrenova; Bochkova, Anna A.; Ivashina, Tatiana V.; Vinokurov, Leonid M.; Alexander P. Savitsky

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the genetically encoded caspase-3 FRET-sensor based on the terbium-binding peptide, cleavable linker with caspase-3 recognition site, and red fluorescent protein TagRFP. The engineered construction performs two induction-resonance energy transfer processes: from tryptophan of the terbium-binding peptide to Tb3+ and from sensitized Tb3+ to acceptor—the chromophore of TagRFP. Long-lived terbium-sensitized emission (microseconds), pulse excitation source, and time-resolved...

  14. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  15. Mercury-Induced Externalization of Phosphatidylserine and Caspase 3 Activation in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis arises from the active initiation and propagation of a series of highly orchestrated specific biochemical events leading to the demise of the cell. It is a normal physiological process, which occurs during embryonic development as well as in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Diverse groups of molecules are involved in the apoptosis pathway and it functions as a mechanism to eliminate unwanted or irreparably damaged cells. However, inappropriate induction of apoptosis by environmental agents has broad ranging pathologic implications and has been associated with several diseases including cancer. The toxicity of several heavy metals such as mercury has been attributed to their high affinity to sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and their ability to disrupt cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis in various tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for mercury to induce early and late-stage apoptosis in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. The Annexin-V and Caspase 3 assays were performed by flow cytometric analysis to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization and Caspase 3 activation in mercury-treated HepG2 cells. Cells were exposed to mercury for 10 and 48 hours respectively at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL based on previous cytotoxicity results in our laboratory indicating an LD50 of 3.5 ± 0.6 μg/mL for mercury in HepG2 cells. The study data indicated a dose response relationship between mercury exposure and the degree of early and late-stage apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The percentages of cells undergoing early apoptosis were 0.03 ± 0.03%, 5.19 ± 0.04%, 6.36 ± 0.04%, and 8.84 ± 0.02% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL of mercury respectively, indicating a gradual increase in apoptotic cells with increasing doses of mercury. The percentages of Caspase 3 positive cells undergoing late apoptosis were 3.58 ± 0.03%, 17.06 ± 0

  16. Quercetin derivative induces cell death in glioma cells by modulating NF-κB nuclear translocation and caspase-3 activation.

    Kiekow, Cíntia J; Figueiró, Fabrício; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Vechia, Luciana Dalla; Pires, Elisa N S; Jandrey, Elisa H F; Gnoatto, Simone C B; Salbego, Christianne G; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Gosmann, Grace

    2016-03-10

    Treated glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients only survive 6 to 14months after diagnosis; therefore, the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat gliomas remains critically necessary. Considering that phenolic compounds, like quercetin, have the potential to be used in the chemotreatment of gliomas and that some flavonoids exhibit the ability to cross the BBB, in the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of flavonoids (including chalcones, flavones, flavanones and flavonols). Initially their activities were tested in C6 glioma cells screened using the MTT method, resulting in the selection of chalcone 2 whose feasibility was confirmed by a Trypan Blue exclusion assay in the low μM range on C6 glioma cells. Cell cycle and apoptotic death analyses on C6 glioma cells were also performed, and chalcone 2 increased the apoptosis of the cells but did not alter the cell cycle progression. In addition, treatments with these two compounds were not cytotoxic to hippocampal organotypic cultures, a model of healthy neural cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that 2 induced apoptosis by inhibition of NF-κB and activation of active caspase-3 in glioma cells, suggesting that it is a potential prototype to develop new treatments for GBM in the future. PMID:26802551

  17. Possible involvement of caspase-6 and -7 but not caspase-3 in the regulation of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in tube-forming endothelial cells

    We recently reported that a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed, while p38 inhibitor SB203580 succeeded, to prevent chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation induced by hypoxia in tube-forming HUVECs. In this study, we investigated the reasons for zVAD-fmk's inability to inhibit these morphological changes at the molecular level. The inhibitor effectively inhibited DNA ladder formation and activation of caspase-3 and -6, but it surprisingly failed to inhibit caspase-7 activation. On the other hand, SB203580 successfully inhibited all of these molecular events. When zLEHD-fmk, which specifically inhibits initiator caspase-9 upstream of caspase-3, was used, it inhibited caspase-3 activation but failed to inhibit caspase-6 and -7 activation. It also failed to inhibit hypoxia-induced chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and DNA ladder formation. Taken together, our results indicate that, during hypoxia, caspase-7 is responsible for chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation while caspase-6 is responsible for DNA ladder formation

  18. Anti-apoptotic Activity of Ginsenoside Rb1 in Hydrogen Peroxide-treated Chondrocytes: Stabilization of Mitochondria and the Inhibition of Caspase-3.

    Na, Ji-Young; Kim, Sokho; Song, Kibbeum; Lim, Kyu-Hee; Shin, Gee-Wook; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Bumseok; Kwon, Young-Bae; Kwon, Jungkee

    2012-07-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which produces reactive oxygen species, reportedly induces apoptosis in chondrocytes. The ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is the principal component in ginseng and has been shown to have a variety of biological activities, such as anti-arthritis, anti-inflammation, and anti-tumor activities. In this study, we evaluated the effects of G-Rb1 on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and caspase-3 activity of chondrocyte apoptosis induced by H2O2. Cultured rat articular chondrocytes were exposed to H2O2 with or without G-Rb1 and assessed for viability, MPT, Bcl-xL/Bax expression, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis. The co-treatment with G-Rb1 showed an inhibition of MPT, caspase-3 activity, and cell death. Additionally, the levels of the apoptotic protein Bax were significantly lower and the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL were higher compared with H2O2 treatment alone. The results of this study demonstrate that G-Rb1 protects chondrocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis, at least in part via the inhibition of MPT and caspase-3 activity. These results demonstrate that G-Rb1 is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of OA patients. PMID:23717124

  19. TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial alterations in human T cells requires FADD and caspase-8 activation but not RIP and caspase-3 activation.

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Sung, Bokyung; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-09-15

    Although much is known about how TNF-alpha induces apoptosis in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis, little is known about how it induces apoptosis without these inhibitors. In this report we investigated temporal sequence of events induced by TNF-alpha in the absence of protein synthesis. Regardless of whether we measured the effects by plasma membrane phosphotidylserine accumulation, by DNA strand breaks, or activation of caspases, significant changes were observed only between 12-24 h of TNF-alpha treatment. One of the earliest changes observed after TNF-alpha treatment was mitochondrial swelling at 10 min; followed by cytochrome c and Smac release at 10-30 min, and then heterochromatin clumping occurred at 60 min. While genetic deletion of receptor-interaction protein (RIP) had no effect on TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial damage, deletion of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) abolished the TNF-induced mitochondrial swelling. Since pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk abolished the TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial changes, z-DEVD-fmk, an inhibitor of caspase-3 had no effect, suggesting that TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial changes or cytochrome c and Smac release requires caspase-8 but not caspase-3 activation. Overall, our results indicated that mitochondrial changes are early events in TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and that these mitochondrial changes require recruitment of FADD and caspase-8 activation, but not caspase-3 activation or RIP recruitment. PMID:20136500

  20. Deficiency of caspase 3 in tumor xenograft impairs therapeutic effect of measles virus Edmoston strain.

    Wang, Biao; Yan, Xu; Guo, Qingguo; Li, Yan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xie, Ji Sheng; Meng, Xin

    2015-06-30

    The oncolytic measles virus Edmonston (MV-Edm) strain shows considerable oncolytic activity against a variety of human tumors. In this study, we report MV-Edm is able to trigger apoptosis pathways in infected tumor cells and elucidate the roles of cellular apoptosis in the whole oncolytic process. We also show that activated caspase 3, a key executioner of apoptosis, plays key roles in the oncolytic virotherapy. Activated caspase 3 can accelerate viral replication in cervical cancer cells and enhance the killing effects of the virus. Deficiency of caspase 3 either in tumor cells or in tumor xenograft significantly desensitized tumor to oncolysis with MV-Edm. In the infected cells, caspase 3 regulates interferon α release, which can inhibit viral replication in neighboring tumor cells. We propose that caspase-3 activation enhances the oncolytic effects of MV-Edm, thus inhibiting tumor growth in mice. PMID:25909216

  1. Automated GMP Synthesis of [18F]ICMT-11 for In Vivo Imaging of Caspase-3 Activity

    Introduction: Isatin-5-sulfonamide ([18F]ICMT-11) is a sub-nanomolar inhibitor of caspase-3 previously evaluated as an apoptosis imaging agent. Herein, an alternative radiosynthesis of [18F]ICMT-11 with increased purity and specific activity is presented. Finally, a GMP-applicable automated radiosynthesis of [18F]ICMT-11 is described. Methods: The preparation of [18F]ICMT-11 was evaluated under a variety of reaction conditions, including reaction solvent, by employing alternative phase transfer catalysts and under different deprotection conditions. Following initial investigations, the process was transferred onto a fully automated GE FASTlab synthesis platform for further development and optimisation. Results: The synthesis of [18F]ICMT-11 was successfully validated under GMP conditions, resulting in a yield of 4.6 ± 0.4 GBq with a radiochemical purity of > 98% at EOS and a specific activity of 685 ± 237 GBq/μmol within 90 min. Quality control was carried out in accordance with the European Pharmacopoeia and demonstrated that [18F]ICMT-11 can be consistently manufactured on the FASTlab to meet specifications. Conclusions: A simplified methodology for the synthesis of the apoptosis imaging agent, [18F]ICMT-11, has been achieved by the SN2 displacement of a tosylate leaving group with [18F]fluoride ion. This results in an increased purity and specific activity over the original copper catalysed “Click” synthetic stratagem reaction involving 2-[18F]fluoroethylazide with an alkyne precursor and is now suitable for routine clinical application.

  2. Parthenolide protects human lens epithelial cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via inhibition of activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9

    Hangping Yao; Xiajing Tang; Xueting Shao; Lei Feng; Nanping Wu; Ke Yao

    2007-01-01

    The apoptosis of lens epithelial cells has been proposed as the common basis of cataract formation, with oxidative stress as the major cause. This study was performed to investigate the protective effect of the herbal constituent parthenolide against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of human lens epithelial (HLE) cells and the possible molecular mechanisms involved. HLE cells (SRA01-04) were incubated with 50 μM H2O2 in the absence or presence of different doses of parthenolide (10, 20 and 50μM). To study apoptosis, the cells were assessed by morphologic examination and Annexin V-propidium iodide double staining flow cytometry; to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms, the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were assayed by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR, and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were measured by a Chemicon caspase colorimetric activity assay kit. Stimulated with H2O2 for 18h, a high fraction of HLE cells underwent apoptosis, while in the presence of parthenolide of different concentrations, dose-dependent blocking of HLE cell apoptosis was observed. The expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 induced by H2O2 in HLE cells was significantly reduced by parthenolide both at the protein and mRNA levels, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was also suppressed by parthenolide in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, parthenolide prevents HLE cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through inhibition of the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, suggesting a potential protective effect against cataract formation.

  3. Study on Caspase-3 activity on trichloroethylene-induced human keratinocyte apoptosis%三氯乙烯诱导人角质形成细胞凋亡中Caspase-3活力的研究

    汪立杰; 叶良平; 沈彤; 朱启星

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察三氯乙烯(TCE)诱导离体培养的人角质形成细胞(KC)Caspase-3活力变化及细胞凋亡情况,探讨TCE诱导KC凋亡的可能信号通路.方法 以不同浓度(0.125、0.250、0.500、1.000、2.000 mmol/L)TCE对离体分离培养的KC分别染毒至4、8、12、24 h;Caspase-3抑制剂(Z-DEVD-FMK)预处理组,先用100 μmol/L Z-DEVD-FMK预处理细胞1 h,然后再用2.000 mmol/L TCE染毒12 h.用分光光度法检测细胞Caspase-3活力变化,借助Annexin-V/PI双染和流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡情况.结果 与空白对照相比,TCE染毒4 h,各TCE剂量组Caspase-3活力无明显变化(P>0.05);染毒8 h,1.000 mmol/LTCE组Caspase-3活力和2.000 mmol/LTCE组Caspase-3活力,与对照组相比差异有显著性(P0.01).结论 在TCE诱导离体培养的KC凋亡中,Caspase-3的活化可能发挥了重要的作用.

  4. A miniaturized device for bioluminescence analysis of caspase-3/7 activity in a single apoptotic cell

    Adamová, Eva; Lišková, M.; Matalová, Eva; Klepárník, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, č. 22 (2014), s. 5389-5394. ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/1418 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : apoptosis * bioluminiscence * caspase3/7 * single-cell analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  5. Activation of caspase-3 noninvolved in the bystander effect of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) system.

    Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Juqiang; Chu, Jun; Ma, Yan; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2008-01-01

    Use of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) system is one of the promising approaches in the rapidly growing area of gene therapy. The "bystander effect," a phenomenon in which HSV-tk+ cells exposed to GCV are toxic to adjacent HSV-tk- cells, was reported to play an important role in suicide gene therapy. However, the mechanism by which HSV-tk/GCV induces the bystander effect is poorly understood. We monitored the activation of caspase-3 in living cells induced by the HSV-tk/GCV system using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe CD3, , a caspase-3 recognition site fused with a cyan fluorescent protien (CFP) and a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) which we reported and named in a previous paper. Fluorescence protein (FP)-based multicolor cellular labeling, combined with the multichannel fluorescence imaging and FRET imaging techniques, provides a novel and improved approach to directly determine whether the activation of caspase-3 involved in the HSV-tk/GCV system induces cell apoptosis in tk gene-expressing cells and their neighboring cells. FRET ratio images of CD3, and fluorescence images of the fusion protein of thymidine kinase linked with green fluorescent protein (TK-GFP), indicated that HSV-tk/GCV system-induced apoptosis in human adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M) cells was via a caspase-3 pathway, and the activation of caspase-3 was not involved in the bystander effect of HSV-tk/GCV system. PMID:18601533

  6. IGF-I activates caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 but does not induce cell death in colorectal cancer cells

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the western world. Chemotherapy is often ineffective to treat the advanced colorectal cancers due to the chemo-resistance. A major contributor to chemo-resistance is tumour-derived inhibition or avoidance of apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been known to play a prominent role in colorectal cancer development and progression. The role of IGF-I in cancer cell apoptosis is not completely understood. Using three colorectal cancer cell lines and one muscle cell line, associations between IGF-I and activities of caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 have been examined; the role of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in the caspase activation has been investigated. The results show that exogenous IGF-I significantly increases activity of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 in all cell lines used; blocking IGF-I receptor reduce IGF-I-induced caspase activation. Further studies demonstrate that IGF-I induced caspase activation does not result in cell death. This is the first report to show that while IGF-I activates caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 it does not cause colorectal cancer cell death. The study suggests that caspase activation is not synonymous with apoptosis and that activation of caspases may not necessarily induce cell death

  7. A short caspase-3 isoform inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis by blocking apoptosome assembly.

    Frédérique Végran

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of caspase-3 produces a short isoform caspase-3s that antagonizes caspase-3 apoptotic activity. However, the mechanism of apoptosis inhibition by caspase-3s remains unknown. Here we show that exogenous caspase-3 sensitizes MCF-7 and HBL100 breast cancers cells to chemotherapeutic treatments such as etoposide and methotrexate whereas co-transfection with caspase-3s strongly inhibits etoposide and methotrexate-induced apoptosis underlying thus the anti-apoptotic role of caspase-3s. In caspase-3 transfected cells, lamin-A and α-fodrin were cleaved when caspase-3 was activated by etoposide or methotrexate. When caspase-3s was co-transfected, this cleavage was strongly reduced. Depletion of caspase-3 by RNA interference in HBL100 containing endogenous caspase-3s caused reduction in etoposide and methotrexate-induced apoptosis, whereas the depletion of caspase-3s sensitized cells to chemotherapy. In the presence of caspase-3s, a lack of interaction between caspase-3 and caspase-9 was observed. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that caspase-3s binds the pro-forms of caspase-3. This result suggested that the absence of interaction with caspase-9 when both variants of caspase-3 are present contribute to block the apoptosome assembly and inhibit apoptosis. These data support that caspases-3s negatively interferes with caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in breast cancer, and that it can play key roles in the modulation of response to chemotherapeutic treatments.

  8. Hexavalent chromium targets mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I to induce reactive oxygen species-dependent caspase-3 activation in L-02 hepatocytes.

    Xiao, Fang; Li, Yanhong; Dai, Lu; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zou, Yue; Li, Peng; Yang, Yuan; Zhong, Caigao

    2012-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which is used for various industrial applications, such as leather tanning and chroming, can cause a number of human diseases including inflammation and cancer. Cr(VI) exposure leads to severe damage to the liver, but the mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-mediated toxicity in the liver are unclear. The present study provides evidence that Cr(VI) enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by inhibiting the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (MRCC) I. Cr(VI) did not affect the expression levels of antioxidative proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and thioredoxin (Trx), indicating that the antioxidative system was not involved in Cr(VI)-induced ROS accumulation. We found that ROS mediated caspase-3 activation partially depends on the downregulation of the heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and 90. In order to confirm our hypothesis that ROS plays a key role in Cr(VI)-mediated cytotoxicity, we used N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to inhibit the accumulation of ROS. NAC successfully blocked the inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 as well as the activation of caspase-3, suggesting that ROS is essential in Cr(VI)-induced caspase-3 activation. By applying different MRCC substrates as electron donors, we also confirmed that Cr(VI) could accept the electrons leaked from MRCC I and the reduction occurs at MRCC I. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Cr(VI) induces ROS-dependent caspase-3 activation by inhibiting MRCC I activity, and MRCC I has been identified as a new target and a new mechanism for the apoptosis-inducing activity displayed by Cr(VI). PMID:22710416

  9. Caspase-3 serves as an intracellular immune receptor specific for lipopolysaccharide in oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Xu, Jiachao; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Yiqun; Li, Meijia; Cheng, Qi; Zhao, Depeng; Yang, Bin; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death process controlled by a family of cysteine proteases called caspases, which plays a crucial role in the immune system homeostasis. The apoptosis and the detailed regulation mechanism have been well studied in vertebrate, but the information in lower animals, especially invertebrates, is still very limited. In the present study, Caspase-3 in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgCaspase-3) was enriched by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affinity chromatography and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-mass spectrometry. The binding activity of CgCaspase-3 to LPS was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed its high binding specificity and moderate binding affinity (KD = 1.08 × 10(-6) M) to LPS. The recombinant CgCaspase-3 exhibited high proteolytic activity to substrate Ac-DEVD-pNA and relatively weak activity to substrate Ac-DMQD-pNA and Ac-VDQQD-pNA. The binding of CgCaspase-3 to LPS significantly inhibited its proteolytic activity toward AC-DEVD-pNA in vitro. The over-expression of CgCaspase-3 leaded to the phosphatidylserine exposure on the external plasma membrane and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, which reduced cell viability, and finally induced cell apoptosis. But the cell apoptosis mediated by CgCaspase-3 in vivo was significantly inhibited by the treatment of LPS. These results collectively indicated that CgCaspase-3 could serve as an intracellular LPS receptor, and the interaction of LPS with CgCaspase-3 specifically inhibited the cell apoptosis induced by CgCaspase-3. PMID:26993662

  10. Combinatorial protocol in multiple linear regression/partial least-squares directed rationale for the caspase-3 inhibition activity of isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivatives.

    Sharma, B K; Pilania, P; Singh, P; Prabhakar, Y S

    2010-01-01

    The caspase-3 inhibition activity of isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivatives has been analysed with the topological and molecular features from Dragon software. Analysis of the structural features in conjunction with the biological endpoints in combinatorial protocol in multiple linear regression (CP-MLR) led to the identification of 45 descriptors for modelling the activity. The study clearly suggested the role of rotatable bonds, mean information on the distance degree equality, radial centricity, bond and structural information content of five-order neighbourhood symmetry, atomic van der Waals volumes and the presence or absence of certain structural fragments to optimise the caspase-3 inhibitory activity of titled compounds. The models developed and the participating descriptors advocate that the substituent groups of the isoquinoline moiety hold scope for further modification in the optimization of the caspase-3 inhibitory activity. Analysis of these descriptors in partial least squares (PLS) highlighted their relative significance in modulating the biological response. The selected descriptors are enriched with information corresponding to the activity when compared to the remaining ones. PMID:20373219

  11. Active caspase-3 and ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis in spontaneous and induced cell death in bovine in vitro produced pre-implantation embryos

    Gjørret, Jakob O.; Fabian, Dusan; Avery, Birthe;

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated chronological onset and involvement of active caspase-3, apoptotic nuclear morphology, and TUNEL-labeling, as well as ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis, in both spontaneous and induced cell death during pre-implantation development of bovine in vitro produced...... staining for detection of apoptotic nuclear morphology, and subjected to fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, treated and untreated blastocysts were fixed and processed for ultrastructural identification of apoptosis. Untreated embryos revealed no apoptotic features at 2- and 4-cell stages. However......, active caspase-3 and apoptotic nuclear morphology were observed in an untreated 8-cell stage, and TUNEL-labeling was observed from the 16-cell stage. Blastomeres concurrently displaying all apoptotic features were present in a few embryos at 16-cell and morula stages and in all blastocysts. All three...

  12. [Effects of introduction of short peptides before carotid artery occlusion on behaviour and caspase-3 activity in the brain of old rats].

    Mendzheritskiĭ, A M; Karantysh, G V; Ivonina, K O

    2011-01-01

    The comparative research of effect of Pinealon and Cortexin on behavior and activity of caspase-3 in a brain of old rats in a model of carotid arteries occlusion was conducted. It is shown that introduction of short peptides promotes a survival rate of the animals that have modeled occlusion of carotid arteries. Under Pinealon before occlusion of carotid arteries, behavioral dream has been increased and a position-finding behavior, a motivational behavior and a motor performance have been reduced. The rats that were introduced Cortexin before carotid arteries occlusion demonstrated the raise of behavioral dream time. At introduction of Pinealon activity of caspase-3 moderately raises in false-operated animals and in a model of occlusion of carotid arteries. PMID:21809624

  13. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    time that Cu exposure caused oxidative damage to the muscle by decreasing the antioxidant enzyme activities via the down-regulation of the expression of genes related to the disruption of the Nrf2/ARE signaling, and this down-regulation was partially caused by caspase-3-regulated DNA fragmentation. Finally, MI protects fish against Cu toxicity

  14. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: zhouxq@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-15

    time that Cu exposure caused oxidative damage to the muscle by decreasing the antioxidant enzyme activities via the down-regulation of the expression of genes related to the disruption of the Nrf2/ARE signaling, and this down-regulation was partially caused by caspase-3-regulated DNA fragmentation. Finally, MI protects fish against Cu toxicity.

  15. Saponin-rich fraction from Clematis chinensis Osbeck roots protects rabbit chondrocytes against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis via preventing mitochondria impairment and caspase-3 activation.

    Wu, Wenjun; Gao, Xinghua; Xu, Xianxiang; Luo, Yubin; Liu, Mei; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2013-03-01

    Our previous study reported that the saponin-rich fraction from Clematis chinensis Osbeck roots (SFC) could effectively alleviate experimental osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate in rats through protecting articular cartilage and inhibiting local inflammation. The present study was performed to investigate the preventive effects of SFC on articular chondrocyte, and explore the underlying mechanisms. Primary rabbit chondrocytes were cultured and exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor. After treatment with different concentrations of SFC (30, 100, 300, 1,000 μg/ml) for 24 h, nucleic morphology, apoptotic rate, mitochondrial function and caspase-3 activity of chondrocytes were examined. The results showed that SNP induced remarkable apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes evidenced by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry analysis, and SFC prevented the apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Further studies indicated that SFC could prevent the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm) in SNP-treated chondrocytes and suppress the activation of caspase-3. It can be concluded that the protection of SFC on articular chondrocytes is associated with the anti-apoptosis effects via inhibiting the mitochondrion impairment and caspase-3 activation. PMID:22821055

  16. Genetically Encoded FRET-Sensor Based on Terbium Chelate and Red Fluorescent Protein for Detection of Caspase-3 Activity

    Alexander S. Goryashchenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the genetically encoded caspase-3 FRET-sensor based on the terbium-binding peptide, cleavable linker with caspase-3 recognition site, and red fluorescent protein TagRFP. The engineered construction performs two induction-resonance energy transfer processes: from tryptophan of the terbium-binding peptide to Tb3+ and from sensitized Tb3+ to acceptor—the chromophore of TagRFP. Long-lived terbium-sensitized emission (microseconds, pulse excitation source, and time-resolved detection were utilized to eliminate directly excited TagRFP fluorescence and background cellular autofluorescence, which lasts a fraction of nanosecond, and thus to improve sensitivity of analyses. Furthermore the technique facilitates selective detection of fluorescence, induced by uncleaved acceptor emission. For the first time it was shown that fluorescence resonance energy transfer between sensitized terbium and TagRFP in the engineered construction can be studied via detection of microsecond TagRFP fluorescence intensities. The lifetime and distance distribution between donor and acceptor were calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. Using this data, quantum yield of terbium ions with binding peptide was estimated.

  17. Activity identification of chimeric anti-caspase-3 mRNA hammerhead ribozyme in vitro and in vivo

    XU; Renhuan; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Andrew, F., Gerard, E., A license to kill, Cell, 1996, 85: 781-784.[2]Thornberry, N. A., Lazebnik, Y., Caspases: Enemies within, Science, 1998, 281: 1312-1316.[3]Kijima, H., Ishida, H., Ohkawa, T. et al., Therapeutic application of ribozymes, Pharmacol. Ther., 1995, 68: 247-264.[4]Phylactou, L. A., Kilpatrick, M. W., Wood, M. J., Ribozymes as therapeutic tools for genetic disease, Hum. Mol. Genet., 1998, 7(10): 1649-1653.[5]Bettrand, E., Pictet, R ., Grange, T., Can heamerhead ribozymes be efficient tools inactivate gene function? Nucleic Acids Res., 1994, 22: 293-300.[6]Lieber, A., Strauss, M., Selection of efficient cleavage sites in target RNAs by using a ribozyme expression library, Mol. Cell Biol., 1995, 15: 540-551.[7]Xu, R. H., Zhou, X. Q., Xie, Q. et al., Preparation and identification of hammerhead ribozyme in vitro against rat caspase-3 mRNA fragment, Chin. J. Hepatol., 2000,8: 361-363.[8]Liu, J., Jin, Y. X., Wang, D. B., A novel vector for abundant expression of antisense RNA, triplex-forming RNA and ribozyme in vivo, High Technology Letters, 2000, 6: 84-88.[9]Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F., Maniatis, T., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed., New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989.[10]Porter, A. G., J?nicke, R. U., Emerging roles of caspase-3 in apoptosis, Cell Death Differ, 1999, 6: 99-104.[11]Cryns, V., Yuan, J., Proteases to die for, Genes Dev., 1998, 12: 1551-1570.[12]Narendra, K. V., Anikumar, R. K., Fritz, E., Recent developments in the hammerhead ribozyme field, Nucleic Acids Research, 1998, 26: 5237-5242.

  18. Low concentration of arsenic could induce caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage apoptosis with JNK-p38 activation in Clarias batrachus

    We had earlier demonstrated that chronic exposure (30 days) to micro-molar concentration (0.50 μM) of arsenic induced head kidney macrophage (HKM) death in Clarias batrachus. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the nature of HKM death induced by arsenic and elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in the process. Arsenic-induced HKM death was apoptotic in nature as evident from DNA gel, Annexin V-propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342 staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Inhibitor studies and immunoblot analyses further demonstrated that arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a well-characterized caspase-3 substrate. Preincubation with antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine or dimethyl sulfoxide significantly lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in arsenic-treated HKM and prevented caspase activation, malondialdehyde formation and HKM apoptosis. Arsenic induced membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. Preincubation with apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride, both selective inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, prevented p47phox translocation, ROS production and HKM death. Exposure of HKM to arsenic induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) proteins including c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). Preincubation of HKM with p38 inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 protected the HKM against arsenic-induced apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to micro-molar concentration of arsenic induces ROS generation through the activation of NADPH oxidases, which in turn causes caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. In addition, the study also indicates a role of p38-JNK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.

  19. Regional differences in the temporal expression of nonapoptotic caspase-3-positive Bergmann glial cells in the developing rat cerebellum

    VelvetLee Finckbone

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although caspases have been intimately linked to apoptotic events, some of the pro-apoptotic caspases also may regulate differentiation. We previously demonstrated that active caspase-3 is expressed and has an apparent non-apoptotic function during the development of cerebellar Bergmann glia. The current study seeks to further correlate active/cleaved caspase-3 expression with the developmental phenotype of Bergmann glia by examining regional differences in the temporal pattern of expression of cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity in lobules of the cerebellar vermis. In general, we found that the expression pattern of cleaved caspase-3 corresponds to the reported developmental temporal profile of the lobes and that its levels peak at 15 days and declines thereafter. Compared to intermediate or late maturing lobules, early maturing lobules had higher levels of active caspase-3 at earlier postnatal times. This period of postnatal development is precisely the time during which Bergmann glia initiate differentiation.

  20. Two new glycosides isolated from Sapindus mukorossi fruits: effects on cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in human lung carcinoma cells.

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; Yang, De-Po; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Li, Qing; Zhu, Long-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2016-07-01

    Two new glycosides (1, 2) and two saponins (3, 4) were isolated from the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. The two glycosides were designated as sapindoside G (1) and 4'',4'''''-O-diacetylmukurozioside IIa (2). All four compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells with inhibition rates up to 69.2-83.3% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that compounds 1-4 could suppress A549 cell growth by promoting cell apoptosis, which was related to the activation of caspase-3. PMID:26158392

  1. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3/-9 activation.

    Yaguchi, Takahiro; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The present study aimed at understanding the effect of the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) on oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1 mM) reduced viability of cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons to 50% of basal levels, but DCP-LA significantly prevented the SNP effect in a concentration (1-100 nM)-dependent manner. In addition, DCP-LA (100 nM) rescued neurons from SNP-induced degradation. SNP (1 mM) activated caspase-3 and -9 in cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons, but DCP-LA (100 nM) abolished the caspase activation. For a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion, oral administration with DCP-LA (1 mg/kg) significantly diminished degraded area due to cerebral infarction. The results of the present study, thus, demonstrate that DCP-LA protects neurons at least in part from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of caspase-3/-9. PMID:20099079

  2. Lentiviral-mediated RNAi targeting caspase-3 inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in rat endplate chondrocytes in vitro

    L. Ding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current studies find that degenerated cartilage endplates (CEP of vertebrae, with fewer diffusion areas, decrease nutrient supply and accelerate intervertebral disc degeneration. Many more apoptotic cells have been identified in degenerated than in normal endplates, and may be responsible for the degenerated grade. Previous findings suggest that inhibition of apoptosis is one possible approach to improve disc regeneration. It is postulated that inhibition of CEP cell apoptosis may be responsible for the regeneration of endplates. Caspase-3, involved in the execution phase of apoptosis, is a candidate for regulating the apoptotic process. In the present study, CEP cells were incubated in 1% fetal bovine serum. Activated caspases were detected to identify the apoptotic pathway, and apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. Lentiviral caspase-3 short hairpin RNA (shRNA was employed to study its protective effects against serum deprivation. Silencing of caspase-3 expression was quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, and inhibition of apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. Serum deprivation increased apoptosis of rat CEP cells through activation of a caspase cascade. Lentiviral caspase-3 shRNA was successfully transduced into CEP cells, and specifically silenced endogenous caspase-3 expression. Surviving cells were protected by the downregulation of caspase-3 expression and activation. Thus, lentiviral caspase-3 shRNA-mediated RNAi successfully silenced endogenous caspase-3 expression, preventing inappropriate or premature apoptosis.

  3. Lentiviral-mediated RNAi targeting caspase-3 inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in rat endplate chondrocytes in vitro

    Current studies find that degenerated cartilage endplates (CEP) of vertebrae, with fewer diffusion areas, decrease nutrient supply and accelerate intervertebral disc degeneration. Many more apoptotic cells have been identified in degenerated than in normal endplates, and may be responsible for the degenerated grade. Previous findings suggest that inhibition of apoptosis is one possible approach to improve disc regeneration. It is postulated that inhibition of CEP cell apoptosis may be responsible for the regeneration of endplates. Caspase-3, involved in the execution phase of apoptosis, is a candidate for regulating the apoptotic process. In the present study, CEP cells were incubated in 1% fetal bovine serum. Activated caspases were detected to identify the apoptotic pathway, and apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. Lentiviral caspase-3 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was employed to study its protective effects against serum deprivation. Silencing of caspase-3 expression was quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, and inhibition of apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. Serum deprivation increased apoptosis of rat CEP cells through activation of a caspase cascade. Lentiviral caspase-3 shRNA was successfully transduced into CEP cells, and specifically silenced endogenous caspase-3 expression. Surviving cells were protected by the downregulation of caspase-3 expression and activation. Thus, lentiviral caspase-3 shRNA-mediated RNAi successfully silenced endogenous caspase-3 expression, preventing inappropriate or premature apoptosis

  4. Lentiviral-mediated RNAi targeting caspase-3 inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in rat endplate chondrocytes in vitro

    Ding, L.; Wu, J.P. [Fudan University, Jinshan Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai, China, Department of Orthopaedics, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Xu, G. [Fudan University, Jinshan Hospital, Center Laboratory, Shanghai, China, Center Laboratory, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, B.; Zeng, Q.M.; Li, D.F.; Lu, W. [Fudan University, Jinshan Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai, China, Department of Orthopaedics, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-09

    Current studies find that degenerated cartilage endplates (CEP) of vertebrae, with fewer diffusion areas, decrease nutrient supply and accelerate intervertebral disc degeneration. Many more apoptotic cells have been identified in degenerated than in normal endplates, and may be responsible for the degenerated grade. Previous findings suggest that inhibition of apoptosis is one possible approach to improve disc regeneration. It is postulated that inhibition of CEP cell apoptosis may be responsible for the regeneration of endplates. Caspase-3, involved in the execution phase of apoptosis, is a candidate for regulating the apoptotic process. In the present study, CEP cells were incubated in 1% fetal bovine serum. Activated caspases were detected to identify the apoptotic pathway, and apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. Lentiviral caspase-3 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was employed to study its protective effects against serum deprivation. Silencing of caspase-3 expression was quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, and inhibition of apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. Serum deprivation increased apoptosis of rat CEP cells through activation of a caspase cascade. Lentiviral caspase-3 shRNA was successfully transduced into CEP cells, and specifically silenced endogenous caspase-3 expression. Surviving cells were protected by the downregulation of caspase-3 expression and activation. Thus, lentiviral caspase-3 shRNA-mediated RNAi successfully silenced endogenous caspase-3 expression, preventing inappropriate or premature apoptosis.

  5. Coxsackievirus B3-induced apoptosis and Caspase-3

    JIAN PING YUAN; WEI ZHAO; HONG TAO WANG; KAI YU WU; TAO LI; XIAO KUI GUO; SHAN QING TONG

    2003-01-01

    Cell death can be classified into two categories: apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptotic pathway can beeither caspase-dependent or caspase-independent. Caspase-independent cytopathic effect (CPE) has beendescribed. In order to evaluate the pattern of HeLa cell death induced by Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)and whether apoptosis involves caspase activation, we co-cultivated HeLa cells with CVB3 and detectedthe cytopathic changes, the alteration of mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 gene plus caspase-3activity, as well as analyzing DNA fragmentation before and after caspase-3 activity inhibition. Accordingto the results, we propose that CVB3 may induce apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells, the latter appearingmuch earlier. Caspase-3 is activated at the levels of both transcription and translation, and procaspase-3 isproteolytically cleaved, thus leading to the continuous increasing of both caspase-3 precursor protein and itssubunit. However, besides CPE, apoptosis induced by CVB3 is not a direct consequence of the activationof caspase-3, or caspase-3 is not the only effector molecule in apoptotic cell death, for caspase-3 inhibitorcan not decrease DNA fragmentation. Some other biochemical mechanisms may participate in the process,whose role weakens the effect of inhibiting caspase-3 activity.

  6. Effect of Soybean Isoflavones Active-extracts on Activities of ChAT and Caspase-3 in AD Rats%大豆异黄酮对阿茨海默病大鼠ChAT和caspase-3活性影响

    汪新华

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨大豆异黄酮(soybean isoflavones,SIF)改善阿茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)大鼠学习记忆能力的作用机制.方法:采用右侧杏仁核注射β-淀粉样肽(β-amyloid peptide,Aβ)制备AD大鼠模型,给予不同剂量的SIF,观察其对大鼠海马胆碱乙酰转移酶(choline acetyltransferase,ChAT)活性和半胱天冬氨酸特异性蛋白酶3(cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease3,caspase-3)活性的影响.结果:大豆异黄酮显著升高AD大鼠海马ChAT活性,降低AD大鼠海马caspase-3活性.结论:大豆异黄酮对中枢胆碱能神经细胞损伤及脑细胞凋亡具有保护作用,能改善AD大鼠学习记忆能力.%Objective: To investigate the mechanism about learning and memory abilities of soybean isoflavones ( SIF ) on AD rat. Methods : The AD rat model was established by injecting amyl-beta protein ( A (3 25-35 ) into the right amygdalate, observing the influence on ChAT and caspase-3 in hippocampus of AD rats by different doses of soybean isoflavones. Results: The results showed that SIF could increase activities of ChAT and reduce activities of caspase-3. Conclusion : The effect of SIF could against the injuries of the cholinergic system and apoptosis, and improve the learning and memory ability in AD rats.

  7. The effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on nicotinic receptors: Intracellular calcium increase, calpain/caspase 3 activation, and functional upregulation

    Previous work by our group demonstrated that homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) play a role in the neurotoxicity induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), as well as the binding affinity of this drug to these receptors. Here we studied the effect of MDMA on the activation of nAChR subtypes, the consequent calcium mobilization, and calpain/caspase 3 activation because prolonged Ca2+ increase could contribute to cytotoxicity. As techniques, we used fluorimetry in Fluo-4-loaded PC12 cells and electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes. MDMA produced a rapid and sustained increase in calcium without reaching the maximum effect induced by ACh. It also concentration-dependently inhibited the response induced by ACh, nicotine, and the specific α7 agonist PNU 282987 with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Similarly, MDMA induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes transfected with human α7 but not with α4β2 nAChR and inhibited ACh-induced currents in both receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The calcium response was inhibited by methyllycaconitine (MLA) and α-bungarotoxin but not by dihydro-β-erythroidine. These results therefore indicate that MDMA acts as a partial agonist on α7 nAChRs and as an antagonist on the heteromeric subtypes. Subsequently, calcium-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and entry through voltage-operated calcium channels are also implicated as proved using specific antagonists. In addition, treatment with MDMA for 24 h significantly increased basal Ca2+ levels and induced an increase in α-spectrin breakdown products, which indicates that calpain and caspase 3 were activated. These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with MLA. Moreover, pretreatment with MDMA induced functional upregulation of calcium responses to specific agonists of both heteromeric and α7 nAChR. Sustained calcium entry and calpain activation could favor the activation of Ca2+-dependent enzymes such as protein

  8. 筋脉通含药血清对高糖培养施万细胞8-羟基脱氧鸟苷和活化的caspase-3表达的影响%Effects of Medicated Serum Containing Jinmaitong on 8-OHdG and Active Caspase-3 of Schwann Cells in High Glucose Medium

    朴元林; 粱晓春; 赵丽; 张宏; 李伯武; 黄文智

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of medicated serum containing Jinmaitong (JMT) on the secretion level of 8 -OHdG and the expression of active caspase - 3( 17kDa) protein and Mrna of Schwann cells( SCs) in high glucose medium. Methods Cultured SCs were divided into high - glucose group, JMT group ( adding JMT - containing serum) , vitamin C group ( adding vitamin C -containing serum) and normal control group. The concentration of 8 - OHdG in the supernatant of cultured SCs was detected by enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of active caspase - 3 (17kDa) protein was detected by immunofluorescence. The expression of active caspase -3 Mrna in SCs was detected by real - time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Results Compared with normal control group, the secretion level of 8 -OHdG in the supernatant and the expression of the intracellular active caspase -3(17kDa) protein and Mrna were significantly increased in high - glucose group ( P < 0. 01 ) ; Compared with high - glucose group, the secretion level of 8 -OHdG in the supernatant and the expression of the intracellular active caspase -3 (17kDa) protein and Mrna were significantly decreased in JMT group ( P <0. 01) . Conclusion The medicated serum containing JMT can improve high - glucose induced oxidative injury of DNA and apoptosis in SCs, suggesting JMT might improve oxidative injury and apoptosis in diabetic neuropathy.%目的 探讨筋脉通含药血清对高糖培养施万细胞8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-hydoxydeoxyguanosine,8-OHdG)水平及活化的半胱氨酸天冬氨酸酶3(cysteine aspartase-3,caspase-3,)(17kDa)蛋白及mRNA表达的影响.方法 将体外培养的施万细胞分为高糖组、筋脉通组(加入筋脉通含药血清)、维生素C组(加入维生素C含药血清)及正常对照组,采用酶联免疫吸附法检测施万细胞上清液中8-OHdG的分泌量,免疫荧光法检测活化的caspase-3(17kDa)蛋白表达,实时荧光定量PCR法检测活化的caspase-3(17k

  9. Structurally related antitumor effects of flavanones in vitro and in vivo: involvement of caspase 3 activation, p21 gene expression, and reactive oxygen species production

    Flavonoids exist extensively in plants and Chinese herbs, and several biological effects of flavonoids have been demonstrated. The antitumor effects in colorectal carcinoma cells (HT29, COLO205, and COLO320HSR) of eight flavanones including flavanone, 2'-OH flavanone, 4'-OH flavanone, 6-OH flavanone, 7-OH flavanone, naringenin, nargin, and taxifolin were investigated. Results of the MTT assay indicate that 2'-OH flavanone showed the most potent cytotoxic effect on these three cells, and cell death induced by 2'-OH flavanone was via the occurrence of DNA ladders, apoptotic bodies, and hypodiploid cells, all characteristics of apoptosis. Induction of caspase 3 protein processing and enzyme activity associated with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was identified in 2'-OH flavanone-treated cells, and a peptidyl inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-FMK) of caspase 3 attenuated the cytotoxicity of 2'-OH flavanone in COLO205 and HT-29 cells. Elevation of p21 (but not p53) and a decrease in Mcl-1 protein were found in 2'-OH flavanone-treated COLO205 and HT-29 cells. Elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in 2'-OH flavanone-treated cells by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA) assay, and ROS scavengers including 4,5-dihydro-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid (tiron), catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) suppressed the 2'-OH flavanone-induced cytotoxic effect. Subcutaneous injection of COLO205 induced tumor formation in nude mice, and 2'-OH flavanone showed a significant inhibitory effect on tumor formation. The appearance of apoptotic cells with H and E staining, and an increase in p21, but not p53, protein by immunohistochemistry were observed in tumor tissues under 2'-OH flavanone treatment. Primary tumor cells (COLO205-X) derived from a tumor specimen elicited by COLO205 were established, and 2'-OH flavanone showed an significant apoptotic effect in COLO205-X cells in accordance with the

  10. Induction of Apoptosis by Green Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Through Activation of Caspase-3 and 9 in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    Baharara, Javad; Ramezani, Tayebe; Divsalar, Adeleh; Mousavi, Marzieh; Seyedarabi, Arefeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) are used in imaging and molecular diagnostic applications. As the development of a novel approach in the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great importance and a necessity, a simple and safe method for the synthesis of GNPs using plant extracts of Zataria multiflora leaves was applied in this study and the results on GNPs’ anticancer activity against HeLa cells were reported. Methods: The GNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, TEM, DLS and Zeta-potential measurements. In addition, the cellular up-take of nanoparticles was investigated using Dark Field Microscopy (DFM). Induction of apoptosis by high dose of GNPs in HeLa cells was assessed by MTT assay, Acridin orange, DAPI staining, Annexin V/PI double-labeling flow cytometry and caspase activity assay. Results: UV-visible spectroscopy results showed a surface plasmon resonance band for GNPs at 530 nm. FTIR results demonstrated an interaction between plant extract and nanoparticles. TEM images revealed different shapes for GNPs and DLS results indicated that the GNPs range in size from 10 to 42 nm. The Zeta potential values of the synthesized GNPs were between 30 to 50 Mev, indicating the formation of stable particles. As evidenced by MTT assay, GNPs inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells in dose-dependent GNPs and cytotoxicity of GNPs in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (BMSCs) was lower than cancerous cells. At nontoxic concentrations, the cellular up-take of the nanoparticles took place. Acridin orange and DAPI staining showed morphological changes in the cell’s nucleus due to apoptosis. Finally, caspase activity assay demonstrated HeLa cell’s apoptosis through caspase activation. Conclusion: The results showed that GNPs have the ability to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. PMID:27141266

  11. Berry anthocyanins reduce proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by inducing caspase-3 activation and p21 upregulation.

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Fratantonio, Deborah; Ferrari, Daniela; Saija, Antonella; Cimino, Francesco; Speciale, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide, and adenocarcinoma cells that form the majority of colorectal tumors are markedly resistant to antineoplastic agents. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of fruits and vegetables that are rich in polyphenols, is linked to reduced risk of colorectal cancer. In the present study, the effect of a standardized anthocyanin (ACN)‑rich extract on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in the Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cell line was evaluated by trypan blue and clonogenic assays and western blot analysis of cleaved caspase‑3 and p21Waf/Cif1. The results of the current study demonstrated that the ACN extract markedly decreased Caco‑2 cell proliferation, induced apoptosis by activating caspase‑3 cleavage, and upregulated cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21Waf/Cif1) expression in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, ACN extract was able to produce a dose‑dependent increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco‑2 cells, together with a light increase of the cell total antioxidant status. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that a standardized berry anthocyanin rich extract inhibited proliferation of Caco‑2 cells by promoting ROS accumulation, inducing caspase‑3 activation, and upregulating the expression of p21Waf/Cif1. PMID:27314273

  12. Linkage between PTK Signaling Pathway “Crosstalking” and Caspase-3/ CPP32-1ike Proteases Activation in Signaling Transduction of CD4+ T Lymphocytes Apoptosis Induced by Superantigen SEB

    熊世勤; 朱锡华

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of naive murine CD4+ T lymphocytes to superantigen such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) induces a strong proliferative response. Prolonged exposure or subsequent restimulation of the responding T cell population with SEB leads to the apoptotic events of activation-induced cell death (AICD). The signaling mechanism responsible for the AICD is a target of intensive investigation. However, the precise downstream signahng pathways of SEB-induced AICD remains unclear. Our results here show that the sequential activation of caspase-1/ICE-hke and caspase-3/CPP32-hke cysteine proteases probably plays a role in the signaling transduction of SEB-induced AICD, but caspase-3/CPP32-hke proteases activation does not depend on caspase-1-like proteases activation. Herbimycin A, a specific inhibitor of protein tyresine kinases,inhibit caspase-3/CPP32-1ike cysteine proteases activation. However, it does not prevent DNA fragmentation of CD4+ Tcells apoptosis induced by SEB. These results indicate that protein tyrosine kinases pathway is probably involved in the signaling transduction of CD4+ T cells apoptosis induced by SEB and “crosstalks” with the pathway of caspase-3/CPP32-1ike proteases activation.

  13. Cancer during pregnancy alters the activity of rat placenta and enhances the expression of cleaved PARP, cytochrome-c and caspase 3

    The presence of cancer makes it difficult to predict the progress of pregnancy and can be deleterious to the maternal-foetal relationship. Apoptosis may affect a range of placental functions and result in the retardation of foetal growth. In this work, we investigated the placental alterations produced by tumour growth and the effects on the expression of apoptotic factors in placental tissue. Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old, n = 54) were allocated to control (C), tumour-bearing (W), or ascitic fluid-injected (A) groups and were killed on the 16th, 19th or 21st day of pregnancy. Placental tissues were analysed using biochemical and histochemical assays. The placental protein content and glutathione-S-transferase activity were decreased in groups W and A. Histochemical analysis showed an increase in the number of cells with cleaved PARP, caspase 3 and cytochrome-c in groups W and A, indicating that the tumour growth clearly damaged placental tissue and affected the levels of apoptotic factors. These results were confirmed by western blotting. Since trophoblastic cells are responsible for maintaining a normal placental function, the uncontrolled death of these cells in response to tumour cell growth or substances derived from ascitic fluid could have a negative impact on foetal development. Further knowledge of these events may help to preserve the foetus and placenta during development

  14. The effects of the Reinforcing Kidney and Activating Blood Recipe Affecting the Value of bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 in the Tissue of Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle of DMED- Rats%补肾活血合剂对糖尿病阳痿大鼠阴茎平滑肌组织中Bcl-2 Bax和Caspase-3表达的影响

    张国豪; 方再军; 黄青松

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察补肾活血合剂对糖尿病阳痿(DMED)大鼠阴茎平滑肌组织中Bcl-2、Bax、Caspase-3表达的影响.方法:将实验小鼠用2%链脲佐菌素液(STZ)接60mg/kg,腹腔注射建立糖尿病模型,然后在每只糖尿病模型大鼠颈项处注射阿朴吗啡(APOsigma公司)80μg/kg,录相记录阴茎勃起次数.筛选DMED模型,将造成DMED模型随机分为正常组、模型组、中药高、低剂量组、达美康组、达美康+安雄组.除正常组外,其余各组连续给药12周,然后处死测定阴茎平滑肌组织中Bcl-2,Bax,Caspase-3的表达情况.结果:补肾活血合剂对Bc1-2,Bax,Caspase-3有改善作用.结论:补肾活血合剂对糖尿病阳痿大鼠阴茎平滑肌组织中Bcl-2,Bax,Caspase-3有调控效果.%Objective: Observing the effects of reinforcing kidney and activating blood recipe affecting the value of bcl - 2, bax and caspase - 3 in the tissue of corpus cavernosum Smooth muscle of DMED - rats. Methods: An animal model of diabetes was induced by a single intravenous dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 60mg/kg body weight) in Wistar rats. Recording the numbers of penile erection of each rat by camera after subcutaneous inject of apomorphine (80mg/kg).Screening the model of STZ - rats with erectile dysfunction and grouping into 6 groups: control group, model group, Chinese Medicine group, low- dosage group, Diamicron group, Diamicron combined Testosterone Undecanoate group. After administrating 12 weeks, observed the value of bcl -2, bax and caspase-3 in the tissue of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle of DMED - rats. Results: The reinforcing kidney and activating blood recipe can improve the vulue of bcl - 2,bax and caspase -3. Conclusion: The reinforcing kidney and activating blood recipe has regulatory function for bcl -2,bax and caspase - 3 in the tissue of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle of DMED - rats.

  15. Probiotic factors partially prevent changes to caspases 3 and 7 activation and transepithelial electrical resistance in a model of 5-fluorouracil-induced epithelial cell damage.

    Prisciandaro, Luca D; Geier, Mark S; Chua, Ann E; Butler, Ross N; Cummins, Adrian G; Sander, Guy R; Howarth, Gordon S

    2012-12-01

    The potential efficacy of a probiotic-based preventative strategy against intestinal mucositis has yet to be investigated in detail. We evaluated supernatants (SN) from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for their capacity to prevent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced damage to intestinal epithelial cells. A 5-day study was performed. IEC-6 cells were treated daily from days 0 to 3, with 1 mL of PBS (untreated control), de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth, tryptone soy roth (TSB), LGG SN, or EcN SN. With the exception of the untreated control cells, all groups were treated with 5-FU (5 μM) for 24 h at day 3. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was determined on days 3, 4, and 5, while activation of caspases 3 and 7 was determined on days 4 and 5 to assess apoptosis. Pretreatment with LGG SN increased TEER (p < 0.05) compared to controls at day 3. 5-FU administration reduced TEER compared to untreated cells on days 4 and 5. Pretreatment with MRS, LGG SN, TSB, and EcN SN partially prevented the decrease in TEER induced by 5-FU on day 4, while EcN SN also improved TEER compared to its TSB vehicle control. These differences were also observed at day 5, along with significant improvements in TEER in cells treated with LGG and EcN SN compared to healthy controls. 5-FU increased caspase activity on days 4 and 5 compared to controls. At day 4, cells pretreated with MRS, TSB, LGG SN, or EcN SN all displayed reduced caspase activity compared to 5-FU controls, while both SN groups had significantly lower caspase activity than their respective vehicle controls. Caspase activity in cells pretreated with MRS, LGG SN, and EcN SN was also reduced at day 5, compared to 5-FU controls. We conclude that pretreatment with selected probiotic SN could prevent or inhibit enterocyte apoptosis and loss of intestinal barrier function induced by 5-FU, potentially forming the basis of a preventative treatment modality for mucositis. PMID:22526145

  16. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R blockade

  17. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Zhai, Zhifang [Department of Dermatology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Gang Huang [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 430038 (China); Du, Xiang; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian; Zhao, Jinghong [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Hou, Weiping, E-mail: hwp0518@aliyun.com [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R blockade

  18. 不同模式间歇低氧对大鼠血糖、血清胰岛素及胰腺组织Caspase-3活性及其表达的影响%Effects of Different Patterns of Intermittent Hypoxia on Glucose, Insulin and Activity and Expression of Pancre-as Caspase-3 in Rats

    王东亮; 卢巍; 刘练达; 林雪娇; 康健

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨两种模式间歇低氧对大鼠血糖、胰岛素及胰腺组织Caspase-3活性及其表达的影响。方法将63只SD大鼠随机分为常氧对照组、间歇低氧1组(高频轻度)、间歇低氧2组(低频重度),3组又各自随机分为暴露1、2、4周组,每组7只。3个暴露4周组分别于0周及暴露1、2、4周检测空腹血糖;3组大鼠分别于暴露1、2、4周检测胰岛素水平,胰腺组织Caspase-3活性及其mRNA和蛋白表达水平。结果间歇低氧1组暴露4周组血糖从暴露2周开始升高,暴露4周与暴露2周比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);间歇低氧2组暴露4周组血糖从暴露1周即出现升高,随着暴露时间的延长进行性增高,暴露4周较间歇低氧1组暴露4周增高( P0. 05);group B was exposured for 4 weeks, and glucose level was increased after exposure for 1 week, and glucose level was progressively increased with prolonging exposure time, and the level after exposure for 4 weeks was significantly higher than that in group A (P0. 05). The levels of Caspase-3 activity and mRNA in group B were progressively increased with prolonging time (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). Conclusion Low frequence and severe degree of intermittent hypoxia can cause severe damage on pancreas tis- sues than that by high frequence and mild degree of intermittent hypoxia, and the damage is progressive aggravation.

  19. Cdk5 Kinase Activity, Caspase-3 Expression and Synaptic Structural Plasticity in Infra-limbic Cortex of Rats with Conditioned Fear%条件性恐惧大鼠边缘下区Cdk5激酶活性、caspase-3表达以及突触结构的变化

    李培培; 张丽丽; 韦美; 李敏

    2011-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning is a behavioral paradigm that is widely used to study the neuronal mechanisms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Previous studies have clearly identified the medial prefrontal cortex as a key brain area for fear memory traces, but the molecules involving are poorly understood. Recently, the neuronal cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in both functional and structural plasticity through affecting ion channel conductance, dendritic spine formation. protein expressions and transcriptions in the postsynaptic neurons. Importantly, dysregulation of Cdk5 has been linked to cell apoptosis, which involves perturbation in synaptic function. How the kinase activity, expression of caspase-3 and synaptic structure have changed in infra-limbic cortex (IL) of conditioned fear? The present study is aimed to answer this question by two experiments.Male adult SD rats were randomly divided into fear group and naive group. Conditioned fear model of rats was established by tone paired foot shock. At the 2nd, 4th and 8th days after fear conditioning, the Cdk5 activity,and expressions of P35 or P25 and caspase-3 in IL area were studied by immunoprecipitation and kinase assay,Western blotting and immunnohistochemical assay. Then the change of synaptic structure at the 8th and 22nd days after conditioned fear was observed with electron microscopy. The results of our experiment 1 showed that Cdk5 activity and expressions of P25 and caspase-3 were all higher in fear group than naive group. In experiment 2, the postsynaptic density (PSD) was thinner in fear group than naive group at the 8th and 22nd days after fear conditioning, but the numerical densities of IL synapse was decreased in fear group at the 22nd day after fear conditioning.Our date suggested that at 8th days after conditioned fear established, the expression of P25 and Cdk5 activity in fear group were higher than naive group, which may lead to the change of synaptic structural

  20. Targeting caspase-3 as dual therapeutic benefits by RNAi facilitating brain-targeted nanoparticles in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Liu, Yang; Guo, Yubo; An, Sai; Kuang, Yuyang; He, Xi; Ma, Haojun; Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Jing; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The activation of caspase-3 is an important hallmark in Parkinson's disease. It could induce neuron death by apoptosis and microglia activation by inflammation. As a result, inhibition the activation of caspase-3 would exert synergistic dual effect in brain in order to prevent the progress of Parkinson's disease. Silencing caspase-3 genes by RNA interference could inhibit the activation of caspase-3. We developed a brain-targeted gene delivery system based on non-viral gene vector, dendrigraft poly-L-lysines. A rabies virus glycoprotein peptide with 29 amino-acid linked to dendrigraft poly-L-lysines could render gene vectors the ability to get across the blood brain barrier by specific receptor mediated transcytosis. The resultant brain-targeted vector was complexed with caspase-3 short hairpin RNA coding plasmid DNA, yielding nanoparticles. In vivo imaging analysis indicated the targeted nanoparticles could accumulate in brain more efficiently than non-targeted ones. A multiple dosing regimen by weekly intravenous administration of the nanoparticles could reduce activated casapse-3 levels, significantly improve locomotor activity and rescue dopaminergic neuronal loss and in Parkinson's disease rats' brain. These results indicated the rabies virus glycoprotein peptide modified brain-targeted nanoparticles were promising gene delivery system for RNA interference to achieve anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation synergistic therapeutic effects by down-regulation the expression and activation of caspase-3. PMID:23675438

  1. Phyllanthus amarus inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells through activation of caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2.

    Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-06-01

    The authors found in an earlier study that Phyllanthus amarus extract could significantly inhibit the solid and ascites tumor development in mice induced by Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells. In the present study, the apoptotic effects of P. amarus against DLA cells in culture was evaluated. P. amarus produced significant reduction in cell viability as determined by the MTT assay. It also induces the formation of apoptotic bodies with characteristic features like plasma membrane invagination, elongation, fragmentation, and chromatin condensation. P. amarus at concentrations of 100 and 200 microg/mL is shown to induce DNA fragmentation. Gene expression analysis reveals that P. amarus induces the expression of caspase-3 and inhibits the expression of Bcl-2, which is an antiapoptotic protein. So the present study provides some insights into the possible mechanism by which P. amarus brings about apoptosis and growth inhibition in DLA cells. PMID:19223368

  2. Allicin induces apoptosis of the MGC-803 human gastric carcinoma cell line through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/caspase-3 signaling pathway.

    Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhu, Yong; Duan, Wei; Feng, Chen; He, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common forms of malignant tumor, and the development of anti‑gastric cancer drugs with minimal toxicity is of clinical importance. Allicin is extracted from Allium sativum (garlic). Recent research, including clinical experiments, has shown that garlic has anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of allicin on the MGC‑803 human gastric carcinoma cell line, and to further explore the possible mechanisms of its tumor suppressor effects. The effects of allicin on the MGC‑803 cells were initially examined using an 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hoechst staining was also used, in order to demonstrate the impact of allicin on MGC‑803 cell apoptosis. In addition, western blot analysis was performed to determine the abnormal expression levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins, following the treatment of MGC‑803 cells with allicin. Western blotting was also used to investigate the specific mechanisms underlying allicin‑induced apoptosis of MGC‑803 cells. The rate of MGC‑803 apoptosis was significantly increased, when the concentration and treatment time of allicin were increased. Hoechst staining detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis, and enhanced expression levels of cleaved caspase 3 were determined by western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of p38 were increased when the MGC‑803 cells were treated with allicin. The results of the present study suggest that allicin may inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of MGC‑803 human gastric carcinoma cells, and this may partially be achieved through the enhanced expression of p38 and cleaved caspase 3. PMID:25523417

  3. Pharmacophore Modeling and Docking Studies on Some Nonpeptide-Based Caspase-3 Inhibitors

    Simant Sharma; Arijit Basu; Agrawal, R K

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are major consequences of excessive apoptosis caused by a proteolytic enzyme known as caspase-3. Therefore, caspase-3 inhibition has become a validated therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders. We performed pharmacophore modeling on some synthetic derivatives of caspase-3 inhibitors (pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-diones) using PHASE 3.0. This resulted in the common pharmacophore hypothesis AAHRR.6 which might be responsible for the biological activity: tw...

  4. Induction of antiproliferative effect by diosgenin through activation of p53,release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and modulation of caspase-3 activity in different human cancer cells

    Cecile CORBIERE; Bertrand LIAGRE; Faraj TERRO; Jean-Louis BENEYTOUT

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a plant steroid, diosgenin, altered cell cycle distribution and induced apoptosis in the human osteosarcoma 1547 cell line. The objective of this study was to investigate if the antiproliferative effect of diosgenin was similar for different human cancer cell lines such as laryngocarcinoma HEp-2 and melanoma M4Beu cells. Moreover, this work essentially focused on the mitochondrial pathway. We found that diosgenin had an important and similar antiproliferative effect on different types of cancer cells. In addition, our new results show that diosgenininduced apoptosis is caspase-3 dependent with a fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear localization of AIF and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Diosgenin treatment also induces p53 activation and cell cycle arrest in the different cell lines studied.

  5. Discovery of Potent, Selective and Reversible Caspase-3 Inhibitors

    Han Yongxin; John Tam; Paul Tawa; Donald W. Nicholson; Robert J. Zamboni; André Giroux; John Colucci; Christopher I. Bayly; Daniel J. Mckay; Sophie Roy; Steve Xanthoudakis; John Vaillancourt; Dita M. Rasper

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis have revealed the importance of a group of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteases, the caspases, in the programmed cell death process (Hengartner, M.O. Nature 2000, 407, 770). Caspase-3, in particular,has been characterized as the dominant effector caspase involved in the proteolytic cleavage of a variety of protein substrates including cytoskeletal proteins, kinases and DNA repair enzymes during apoptosis (Nicholson, D. W. Cell Death Differ. 1999, 6, 1028). The development of potent and selective caspase-3 inhibitors has thus emerged as an attractive therapeutic target. In the presentation,the identification of a series of potent, selective and reversible non-peptidyl caspase-3 inhibitors containing a pyrazinone core (1) will be presented. SAR optimization at R1, R2, R3 and R4 led to the discovery of inhibitors such as 2 with excellent in vitro activities (IC50 against rh-caspase-3: 5 nM; IC50 against camptothecin induced apoptotic cell death in NT2 cells: 20 nM). Compounds such as 2 also displayed excellent in vivo activities in a number of animal models of acute injuries (see: Methot, N. et al, J. Exp. Med. 2004, 119, 199; Toulmond, S. et al, British J. Pharm. 2004, 141,689; Holtzman,D.M. et al, JBC, 2002, 277, 30128), and selected examples will be discussed during the presentation.

  6. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3

    Tu, Yihui [Department of Orthopaedics, Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 450 Tengyue Road, Shanghai (China); Xue, Huaming [Department of Orthopaedics, Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 450 Tengyue Road, Shanghai (China); Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Francis, Wendy [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Davies, Andrew P. [Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Moriston Hospital, Swansea (United Kingdom); Pallister, Ian; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Xia, Zhidao, E-mail: zhidao.xia@gmail.com [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Dex exerts dose-dependant inhibition of HACs viability and induction of apoptosis. •Dex-induced impairment of chondrocytes was attenuated by rhLF. •ERK and FASL/FAS signaling are involved in the effects of rhLF. •OA patients with glucocorticoid-induced cartilage damage may benefit from treatment with rhLF. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used for osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, Dex also has many side effects following repeated use over prolonged periods mainly through increasing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether LF can inhibit Dex-induced OA chondrocytes apoptosis and explore its possible molecular mechanism involved in. MTT assay was used to determine the optimal concentration of Dex and recombinant human LF (rhLF) on chondrocytes at different time and dose points. Chondrocytes were then stimulated with Dex in the absence or presence of optimal concentration of rhLF. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using MTT and LIVE/DEAD assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by multi-parameter apoptosis assay kit using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), FAS, FASL, and Caspase-3 (CASP3) at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The optimal concentration of Dex (25 μg/ml) and rhLF (200 μg/ml) were chosen for the following experiments. rhLF significantly reversed the detrimental effect of Dex on chondrocytes proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. In addition, rhLF significantly prevented Dex-induced down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of FAS, FASL, and CASP3. These findings demonstrated that rhLF acts as

  7. Bacterial lipoprotein delays apoptosis in human neutrophils through inhibition of caspase-3 activity: regulatory roles for CD14 and TLR-2.

    Power, Colm P

    2012-02-03

    The human sepsis syndrome resulting from bacterial infection continues to account for a significant proportion of hospital mortality. Neutralizing strategies aimed at individual bacterial wall products (such as LPS) have enjoyed limited success in this arena. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) is a major constituent of the wall of diverse bacterial forms and profoundly influences cellular function in vivo and in vitro, and has been implicated in the etiology of human sepsis. Delayed polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis is a characteristic feature of human sepsis arising from Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacterial infection. Bacterial wall product ligation and subsequent receptor-mediated events upstream of caspase inhibition in neutrophils remain incompletely understood. BLP has been shown to exert its cellular effects primarily through TLR-2, and it is now widely accepted that lateral associations with the TLRs represent the means by which CD14 communicates intracellular messages. In this study, we demonstrate that BLP inhibits neutrophil mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a subsequent reduction in caspase-3 processing, ultimately leading to a significant delay in PMN apoptosis. Pretreatment of PMNs with an anti-TLR-2 mAb or anti-CD14 mAb prevented BLP from delaying PMN apoptosis to such a marked degree. Combination blockade using both mAbs completely prevented the effects of BLP (in 1 and 10 ng\\/ml concentrations) on PMN apoptosis. At higher concentrations of BLP, the antiapoptotic effects were observed, but were not as pronounced. Our findings therefore provide the first evidence of a crucial role for both CD14 and TLR-2 in delayed PMN apoptosis arising from bacterial infection.

  8. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Woo Minna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/- mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule.

  9. In vitro degradation of bovine myofibrils is caused by μ-calpain, not caspase-3.

    Mohrhauser, D A; Underwood, K R; Weaver, A D

    2011-03-01

    Tenderness is a key palatability trait influencing perception of consumers of meat quality and is influenced by a multitude of factors, including postmortem proteolysis. A fundamental understanding of this biological mechanism regulating tenderness is necessary to decrease variability and increase consumer satisfaction. However, reports regarding the enzyme systems involved in postmortem tenderization are conflicting. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if caspase-3 is responsible for the degradation of myofibrillar proteins during aging. Bovine semitendinosus muscles were removed from 2 carcasses. Muscle from the left side of each carcass was excised 20 min postmortem and utilized for in vitro analysis of protein degradation. Muscle strips were dissected from the semitendinosus, restrained to maintain length, and placed in a neutral buffer containing protease inhibitors. Upon rigor completion, myofibrils were isolated from each strip and sarcomere length was determined. Samples with similar sarcomere lengths were selected to minimize the effect of sarcomere length on proteolysis. Myofibrils were then incubated at 22°C with μ-calpain, caspase-3, or μ-calpain + caspase-3 for 0.25, 1, 3, 24, 48, or 72 h at optimum pH for enzyme activity. The semitendinosus from the right side of each carcass was excised 1 d postmortem, cut into 2.54-cm steaks, vacuum-packaged, and allowed to age for 2, 4, 7, or 10 d to evaluate normal protein degradation during beef aging. Proteolysis of troponin T, α-actinin, and desmin was monitored using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques, whereas proteolysis of titin and nebulin was monitored using SDS-vertical agarose gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Analysis of Western blots revealed no change in abundance of intact troponin T, desmin, titin, or nebulin over time in myofibrils incubated with caspase-3. However, abundance of these proteins subjected to digestion with μ-calpain and μ-calpain + caspase-3

  10. TNF-α-Induced Mitochondrial Alterations in Human T Cells Requires FADD and Caspase-8 Activation but Not RIP and Caspase-3 Activation

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Sung, Bokyung; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    Although much is known about how TNF-α induces apoptosis in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis, little is known about how it induces apoptosis without these inhibitors. In this report we investigated temporal sequence of events induced by TNF-α in the absence of protein synthesis. Regardless of whether we measured the effects by plasma membrane phosphotidylserine accumulation, by DNA strand breaks, or activation of caspases, significant changes were observed only between 12–24 h ...

  11. Design and Synthesis of a Novel Peptidomimetic Inhibitor of Caspase-3

    2006-01-01

    Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, comprise of highly homologous enzymes that play an important role in apoptotic cell death. Caspase-3 shows key functions in apoptosis, mediating apoptotic cascade from the intrinsic and extrinsic activation pathways. Therefore, caspase-3 is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. For instance,inhibitors of caspase-3 have been described as promising cardioprotectants, neuroprotectants and antiarthritic agents.A novel peptidomimetic inhibitor of caspase-3, has been designed, which still has the properties of a reversible inhibitor, while the P1 site at the C-terminal remains, and only L-amino acid has been replaced by D-amino acid. Also presented here is the synthesis of the inhibitor and its inhibitory activity against caspase-3, which was tested by the fluorescent activity assay.

  12. Testosterone undecanoate and depo medroxyprogesterone acetate induced azoospermia through increased expression of spermatogenic cell caspase 3

    Nukman Moeloek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The administration of a combination of testosterone undecanoate (TU, a long-acting androgen and depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA were investigated in term of suppression of rat sperm concentration in vivo to azoospermia through increasing activity of spermatogenic cell caspase 3. Adult Sprague Dawley rats received TU and DMPA of 2.5 mg and 1.25 mg, respectively, a regimen known to rapidly reduce intra testicular testosterone and to produce azoospermia within 12 weeks. Caspase 3 positive sperm cells increased compared with control levels during 6 weeks post-injection and increased further through 60 weeks. Immunohistochemistry for caspase 3 revealed that spermatocytes represented the predominant caspase 3 positive germ cells. Modest immunoreactivity for caspase-3 was localized to nuclear region of the germ cells of control and treated testes. Immunohistochemistry study revealed significantly increased caspase-3 expression in nuclei of germ cells during administration of TU+DMPA to rats. Additionally, the caspase 3 content was significantly increased in germ cells during rats were administered TU+DMPA (453.90±84.88 cells/200 seminiferous tubules and caspase 3 significant increase in immunoreactivity was localized to the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. Taken together, these results indicated that azoospermia due to reduced intratesticular testosterone concentration was caspase-3 activation dependent and suggested that the increase in active caspase-3 in the nucleus may be involved in the induction of decreased sperm production. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 149-56Keywords: TU, DMPA, sperm concentration, germ cells

  13. Inactivation of the Human Vitamin D Receptor by Caspase-3

    Malloy, Peter J.; Feldman, David

    2008-01-01

    Calcitriol actions are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear transcription factor of the steroid-retinoid-thyroid nuclear receptor gene superfamily. Calcitriol inhibits the growth of many cells including cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. In some cancer cell lines, calcitriol also induces apoptosis. In the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line, induction of apoptosis and caspase-3/7 activities by staurosporine (STS) abolished [3H]1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 binding and VDR prot...

  14. Low levels of Caspase-3 predict favourable response to 5FU-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: Caspase-3 inhibition as a therapeutic approach.

    Flanagan, L; Meyer, M; Fay, J; Curry, S; Bacon, O; Duessmann, H; John, K; Boland, K C; McNamara, D A; Kay, E W; Bantel, H; Schulze-Bergkamen, H; Prehn, J H M

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world. 5-Fluorouracil (5FU)-based chemotherapy (CT) remains the mainstay treatment of CRC in the advanced setting, and activates executioner caspases in target cells. Executioner caspases are key proteins involved in cell disassembly during apoptosis. Activation of executioner caspases also has a role in tissue regeneration and repopulation by stimulating signal transduction and cell proliferation in neighbouring, non-apoptotic cells as reported recently. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) consisting of tumour tissue from 93 stage II and III colon cancer patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, patients with low levels of active Caspase-3 had an increased disease-free survival time. This was particularly pronounced in patients who received 5FU-based adjuvant CT. In line with this observation, lower serum levels of active Caspase-3 were found in patients with metastasised CRC who revealed stable disease or tumour regression compared with those with disease progression. The role of Caspase-3 in treatment responses was explored further in primary human tumour explant cultures from fresh patient tumour tissue. Exposure of explant cultures to 5FU-based CT increased the percentage of cells positive for active Caspase-3 and Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick end Labelling (TUNEL), but also the expression of regeneration and proliferation markers β-Catenin and Ki-67, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Of note, selective inhibition of Caspase-3 with Ac-DNLD-CHO, a selective, reversible inhibitor of Caspase-3, significantly reduced the expression of proliferation markers as well as COX-2. Inhibition of COX-2 with aspirin or celecoxib did not affect Caspase-3 levels but also reduced Ki-67 and β-Catenin levels, suggesting that Caspase-3 acted via COX-2 to stimulate cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. This indicates that low levels of active Caspase-3 may represent a

  15. Contribution of caspase-3 differs by p53 status in apoptosis induced by X-irradiation

    We investigated the effect of p53 status on involvement of caspase-3 activation in cell death induced by X-irradiation, using rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs) transduced with a temperature-sensitive mutant (mt) p53 gene. Cells with wild-type (wt) p53 showed greater resistance to X-irradiation than cells with mt p53. In cells with wt p53, X-irradiation-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by the caspase-3 inhibitor acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-methionyl-L-glutaminyl-L-aspartyl-aldehyde (Ac-DMQD-CHO) and caspase-3 activity was not elevated following X-irradiation, although induction of p53 and p21/WAF-1 protein was observed. In contrast, irradiated cells with mt p53 showed 89% inhibition of cell death with Ac-DMQD-CHO and 98% inhibition with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). In cells with mt p53, caspase-3 activity was increased approximately 5 times beyond baseline activity at 24 h after irradiation. This increase was almost completely inhibited by NAC. However, inhibition of caspase-3 by Ac-DMQD-CHO failed to decrease production of reactive oxygen species by cells with mt p53. Differential involvement of caspase-3 is a reason for differences in sensitivity to X-irradiation in cells with different p53 status. Caspase-3 activation appears to occur downstream from generation of reactive oxygen species occurring independently of wt p53 during X-irradiation-induced cell death. (author)

  16. A potent reporter applicable to the monitoring of caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage.

    Park, Kyoungsook; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Ahn, Junhyoung; Yi, So Yeon; Han, Sang Hee; Park, Hye-Jung; Chung, Sang J; Chung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Moonil

    2008-11-01

    In this study, we developed a chimeric caspase-3 substrate (GST:DEVD:EGFP) comprised of glutathione-S transferase (GST) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with a specialized linker peptide harboring the caspase-3 cleavage sequence, DEVD. Using this reporter, we assessed the proteolytic cleavage of the artificial caspase-3 substrate for caspase-3. The common feature of this approach is that the presence of the DEVD sequence between GST and EGFP allows for caspase-3-dependent cleavage after the Asp (D) residue, resulting in the elimination of EGFP from the GST:DEVD:EGFP reporter. To the best of our knowledge, this study reports the first application employing a chimeric protein substrate, with the similar accuracy level compared to the conventional methods such as fluorometric assays. As a result, using this GST:DEVD:EGFP reporter, caspase-3 activation based on proteolytic properties could be monitored via a variety of bioanalytical techniques such as immunoblot analysis, glutathione-agarose bead assay, and on-chip visualization, providing both technical and economical advantages over the extensively utilized fluorogenic peptide assay. Our results convincingly showed that this versatile reporter (GST:DEVD:EGFP) constitutes a useful system for the monitoring of caspase-3 activation, potentially enabling the monitoring of the proteolytic activities of different intra-cellular proteases via the substitution of the cleavage sequence within the same schematic construct. PMID:18775457

  17. The role of caspase 3 and BclxL in the action of interleukin 7 (IL-7): a survival factor in activated human T cells

    Amos, C L; Woetmann, A; Nielsen, M;

    1998-01-01

    The effects of interleukin 7 (IL-7) on apoptosis in interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent, activated, primary, human T lymphocytes (hT cells) was examined. IL-7 (like IL-2) rescued cells from apoptosis, as measured by their cellular DNA profile and fragmentation. IL-2 also acted as a mitogen in these T ...

  18. Testosterone undecanoate and depo medroxyprogesterone acetate induced azoospermia through increased expression of spermatogenic cell caspase 3

    Nukman Moeloek; Asmarinah Asmarinah; Nurjati C. Siregar; Syafruddin Ilyas

    2008-01-01

    The administration of a combination of testosterone undecanoate (TU, a long-acting androgen) and depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) were investigated in term of suppression of rat sperm concentration in vivo to azoospermia through increasing activity of spermatogenic cell caspase 3. Adult Sprague Dawley rats received TU and DMPA of 2.5 mg and 1.25 mg, respectively, a regimen known to rapidly reduce intra testicular testosterone and to produce azoospermia within 12 weeks. Caspase 3 positi...

  19. The calpain, caspase 12, caspase 3 cascade leading to apoptosis is altered in F508del-CFTR expressing cells.

    Mathieu Kerbiriou

    Full Text Available In cystic fibrosis (CF, the most frequent mutant variant of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, F508del-CFTR protein, is misfolded and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. We previously showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR may be triggered in CF. Since prolonged UPR activation leads to apoptosis via the calcium-calpain-caspase-12-caspase-3 cascade and because apoptosis is altered in CF, our aim was to compare the ER stress-induced apoptosis pathway between wild type (Wt and F508del-CFTR expressing cells. Here we show that the calcium-calpain-caspase-12-caspase-3 cascade is altered in F508del-CFTR expressing cells. We propose that this alteration is involved in the altered apoptosis triggering observed in CF.

  20. Down-modulation of heat shock protein 70 and up-modulation of Caspase-3 during schisandrin B-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Yi-Feng Wu; Ming-Fu Cao; Yan-Ping Gao; Fei Chen; Tao Wang; Edward P. Zumbika; Kai-Xian Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of schisandrin B (Sch B) on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and regulation of Hsp70 and Caspases-3, 7, 9 expression by Sch B.METHODS: Human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 was cultured and treated with Sch B at various concentrations.Growth suppression was detected with MTT colorimetric assay. Cell apoptosis was confirmed by DNA ladder detection and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of Hsp70,Caspases-3, 7, 9 were analyzed by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: Sch B inhibited the growth of hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner, leading to a 50% decrease in cell number (LC50) value of 23.50 mg/L. Treatment with Sch B resulted in degradation of chromosomal DNA into small internucleosomal fragments, evidenced by the formation of a 180-200 bp DNA ladder on agarose gels.FCM analysis showed the peak areas of subdiploid at the increased concentration of Sch B. The results of Western bolt analysis showed that Hsp70 was down-regulated and Caspase-3 was up-regulated, while the activity of Caspases-7,-9 had no significant change.CONCLUSION: Sch B is able to inhibit the proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and induce apoptosis,which goes through Caspase-3-dependent and Caspase-9-independent pathway accompanied with the down-regulation of Hsp70 protein expression at an early event.

  1. Lacidipine Attenuates Apoptosis via a Caspase-3 Dependent Pathway in Human Kidney Cells

    Aiqi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in hospitalised patients and has a poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are anticipated. Lacidipine, a novel third-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, has been demonstrated effective for hypertension. However, its potential effect on renal injury remains unknown. In the present study, an in vitro model of renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury was used to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of lacidipine on human kidney cell (HKC apoptosis. Methods: HKCs were subjected to adenosine triphosphate (ATP depletion and recovery (0.01 µM AA, depletion for 2 h and recovery for 30 min, with or without lacidipine (1 µM and 10 µM, 24 h, then cell viability and apoptosis were determined using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and Annexin V flow cytometry. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c (cyt c was examined by western blot. Results: Antimycin A (AA was found to induce apoptosis of HKCs. The proportion of early apoptosis and activity of caspase-3 peaked at 30 min after ATP depletion and recovery and were attenuated by lacidipine. The expression of cyt c and Bax was decreased, while that of Bcl-2 was increased significantly in lacidipine treated group. Conclusion: We conclude that lacidipine protects HKCs against apoptosis induced by ATP depletion and recovery by regulating the caspase-3 pathway.

  2. miR-98 and its host gene Huwe1 target Caspase-3 in Silica nanoparticles-treated male germ cells

    Xu, Bo; Mao, Zhilei; Ji, Xiaoli; Yao, Mengmeng; Chen, Minjian; Zhang, Xuemei; Hang, Bo; Liu, Yi; Tang, Wei; Tang, Qiusha; Xia, Yankai

    2015-08-01

    Silica nanoparticles (NP) is one of the most commonly used nanomaterials with potential health hazards. However, the effects of Silica NP on germ cells and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, GC-2 and TM-4, which are two different types of male germ cells were exposed to Silica NP for 24h, and then general cytotoxicity and multi-parameter cytotoxicity were evaluated. Our results showed that Silica NP could induce apoptosis in GC-2 cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that Silica NP was localized in the lysosomes of GC-2 cells. High content screening (HCS) showed that Silica NP exposure could increased cell permeabilization and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in GC-2 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis markers (Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9) in GC-2 cells were significantly increased, while Bcl-2 was decreased. Accordingly, the expression level of miR-98, which can regulate Caspase-3, was significantly decreased. Huwe1, the host gene of miR-98, was positively associated with miR-98 expression after Silica NP exposure. Dual luciferase reporter assay suggested that miR-98 directly targets Caspase-3. These results suggest that Silica NP induces apoptosis via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and Caspase-3 activation, while miR-98 plays key role in modulating this effect.

  3. Effects of inhibitors on the synergistic interaction between calpain and caspase-3 during post-mortem aging of chicken meat.

    Chen, Lin; Feng, Xian Chao; Zhang, Wan Gang; Xu, Xing Lian; Zhou, Guang Hong

    2012-08-29

    Calpain has been considered to be the most important protease involved in tenderization during the conversion of muscle into meat. However, recent evidence suggests the possible involvement of the key apoptosis protease, caspase, on post-mortem tenderization. This study used inhibitors of calpain and caspase-3 to treat chicken muscle immediately after slaughter and followed the changes in caspase-3 and calpain activities together with their expression during 5 days of aging. Addition of calpain inhibitors to the system resulted in significantly higher caspase-3 activities (p tenderizing process during the conversion of muscle tissue into meat. PMID:22720745

  4. Adenoviral vector mediated-expression of caspase-3 siRNA on apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Wu Feixiang; Yu Weifeng; Yuan Yang; Miao Xuerong; Xu Xuewu; Huang Shengdong; Sun Yuming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To construct the recombinant adenovirus expressing small RNA of rats caspase-3 and observe the down-regulation effect of caspase-3 in neurons induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS) in vitro. Methods: pShuttleH1-siCas3 containing Oligo DNA of the targeting sequences and pEGFPC1-Cas3 containing caspase-3 and EGFP sequences were constructed respectively, pShuttleH1-siCas3 and pEGFPC1-Cas3 were co-transfected to the 293 cells by liposomes to determine interfering efficacy by flow eytometry, pShuttleH1-siCas3 was linearized and transformed into E. coli BJ5183 cells containing backbone plasmid pAdEasy-1. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into 293 cells to package the adenovirus Ad-siCas3. The titers of adenovirus were determined by the specific 50% tissue culture infection dosage method. After virus infected the cultured hippocampus neurons, LPS-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 mRNA expression were observed. Results: It was identified that the sequence of target gene was correctly inserted into the genome of virus. The expression of green fluorescence protein was reduced by pShuttleH1-siCas3 in 293 cells. The titer of recombinant adenovirus was 1.06×1010 pfu/ml. After virus infection, caspase-3 mRNA was greatly reduced and neurons apoptosis was suppressed. Conclusion: The recombinant adenovirus expressing rats caspase-3 siRNA were successfully constructed, which may probably be further used in pain therapy by its anti-apoptosis effect.

  5. Nascent histamine induces α-synuclein and caspase-3 on human cells

    Caro-Astorga, Joaquín; Fajardo, Ignacio; Ruiz-Pérez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis, E-mail: jlurdial@uma.es

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Nascent histamine alters cyclin expression pattern. • Nascent histamine increases expression of α-synuclein. • Nascent histamine activates caspase-3. - Abstract: Histamine (Hia) is the most multifunctional biogenic amine. It is synthetized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in a reduced set of mammalian cell types. Mast cells and histaminergic neurons store Hia in specialized organelles until the amine is extruded by exocytosis; however, other immune and cancer cells are able to produce but not store Hia. The intracellular effects of Hia are still not well characterized, in spite of its physiopathological relevance. Multiple functional relationships exist among Hia metabolism/signaling elements and those of other biogenic amines, including growth-related polyamines. Previously, we obtained the first insights for an inhibitory effect of newly synthetized Hia on both growth-related polyamine biosynthesis and cell cycle progression of non-fully differentiated mammalian cells. In this work, we describe progress in this line. HEK293 cells were transfected to express active and inactive versions of GFP-human HDC fusion proteins and, after cell sorting by flow cytometry, the relative expression of a large number of proteins associated with cell signaling were measured using an antibody microarray. Experimental results were analyzed in terms of protein–protein and functional interaction networks. Expression of active HDC induced a cell cycle arrest through the alteration of the levels of several proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk6, cdk7 and cyclin A. Regulation of α-synuclein and caspase-3 was also observed. The analyses provide new clues on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of intracellular newly synthetized Hia on cell proliferation/survival, cell trafficking and protein turnover. This information is especially interesting for emergent and orphan immune and neuroinflammatory diseases.

  6. Nascent histamine induces α-synuclein and caspase-3 on human cells

    Highlights: • Nascent histamine alters cyclin expression pattern. • Nascent histamine increases expression of α-synuclein. • Nascent histamine activates caspase-3. - Abstract: Histamine (Hia) is the most multifunctional biogenic amine. It is synthetized by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in a reduced set of mammalian cell types. Mast cells and histaminergic neurons store Hia in specialized organelles until the amine is extruded by exocytosis; however, other immune and cancer cells are able to produce but not store Hia. The intracellular effects of Hia are still not well characterized, in spite of its physiopathological relevance. Multiple functional relationships exist among Hia metabolism/signaling elements and those of other biogenic amines, including growth-related polyamines. Previously, we obtained the first insights for an inhibitory effect of newly synthetized Hia on both growth-related polyamine biosynthesis and cell cycle progression of non-fully differentiated mammalian cells. In this work, we describe progress in this line. HEK293 cells were transfected to express active and inactive versions of GFP-human HDC fusion proteins and, after cell sorting by flow cytometry, the relative expression of a large number of proteins associated with cell signaling were measured using an antibody microarray. Experimental results were analyzed in terms of protein–protein and functional interaction networks. Expression of active HDC induced a cell cycle arrest through the alteration of the levels of several proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk6, cdk7 and cyclin A. Regulation of α-synuclein and caspase-3 was also observed. The analyses provide new clues on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of intracellular newly synthetized Hia on cell proliferation/survival, cell trafficking and protein turnover. This information is especially interesting for emergent and orphan immune and neuroinflammatory diseases

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice. Here, we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with GSPs inhibited cellular proliferation (13-89%) and induced cell death (1-48%) in a dose (5-100 mug/ml)- and time (24, 48 and 72 h)-dependent manner. GSP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was associated with an increase in G1-phase arrest at 24 h, which was mediated through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and simultaneous increase in protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cdki), Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27, and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. The treatment of A431 cells with GSPs (20-80 mug/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death (26-58%), which was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the GSP-induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggesting that GSP-induced apoptosis is associated primarily with the caspase-3-dependent pathway. Together, our study suggests that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro, further in vivo mechanistic studies are required to verify the chemotherapeutic effect of GSPs in skin cancers. PMID:17437483

  8. Effect of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 on calcium distribution in apoptosis of HL-60 cells

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis manifests in two major execution programs downstream of the death signal: the caspase pathway and organelle dysfunction. An important antiapoptosis factor, Bcl-2 protein, contributes in caspase pathway of apoptosis. Calcium, an important intracellular signal element in cells, is also observed to have changes during apoptosis, which maybe affected by Bcl2 protein. We have previously reported that in Harringtonine (HT) induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells, there's a change of intracellular calcium distribution, moving from cytoplast especially Golgi's apparatus to nucleus and accumulating there with the highest concentration. We report here that caspase-3 becomes activated in HT-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells, which can be inhibited by overexpression of Bcl-2 protein. No sign of apoptosis or intracellular calcium movement from Golgi's apparatus to nucleus in HL-60 cells overexpressing Bcl-2 or treated with Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific inhibitor of caspase-3. The results indicate that activated caspase-3 can promote the movement of intracellular calcium from Golgi's apparatus to nucleus, and the process is inhibited by Ac-DEVD-CHO (inhibitor of caspas-3), and that Bcl-2 can inhibit the movement and accumulation of intracellular calcium in nucleus through its inhibition on caspase3. Calcium relocalization in apoptosis seems to be irreversible, which is different from the intracellular calcium changes caused by growth factor.

  9. Caspase-3 Contributes to ZO-1 and Cl-5 Tight-Junction Disruption in Rapid Anoxic Neurovascular Unit Damage

    de Curtis, Marco; Kuhlmann, Christoph R. W.; Luhmann, Heiko J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tight-junction (TJ) protein degradation is a decisive step in hypoxic blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in stroke. In this study we elucidated the impact of acute cerebral ischemia on TJ protein arrangement and the role of the apoptotic effector protease caspase-3 in this context. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an in vitro model of the neurovascular unit and the guinea pig whole brain preparation to analyze with immunohistochemical methods the BBB properties and neurovascular integrity. In both methodological approaches we observed rapid TJ protein disruptions after 30 min of oxygen and glucose deprivation or middle cerebral artery occlusion, which were accompanied by strong caspase-3 activation in brain endothelial cells (BEC). Surprisingly only few DNA-fragmentations were detected with TUNEL stainings in BEC. Z-DEVD-fmk, an irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor, partly blocked TJ disruptions and was protective on trans-endothelial electrical resistance. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide evidence that caspase-3 is rapidly activated during acute cerebral ischemia predominantly without triggering DNA-fragmentation in BEC. Further we detected fast TJ protein disruptions which could be partly blocked by caspase-3 inhibition with Z-DEVD-fmk. We suggest that the basis for clinically relevant BBB breakdown in form of TJ disruptions is initiated within minutes during ischemia and that caspase-3 contributes to this process. PMID:21364989

  10. GT1b-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by the Akt/GSK-3/tau signaling pathway but not caspase-3 in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Sohn Sunghyang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids exist in mammalian cell membranes particularly neuronal membranes. The trisialoganglioside (GT1b is one of the major brain gangliosides and acts as an endogenous regulator in the brain. We previously showed GT1b induces mesencephalic dopaminergic (DA neuronal death, both in vivo and in vitro. We further investigate the underlying mechanisms of GT1b neurotoxicity. Results Consistent with earlier findings, GT1b attenuated the DA neuron number and dopamine uptake level in mesencephalic cultures. Morphological evidence revealed GT1b-induced chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation as well as an increased number of TUNEL-positive cells, compared to control cultures. Interestingly, while GT1b enhanced caspase-3 activity, DEVD, a caspase-3 inhibitor, failed to rescue DA neuronal death. Immunoblot analysis revealed that GT1b inactivates Akt through dephosphorylation at both Ser473 and Thr308, subsequent dephosphorylation of GSK-3β, a substrate of Akt, and hyperphosphorylation of tau, downstream of GSK-3β. Moreover, a GSK-3β specific inhibitor, L803-mt, attenuated tau phosphorylation and rescued DA neurons from cell death in mesencephalic cultures. Conclusion Our data provide novel evidence that a Akt/GSK-3β/tau-dependent, but not caspase-3 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in GT1b-mediated neurotoxic actions on mesencephalic DA neurons.

  11. Implication of Caspase-3 as a Common Therapeutic Target for Multineurodegenerative Disorders and Its Inhibition Using Nonpeptidyl Natural Compounds

    Saif Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caspase-3 has been identified as a key mediator of neuronal apoptosis. The present study identifies caspase-3 as a common player involved in the regulation of multineurodegenerative disorders, namely, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, Huntington’s disease (HD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The protein interaction network prepared using STRING database provides a strong evidence of caspase-3 interactions with the metabolic cascade of the said multineurodegenerative disorders, thus characterizing it as a potential therapeutic target for multiple neurodegenerative disorders. In silico molecular docking of selected nonpeptidyl natural compounds against caspase-3 exposed potent leads against this common therapeutic target. Rosmarinic acid and curcumin proved to be the most promising ligands (leads mimicking the inhibitory action of peptidyl inhibitors with the highest Gold fitness scores 57.38 and 53.51, respectively. These results were in close agreement with the fitness score predicted using X-score, a consensus based scoring function to calculate the binding affinity. Nonpeptidyl inhibitors of caspase-3 identified in the present study expeditiously mimic the inhibitory action of the previously identified peptidyl inhibitors. Since, nonpeptidyl inhibitors are preferred drug candidates, hence, discovery of natural compounds as nonpeptidyl inhibitors is a significant transition towards feasible drug development for neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Molar tooth development in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Matalová, Eva; Sharpe, P. T.; Lakhani, S. A.; Roth, K. A.; Flavell, R. A.; Šetková, Jana; Míšek, Ivan; Tucker, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, 5 (2006), s. 491-497. ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450503; GA MŠk OC B23.001 Grant ostatní: European Molecular Biology Organization ASTF195.00-05; NIH NS41962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : tooth development * dental apoptosis * caspase-3 mutant Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.577, year: 2006

  13. Pharmacophore Modeling and Docking Studies on Some Nonpeptide-Based Caspase-3 Inhibitors

    Simant Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders are major consequences of excessive apoptosis caused by a proteolytic enzyme known as caspase-3. Therefore, caspase-3 inhibition has become a validated therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders. We performed pharmacophore modeling on some synthetic derivatives of caspase-3 inhibitors (pyrrolo[3,4-c]quinoline-1,3-diones using PHASE 3.0. This resulted in the common pharmacophore hypothesis AAHRR.6 which might be responsible for the biological activity: two aromatic rings (R mainly in the quinoline nucleus, one hydrophobic (H group (CH3, and two acceptor (A groups (–C=O. After identifying a valid hypothesis, we also developed an atom-based 3D-QSAR model applying the PLS algorithm. The developed model was statistically robust (q2=0.53; pred_r2=0.80. Additionally, we have performed molecular docking studies, cross-validated our results, and gained a deeper insight into its molecular recognition process. Our developed model may serve as a query tool for future virtual screening and drug designing for this particular target.

  14. Effect of Dexamethasone on Nitric Oxide Synthase and Caspase-3 Gene Expressions in Endotoxemia in Neonate Rat Brain

    HUA WANG; YU-BIN WU; XIU-HUA DU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the gene and protein expressions of three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and gene expression of Caspase-3, and effect of dexamethasone on them in neonatal rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemic brain damage. Methods Expressions of the three isoforms of NOS and caspase-3 mRNA in the brain were investigated by RT-PCR in postnatal 7-day wistar rats with acute endotoxemia by intraperitoneal administration of LPS. Regional distributions of NOSs were examined by immunohistochemical technique. Results nNOS and Caspase-3 mRNA were obviously detected. eNOS mRNA was faintly expressed, but iNOS mRNA was undetectable in the control rat brain. The expressions of NOS mRNA of three isoforms were weak 2 h after LPS (5 mg/mg) delivery, peaked at 6 h, and thereafter, reduced gradually up to 24 h. The expression intensity was in the order of nNOS> iNOS> eNOS. Widespread nNOS, scattered eNOS distribution and negative iNOS were identified in the control rat brain and all isoforms of NOS could be induced by LPS which reached the apex at 24 h in the order of nNOS> iNOS> eNOS as detected by immunostaining. Although Caspase-3 mRNA could be found in all groups, DNA fragmentation was only seen at 6 h and 24 h. The expressions of NOS and Caspase-3 mRNA were inhibited in the rat brain when dexamethasone was administrated. Conclusion LPS-induced NO production induces apoptosis of neurons through mechanism involving the Caspase-3 activation, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of brain damage during endotoxemia, and neuro-protective effects of dexamethasone may be partially realized by inhibiting the expression of NOS mRNA.

  15. Ekspresi Bcl-2 dan Caspase-3 Pascapaparan Hipoksia Hipobarik Intermiten

    Achmad Hidayat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia often suffered by cabin crew due to the fact that they are breathing lower pressured air inside the plane cabin. Human body will adapt by binding more oxygen and reducing hypoxia effect. Mitochondria function will be irritated by hypoxia which affect, outer mithochondrial membrane permeability due to decrease of Bcl-2 protein. Later on if hypoxia continues mitochondrial membrane will leaked cytocrome-c will released and apoptotic pathway will occur. The purpose of this study was to analyze Bcl-2 protein as antiapoptosis and caspase-3 as apoptosis indicator of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposure. Experimental study >was subjected to Spraque Dawley male mice during January–April 2010 by exposing them to several intermittent hypobaric hypoxias (one to four treatment in an interval of one week. Protein expression on mice heart cell were detected by immunohistochemistry in the Department of Pathology Anatomy Padjadjaran University-RS Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung and western blot methods in Department Biomolecullar Indonesia University Jakarta. Bcl-2 protein expressions increased according with the frequency of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposures while a reverse trend was found for caspase-3 protein expressions (rs=-0.448, p=0.013. From the study it can be concluded that apoptosis will be decreased as a result of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposures, which occurred from natural adaptation mechanism indicated by decrease of cell apoptosis and cardio protective effect will be emerged.

  16. 新的细胞凋亡抑制基因survivin在垂体腺瘤中的表达及其与caspase-3表达相关性的研究%Apoptosis- regulating protein,survivin:expression and relationship with caspase- 3 protein in pituitary adenomas

    马杰; 石智勇; 魏冰; 乔思杰

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of a inhibitor gene,survivin,in pituitary adenomas and its relationship with the expression of caspase- 3 gene.Method Using streptavidin- biotin peroxidase(SP),the expression of surviving,caspase- 3 protein was examined in 8 normal pituitary tissue and 38 pituitary adenomas.Result Survivin was expressed in 23 of 38 cases of pituitary adenomas,in contrast,normal pituitary tissue did not express surviving.Positive expression rate of PRL group,GH group,Mixed group in pituitary adenomas was 12/17,7/13,4/8,respectively.Overexpression of surviving was not related with the tumor type(P >0.05).Meanwhile,surviving positive rate in caspase- 3 positive and negative groups was 5/14,79% .The result showed it was strongly associated with caspase- 3 expression(P<0.05).Conclusions Apoptosis suppression by surviving play an important role in apoptosis of pituitary adenomas.Survivin could be a new diagnostic/therapeutic target in pituitary adenomas.

  17. Osthole prevents anti-Fas antibody-induced hepatitis in mice by affecting the caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    Okamoto, Toshihiro; Kawasaki, Toru; Hino, Okio

    2003-02-15

    Fas (Apo-1/CD95) ligand, which is a type II membrane protein, is a major inducer of apoptosis. Osthole is a coumarin derivative present in medicinal plants. The effect of osthole on hepatitis induced by anti-Fas antibody in mice was studied. Pretreatment of mice with osthole (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) caused by anti-Fas antibody (175 microg/kg, i.v.). Administration of osthole to mice even at a dose of 10 mg/kg significantly inhibited of anti-Fas antibody-induced elevation of plasma ALT. Capase-3 is a cysteine protease, and treatment of mice with anti-Fas antibody caused an elevation of caspase-3 activity at 3.5 and 6 hr. Pretreatment of mice with osthole (100 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the elevation of caspase-3 activity caused by anti-Fas antibody. However, the addition of osthole (up to 10(-4)M) to a liver cytosol fraction isolated from mice treated with anti-Fas antibody did not inhibit caspase-3 activity in vitro. Thus, treatment of mice with osthole inhibited caspase-3 activity by an effect upstream of caspase-3 activation. The livers of mice treated with anti-Fas antibody contained apoptotic and dead cells; osthole attenuated the development of this apoptosis and cell death. The present results show that osthole prevented anti-Fas antibody-induced hepatitis by inhibiting the Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway. PMID:12566097

  18. A Crohn's disease variant in Atg16l1 enhances its degradation by caspase 3

    Murthy, Aditya; Li, Yun; Peng, Ivan; Reichelt, Mike; Katakam, Anand Kumar; Noubade, Rajkumar; Roose-Girma, Merone; Devoss, Jason; Diehl, Lauri; Graham, Robert R.; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno

    2014-02-01

    Crohn's disease is a debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can involve the entire digestive tract. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding a missense variant in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 (rs2241880, Thr300Ala) is strongly associated with the incidence of Crohn's disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of ATG16L1 deletion or deficiency; however, the molecular consequences of the Thr300Ala (T300A) variant remains unknown. Here we show that amino acids 296-299 constitute a caspase cleavage motif in ATG16L1 and that the T300A variant (T316A in mice) significantly increases ATG16L1 sensitization to caspase-3-mediated processing. We observed that death-receptor activation or starvation-induced metabolic stress in human and murine macrophages increased degradation of the T300A or T316A variants of ATG16L1, respectively, resulting in diminished autophagy. Knock-in mice harbouring the T316A variant showed defective clearance of the ileal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica and an elevated inflammatory cytokine response. In turn, deletion of the caspase-3-encoding gene, Casp3, or elimination of the caspase cleavage site by site-directed mutagenesis rescued starvation-induced autophagy and pathogen clearance, respectively. These findings demonstrate that caspase 3 activation in the presence of a common risk allele leads to accelerated degradation of ATG16L1, placing cellular stress, apoptotic stimuli and impaired autophagy in a unified pathway that predisposes to Crohn's disease.

  19. Multiplexing high-content flow (HCF) and quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) to identify compounds capable of decreasing cell viability, activating caspase 3/7, expressing annexin V, and changing mitochondrial membrane integrity.

    Mathews, Lesley A; Keller, Jonathan M; McKnight, Crystal; Michael, Sam; Shinn, Paul; Liu, Dongbo; Staudt, Louis M; Thomas, Craig J; Ferrer, Marc

    2013-01-01

    High-content flow (HCF) screening systems, such as the iQue Screener and HTFC Screening System from IntelliCyt, have facilitated the implementation of flow cytometry assays for high-throughput screening. HCF screening systems enable the use of smaller sample volumes and multiplexed assays to simultaneously assess different cellular parameters from a single well. This becomes invaluable when working with cells or compounds that are available in limited quantities or when conducting large-scale screens. When assays can be miniaturized to a 384- or 1536-well microplate format, it is possible to implement dose-response-based high-throughput screens, also known as quantitative HTS or qHTS. This article describes how qHTS at the new National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) has been systematically coupled with the HTFC Screening System and Multimetric Apoptosis Screening Kit from IntelliCyt to biologically validate active compounds from primary cell proliferation screens using a model of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PMID:24391083

  20. Expression of livin protein in lung cancer and its relation with the expression of pro-caspase3 protein

    Hongru LI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Livin is a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP, recent studies showed it overexpresses in a variety of carcinomas including lung cancer and contributes much to the cancerous development. The objective of this study is to explore the expression of livin in tissues of lung cancer and its relationshipwith histological types, chemotherapy, Lymph node metastasis and to study its correlation with the expression of pro-caspase3 as well. Methods Expressions of Livin and caspase3 were detected by Western blot assay in lung cancer tissues as well as in controls. Results Livin was expressed in 15 of 27 lung cancer, significantly more than those in lung para-cancerous (1/5 or benign disease lung tissues (2/12 (P 0.05. Conclusion Livin are differently expressed in different histological types of lung cancer; High levels of livin expression do not relate to chemotherapy, lymph node metastasis (P >0.05. The levels of livin tends to be positively associated with those of accordingly pro-caspase3, it is presumed that livin could bind pro-caspase3 and suppress its activation.

  1. Propofol inhibits caspase-3 in astroglial cells: role of heme oxygenase-1.

    Acquaviva, Rosaria; Campisi, Agata; Raciti, Giuseppina; Avola, Roberto; Barcellona, Maria Luisa; Vanella, Luca; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2005-04-01

    Several lines of evidence have extensively demonstrated that peroxynitrite plays a pivotal role in Central Nervous System (CNS) injuries. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanism by which propofol attenuates peroxynitrite-mediated injury in the brain. Primary cultured astroglial cells were incubated for 18 h with a known peroxynitrite donor (SIN-1,3 mM) in the presence or absence of propofol (40 microM, 80 microM and 160 microM). The protective effects of propofol were evaluated by MTT cytotoxicity assay, LDH release, and caspase-3 activation by Western blot analysis. Appropriate propofol concentrations (ranging from 40 microM to 160 microM) significantly increased HO-1 expression and attenuated SIN-1-mediated cytotoxicity and caspase-3 activation. The protective effects of propofol were mitigated by the addition of tin-mesoporphirin (SnMP), a potent inhibitor of HO activity. The addition of a specific synthetic inhibitor of NF-kappaB abolished propofol-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting a possible role for this nuclear transcriptional factor in our experimental conditions. These findings indicate that propofol attenuates peroxynitrite-mediated apoptosis in astroglial cells, a property that may be relevant in both physiological and pathological processes in the CNS. PMID:16181106

  2. Expression of Livin, Survivin and Caspase-3 in human brain astrocytoma%Livin、Survivin和Caspase-3在星形细胞瘤中的表达

    赵树鹏; 靳彩玲; 赵新利; 周文科

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Livin、Survivin和Caspase-3在星形细胞瘤中的表达.方法 采用免疫组织化学法检测50例星形细胞瘤标本及10例正常脑组织中Livin、Survivin和Caspase-3的表达,分析Livin、Survivin的表达与Caspase-3表达的关系.结果 Caspase-3在正常脑组织中的阳性表达率显著高于在星形细胞瘤(P<0.05),且在Ⅰ~Ⅱ级星形细胞瘤中的阳性表达率高于Ⅲ~Ⅳ级(P<0.05).Livin和Survivin在星形细胞瘤中的阳性表达率显著高于正常脑组织(P<0.05),且在Ⅲ~Ⅳ级星形细胞瘤中的阳性表达率明显高于Ⅰ~Ⅱ级(P<0.05).星形细胞瘤中Livin和Survivin 的表达与Caspase-3蛋白的表达均呈负相关(r分别为-0.520和-0.360,P<0.05).结论 Livin、Survivin和Caspase-3的表达可能与星形细胞瘤的发生及发展有关.%Objective To explore the expression of Livin, Survivin and Caspase-3 in human brain astrocytoma. Methods The expressions of Livin, Survivin and Caspase-3 in fifty astrocytomas and ten normal brain tissues were detected with immunohistochemical method,and the relationships of Caspase-3 with Livin,Survivin were analyzed. Results The positive rate of Caspase-3 in normal tissue was significantly higher than that in human brain astrocytoma (P <0. 05) ,it was higher in gradeⅠand II than in grade Ⅲ and Ⅳ(P <0. 05) . The positive rates of Livin and Survivin in human brain astrocytoma were significantly higher than those in normal brain tissue(P <0. 05) ,and they were higher in grade Ⅲ and IV than in grade I andII (P <0. 05) . The expressions of Livin and Survivin were negatively correlated with those of Caspase-3 in human brain astro-cytoma( r = - 0.520,r = - 0.360 ,P < 0.05). Conclusion Livin,Survivin and Caspase-3 may play an important role in incidence and development of human brain astrocytoma.

  3. Oridonin induces apoptosis in gastric cancer through Apaf-1, cytochrome c and caspase-3 signaling pathway

    Ke-Wang Sun; Ying-Yu Ma; Tian-Pei Guan; Ying-Jie Xia; Chang-Ming Shao; Le-Gao Chen; Ya-Jun Ren

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect and mechanism of oridonin on the gastric cancer cell line HGC-27 in vitro.METHODS:The inhibitory effect of oridonin on HGC-27 cells was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay.After treatment with 10 μg/mL oridonin for 24 h and 48 h,the cells were stained with acridine orange/ethidium bromide.The morphologic changes were observed under an inverted fluorescence microscope.DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of apoptosis) and lactate dehydrogenase activity were examined using DNA ladder assay and lactate dehydrogenase-release assay.After treated with oridonin (0,1.25,2.5,5 and 10 μg/mL),HGC-27cells were collected for anexin V-phycoerythrin and 7-amino-actinomycin D double staining and tested by flow cytometric analysis,and oridonin-induced apoptosis in HGC-27 cells was detected.After treatment with oridonin for 24 h,the effects of oridonin on expression of Apaf-1,Bcl-2,Bax,caspase-3 and cytochrome c were also analyzed using reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.RESULTS:Oridonin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HGC-27 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner.The inhibition rates of HGC-27 treated with four different concentrations of oridonin for 24 h (1.25,2.5,5 and 10 μg/mL) were 1.78% ± 0.36%,4.96% ±1.59%,10.35% ± 2.76% and 41.6% ± 4.29%,respectively,which showed a significant difference (P < 0.05).The inhibition rates of HGC-27 treated with oridonin at the four concentrations for 48 h were 14.77% ± 4.21%,21.57% ± 3.75%,30.31% ± 4.91% and 61.19% ±5.81%,with a significant difference (P < 0.05).The inhibition rates of HGC-27 treated with oridonin for 72 h at the four concentrations were 25.77% ± 4.85%,31.86% ± 3.86%,48.30% ± 4.16% and 81.80% ± 6.72%,with a significant difference (P < 0.05).Cells treated with oridonin showed typical apoptotic features with acridine orange

  4. Mechanism of mitochondrial respiratory control in caspase-3 induced positive feed back loop in apoptosis

    2002-01-01

    Caspase-3 plays a central role in the execution of apoptosis. Besides many substrates of caspase-3, mitochondria seem to be one of the candidate targets in the apoptotic process. We evaluated the effects of caspase-3 on the isolated mitochondria in detail, and especially focused on the mechanism involved in mitochondrial functions, which were not fully assessed till now. Our results showed that recombinant caspase-3 induced the increase of superoxide production, the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and rate increasing of mitochondrial state 4 respiration. Caspases inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk can inhibit these effects of caspase-3 on mitochondria. Bcl-xL and cyclosporin A were also shown to be able to inhibit these changes. These results suggested a possible mechanism in caspase-3 induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane barrier which formed a positive feedback loop in apoptosis.

  5. Caspase-3和bax在视网膜母细胞瘤中的表达%Expression of caspase-3 and bax gene protein in retinoblastoma

    孙红; 惠延年; 王立勤; 马吉献

    2003-01-01

    目的: 观察凋亡及凋亡调控基因caspase-3/bax在视网膜母细胞瘤(retinoblastoma, RB)中的表达及与凋亡的相关性. 方法: 收集35例RB标本,对其分别进行caspase-3和bax免疫组织化学染色,观察表达情况及染色强度. 结果: Caspase-3及bax在未分化型(n=15)分别有较好的表达(11/12例),caspase-3及bax在分化型(n=20)中也有较好的表达(17/18例). 正常视网膜组织中无caspase-3及bax的表达. 结论: 凋亡在RB中是存在的,caspase-3及bax在RB的发生发展中起重要作用.

  6. Preclinical studies identify non-apoptotic low-level caspase-3 as therapeutic target in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Camille Luyet

    Full Text Available The majority of pemphigus vulgaris (PV patients suffer from a live-threatening loss of intercellular adhesion between keratinocytes (acantholysis. The disease is caused by auto-antibodies that bind to desmosomal cadherins desmoglein (Dsg 3 or Dsg3 and Dsg1 in mucous membranes and skin. A currently unresolved controversy in PV is whether apoptosis is involved in the pathogenic process. The objective of this study was to perform preclinical studies to investigate apoptotic pathway activation in PV pathogenesis with the goal to assess its potential for clinical therapy. For this purpose, we investigated mouse and human skin keratinocyte cultures treated with PV antibodies (the experimental Dsg3 monospecific antibody AK23 or PV patients IgG, PV mouse models (passive transfer of AK23 or PVIgG into adult and neonatal mice as well as PV patients' biopsies (n=6. A combination of TUNEL assay, analyses of membrane integrity, early apoptotic markers such as cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and the collapse of actin cytoskeleton failed to provide evidence for apoptosis in PV pathogenesis. However, the in vitro and in vivo PV models, allowing to monitor progression of lesion formation, revealed an early, transient and low-level caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition confirmed the functional implication of caspase-3 in major events in PV such as shedding of Dsg3, keratin retraction, proliferation including c-Myc induction, p38MAPK activation and acantholysis. Together, these data identify low-level caspase-3 activation downstream of disrupted Dsg3 trans- or cis-adhesion as a major event in PV pathogenesis that is non-synonymous with apoptosis and represents, unlike apoptotic components, a promising target for clinical therapy. At a broader level, these results posit that an impairment of adhesive functions in concert with low-level, non-lethal caspase-3 activation can evoke profound cellular changes which may be of relevance for other

  7. Effect of protein kinase C alpha, caspase-3, and survivin on apoptosis of oral cancer cells induced by staurosporine

    Yu-xia ZHANG; Shi-bin YU; Jing-ping OU-YANG; Dong XIA; Min WANG; Jin-rong LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To elucidate inhibition of protein kinase C α (PKC α) activity by staurosporine on apoptosis of oral cancer cell line tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCCa)cells and to clarify the role of survivin and caspase-3 in mediating apoptosis.Methods: TSCCa cell viability was measured by MTT assay after 100 nmol/L staurosporine treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified by using phase contrast microscopy, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and flow cytometry. Level of PKC α and its subcellular location were investigated using Western blot analysis.Expression of survivin and caspase-3 were evaluated using immunocytochemistry.Results: Staurosporine significantly inhibited the cell viability of TSCCa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Marked cell accumulation in G2/M phase was observed after 100 nmol/L staurosporine exposure for 6 h and 12 h. In addition,the percentage of apoptosis increased in a time-dependent manner, from 2.9% in control cultures to approximately 27.4% at 100 nmol/L staurosporine treatment for24 h. Staurosporine displayed difference in inhibitory efficacy between cytosolic and membrance-derived PKC α. The content of PKCα in membrane versus cytosol decreased quickly, from 0.45 in ethanol-treated control cultures to 0.18 after staurosporine exposure for 24 h (P<0.01). After treatment withstaurosporine, a time-dependent reduction of survivin and an activation of caspase-3 were observed in TSCCa cells. Conclusion: Staurosporine inhibited cell viability and promoted apoptosis in TSCCa cells. Inhibition of PKCα activity might be a potential mechanism for staurosporine to induce apoptosis in this cell line. The cleavage of survivin and activation of caspase-3 signaling pathway might contribute to PKC α inhibition-induced apoptosis.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of M826, a reversible caspase-3 inhibitor, in the rat malonate model of Huntington's disease.

    Toulmond, Sylvie; Tang, Keith; Bureau, Yves; Ashdown, Helen; Degen, Sarah; O'Donnell, Ruth; Tam, John; Han, Yongxin; Colucci, John; Giroux, André; Zhu, Yanxia; Boucher, Mathieu; Pikounis, Bill; Xanthoudakis, Steven; Roy, Sophie; Rigby, Michael; Zamboni, Robert; Robertson, George S; Ng, Gordon Y K; Nicholson, Donald W; Flückiger, Jean-Pierre

    2004-02-01

    1. Caspases, key enzymes in the apoptosis pathway, have been detected in the brain of HD patients and in animal models of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of a new, reversible, caspase-3-specific inhibitor, M826 (3-([(2S)-2-[5-tert-butyl-3-[[(4-methyl-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)methyl]amino]-2-oxopyrazin-1(2H)-yl]butanoyl]amino)-5-[hexyl(methyl)amino]-4-oxopentanoic acid), in a rat malonate model of HD. 2. Pharmacokinetic and autoradiography studies after intrastriatal (i.str.) injection of 1.5 nmol of M826 or its tritiated analogue [(3)H]M826 indicated that the compound diffused within the entire striatum. The elimination half-life (T(1/2)) of M826 in the rat striatum was 3 h. 3. I.str. injection of 1.5 nmol of M826 10 min after malonate infusion induced a significant reduction (66%) in the number of neurones expressing active caspase-3 in the ipsilateral striatum. 4. Inhibition of active caspase-3 translated into a significant but moderate reduction (39%) of the lesion volume, and of cell death (24%), 24 h after injury. The efficacy of M826 at inhibiting cell death was comparable to that of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK801. 5. These data provide in vivo proof-of-concept of the neuroprotective effects of reversible caspase-3 inhibitors in a model of malonate-induced striatal injury in the adult rat. PMID:14744804

  9. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    Tereza Cristina da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48 h or S at 72 h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation.

  10. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Sensitizes Primary Mouse Hepatocytes to Ethanol- and TNF-α-Induced Apoptosis by a Caspase-3-Dependent Mechanism

    Won-Ho Kim; Feng Hong; Barbara Jaruga; Zhengsheng Zhang; Saijun Fan; T. Jake Liang; Bin Gao

    2005-01-01

    It is well-documented that alcohol drinking together with hepatitis viral infection accelerates liver injury; however the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this paper, we demonstrated that primary hepatocytes from transgenic mice overexpressing hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) were more susceptible to ethanol- and TNF-α-induced apoptotic killing. Compared to normal control mouse hepatocytes, ethanol and/or TNF-α treatment led to a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome C release,caspase-3 activity, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase degradation in hepatocytes from HBX transgenic mice.Blocking caspase-3 activity antagonized ethanol- and TNF-α-induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes from HBX transgenic mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that HBX sensitizes primary mouse hepatocytes to ethanoland TNF-α-induced apoptosis by a caspase-3-dependent mechanism, which may partly explain the synergistic effects of alcohol consumption and hepatitis B virus infection on liver injury.

  11. Inhibitory effects of hyperoside on lung cancer by inducing apoptosis and suppressing inflammatory response via caspase-3 and NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Lü, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world and the most threatening cancer to human health. Effective therapies based on non-cytotoxic induction in cell inflammation- and apoptosis-responsive pathways are thought to represent a novel advance in treating lung cancer. However, many studies are still required for effective pharmaceutical to induce cancer cell death. Hyperoside (Hyp) is the chief component of some Chinese herbs with anticancer effect. Here, we investigated the role of hyperoside on the lung cancer cell migration, invasion, inflammation and apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro and xenografts of nude mice in vivo. A549 cells were injected in nude mice for establishing tumors. Our results showed that hyperoside suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, apoptosis was induced by hyperoside via Bcl-2/Bax-regulated Caspase3 activation, suggesting that hyperoside might inhibit lung cancer progression through apoptotic induction. And also, hyperoside could prevent progression and development of lung cancer through inactivating NF-κB signaling pathway. Subsequently, inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-18, were down-regulated significantly. And animal experiments also illustrated that the tumor volume and weight were reduced after hyperoside administration, which was also through apoptosis induction and prevention of inflammation response by Caspase3 activation and NF-κB inactivation. To our knowledge, it was the first time to evaluate the effects of hyperoside on preventing progression and development of lung cancer in vivo and in vitro to assess the possible therapies of hyperoside as a future approach for preventing lung cancer progression and development. PMID:27470358

  12. Diosgenin-induced apoptosis dependent on caspase-3 pathway in MGC-803 cells%薯蓣皂苷元诱导人胃低分化粘液腺癌MGC-803细胞凋亡依赖caspase-3途径

    何忠梅; 张显涛; 王铁成

    2011-01-01

    Objective AM To study the antitunormechanian ofD io for hum an gastric adenocarcinan a MGC-803 cells.M eth- ods MGC-803 eells viability and the effect of caspase-3 inhibitor(DEVD-CHO ) on Dirinduced apoptosis were measured by MTT assay .Annexin V expression in M GC-803 cellm an biane was assessed by a flow cytom eter.The effect of D io on DNA in M GC-803 cells was measured using APO-BRDU Kit.Caspase-3 acttriy was detected by a enzyme link inmune detector. Results Dio inhibited MGC-803 cells growth in dose-and tin e-dependent manners M GC-803 cells treated w ifh D io showed typical characteristics of apopto- sis:Annexin V-FITC+/PI-and DNA fragn entation .Caspase-3 inM GC-803 cellswas activated by D io .Caspase-3 inhib itor,A c-DEVD -CH0 partilly inhibited D io-induced apoptosis. Conclusion D io-induced apoptosis is partially dependent on caspase-3 pathway in M GC-803 cells.%目的 研究薯蓣皂苷元(Diosgenin,Dio)诱导人胃低分化粘液腺癌(MGC-803)细胞死亡的机理.方法 四唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测Dio对肿瘤细胞生长抑制作用;流式细胞仪检测Dio对MGC-803细胞膜Annexin V表达的影响;APO-BRDU试剂盒检测Dio对MGC-803细胞DNA的影响;酶联免疫分析仪测定Dio对MGC-803细胞caspase-3活力和caspase-3抑制剂Ac-DEVD-CHO对Dio诱导细胞死亡的影响.结果 一定浓度范围内Dio对MGC-803细胞增殖有剂量、时间依赖性抑制作用;经Dio处理后Armexin V-FTTC+/PI-的凋亡细胞逐渐增多;随Dio剂量增大,DNA断裂碎片增多,凋亡细胞也逐渐增多.Dio作用细胞24 h,明显增强细胞caspase-3的活性.caspase-3抑制剂Ac-DEVD-CHO能部分抑制MGC-803细胞的凋亡.结论 Dio通过caspase-3途径诱导人胃低分化粘液腺癌细胞凋亡.

  13. Expression of caspase-3 gene in apoptotic HL-60 cell and different human tumor cell lines

    Objective: To research the expression of caspase-3 gene in the apoptotic and the control HL-60 cells and in the different human tumor cell lines. Methods: Caspase-3 mRNA in the control and γ-radiation-induced apoptotic HL-60 cells, and in the 6 types of human tumor cell lines, was analysed by Northern blot. Results: The caspase-3 gene transcript was more highly expressed in leukemia cells HL-60, CEM, K562 and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y than in cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa and breast carcinoma MCF7, and more highly in the radiation-induced apoptotic HL-60 than in the control HL-60 cells. Conclusion: The high level of expression of caspase-3 may aid the efforts to understand the tumor cell sensitivity to radiation, apoptosis and its inherent ability to survive

  14. Terazosin Treatment Induces Caspase-3 Expression in the Rat Ventral Prostate

    Papadopoulos, Georgios; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Kyroudi, Aspasia; Kouloukoussa, Mirsini; Perrea, Despina; Mitropoulos, Dionisios

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists may not act solely on smooth muscle contractility. We evaluated the in vivo effect of terazosin on the expression of caspase-3 in the rat ventral prostate. Methods Fifteen Wistar rats were treated with terazosin (1.2 mg/kg body weight, given orally every second day) for 120 days. Another 15 control animals received the same amount of distilled water. The expression of caspase-3 was assessed immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Results Terazosin treatment did not affect prostate weight and histomorphology. In controls caspase-3 was expressed weakly and sporadically. In contrast, strong and weak expression was evident in 67% and 33% of the terazosin-treated specimens, respectively. Conclusions These findings implicate the induction of caspase-3 expression by terazosin as a potential molecular mechanism of its apoptotic action on prostate cells. PMID:23518907

  15. Role of caspase-3 in neuronal apoptosis after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the expression of caspase-3 and neuronal apoptosis after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Methods: ICH rat models were prepared with stereotactic infusion of autologous blood into caudate nucleus. TUNEL method of staining was used to detect apoptotic cells and immunohistochemistry technic was applied to detect caspase-3 expression in cerebral tissue of the sacrificed animals at 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 1w, 2w after the intracerebral blood infusion (n=5 in each group). Five rats underwent sham operation with intracerebral infusion of normal saline. Results: At 6h, TONEL positive cells could be demonstrated with peak at 72h and could still be shown at 2w. Apoptotic cells were not seen in the sham-operation group. Caspase-3 expression was significant at 6h with peak at 24h and was significantly higher than those in the sham group (P<0.05). Expression of caspase-3 was positively correlated with the number of TUNEL positive cells (r=0.547, P<0.01). Conclusion: The cellular (neuronal) apoptosis after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage was closely related to the expression of caspase-3, suggesting possible beneficial effect of selective caspase-3 inhibitors. (authors)

  16. Phycocyanin for protecting brain ischemia-reperfusion injury and its effect on the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA

    Xuewei Yang; Yunliang Guo; Hongbing Chen

    2006-01-01

    3.34), (23.11 ±± 1.89), (10.75±2.63)/visual field]than in the control group [(94.38 ±8.28), (108.81 ±16.11), (140.88 ±14.47), (98.13 ±11.31), (81.03 ±9.31),(31.22±8.86), (16.06±5.96)/visual field] ( P < 0.05); and those at central ischemic area were also significantly lower in the phycocyanin-treated group [(33.86±4.01), (39.51 ±3.46), (50.96±2.53), (43.07±4.09),(36.25±3.72), (9.03±3.87), (4.91 ±5.59)/visual field ]than in the control group [(51.35±2.13), (54.87±3.42),(61.77±4.94), (55.69±6.06), (49.01 ±5.73), (12.84±3.37), (7.32±2.39)/visual field](P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Phycocyanin can obviously improve the neurologic function, reduce the size of brain infarction and down-regulate the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA of rats with ischemia and reperfusion injury,thus protect brain.

  17. The Growing Complexity of Cancer Cell Response to DNA-Damaging Agents: Caspase 3 Mediates Cell Death or Survival?

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Andrais, Bonnie; Kumar, Piyush; Murray, David

    2016-01-01

    It is widely stated that wild-type p53 either mediates the activation of cell cycle checkpoints to facilitate DNA repair and promote cell survival, or orchestrates apoptotic cell death following exposure to cancer therapeutic agents. This reigning paradigm has been challenged by numerous discoveries with different human cell types, including solid tumor-derived cell lines. Thus, activation of the p53 signaling pathway by ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents hinders apoptosis and triggers growth arrest (e.g., through premature senescence) in some genetic backgrounds; such growth arrested cells remain viable, secrete growth-promoting factors, and give rise to progeny with stem cell-like properties. In addition, caspase 3, which is best known for its role in the execution phase of apoptosis, has been recently reported to facilitate (rather than suppress) DNA damage-induced genomic instability and carcinogenesis. This observation is consistent with an earlier report demonstrating that caspase 3 mediates secretion of the pro-survival factor prostaglandin E2, which in turn promotes enrichment of tumor repopulating cells. In this article, we review these and related discoveries and point out novel cancer therapeutic strategies. One of our objectives is to demonstrate the growing complexity of the DNA damage response beyond the conventional “repair and survive, or die” hypothesis. PMID:27187358

  18. Correlation between neuronal injury and Caspase-3 after focal ischemia in human hippocampus

    戚基萍; 吴爱萍; 王德生; 王立峰; 李淑霞; 徐凤琳

    2004-01-01

    Background Cerebral ischemia is a significant clinical problem, and cerebral ischemia usually causes neuron injury such as apoptosis in various brain areas, including hippocampus. Cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease (Caspases) are fundamental factors of apoptotic mechanism. Caspase-3 inhibitors show effect in attenuating brain injury after ischemia. But all the results were from animal models in research laboratories. This study aimed at investigating the correlation between the change of ischemic neuronal injury and Caspase-3 post-ischemia in human hippocampus. Methods We selected and systematized 48 post-mortem specimens from 48 patients, who died of cerebral infarction. Morphological change was firstly analyzed by observing hematoxyline/eosin-staining hippocampal sections. The expression of Caspase-3 was investigated using the methods of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method was used to clarify the involvement of Caspase-3 in neuron death. The loss of MAP 2 (MAP-2) was applied to judging the damaged area and degree of neuronal injury caused by ischemia.Results In the CA1 sector of hippocampus, Caspase-3 immunostaining modestly increased at 8 hours [8.05/high-power field (hpf)], dramatically increased at 24 hours (24.85/hpf), decreased somewhat after 72 hours. Caspase-3 mRNA was detectable at 4 hours (6.75/hpf), reached a maximum at 16 hours (17.60/hpf), faded at 72 hours. TUNEL-positive cells were detectable at 24 hours (10.76/hpf), markedly increased at 48-72 hours. The loss of MAP-2 was obviously detected at 4 hours, progressed significantly between 24 and 72 hours; MAP-2 immunoreactivity was barely detectable at 72 hours. Before 72 hours, the Caspase-3 evolution was related with the upregulation of TUNEL and the loss of MAP-2. The positive correlation between Caspase-3 mRNA and TUNEL was significant at the 0.05 level (correlation

  19. Isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione Derivatives Inactivate Caspase-3 by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species*S⃞

    Du, Jun-qing; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Hua-jie; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Wu, Fang; Chen, Yi-Hua; Li, Jing-Ya; Nan, Fa-Jun; Ding, Jian-Ping; Li, Jia

    2008-01-01

    Caspase-3 is an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of diseases involving disregulated apoptosis. We report here the mechanism of caspase-3 inactivation by isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivatives. Kinetic analysis indicates the compounds can irreversibly inactivate caspase-3 in a 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT)- and oxygen-dependent manner, implying that a redox cycle might take place in the inactivation process. Reactive oxygen species detection experiments using a che...

  20. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib displays significant antiproliferative effects and induces apoptosis via caspase 3, 7 and PARP in B- and T-lymphoblastic cells

    Targeted therapy approaches have been successfully introduced into the treatment of several cancers. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib has antitumor activity in solid tumors and its effects on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells are still unclear. ALL cell lines (SEM, RS4;11 and Jurkat) were treated with Sorafenib alone or in combination with cytarabine, doxorubicin or RAD001. Cell count, apoptosis and necrosis rates, cell cycle distribution, protein phosphorylation and metabolic activity were determined. Sorafenib inhibited the proliferation of ALL cells by cell cycle arrest accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinD3 and CDK4. Furthermore, Sorafenib initiated apoptosis by cleavage of caspases 3, 7 and PARP. Apoptosis and necrosis rates increased significantly with most pronounced effects after 96 h. Antiproliferative effects of Sorafenib were associated with a decreased phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 and Thr308), FoxO3A (Thr32) and 4EBP-1 (Ser65 and Thr70) as early as 0.5 h after treatment. Synergistic effects were seen when Sorafenib was combined with other cytotoxic drugs or a mTOR inhibitor emphasizing the Sorafenib effect. Sorafenib displays significant antileukemic activity in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, it influences PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in ALL cells

  1. A novel synthetic route of the caspase 3 sensor for determination of caspase 3 based on Förster resonance energy transfer

    Lišková, Marcela; Klepárník, Karel; Pazdera, P.; Foret, František

    Baltimore, 2012. L-146. [ITP 2012. International Symposium, Exhibit & Workshops on Electro- and Liquid Phase-separation Techniques /19./. 30.09.2012-03.10.2012, Baltimore] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA ČR GAP206/11/2377; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0182; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA 02010672 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Caspase 3 * apoptpsis * FRET Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  2. Astragalus saponins induce apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells via a caspase 3-dependent pathway

    JOSHUA K S Ko; Kathy K W Auyeung

    2008-01-01

    Objective Many Asian countriea including China, Japan and Korea have very high incidence of gastric cancer, in which about 42 % cases occur in mainland China. The precise targets and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Our previous study revealed that Astragalus saponins (AST) showed promising effects on the suppression of the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the anti-carcinogenic effects of AST in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Growth inhibition of AGS cells was determined by using the MTT viability test. Involvement of different members of the apoptotic cascade and other growth-related factors was explored by assessment of their protein expression using Western blot analysis. Distribution of cells in different phases of the cell cycle was assessed by flow eytometry. Results Our data indicate that AST induced growth-inhibition and apoptosis in AGS cells by activating caspase 3 with subsequent poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase had been observed in AST-treated AGS cells. The anti-proliferative effect of AST was associated with modulation of eydin B1 and p21. We then demonstrate that AST could downregulate the expression of VEGF, of which interaction with its receptors is important for angiogenesis during tumor formation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that AST is an effective agent in gastric cancer treatment by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, of which anti-angiogenesis could be an alternative mode of action.

  3. Apoptose e expressão de Bcl-2 e das caspases 3 e 8 em placenta bovina, em diferentes estádios de gestação Apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and caspases 3 and 8 in placenta of cows at different pregnancy stages

    K.K.O.L. Meça

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Apoptose e seus mecanismos reguladores são eventos fisiológicos cruciais para a manutenção da homeostase placentária, e o desequilíbrio desses processos pode comprometer a função placentária e, consequentemente, o sucesso da gravidez. Neste estudo, investigou-se a apoptose utilizando-se histomorfometria em lâminas coradas em HE e submetidas à reação de TUNEL. Além disso, avaliou-se a expressão de Bcl-2 e das caspases 8 e 3, pela reação de polimerase em cadeia em tempo real, em placentas saudáveis em diferentes estádios de gestação. Amostras de placentônios de vacas com quatro, seis e nove meses de gestação foram colhidas e processadas. O índice apoptótico aumentou progressivamente com o avanço da gestação. Tanto o Bcl-2 quanto as caspases 3 e 8 foram expressas nos três períodos estudados, sendo a expressão de Bcl-2 menor que a de caspase 8, que é menor que a de caspase 3. Estes resultados indicam que essas moléculas estão envolvidas na via apoptótica ativada na maturação placentária, exibindo um padrão de expressão ao longo da gestação e contribuindo para o equilíbrio fisiológico da celularidade e renovação celular na placenta bovina.Apoptosis and its regulating mechanisms are crucial physiological events for the maintenance of the placental homostasis; and disequilibrium of these processes may compromise placental function and the success of the pregnancy. In this study, apoptosis was investigated by histomorphometry using slides stained with HE and TUNEL reaction. Besides that, Bcl-2 and caspases 8 and 3 expression were evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction in healthy placentas under different gestacional ages. Samples of placentones of cows at 4th, 6th, and 9th months of gestation were harvested and processed. The apoptotic index gradually increased with the advance of the gestation. Bcl-2 and caspases 3 and 8 were expressed in all the studied periods, being the expression of Bcl-2

  4. Human telomerase activity regulation

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  5. Effects of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 on cerebral ischemia rats

    Liu, Guangyi; Tao WANG; WANG, TINGING; Song, Jinming; Zhou, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Neuron apoptosis is known to mediate a change of ethology following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Additionally, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins may exert a significant effect on neuron injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role, mechanism of action and clinical significance of these proteins in neuron apoptosis and functional impairment following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Sixty male healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into cont...

  6. Levofloxacin increases the effect of serum deprivation on anoikis of rat nucleus pulposus cells via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway.

    Yang, Si-Dong; Bai, Zhi-Long; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Lei; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is a widely-used and effective antibiotic. However, various adverse side effects are associated with levofloxacin. The purpose of this study was to further explore the effects of levofloxacin on rat nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). Inverted phase-contrast microscopy, flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays were used and revealed that serum deprivation induced apoptosis, which was markedly increased by levofloxacin in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneously, levofloxacin decreased cell binding to type II collagen (COL2). Thus, levofloxacin-induced apoptosis exhibits characteristics of anoikis, the process by which cell death is triggered by separation from the extracellular matrix, which contains COL2. Furthermore, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to further confirm that levofloxacin downregulates COL2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. At last, western blot was used to find that levofloxacin increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and active caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Levofloxacin therefore increases the effects of serum deprivation on anoikis by downregulating COL2 in rat NPCs in vitro via Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway. This research provides a novel insight into the mechanisms of levofloxacin-induced toxicity and may potentially lead to a better understanding of the clinical effects of levofloxacin, especially in terms of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:25224805

  7. STEREOLOGIC ESTIMATION OF KI-67, CASPASE 3 AND GSTP1 POSITIVE CELLS IN PROSTATE LESIONS

    Luis Santamaría

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation, caspase 3 and pi-form of glutathione S transferase (GSTP1 were evaluated in prostate carcinoma (PCA, proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA and prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN. Forty biopsies were classified as: without morphological lesions (controls: CTR, PIA, PIN and PCA. Ki67, caspase3 and GSTP1 were immunostained. The following estimates were performed: Numerical densities of Ki67+ cells (NVEPKi67, of all epithelial cells (NVEPtotal and of GSTP1+ cells (NVEPGSTP1; labelling index for Ki67 (LIKi67; volume fraction to caspase 3 positive tissue (VVcaspase 3 and of GSTP1 positive tissue (VVGSTP1. ANOVA was performed to compare the groups. NVEPtotal and NVEPKi67 were increased in PIA. LIKi67 was only increased in PCA. VVcaspase 3 was decreased in PIN and PCA. VVEGSTP1 was decreased in PCA. In our results PIA lacks the characteristics of a premalignant lesion. The result may be explained by the use of unbiased quantitative methods, the inadequate definition of PIA and the scarce inflammation observed in the samples with PIA included in this study.

  8. Glutamine supplementation prevents exercise-induced neutrophil apoptosis and reduces p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 and caspase 3 expression.

    Lagranha, Claudia J; Hirabara, Sandro M; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tania C

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that a single session of exercise induces DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increases expression of pro-apoptotic genes (bax and bcl-xS) and decreases expression of anti-apoptotic genes (bcl-xL) in rat neutrophils. Glutamine supplementation had a protective effect in the apoptosis induced by a single session of exercise. The mechanism involved in the effect of single session of exercise to induce apoptosis was investigated by measuring expression of p53 and caspase 3 and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and cJun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in neutrophils from rats supplemented or not with glutamine. Exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 1 h and the rats were killed by decapitation. Neutrophils were obtained by intraperitoneal (i.p.) lavage with PBS, 4 h after injection of oyster glycogen solution. Glutamine supplementation (1g per Kg b.w.) was given by gavage 1 h before the exercise session. Gene expression and protein phosphorylation were then analyzed by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. A single session of exercise increased p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 and caspase 3 expression. Glutamine supplementation partially prevented the increase in p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and p53 expression, and fully abolished the increase in caspase 3 expression. Thus, neutrophil apoptosis induced by a single session of exercise is accompanied by increased p53 and caspase 3 expression and p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation. Glutamine supplementation prevents these effects of exercise and reduces apoptosis. PMID:17542038

  9. Effects of Berberine on the Expression of Caspase-3 Gene in Human Cervical Cancer Hela Cell%小檗碱对宫颈癌Hela细胞Caspase-3基因表达的影响

    张丽萍; 张志军; 程萍; 肖劲松

    2010-01-01

    日的:研究小檗碱(berberlne)对人宫颈癌Hela细胞体外增殖、凋亡及凋亡相关基因Caspase-3表达的影响.方法:WIT法测定不同浓度(0~40 μmol/L)berberine干预Hela细胞后的凋亡率;RT-PCR检测Caspase-3 mRNA表达水平.结果:berberine呈剂量-时间依赖方式抑制Hela细胞的生长(P<0.01);且随着berberine浓度增高,细胞凋亡增加,Caspase-3 mRNA表达上调(P<0.001).结论:berberine抑制人宫颈癌Hela细胞生长、诱导凋亡的机制可能与上调Caspase-3 mRNA表达有关.

  10. Caspase-3在大鼠中枢神经系统的表达研究%Study on the expression of caspase-3 in central nervous system of rat

    陈雪梅; 杜显刚; 官鹏; 谭志巍; 王亚琴

    2005-01-01

    目的研究caspase-3在大鼠中枢神经系统的表达及其意义.方法用western-blot方法对出生1天和3个月SD大鼠的大脑皮质、中脑和小脑组织的caspase-3进行半定量测定.结果出生1天大鼠脑的caspase-3表达较高,出生3个月大鼠脑的caspase-3表达较低.结论caspase-3在中枢神经系统的发育成熟过程中对神经元的凋亡起着关键性作用.

  11. Nerve growth factor downregulates c-jun mRNA and Caspase-3 in striate cortex of rats after transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Dacheng Jin; Tiemin Wang; Xiubin Fang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immediate early gene (LEG) c-jun is a sensitive marker for functional status of nerve cells.Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease,which is a critical regulator of apoptosis. The effect of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) on the expression of c-jun Mrna and Caspase-3 protein in striate cortex of rats with transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is unclear.OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect of exogenous NGF on the brain of rats with transient global cerebral IR and its effecting pathway by observing the expression of c-jun Mrna and Caspase-3 protein.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal trial.SETTING: Department of Neural Anatomy, Institute of Brain,China Medical University.MATERTALS:Eighteen healthy male SD rats of clean grade, aged 1 to 3 months, with body mass of 250 to 300 g, were involved in this study. NGF was provided by Dalian Svate Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd, c-jun in situ hybridization detection kit, Caspase-3 antibody and SABC kit were purchased from Boster Biotechnology Co. ,Ltd.METHODS: This trial was carried out in the Department of Neural Anatomy, Institute of Brain, China Medical University during September 2003 to April 2005. ①Experimental animals were randomized into three groups with 6 in each: sham-operation group,IR group and NGF group. ②After the rats were anesthetized,the bilateral common carotid arteries and right external carotid arteries of rats were bluntly dissected and bilateral common carotid arteries were clamped for 30 minutes with bulldog clamps. Reperfusion began after buldog clamps were removed. Normal saline of 1mL and NGF (1×106 U/L) of 1 Ml was injected into the common carotid artery of rats via right external carotid arteries in the IR group and NGF group respectively.The injection was conducted within 30 minutes, and then the right external carotid arteries were ligated. In the sham-operation group, occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries and administration of drugs were phosphate buffer

  12. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

    R.L. Figueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group: 1 preterm control (PTC, 2 preterm ventilated (PTV, 3 preterm asphyxiated (PTA, 4 preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV, 5 term control (TC, 6 term ventilated (TV, 7 term asphyxiated (TA, and 8 term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV. We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW, (BrW, (IW, (BrW/BW and (IW/BW]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus and intestine (jejunum/ileum tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP. IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05, and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005. PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex and TA (cortex/hippocampus (P<0.005. I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005 and TA (ileum (P<0.05. I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001. Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers.

  13. Evaluation of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and Cleaved Caspase-3 in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors and Neurofibromas

    KARIN S. CUNHA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To study the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, as well the presence of cleaved caspase-3 in neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x and the presence of cleaved caspase 3 were compared to clinicopathological features of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and their impact on survival rates were also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and cleaved caspase-3 was performed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays in 28 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and 38 neurofibromas. Immunoquantification was performed by computerized digital image analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Apoptosis is altered in neurofibromas and mainly in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. High levels of cleaved caspase-3 are more common in tumors with more aggressive histological features and it is associated with lower disease free survival of patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

  14. Expression of Caspase-3 in gastric tissue of rats with precancerous lesions treated by different traditional Chinese herbs%中药不同组方对胃癌前病变模型大鼠胃黏膜细胞Caspase-3表达的影响

    李岩; 王垂杰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the effects of different traditional Chinese herbs on gastritic morphological and histological changes in rats with chronic atrophic gastritis with dysplasia. [Methods] The animal models of chronic atrophic gastritis with precancerous lesions were made by using chemical substances,and then devided into different groups for therapy. The expression of Caspase-3 in gastric tissue was detected by microplate reader for enzyme activity. [Results]Either in prevention or treatment groups, the expressions of Caspase-3 were significantly increased by the intervention of TCM and western medicine, P < 0. 05 when compared with the model group. Jianpi Huayu Decoction group was better than other groups. [Conclusion] TCM with the function of strengthening spleen-qi and smoothing blood stagnationCJianpi Huayu) strengthening spleen-qi(Jianpi) ,and smoothing blood stagnationC Huayu) played an important role in the prevention and treatment of the gastric epithelial dysplasia. The mechanism might be contributed to the increase of the Caspase-3 expression in gastric tissue. TCM with the function of Jianpi Huayu were better than the other two treating principles(Jianpi and Huayu) in the treatment of atrophic gastritis with precancerous lesions.%[目的]探讨不同组方中药对慢性萎缩性胃炎伴不典型增生大鼠胃黏膜形态、组织学改变的影响.[方法]采用化学药物刺激的方法复制慢性萎缩性胃炎癌前病变动物模型并分组用药物干预.用酶标仪检测各组大鼠胃组织中Caspase-3表达的变化.[结果]无论是预防组还是治疗组,中药、西药的干预均可以使Caspase-3的表达增加,与模型大鼠比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);健脾化瘀方要优于其他药物.[结论]各组中药均可以通过增加胃组织中Caspase-3的表达达到对胃癌前病变的治疗作用,其中健脾化瘀方治疗萎缩性胃炎癌前病变的作用要明显优于健脾益气方、活血化瘀方.

  15. Correlation of the expression of survivin and caspase-3 proteins in juvenile laryngeal papilloma%儿童喉乳头状瘤组织中Survivin及Caspase-3蛋白表达及相关性研究

    汪武; 周远大; 何海霞

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究儿童喉乳头状瘤中survivin及caspase-3蛋白的表达及其相互关系.方法:应用免疫组化方法对儿童喉乳头状瘤组织、儿童声带小结组织及正常的喉黏膜组织中survivin及caspase-3的表达进行检测并进行相关性分析.结果:42例儿童喉乳头状瘤组织中survivin阳性表达率为57.14%, 明显高于儿童声带小结组(P<0.01)和正常黏膜组(P<0.01);42例喉乳头状瘤组织中caspase-3阳性表达率为26.19%, 显著高于儿童声带小结组和正常喉黏膜组 (P<0.01);Spearman相关性分析显示, 儿童喉乳头状瘤中survivin与caspase-3的表达呈显著负相关(r=-0.682, P<0.01).结论:Survivin的高表达和caspase-3的低表达可能在儿童喉乳头状瘤发生发展过程中起着重要作用.%AIM: To investigate correlation between the expression of survivin and caspase-3 proteins in juvenile laryngeal papilloma. METHODS: The expression of survivin and caspase-3 proteins were detected with immunohistochemial method in 43 cases of juvenile laryngeal papilloma, 25 vocal nodules and 25 normal laryngeal mucosa. RESULTS: The positive rates of survivin protein in juvenile laryngeal papilloma were 57.14% and higher than that in voeal nodules (P<0.01)and the normal laryngeal moeusa (P<0.01). And the Caspase-3 protein positive rate was 26.19% in juvenile laryngeal papilloma and lower than that in voeal nodules and the normal laryngeal mucosa (P<0.01).There was a significant negative correlation between the expression of survivin and caspase-3 in juvenile laryngeal papilloma. CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of survivin and caspase-3 may play important role in the pathogenesis of juvenile laryngeal papilloma.

  16. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

    Figueira, R.L.; Gonçalves, F.L.; Simões, A.L.; Bernardino, C.A.; Lopes, L.S.; Castro e Silva, O.; Sbragia, L.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV). We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW), (BrW), (IW), (BrW/BW) and (IW/BW)]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) and intestine (jejunum/ileum) tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP). IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (Pmechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers. PMID:27356106

  17. Aspirin inhibits growth of ovarian cancer by upregulating caspase-3 and downregulating bcl-2

    LI, LIN; MAO, XIAOGANG; QIN, XIAOMIN; ZHOU, MIN; XING, HUI; DONG, FAN; JIANG, XIAOYUAN; ZHUANG, WENHUI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of different concentrations of aspirin in inhibiting the ovarian cancer of p53N236S gene knock-in mice. In total, 28 male p53S mice, with an age range of 4–6 weeks and weight of 20–25 g were selected. The animals were transplanted with SKOV3 cells to establish subdermal human ovarian cancer. The mice were randomly divided into different groups according to the aspirin concentrations (mmol/l) used, i.e., 0, 1, 2 and 3. Subsequently, intraperitoneal injection was performed once every two days for 3 weeks. The tumor volume, lifetime, tumor cell proliferation inhibition rates, caspase-3 protein and bcl-2 protein expression of the four groups were analyzed and compared. Following aspirin treatment for 1, 2 and 3 weeks, the tumor volume of the 3 mmol/l aspirin group was significantly smaller than the other groups (Povarian cancer of p53S rats due to its upregulation of the expression of caspase-3 protein and downregulation of the expression of bcl-2 protein. PMID:27347106

  18. Caspase-3在roscovitine诱发PC12细胞凋亡中发挥重要作用%Caspase-3 plays a required role in PC12 cell apoptotic death induced by roscovitine

    高建新; 周玉琴; 张茹华; 马雪莲; 刘克敬

    2005-01-01

    我们已证实周期蛋白激酶(cyclin-dependent kinases)cdk2、cdc2和cdk5抑制剂roscovitine诱导PC12细胞凋亡.本实验应用caspase-3免疫细胞化学与hoechst 33342荧光化学双标、MTT比色法细胞活性测定和Western blot方法,研究了caspase-3在roscovitine所致PC12细胞凋亡中的作用.结果显示,roscovitine(50μmol/L)处理PC12细胞12 h,细胞核染色质凝缩及核碎片形成,同时胞浆中出现caspase-3阳性标志,caspase-3阳性细胞占细胞总数的42%.非特异性caspases抑制剂Z-VAD-FMK(50 μmol/L)和caspase-3特异性抑制剂Z-DEVD-FMK(100 μmol/L)可部分降低roscovitine所致的细胞死亡,使细胞存活率分别由29.03%(roscovitine)增至58.06%(Z-VAD-FMK+roscovitine)和45.16%(Z-DEVD-FMK+roscovitine);用单克隆non-erythroid α-spectrin抗体检测roscovitine处理组细胞匀浆提取液,表明caspase-3裂解的特异性spectrin 120 kDa蛋白产物较对照组显著增加.提示细胞凋亡成分caspases参与roscovitine所致的细胞凋亡,其中caspase-3发挥重要作用.

  19. Garlic ((Allium sativum)) Fresh Juice Induces Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Involvement of Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2.

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Jahanpour, Salar; Hazem, Kameliya; Aghbali, Amirala; Baradran, Behzad; Vahid Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. There is no report on the apoptotic impact of Allium sativum L.(Garlic) on the oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB); hence, this study was designed to survey the apoptotic effects of garlic fresh juice (GFJ) on the KB cells. Materials and methods. MTTassay (MicrocultureTetrazolium Assay) was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of GFJ on KB cells. Furthermore, TUNEL(Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling)and DNA fragmentation tests were performed to determine if GFJ is able to induce apoptosis in KB cells. Also a standard kit was used to assess caspase-3 activity in KB cells. Also western blotting was employed to evaluate the effect of GFJ on Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. Results. Significant cytotoxic effects were observed for the minimum used concentration (1μg/mL) as calculated to be 77.97±2.3% for 24 h and 818±3.1% for 36h of incubation (P < 0.001). Furthermore, TUNEL and DNA fragmentation tests corroborated the apoptosis inducing activity of GFJ. Consistently, after treating KB cells with GFJ(1μg/mL), caspase-3 activity and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio were raised by 7.3±0.6 and (P <0.001) folds, respectively. Conclusion. The results of this study advanced that GFJ induces apoptosis in the KB cells through increasing caspase-3 activity and Bax:Bcl2 ratio which could be attributed to its organo-sulfurcomponents. PMID:26889365

  20. Osteocyte expression of caspase-3, COX-2, IL-6 and sclerostin are spatially and temporally associated following stress fracture initiation.

    Wu, Andy C; Kidd, Lisa J; Cowling, Nicholas R; Kelly, Wendy L; Forwood, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures (SFxs) are debilitating injuries and exact mechanisms that initiate their repair incompletely understood. We hypothesised that osteocyte apoptosis and expression of cytokines and proteins such as sclerostin, VEGF, TGF-β, COX-2 and IL-6 were early signalling events to facilitate the formation of periosteal woven bone and recruitment of osteoclast precursors to the site of remodelling. A SFx was created in the right ulna of mature female wistar rats using cyclic end loading. Rats were killed 1, 4 and 7 days after loading (n=5 per group). Standard histological staining was used to examine SFx morphology and immunohistochemistry to detect the localisation of these proteins and in situ hybridisation to detect mRNA along the SFx line or gene expression to quantify the target genes. Unloaded ulnae served as controls. The labelling index of caspase-3, COX-2 and IL-6 was significantly elevated in the region of SFxs at all time points compared with controls (Pwoven bone. These data reinforce the involvement of osteocyte apoptosis in the healing of fatigue damage in bone, and demonstrate that local regulation of sclerostin, COX-2 and IL-6 are important signalling events associated with new bone formation and SFx remodelling. PMID:25228984

  1. TAF15 and the leukemia-associated fusion protein TAF15-CIZ/NMP4 are cleaved by caspases-3 and -7

    Caspases are central players in proteolytic pathways that regulate cellular processes such as apoptosis and differentiation. To accelerate the discovery of novel caspase substrates we developed a method combining in silico screening and in vitro validation. With this approach, we identified TAF15 as a novel caspase substrate in a trial study. We find that TAF15 was specifically cleaved by caspases-3 and -7. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed the consensus sequence 106DQPD/Y110 as the only site recognized by these caspases. Surprisingly, TAF15 was cleaved at more than one site in staurosporine-treated Jurkat cells. In addition, we generated two oncogenic TAF15-CIZ/NMP4-fused proteins which have been found in acute myeloid leukemia and demonstrate that caspases-3 and -7 cleave the fusion proteins at one single site. Broad application of this combination approach should expedite identification of novel caspase-interacting proteins and provide new insights into the regulation of caspase pathways leading to cell death in normal and cancer cells.

  2. TAF15 and the leukemia-associated fusion protein TAF15-CIZ/NMP4 are cleaved by caspases-3 and -7

    Alves, Juliano, E-mail: jalves@gnf.org [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Wurdak, Heiko [Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Garay-Malpartida, Humberto M. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Lineu Prestes 1524, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Harris, Jennifer L. [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Protease Biochemistry, Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Occhiucci, Joao M.; Belizario, Jose E. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Lineu Prestes 1524, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Li, Jun, E-mail: jli2@gnf.org [Protease Biochemistry, Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2009-07-10

    Caspases are central players in proteolytic pathways that regulate cellular processes such as apoptosis and differentiation. To accelerate the discovery of novel caspase substrates we developed a method combining in silico screening and in vitro validation. With this approach, we identified TAF15 as a novel caspase substrate in a trial study. We find that TAF15 was specifically cleaved by caspases-3 and -7. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed the consensus sequence {sup 106}DQPD/Y{sup 110} as the only site recognized by these caspases. Surprisingly, TAF15 was cleaved at more than one site in staurosporine-treated Jurkat cells. In addition, we generated two oncogenic TAF15-CIZ/NMP4-fused proteins which have been found in acute myeloid leukemia and demonstrate that caspases-3 and -7 cleave the fusion proteins at one single site. Broad application of this combination approach should expedite identification of novel caspase-interacting proteins and provide new insights into the regulation of caspase pathways leading to cell death in normal and cancer cells.

  3. P53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through a caspase-3-independent, but caspase-9-dependent pathway in oridonin-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    Qiao CUI; Jing-hua YU; Jin-nan WU; Shin-ichi TASHIRO; Satoshi ONODERA; Mutsuhiko MINAMI; Takashi IKEJIMA

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the caspase-3-independent mechanisms in oridonin-induced MCF-7 human breast cancer cell apoptosis in vitro. Methods: The viability of oridonin-treated MCF-7 cells was measured by MTT (thiazole blue) assay. Apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei were visualized by phase contrast microscopy. Nucleoso-mal DNA fragmentation was assayed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The apoptotic ratio was determined by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Cell cycle alternation and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by flow cytometric analysis. Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, heat shock protein (Hsp)90, p53, p-p53, p21, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and the inhibitor of caspase-activated Dnase (ICAD) protein expressions were detected by Western blot analysis. Results: Oridonin inhibited cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was altered through the upregulation of p53 and p21 protein expressions. Pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and calpain inhibitor Ⅱ both decreased cell death ratio. Nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and the downregulation of △ψmit were detected in oridonin-induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis, which was involved in a postmitochondrial caspase-9-dependent pathway. Decreased Bcl-2 and Hsp90 expression levels and increased Bax and p21 expression levels were positively correlated with elevated levels of phosphorylated p53 phosphorylation. Moreover, PARP was partially cleaved by calpain rather than by capase-3. Conclusion: DNA damage provoked alternations in the mitochondrial and caspase-9 pathways as well as p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, but was not related to caspase-3 activity in oridonin-induced MCF-7 cells.

  4. L-carvone induces p53, caspase 3 mediated apoptosis and inhibits the migration of breast cancer cell lines.

    Patel, Pinaki B; Thakkar, Vasudev R

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural compounds exists that possesses significant cytotoxic as well as chemopreventive activity through induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of L-carvone, an active component of spearmint (Mentha spicata) was studied on breast cancer (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231) and normal (MCF 10A) cell lines, and insight into its mechanism of action was attained. L-carvone inhibited proliferation of MCF 7 (IC50 1.2 mM) and MDA MB 231 cells (IC50 1.0 mM) and inhibited the migration of breast cancer cell lines. L-carvone induced apoptosis as observed by nuclei fragmentation and the presence of apoptotic bodies in DAPI, AnnexinV/propidium iodide, and TUNEL assays. L-carvone exposure arrested MCF 7 cells in S phase of the cell cycle. DNA damage caused by L-carvone was apparent from the increased tail moment in COMET assay, which could be induced by an increase in ROS that was measured using a fluorescence probe. Glutathione levels were also increased. The increased level of p53, Bad, cleaved caspase 3, and cleaved PARP explained p53 and caspase-mediated apoptosis. PMID:24611509

  5. Fluoroquinolones cause changes in extracellular matrix, signalling proteins, metalloproteinases and caspase-3 in cultured human tendon cells

    Antimicrobial therapy with fluoroquinolones can be associated with tendinitis and other tendon disorders as an adverse reaction associated with this class of antimicrobials. Here we investigated aspects of the mechanism of quinolone-induced tendotoxicity in human tenocytes focussing mainly on the question whether fluoroquinolones may induce apoptosis. Monolayers of human tenocytes were incubated with ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin at different concentrations (0, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/L medium) for up to 4 days. Ultrastructural changes were studied by electron microscopy, and alterations in synthesis of specific proteins were determined using immunoblotting. At concentrations, which are achievable during quinolone therapy, 3 mg ciprofloxacin/L medium significantly decreased type I collagen; similar changes were observed with 3 mg ciprofloxacin or 10 mg levofloxacin/L medium for the β1- integrin receptors. Effects were intensified at higher concentrations and longer incubation periods. Cytoskeletal and signalling proteins, such as activated shc or erk 1/2, were significantly reduced by both fluoroquinolones already at 3 mg/L. Furthermore, time- and concentration-dependent increases of matrix metalloproteinases as well as of the apoptosis marker activated caspase-3 were found. Apoptotic changes were confirmed by electron microscopy: both fluoroquinolones caused typical alterations like condensed material in the nucleus, swollen cell organelles, apoptotic bodies and bleb formation at the cell membrane. Our results provide evidence that besides changes in receptor and signalling proteins apoptosis has to be considered as a final event in the pathogenesis of fluoroquinolone-induced tendopathies

  6. Caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of citreamicin ε-induced heLa iells Is associated with reactive oxygen species generation

    Liu, Lingli

    2013-07-15

    Citreamicins, members of the polycyclic xanthone family, are promising antitumor agents that are produced by Streptomyces species. Two diastereomers, citreamicin ε A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces species. The relative configurations of these two diastereomers were determined using NMR spectroscopy and successful crystallization of citreamicin ε A (1). Both diastereomers showed potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa (cervical cancer) and HepG2 (hepatic carcinoma) cells with IC 50 values ranging from 30 to 100 nM. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay confirmed that citreamicin ε A (1) induced cellular apoptosis, and Western blot analysis showed that apoptosis occurred via activation of caspase-3. The 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay indicated that citreamicin ε substantially increased the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To confirm the hypothesis that citreamicin ε induced apoptosis through an increase in the intracellular ROS concentration, the oxidized products, oxicitreamicin ε A (3) and B (4), were obtained from a one-step reaction catalyzed by Ag 2O. These products, with a reduced capacity to increase the intracellular ROS concentration, exhibited a significantly weakened cytotoxicity in both HeLa and HepG2 cells compared with that of citreamicin ε A (1) and B (2). © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Effects of acupoint versus non-acupoint electroacupuncture on cerebral cortical neuronal Bcl-2,Bax and caspase-3 expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    Jun Wang; Junming Fan; Yongshu Dong; Xia Huang; Hongxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    each group for specimen preparation. A brain tissue block comprising the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe was cut into five coronal sections of equal-thickness. Neuronal apoptosis was detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling technique. Expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax were evaluated by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Compared with the sham-operated group, the model group exhibited significantly decreased Bcl-2 expression (P 0.05).CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture by acpoint selection can up-regulate Bcl-2 expression and concomitantly inhibit caspase-3 and Bax expression, inhibiting neuronal poptosis in rat cerebral cortex following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

  8. A simple device for quantitation of Caspase 3 in individual apoptotic embryonic cells

    Hegrová, Jitka; Klepárník, Karel; Přikryl, Jan; Lišková, Marcela; Matalová, Eva; Foret, František

    Brno: Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.; Boček, P.), s. 354-356 ISBN 978-80-904959-1-3. [CECE 2012. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /9./. Brno (CZ), 01.11.2012-02.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR GAP206/11/2377; GA ČR(CZ) GPP206/11/P002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : single cell * chemiluminiscence * Caspase 3 Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0215496

  9. 瘢痕疙瘩组织中Livin、Smac、Caspase-3的表达及其相关性%Expression of Livin, Smac and Caspase-3 in keloids and their correlation

    张远贵; 段冬; 李攀登; 陈润芳; 李之华; 高新宇; 吴炜

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, there is no effective treatment for keloids that often recur. Its pathogenesis is stil entirely unclear, and fibroblast proliferation and apoptosis have become a research hotspot. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the expression of Livin, Smac and Caspase-3 in keloids and to analyze their relationship so as to preliminarily explore the significance of Livin, Smac and Caspase-3 in the pathogenesis of keloids. METHODS:RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of Livin, Smac and Caspase-3 in keloids (n=20) and normal skin tissues (n=20). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with the normal skin tissue, the mRNA and protein positive expressions of Livin were significantly higher in keloids (P   目的:分析瘢痕疙瘩组织中Livin、Smac、Caspase-3的表达的相关性,初步探讨3种因子在瘢痕疙瘩组织发病机制中的作用。  方法:采用RT-PCR和免疫组织化学分别检测Livin、Smac、Caspase-3的mRNA和蛋白在20例瘢痕疙瘩组织和20例正常皮肤组织中的表达,并进行相关性分析  结果与结论:瘢痕疙瘩组织中Livin的mRNA表达水平和蛋白的阳性表达率显著高于正常皮肤组织(P <0.05),瘢痕疙瘩组织中Smac和Caspase-3的mRNA表达水平和蛋白的阳性表达率低于正常皮肤组织(P<0.05)。瘢痕疙瘩组织中Livin和Smac、Caspase-3蛋白的表达呈负关联。结果提示Livin基因高表达可能抑制了Smac、Caspase-3基因表达从而导致了瘢痕疙瘩成纤维细胞增殖和凋亡的失衡,最终导致了瘢痕疙瘩的形成。

  10. Dynamic pattern of gene expression of ZnT-4, caspase-3, LC3, and PRG-3 in rat cerebral cortex following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures.

    Ni, Hong; Feng, Xing; Xiao, Zhuo-jun; Tao, Lu-yang; Jin, Mei-fang

    2011-12-01

    Zinc transporters, plasticity-related genes, and autophagic/apoptotic pathway both are associated with developmental seizure-induced brain excitotoxicity. Here, for the first time, we report the timing of expression pattern of zinc transporter 4 (ZnT-4), plasticity-related gene 3 (PRG-3), specific marker of autophagic vacuoles (LC3), and apoptotic marker caspase-3 in cerebral cortex following neonatal seizures. A seizure was induced by inhalant flurothyl daily in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats from postnatal day 6 (P6). Rats were assigned into the recurrent-seizure group (RS, seizures induced in six consecutive days) and the control group. At 1.5 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 7 days, and 14 days after the last seizure, the mRNA level of the four genes in cerebral cortex was detected using RT-PCR method. At an early period 6 h or 12 h after the last seizures, both ZnT-4 and LC3 showed significantly up-regulated mRNA level while PRG-3 showed significantly down-regulated mRNA level at 12 h in cerebral cortex of RS group than those at the corresponding time point in control group. In the long-term time point of 7 days after the last seizure, the mRNA level of caspase-3 down-regulated; meanwhile, there was up-regulated mRNA level of LC-3 in RS group when compared to the control rats. This is the first report investigating the gene expression pattern of ZnT-4, PRG-3, LC-3, and caspase-3 in the developing brain. The results suggest that the disturbed expression pattern of the four genes might play a role in the pathophysiology of recurrent neonatal seizure-induced acute and long-term brain damage. PMID:21286846

  11. MDMA诱导大鼠神经元凋亡及凋亡相关因子caspase-3的表达%Neuron apoptosis induced by 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine and the expression of caspase-3

    王雪; 李静; 祝三平

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨3,4 -亚甲基二氧基甲基苯丙胺(MDMA)对实验大鼠神经元凋亡的诱导及凋亡相关因子半胱氨酸天冬氨酸特异性蛋白酶-3(caspase-3)的表达.方法 将20只Wistar雄性大鼠随机均分为1组对照组(A)、3组MDMA实验组(B、C、D).B组予MDMA(20 mg · kg-1, ip, single),C组予MDMA(20 mg · kg-1, 8 am,8 pm,ip×2 d),D组予MDMA (20 mg · kg-1 ,8 am,8 pm,ip×4 d);A组给予等体积生理盐水.采用TUNEL法检测神经元凋亡,免疫组织化学方法检测Caspase-3的表达.结果 给予MDMA后,大鼠各相关脑区有凋亡细胞形成,Caspase-3有不同程度的表达.结论 MDMA可导致神经元的凋亡,并诱导凋亡相关因子Caspase-3的表达.

  12. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala and the stria...

  13. Caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induce spiua bifida fetal rat%维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织中Caspase-3表达情况

    马英桓; 袁正伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat. Methods Pregnant Wister rats with 10 days were used. Retinoic acid dissolved in olive oil (40mg /ml) were stomach fed for preparing the rat model of spina bifida malformations 135mg / kg). Control group only received olive oil. The animals were divided into 4 groups: pregnancy of 12 days, 15 days, 17 days and 20 days. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect and compare caspase-3 expression in different groups. Results The expression of caspase-3 increased at the day 15 after pregnancy, and maintained until day 20 in the spinal tissue of modeled fetal rat, which presented significant difference compared to that of control groups at the same pregnant time. At day 15, day 17 and day 20 of pregnancy, the number of caspase-3 positive cells was more in model animals than the control. Conclusions Retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat demonstrates the increased caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of fetal rats.%目的 本文旨在探讨维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3表达情况.方法 选取孕10d Wistar大鼠,实验组用溶有维甲酸(40mg/ml)的橄榄油,以135mg/kg经胃管注入给药制作脊柱裂畸形大鼠模型;对照组选取孕10 d Wistar大鼠给等量橄榄油.将实验组及对照组按照孕12、15、17和20 d分为4组.应用免疫组织化学方法比较分析Caspase-3在对照组、畸形组胎鼠脊髓组织细胞中的分布和表达情况.结果 脊柱裂大鼠脊髓神经组织中Caspase-3在15d开始增多,一直持续到20 d胚胎大鼠.其增高情况明显高于同一时间点对照组大鼠.胚胎15、17和20 d显性脊柱裂畸形鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3阳性细胞数多于对照组,荧光强度高于对照组.结论 维甲酸诱导的脊柱裂胎鼠Caspase-3表达明显高于正常发育胎鼠.

  14. PLGA-carbon nanotube conjugates for intercellular delivery of caspase-3 into osteosarcoma cells.

    Qingsu Cheng

    Full Text Available Cancer has arisen to be of the most prominent health care issues across the world in recent years. Doctors have used physiological intervention as well as chemical and radioactive therapeutics to treat cancer thus far. As an alternative to current methods, gene delivery systems with high efficiency, specificity, and safety that can reduce side effects such as necrosis of tissue are under development. Although viral vectors are highly efficient, concerns have arisen from the fact that viral vectors are sourced from lethal diseases. With this in mind, rod shaped nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs have become an attractive option for drug delivery due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect in tumors as well as the ability to penetrate the cell membrane. Here, we successfully engineered poly (lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA functionalized CNTs to reduce toxicity concerns, provide attachment sites for pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3 (CP3, and tune the temporal release profile of CP3 within bone cancer cells. Our results showed that CP3 was able to attach to functionalized CNTs, forming CNT-PLGA-CP3 conjugates. We show this conjugate can efficiently transduce cells at dosages as low as 0.05 μg/ml and suppress cell proliferation up to a week with no further treatments. These results are essential to showing the capabilities of PLGA functionalized CNTs as a non-viral vector gene delivery technique to tune cell fate.

  15. The effects of ultrasonic scaling duration and replication on caspase-3 expression of Sprague Dawley rat's pulp cells

    Archadian Nuryanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonic scaling has been used commonly for stain and calculus removal in dental clinic for over 60years. Previous researches even had proved that ultrasonic scaling may give effects on the surface of tooth root. Ultrasonic wave exposure for 20 seconds or more can increase caspase-3 activity as an indicator of increased apoptotic cells associated with tissue damage. Purpose: This research was aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling duration and replication on caspace-3 expression in dental pulp cells. Methods: The samples of this research were 54 male Sprague Dawley rats aged 2 months old divided into 2 groups, each of which consisted of 27 mice. The first group was induced with stain, while the second group was not. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups for ultrasonic scaling 1, 3, and 5 times. Each subgroup was divided into 3 sub-subgroups for duration procedure of 15, 30 and 60 seconds respectively. During scaling process, those rats were anesthetized using 0.1 ml of ketamine and 0.1 ml of xylol added to 2 ml of distilled water injected intramuscularly into their right thigh as much as 0.4 ml. Scaling was done on buccal surface of right first maxillary molar from cervical to occlusal. The teeth were decalcified and embedded in paraffin, then their sagittal plane was cut for thickness of 3µm and painted with immunohystochemistry for detecting caspace-3 expression of cell within dental pulp. Results: The results showed that the duration and replication of ultrasonic scaling procedures affected on the expression of caspace-3 cells as analyzed with Univariate Analisis of Variance test (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that duration and replication of ultrasonic scaling procedure on teeth with and without stain enhauced the expression of  caspace-3 in dental pulp cells.

  16. The in vitro immunogenic potential of caspase-3 proficient breast cancer cells with basal low immunogenicity is increased by hypofractionated irradiation

    Radiotherapy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Immune activating properties of especially hypofractionated irradiation are in the spotlight of clinicians, besides the well-known effects of radiotherapy on cell cycle and the reduction of the clonogenic potential of tumor cells. Especially combination of radiotherapy with further immune stimulation induces immune-mediated anti-tumor responses. We therefore examined whether hypofractionated irradiation alone or in combination with hyperthermia as immune stimulants is capable of inducing breast cancer cells with immunogenic potential. Clonogenic assay, AnnexinA5-FITC/Propidium iodide assay and ELISA analyses of heat shock protein 70 and high mobility group box 1 protein were applied to characterize colony forming capability, cell death induction, cell death forms and release of danger signals by breast cancer cells in response to hypofractionated radiation (4x4Gy, 6x3Gy) alone and in combination with hyperthermia (41.5 °C for 1 h). Caspase-3 deficient, hormone receptor positive, p53 wild type MCF-7 and caspase-3 intact, hormone receptor negative, p53 mutated MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, the latter in absence or presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk, were used. Supernatants of the treated tumor cells were analyzed for their potential to alter the surface expression of activation markers on human-monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Irradiation reduced the clonogenicity of caspase deficient MCF-7 cells more than of MDA-B231 cells. In contrast, higher amounts of apoptotic and necrotic cells were induced in MDA-B231 cells after single irradiation with 4Gy, 10Gy, or 20Gy or after hypofractionated irradiation with 4x4Gy or 6x3Gy. MDA-B231 cells consecutively released higher amounts of Hsp70 and HMGB1 after hypofractionated irradiation. However, only the release of Hsp70 was further increased by hyperthermia. Both, apoptosis induction and release of the danger signals, was dependent on caspase-3. Only

  17. Correlation between caspase 3 activation and TUNEL - positive cells during enamel knot silencing

    Matalová, Eva; Chovancová, Eva; Holubcová, S.; Míšek, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2003), s. 20. ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells/5./. 08.08.2003-10.08.2003, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : odontogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Carnosol increases caspase-3 activation, but delays DNA fragmentation induced by chemotherapeutic drugs

    Previously, we showed that carnosol from rosemary induced apoptosis in leukemic cells derived from patients with high-risk pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the current study, carnosol was tested for its ability to sensitize leukemia-derived cells to or synergize with conventional chemot...

  19. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, caspase-3 and production of reactive oxygen intermediate on endothelial cells culture (HUVECs treated with P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and tumour necrosis factor-α

    Loeki E. Fitri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytoadherence of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes on endothelial cells is a key factor in development of severe malaria. This process may associated with the activation of local immune that was enhanced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. This study was conducted to see the influence of P.falciparum infected erythrocytes cytoadherence and TNF-α treatment in inducing endothelial cells activation in vitro. inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and caspase-3 expression, also reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI production were used as parameters. An Experimental laboratory study had been done to observe endothelial cells activation (HUVECs after treatment with TNF-α for 20 hours or P. falciparum infected erythrocytes for 1 hour or both of them. Normal endothelial cells culture had been used as a control. Using immunocytochemistry local immune activation of endothelial cells was determined by iNOS and caspase-3 expression. Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction-assay was conducted to see the ROI production semi quantitatively. inducible nitric oxide synthase expression only found on endothelial cells culture treated with P. falciparum infected erythrocytes or both P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and TNF-α. Caspase-3 expression found slightly on normal endothelial cells culture. This expression increased significantly on endothelial cells culture treated with both P.falciparum infected erythrocytes and TNF-α (p=0.000. The normal endothelial cells release low level of ROI in the presence of non-specific trigger, PMA. In the presence of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes or TNF-α or both of them, some cells showed medium to high levels of ROI. Cytoadherence of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and TNF α treatment on endothelial cells can induce activation of local immune marked by increase inducible nitric oxide synthase and release of free radicals that cause cell damage. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:151-6 Keywords: P.falciparum ,HUVECs, TNF-α, i

  20. Molecular regulation of osteoclast activity.

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Baron, Roland

    2006-06-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors that are primarily responsible for the degradation of mineralized bone during bone development, homeostasis and repair. In various skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis, hypercalcemia of malignancy, tumor metastases and Paget's disease, bone resorption by osteoclasts exceeds bone formation by osteoblasts leading to decreased bone mass, skeletal fragility and bone fracture. The overall rate of osteoclastic bone resorption is regulated either at the level of differentiation of osteoclasts from their monocytic/macrophage precursor pool or through the regulation of key functional proteins whose specific activities in the mature osteoclast control its attachment, migration and resorption. Thus, reducing osteoclast numbers and/or decreasing the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts are two common therapeutic approaches for the treatment of hyper-resorptive skeletal diseases. In this review, several of the key functional players involved in the regulation of osteoclast activity will be discussed. PMID:16951988

  1. Annonacin, a mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin, arrests cancer cells at the G1 phase and causes cytotoxicity in a Bax- and caspase-3-related pathway.

    Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang; Wu, Yang-Chang; Su, Jinu-Huang

    2003-05-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins are a group of potential anti-neoplastic agents isolated from Annonaceae plants. In this study, we purified annonacin, a cytotoxic mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin, from the seeds of Annona reticulata and analyzed its biological effects. Herein, we have shown that annonacin caused significant cell death in various cancer cell lines. T24 bladder cancer cells at the S phase were more vulnerable to the cytotoxicity of annonacin. Furthermore, annonacin activated p21 in a p53-independent manner and arrested T24 cells at the G1 phase. It also induced Bax expression, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and caused apoptotic cell death in T24 cells. In summary, these results suggest that annonacin is potentially a promising anti-cancer compound. PMID:12697268

  2. Caspase-3、DIAPH-3蛋白在浸润性乳腺癌中的作用研究%Role of caspase-3 and DIAPH3 in invasive breast cancer

    张玲玲; 张亚男; 耿翠芝; 丁妍; 杨会钗; 马力; 刘月平

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨浸润性乳腺癌组织中Caspase-3、DIAPH-3蛋白的表达与临床病理特征及预后的关系。方法采用免疫组织化学EliVision法检测Caspase-3、DIAPH-3在浸润性乳腺癌(=240)及癌旁组织(=44)中的表达情况,并分析其与临床病理特征及预后的关系。结果 Caspase-3、DIAPH-3在浸润性乳腺癌组织中表达的阳性率(36.7%和40.8%)低于癌旁组织(81.8%和86.7%),<0.05。Caspase-3的阳性表达率随淋巴结转移数的增多、肿瘤长径的增加、临床分期的提高、脉管瘤栓的产生及P53的阳性表达的增强而降低。DIAPH-3的表达随淋巴结转移数的增加、脉管瘤栓的产生及临床分期的提高而降低。Kaplan- Meier单因素生存分析显示Caspase-3和DIAPH-3蛋白阳性组患者的5年生存率(95.5%、95.8%),高于阴性组(85.5%、84.5%)。COX多因素生存分析显示DIAPH-3阴性表达与患者不良预后正相关(O?=1.687,95%CI:1.032,2.758)。结论浸润性乳腺癌组织中Caspase-3、DIAPH-3蛋白表达均低于癌旁正常乳腺组织,两者均与乳腺癌的进展及预后密切相关,但两者之间无关联;DIAPH-3的低表达提示患者预后不良,可能是预测乳腺癌患者预后的独立因素之一。%Objective To study the possible association of the expressions of caspase-3 and diaphanous related formin 3 (DIAPH3) protein with clinicopathological features and prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Methods The expressions of caspase-3 and DIAPH3 protein in invasive breast cancer tissues from 240 cases and para-cancerous tissues from 44 cases were detected by immunohistochemical EliVision method, and then their relationships with the clinicopathological features and prognosis were analyzed. Results The positive-expression rates of caspase-3 and DIAPH3 protein in the invasive breast cancer tissues (36.7% and 40.8%respectively) were significantly lower than those in the para-cancerous tissues

  3. Apoptosis induced by lipid-associated membrane proteins from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in a porcine lung epithelial cell line with the involvement of caspase 3 and the MAPK pathway.

    Ni, B; Bai, F F; Wei, Y; Liu, M J; Feng, Z X; Xiong, Q Y; Hua, L Z; Shao, G Q

    2015-01-01

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) are important in the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma genus of bacteria. We investigated whether Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae LAMPs have pathogenic potential by inducing apoptosis in a St. Jude porcine lung epithelial cell line (SJPL). LAMPs from a pathogenic strain of M. hyopneumoniae (strain 232) were used in the research. Our investigation made use of diamidino-phenylindole (DAPI) and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and Annexin-V-propidium iodide staining. After LAMP treatment for 24 h, typical changes were induced, chromosomes were concentrated, apoptotic bodies were observed, the 3'-OH groups of cleaved genomes were exposed, and the percentage of apoptotic cells reached 36.5 ± 11.66%. Caspase 3 and caspase 8 were activated and cytochrome c (cyt c) was released from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm; poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) was digested into two fragments; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was phosphorylated; and the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax increased while the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 decreased. LAMPs also stimulated SJPL cells to produce nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide. This study demonstrated that LAMPs from M. hyopneumoniae can induce apoptosis in SJPL cells through the activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, cyt c, Bax, and p38 MAPK, thereby contributing to our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae, which should improve the treatment of M. hyopneumoniae infections. PMID:26436384

  4. Single cell analysis of caspase-3 in apoptotic and non-apoptotic cells during mouse limb development

    Adamová, Eva; Klepárník, Karel; Matalová, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2014), PP58. ISSN 2052-1219. [European Calcified Tissue Society Congress /41./. 17.05.2014-20.05.2014, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/2377; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28254S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : single cell analysis * caspase-3 * mouse limb development Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  5. The caspase 3-dependent apoptotic effect of pycnogenol in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells

    Yang, In-Hyoung; Shin, Ji-Ae; Kim, Lee-Han; Kwon, Ki Han; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the apoptotic effect of pycnogenol and its molecular mechanism in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells were investigated. Pycnogenol significantly inhibited the viability of HSC-3 cells and suppressed neoplastic cell transformation in HSC-3 cells and TPA-treated JB6 cells. It caused caspase-dependent apoptosis evidenced by the increase in cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 in a dose-dependent manner. Pycnogenol increased Bak protein by enhancing...

  6. Selective cytotoxicity of squamocin on T24 bladder cancer cells at the S-phase via a Bax-, Bad-, and caspase-3-related pathways.

    Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Su, Jinu-Huang; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2006-01-18

    Annonaceous acetogenins are a group of potential anti-neoplastic agents isolated from Annonaceae plants. We purified squamocin, a cytotoxic bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin, from the seeds of Annona reticulata and analyzed its biologic effects on cancer cells. We showed that squamocin was cytotoxic to all the cancer lines tested. Furthermore, squamocin arrested T24 bladder cancer cells at the G1 phase and caused a selective cytotoxicity on S-phase-enriched T24 cells. It induced the expression of Bax and Bad pro-apoptotic genes, enhanced caspase-3 activity, cleaved the functional protein of PARP and caused cell apoptosis. These results suggest that squamocin is a potentially promising anticancer compound. PMID:16154156

  7. Butylphthalide Suppresses Neuronal Cells Apoptosis and Inhibits JNK-Caspase3 Signaling Pathway After Brain Ischemia /Reperfusion in Rats.

    Wen, Xiang-Ru; Tang, Man; Qi, Da-Shi; Huang, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jian; Wang, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Xun-Bao; Guo, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Shu-Ling; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yu-Lan; Song, Yuan-Jian

    2016-10-01

    Although Butylphthalide (BP) has protective effects that reduce ischemia-induced brain damage and neuronal cell death, little is known about the precise mechanisms occurring during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of BP against ischemic brain injury induced by cerebral I/R through inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-Caspase3 signaling pathway. BP in distilled non-genetically modified Soybean oil was administered intragastrically three times a day at a dosage of 15 mg/(kg day) beginning at 20 min after I/R in Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting were performed to examine the expression of related proteins, and TUNEL-staining was used to detect the percentage of neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region. The results showed that BP could significantly protect neurons against cerebral I/R-induced damage. Furthermore, the expression of p-JNK, p-Bcl2, p-c-Jun, FasL, and cleaved-caspase3 was also decreased in the rats treated with BP. In summary, our results imply that BP could remarkably improve the survival of CA1 pyramidal neurons in I/R-induced brain injury and inhibit the JNK-Caspase3 signaling pathway. PMID:27015680

  8. The correlation between MIB-1, AgNOR, and caspase-3 apoptosis with chemoradiotherapy response in cervical cancer

    Chemoradiotherapy is one of treatments for the locally advanced cervical cancer given by concurrent radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in the same time. Chemoradiotherapy response is influenced by biological factor i.e. cell kinetic that consists of cell proliferation and death. In this research, the correlation between AgNOR, MIB-1 cell proliferation biomarker and the expression of apoptotic caspase-3 with chemoradiotherapy response of cervical cancer has been studied. Twenty one microscopic tissue samples were taken from cervical cancer biopsies before radiotherapy. The tissue samples were stained with AgNOR, whereas MIB-1 and apoptosis caspase-3 in the tissue samples were detected by immunochemistry technique. After the completion of chemoradiotherapy treatment, the clinical response was observed by pelvic control method. The result of this research show that there is no correlation between AgNOR, MIB-1 value with apoptosis (p>0.05) before chemoradiotherapy. Cell proliferation observed by AgNOR and MIB-1 before chemoradiotherapy indicate no correlation with chemoradiotherapy response, however the apoptotic expression shows positive correlation with chemoradiotherapy response. The index of caspase-3 apoptosis obtained from this research can be used for considering the chemoradiotherapy schedule for the cervical cancer patient. (author)

  9. Cell apoptosis in perihematomal brain regions and expression of Caspase-3 protein in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Xinqing Zhang; Xiaoliang Yin; Kun Zhang; Zhimin Zhang; Hui Cai; Honglan Xu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), besides the space-occupying effect of hematoma, hematomal component also causes the pathological changes of perihematomal region, including the death of neurons and glial cells, vasogenic brain edema, the destruction of blood brain barrier and so on, which are the important factors to influence the prognosis of patients. Therefore, it is necessary to perform fur ther investigation and study on the pathological characteristics of injury and death of brain nerve cells. OBJECTIVE: To observe the pathological changes of apoptosis and Caspase-3 expression in perihe matomal brain regions in patients with hypertensive ICH (HICH) in different stages of onset, and analyze their relationship. DESIGN: Case-control observation. SETTING: Departments of Neurosurgery and Pathology of Beijing Chuiyangliu Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Totally 19 patients with HICH, including 12 male, 7 female, aged (58.3±12.8) ranging from 49 to 78 years, whose mean volume of hemorrhage was (48.6±16.4) mL, were involved . All the cases conformed to the diagnostic criteria of intracerebral hemorrhage formulated in the 4th National Cerebrovascular Dis eases Conference and were confirmed by skull CT scanning. Informed consents of operation and specimens were obtained from the patients and relatives.METHODS; ①Patients with HICH who had undergone surgical evacuation of an intracerebral hematoma by traverse temporal lobe approach in the Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Chuiyangliu Hospital from Jan uary 2004 to July 2005 were involved. Nineteen specimens of brain tissue from perihematomal region of HICH patients in different phases served as patient group. Five specimens were obtained from distant regions of patients in the super-early phase as the control group. According to the time from onset to operation, the 19 cases were divided into 3 groups: 6 cases in super-early phase(onset < 8 hours), 8 cases in early phase (onset about 8 to 24

  10. Expressão citofotométrica quantitativa da CASPASE-3 e do CD-34 no carcinoma ductal infiltrante de mama Cytophotometric expressions of CASPASE-3 and CD-34 in breast cancer

    Fábio Santana dos Passos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever, correlacionar e comparar a expressão dos marcadores tumorais CD-34 (angiogênese e caspase-3 (apoptose em carcinoma ductal invasor de mama. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 22 casos de adenocarcinoma infiltrante de mama provenientes de blocos de parafina e, após preparo específico para imunoistoquímica, 15 apresentaram leitura satisfatória e foram avaliados pelo sistema de fotocitometria de imagem SAMBA 4000® e software IMMUNO®. Os parâmetros analisados foram o índice de marcagem e densidade óptica. RESULTADOS: Para o CD-34 não houve normalidade dos dados na análise do índice de marcagem, com obtenção de P=0,019, havendo normalidade para a análise da densidade óptica, com P=0,199. Para a caspase-3 houve normalidade de dados para o índice marcagem com P=0,306 e para a densidade óptica com P=0,114; não houve diferença estatística significativa entre eles em relação à média do índice de marcagem (P=0,872 e da densidade óptica (P=0,816, quando analisados os parâmetros que definem a expressão dos marcadores; existiu tendência à associação entre a densidade óptica e o índice de marcagem do marcador tumoral caspase-3, com P=0,025. Não foi observada tendência à associação quando comparados densidade óptica e índice de marcagem do marcador tumoral CD-34; índice de marcagem do marcador tumoral caspase-3 e índice de marcagem do marcador tumoral CD-34; e densidade óptica da caspase-3 com a do CD-34. CONCLUSÃO: Dos 22 casos incluídos foi possível verificar a expressão do marcador CD-34 em 18 lâminas e da caspase-3 em 22 lâminas; Para o CD-34 não houve normalidade dos dados na análise do índice de marcagem, havendo sim normalidade para a análise da densidade óptica. Para a caspase-3 houve normalidade de dados tanto para o índice de marcagem como para a densidade óptica. Existe tendência à associação entre a densidade óptica e o índice de marcagem da caspase-3. Não foi observada

  11. 人难治性颞叶癫痫神经细胞凋亡与 Caspase 3,4的表达%Apoptosis and expression of Caspase 3 and Caspase 4 in neurocytes of refractory human temporal lobe epilepsy

    林若庭; 蔡若蔚; 张鹏飞; 林元相

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察人难治性颞叶癫痫(TLE)颞叶组织神经细胞凋亡及半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶(Caspase )3和Caspase4的表达情况。方法免疫组化S-P染色法检测1993年1月至2008年5月福建医科大学病理学系与福建医科大学附属第一医院神经外科手术切除的30例人难治性颞叶癫痫组( TLE组)与10例脑外伤组(对照组)颞叶组织中神经细胞Caspase 3与Caspase 4的表达并分析其表达差异, TUNEL 法检测两组神经细胞的凋亡情况。结果 TLE 组颞叶组织神经细胞存在Caspase 3和Caspase 4的阳性表达且表达明显高于对照组( Caspase 3:0.69±0.10比0.26±0.05,t=12.905,P<0.01;Caspase 4:0.62±0.10比0.24±0.05,t=11.880,P<0.01),TLE组颞叶组织神经细胞凋亡指数(AI)较对照组显著增加(12.6±3.1比2.5±1.9,t=9.664,P<0.01)。结论人难治性TLE颞叶组织可能存在Caspase 3,Caspase 4转导的神经细胞凋亡。%Objective To study apoptosis and expression of Caspase 3 and Caspase 4 in temporal lobe neurocytes of refractory human temporal lobe epilepsy ( TLE).Methods The temporal tissue samples were obtained from 30 cases of refractory TLE ( TLE group) and 10 cases of brain trauma ( contrast group) between January 1993 and May 2008. The surgical specimens were paraffin-embedded samples from Department of Pathology of Fujian Medical University and Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. S-P staining of immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Caspase 3 and Caspase 4 in temporal lobe neurocytes of TLE group and contrast group.Their expression was then analyzed.The terminal deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling ( TUNEL) staining was performed to visualize and analyze the neurocytes′apoptosis of two groups.Results The expression of Caspase 3 and Caspase 4 in neurocytes of TLE

  12. Effects on regulation of GSK3 β coupled signaling transduction pathway in radiation-induced apoptosis of IEC-6 cells

    The work is to determine the effects of γ-irradiation on GSK3 β coupled signaling transduction pathway in IEC-6 cells, and protect effects of regulation of GSK3 β and caspase-3 activation on γ irradiation induced IEC-6 cells injuries. The changes of GSK-3 β and caspase-3 mRNA expression were determined by RT-PCR. The change of GSK-3 β phosphorylation was determined by western blotting. The changes of GSK-3 β enzymes activity were tested by radiation activity measurement. The changes of caspase-3 enzymes activity were assessed via a colorimetric assay with specific substrates. The IEC-6 cells apoptosis were determined by Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA ladder. The results show that 6 Gy γ-irradiation increased apoptotic cell percentage in IEC-6 cells. Significant changes of GSK3 β and downstream signal transduction molecular caspase-3 in mRNA expression, GSK3 β protein dephosphorylation and protein enzymatic activation were observed after the irradiation. GSK3 βand coupled signal transduction pathway may play an important role to promote IEC-6 cells apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK3 β activation can provide protective effects against the irradiation induced IEC-6 cells apoptosis. Pretreatment with caspase-3 specific inhibitor has similar effects on IEC-6 cells, being characterized by decreasing apoptotic cell percentage and blockade of DNA fragmentation induced by the irradiation. GSK3 β and coupled signal transduction pathway plays a very important role in the irradiation induced IEC-6 cells injuries. Antagonism of GSK3 β and caspase-3 activation may be an important approach to protect intestinal epithelial function. These results are of clinical relevance in antagonism of the irradiation induced intestinal dysfunctions. (authors)

  13. Estudo citofotométrico da expressão dos marcadores tumorais Caspase-3 e Ki-67 no adenocarcinoma gástrico Cytophotometric study of the expression of tumoral markers Caspase-3 and Ki-67 in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Pedro Manuel Gonzales Cuellar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A carcinogênese gástrica é processo complexo e depende de fatores genéticos, ambientais e infecciosos. Nos últimos anos, houve grandes avanços nos campos da genética e da biologia molecular, sobre o desenvolvimento dos tumores. Os marcadores tumorais são substâncias ausentes nos tecidos normais e que podem ser identificadas em tecidos com câncer. Através de procedimentos imunoistoquímicos eles podem ser estudados. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a expressão citofotométrica do marcador tumoral Ki-67 analisando a densidade óptica e o índice de marcagem no adenocarcinoma de estômago. Descrever a expressão citofotométrica do marcador tumoral Caspase-3 analisando a densidade óptica e o índice de marcagem no adenocarcinoma de estômago. Comparar o índice de marcagem e densidade óptica dos marcadores tumorais Ki-67 e Caspase-3 no adenocarcinoma de estômago. MÉTODO: Foram selecionados, inicialmente, 58 blocos com espécime de adenocarcinoma gástrico coletados nos Serviços de Anátomo-Patologia do Hospital do Gama - Brasília (DF e Hospital Dom Orione - Araguaina (TO, e analizados no Laboratório de Citologia e Histopalogia Ltda - CITOLAB, Curitiba (PR. Foram aproveitados 31 blocos para o estudo histológico e imunoistoquímico realizado pelo sistema de análise computarizado SAMBA 4000. RESULTADOS: Das 31 lâminas estudas, 15 (48% foram marcadas pelo marcador Ki-67, 22 (71% foram marcadas pelo marcador Caspase-3 e 14 (45% marcaram com os dois marcadores. CONCLUSÕES: A expressão citofométrica do marcador Ki-67 foi observada em 15 lâminas da amostra estudada e apresentaram média do índice de marcagem de 36,85%, enquanto a densidade óptica apresentou média de 29,33 pixels. A expressão citofotométrica do marcador Caspase-3 foi observada em 22 lâminas da amostra estudada e apresentaram média do índice de marcagem de 87,71% e 60,74 pixels de média para a densidade óptica. Na comparação do índice de marcagem dos

  14. Quercetin ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting ASK1/JNK3/caspase-3 by enhancing the Akt signaling pathway.

    Pei, Bing; Yang, Miaomiao; Qi, Xiaoyan; Shen, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Fayong

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major cause of severe disability and death all worldwide. However, therapeutic options to minimize the detrimental effects of cerebral I/R injury are limited. Recent research has demonstrated that quercetin mediates neuroprotective effects associated with the activation of the Akt signaling pathway in the cerebral I/R brain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of cognitive deficits induced by cerebral I/R injury and the effects of quercetin on these mechanisms. First, we assessed anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive impairment using the open field test and the Morris water maze test, respectively. Next, we examined the severity of apoptosis by staining hippocampal neurons by the Cresyl violet method. Third, we used western blot analysis to investigate the expression of total and phosphorylated Akt, ASK1, JNK3, c-Jun and caspase-3 after I/R injury. Our results revealed that mice subjected to bilateral common carotid occlusion exhibited severe anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory impairment, cell damage and apoptosis. These severe effects were attenuated by administration of quercetin. Further, western blot analysis revealed that quercetin increased p-Akt expression and decreased p-ASK1, p-JNK3 and cleaved caspase-3 expression after cerebral I/R injury and led to inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. Conversely, treatment with LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of Akt1) reversed the effects of quercetin. In conclusion, these findings highlight the important role of quercetin in protecting against cognitive deficits and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway. We believe that quercetin might prove to be a useful therapeutic component in treating cerebral I/R diseases in the near future. PMID:27450812

  15. 类叶升麻苷对阿尔采末病小鼠皮层 caspase-3基因表达的影响%Effects of acteoside on expression of caspase-3 in cerebral cortex of mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease

    彭晓明; 高莉; 霍仕霞; 闫明

    2014-01-01

    time,mice were in-duced continuously by a combination of D-galactose and AlCl3 .The learning and memory of mice were de-tected by step-down test,the activity of AChE in serum and brain of mice was measured by chemical colorime-try,the structure changes in cerebral cortex were ob-served by HE staining,and the expression of caspase-3 in cerebral cortex was analyzed through the immunohis-tochemical staining.Results Compared with model group,acteoside could improve the learning and mem-ory abilities(P <0.05 or P <0.01 ),decrease the ac-tivity of AChE in serum and brain(P <0.05 or P <0.01 ),and improve the morphology and number of neuron in cerebral cortex(P <0.01 ).Moreover,acte-oside could significantly inhibit the expression of caspase-3 in cerebral cortex (P <0.05,P <0.01 ). Conclusion Acteoside has significantly protective effects on brain damage of mice induced by a combina-tion of D-galactose and AlCl3 , and it′s protective mechanism probably relate to inhibiting the expression of caspase-3 and maintainings the normal morphology and number of neuron in cerebral cortex.

  16. Significado clínico-patológico das expressões citofotométricas do Ki-67 e Caspase-3 no carcinoma de células escamosas do esôfago Clinicopathologic significance of the Ki-67 and Caspase-3 cytophotometric expressions in the esophageal squamous cell carcinomal

    Gilmar Pereira Silva

    2008-06-01

    se mostraram in-tensas sendo que a da Caspase-3 foi superior ao Ki-67 mas sem correlação com as características clínico-patológicas.BACKGROUND: The esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treatment strategy is still based on the tumor staging, where tumor histopathologic charac-teristics are the major determinants. In parallel, studies have been developed in order to better understand the tumor biology using immunohistochemical meth-ods with manual quantification evaluating the proliferative and apoptotic activi-ties of the cells. The disadvantages related to the manual method rose the de-velopment of computerized ways to do the image analysis. OBJETIVES: To verify the expressions of the markers Ki-67 (proliferative and Caspase-3 (apoptotic and to correlate them with the clinic and pathologic characteristics of the tumor. METHODS: Twenty-nine paraffin embedded blocks were studied, each one con-taining tissue samples from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma submitted to esophagectomies. The clinic and pathological data were obtained from histopathologic informations and from medical records. The slides were prepared following the routine immunohistochemical method until the point to utilize the specific antibodies (MIB-1 and CPP32. Positive quantification of the immunoreactivity to the proteins Ki-67 and Caspase-3 was performed by the software for computerized image analysis SAMBA (Systeme d' Analyse Micro-photometrique a Balayage Automatique. Statistical analysis was done having P3cm; and lesions located in the lower third of the organ. The mean score indexes found were 62.05% for Ki-67 and 86.06% for Caspase-3 and there was no correlation with the clinic or pathologi-cal characteristics as gender, age and tumor staging. There was significant dif-ference of Ki-67 expression among the histological grades (P=0.047 and corre-lation between the evaluated indexes (r=0.41 and P=0.032. CONCLUSION: The protein expressions were high and the Caspase-3 protein

  17. Chuanxiongzine-astragaloside V decreases IL-1β and Caspase-3 gene expressions in rat brain damaged by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion: A study of real-time quantitgtive PCR assay%川芎嗪-黄芪甲苷降低缺血/再灌注损伤的大鼠脑组织中IL-1β和Caspase-3基因的表达:实时定量PCR的研究

    朱振洪; 万海同; 李金辉

    2011-01-01

    chuanxiongzine-AST V group, those two genes showed the most significant expression down-regulation. These results suggest the absolute quantitative method established in the present study is capable of detecting the changes of IL-1 β and Caspase-3 gene expressions in rat brain damaged by I/R.

  18. 力竭运动损伤模型大鼠运动预适应后心脏STAT3和Caspase-3的表达%Effects of exercise preconditioning on expression of STAT3 and Caspase-3 in the heart of rats with exhaustive exercise injury

    孙晓娟

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Caspase-3 are the important factors in JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. However, there are few studies on their role in the exercise preconditioning for myocardial protection. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of exercise preconditioning on the expression of STAT3 and Caspase-3 in the heart of rats and investigate the cardioprotective mechanism of action. METHODS: Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, exhaustive, exercise preconditioning, and exercise preconditioning+AG490 groups. The exercise preconditioning rat models were established by subjecting to intermittent treadmil exercise for 3 successive days. Rats in the control group were fed routinely for 3 days. Rats in the exhaustive group underwent treadmil exercise at 30 m/min until exhaustion after 3 days of routine raise. Rats in the exercise preconditioning group underwent exercise preconditioning for 3 days, and 24 hours later, they underwent treadmil exercises at the speed of 30 m/min until exhaustion. Rats in the exercise %背景:信号转导及转录激活因子3(STAT3)和Caspase-3是JAK2/STAT3信号通路中的重要因子,它们在运动预适应心肌保护中的作用目前相关研究较少。目的:分析运动预适应对大鼠心脏STAT3和Caspase-3表达的影响及其对心脏保护的作用机制。方法:将80只SD大鼠随机分为对照组、力竭组、运动预适应组、运动预适应+AG490组。连续3 d的间歇跑台运动建立运动预适应动物模型。对照组:常规饲养3 d;力竭组:常规饲养3 d后,以30 m/min的速度运动至力竭;运动预适应组:先进行3 d的运动预适应,24 h后以30 m/min的速度运动至力竭;运动预适应+AG490组:在每天运动预适应前10 min,腹腔注射JAK2抑制剂AG490(3 mg/kg),余处理同运动预适应组。用HBFP染色法检测心肌缺血缺氧改变,用Western blot方法检测心脏STAT3

  19. Advanced glycation end-products induce apoptosis in pancreatic islet endothelial cells via NF-κB-activated cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 up-regulation.

    Kuo-Cheng Lan

    Full Text Available Microvascular complications eventually affect nearly all patients with diabetes. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs resulting from hyperglycemia are a complex and heterogeneous group of compounds that accumulate in the plasma and tissues in diabetic patients. They are responsible for both endothelial dysfunction and diabetic vasculopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of AGEs on pancreatic islet microvascular endothelial cells. The mechanism underlying the apoptotic effect of AGEs in pancreatic islet endothelial cell line MS1 was explored. The results showed that AGEs significantly decreased MS1 cell viability and induced MS1 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. AGEs dose-dependently increased the expressions of cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in MS1 cells. Treatment of MS1 cells with AGEs also resulted in increased nuclear factor (NF-κB-p65 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression. However, AGEs did not affect the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-related molecules in MS1 cells. Pretreatment with NS398 (a COX-2 inhibitor to inhibit prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production reversed the induction of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and MS1 cell viability. Moreover, AGEs significantly increased the receptor for AGEs (RAGE protein expression in MS1 cells, which could be reversed by RAGE neutralizing antibody. RAGE Neutralizing antibody could also reverse the induction of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP and decreased cell viability induced by AGEs. These results implicate the involvement of NF-κB-activated COX-2/PGE2 up-regulation in AGEs/RAGE-induced islet endothelial cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity. These findings may provide insight into the pathological processes within the pancreatic islet microvasculature induced by AGEs accumulation.

  20. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of M826, a reversible caspase-3 inhibitor, in the rat malonate model of Huntington's disease

    Toulmond, Sylvie; Tang, Keith; Bureau, Yves; Ashdown, Helen; Degen, Sarah; O'Donnell, Ruth; Tam, John; Han, Yongxin; Colucci, John; Giroux, André; Zhu, Yanxia; Boucher, Mathieu; Pikounis, Bill; Xanthoudakis, Steven; Roy, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Caspases, key enzymes in the apoptosis pathway, have been detected in the brain of HD patients and in animal models of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of a new, reversible, caspase-3-specific inhibitor, M826 (3-({(2S)-2-[5-tert-butyl-3-{[(4-methyl-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)methyl]amino}-2-oxopyrazin-1(2H)-yl]butanoyl}amino)-5-[hexyl(methyl)amino]-4-oxopentanoic acid), in a rat malonate model of HD.Pharmacokinetic and autoradiography studies after i...

  2. Proteinase activity regulation by glycosaminoglycans

    Tersariol I.L.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports concerning the biological role and the mechanisms of interaction between proteinases and carbohydrates other than those involved in clotting. It has been shown that the interplay of enzymes and glycosaminoglycans is able to modulate the activity of different proteases and also to affect their structures. From the large number of proteases belonging to the well-known protease families and also the variety of carbohydrates described as widely distributed, only few events have been analyzed more deeply. The term "family" is used to describe a group of proteases in which every member shows an evolutionary relationship to at least one other protease. This relationship may be evident throughout the entire sequence, or at least in that part of the sequence responsible for catalytic activity. The majority of proteases belong to the serine, cysteine, aspartic or metalloprotease families. By considering the existing limited proteolysis process, in addition to the initial idea that the proteinases participate only in digestive processes, it is possible to conclude that the function of the enzymes is strictly limited to the cleavage of intended substrates since the destruction of functional proteins would result in normal tissue damage. In addition, the location as well as the eventual regulation of protease activity promoted by glycosaminoglycans can play an essential role in the development of several physiopathological conditions.

  3. Ruthenium(II) p-cymene complex bearing 2,2'-dipyridylamine targets caspase 3 deficient MCF-7 breast cancer cells without disruption of antitumor immune response.

    Kaluđerović, Goran N; Krajnović, Tamara; Momcilovic, Miljana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Mijatović, Sanja; Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2015-12-01

    [Ru(η(6)-p-cym)Cl{dpa(CH2)4COOEt}][PF6] (cym=cymene; dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine; complex 2) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, as well as ESI-MS and X-ray structural analysis. The structural analog without a side chain [Ru(η(6)-p-cym)Cl(dpa)][PF6] (1) as well as 2 were investigated in vitro against 518A2, SW480, 8505C, A253 and MCF-7 cell lines. Complex 1 is active against all investigated tumor cell lines while the activity of compound 2 is limited only to caspase 3 deficient MCF-7 breast cancer cells, however, both are less active than cisplatin. As CD4(+)Th cells are necessary to trigger all the immune effector mechanisms required to eliminate tumor cells, besides testing the in vitro antitumor activity of 1 and 2, the effect of ruthenium(II) complexes on the cells of the adaptive immune system have also been evaluated. Importantly, complex 1 applied in concentrations which were effective against tumor cells did not affect immune cell viability, nor did exert a general immunosuppressive effect on cytokine production. Thus, beneficial characteristics of 1 might contribute to the overall therapeutic properties of the complex. PMID:26428537

  4. Effects of Sodium Cantharidate Vitamin B6 on Proliferation,Apoptosis and Influence of NF-κB and Caspase3/7 on Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells%斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液对人肺癌细胞系A549增殖抑制及核因子κB和Caspase3/7的影响

    温省初; 王一飞; 李爱明; 李冠军; 成志勇; 王亚丽; 石林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sodium cantharidinate ( SC ) vitamin B6 on human non - small cell lung cancer A549 cell proliferation, apoptosis and the influence of transcription factor NF - kB and apoptosis molecules Caspase3/7. Methods Different concentrations of SC vitamin B6 and A549 cells were cultured together; Cells apoptosis was tested by light microscopy and fluorescent staining Hoechst33342 morphology; MTT assay tested cell proliferation; Rhodamine 123 examined mitochondrial membrane potential; Caspase3/7 activity assay kit tested Caspase3/7 activity; Western blot detected of NF - kB P65 , I - kB protein levels. Results SC vitamin B6 inhibited the A549 cells proliferation, of which there were apparent apoptotic morphological changes. When 5. 0 mg/L group roled in A549 cells 72 h, cell proliferation inhibition rate reached 67. 37 percent maximum. Mitochondrial membrane potential results showed that with increasing concentration of SC vitamin B6 and time, the mitochondrial membrane potential gradually weakened, while Caspase3/7 protein activity increased. After SC vitamin B6 was added in A549 cells, NF - kB P65 protein levels was reduced ( P < 0. 05 ) and I - kB protein levels had no changes. Conclusion SC vitamin B6 inhibits the NF - kB P65 expression, activates caspase - 3/7 activities which inhibits A549 cells proliferation and induce apoptosis.%目的 探讨斑蝥酸钠(SC)维生素B6注射液对人非小细胞肺癌A549细胞增殖、凋亡及核因子κB(NF-κB)、凋亡分子Caspase3/7的影响.方法 用不同浓度(0、1.0、2.5、5.0 mg/L)的SC维生素B6注射液处理A549细胞,观察光镜及Hoechst33342荧光染色检测细胞凋亡形态;用噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测SC维生素B6注射液对细胞增殖的抑制作用;罗丹明123检测线粒体膜电位;Caspase3/7活性检测试剂盒检测Caspase3/7活性;蛋白印迹检测NF-κB P65、I-κB 蛋白表达.结果 SC维生素B6注射液对A549细胞的体外增殖有明显抑制作

  5. Dietary flavonoid fisetin targets caspase-3-deficient human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by induction of caspase-7-associated apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy.

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Tseng, Ho-Hsing; Peng, Chih-Wen; Chen, Wen-Shu; Chiu, Shu-Jun

    2012-02-01

    The outcome of producing apoptotic defects in cancer cells is the primary obstacle that limits the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer agents, and hence the development of novel agents targeting novel non-canonical cell death pathways has become an imperative mission for clinical research. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables. In this study, we investigated the potential anticancer effects of fisetin on breast cancer cells. The result showed fisetin induced higher cytotoxicity in human breast cancer MCF-7 than in MDA-MB-231 cells otherwise it did not exert any detectable cytotoxicity in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. We found fisetin can trigger a novel form of atypical apoptosis in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells, which was characterized by several apoptotic features, including plasma membrane rupture, mitochondrial depolarization, activation of caspase-7, -8 and -9, and PARP cleavage; however, neither DNA fragmentation and phosphotidylserine (PS) externalization was observed. Although p53 was also activated by fisetin, the fisetin-induced apoptosis was not rescued by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α. In contrast, the fisetin-induced apoptosis was abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy by fisetin was shown as additional route to prompt anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells. These data allow us to propose that fisetin appears as a new potential anticancer agent which can be applied to develop a clinical protocol of human breast cancers. PMID:21922137

  6. Copper induced apoptosis in Caco-2 and Hep-G2 cells: Expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9, AIF and p53.

    Santos, Stefanie; Silva, Amélia M; Matos, Manuela; Monteiro, Sandra M; Álvaro, Ana R

    2016-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace metal needed to ensure cell function. However, when present at high concentrations it becomes toxic to organisms. Cell death, induced by toxic levels of copper, was previously observed in in vitro studies. However, there is no consensus about the cell death pathway induced by Cu and it is still not known whether this occurs as a result of the direct action of the metal or by indirect effects. In the present work, we intend to identify the influence of different Cu concentrations in the induction of apoptosis and to explore the potential signaling pathways, using two different in vitro cell culture models (Caco-2 and Hep-G2). Cells were exposed, during 6, 12, 24 and 48h, to Cu concentrations corresponding to IC50 and 1/8 of IC50, according to the viability assays. Then, considering the different apoptosis pathways, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and p53 genes was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. The results suggested that different Cu concentrations could trigger different apoptotic pathways, at different times of exposure. In both cell lines, apoptosis seems to be initiated by caspase independent pathway and intrinsic pathway, followed by extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu induces the activation of apoptosis through caspase dependent and independent pathways, also suggesting that apoptosis activation mechanism is dependent on the concentration, time of exposure to Cu and cell type. PMID:27046389

  7. Human urine extract CDA-2 induces apoptosis of myelodysplastic syndrome-derived MUTZ-1 cells through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a caspase-3-dependent manner

    Jian HUANG; Min YANG; Hui LIU; Jie JIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumoral activity of human urine extract against myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-derived MUTZ-1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The MDS-refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB)-derived MUTZ-1 cell line was used to examine the effects of a human urine preparation, CDA-2, on the induction of growth arrest and apoptosis. Apoptotic proteins, including caspase family, Bcl-2 family, the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, and the F-LICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as cell cycle-associated proteins were studied. The phosphoinositide 3 ki- nase (PI3K)/Akt survival signaling pathway and the NF-k B pathway were also examined. The caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-fmk was used to examine the involve- ment of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was used to examine the involvement of the PI3K/Akt signaling path- way in this apoptosis-inducing effect. MUTZ-1 cell xenografted serious com- bined immunodeficiency disease mice were used for the in vivo study. Results: We found that CDA-2 could induce growth arrest and apoptosis of MUTZ-l cells in vitro and in vivo. The main mechanisms were related to the inhibition of PI3Kp110or expression at the transcriptional level, which inactivated the phos- phorylation of Akt involving the prevention NF-KB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, the downregulation of the IAP family and FLIPL protein, and the dephosphorylation of the Bad protein, which then triggered the activation of the caspase cascades. This phenomenon could be inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-fmk. Conclusion: Our results demon- strate the presence of active components in the human urine extract that can induce the growth arrest and apoptosis of MDS-RAEB-derived MUTZ-1 cells and may involve the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a caspase-3-dependent manner. This may provide new insights for the treatment of high-risk MDS.

  8. Platelets actively sequester angiogenesis regulators

    Lakka Klement, Giannoula; Yip, Tai-Tung; Cassiola, Flavia; Kikuchi, Lena; Cervi, David; Podust, Vladimir; Italiano, Joseph E.; Wheatley, Erin; Abou-Slaybi, Abdo; Bender, Elise; Almog, Nava; Kieran, Mark W.; Folkman, Judah

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials with antiangiogenic agents have not been able to validate plasma or serum levels of angiogenesis regulators as reliable markers of cancer presence or therapeutic response. We recently reported that platelets contain numerous proteins that regulate angiogenesis. We now show that accumulation of angiogenesis regulators in platelets of animals bearing malignant tumors exceeds significantly their concentration in plasma or serum, as well as their levels in platelets from non–tumor...

  9. The caspase 3-dependent apoptotic effect of pycnogenol in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells.

    Yang, In-Hyoung; Shin, Ji-Ae; Kim, Lee-Han; Kwon, Ki Han; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the apoptotic effect of pycnogenol and its molecular mechanism in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells were investigated. Pycnogenol significantly inhibited the viability of HSC-3 cells and suppressed neoplastic cell transformation in HSC-3 cells and TPA-treated JB6 cells. It caused caspase-dependent apoptosis evidenced by the increase in cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 in a dose-dependent manner. Pycnogenol increased Bak protein by enhancing its protein stability whereas other Bcl-2 family members were not altered. In addition, the treatment with pycnogenol led to the production of reactive oxygen species and N-acetyl-l-cysteine almost blocked pycnogenol-induced reactive oxygen species generation. Taken together, these findings suggest that pycnogenol may be a potential candidate for the chemoprevention or chemotherapy of human oral cancer. PMID:26798196

  10. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis.

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. PMID:27226576