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Sample records for activation promotes anti-thrombotic

  1. The anti-thrombotic active constituents from Centella asiatica.

    Satake, Toshiko; Kamiya, Kohei; An, Yin; Oishi Nee Taka, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Junichiro

    2007-05-01

    The in vitro effects of a methanol extract from the aerial parts of Centella asiatica on shear-induced platelet activation and coagulation were assessed after oral administration to rats, by subjecting non-anticoagulated blood to haemostatometry. 3,5-Di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid, and chlorogenic acid, together with asiaticoside, kaempferol, quercetine, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside were all isolated from the methanol extract. Amongst these, only 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid showed significant inhibition of shear-induced platelet activation and dynamic coagulation. The reactive curve of the inhibitory effect on the platelet reaction and the dynamic coagulation showed a bell-shape. PMID:17473438

  2. Anti-thrombotic activity and chemical characterization of steroidal saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    Li, Hua; Huang, Wen; Wen, Yanqing; Gong, Guohua; Zhao, Qingbing; Yu, Gang

    2010-12-01

    Steroidal saponins have long attracted scientific attention, due to their structural diversity and significant biological activities. Total steroidal saponins (TSS) extracted from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW) constitute an effective treatment for cardiovascular disease. However, the active constituents contained in DZW rhizomes and their pharmacological properties are not fully understood. The aim of this work is to determine and quantify the active constituents in DZW rhizomes using fingerprint technique, and evaluate its anti-thrombotic activity using inferior vena cava ligation thrombosis rat model and pulmonary thrombosis mice model after being gavaged with TSS for 1 or 2weeks. In the study, a chemical fingerprint method was firstly established and validated to quantify and standardize TSS from DZW rhizomes including parvifloside, protodeltonin, protodioscin, protogracillin, zingiberensis saponin, deltonin, dioscin and trillin. TSS extracted from DZW rhizomes were showed to have the inhibitions on platelet aggregation (PAG) and thrombosis, and prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and prothrombin time (PT) in a dose-dependent manner in rats. TSS also prolonged the bleeding time and clotting time in a dose-dependent manner in mice. The results indicate that TSS could inhibit thrombosis by both improving the anticoagulation activity and inhibiting PAG action, suggesting that TSS from DZW rhizomes have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by anti-thrombotic action. PMID:20659537

  3. In Vitro Mode of Action and Anti-thrombotic Activity of Boophilin, a Multifunctional Kunitz Protease Inhibitor from the Midgut of a Tick Vector of Babesiosis, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Teresa C Assumpção

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitos and ticks avoid host hemostatic system through expression of enzyme inhibitors targeting proteolytic reactions of the coagulation and complement cascades. While most inhibitors characterized to date were found in the salivary glands, relatively few others have been identified in the midgut. Among those, Boophilin is a 2-Kunitz multifunctional inhibitor targeting thrombin, elastase, and kallikrein. However, the kinetics of Boophilin interaction with these enzymes, how it modulates platelet function, and whether it inhibits thrombosis in vivo have not been determined.Boophilin was expressed in HEK293 cells and purified to homogeneity. Using amidolytic assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments, we have demonstrated that Boophilin behaves as a classical, non-competitive inhibitor of thrombin with respect to small chromogenic substrates by a mechanism dependent on both exosite-1 and catalytic site. Inhibition is accompanied by blockade of platelet aggregation, fibrin formation, and clot-bound thrombin in vitro. Notably, we also identified Boophilin as a non-competitive inhibitor of FXIa, preventing FIX activation. In addition, Boophilin inhibits kallikrein activity and the reciprocal activation, indicating that it targets the contact pathway. Furthermore, Boophilin abrogates cathepsin G- and plasmin-induced platelet aggregation and partially affects elastase-mediated cleavage of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI. Finally, Boophilin inhibits carotid artery occlusion in vivo triggered by FeCl3, and promotes bleeding according to the mice tail transection method.Through inhibition of several enzymes involved in proteolytic cascades and cell activation, Boophilin plays a major role in keeping the midgut microenvironment at low hemostatic and inflammatory tonus. This response allows ticks to successfully digest a blood meal which is critical for metabolism and egg development. Boophilin is the first tick midgut FXIa

  4. Opportunities for improvement in anti-thrombotic therapy and other strategies for the management of acute coronary syndromes

    Bueno, Héctor; Sinnaeve, Peter; Annemans, Lieven;

    2016-01-01

    . Globally, 4738 (44.8%) were attended before hospitalization, 4241 (40.1%) had an ECG, 2119 (20%) received anti-platelet therapy and 101 STEMI patients (2%) fibrinolysis. In-hospital, 7944 patients (75.2%) received dual anti-platelet therapy, most often with clopidogrel (69.7%), and less with prasugrel (5....... CONCLUSION: This large international study shows room for improvement in use of anti-thrombotic drugs and other strategies for optimal management of ACS, including pre-hospital ECG and anti-thrombotic therapy. Regional practice differences not based on evidence or conditioned by economic constraints should...

  5. Assessment of Novel Anti-thrombotic Fusion Proteins for Inhibition of Stenosis in a Porcine Model of Arteriovenous Graft.

    Christi M Terry

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis arteriovenous synthetic grafts (AVG provide high volumetric blood flow rates shortly after surgical placement. However, stenosis often develops at the vein-graft anastomosis contributing to thrombosis and early graft failure. Two novel fusion proteins, ANV-6L15 and TAP-ANV, inhibit the tissue factor/factor VIIa coagulation complex and the factor Xa/factor Va complex, respectively. Each inhibitor domain is fused to an annexin V domain that targets the inhibitor activity to sites of vascular injury to locally inhibit thrombosis. This study's objective was to determine if these antithrombotic proteins are safe and effective in inhibiting AVG stenosis.A bolus of either TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 fusion protein was administered intravenously immediately prior to surgical placement of a synthetic graft between the external jugular vein and common carotid artery in a porcine model. At surgery, the vein and artery were irrigated with the anti-thrombotic fusion protein. Control animals received intravenous heparin. At 4 weeks, MRI was performed to evaluate graft patency, the pigs were then euthanized and grafts and attached vessels were explanted for histomorphometric assessment of neointimal hyperplasia at the vein-graft anastomosis. Blood was collected at surgery, immediately after surgery and at euthanasia for serum metabolic panels and coagulation chemistries.No acute thrombosis occurred in the control group or in either experimental group. No abnormal serum chemistries, activated clotting times or PT, PTT values were observed after treatment in experimental or control animals. However, at the vein-graft anastomosis, there was no difference between the control and experimental groups in cross-sectional lumen areas, as measured on MRI, and no difference in hyperplasia areas as determined by histomorphometry. These results suggest that local irrigation of TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 intra-operatively was as effective in inhibiting acute graft thrombosis

  6. Anti-thrombotic activity of KBT-3022 in experimental models of thrombosis.

    Yokota, K; Yamashita, A; Oda, M

    1995-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of KBT-3022 (ethyl 2-[4,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-thiazol-2-yl]pyrrol-1-ylacetate) , a potent and long-lasting anti-platelet agent, in several experimental thrombosis models and compared them with those of other anti-platelet drugs. Oral administration of KBT-3022 prevented arachidonic acid-induced death due to pulmonary embolism in mice and rabbits with respective ED50 values of 0.29 and 0.12 mg/kg. The protective effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) against mortality was weaker than that of KBT-3022, and ticlopidine hydrochloride (TP) showed no such effect in these models. In a guinea pig arterio-venous shunt model, the inhibition by KBT-3022 of thrombus formation on a silk thread inserted into the shunt was dose-dependent and 300 and 30 times more potent than the inhibition obtained with ASA and indomethacin, respectively. In a model of aortic thrombosis induced by perivascular application of 20% silver nitrate solution, KBT-3022 (1 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited thrombus formation significantly, ASA (100 mg/kg, p.o.) tended to inhibit it, and TP had no effect. However, in a stasis-induced venous thrombosis model in guinea pigs, TP inhibited thrombus formation significantly, but KBT-3022 and ASA were ineffective. These results suggest that KBT-3022 may be a useful drug for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of thrombus formation in shunts and aortic thrombosis. PMID:7563977

  7. Anticoagulant and anti-thrombotic treatments in the management of hematological malignancies in a home care program

    Andrea Tendas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anticoagulants (AC and anti-platelet (AP agents are widely administered to patients with hematological malignancies (HM. However, HM patients may be at high risk of bleeding and hemorrhagic complications, because of different form of coagulopathies and several degrees of thrombocytopenia. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of the use of anticoagulant and anti-thrombotic agents as well as of bleeding and thrombotic complications in a consecutive cohort of patients, which were followed during the first semester of 2010 by our home care service, was performed. In this regard, three pharmacological class of agents, such as oral anticoagulants (warfarin and acenocumarine, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH and anti-platelet (AP drugs were considered. Results: Out of 129 patients, 26 (20% were treated with AC/AP drugs. Warfarin, acenocumarine, LMWH as well as AP were used in 7, 11 and 12 patients, respectively. Adverse events (bleeding were observed in 3 patients (11.5%, 2 cases being on warfarin (replaced by LMWH and 1 being AP (suspension without replacement; out of the 3 patients with bleeding, none presented thrombocytopenia. Conclusions: Despite the frequent findings of hemostatic disorders in a population of frail patients managed in a home care setting, our experience demonstrated that the use of AC/AP drugs has been very rarely responsible for significant complications.

  8. Anti-platelet Aggregation and Anti-thrombotic Effects of Marine Natural Products Sargahydroquinoic Acid and Sargaquinoic Acid

    Park, Byonggon; Oh, Sangtae; Kwon, Daeho; Cui, Yuan; Ham, Jungyeob; Shin, Woonseob; Lee, Seokjoon [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    On the basis of the results of the in vitro platelet aggregation inhibition test, we discovered that of SHQA (1) and SQA (2) show a strong inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. To enable preclinical and clinical studies to be conducted, we synthesized SQA from natural SHQA in high yield. In addition, we confirmed that SHQA (1) and SQA (2) show a fast recovery time from paralysis in the mouse pulmonary thromboembolism model, indicating that they are strong, novel anti-platelet drug candidates. As bleeding is a main side effect of the APDs used clinically, we also plan to conduct a bleeding test with SHQA and SQA and will report these results in a future proper paper. Platelets circulate in blood and their activity is regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin I{sub 2} (PGI{sub 2}) released from endothelial cells in a quiescent state under physiological conditions.

  9. Anti-platelet Aggregation and Anti-thrombotic Effects of Marine Natural Products Sargahydroquinoic Acid and Sargaquinoic Acid

    On the basis of the results of the in vitro platelet aggregation inhibition test, we discovered that of SHQA (1) and SQA (2) show a strong inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. To enable preclinical and clinical studies to be conducted, we synthesized SQA from natural SHQA in high yield. In addition, we confirmed that SHQA (1) and SQA (2) show a fast recovery time from paralysis in the mouse pulmonary thromboembolism model, indicating that they are strong, novel anti-platelet drug candidates. As bleeding is a main side effect of the APDs used clinically, we also plan to conduct a bleeding test with SHQA and SQA and will report these results in a future proper paper. Platelets circulate in blood and their activity is regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) released from endothelial cells in a quiescent state under physiological conditions

  10. Changes in Platelet and Endothelial Function in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation and the Effect of Anti-thrombotic Therapy on Them%非瓣膜性心房颤动血小板和内皮功能的变化及抗栓治疗的影响

    韩冰

    2011-01-01

    Platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction play the initial role in the thrombus formation of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Further research into platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction and the effects of anti-thrombotic therapy on them may be helpful in improving evaluation of stroke risk factors in atrial fibrillation, as well as provide additional strategies for the prevention of thromboembolism.%血小板活化、内皮损伤在非瓣膜性心房颤动(房颤)的血栓形成中发挥始动作用.对房颤血小板活化、内皮损伤及抗栓治疗对其影响做进一步的探讨,有助于对房颤脑卒中的危险因素进行更好的评估,并对临床上预防非瓣膜性房颤血栓栓塞的发生提供更多的依据及治疗方法.

  11. Laboratory assessment of anti-thrombotic therapy in heart failure, atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease: insights using thrombelastography and a micro-titre plate assay of thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis.

    Lau, Y C; Xiong, Q; Ranjit, P; Lip, G Y H; Blann, A D

    2016-08-01

    As heart failure, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation all bring a risk of thrombosis, anti-thrombotic therapy is recommended. Despite such treatment, major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke still occur, implying inadequate suppression of thrombus formation. Accordingly, identification of patients whose haemostasis remains unimpaired by treatment is valuable. We compared indices for assessing thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis by two different techniques in patients on different anti-thrombotic agents, i.e. aspirin or warfarin. We determined fibrin clot formation and fibrinolysis by a microplate assay and thromboelastography, and platelet marker soluble P selectin in 181 patients with acute or chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease who were taking either aspirin or warfarin. Five thromboelastograph indices and four microplate assay indices were different on aspirin versus warfarin (p < 0.05). In multivariate regression analysis, only microplate assay indices rate of clot formation and rate of clot dissolution were independently related to aspirin or warfarin use (p ≤ 0.001). Five microplate assay indices, but no thrombelastograph index, were different (p < 0.001) in aspirin users. Three microplate assay indices were different (p ≤ 0.002) in warfarin users. The microplate assay indices of lag time and rate of clot formation were abnormal in chronic heart failure patients on aspirin, suggesting increased risk of thrombosis despite anti-platelet use. Soluble P selectin was lower in patients on aspirin (p = 0.0175) but failed to correlate with any other index of haemostasis. The microplate assay shows promise as a tool for dissecting thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis in cardiovascular disease, and the impact of antithrombotic therapy. Prospective studies are required to determine a role in predicting thrombotic risk. PMID:26942726

  12. International energy-promotion-activities

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  13. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter; Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Deinum, Johanna; Enghild, Jan Johannes; Declerck, Paul; Andreasen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous......-inactivating compounds of potential clinical importance....

  14. Anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic intervention strategies using atorvastatin, clopidogrel and knock-down of CD40L do not modify radiation-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE null mice

    Background and purpose: We previously showed that irradiating the carotid arteries of ApoE−/− mice accelerated the development of macrophage-rich, inflammatory and thrombotic atherosclerotic lesions. In this study we investigated the potential of anti-inflammatory (atorvastatin, CD40L knockout) and anti-thrombotic (clopidogrel) intervention strategies to inhibit radiation-induced atherosclerosis. Material and methods: ApoE−/− mice were given 0 or 14 Gy to the neck and the carotid arteries were harvested at 4 or 28 weeks after irradiation. Atorvastatin (15 mg/kg/day) or clopidogrel (20 mg/kg/day) was given in the chow; control groups received regular chow. Clopidogrel inhibited platelet aggregation by 50%. CD40L−/−/ApoE−/− and ApoE−/− littermates were also given 0 or 14 Gy to the neck and the carotid arteries were harvested after 30 weeks. Results: Clopidogrel decreased MCP-1 expression in the carotid artery at 4 weeks after irradiation. Expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, thrombomodulin, tissue factor and eNOS was unchanged in atorvastatin and clopidogrel-treated mice. Neither drug inhibited either age-related or radiation-induced atherosclerosis. Furthermore, loss of the inflammatory mediator CD40L did not influence the development of age-related and radiation-induced atherosclerosis. Conclusions: The effects of radiation-induced atherosclerosis could not be circumvented by these specific anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant therapies. This suggests that more effective drug combinations may be required to overcome the radiation stimulus, or that other underlying mechanistic pathways are involved compared to age-related atherosclerosis.

  15. Promotion marketing activities in universities

    Guseva I.B.; Ledentcova E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the need for promotion of educational services through such means of marketing communications as advertising and personal selling , able to satisfy user requests. The results of market research - questioning school graduates of Perm, which was carried out in order to create an effective advertising campaign to attract entrants. Experience can be used in the advertising campaign universities in Russia , in particular , Perm State National Research University.

  16. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation by a novel S-nitrosothiol is abolished by haemoglobin and red blood cells in vitro: implications for anti-thrombotic therapy

    Megson, Ian L; Sogo, Naoki; Mazzei, Francesca A; Butler, Anthony R.; Walton, John C; Webb, David J.

    2000-01-01

    S-Nitrosothiols are nitric oxide (NO) donor drugs that have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP) in vitro and to inhibit platelet activation in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the platelet effects of a novel S-nitrosated glyco-amino acid, RIG200, with an established S-nitrosothiol, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in PRP, and to investigate the effects of cell-free haemoglobin and red blood cells on S-nitrosothiol-mediated inhibition of platelet aggre...

  17. THE PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY IN THE TOURISTIC SECTOR

    Costel Iliuta Negricea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The promotion as one of the components of the marketing mix, laying stress, în this regard,on its role în the deployment of the tourism companies’ activity, the structure of the promotional activity în thetouristic sector as well as the use of the promotional strategies în the attainment of the development targets ofthe tourism companies.So, în the paper there have been mentioned the three levels at which it is made the touristic promotionîn Romania, respectively nationally, by the Ministry of the Tourism, under whose subordination it is theTourism National Authority, the second level is the regional/local one, concerning the activity carried out bythe Centers/Offices of Touristic Information from a series of localities, and the last level refers to the microone, respectively at the level of the tourism companies, which promote their offer individually (the most often.The important role of the promotion în the deployment of the activity of the tourism companies isbeing highlighted by the fact that this makes the connection between the activity of an organization and itscustomers (effective or potential, and, în the touristic field, the content of the promotional activity is stronglystressed by the features of this type of services and of the system of creation and delivery, as well as of thepurchasing behaviour.

  18. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-01-01

    An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  19. Public Relations as Promotional Activity

    Almira CURRI-MEMETI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  20. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s

  1. Promoting Physical Activity among Underserved Populations.

    Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Linke, Sarah; Muñoz, Mario; Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Cano, Mayra; Williams, Victoria; Marcus, Bess H; Larsen, Britta A

    2016-01-01

    Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions. Physical activity promotion research among these vulnerable populations is scarce. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence of efficacy in the use of certain recruitment and intervention strategies including tailoring, cultural adaptation, incorporation of new technologies, and multilevel and community-based approaches for physical activity promotion among different underserved populations. PMID:27399827

  2. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are supported by the Dutch government’s policy. Although many strategies have been developed to increase physical activity levels in general and in socially vulnerable groups in particular, most evaluations show o...

  3. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion

    Richards, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...

  4. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  5. Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae.

    Norhanom, A W; Yadav, M

    1995-04-01

    Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codiaeum variegatum (L) Bl, Euphorbia atoto and Exocoecaria agallocha, EBV-inducing activity was observed when the plant extracts were tested at low concentrations of between 0.2 and 1.2 micrograms ml-1 in cell culture. This observation warrants attention from the regular users of these plants because regular use of plants with tumour-promoting activity could well be an aetiological factor for the promotion of tumours among rural Malaysian Malays. PMID:7710943

  6. THE CONTROL AND EVALUATION OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Felicia Sabou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on importance and benefits of control and evaluation of marketing activities. The control of efficiency review the assessment of the resources for marketing activity, checking also the efficiency of the human resources, advertising, promotion activities and distribution activities. In the analyse of human resources the most important ratio are: the average of costumers visits on a day, the number of custom order received from 100 visits, the number of new customers from a period, the number of lost customers from a period, the marketing human expenditures from all the sales.The strategic control is made to check if the objectives and the company strategy are adapted to the marketing environment.

  7. Using evaluation strategically to promote active learning

    Münster, Marie

    Rationale: The challenge presented here is how to utilise evaluation to promote active learning. The method used is constructive alignment (Biggs & Tang, 2007) of learning objectives, learning and evaluation along with further considerations including which competences are promoted, the time...... for discussions and organising the course with group work allows for plenty of that. Furthermore, as group work is how many companies organise work today – the ability to cooperate well in groups is assessed to be an important competence for engineering students to achieve. The course is taught using...... the principle of inductive learning (Prince & Felder, 2006) with the students being presented with the case from the beginning and subsequently achieving the tools to perform the projects. This is both frustrating and motivating for the students as they know why they need to have the tools, but they feel...

  8. Estudo de segurança e eficácia da enoxaparina sódica na profilaxia e terapêutica antitrombótica Safety and efficacy of sodium enoxaparin in anti-thrombotic prophylaxis and treatment

    Silvia G Lage

    2007-03-01

    was to evaluate safety and efficacy of test sodium enoxaparin (ENOX-T compared to the reference drug (ENOX-R. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, comparative, unicentric and open-labeled trial including patients with either prophylactic or therapeutic anti-thrombotic indications. A total of 100 patients were enrolled in two branches: prophylactic (n=50 and therapeutic (n=50 and two groups for each branch (group 1: ENOX-R and group 2: ENOX-T. We analyzed clinical and laboratory data in each segment. Anti-factor Xa was measured in three different moments: baseline (1st evaluation; 1st or 2nd day (2nd evaluation and 5th to 7th day (3rd evaluation. Doppler-sonography of inferior limbs was performed on all patients in prophylactic group on 2nd or 3rd evaluation. RESULTS: The data showed that both branches (prophylactic and therapeutic were homogenous in regard of sex, age, body mass index (BMI, serum creatinine and APACHE II severity score at admission. Anti-factor Xa results, in both prophylactic and therapeutic branches, showed expected efficacy to both drugs, without any clinical or statistical difference between them. Adverse events incurred in both groups in a similar way, without any clinical or statistical difference between them. In prophylactic branch, Doppler-sonography of inferior limbs added useful information on drugs efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that test sodium enoxaparin (ENOX-T was effective and safe in our patient's cohort and equivalent to reference drug (ENOX-R.

  9. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  10. Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae.

    Norhanom, A W; Yadav, M

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codia...

  11. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  12. AGU Activities to Promote Undergraduate Research

    Grove, K.; Johnson, R.; Giesler, J.

    2001-05-01

    A primary goal of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) is to significantly increase the participation of undergraduate students at AGU meetings. Involving students in scientific meetings at this level of their education helps them to better prepare for graduate school and for a career in the geophysical sciences. Ongoing CEHR activities to promote undergraduate participation include: (1) sponsoring technical sessions to showcase undergraduate research; (2) sponsoring sessions about careers and other topics of special interest to students; (3) sponsoring workshops to inform faculty about doing research with undergraduates; (4) sponsoring meeting events to partner graduate student mentors with first-time undergraduate attendees; (5) working with sections to create situations where undergraduates and section scientists can interact; (6) creating a guide for first-time meeting attendees; (7) sponsoring an Academic Recruiting Forum at meetings to connect undergraduates with geophysical graduate programs; (8) running a Career Center at meetings to connect students and employers; (9) raising funds for more travel grants to provide more student support to attend meetings; (10) developing a listserve to inform AGU members about opportunities to do research with undergraduates and to involve more members in mentoring activities; and (11) collecting data, such as career outcomes and demographic characteristics of recent Ph.D. recipients, that are of interest to students.

  13. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Yunfei Li; Mingnuan Han; Pei Lin; Yanran He; Jie Yu; Ronghua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio,...

  14. 脑梗死发病前使用抗栓药物治疗对急性脑梗死后出血转化的影响分析%Analysis of the effects of anti thrombotic drugs before cerebral infarction in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    刘思维; 周立春; 贾伟华

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨脑梗死发病前使用抗栓药物治疗对急性脑梗死后出血转化的影响分析。方法回顾性分析神经内科2012年1月至2015年1月间住院的5967例急性脑梗死患者。收集所有患者入院时的基础资料、抗栓药物(溶栓、抗凝或抗血小板聚集药物)的使用情况以及 CT/ MRI 等影像学资料。按照入院后72 h 复查的影像学结果,将脑梗死发病出血转化的患者入组出血转化组,非出血转化的患者入组非出血转化组是按1:1入组,且患者的年龄、性别构成比均与出血转化组患者相匹配。比较两组患者发病前用药情况,比较两组患者入院前后美国国立卫生研究院卒中量表(NIHSS)评分、影像学监测到的脑梗死面积、糖尿病史、入院24 h 内的血压、心房颤动;采用多因素 Logistic 回归方法对差异有统计学意义的指标进行分析,确定脑梗死后出血转化的危险因素,并对比抗栓药物治疗对急性脑梗死后出血转化发生率的影响。结果本次研究选取5967例病例,符合标准共纳入728例。统计学分析显示两组患者脑梗死面积、NIHSS 评分、心房颤动、发病前抗栓药物治疗的差异有统计学意义,出血转化组患者发病前进行溶栓治疗以及使用抗凝药物的比率显明显高于非出血转化组( P <0.07)。结论脑梗死面积、NIHSS 评分、心房颤动比率、发病前抗栓药物治疗为急性脑梗死后出血转化的危险因素,其中发病前进行溶栓治疗、使用抗凝药物与急性脑梗死后出血转化密切相关,但与预后的远期影响关系有待进一步研究。%Objective To investigate the effect of anti - thrombotic drugs(anti - coagulation or anti - platelet aggregation drugs)on the bleeding and transformation of patients with acute cerebral infarction before the onset of cerebral infarction. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed in 5 967 patients

  15. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...

  16. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation

    Matthew J. D. Taylor, PhD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this current work is to review the growing area of activity-promoting gaming in the context of exercise, injury, and rehabilitatio

  17. Invariant distribution of promoter activities in Escherichia coli.

    Alon Zaslaver

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells need to allocate their limited resources to express a wide range of genes. To understand how Escherichia coli partitions its transcriptional resources between its different promoters, we employ a robotic assay using a comprehensive reporter strain library for E. coli to measure promoter activity on a genomic scale at high-temporal resolution and accuracy. This allows continuous tracking of promoter activity as cells change their growth rate from exponential to stationary phase in different media. We find a heavy-tailed distribution of promoter activities, with promoter activities spanning several orders of magnitude. While the shape of the distribution is almost completely independent of the growth conditions, the identity of the promoters expressed at different levels does depend on them. Translation machinery genes, however, keep the same relative expression levels in the distribution across conditions, and their fractional promoter activity tracks growth rate tightly. We present a simple optimization model for resource allocation which suggests that the observed invariant distributions might maximize growth rate. These invariant features of the distribution of promoter activities may suggest design constraints that shape the allocation of transcriptional resources.

  18. Cooperation between core promoter elements influences transcriptional activity in vivo.

    Colgan, J.; Manley, J L

    1995-01-01

    Core promoters for RNA polymerase II frequently contain either (or both) of two consensus sequence elements, a TATA box and/or an initiator (Inr). Using test promoters consisting of prototypical TATA and/or Inr elements, together with binding sites for sequence-specific activators, we have analyzed the function of TATA and Inr elements in vivo. In the absence of activators, the TATA element was significantly more active than the Inr, and the combination of elements was only slightly more effe...

  19. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation

    Matthew J. D. Taylor, PhD; Darren McCormick, BSc; Teshk Shawis, MBChB, FRCP; Rebecca Impson, MSc; Murray Griffin, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of t...

  20. Promoting Physical Activity in Primary Care: Overcoming the barriers

    Singer, Joel; Lindsay, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Douglas M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The principle barriers preventing health care professionals from promoting physical activity include an incomplete understanding of the evidence linking physical activity and health, difficulty in translating research findings into a feasible and efficacious clinical intervention, resistance to adopting a preventive orientation, and concerns about the risks of physical activity. Low level activities likely provide benefit with little risk.

  1. Coevolution of teaching activity promotes cooperation

    Evolutionary games are studied where the teaching activity of players can evolve in time. Initially all players following either the cooperative or defecting strategy are distributed on a square lattice. The rate of strategy adoption is determined by the payoff difference and a teaching activity characterizing the donor's capability to enforce its strategy on the opponent. Each successful strategy adoption process is accompanied by an increase in the donor's teaching activity. By applying an optimum value of the increment, this simple mechanism spontaneously creates relevant inhomogeneities in the teaching activities that support the maintenance of cooperation for both the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game

  2. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  3. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    Emerson Sebastião; Andiara Schwingel; Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko

    2014-01-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

  4. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  5. Improving health through policies that promote active travel

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M;

    2011-01-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding...

  6. Coevolution of teaching activity promotes cooperation

    Szolnoki, Attila [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Perc, Matjaz [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Koroska cesta 160, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia)], E-mail: szolnoki@mfa.kfki.hu, E-mail: matjaz.perc@uni-mb.si

    2008-04-15

    Evolutionary games are studied where the teaching activity of players can evolve in time. Initially all players following either the cooperative or defecting strategy are distributed on a square lattice. The rate of strategy adoption is determined by the payoff difference and a teaching activity characterizing the donor's capability to enforce its strategy on the opponent. Each successful strategy adoption process is accompanied by an increase in the donor's teaching activity. By applying an optimum value of the increment, this simple mechanism spontaneously creates relevant inhomogeneities in the teaching activities that support the maintenance of cooperation for both the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game.

  7. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  8. Can musical activities promote healthy ageing?

    Park, A-La

    2015-01-01

    Background: As most of the baby boomer generation have now reached retirement age, there are increasing demands for long-term care services. Depression and psychological distress can be highly prevalent at advanced ages. Regardless of chronological age, it is important to have a decent quality of life as a human being by improving resilience. The present study aims to briefly look at the current evidence on the effects of musical activities on quality of life in older adults. Methods: A liter...

  9. Development of transcriptional fusions to assess Leptospira interrogans promoter activity.

    Gustavo M Cerqueira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA and Sphingomyelinase 2 (sph2 promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa.

  10. Regulation of ALF promoter activity in Xenopus oocytes.

    Dan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this report we evaluate the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes as a matched germ cell system for characterizing the organization and transcriptional activity of a germ cell-specific X. laevis promoter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The promoter from the ALF transcription factor gene was cloned from X. laevis genomic DNA using a PCR-based genomic walking approach. The endogenous ALF gene was characterized by RACE and RT-PCR for transcription start site usage, and by sodium bisulfite sequencing to determine its methylation status in somatic and oocyte tissues. Homology between the X. laevis ALF promoter sequence and those from human, chimpanzee, macaque, mouse, rat, cow, pig, horse, dog, chicken and X. tropicalis was relatively low, making it difficult to use such comparisons to identify putative regulatory elements. However, microinjected promoter constructs were very active in oocytes and the minimal promoter could be narrowed by PCR-mediated deletion to a region as short as 63 base pairs. Additional experiments using a series of site-specific promoter mutants identified two cis-elements within the 63 base pair minimal promoter that were critical for activity. Both elements (A and B were specifically recognized by proteins present in crude oocyte extracts based on oligonucleotide competition assays. The activity of promoter constructs in oocytes and in transfected somatic Xenopus XLK-WG kidney epithelial cells was quite different, indicating that the two cell types are not functionally equivalent and are not interchangeable as assay systems. CONCLUSIONS: Overall the results provide the first detailed characterization of the organization of a germ cell-specific Xenopus promoter and demonstrate the feasibility of using immature frog oocytes as an assay system for dissecting the biochemistry of germ cell gene regulation.

  11. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  12. Archaeal promoter architecture and mechanism of gene activation.

    Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2011-01-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus islandicus contain several genes exhibiting D-arabinose-inducible expression and these systems are ideal for studying mechanisms of archaeal gene expression. At sequence level, only two highly conserved cis elements are present on the promoters: a regulatory element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked mechanisms include TFB (transcription factor B) recruitment by the ara-box-binding factor to activate gene expression and modulation of TFB recruitment efficiency to yield differential gene expression. PMID:21265754

  13. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  14. Promotion as a Tool in Sustaining the Destination Marketing Activities

    Ivo Mulec

    2010-01-01

    Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential c...

  15. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    Satish Patel; Vikas Sharma; Nagendra Chauhan; Mayank Thakur; Vinod Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri ) extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like...

  16. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Yunfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP. Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00% than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%. However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression.

  17. Commercial activities and the promotion of health in schools.

    Raine, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Many companies nowadays consider schools to be an important setting for marketing to children. However, important concerns can be raised from a health promotion perspective about the potential negative impact of commercial activities on the health and well-being of pupils. As this discussion paper will demonstrate, some commercial activities raise concerns in relation to physical health and obesity, not only by potentially undermining formal curriculum messages, but also through the active promotion of specific products, particularly those high in fat, sugar or salt. Nonetheless, the issues raised by commercial activities are not solely limited to effects on physical health. By allowing commercial activities, schools risk instilling in pupils consumer-orientated values. This is significant as such values have been linked to the development of poor health and well-being. Furthermore, the presence in schools of commercial activities will also militate against informed decision-making and be disempowering. There is also evidence that business-sponsored teaching materials can contain biased and misleading information. The potential negative impacts of commercial activities are inconsistent with goals in relation to the promotion of health and the principles of health-promoting schools. PMID:23135869

  18. IGFBP-2 enhances VEGF gene promoter activity and consequent promotion of angiogenesis by neuroblastoma cells.

    Azar, Walid J; Azar, Sheena H X; Higgins, Sandra; Hu, Ji-Fan; Hoffman, Andrew R; Newgreen, Donald F; Werther, George A; Russo, Vincenzo C

    2011-09-01

    IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 is one of the most significant genes in the signature of major aggressive cancers. Previously, we have shown that IGFBP-2 enhances proliferation and invasion of neuroblastoma cells, suggesting that IGFBP-2 activates a protumorigenic gene expression program in these cells. Gene expression profiling in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SHEP (SHEP)-BP-2 cells indicated that IGFBP-2 overexpression activated a gene expression program consistent with enhancement of tumorigenesis. Regulation was significant for genes involved in proliferation/survival, migration/adhesion, and angiogenesis, including the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA (>2-fold). Specific transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene by IGFBP-2 overexpression was demonstrated via cotransfection of a VEGF promoter Luciferase construct in SHEP-BP-2. Cotransfection of VEGF promoter Luciferase construct with IGFBP-2 protein in wild-type SHEP cells indicated that transactivation of VEGF promoter only occurs in the presence of intracellular IGFBP-2. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence in SHEP-BP-2 cells demonstrated nuclear localization of IGFBP-2. These findings suggest that transcriptional activation of VEGF promoter is likely to be mediated by nuclear IGFBP-2. The levels of secreted VEGF (up to 400 pg/10(6) cells) suggested that VEGF might elicit angiogenic activity. Hence, SHEP-BP-2 cells and control clones cultured in collagen sponge were xenografted onto chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Neomicrovascularization was observed by 72 h, solely in the SHEP-BP-2 cell xenografts. In conclusion, our data indicate that IGFBP-2 is an activator of aggressive behavior in cancer cells, involving nuclear entry and activation of a protumorigenic gene expression program, including transcriptional regulation of the VEGF gene and consequent proangiogenic activity of NB cell xenografts in vivo. PMID:21750048

  19. Regularities in the E.coli promoters composition in connection with the DNA strands interaction and promoter activity

    BEREZHNOY Andrey Yu; SHCKORBATOV Yuriy G.; HISANORI Kiryu

    2006-01-01

    The energy of interaction between DNA strands in promoters is of great functional importance. Visualization of the energy of DNA strands distribution in promoter sequences was achieved. The separation of promoters in groups by their energetic properties enables evaluation of the dependence of promoter strength on the energetic properties. The analysis of groups (clusters)of promoters distributed by the energy of DNA strands interaction in -55, -35, -10 and +6 sequences indicates their connection with the transcriptional activity.

  20. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter

    Simran Bhullar; Suma Chakravarthy; Deepak Pental; Pradeep Kumar Burma

    2009-12-01

    Variations in transgene expression due to position effect and copy number are normalized when analysing and comparing the strengths of different promoters. In such experiments, the promoter to be tested is placed upstream to a reporter gene and a second expression cassette is introduced in a linked fashion in the same transfer DNA (T-DNA). Normalization in the activity of the test promoter is carried out by calculating the ratio of activities of the test and reference promoters. When an appropriate number of independent transgenic events are analysed, normalization facilitates assessment of the relative strengths of the test promoters being compared. In this study, using different modified versions of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter expressing the reporter gene -glucuronidase (gus) (test cassette) linked to a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene under the wild-type 35S promoter (reference cassette) in transgenic tobacco lines, we observed that cat gene expression varied depending upon the strength of the modified 35S promoter expressing the gus gene. The 35S promoter in the reference cassette was found to have been upregulated in cases where the modified 35S promoter was weaker than the wild-type 35S promoter. Many studies have been carried out in different organisms to study the phenomenon of transcriptional interference, which refers to the reduced expression of the downstream promoter by a closely linked upstream promoter. However, we observed a positive interaction wherein the weakened activity of a promoter led to upregulation of a contiguous promoter. These observations suggest that, in situations where the promoters of the test and reference gene share the same transcription factors, the activity of the test promoter can influence the activity of the reference promoter in a way that the test promoter’s strength is underestimated when normalized by the reference promoter.

  1. It Takes a Virtual Community: Promoting Collaboration through Student Activities

    Battista, Ludmila; Forrey, Carol; Stevenson, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Distance education provides many nontraditional students with the opportunity to pursue a college education not possible through traditional brick and mortar education. Although not meeting face-to-face, student activities help promote a stronger connection between the classroom and university community. This paper will discuss strategies for…

  2. Promoting Educational Equity through School Libraries: Equity Activity Book.

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    The activities suggested in this workbook for participants in a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists are designed to develop the trainee's skills in identifying instances of sexism and sex stereotyping in education, and in promoting sex fairness in the library. Exercises and tests on the first module are concerned…

  3. Internet as a Medium of Pharmaceutical Companies Promotional Activities

    Darko Pantelic

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals market is highly regulated, and it can be stated that prescription (legal or ethical) drugs have a status of substances in controlled circulation. Promotional activities are also under strict legislation, further burdened with ethical consideration and public scrutiny. Internet as liberal and hard to control medium brings entirely new sets of solutions and/or problems to pharmaceuticals market(ers).

  4. How do general practitioners in Denmark promote physical activity?

    Jørgensen, Tanja K; Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the frequency of advice given on type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise during physical activity (PA) promoting sessions by general practitioners. Second, to find GP characteristics associated with high quality of PA counselling....

  5. Health Promotion Guidance Activity of Youth Sports Clubs

    Kokko, Sami; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ormshaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the extent to which youth sports clubs guide their coaches to recognise health promotion as a part of the coaching practice. The guidance activity of clubs is seen parallel to internal organisational communication. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 93 (from 120, 78 per cent) youth sports clubs in Finland…

  6. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  7. cis Determinants of Promoter Threshold and Activation Timescale

    Anders S. Hansen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the relationship between DNA cis-regulatory sequences and gene expression has been extensively studied at steady state, how cis-regulatory sequences affect the dynamics of gene induction is not known. The dynamics of gene induction can be described by the promoter activation timescale (AcTime and amplitude threshold (AmpThr. Combining high-throughput microfluidics with quantitative time-lapse microscopy, we control the activation dynamics of the budding yeast transcription factor, Msn2, and reveal how cis-regulatory motifs in 20 promoter variants of the Msn2-target-gene SIP18 affect AcTime and AmpThr. By modulating Msn2 binding sites, we can decouple AmpThr from AcTime and switch the SIP18 promoter class from high AmpThr and slow AcTime to low AmpThr and either fast or slow AcTime. We present a model that quantitatively explains gene-induction dynamics on the basis of the Msn2-binding-site number, TATA box location, and promoter nucleosome organization. Overall, we elucidate the cis-regulatory logic underlying promoter decoding of TF dynamics.

  8. Creative professional activity: an additional platform for promotion of faculty.

    Levinson, Wendy; Rothman, Arthur I; Phillipson, Eliot

    2006-06-01

    Academic promotion has traditionally been based on research and teaching, but faculty members' contributions to the profession may not be fully captured in those dimensions. Faculty members may influence the practice of medicine and improve the care of patients yet not obtain traditional measures of achievement through publications, grants, or teaching awards. With this problem in mind, at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, the promotions committee developed and implemented a promotions criterion called Creative Professional Activity (CPA) to recognize and reward a variety of types of academic endeavors that have a demonstrable impact on medical practice and care. CPA comprises three activities: professional innovation, exemplary practice, and contributions to the development of the discipline. In this article, the authors define CPA, provide illustrative case examples, describe how faculty members document CPA, and report the use of this promotions criterion in the Department of Medicine over the last decade. The challenges of implementing CPA as a promotion criterion are described. CPA is consistent with the Department of Medicine's goal of achieving excellence through original research, education, or creative work that advances the care of patients. PMID:16728810

  9. Invariant distribution of promoter activities in Escherichia coli.

    Alon Zaslaver; Shai Kaplan; Anat Bren; Adrian Jinich; Avi Mayo; Erez Dekel; Uri Alon; Shalev Itzkovitz

    2009-01-01

    Author Summary Cells respond to a changing environment by regulating the activity of genes. Here, we sought to understand how E. coli cells distribute their limited transcriptional resources among their target genes, and how this allocation varies with growth rate and growth conditions. To achieve this, we assayed the expression of a comprehensive library of transcriptional reporter strains under different conditions. High-temporal resolution measurements of promoter activities were obtained ...

  10. Propionate induces the bovine cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter activity.

    Zhang, Qian; Koser, Stephanie L; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-08-01

    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) is a critical enzyme within the metabolic networks for gluconeogenesis, hepatic energy metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle function, and is controlled by several transcription factors including hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether propionate regulates bovine PCK1 transcription. The second objective was to determine the action of cyclic AMP (cAMP), glucocorticoids, and insulin, hormonal cues known to modulate glucose metabolism, on bovine PCK1 transcriptional activity. The proximal promoter of the bovine PCK1 gene was ligated to a Firefly luciferase reporter and transfected into H4IIE hepatoma cells. Cells were exposed to treatments for 23 h and luciferase activity was determined in cell lysates. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was linearly induced by propionate, and maximally increased 7-fold with 2.5 mM propionate, which was not muted by 100 nM insulin. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was increased 1-fold by either 1.0 mM cAMP or 5.0µM dexamethasone, and 2.2-fold by their combination. Induction by cAMP and dexamethasone was repressed 50% by 100 nM insulin. Propionate, cAMP, and dexamethasone acted synergistically to induce the PCK1 promoter activity. Propionate-responsive regions, identified by 5' deletion analysis, were located between -1,238 and -409 bp and between -85 and +221 bp. Deletions of the core sequences of the 2 putative HNF4α sites decreased the responsiveness to propionate by approximately 40%. These data indicate that propionate regulates its own metabolism through transcriptional stimulation of the bovine PCK1 gene. This induction is mediated, in part, by the 2 putative HNF4α binding sites in the bovine PCK1 promoter. PMID:27289145

  11. Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression

    HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression

  12. Promotion as a Tool in Sustaining the Destination Marketing Activities

    Ivo Mulec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential clients in the right way will a destination maximize the effectiveness of its marketing and promotion. Tourism destination marketers will continue to face considerable challenges in the future: they will have to take account of the needs, wants and expectations of more mature and knowledgeable customers, and the corresponding need for more up-to-date and reliable information upon which to base decision-making. In the future only marketing which includes collaborative dimensions will meet its objectives fully.

  13. Promoting Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity in Overweight Minority Girls

    Norma Olvera; Marilynn Graham; Jessica McLeod; Kellam, Stephanie F.; Butte, Nancy F

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting MVPA in children. Purpose. To assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. Methods. Sample consisted of 31 overweight (BMI≥85th percentile) Latina and African-American girls (mean age 10.3±1.2 years). Participants wore an Actical accelerometer each day for 8 hours for 15 days to assess engagement in MVPA during their participation in a three-week activity inte...

  14. Promoting Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity in Overweight Minority Girls

    Olvera, Norma; Graham, Marilynn; McLeod, Jessica; Kellam, Stephanie F.; Butte, Nancy F

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting MVPA in children. Purpose. To assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. Methods. Sample consisted of 31 overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) Latina and African-American girls (mean age 10.3 ± 1.2 years). Participants wore an Actical accelerometer each day for 8 hours for 15 days to assess engagement in MVPA during their participation in a three-week activity intervention t...

  15. Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity

    Luoma Pauli V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. Results Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival. Cytochrome P450-enzymes, physiological factors in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis, generate oxysterols for the elimination of surplus cholesterol. Hepatic CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α is an important regulator of plasma HDL-C level. Gene-activators produce plasma lipoprotein profile, high HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, which is typical of low risk of atherosclerotic disease, and also of exceptional longevity together with reduced prevalence of cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases. High HDL contributes to protection against inflammation, oxidation and thrombosis, and associates with good cognitive function in very old people. Avoiding unhealthy stress and managing it properly promotes health and increases life expectancy. Conclusions Healthy living habits and gene-activating xenobiotics upregulate mechanisms that produce lipoprotein pattern typical of very old people and enhance longevity. Lipoprotein metabolism and large HDL2 associate with the process of living a very long life. Major future goals for health promotion are the improving of commitment to both wise lifestyle choices and drug therapy, and further the developing of new and more effective and well tolerated drugs and treatments.

  16. Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis lactose operon promoter: contribution of flanking sequences and LacR repressor to promoter activity.

    van Rooijen, R J; Gasson, M. J.; de Vos, W M

    1992-01-01

    We determined the location, activity, and regulation of the promoter of the Lactococcus lactis 8-kb lactose operon (lacABCDFEGX), which encodes the enzymes of the lactose phosphotransferase system and the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway. The lac promoter sequence corresponds closely to the consensus promoter described for gram-positive bacteria and is located in a back-to-back configuration with the promoter of the divergently transcribed lacR gene, which encodes the LacR repressor. The transcri...

  17. Physical activity and health promotion in Italian university students

    Adele Anna Teleman; Chiara de Waure; Valentina Soffiani; Andrea Poscia; Maria Luisa Di Pietro

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in...

  18. National and international activities for the promotion of superconductivity technology

    Superconductivity has become a priority item of technology promotion schemes in many countries in the wake of the discovery of superconductivity and in response to the excellent market potentials expected. The paper summarizes the ongoing activities in this domain of R+D in Germany and in the leading, competing countries, U.S.A. and Japan, showing the various approaches and means available. (orig.)

  19. Archaeal promoter architecture and mechanism of gene activation

    Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang;

    2011-01-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus islandicus contain several genes exhibiting D-arabinose-inducible expression and these systems are ideal for studying mechanisms of archaeal gene expression. At sequence level, only two highly conserved cis elements are present on the promoters: a regulatory...... mechanisms include TFB (transcription factor B) recruitment by the ara-box-binding factor to activate gene expression and modulation of TFB recruitment efficiency to yield differential gene expression....

  20. Physical activity in health promotion: a evaluation of the guidelines

    Dartel Ferrari de Lima; Olinda do Carmo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes health benefits over time. Numerous organizations produce guidelines to guide public administrators, health professionals and the public in general to the practice of PA. However, even though in general terms guidelines follow the same goals, nuances in guidelines communication may cause discrepancies in understanding the messages. The objective of this essay was to describe and compare PA guidelines, highlighting differences and similarities and identi...

  1. Isolation and characterization of active promoters from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 using a promoter-trapping plasmid.

    Schwab, Stefan; Pessoa, Cristiane Alves; de Lima Bergami, Amanda Aparecida; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Nathália Lima; Dos Santos Teixeira, Kátia Regina; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-07-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacterium that has the potential to promote plant growth and increase yield. Genetically modified strains might get more benefits to host plants, including through expression of useful proteins, such as Cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, or enzymes involved in phytohormone production, proteins with antagonistic activity for phytopathogens, or that improve nutrient utilization by the plant. For that, expression systems for G. diazotrophicus are needed, which requires active promoters fused to foreign (or innate) genes. This article describes the construction of a G. diazotrophicus PAL5 promoter library using a promoter-less lacZ-bearing vector, and the identification of six active promoters through β-galactosidase activity assays, sequencing and localization in the bacterial genome. The characterized promoters, which are located on distinct regions of the bacterial genome and encoding either sense or antisense transcripts, present variable expression strengths and might be used in the future for expressing useful proteins. PMID:26914247

  2. Hypothermia activates adipose tissue to promote malignant lung cancer progression.

    Gangjun Du

    Full Text Available Microenvironment has been increasingly recognized as a critical regulator of cancer progression. In this study, we identified early changes in the microenvironment that contribute to malignant progression. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to methylnitrosourea (MNU caused a reduction in cell toxicity and an increase in clonogenic capacity when the temperature was lowered from 37°C to 28°C. Hypothermia-incubated adipocyte media promoted proliferation in A549 cells. Although a hypothermic environment could increase urethane-induced tumor counts and Lewis lung cancer (LLC metastasis in lungs of three breeds of mice, an increase in tumor size could be discerned only in obese mice housed in hypothermia. Similarly, coinjections using differentiated adipocytes and A549 cells promoted tumor development in athymic nude mice when adipocytes were cultured at 28°C. Conversely, fat removal suppressed tumor growth in obese C57BL/6 mice inoculated with LLC cells. Further studies show hypothermia promotes a MNU-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and protects the tumor cell against immune control by TGF-β1 upregulation. We also found that activated adipocytes trigger tumor cell proliferation by increasing either TNF-α or VEGF levels. These results suggest that hypothermia activates adipocytes to stimulate tumor boost and play critical determinant roles in malignant progression.

  3. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  4. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    Satish Patel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like follicular density,  anagen/telogen (A/T ratio and histological observation of animal skin sections. Finasteride solution was applied topically as standard. In vitro experiments were also performed to study the effect of extract on the activity of 5α-reductase enzyme Results: Groups treated with petroleum ether extract of plant showed hair re-growth as reflected by follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. Histopathology and morphologic observations of hair re-growth at shaved sites showed active follicular proliferation. In vitro experiments results showed inhibitory activity of petroleum  ether extract on type-2 5α-reductase enzyme and an increase in the amount of testosterone with increasing concentrations.  Conclusion: It could be concluded that petroleum ether extracts of P. niruri might be useful in the treatment of testosterone-induced alopecia in the experimental animal by inhibiting 5α-reductase enzyme.

  5. Promotion

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed.

  6. Glycine Receptor α2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration

    Ariel Avila

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis.

  7. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes profibrotic activation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role in intestinal wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a cell wall component of commensal gut bacteria. The effects of LPS on intestinal fibroblast activation were characterized. METHODS: Expression of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, was assessed in cultured primary human intestinal fibroblasts using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS and\\/or transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway activation was assessed by inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and NFkappaB promoter activity. Fibroblast contractility was measured using a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Smad-7, a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression were assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The NFkappaB pathway was inhibited by IkappaBalpha transfection. RESULTS: TLR-4 was present on the surface of intestinal fibroblasts. LPS treatment of fibroblasts induced IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NFkappaB promoter activity and increased collagen contraction. Pretreatment with LPS (before TGF-beta1) significantly increased CTGF production relative to treatment with TGF-beta1 alone. LPS reduced whereas TGF-beta1 increased smad-7 expression. Transfection with an IkappaBalpha plasmid enhanced basal smad-7 expression. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fibroblasts express TLR-4 and respond to LPS by activating NFkappaB and inducing collagen contraction. LPS acts in concert with TGF-beta1 to induce CTGF. LPS reduces the expression of the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, smad-7.

  8. CRP interacts with promoter-bound sigma54 RNA polymerase and blocks transcriptional activation of the dctA promoter.

    Y. P. Wang; Kolb, A; M. Buck; Wen, J.; O'Gara, F.; Buc, H

    1998-01-01

    The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is an activator of sigma70-dependent transcription. Analysis of the sigma54-dependent dctA promoter reveals a novel negative regulatory function for CRP. CRP can bind to two distant sites of the dctA promoter, sites which overlap the upstream activator sequences for the DctD activator. CRP interacts with Esigma54 bound at the dctA promoter via DNA loop formation. When the CRP-binding sites are deleted, CRP still interacts in a cAMP-dependent manner with the sta...

  9. Active Fantasy Sports: Rationale and Feasibility of Leveraging Online Fantasy Sports to Promote Physical Activity

    Majewski, Sara; Standish, Melanie; Agarwal, Pooja; Podowski, Aleksandra; Carson, Rebecca; Eyesus, Biruk; Shah, Aakash; Schneider, Kristin L

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of active video games (AVGs) has skyrocketed over the last decade. However, research suggests that the most popular AVGs, which rely on synchronous integration between players’ activity and game features, fail to promote physical activity outside of the game or for extended periods of engagement. This limitation has led researchers to consider AVGs that involve asynchronous integration of players’ ongoing physical activity with game features. Rather than build an AVG de novo, we selected an established sedentary video game uniquely well suited for the incorporation of asynchronous activity: online fantasy sports. Objective The primary aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a new asynchronous AVG—active fantasy sports—designed to promote physical activity. Methods We conducted two pilot studies of an active fantasy sports game designed to promote physical activity. Participants wore a low cost triaxial accelerometer and participated in an online fantasy baseball (Study 1, n=9, 13-weeks) or fantasy basketball (Study 2, n=10, 17-weeks) league. Privileges within the game were made contingent on meeting weekly physical activity goals (eg, averaging 10,000 steps/day). Results Across the two studies, the feasibility of integrating physical activity contingent features and privileges into online fantasy sports games was supported. Participants found the active fantasy sports game enjoyable, as or more enjoyable than traditional (sedentary) online fantasy sports (Study 1: t 8=4.43, P<.01; Study 2: t 9=2.09, P=.07). Participants in Study 1 increased their average steps/day, t 8=2.63, P<.05, while participants in Study 2 maintained (ie, did not change) their activity, t 9=1.57, P=.15). In postassessment interviews, social support within the game was cited as a key motivating factor for increasing physical activity. Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports potential for the active fantasy sports system as a sustainable and

  10. Selective modulation of promoter recruitment and transcriptional activity of PPARγ

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor regulated by the insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones (TZDs). We studied selective modulation of endogenous genes by PPARγ ligands using microarray, RNA expression kinetics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found over 300 genes that were significantly regulated the TZDs pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and troglitazone. TZD-mediated expression profiles were unique but overlapping. Ninety-one genes were commonly regulated by all three ligands. TZD time course and dose-response studies revealed gene- and TZD-specific expression kinetics. PEPCK expression was induced rapidly but PDK4 expression was induced gradually. Troglitazone EC50 values for PEPCK, PDK4, and RGS2 regulation were greater than those for pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. TZDs differentially induced histone acetylation of and PPARγ recruitment to target gene promoters. Selective modulation of PPARγ by TZDs resulted in distinct expression profiles and transcription kinetics which may be due to differential promoter activation and chromatin remodeling of target genes

  11. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    Mariagiovanna Caprara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  12. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and...

  13. Physical activity and health promotion in Italian university students

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. DISCUSSION: The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. CONCLUSION: The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.

  14. Promoting Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity in Overweight Minority Girls

    Norma Olvera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting MVPA in children. Purpose. To assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. Methods. Sample consisted of 31 overweight (BMI≥85th percentile Latina and African-American girls (mean age 10.3±1.2 years. Participants wore an Actical accelerometer each day for 8 hours for 15 days to assess engagement in MVPA during their participation in a three-week activity intervention that included traditional fitness, sport skills, games, dancing, and flexibility sessions. Results. On average 62% of participants met the MVPA recommended guidelines (60 min/5d/wk with an average of 68.5±14 minutes of MVPA across the three weeks. Traditional fitness sessions elicited the highest percent of MVPA (mean time spent in MVPA=32%, followed by dancing and games (mean time spent in MVPA=21%, sports skills (mean time spent in MVPA=18%, and flexibility (mean time spent in MVPA=7%. Step aerobics and rumba fitness elicited the highest proportions of MVPA. Conclusion. Traditional fitness activities were identified as the most successful in eliciting MVPA in overweight Latina and African American girls.

  15. Activating STAT3 Alpha for Promoting Healing of Neurons

    Conway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.

  16. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M.;

    2012-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation of...... methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells...... were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET in...

  17. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  18. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  19. Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus.

    Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses. PMID:27114068

  20. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert (co-PI); and Patricia A. Sobecky

    2007-04-19

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO4 3- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 μM dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  1. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium U(VI) phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO43- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 (micro)M dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  2. Nuclear pore protein NUP88 activates anaphase-promoting complex to promote aneuploidy.

    Naylor, Ryan M; Jeganathan, Karthik B; Cao, Xiuqi; van Deursen, Jan M

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear pore complex protein NUP88 is frequently elevated in aggressive human cancers and correlates with reduced patient survival; however, it is unclear whether and how NUP88 overexpression drives tumorigenesis. Here, we show that mice overexpressing NUP88 are cancer prone and form intestinal tumors. To determine whether overexpression of NUP88 drives tumorigenesis, we engineered transgenic mice with doxycycline-inducible expression of Nup88. Surprisingly, NUP88 overexpression did not alter global nuclear transport, but was a potent inducer of aneuploidy and chromosomal instability. We determined that NUP88 and the nuclear transport factors NUP98 and RAE1 comprise a regulatory network that inhibits premitotic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). When overexpressed, NUP88 sequesters NUP98-RAE1 away from APC/CCDH1, triggering proteolysis of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a tumor suppressor and multitasking mitotic kinase. Premitotic destruction of PLK1 disrupts centrosome separation, causing mitotic spindle asymmetry, merotelic microtubule-kinetochore attachments, lagging chromosomes, and aneuploidy. These effects were replicated by PLK1 insufficiency, indicating that PLK1 is responsible for the mitotic defects associated with NUP88 overexpression. These findings demonstrate that the NUP88-NUP98-RAE1-APC/CCDH1 axis contributes to aneuploidy and suggest that it may be deregulated in the initiating stages of a broad spectrum of human cancers. PMID:26731471

  3. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  4. A benzoate-activated promoter from Aspergillus niger and regulation of its activity.

    Antunes, Mauricio S; Hodges, Thomas K; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2016-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is able to use benzoic acid as a sole carbon source by conversion to protocatechuic acid and subsequent metabolism. Synthesis of the first enzyme in this metabolic pathway, benzoate p-hydroxylase, is encoded by the bphA gene and positively regulated at the transcriptional level by benzoic acid. Methyl benzoate and para-aminobenzoate also act as inducers of the bphA gene. We show that bphA expression in A. niger in response to benzoate is confined to a 530-bp fragment from the bphA promoter region from -787 to -509 bp from the transcriptional start site. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays show that a benzoate-response element, consisting of a single 6-bp sequence (5'-TAGTCA-3') within a 51-bp sequence in this region, is most likely to be involved in binding of one or more proteins that modulate the activity of the promoter in response to benzoic acid. We show through fusion of promoter fragments with the green fluorescent protein that the active sequences are located within a 200-bp sequence containing the TAGTCA benzoate-response element. Identification of the benzoate-response element in the bphA promoter region constitutes the first step in the development of a benzoate-inducible promoter system that could be used to control gene expression in fungi, and possibly in other organisms, such as plant and animal cells. PMID:26907094

  5. Molecular mechanism by which AMP-activated protein kinase activation promotes glycogen accumulation in muscle

    Hunter, Roger W; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE During energy stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) promotes glucose transport and glycolysis for ATP production, while it is thought to inhibit anabolic glycogen synthesis by suppressing the activity of glycogen synthase (GS) to maintain the energy balance in muscle. Paradoxically...... transgenic mice overexpressing a kinase dead (KD) AMPK were incubated with glucose tracers and the AMPK-activating compound 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) ex vivo. GS activity and glucose uptake and utilization (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) were assessed. RESULTS Even though...

  6. Usage of Sales Promotion in the Tourism Activity

    Bunghez Corina Larisa

    2014-01-01

    The article describes marketing techniques, analyzing in detail the promotion of sales and in particular group sales, price discounts and merchandising, which have not received detailed analyses in terms of applicability and effects in the field of tourism. Due to the immateriality of tourist products, the promotion hereof is rather difficult to achieve, irrespective of the manner one may choose. Each category of promotion techniques uses specific means and methods of action. Publicity helps ...

  7. Photodynamic activation as a molecular switch to promote osteoblast cell differentiation via AP-1 activation.

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Tu, Yupeng; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), cells are impregnated with a photosensitizing agent that is activated by light irradiation, thereby photochemically generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amounts of ROS produced depends on the PDT dose and the nature of the photosensitizer. Although high levels of ROS are cytotoxic, at physiological levels they play a key role as second messengers in cellular signaling pathways, pluripotency, and differentiation of stem cells. To investigate further the use of photochemically triggered manipulation of such pathways, we exposed mouse osteoblast precursor cells and rat primary mesenchymal stromal cells to low-dose PDT. Our results demonstrate that low-dose PDT can promote osteoblast differentiation via the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Although PDT has been used primarily as an anti-cancer therapy, the use of light as a photochemical "molecular switch" to promote differentiation should expand the utility of this method in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:26279470

  8. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    Anna-Karin Lindqvist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  9. Combining Health Promotion Classroom Lessons with Health Fair Activities

    Cooper, Leslie; Eliason, Kathy; True, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the important role of the school nurse in promoting healthy lifestyle choices through networking, resource identification, and working with community partners. "Everyone Is Healthy at Northeast" was a health promotion program designed and presented in two ways: classroom lessons and a health fair. There were interactive…

  10. 78 FR 24393 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Promoting Student Success in Algebra I...

    2013-04-25

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Promoting Student Success in Algebra I Project... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Promoting Student Success in Algebra I... Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 208. Abstract: The Promoting Student Success in Algebra I...

  11. Enhanced activity of the bacteriophage lambda PL promoter at low temperature.

    Giladi, H; Goldenberg, D; Koby, S; Oppenheim, A B

    1995-01-01

    The response of the early phage lambda PL promoter to temperature was investigated. Experiments with lacZ reporter gene fusions demonstrated that the activity of the phage lambda PL promoter is inversely dependent on temperature. The bacterial DNA-binding protein integration host factor (IHF) further enhances lambda PL promoter activity at low temperature, although no apparent changes in the cellular level of IHF protein were observed at the different temperatures. IHF protein binds DNA in vi...

  12. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters.

    Zheng, Xuelian; Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Duan, Hui; Chen, Yongqin; McAvoy, Richard; Song, Shuiqing; Pei, Yan; Li, Yi

    2007-08-01

    Here we report the effect of the 35S promoter sequence on activities of the tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters in tobacco plants. In the absence of the 35S promoter sequence the AAP2 promoter is active only in vascular tissues as indicated by expression of the AAP2:GUS gene. With the 35S promoter sequence in the same T-plasmid, transgenic plants exhibit twofold to fivefold increase in AAP2 promoter activity and the promoter becomes active in all tissue types. Transgenic plants hosting the ovary-specific AGL5:iaaM gene (iaaM coding an auxin biosynthetic gene) showed a wild-type phenotype except production of seedless fruits, whereas plants hosting the AGL5:iaaM gene along with the 35S promoter sequence showed drastic morphological alterations. RT-PCR analysis confirms that the phenotype was caused by activation of the AGL5:iaaM gene in non-ovary organs including roots, stems and flowers. When the pollen-, ovule- and early embryo-specific PAB5:barnase gene (barnase coding a RNase gene) was transformed, the presence of 35S promoter sequence drastically reduced transformation efficiencies. However, the transformation efficiencies were restored in the absence of 35S promoter, indicating that the 35S promoter might activate the expression of PAB5:barnase in non-reproductive organs such as calli and shoot primordia. Furthermore, if the 35S promoter sequence was replaced with the NOS promoter sequence, no alteration in AAP2, AGL5 or PAB5 promoter activities was observed. Our results demonstrate that the 35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. PMID:17340093

  13. The Role of Physical Educators in Helping Classroom Teachers to Promote Physical Activity

    Russ, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Elementary classroom teachers are an increasingly important constituency in school-based physical activity promotion. This article situates the need for classroom teacher physical-activity promotion at the intersection of what we know about teacher actions, what informs those actions, and what recent research has uncovered. Recommendations are…

  14. nifH Promoter Activity Is Regulated by DNA Supercoiling in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Yan-Jie LIU; Biao HU; Jia-Bi ZHU; Shan-Jiong SHEN; Guan-Qiao YU

    2005-01-01

    In prokaryotes, DNA supercoiling regulates the expression of many genes; for example, the expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae nifLA operon depends on DNA negative supercoiling in anaerobically grown cells, which indicates that DNA supercoiling might play a role in gene regulation of the anaerobic response. Since the expression of the nifH promoter in Sinorhizobium meliloti is not repressed by oxygen, it is proposed that the status of DNA supercoiling may not affect the expression of the nifH promoter. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing nifH promoter activity in wild-type and gyr- Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of DNA gyrase inhibitors. Our results show that gene expression driven by the S.meliloti nifH promoter requires the presence of active DNA gyrase. Because DNA gyrase increases the number of negative superhelical turns in DNA in the presence of ATP, our data indicate that negative supercoiling is also important for nifH promoter activity. Our study also shows that the DNA supercoilingdependent S. meliloti nifH promoter activity is related to the trans-acting factors NtrC and NifA that activate it. DNA supercoiling appeared to have a stronger effect on NtrC-activated nifH promoter activity than on NifA-activated promoter activity. Collectively, these results from the S. meliloti nifH promoter model system seem to indicate that, in addition to regulating gene expression during anaerobic signaling, DNA supercoiling may also provide a favorable topology for trans-acting factor binding and promoter activation regardless of oxygen status.

  15. INVESTIGATION INTO CONSUMER RESPONSE TO SALES PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES: THE CASE OF UNILEVER GHANA LIMITED

    Martin Owusu Ansah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The promotional activities have become more sophisticated and an increasing number of companies are using them to ensure their survival in today’s competitive market. Essentially, the study analyzed the nature of sales promotional activities of Unilever Ghana Limited; determined factors that influence the consumption of Unilever products in Kumasi and finally examined the relationship between sales promotions and the consumption of Unilever products. Primary and secondary data sources were used to select 220 consumers of Unilever in Kumasi and an in-depth interview with the Managers of the companies in Kumasi. Convenient sampling technique was employed in the study. Cross tabulation was done on the demographics whilst a regression model was used to establish the relationship between sales promotions and consumption of products. The findings revealed that Personalities in promotions, Prices in promotions, Messages in promotions and Promotional tools have strong influence on consumption but the Medium in promotion did not have influence on consumption during promotions. It was therefore recommended for celebrities to be used in the company’s promotions.

  16. Chinese Tobacco Industry Promotional Activity on the Microblog Weibo

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Methods Seven tobacco industry W...

  17. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  18. The physical therapist's role in physical activity promotion

    Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals. A

  19. Strategies for Physical Activity Promotion beyond the Physical Education Classroom

    Faber, Larry; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Darst, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The current need for physical activity has extended beyond the limited time given to students in physical education classes. In order for students to receive appropriate levels of physical activity (i.e., at least 60 minutes per day), it is necessary for physical educators to incorporate physical activity opportunities outside the traditional…

  20. Promoting Physical Activity: Addressing Barriers and Moving Forward

    Beighle, Aaron; Morrow, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The barriers that keep individuals from adopting and maintaining active lifestyles are very complex. Strategies for overcoming these barriers and to incentivize and assist inactive individuals to benefit from physical activity are necessary. In addition, it is important to examine the impact of public policy on active living. As youth physical…

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase-regulated activation of the PGC-1alpha promoter in skeletal muscle cells.

    Isabella Irrcher

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which PGC-1alpha gene expression is controlled in skeletal muscle remains largely undefined. Thus, we sought to investigate the transcriptional regulation of PGC-1alpha using AICAR, an activator of AMPK, that is known to increase PGC-1alpha expression. A 2.2 kb fragment of the human PGC-1alpha promoter was cloned and sequence analysis revealed that this TATA-less sequence houses putative consensus sites including a GC-box, a CRE, several IRSs, a SRE, binding sites for GATA, MEF2, p 53, NF-kappaB, and EBox binding proteins. AMPK activation for 24 hours increased PGC-1alpha promoter activity with concomitant increases in mRNA expression. The effect of AICAR on transcriptional activation was mediated by an overlapping GATA/EBox binding site at -495 within the PGC-1alpha promoter based on gel shift analyses that revealed increases in GATA/EBox DNA binding. Mutation of the EBox within the GATA/EBox binding site in the promoter reduced basal promoter activity and completely abolished the AICAR effect. Supershift analyses identified USF-1 as a DNA binding transcription factor potentially involved in regulating PGC-1alpha promoter activity, which was confirmed in vivo by ChIP. Overexpression of either GATA-4 or USF-1 alone increased the p851 PGC-1alpha promoter activity by 1.7- and 2.0-fold respectively, while co-expression of GATA-4 and USF-1 led to an additive increase in PGC-1alpha promoter activity. The USF-1-mediated increase in PGC-1alpha promoter activation led to similar increases at the mRNA level. Our data identify a novel AMPK-mediated regulatory pathway that regulates PGC-1alpha gene expression. This could represent a potential therapeutic target to control PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle.

  2. An empirical analysis of the roles, activities and performance of commercial diplomats in promoting international business

    Naray, Olivier; Bezençon, Valéry; Kostecki, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Governments seek to promote – beyond the support for individual businesses – increased exports but also the intangible elements, such as nation branding and country positioning for inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and other economic benefits. In this context, commercial diplomats work as State representatives with diplomatic status conducting trade and business promotion activities between a home and a host country supporting directly individual business firms or promoting t...

  3. Considerations on the promotional activity on the DIY market in Romania

    Mihai FÎNARU; Ioana Bianca CHIŢU

    2015-01-01

    Communication is a component of the marketing mix of great importance for the success of companies on the market. Currently the promotional activity of companies is experiencing a variety of manifestations, the manufacturers and the distributors are always interested in finding ways to promote themselves differently, moreover to draw the attention of consumers and to produce the desired behavior among them. DIY market is a highly competitive market and the promotional technique...

  4. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. METHODS: Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. RESULTS: Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143 could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%, followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%, 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%, and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%. 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. CONCLUSIONS: Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  5. Promoting Female Students' Learning Motivation towards Science by Exercising Hands-On Activities

    Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…

  6. Dynamical analysis on gene activity in the presence of repressors and an interfering promoter.

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2008-11-01

    Transcription is regulated through interplay among transcription factors, an RNA polymerase (RNAP), and a promoter. Even for a simple repressive transcription factor that disturbs promoter activity at initial binding of RNAP, its repression level is not determined solely by the dissociation constant of transcription factor but is sensitive to timescales of processes in RNAP. We first analyze the promoter activity under strong repression by a slow binding repressor, in which case transcription events occur in bursts, followed by long quiescent periods while a repressor binds to the operator; the number of transcription events, bursting, and quiescent times are estimated by reaction rates. We then examine interference effect from an opposing promoter, using the correlation function of initiation events for a single promoter. The interference is shown to de-repress the promoter because RNAPs from the opposing promoter most likely encounter the repressor and remove it in case of strong repression. This de-repression mechanism should be especially prominent for the promoters that facilitate fast formation of open complex with the repressor whose binding rate is slower than approximately 1/s. Finally, we discuss possibility of this mechanism for high activity of promoter PR in the hyp-mutant of lambda-phage. PMID:18658208

  7. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  8. Spatio-Temporal Imaging of Promoter Activity in Intact Plant Tissues.

    Xiong, Tou Cheu; Sanchez, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Localization and quantification of expression levels of genes help to determine their function. Localization of gene expression is often achieved through the study of their promoter activity. Three main reporter genes β-glucuronidase (GUS), green fluorescent protein (GFP), and luciferase (LUC) have been intensively used to characterize promoter activities, each having its own specificities and advantages. Among them, the LUC reporter gene is best suitable for the analysis of the promoter activity of genes in intact living plants. Here, we describe a LUC-based method that allows to precisely localize and quantify promoter activity at the whole plant level, and to study the mechanisms that are involved in long-distance regulation of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Imaging LUC signals with a low-light CCD camera allows monitoring promoter activity in time and space in the transgenic plant harboring the promoter fused with the LUC gene. In addition, it allows quantifying change of promoter activities in plant during several hours. PMID:27557763

  9. Investigating message-framing effects in the context of a tailored intervention promoting physical activity.

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Werrij, M.Q.; Vries, de H.

    2010-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the gains associated with healthy behaviour or the losses associated with unhealthy behaviour. It has been argued that gain-framed messages promoting physical activity (PA) are more effective than loss-framed messages, but empirical findings are in

  10. Targeting and timing promotional activities : An agent-based model for the takeoff of new products

    Delre, S. A.; Jager, W.; Bijmolt, T. H. A.; Janssen, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Many marketing efforts focus on promotional activities that support the launch of new products. Promotional strategies may play a crucial role in the early stages of the product life cycle, and determine to a large extent the diffusion of a new product. This paper proposes an agent-based model to si

  11. Drama Activities that Promote and Extend Your Students' Vocabulary Proficiency.

    Alber, Sheila R.; Foil, Carolyn R.

    2003-01-01

    This article suggests using drama activities to teach target vocabulary words to students with limited vocabulary development. It presents specific drama activities to implement when introducing new vocabulary, conducting guided practice, facilitating cooperative learning groups, and assigning independent practice. Suggestions are also offered for…

  12. Use of SPARK to Promote After-School Physical Activity

    Herrick, Heidi; Thompson, Hannah; Kinder, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The after-school period is potentially an important venue for increasing physical activity for youth. We sought to assess the effectiveness of the Sports, Play, and Recreation for Youth (SPARK) program to increase physical activity and improve cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status among elementary students after school. Methods:…

  13. [Latest standards of muscle injury prophylactic activities, treatment and rehabilitation].

    Jaroszewski, Jacek; Bakowski, Paweł; Tabiszewski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury represents the highest proportion of sport-linked contusions. Experimental and clinical studies aim at increasingly detailed recognition of muscle physiology and pathophysiology. It would allow to set up functional standards and permit to minimize risk of contusions associated with sport activities. In cases of such contusions it would restrict its sequele and would abbreviate the duration of treatment. In the study elements of prophylaxis, treatment and rehabilitation of injured muscles will be discussed, based on current scientific results. Review study includes data from studies investigating prophylactic activities, types of teratment and the effects of different rehabilitation strategy. Latest standards from First European Congress of Football Medicine, Munich 2004, were also taken into account. The prophylactic activities should focus on education attempting to popularize the knowledge of the role of warm-up activities which precede proper physical effort, muscle stretching and activities augmenting muscle strength. The treatment of muscle injury is related to the extent of their damage. First actions should be focused on the RICE principle (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation). In case of torn tissues, local injections of anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents and regeneration-promoting agents used to be applied. Application of NSAIDs and anti-thrombotic prophylaxis is sound but due to their side effects it is recommended as frequently as it is counterindicated by physicians. A threshold in the therapy, not always noted by therapeutists, involves rapid mobilization of the injured tissue. This involves mobility exercises starting at 3-5 days post-trauma, with no load at the beginning, but starting at days 4 to 6 asssociated with appropriate loading. The recently conducted studies aim at stimulation of rapid muscle regeneration, inhibition of scar formation in the site of injury and elimination of already existing scars. The latter seems most

  14. Genetic variation in the proximal promoter of ABC and SLC superfamilies: liver and kidney specific expression and promoter activity predict variation.

    Stephanie E Hesselson

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters play crucial roles in the cellular uptake and efflux of an array of small molecules including nutrients, environmental toxins, and many clinically used drugs. We hypothesized that common genetic variation in the proximal promoter regions of transporter genes contribute to observed variation in drug response. A total of 579 polymorphisms were identified in the proximal promoters (-250 to +50 bp and flanking 5' sequence of 107 transporters in the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC and Solute Carrier (SLC superfamilies in 272 DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations. Many transporter promoters contained multiple common polymorphisms. Using a sliding window analysis, we observed that, on average, nucleotide diversity (pi was lowest at approximately 300 bp upstream of the transcription start site, suggesting that this region may harbor important functional elements. The proximal promoters of transporters that were highly expressed in the liver had greater nucleotide diversity than those that were highly expressed in the kidney consistent with greater negative selective pressure on the promoters of kidney transporters. Twenty-one promoters were evaluated for activity using reporter assays. Greater nucleotide diversity was observed in promoters with strong activity compared to promoters with weak activity, suggesting that weak promoters are under more negative selective pressure than promoters with high activity. Collectively, these results suggest that the proximal promoter region of membrane transporters is rich in variation and that variants in these regions may play a role in interindividual variation in drug disposition and response.

  15. THE IMPACT OF DEONTOLOGIC CODE FROM THE HEALTH SERVICES AREA ON THE PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Ileana Raducanu

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary not only a social or moral approach for health services but an economic approach, too. The economic concepts and tools need to be adapted and adjusted because of particularities of this domain. The laws that are available for health services are very strictly and affect the promotional activities too, because of health specific, a higher perceived risk and emotional side of health transactions. There are some promotional activities that are forbidden (the advertisement for med...

  16. Promoting physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis : aspects of coaching in physical therapy

    Swärdh, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, systemic disease mainly affecting the joints, often leading to impairments as well as activity limitations and participation restrictions in daily life. Physical activity including exercise is recommended in clinical practice guidelines for patients with RA, and physical therapists (PTs) have an important role in its promotion. However, more knowledge is needed on strategies to promote ph...

  17. Equity impact of interventions to promote physical activity in older adults: protocol for a systematic review

    Lehne, Gesa; Bolte, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background Public health strategies to promote physical activity among older adults are increasingly being implemented. However, it is not known whether these interventions are equally effective among all social groups of the older adult population. The objectives of the proposed systematic review are to (1) describe the extent to which effects on social inequalities are considered in studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among older adults, (2) de...

  18. Perceiving Promotion Activities İn Politic Marketing By Gazi University’ Students

    Ahmet ÇATLI; Özlem ÇATLI

    2013-01-01

    Political parties determine the marketing strategies about affecting electors, who have customer property. What, when and how do they want? After they can meet these wantings, needs and can subordinate other parties. Promotion activities also can be defined as election drive, is an mix of marketing. But as the seen changing of electors' wantings also in politic marketing, kinds and variations of promotion activities, especially in our technological age are more important than classic promotio...

  19. Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities

    Prashant Singh; Vinod Kumar; Sanjeev Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174 U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal...

  20. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO43-. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO43--irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO43--irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 (micro)M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these amplified phosphatases are being

  1. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  2. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  3. Lessons in Higher Education: Five Pedagogical Practices that Promote Active Learning for Faculty and Students

    Cook-Sather, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Active learning by faculty members complements and promotes active learning for students. Through The Andrew W. Mellon Teaching and Learning Institute at Bryn Mawr College, faculty members actively engage with one another and with undergraduate students positioned as pedagogical consultants to explore and to practice a wide range of pedagogies. In…

  4. Endothelial Notch activity promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone

    Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Kusumbe, Anjali P.; Wang, Lin; Adams, Ralf H.

    2014-03-01

    Blood vessel growth in the skeletal system and osteogenesis seem to be coupled, suggesting the existence of molecular crosstalk between endothelial and osteoblastic cells. Understanding the nature of the mechanisms linking angiogenesis and bone formation should be of great relevance for improved fracture healing or prevention of bone mass loss. Here we show that vascular growth in bone involves a specialized, tissue-specific form of angiogenesis. Notch signalling promotes endothelial cell proliferation and vessel growth in postnatal long bone, which is the opposite of the well-established function of Notch and its ligand Dll4 in the endothelium of other organs and tumours. Endothelial-cell-specific and inducible genetic disruption of Notch signalling in mice not only impaired bone vessel morphology and growth, but also led to reduced osteogenesis, shortening of long bones, chondrocyte defects, loss of trabeculae and decreased bone mass. On the basis of a series of genetic experiments, we conclude that skeletal defects in these mutants involved defective angiocrine release of Noggin from endothelial cells, which is positively regulated by Notch. Administration of recombinant Noggin, a secreted antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins, restored bone growth and mineralization, chondrocyte maturation, the formation of trabeculae and osteoprogenitor numbers in endothelial-cell-specific Notch pathway mutants. These findings establish a molecular framework coupling angiogenesis, angiocrine signals and osteogenesis, which may prove significant for the development of future therapeutic applications.

  5. GLT-1 promoter activity in astrocytes and neurons of mouse hippocampus and somatic sensory cortex

    Luisa De Vivo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available GLT-1 eGFP BAC reporter transgenic adult mice were used to detect GLT-1 gene expression in individual cells of CA1, CA3 and SI, and eGFP fluorescence was measured to analyze quantitatively GLT-1 promoter activity in different cells of neocortex and hippocampus. Virtually all GFAP+ astrocytes were eGFP+; we also found that about 80% of neurons in CA3 pyramidal layer, 10-70% of neurons in I-VI layers of SI and rare neurons in all strata of CA1 and in strata oriens and radiatum of CA3 were eGFP+. Analysis of eGFP intensity showed that astrocytes had a higher GLT-1 promoter activity in SI than in CA1 and CA3, and that neurons had the highest levels of GLT-1 promoter activity in CA3 stratum pyramidale and in layer VI of SI. Finally, we observed that the intensity of GLT-1 promoter activity in neurons is 1-20% of that measured in astrocytes. These results showed that in the hippocampus and neocortex GLT-1 promoter activity is observed in astrocytes and neurons, detailed the distribution of GLT-1 expressing neurons, and indicated that GLT-1 promoter activity in both astrocytes and neurons varies in different brain regions.

  6. Physical activity promotion among underserved adolescents: "make it fun, easy, and popular".

    Louise Bush, Paula; Laberge, Suzanne; Laforest, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies regarding noncurricular physical activity promotion interventions among adolescents, and even less such research pertaining to underserved youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a noncurricular, school-based physical activity promotion program designed for a multiethnic, underserved population of adolescents. The program's impact on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and on physical activity enjoyment (PAE) is also presented. The 16-week program, named FunAction, utilizes social marketing principles. Control (n = 90) and intervention (n = 131) students are assessed pre- and postintervention for levels of LTPA and PAE. Results indicate that although the program did not contribute to an increase in LTPA or PAE among intervention group students, participation in the program was elevated. This study offers preliminary evidence that noncurricular physical activity promotion programs that apply social marketing principles can be effective in engaging multiethnic, underserved adolescents in physical activity. PMID:19168890

  7. PPAR-β/δ activation promotes phospholipid transfer protein expression.

    Chehaibi, Khouloud; Cedó, Lídia; Metso, Jari; Palomer, Xavier; Santos, David; Quesada, Helena; Naceur Slimane, Mohamed; Wahli, Walter; Julve, Josep; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Jauhiainen, Matti; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2015-03-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-β/δ has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for treating dyslipidemia, including beneficial effects on HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). In the current study, we determined the effects of the PPAR-β/δ agonist GW0742 on HDL composition and the expression of liver HDL-related genes in mice and cultured human cells. The experiments were carried out in C57BL/6 wild-type, LDL receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice and PPAR-β/δ-deficient mice treated with GW0742 (10mg/kg/day) or a vehicle solution for 14 days. GW0742 upregulated liver phospholipid transfer protein (Pltp) gene expression and increased serum PLTP activity in mice. When given to wild-type mice, GW0742 significantly increased serum HDL-C and HDL phospholipids; GW0742 also raised serum potential to generate preβ-HDL formation. The GW0742-mediated effects on liver Pltp expression and serum enzyme activity were completely abolished in PPAR-β/δ-deficient mice. GW0742 also stimulated PLTP mRNA expression in mouse J774 macrophages, differentiated human THP-1 macrophages and human hepatoma Huh7. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a common transcriptional upregulation by GW0742-activated PPAR-β/δ of Pltp expression in cultured cells and in mouse liver resulting in enhanced serum PLTP activity. Our results also indicate that PPAR-β/δ activation may modulate PLTP-mediated preβ-HDL formation and macrophage cholesterol efflux. PMID:25662586

  8. Creativity in the English Class: Activities to Promote EFL Learning

    Hernán A. Avila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a pedagogical intervention that includes a set of creative activities designed to improve the oral and written production of students in the English classroom, especially those who have shown a lack of interest or attention. It was observed that participants initially seemed careless about studying the language. Eventually they responded to the proposed methods positively and were more willing and motivated to participate in chain games, creative writing, and screenwriting exercises. The activities helped develop the students’ fluency in both oral and written production and improved their understanding of English grammar and structure.

  9. Promoting Technology-Assisted Active Learning in Computer Science Education

    Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…

  10. Bringing Nature to Schools to Promote Children's Physical Activity.

    Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly. PMID:26888647

  11. Promoting Private Agribusiness Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Jaffee, Steven; Morton, John

    1995-01-01

    In a break from past policies, many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa are moving away from state-controlled agricultural marketing systems. Agricultural sector and broader economic policy reforms are being implemented, one objective of which is to enhance the incentives for private entrepreneurs and companies to undertake investments and expand and diversify agro-processing and trading activ...

  12. HEALTH POLICY INTERVENTION IN SCHOOLS PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AMONG THE PUPILS

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    Promoting School (HPS) according to a broad definition of HPS in World Health Organization (WHO), or dependent on schools own health promoting policies. The purpose of study research is to examine whether promoting physical activity among the children at schools in relation to a school health policy such as...... Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP). This was determined through the comparisons between the FNP based schools and non policy based schools. The study undertook surveys among school food coordinators in the selected Danish primary schools through a web-based questionnaire. The questions in the survey were...... continuing into adulthood. The data shows the relations regarding the promoting physical activities among the pupils between different types of schools. Results indicate that health policy intervention can be effective in improving the physical activities and preventing the development of obesity and...

  13. Statins Activate Human PPAR Promoter and Increase PPAR mRNA Expression and Activation in HepG2 Cells

    Makoto Seo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR mRNA expression, but the mechanism of this increased PPAR production remains elusive. To examine the regulation of PPAR production, we examined the effect of 7 statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin on human PPAR promoter activity, mRNA expression, nuclear protein levels, and transcriptional activity. The main results are as follows. (1 Majority of statins enhanced PPAR promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells transfected with the human PPAR promoter. This enhancement may be mediated by statin-induced HNF-4. (2 PPAR mRNA expression was increased by statin treatment. (3 The PPAR levels in nuclear fractions were increased by statin treatment. (4 Simvastatin, pravastatin, and cerivastatin markedly enhanced transcriptional activity in 293T cells cotransfected with acyl-coenzyme A oxidase promoter and PPAR/RXR expression vectors. In summary, these data demonstrate that PPAR production and activation are upregulated through the PPAR promoter activity by statin treatment.

  14. Perceiving Promotion Activities İn Politic Marketing By Gazi University’ Students

    Ahmet ÇATLI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Political parties determine the marketing strategies about affecting electors, who have customer property. What, when and how do they want? After they can meet these wantings, needs and can subordinate other parties. Promotion activities also can be defined as election drive, is an mix of marketing. But as the seen changing of electors' wantings also in politic marketing, kinds and variations of promotion activities, especially in our technological age are more important than classic promotions. With this project inquiry work that consists of 9 parts also has done to know about how the university students are affected and which promotion activities affect the students more. İnquiry appliers are students in University of Gazi TTEF. In the inquiry, questioned to students that students' gender, incomes, the place they live, their enroling in political parties, being affected by promotion activities, if they are affected, by which promotion activity and how much they are affected, advertsement, public relations,personal marketing and marketing development.

  15. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  16. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  17. Promoters active in interphase are bookmarked during mitosis by ubiquitination

    Arora, Mansi; Jie ZHANG; Heine, George F.; Ozer, Gulcin; Liu, Hui-Wen; Huang, Kun; Parvin, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed modification of chromatin by ubiquitination in human cells and whether this mark changes through the cell cycle. HeLa cells were synchronized at different stages and regions of the genome with ubiquitinated chromatin were identified by affinity purification coupled with next-generation sequencing. During interphase, ubiquitin marked the chromatin on the transcribed regions of ∼70% of highly active genes and deposition of this mark was sensitive to transcriptional inhibition. Promo...

  18. Translocation and activation of protein kinase C by the plasma cell tumor-promoting alkane pristane.

    Janz, S; Gawrisch, K; Lester, D S

    1995-02-01

    Pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) is a C19-isoalkane that promotes the development of plasmacytomas in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice. Similarities between the effects of pristane and protein kinase C (PKC)-activating phorbol esters suggested that the tumor promoting activity of pristane might involve the activation of PKC. Here we show that up to 5 mol% of pristane can be homogeneously incorporated into phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine bilayers. Membrane-incorporated pristane partially activated PKC and increased phorbol ester binding to the bilayer by more than 50%. Pristane (50 microM) delivered as an inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin to promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells induced a partial long-term translocation of PKC to the cell membrane. This was accompanied by differentiation of HL-60 cells into macrophage-like cells. It is concluded that activation of PKC may comprise an important aspect of the tumor promoting potential of pristane. PMID:7834620

  19. Activity monitor intervention to promote physical activity of physicians-in-training: randomized controlled trial.

    Anne N Thorndike

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physicians are expected to serve as role models for healthy lifestyles, but long work hours reduce time for healthy behaviors. A hospital-based physical activity intervention could improve physician health and increase counseling about exercise. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase intervention among 104 medical residents at a large hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Phase 1 was a 6-week randomized controlled trial comparing daily steps of residents assigned to an activity monitor displaying feedback about steps and energy consumed (intervention or to a blinded monitor (control. Phase 2 immediately followed and was a 6-week non-randomized team steps competition in which all participants wore monitors with feedback. Phase 1 outcomes were: 1 median steps/day and 2 proportion of days activity monitor worn. The Phase 2 outcome was mean steps/day on days monitor worn (≥500 steps/day. Physiologic measurements were collected at baseline and study end. Median steps/day were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Mean steps were compared using repeated measures regression analyses. RESULTS: In Phase 1, intervention and control groups had similar activity (6369 vs. 6063 steps/day, p = 0.16 and compliance with wearing the monitor (77% vs. 77% of days, p = 0.73. In Phase 2 (team competition, residents recorded more steps/day than during Phase 1 (CONTROL: 7,971 vs. 7,567, p = 0.002; INTERVENTION: 7,832 vs. 7,739, p = 0.13. Mean compliance with wearing the activity monitor decreased for both groups during Phase 2 compared to Phase 1 (60% vs. 77%, p<0.001. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.004 and HDL cholesterol increased (p<0.001 among all participants at end of study compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although the activity monitor intervention did not have a major impact on activity or health, the high participation rates of busy residents and modest changes in steps, blood pressure, and HDL suggest that more

  20. The search of the target of promotion: Phenylbenzoate esterase activities in hen peripheral nerve

    Certain esterase inhibitors, such as carbamates, phosphinates and sulfonyl halides, do not cause neuropathy as some organophosphates, but they may exacerbate chemical or traumatic insults to axons. This phenomenon is called promotion of axonopathies. Given the biochemical and toxicological characteristics of these compounds, the hypothesis was made that the target of promotion is a phenyl valerate (PV) esterase similar to neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the target of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. However, attempts to identify a PV esterase in hen peripheral nerve have been, so far, unsuccessful. We tested several esters, other than PV, as substrates of esterases from crude homogenate of the hen peripheral nerve. The ideal substrate should be poorly hydrolysed by NTE but extensively by enzyme(s) that are insensitive to non-promoters, such as mipafox, and sensitive to promoters, such as phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). When phenyl benzoate (PB) was used as substrate, about 65% of total activity was resistant to the non-promoter mipafox (up to 0.5 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0), that inhibits NTE and other esterases. More than 90% of this resistant activity was sensitive to the classical promoter PMSF (1 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0) with an IC50 of about 0.08 mM (20 min, pH 8.0). On the contrary, the non-promoter p-toluene sulfonyl fluoride caused only about 10% inhibition at 0.5 mM. Several esterase inhibitors including, paraoxon, phenyl benzyl carbamate, di-n-butyl dichlorovinyl phosphate and di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, were tested both in vitro and in vivo for inhibition of this PB activity. Mipafox-resistant PMSF-sensitive PB esterase activity(ies) was inhibited by promoters but not by non promoters and neuropathic compounds

  1. Football as promotion of active citizenship and identity development

    Ryom, Knud Eske; Stelter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    encouraged and motivated to develop life-skills to support everyday life. Furthermore they learn to be part of a team, enhancing their social capability which expands their possibilities for adjusting to society. 3 weekly training sessions, matches and coach education for motivated boys are part of the study...... expressed to be enhanced due to the study. Conclusions are not definite yet, but will indicate how to structure and work with active citizenship through football. The main result will thus point out the social effects football can have for these boys, and how football can help to establish a connection and...

  2. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System Promotes Colitis Development

    Yongyan Shi; Tianjing Liu; Lei He; Urszula Dougherty; Li Chen; Sarbani Adhikari; Lindsay Alpert; Guolin Zhou; Weicheng Liu; Jiaolong Wang; Deb, Dilip K.; John Hart; Liu, Shu Q.; John Kwon; Joel Pekow

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type cont...

  3. c-Myc activates BRCA1 gene expression through distal promoter elements in breast cancer cells

    The BRCA1 gene plays an important role in the maintenance of genomic stability. BRCA1 inactivation contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis. An increasing number of transcription factors have been shown to regulate BRCA1 expression. c-Myc can act as a transcriptional activator, regulating up to 15% of all genes in the human genome and results from a high throughput screen suggest that BRCA1 is one of its targets. In this report, we used cultured breast cancer cells to examine the mechanisms of transcriptional activation of BRCA1 by c-Myc. c-Myc was depleted using c-Myc-specific siRNAs in cultured breast cancer cells. BRCA1 mRNA expression and BRCA1 protein expression were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively and BRCA1 promoter activities were examined under these conditions. DNA sequence analysis was conducted to search for high similarity to E boxes in the BRCA1 promoter region. The association of c-Myc with the BRCA1 promoter in vivo was tested by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We investigated the function of the c-Myc binding site in the BRCA1 promoter region by a promoter assay with nucleotide substitutions in the putative E boxes. BRCA1-dependent DNA repair activities were measured by a GFP-reporter assay. Depletion of c-Myc was found to be correlated with reduced expression levels of BRCA1 mRNA and BRCA1 protein. Depletion of c-Myc decreased BRCA1 promoter activity, while ectopically expressed c-Myc increased BRCA1 promoter activity. In the distal BRCA1 promoter, DNA sequence analysis revealed two tandem clusters with high similarity, and each cluster contained a possible c-Myc binding site. c-Myc bound to these regions in vivo. Nucleotide substitutions in the c-Myc binding sites in these regions abrogated c-Myc-dependent promoter activation. Furthermore, breast cancer cells with reduced BRCA1 expression due to depletion of c-Myc exhibited impaired DNA repair activity. The distal BRCA1 promoter region is associated with c

  4. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma. PMID:26308584

  5. CDPP activities: Promoting research and education in space physics

    Genot, V. N.; Andre, N.; Cecconi, B.; Gangloff, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Dufourg, N.; Pitout, F.; Budnik, E.; Lavraud, B.; Rouillard, A. P.; Heulet, D.; Bellucci, A.; Durand, J.; Delmas, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Briand, C.; Biegun, A.

    2015-12-01

    The French Plasma Physics Data Centre (CDPP, http://cdpp.eu/) addresses for more than 15 years all issues pertaining to natural plasma data distribution and valorization. Initially established by CNES and CNRS on the ground of a solid data archive, CDPP activities diversified with the advent of broader networks and interoperability standards, and through fruitful collaborations (e.g. with NASA/PDS): providing access to remote data, designing and building science driven analysis tools then became at the forefront of CDPP developments. For instance today AMDA helps scientists all over the world accessing and analyzing data from ancient to very recent missions (from Voyager, Galileo, Geotail, ... to Maven, Rosetta, MMS, ...) as well as results from models and numerical simulations. Other tools like the Propagation Tool or 3DView allow users to put their data in context and interconnect with other databases (CDAWeb, MEDOC) and tools (Topcat). This presentation will briefly review this evolution, show technical and science use cases, and finally put CDPP activities in the perspective of ongoing collaborative projects (Europlanet H2020, HELCATS, ...) and future missions (Bepicolombo, Solar Orbiter, ...).

  6. Promoting uranium immobilization by the activities of microbial phophatases

    Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-06-01

    The first objective of this project is to determine the relationship of phosphatase activity to metal resistance in subsurface strains and the role of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in dissemination of nonspecific acid phosphatase genes. Nonspecific acid phosphohydrolases are a broad group of secreted microbial phosphatases that function in acidic-to-neutral pH ranges and utilize a wide range of organophosphate substrates. We have previously shown that PO43- accumulation during growth on a model organophosphorus compound was attributable to the overproduction of alkaline phosphatase by genetically modified subsurface pseudomonads [Powers et al. (2002) FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 41:115-123]. During this report period, we have extended these results to include indigenous metal resistant subsurface microorganisms cultivated from the Field Research Center (FRC), in Oak Ridge Tennessee.

  7. Promoting Active Learning in Electrical Engineering Basic Studies

    Anu Lehtovuori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Active learning, project-based teaching, and student collaboration are current trends in engineering education. Incorporating these have also been the goal of the basic studies development project EPOP started at the Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering in 2011. In the project, two obligatory basic courses in circuit analysis and electromagnetic field theory have been taught using interactive engagement during the spring of 2012. This paper presents the implementation of the teaching, including methods and evaluation with several concrete examples. As a result of the novel teaching, motivation and the engagement of students were at a high level during the whole course and learning results were better than those of the students participating the traditional lecture course.

  8. Developing and Testing Smartphone Game Applications for Physical Activity Promotion in Adolescents

    Allen, Kacie Chanelle

    2013-01-01

    Though the benefits of physical activity are numerous and well-known, very few adolescents are meeting physical activity recommendations. Moreover, past research shows that physical activity declines with increasing age with this decline beginning in adolescence. One approach to promote physical activity is through mobile technology such as a mobile phone. Since mobile phone ownership is relatively high (77%) and there is no digital divide by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, mobile pho...

  9. TrkB-mediated activation of geranylgeranyltransferase I promotes dendritic morphogenesis

    Zhou, Xiu-Ping; Wu, Kong-Yan; Liang, Bin; Fu, Xiu-Qing; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2008-01-01

    Dendrite morphogenesis is regulated by neuronal activity or neurotrophins, which may function by activating intrinsic signaling proteins, including Rho family GTPases. Here we report that activity- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–dependent dendritic morphogenesis requires activation of geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGT), a prenyltransferase that mediates lipid modification of Rho GTPases. Dendritic arborization in cultured hippocampal neurons was promoted by over-expression of GGT...

  10. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    Mohamadian, Hashem; Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, so...

  11. Activated Cdc42-associated kinase Ack1 promotes prostate cancer progression via androgen receptor tyrosine phosphorylation

    Mahajan, Nupam P.; Liu, Yuanbo; Majumder, Samarpan; Warren, Maria R.; Parker, Carol E.; Mohler, James L.; Earp, H. Shelton; Whang, Young E.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) may play a role in androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. Multiple mechanisms of AR activation, including stimulation by tyrosine kinases, have been postulated. We and others have recently shown involvement of activated Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase Ack1 in advanced human prostate cancer. Here we provide the molecular basis for interplay between Ack1 and AR in prostate cancer cells. Activated Ack1 promoted androgen-independent growth o...

  12. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    Appathurai Balamurugan, MD, MPH; Ernest J. Oakleaf, PhD; David Rath, MA, RD, LD

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens) do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods Fro...

  13. Mutation of the TERT promoter, switch to active chromatin, and monoallelic TERT expression in multiple cancers.

    Stern, Josh Lewis; Theodorescu, Dan; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-11-01

    Somatic mutations in the promoter of the gene for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are the most common noncoding mutations in cancer. They are thought to activate telomerase, contributing to proliferative immortality, but the molecular events driving TERT activation are largely unknown. We observed in multiple cancer cell lines that mutant TERT promoters exhibit the H3K4me2/3 mark of active chromatin and recruit the GABPA/B1 transcription factor, while the wild-type allele retains the H3K27me3 mark of epigenetic silencing; only the mutant promoters are transcriptionally active. These results suggest how a single-base-pair mutation can cause a dramatic epigenetic switch and monoallelic expression. PMID:26515115

  14. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 × 20 × 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joule’s effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 ± 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 ± 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  15. Enhancer activity of Helitron in sericin-1 gene promoter from Bombyx mori.

    Huang, Ke; Li, Chun-Feng; Wu, Jie; Wei, Jun-Hong; Zou, Yong; Han, Min-Jin; Zhou, Ze-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Sericin is a kind of water-soluble protein expressed specifically in the middle silk gland of Bombyx mori. When the sericin-1 gene promoter was cloned and a transgenic vector was constructed to express a foreign protein, a specific Helitron, Bmhel-8, was identified in the sericin-1 gene promoter sequence in some genotypes of Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina. Given that the Bmhel-8 Helitron transposon was present only in some genotypes, it could be the source of allelic variation in the sericin-1 promoter. The length of the sericin-1 promoter sequence is approximately 1063 or 643 bp. The larger size of the sequence or allele is ascribed to the presence of Bmhel-8. Silkworm genotypes can be homozygous for either the shorter or larger promoter sequence or heterozygous, containing both alleles. Bmhel-8 in the sericin-1 promoter exhibits enhancer activity, as demonstrated by a dual-luciferase reporter system in BmE cell lines. Furthermore, Bmhel-8 displays enhancer activity in a sericin-1 promoter-driven gene expression system but does not regulate the tissue-specific expression of sericin-1. PMID:27067405

  16. Efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression requires two neighboring RY elements on its promoter

    CHE NanYing; YANG Yang; LI YanDong; WANG LiLi; HUANG Ping; GAO Yin; An ChengCai

    2009-01-01

    As the main structural protein of oil body, OLEOSIN is highly expressed only during seed development. OLEOSIN promoter is a very useful tool for seed-specific gene engineering and seed bioreactor designing. The B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) plays an important role in regulating seed development and seed-specific gene expression. Here, we first report how seed-specific B3 domain transcription factor leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) efficiently activates OLEOSIN expression. The central promoter region of OLEOSIN, responsible for seed specificity and LEC2 activation, was determined by 5'-deletion analysis. Binding experiments in yeast cells and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that LEC2 specifically bound to two conserved RY elements in this region, in transient expression assays, mutation in either RY element dramatically reduced LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN promoter activity, while double mutation abolished it. Analysis of the distribution of RY elements in seed-specific genes activated by LEC2 also supported the idea that genes containing neighboring RY elements responded strongly to LEC2 activation. Therefore, we conclude that two neighboring RY elements are essential for efficient LEC2 activation of OLEOSIN expression. These findings will help us better utilize seed-specific promoter activity.

  17. Self-Determination in Physical Education: Designing Class Environments to Promote Active Lifestyles

    Bryan, Charity L.; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the lack of physical activity and increasing rates of childhood obesity have received a great deal of attention in the United States. One way to combat inactivity in children is to utilize physical education programs as a means to promote active lifestyles. There is not, however, a consensus concerning how physical education programs can…

  18. An Exploratory Study of Elementary Classroom Teachers' Physical Activity Promotion from a Social Learning Perspective

    Webster, Collin A.; Buchan, Heather; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Rob; Doutis, Panayiotis; Weaver, Robert Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Despite its recommended use, physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) has received little attention in terms of the factors that help to facilitate it. In this study, a social learning perspective was adopted to examine the role of physical activity biographies in generalist classroom teachers' (CTs) PAPAC. CTs (N = 213) were…

  19. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  20. Semantic relatedness among objects promotes the activation of multiple phonological codes during object naming

    Oppermann, F.; Jescheniak, J.D.; Schriefers, H.J.; Görges, F.

    2010-01-01

    In a picture-word interference experiment the authors demonstrate that a semantic-categorical relation between a to-be-named target picture and a context picture promotes the phonological activation of the to-be-ignored context picture. No such phonological activation is observed if the objects are

  1. Functional and Activity Analysis of Cattle UCP3 Promoter with MRFs-Related Factors

    Wei Chen; Houqiang Xu; Xiang Chen; Zhongwei Liu; Wen Zhang; Dan Xia

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is mainly expressed in muscle. It plays an important role in muscle, but less research on the regulation of cattle UCP3 has been performed. In order to elucidate whether cattle UCP3 can be regulated by muscle-related factors, deletion of cattle UCP3 promoter was amplified and cloned into pGL3-basic, pGL3-promoter and PEGFP-N3 vector, respectively, then transfected into C2C12 myoblasts cells and UCP3 promoter activity was measured using the dual-Luciferase reporter ...

  2. Transcriptional activation of the nitrogenase promoter in vitro: adenosine nucleotides are required for inhibition of NIFA activity by NIFL.

    Eydmann, T; Söderbäck, E; Jones, T; Hill, S; Austin, S; Dixon, R

    1995-03-01

    The enhancer-binding protein NIFA is required for transcriptional activation of nif promoters by the alternative holoenzyme form of RNA polymerase, which contains the sigma factor sigma 54 (sigma N). NIFA hydrolyzes nucleoside triphosphates to catalyze the isomerization of closed promoter complexes to transcriptionally competent open complexes. The activity of NIFA is antagonized by the regulatory protein NIFL in response to oxygen and fixed nitrogen in vivo. We have investigated the requirement for nucleotides in the formation and stability of open promoter complexes by NIFA and inhibition of its activity by NIFL at the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifH promoter. Open complexes formed by sigma 54-containing RNA polymerase are considerably more stable to heparin challenge in the presence of GTP than in the presence of ATP. This differential stability is most probably a consequence of GTP being the initiating nucleotide at this promoter. Adenosine nucleosides are specifically required for Azotobacter vinelandii NIFL to inhibit open complex formation by native NIFA, and the nucleoside triphosphatase activity of NIFA is strongly inhibited by NIFL under these conditions. We propose a model in which NIFL modulates the activity of NIFA via an adenosine nucleotide switch. PMID:7868590

  3. Characterization of Pneumocystis Major Surface Glycoprotein Gene (msg) Promoter Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Kutty, Geetha; Shroff, Robert; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Major surface glycoprotein (Msg), the most abundant cell surface protein of Pneumocystis, plays an important role in the interaction of this opportunistic pathogen with host cells, and its potential for antigenic variation may facilitate evasion of host immune responses. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the promoter region of msg in 3 species of Pneumocystis: P. carinii, P. jirovecii, and P. murina. Because Pneumocystis cannot be cultured, promoter activity was measu...

  4. URG11 promotes gastric cancer growth and invasion by activation of β-catenin signalling pathway

    Du, Rui; Xia, Lin; Sun, Shiren; Lian, Zhaorui; Zou, Xue; Gao, Juan; Xie, Huahong; Fan, Rui; Song, Jiugang; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jie; Fan, Daiming

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Upregulated gene 11 (URG11), a new gene upregulated by Heptatitis B Virus X protein (HBx), was previously shown to activate β-catenin and promote hepatocellular growth and tumourigenesis. Although the oncogenic role of URG11 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma has been well documented, its relevance to other human malignancies and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we reported a novel function of URG11 to promote gastric cancer growth and meta...

  5. Inverse correlation between promoter strength and excision activity in class 1 integrons.

    Thomas Jové

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons are widespread genetic elements that allow bacteria to capture and express gene cassettes that are usually promoterless. These integrons play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. They typically consist of a gene (intI encoding an integrase (that catalyzes the gene cassette movement by site-specific recombination, a recombination site (attI1, and a promoter (Pc responsible for the expression of inserted gene cassettes. The Pc promoter can occasionally be combined with a second promoter designated P2, and several Pc variants with different strengths have been described, although their relative distribution is not known. The Pc promoter in class 1 integrons is located within the intI1 coding sequence. The Pc polymorphism affects the amino acid sequence of IntI1 and the effect of this feature on the integrase recombination activity has not previously been investigated. We therefore conducted an extensive in silico study of class 1 integron sequences in order to assess the distribution of Pc variants. We also measured these promoters' strength by means of transcriptional reporter gene fusion experiments and estimated the excision and integration activities of the different IntI1 variants. We found that there are currently 13 Pc variants, leading to 10 IntI1 variants, that have a highly uneven distribution. There are five main Pc-P2 combinations, corresponding to five promoter strengths, and three main integrases displaying similar integration activity but very different excision efficiency. Promoter strength correlates with integrase excision activity: the weaker the promoter, the stronger the integrase. The tight relationship between the aptitude of class 1 integrons to recombine cassettes and express gene cassettes may be a key to understanding the short-term evolution of integrons. Dissemination of integron-driven drug resistance is therefore more complex than previously thought.

  6. A mitogen-responsive promoter region that is synergistically activated through multiple signalling pathways.

    Ouyang, Q.; Bommakanti, M; Miskimins, W K

    1993-01-01

    A regulatory region of the human transferrin receptor gene promoter was found to be required for increased expression in response to serum or growth factors. This region contains two elements that appear to cooperate for full responsiveness. We found that sodium orthovanadate treatment of cells significantly activated expression of promoter constructs containing these elements. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate alone induced a twofold increase in expression but acted synergistically with v...

  7. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    shahla pashapour; Hossein besharati; Mahmoud rezazadeh; Ahmad Alimadadi; Nadergholi Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens), which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) r...

  8. Situations of decontamination promotion activities. Efforts by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Fukushima Revitalization Headquarters, Decontamination Promotion Office

    As for the decontamination of the soil contaminated with radioactive materials, decontamination is on the way in compliance with the 'Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean' (hereinafter, the Act on Special Measures). Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), as the party concerned to the accident, is cooperating with decontamination activities conducted by countries and municipalities under the Act on Special Measures. Total number of people cooperated by the Decontamination Promotion Office amounts to about 120,000 people. The cooperation to the decontamination by countries and municipalities covers the following fields: provision of knowledge of radiation, training of site management and supervisors, and proposal such as the decontamination method suitable for the site. As cooperation to various monitoring, there is a traveling monitoring that performs radiation measurement from the vehicles. As cooperation in the farming and industrial resumption toward the reconstruction, the group has implemented support for the distribution promotion of the holdup that was stuck in distribution due to contamination with radioactive substances. As decontamination related technology, the following are performed: (1) preparation of radiation understanding promotion tool, (2) development of precise individual dose measurement technology, and (3) development and utilization of decontamination effect analysis program. In the future, this group will perform the follow-up for decontamination, and measures toward the lifting of evacuation order. It will install the basis to perform various technical analyses on decontamination, and will further intensify technical cooperation. (A.O.)

  9. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Promotes Fibrosis and Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in MRC-5 Cells.

    Li, Li; Tang, Su; Tang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening hypoxemic respiratory disorder with high incidence and mortality. ALI usually manifests as widespread inflammation and lung fibrosis with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors and collagen. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has a significant role in regulation of inflammation but little is known about its roles in lung fibrosis or ALI. This study aimed to define the role and possible regulatory mechanism of TSLP in lung fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We cultured human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and overexpressed or inhibited TSLP by the vector or small interfering RNA transfection. Then, the pro-fibrotic factors skeletal muscle actin alpha (α-SMA) and collagen I, and the 4 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) - MAPK7, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) - were detected by Western blot. RESULTS Results showed that TSLP promoted the production of α-SMA and collagen I (Pmechanism of fibrosis. PMID:27385084

  10. Promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity in corn microsomal membranes by calcium and protein phosphorylation

    Paliyath, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of beta-glucan synthase was studied using microsomal preparations from corn coleoptiles. The specific activity as measured by the incorporation of glucose from uridine diphospho-D-[U-14C]glucose varied between 5 to 15 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. Calcium promoted beta-glucan synthase activity and the promotion was observed at free calcium concentrations as low as 1 micromole. Kinetic analysis of substrate-velocity curve showed an apparent Km of 1.92 x 10(-4) M for UDPG. Calcium increased the Vmax from 5.88 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 in the absence of calcium to 9.52 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 and 1.66 x 10(-6) mol liter-1 min-1 in the presence of 0.5 mM and 1 mM calcium, respectively. The Km values remained the same under these conditions. Addition of ATP further increased the activity above the calcium-promoted level. Sodium fluoride, a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, promoted glucan synthase activity indicating that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity. Increasing the concentration of sodium fluoride from 0.25 mM to 10 mM increased glucan synthase activity five-fold over the + calcium + ATP control. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins also showed a similar increase under these conditions. Calmodulin, in the presence of calcium and ATP stimulated glucan synthase activity substantially, indicating that calmodulin could be involved in the calcium-dependent phosphorylation and promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity. The role of calcium in mediating auxin action is discussed.

  11. hypoxia-inducible factors activate CD133 promoter through ETS family transcription factors.

    Shunsuke Ohnishi

    Full Text Available CD133 is a cellular surface protein that has been reported to be a cancer stem cell marker, and thus it is considered to be a potential target for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism regulating CD133 expression is not yet understood. In this study, we analyzed the activity of five putative promoters (P1-P5 of CD133 in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells and colon cancer cell line WiDr, and found that the activity of promoters, particularly of P5, is elevated by overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Deletion and mutation analysis identified one of the two E-twenty six (ETS binding sites (EBSs in the P5 region as being essential for its promoter activity induced by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. In addition, a chromatin imunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that HIF-1α and HIF-2α bind to the proximal P5 promoter at the EBSs. The immunoprecipitation assay showed that HIF-1α physically interacts with Elk1; however, HIF-2α did not bind to Elk1 or ETS1. Furthermore, knockdown of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α resulted in a reduction of CD133 expression in WiDr. Taken together, our results revealed that HIF-1α and HIF-2α activate CD133 promoter through ETS proteins.

  12. Development of complex sales promotion of educational services in the specialty «Management of innovation activities»

    J.O. Timokhina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article describes the complex of sales promotion of educational services in the specialty "Management of innovation activity" and proposed plan of decision to boost sales promotion for a new specialty in the Ukrainian education market.

  13. Development of complex sales promotion of educational services in the specialty «Management of innovation activities»

    J.O. Timokhina; V.V. Bozhkova

    2011-01-01

    In this article describes the complex of sales promotion of educational services in the specialty "Management of innovation activity" and proposed plan of decision to boost sales promotion for a new specialty in the Ukrainian education market.

  14. Recommendations for Promoting Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents in Germany. A Consensus Statement

    Graf, Christine; Beneke, Ralph; Bloch, Wilhelm; Bucksch, Jens; Dordel, Sigrid; Eiser, Stefanie; Ferrari, Nina; Koch, Benjamin; Krug, Susanne; Lawrenz, Wolfgang; Manz, Kristin; Naul, Roland; Oberhoffer, Renate; Quilling, Eike; Schulz, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Increasing physical activity and reduction of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in children and adolescents. However, the question of how much physical activity is useful for which target group is still a matter of debate. International guidelines (World Health Organization; European Association for the Study of Obesity), which are mainly based on expert opinions, recommend 60 min of physical activity every day. Age- and ...

  15. Activated Notch Causes Deafness by Promoting a Supporting Cell Phenotype in Developing Auditory Hair Cells

    Grace Savoy-Burke; Felicia A Gilels; Wei Pan; Diana Pratt; Jianwen Que; Lin Gan; White, Patricia M.; Kiernan, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether activated Notch can promote a supporting cell fate during sensory cell differentiation in the inner ear. Methods An activated form of the Notch1 receptor (NICD) was expressed in early differentiating hair cells using a Gfi1-Cre mouse allele. To determine the effects of activated Notch on developing hair cells, Gfi1-NICD animals and their littermate controls were assessed at 5 weeks for hearing by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product...

  16. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

    Fortier Michelle S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.

  17. Transcription Activity of Ectogenic Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen Promoter in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells A549

    XIONG Weining; FANG Huijuan; XU Yongjian; XIONG Shendao; CAO Yong; SONG Qingfeng; ZENG Daxiong; ZHANG Huilan

    2006-01-01

    The transcription activity of ectogenic human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was investigated for the further gene-targeting therapy. The reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by CEA promoter and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were relatively constructed and named plasmid pCEA-EGFP and pCMV-GFP respectively. The intensity of fluorescence was detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry analysis after the pCEA-GFP and pSNAV-GFP plasmids were transfected into A549 cells through liposome respectively. The results showed (4.08±0.63) % of the A549 cells transfected with pCEA-AFP plasmid expressed, significantly lower than that of the A549 cells transfected with pCMV-GFP [(43.27±3.54) %]. It was suggested that ectogenic human CEA promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was weakly expressed. The distinct specificity of CEA promoter in CEA high expression cells was regarded as a tool in selective gene therapy, but the transcription activity of ectogenic human CEA promoter was needed to increase in the future.

  18. Policies to promote on physical activity and healthy eating in kindergartens from theory to practice

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-01-01

    local level policy on nutrition and on physical activity seems to have the potential to work as a good frame for the organizational efforts that the kindergarten undertakes in order to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children in kindergarten. However, kindergartens need to make the......Accumulating evidence shows that there seems to be a relation between the existence of a policy and at least some health behaviours of children. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief account of the value of policy as a tool that can be used at local level to guide action to promote healthy...

  19. Considerations on the promotional activity on the DIY market in Romania

    Mihai FÎNARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is a component of the marketing mix of great importance for the success of companies on the market. Currently the promotional activity of companies is experiencing a variety of manifestations, the manufacturers and the distributors are always interested in finding ways to promote themselves differently, moreover to draw the attention of consumers and to produce the desired behavior among them. DIY market is a highly competitive market and the promotional techniques used by the companies in this field are very diverse. In this context, this paper aims at presenting a series of promotional aspects of the techniques used by two of the largest DIY companies on the Romanian market Dedeman and Praktiker.

  20. Activation of the rainbow trout metallothionein-A promoter by silver and zinc.

    Mayer, Gregory D; Leach, Allan; Kling, Peter; Olsson, Per-Erik; Hogstrand, Christer

    2003-01-01

    In fish, the synthesis of metallothionein (MT) is increased by a number of heavy metals. The rainbow trout MT-A gene promoter region contains six known metal responsive elements (MREs), that mediate promoter activation by metals. In the present study, two fish cell lines differing in their ability to produce MT, RTG-2 (produce MT protein) and CHSE-214 (produce no detectable MT protein), were used to help elucidate the roles of Zn, Ag and MT in the activation of the MT promoter. The hypothesis tested was that Ag activates the MT-A promoter indirectly by displacing Zn from pre-existing Zn-MT and that this liberated Zn subsequently induces MT synthesis. Both cell lines were transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct containing the rainbow trout MT-A promoter, exposed to various concentrations of Zn or Ag, and assayed for luciferase activity. CHSE-214 cells showed five times greater production of luciferase than RTG-2 cells when exposed to identical concentrations of Ag. Thus, Ag can likely induce MT transcription without displacing Zn from pre-existing Zn-MT. Furthermore, Ag activated the MT promoter at concentrations 100-fold lower than those required for Zn to initiate transcription, suggesting that zinc displaced from other sites by such low concentrations of Ag would not be sufficient to initiate MT transcription. This interpretation was further supported by radiotracer studies indicating that Ag did not cause a redistribution of 65Zn within either of the two cell types. These combined results indicate that Ag may be a direct inducer of MT. PMID:12524046

  1. Evaluation of physical activity in the health promotion for brazilian teenagers: a systematic review

    Alvaro Adolfo Duarte Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the methodological designs of national studies that assessed the level of physical activity for promoting adolescent health. Methods: a systematic literature review of original researches and publications of MEDLINE, LILACS, SCOPUS and ADOLEC electronic databases. It focused on determinant aspects of physical activity for health promotion using the following keywords: physical activity, physical fitness, physical activity, physical exercise, motor activity, sedentary and sedentariness, adolescent, adolescence, young, youth, teenager, and teenage, Brazil, Brazilian, South America, Low-middle income and country(ies. Data analysis covered the period from 2005 to 2011. First, 449 studies were identified. After analyzing the titles of the manuscripts, 130 articles were eligible for abstract evaluation and subsequent full text analysis. In the end, 31 articles met all inclusion criteria. Results: A total of 93.6% (n=29 of the evaluated studies used cross-sectional design, with samples ranging from 92 to 5028 subjects, and all of them used questionnaires for measuring physical activity. The main analysis of the studies was based on the association between physical activity, biodemographic data (age, gender and socioeconomic data (income, social class and parental education. Conclusion: The national studies assessing the level of physical activity for promoting adolescent health appear with great methodological variability since there is no standardization in the methodological design, instrument and definition of variables, highlighting the need for longitudinal studies in this area. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p426

  2. DNA Topoisomerases maintain promoters in a state competent for transcriptional activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Jakob Madsen Pedersen

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of DNA topoisomerases in transcription, we have studied global gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient for topoisomerases I and II and performed single-gene analyses to support our findings. The genome-wide studies show a general transcriptional down-regulation upon lack of the enzymes, which correlates with gene activity but not gene length. Furthermore, our data reveal a distinct subclass of genes with a strong requirement for topoisomerases. These genes are characterized by high transcriptional plasticity, chromatin regulation, TATA box presence, and enrichment of a nucleosome at a critical position in the promoter region, in line with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation. Single-gene studies with a range of genes belonging to this group demonstrate that topoisomerases play an important role during activation of these genes. Subsequent in-depth analysis of the inducible PHO5 gene reveals that topoisomerases are essential for binding of the Pho4p transcription factor to the PHO5 promoter, which is required for promoter nucleosome removal during activation. In contrast, topoisomerases are dispensable for constitutive transcription initiation and elongation of PHO5, as well as the nuclear entrance of Pho4p. Finally, we provide evidence that topoisomerases are required to maintain the PHO5 promoter in a superhelical state, which is competent for proper activation. In conclusion, our results reveal a hitherto unknown function of topoisomerases during transcriptional activation of genes with a repressible/inducible mode of regulation.

  3. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote growth and activate cellulase: Evidence for a role of cellulase in cell expansion

    Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose4·xylose3 (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose4·xylose3·galactose) and XG9n (glucose4·xylose3·galactose2) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose4·xylose3·galactose·fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10-4 molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of [3H]xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggests that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products)

  4. THE ACTIVITY OF ARABIDOSPIS DLL PROMOTER IN TRANSGENIC TOBACCO PLANTS UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS

    Zuzana Polóniová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we used the Cre/loxP recombination system to study the activity of the Arabidopsis DLL promoter under water stress treatment. For this, the T-DNA containing the Cre/loxP self-excision recombination cassette was introduced into tobacco genome via A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. The expression of the cre gene was regulated by the DLL promoter. On activity of the DLL the Cre recombinase was expected to remove Cre/loxP cassette. Transgenic nature of regenerated transgenic T0 tobacco plantlets was proved by GUS and PCR analyses. The selected 10 transgenic T0 plants were subjected to the water stress analyses under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions. The osmotic stress experiments were performed with 10 % PEG and 100 mmol.l-1 mannitol (individually. The activity of the DLL was evaluated after 24 hours. For drought stress experiments, the watering was withheld for 10 days. The activity of the DLL was monitored using PCR approach. Under given abiotic stress conditions, no activity of the DLL was observed. The DLL promoter remained stable. It points out the DLL as the promoter with precise control of the gene expression with wide usability in plant biotechnology.

  5. Harpinxoo and Its Functional Domains Activate Pathogen-inducible Plant Promoters in Arabidopsis

    PENGJian-Ling; BAOZhi-Long; LIPing; CHENGuang-Yong; WANGJin-Sheng; DONGHan-Song

    2004-01-01

    Harpins are bacterial proteins that can enhance plant growth and defense against pathogens and insects. To elaborate whether harpins perform the diverse functions in coordination with the activation of specific promoters that contain particular elements, we cloned pathogen-inducible plant promoters PPP1, PPP2, and PPP3 from tobacco and investigated their responses to harpinxoo or its truncated fragments DEG, DIR, and DPR (domains for enhancing plant growth, insect resistance and pathogen resistance). PPP1 contains an internal repeat composed of two tandem 111bp fragments; 111bp in the repeat was deleted in PPP2. PPP3 contains a bacteria-inducible element; PPP1 and PPP2 additionally contain TAC-1 and Eli boxes inducible correspondingly by salicylic acid (SA) and elicitors. Function of cloned PPPs was confirmed based on their activation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants by Ralstonia solanacearum (Ralston) or SA. Harpinxoo, DEG, DIR, or DPR activated PPP1 and PPP2 but not PPP3, consistent with the presence of Eli boxes in promoters. PPP1 was ca. 3-fold more active than PPP2, suggesting that the internal repeat affects levels of the promoter activation.

  6. Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity

    Tchatchou, Sandrine; Riedel, Angela; Lyer, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer......,466 unrelated German controls. Promoter studies in breast cancer cells demonstrate that the risk-increasing DMBT1 -93T allele displays significantly decreased promoter activity compared to the DMBT1 -93C allele, resulting in a loss of promoter activity. The data suggest that DMBT1 polymorphisms in the 5'-region...... and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c...

  7. MRG15 activates the cdc2 promoter via histone acetylation in human cells

    Chromatin remodeling is required for transcriptional activation and repression. MRG15 (MORF4L1), a chromatin modulator, is a highly conserved protein and is present in complexes containing histone acetyltransferases (HATs) as well as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Loss of expression of MRG15 in mice and Drosophila results in embryonic lethality and fibroblast and neural stem/progenitor cells cultured from Mrg15 null mouse embryos exhibit marked proliferative defects when compared with wild type cells. To determine the role of MRG15 in cell cycle progression we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with an antibody to MRG15 on normal human fibroblasts as they entered the cell cycle from a quiescent state, and analyzed various cell cycle gene promoters. The results demonstrated a 3-fold increase in MRG15 occupancy at the cdc2 promoter during S phase of the cell cycle and a concomitant increase in acetylated histone H4. H4 lysine 12 was acetylated at 24 h post-serum stimulation while there was no change in acetylation of lysine 16. HDAC1 and 2 were decreased at this promoter during cell cycle progression. Over-expression of MRG15 in HeLa cells activated a cdc2 promoter-reporter construct in a dose-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of MRG15 resulted in decreased promoter activity. In order to implicate HAT activity, we treated cells with the HAT inhibitor anacardic acid and determined that HAT inhibition results in loss of expression of cdc2 mRNA. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation with Tip60 localizes the protein to the same 110 bp stretch of the cdc2 promoter pulled down by MRG15. Additionally, we determined that cotransfection of MRG15 with the known associated HAT Tip60 had a cooperative effect in activating the cdc2 promoter. These results suggest that MRG15 is acting in a HAT complex involving Tip60 to modify chromatin via acetylation of histone H4 at the cdc2 promoter to activate transcription.

  8. hTERT promoter activity and CpG methylation in HPV-induced carcinogenesis

    Activation of telomerase resulting from deregulated hTERT expression is a key event during high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-induced cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study we examined hTERT promoter activity and its relation to DNA methylation as one of the potential mechanisms underlying deregulated hTERT transcription in hrHPV-transformed cells. Using luciferase reporter assays we analyzed hTERT promoter activity in primary keratinocytes, HPV16- and HPV18-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines and cervical cancer cell lines. In the same cells as well as cervical specimens we determined hTERT methylation by bisulfite sequencing analysis of the region spanning -442 to +566 (relative to the ATG) and quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) analysis of two regions flanking the hTERT core promoter. We found that in most telomerase positive cells increased hTERT core promoter activity coincided with increased hTERT mRNA expression. On the other hand basal hTERT promoter activity was also detected in telomerase negative cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT mRNA expression levels. In both telomerase positive and negative cells regulatory sequences flanking both ends of the core promoter markedly repressed exogenous promoter activity. By extensive bisulfite sequencing a strong increase in CpG methylation was detected in hTERT positive cells compared to cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT expression. Subsequent qMSP analysis of a larger set of cervical tissue specimens revealed methylation of both regions analyzed in 100% of cervical carcinomas and 38% of the high-grade precursor lesions, compared to 9% of low grade precursor lesions and 5% of normal controls. Methylation of transcriptionally repressive sequences in the hTERT promoter and proximal exonic sequences is correlated to deregulated hTERT transcription in HPV-immortalized cells and cervical cancer cells. The detection of DNA methylation at these repressive regions may provide an attractive

  9. Evaluation of a Community-Based Intervention To Promote Physical Activity in Youth: Lessons from Active Winners.

    Pate, Russell R.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Felton, Gwen; Trost, Stewart G.; Dowda, Marsha

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of a community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity among rural fifth graders. Data on students who participated in after-school and summer programs and home, school, and community interventions indicated that the after-school and summer interventions were implemented as planned, but the home, school,…

  10. Design of cAMP-CRP-activated promoters in Escherichia coli

    Valentin-Hansen, P; Holst, B; Søgaard-Andersen, L;

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the deoP2 promoter of Escherichia coli to define features that are required for optimal activation by the complex of adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Systematic mutagenesis of deoP2 shows that the distance between the CRP site and the -10...

  11. Physical Activity and Nutrition Health Promotion Interventions: What Is Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana

    2011-01-01

    A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…

  12. Benchmarking promotion and deployment activities regarding intelligent vehicle safety systems in the EU

    Kievit, M. de; Malone, K.M.; Zwijnenberg, H.; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Benchmarking study performed in the European Union on Awareness and Promotion & Deployment activities related to Intelligent Vehicle Safety (IVS) systems (1). The study, commissioned by the European Commission under the Intelligent Car Initiative (a i2010 flagshi

  13. p55PIK Transcriptionally Activated by MZF1 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Yu Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available p55PIK, regulatory subunit of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression by interaction with tumor repressor retinoblastoma (Rb protein. A recent study showed that Rb protein can localize to the mitochondria in proliferative cells. Aberrant p55PIK expression may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. To reveal the mechanisms of p55PIK transcriptional regulation, the p55PIK promoter characteristics were analyzed. The data show that myeloid zinc finger 1, MZF1, is necessary for p55PIK gene transcription activation. ChIP (Chromatin immuno-precipitation assay shows that MZF1 binds to the cis-element “TGGGGA” in p55PIK promoter. In MZF1 overexpressed cells, the promoter activity, expression of p55PIK, and cell proliferation rate were observed to be significantly enhanced. Whereas in MZF1-silenced cells, the promoter activity and expression of p55PIK and cell proliferation level was statistically decreased. In CRC tissues, MZF1 and p55PIK mRNA expression were increased (P=0.046, P=0.047, resp.. A strong positive correlation (Rs=0.94 between MZF1 and p55PIK mRNA expression was observed. Taken together, we concluded that p55PIK is transcriptionally activated by MZF1, resulting in increased proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

  14. Promoting Science Outdoor Activities for Elementary School Children: Contributions from a Research Laboratory

    Boaventura, Diana; Faria, Claudia; Chagas, Isabel; Galvao, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the promotion of scientific literacy through practical research activities and to identify children's conceptions about scientists and how they do science. Elementary school children were engaged in two scientific experiments in a marine biology research laboratory. A total of 136 students answered a…

  15. A telecare programme for self-management of COPD exacerbations and promotion of an active lifestyle

    Tabak, Monique; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Ommeren, Clara; Kotte, Hayke; Weltevreden, Paul; Hermens, Hermie; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Condition Coach (CoCo) is a technology-supported care programme for self-management of COPD exacerbations and for promotion of an active lifestyle. The objective is to investigate the added value of the telecare programme in terms of clinical changes compared to usual care, and in add

  16. Using Feature Films To Promote Active Learning in the College Classroom.

    Gregg, Virginia R.; And Others

    Using feature films to teach undergraduate psychology courses can promote active learning for several reasons. Films can reach students with a variety of learning styles, including those with a visual approach to learning. Also, students seem to enjoy commercial films and their use can help decrease levels of monotony from daily lectures. Feature…

  17. The Role of Biographical Characteristics in Preservice Classroom Teachers' School Physical Activity Promotion Attitudes

    Webster, Collin A.; Monsma, Eva; Erwin, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations for increasing children's daily physical activity (PA) call on classroom teachers to assume an activist role at school. This study examined relationships among preservice classroom teachers' (PCT; n = 247) biographical characteristics, perceptions and attitudes regarding school PA promotion (SPAP). Results indicated participants…

  18. A new starting point for powerful lignin promotion : Eurolignin and linked activities

    Abaecherli, A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Jong, de E.; Guran, B.

    2004-01-01

    The International Lignin Institute (ILI) was created in 1991 as a new platform for promotion of lignin utilisations. For a few years, the activity was based on informal information exchange, such as Newsletters, international conferences (Forums) and Workshops, as well as in the proceedings of these

  19. Promoting Physical Activity among Youth through Community-Based Prevention Marketing

    Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…

  20. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Clinicians in Promoting Physical Activity to Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…

  2. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  3. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation

    Bonnet Amandine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. Results In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4+ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    Ajit Kumar Passari; Vineet Kumar Mishra; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Mukesh Kumar Yadav; Ratul Saikia; Bhim Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using...

  5. Promoting physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: rheumatologists’ and health professionals’ practice and educational needs

    Hurkmans, Emalie J.; de Gucht, V.; Maes, S.; Peeters, Andreas J.; Ronday, H. Karel; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the proven health benefits, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are found to be less physically active than their healthy peers. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent and how physical activity, defined as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure, is currently promoted by health care providers in patients with RA and how they perceive their competencies and educational needs. For this cross-sectional study, Dutch rheumatologists, rheumatology clinical nurse...

  6. Evaluating Promotional Activities in an Online Two-Sided Market of User-Generated Content

    Paulo Albuquerque; Polykarpos Pavlidis; Udi Chatow; Kay-Yut Chen; Zainab Jamal

    2012-01-01

    We measure the value of promotional activities and referrals by content creators to an online platform of user-generated content. To do so, we develop a modeling approach that explains individual-level choices of visiting the platform, creating, and purchasing content as a function of consumer characteristics and marketing activities, allowing for the possibility of interdependence of decisions within and across users. Empirically, we apply our model to Hewlett-Packard's (HP) print-on-demand ...

  7. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Physical Activity Promotion Among Obese Women: An Online Evaluation of Targeted Messages

    LEONE, LUCIA A.; Campbell, Marci K.; Allicock, Marlyn; Pignone, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Obese women are at higher risk for several cancers, but are less likely than normal weight women to engage in cancer prevention behaviors such as screening and physical activity. Targeted health messages may help increase healthy behaviors among vulnerable groups such as obese women. Using findings from focus groups with obese women, the authors created targeted messages to promote colorectal cancer screening and physical activity among obese women. The messages addressed psychosocial constru...

  8. Variants of the cell recognition site of fibronectin that retain attachment-promoting activity

    1985-01-01

    A tetrapeptide sequence, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, is the minimal structure recognized by cells in the large, adhesive glycoprotein fibronectin. We now have defined the structural requirements for this cell recognition site by testing several synthetic variants of the active tetrapeptide sequence. The conservative substitutions of lysine for arginine, alanine for glycine, or glutamic acid for aspartic acid each resulted in abrogation of the cell attachment-promoting activity characteristic of the natu...

  9. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-o...

  10. Complement C1q Activates Canonical Wnt Signaling and Promotes Aging-Related Phenotypes

    Atsuhiko T. Naito; Sumida, Tomokazu; Nomura, Seitaro; Liu, Mei-Lan; Higo, Tomoaki; NAKAGAWA, AKITO; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Hashimoto, Akihito; Hara, Yurina; Shimizu, Ippei; Zhu, Weidong; Toko, Haruhiro; Katada, Akemi; Akazawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles in development of various organs and pathogenesis of many diseases, and augmented Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in mammalian aging and aging-related phenotypes. We here report that complement C1q activates canonical Wnt signaling and promotes aging-associated decline in tissue regeneration. Serum C1q concentration is increased with aging, and Wnt signaling activity is augmented during aging in the serum and in multiple tissues of wild-type mice,...

  11. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    Claire McCallum; John Rooksby

    2015-01-01

    There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial) may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activ...

  12. Cloning and Transcriptional Activity of the Mouse Omi/HtrA2 Gene Promoter.

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Wu, Ye; Wang, Wen; Ma, Xinliang; Liu, Huirong

    2016-01-01

    HtrA serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2), also named Omi, is a pro-apoptotic protein that exhibits dramatic changes in expression levels in a variety of disorders, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, cancer, and neurodegeneration. In our study, Omi/HtrA2 protein levels were high in the heart, brain, kidney and liver, with elevated heart/brain expression in aging mice. A similar expression pattern was observed at the mRNA level, which suggests that the regulation of Omi/HtrA2 is predominately transcriptional. Promoter binding by transcription factors is the main influencing factor of transcription, and to identify specific promoter elements that contribute to the differential expression of mouse Omi/HtrA2, we constructed truncated Omi/HtrA2 promoter/luciferase reporter vectors and analyzed their relative luciferase activity; it was greatest in the promoter regions at -1205~-838 bp and -146~+93 bp, with the -838~-649 bp region exhibiting negative regulatory activity. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the Omi/HtrA2 gene promoter contains a CpG island at -709~+37 bp, and eight heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) sites, two Sp1 transcription factor (SP1)sites, one activator protein (AP) site, seven p53 sites, and four YY1 transcription factor(YY1) sites were predicted in the core areas. Furthermore, we found that p53 and HSF1 specifically binds to the Omi/HtrA2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These results provide a foundation for understanding Omi/HtrA2 regulatory mechanisms, which could further understanding of HtrA-associated diseases. PMID:26784188

  13. Cloning and Transcriptional Activity of the Mouse Omi/HtrA2 Gene Promoter

    Dan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HtrA serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2, also named Omi, is a pro-apoptotic protein that exhibits dramatic changes in expression levels in a variety of disorders, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, cancer, and neurodegeneration. In our study, Omi/HtrA2 protein levels were high in the heart, brain, kidney and liver, with elevated heart/brain expression in aging mice. A similar expression pattern was observed at the mRNA level, which suggests that the regulation of Omi/HtrA2 is predominately transcriptional. Promoter binding by transcription factors is the main influencing factor of transcription, and to identify specific promoter elements that contribute to the differential expression of mouse Omi/HtrA2, we constructed truncated Omi/HtrA2 promoter/luciferase reporter vectors and analyzed their relative luciferase activity; it was greatest in the promoter regions at −1205~−838 bp and −146~+93 bp, with the −838~−649 bp region exhibiting negative regulatory activity. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the Omi/HtrA2 gene promoter contains a CpG island at −709~+37 bp, and eight heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 sites, two Sp1 transcription factor (SP1sites, one activator protein (AP site, seven p53 sites, and four YY1 transcription factor(YY1 sites were predicted in the core areas. Furthermore, we found that p53 and HSF1 specifically binds to the Omi/HtrA2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. These results provide a foundation for understanding Omi/HtrA2 regulatory mechanisms, which could further understanding of HtrA-associated diseases.

  14. A synthetic isoflavone, DCMF, promotes human keratinocyte migration by activating Src/FAK signaling pathway.

    Sophors, Phorl; Kim, Young Mee; Seo, Ga Young; Huh, Jung-Sik; Lim, Yoongho; Koh, Dong Soo; Cho, Moonjae

    2016-04-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary compounds with various pharmacological properties. We previously showed that one flavonoid, trimethoxyisoflavone (TMF), could promote wound healing by inducing keratinocyte migration. Here, we screened TMF derivatives for enhanced activity and identified one compound, 2',6 Dichloro-7-methoxyisoflavone (DCMF), as most effective at promoting migration in a scratch wound assay. Using the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line, we found DCMF treatment induced phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, and increased keratinocyte migration. DCMF-induced Src kinase could promote activation of ERK, AKT, and p38 signaling pathways, and DCMF-induced secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas Src inhibition abolished DCMF-induced EMT. Using an in vivo excisional wound model, we observed improved wound closure and re-epithelialization in DCMF-treated mice, as compared to controls. Collectively, our data demonstrate that DCMF induces cell migration and promotes wound healing through activation of Src/FAK, ERK, AKT, and p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:26923073

  15. Distinct promoter activation mechanisms modulate noise-driven HIV gene expression

    Chavali, Arvind K.; Wong, Victor C.; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-12-01

    Latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur when the virus occupies a transcriptionally silent but reversible state, presenting a major obstacle to cure. There is experimental evidence that random fluctuations in gene expression, when coupled to the strong positive feedback encoded by the HIV genetic circuit, act as a ‘molecular switch’ controlling cell fate, i.e., viral replication versus latency. Here, we implemented a stochastic computational modeling approach to explore how different promoter activation mechanisms in the presence of positive feedback would affect noise-driven activation from latency. We modeled the HIV promoter as existing in one, two, or three states that are representative of increasingly complex mechanisms of promoter repression underlying latency. We demonstrate that two-state and three-state models are associated with greater variability in noisy activation behaviors, and we find that Fano factor (defined as variance over mean) proves to be a useful noise metric to compare variability across model structures and parameter values. Finally, we show how three-state promoter models can be used to qualitatively describe complex reactivation phenotypes in response to therapeutic perturbations that we observe experimentally. Ultimately, our analysis suggests that multi-state models more accurately reflect observed heterogeneous reactivation and may be better suited to evaluate how noise affects viral clearance.

  16. Cell Type-Specific Activation of the Cytomegalovirus Promoter by Dimethylsulfoxide and 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine

    Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Basma, Hesham; Klinkebiel, David; Christman, Judith; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2008-01-01

    The cytomegalovirus promoter is a very potent promoter commonly used for driving the expression of transgenes, though it gradually becomes silenced in stably transfected cells. We examined the methylation status of the cytomegalovirus promoter in two different cell lines and characterized its mechanisms of activation by dimethylsulfoxide and 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine. The cytomegalovirus promoter stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells is suppressed by DNA methylation-independent mec...

  17. Barriers, facilitators and attitudes influencing health promotion activities in general practice: an explorative pilot study

    Geense Wytske W

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of chronically ill patients increases every year. This is partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. However, the frequency and quality of (evidence-based health promotion activities conducted by Dutch general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are limited. The aim of this pilot study was to explore which lifestyle interventions Dutch GPs and PNs carry out in primary care, which barriers and facilitators can be identified and what main topics are with respect to attitudes towards health promoting activities. These topic areas will be identified for a future, larger scale study. Method This qualitative study consisted of 25 semi-structured interviews with sixteen GPs and nine PNs. ATLAS.ti was used to analyse the transcripts of the interviews. Results All GPs and PNs said they discuss lifestyle with their patients. Next to this, GPs and PNs counsel patients, and/or refer them to other disciplines. Only few said they refer patients to specific lifestyle programs or interventions in their own practice or in the neighbourhood. Several barriers and facilitators were identified. The main topics as barriers are: a lack of patients’ motivation to make lifestyle changes, insufficient reimbursement, a lack of proven effectiveness of interventions and a lack of overview of health promoting programs in their neighbourhood. The most cited facilitators are availability of a PN, collaboration with other disciplines and availability of interventions in their own practice. With respect to attitudes, six different types of GPs were identified reflecting the main topics that relate to attitudes, varying from ‘ignorer’ to ‘nurturer’. The topics relating to PNs attitudes towards health promotion activities, were almost unanimously positive. Conclusion GPs and PNs all say they discuss lifestyle issues with their patients, but the health promotion activities that are organized in their practice vary. Main topics that hinder

  18. An Innovative Teaching Method To Promote Active Learning: Team-Based Learning

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Traditional teaching practice based on the textbook-whiteboard- lecture-homework-test paradigm is not very effective in helping students with diverse academic backgrounds achieve higher-order critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Consequently, there is a critical need for developing a new pedagogical approach to create a collaborative and interactive learning environment in which students with complementary academic backgrounds and learning skills can work together to enhance their learning outcomes. In this presentation, I will discuss an innovative teaching method ('Team-Based Learning (TBL)") which I recently developed at National University of Singapore to promote active learning among students in the environmental engineering program with learning abilities. I implemented this new educational activity in a graduate course. Student feedback indicates that this pedagogical approach is appealing to most students, and promotes active & interactive learning in class. Data will be presented to show that the innovative teaching method has contributed to improved student learning and achievement.

  19. Phagocyte respiratory burst activates macrophage erythropoietin signalling to promote acute inflammation resolution.

    Luo, Bangwei; Wang, Jinsong; Liu, Zongwei; Shen, Zigang; Shi, Rongchen; Liu, Yu-Qi; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Man; Wu, Yuzhang; Zhang, Zhiren

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation resolution is an active process, the failure of which causes uncontrolled inflammation which underlies many chronic diseases. Therefore, endogenous pathways that regulate inflammation resolution are fundamental and of wide interest. Here, we demonstrate that phagocyte respiratory burst-induced hypoxia activates macrophage erythropoietin signalling to promote acute inflammation resolution. This signalling is activated following acute but not chronic inflammation. Pharmacological or genetical inhibition of the respiratory burst suppresses hypoxia and macrophage erythropoietin signalling. Macrophage-specific erythropoietin receptor-deficient mice and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) mice, which lack the capacity for respiratory burst, display impaired inflammation resolution, and exogenous erythropoietin enhances this resolution in WT and CGD mice. Mechanistically, erythropoietin increases macrophage engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils via PPARγ, promotes macrophage removal of debris and enhances macrophage migration to draining lymph nodes. Together, our results provide evidences of an endogenous pathway that regulates inflammation resolution, with important implications for treating inflammatory conditions. PMID:27397585

  20. Classroom Activities to Engage Students and Promote Critical Thinking about Genetic Regulation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    Kimberly Aebli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an interactive activity to mimic bacterial quorum sensing, and a classroom worksheet to promote critical thinking about genetic regulation of the lux operon. The interactive quorum sensing activity engages students and provides a direct visualization of how population density functions to influence light production in bacteria. The worksheet activity consists of practice problems that require students to apply basic knowledge of the lux operon in order to make predictions about genetic complementation experiments, and students must evaluate how genetic mutations in the lux operon affect gene expression and overall phenotype. The worksheet promotes critical thinking and problem solving skills, and emphasizes the roles of diffusible signaling molecules, regulatory proteins, and structural proteins in quorum sensing.

  1. SATB1 OVEREXPRESSION DRIVES TUMOR-PROMOTING ACTIVITIES IN CANCER-ASSOCIATED DENDRITIC CELLS

    Tesone, Amelia J.; Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Brencicova, Eva; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Stephen, Tom L.; Allegrezza, Michael J.; Payne, Kyle K.; Nguyen, Jenny M.; Wickramasinghe, Jayamanna; Tchou, Julia; Borowsky, Mark E.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (Satb1) governs genome-wide transcriptional programs. Using a conditional knockout mouse, we find that Satb1 is required for normal differentiation of conventional dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, Satb1 governs the differentiation of inflammatory DCs by regulating MHC-II expression through Notch1 signaling. Mechanistically, Satb1 binds to the Notch1 promoter, activating Notch expression and driving RBPJ occupancy of the H2-Ab1 promoter, which activates MHC-II transcription. However, tumor-driven, unremitting expression of Satb1 in activated Zbtb46+ inflammatory DCs that infiltrate ovarian tumors results in an immunosuppressive phenotype characterized by increased secretion of tumor-promoting Galectin-1 and IL-6. In vivo silencing of Satb1 in tumor-associated DCs reverses their tumorigenic activity and boosts protective immunity. Therefore, dynamic fluctuations in Satb1 expression govern the generation and immunostimulatory activity of steady-state and inflammatory DCs, but continuous Satb1 overexpression in differentiated DCs converts them into tolerogenic/pro-inflammatory cells that contribute to malignant progression. PMID:26876172

  2. Satb1 Overexpression Drives Tumor-Promoting Activities in Cancer-Associated Dendritic Cells.

    Tesone, Amelia J; Rutkowski, Melanie R; Brencicova, Eva; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Stephen, Tom L; Allegrezza, Michael J; Payne, Kyle K; Nguyen, Jenny M; Wickramasinghe, Jayamanna; Tchou, Julia; Borowsky, Mark E; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2016-02-23

    Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (Satb1) governs genome-wide transcriptional programs. Using a conditional knockout mouse, we find that Satb1 is required for normal differentiation of conventional dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, Satb1 governs the differentiation of inflammatory DCs by regulating major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression through Notch1 signaling. Mechanistically, Satb1 binds to the Notch1 promoter, activating Notch expression and driving RBPJ occupancy of the H2-Ab1 promoter, which activates MHC II transcription. However, tumor-driven, unremitting expression of Satb1 in activated Zbtb46(+) inflammatory DCs that infiltrate ovarian tumors results in an immunosuppressive phenotype characterized by increased secretion of tumor-promoting Galectin-1 and IL-6. In vivo silencing of Satb1 in tumor-associated DCs reverses their tumorigenic activity and boosts protective immunity. Therefore, dynamic fluctuations in Satb1 expression govern the generation and immunostimulatory activity of steady-state and inflammatory DCs, but continuous Satb1 overexpression in differentiated DCs converts them into tolerogenic/pro-inflammatory cells that contribute to malignant progression. PMID:26876172

  3. T-cell activation promotes tumorigenesis in inflammation-associated cancer

    Lairmore Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic inflammation has long been associated with a wide range of malignancies, is now widely accepted as a risk factor for development of cancer, and has been implicated as a promoter of a variety of cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. We have described a mouse model uniquely suited to examine the link between inflammation and lymphoma in which the Tax oncogene, expressed in activated T and NK cells, perpetuates chronic inflammation that begins as microscopic intraepithelial lesions and develops into inflammatory nodules, subcutaneous tumors, and large granular lymphocytic leukemia. The use of bioluminescent imaging in these mice has expanded our ability to interrogate aspects of inflammation and tumorigenesis non-invasively. Here we demonstrate that bioluminescence induction in these mice correlated with inflammation resulting from wounding, T cell activation, and exposure to chemical agents. In experiments in which long-term effects of inflammation on disease outcome were monitored, the development of lymphoma was promoted by an inflammatory stimulus. Finally we demonstrated that activation of T-cells in T-cell receptor (TCR transgenic TAX-LUC animals dramatically exacerbated the development of subcutaneous TCR- CD16+ LGL tumors. The role of activated T-cells and acquired immunity in inflammation-associated cancers is broadly applicable to hematopoietic malignancies, and we propose these mice will be of use in dissecting mechanisms by which activated T-cells promote lymphomagenesis in vivo.

  4. Mdm2 is a novel activator of ApoCIII promoter which is antagonized by p53 and SHP inhibition

    Highlights: ► Mdm2 enhances HNF4α activation of the ApoCIII promoter via interaction with HNF4α. ► p53 antagonizes the effect of Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. ► SHP strengthens p53 inhibition but abolishes Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. ► Mdm2 alters the enrichment of HNF4α, p53 and SHP to the ApoCIII promoter. -- Abstract: We examined the effect of Mdm2 on regulation of the ApoCIII promoter and its cross-talk with p53 and nuclear receptor SHP. Overexpression of Mdm2 markedly enhanced ApoCIII promoter activity by HNF4α. A direct association of Mdm2 protein with the HNF4α protein was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. Ectopic expression of p53 decreased HNF4α activation of the ApoCIII promoter and antagonized the effect of Mdm2. Co-expression of SHP further strengthened p53 inhibition and abolished Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. Mdm2 inhibited p53-mediated enrichment of HNF4α to the ApoCIII promoter while simultaneously reducing p53 binding and increasing recruitment of SHP to the ApoCIII promoter. The results from this study implicate a potentially important function of Mdm2 in regulation of lipoprotein metabolism.

  5. Adolescents' physical activity at recess and actions to promote a physically active school day in four Finnish schools.

    Haapala, H L; Hirvensalo, M H; Laine, K; Laakso, L; Hakonen, H; Lintunen, T; Tammelin, T H

    2014-10-01

    The national Finnish Schools on the Move programme support schools with their individual plans to promote school-based physical activity (PA). We examined the changes in adolescents' recess and overall PA in four lower secondary schools and described the school actions to promote students' PA and the local contact persons' perceptions of the effects. Recess and overall PA were assessed four times by anonymous questionnaires from students in grades 7-9 (n = 789) in 2010-12, and local contact persons (n = 7) provided information on school actions with diaries, interviews and surveys. Student data were analysed with descriptive statistics and chi-square tests, and school actions data were analysed with quantitative content analysis. The proportion of students who participated in physical activities at recess at least sometimes increased from 30% to 49% in physically active play and from 33% to 42% in ball games, mostly due to improvements in males' participation. Females' participation in recess activities increased in two schools with gender-specific physical activities or facilities. Overall PA levels declined slightly. Organized recess activities, student recess activators and equipment provision and sports facilities development were considered to have affected students' PA positively. Solutions for getting females more physically active in the school setting are needed. PMID:24906635

  6. Adolescents’ physical activity at recess and actions to promote a physically active school day in four Finnish schools

    Haapala, H. L.; Hirvensalo, M. H.; Laine, K.; Laakso, L.; Hakonen, H.; Lintunen, T.; Tammelin, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    The national Finnish Schools on the Move programme support schools with their individual plans to promote school-based physical activity (PA). We examined the changes in adolescents’ recess and overall PA in four lower secondary schools and described the school actions to promote students’ PA and the local contact persons’ perceptions of the effects. Recess and overall PA were assessed four times by anonymous questionnaires from students in grades 7–9 (n = 789) in 2010–12, and local contact persons (n = 7) provided information on school actions with diaries, interviews and surveys. Student data were analysed with descriptive statistics and chi-square tests, and school actions data were analysed with quantitative content analysis. The proportion of students who participated in physical activities at recess at least sometimes increased from 30% to 49% in physically active play and from 33% to 42% in ball games, mostly due to improvements in males’ participation. Females’ participation in recess activities increased in two schools with gender-specific physical activities or facilities. Overall PA levels declined slightly. Organized recess activities, student recess activators and equipment provision and sports facilities development were considered to have affected students’ PA positively. Solutions for getting females more physically active in the school setting are needed. PMID:24906635

  7. Interventions to promote physical activity in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review

    Sazlina eShariff-Ghazali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and December 2012. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs comparing different strategies to increase physical activity level in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed.Results: Twenty-one eligible studies were reviewed, only six studies were rated as good quality and only one study specifically targeted persons aged 65 years and older. Personalised coaching, goal setting, peer support groups, use of technology and physical activity monitors were proven to increase the level of physical activity. Incorporation of health behaviour theories and follow-up supports also were successful strategies. However, the methodological quality and type of interventions promoting physical activity of the included studies in this review varied widely across the eligible studies.Conclusion: Strategies that increased level of physical activity in persons with T2DM are evident but most studies focused on middle-aged persons and there was a lack of well-designed trials. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with interventions promoting physical activity in older people are required.

  8. Thiazolidinediones promote axonal growth through the activation of the JNK pathway.

    Rodrigo A Quintanilla

    Full Text Available The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ (PPARγ promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPARγby thiazolidinediones (TZDs drugs that selectively activate PPARγ prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-β (Aβ. However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPARγ by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPARγ antagonist (GW 9662 prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPARγactivators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPARγ on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPARγ activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. The molecular basis of selective promoter activation by the sigmaS subunit of RNA polymerase.

    Typas, Athanasios; Becker, Gisela; Hengge, Regine

    2007-03-01

    Different environmental stimuli cause bacteria to exchange the sigma subunit in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) and, thereby, tune their gene expression according to the newly emerging needs. Sigma factors are usually thought to recognize clearly distinguishable promoter DNA determinants, and thereby activate distinct gene sets, known as their regulons. In this review, we illustrate how the principle sigma factor in stationary phase and in stressful conditions in Escherichia coli, sigmaS (RpoS), can specifically target its large regulon in vivo, although it is known to recognize the same core promoter elements in vitro as the housekeeping sigma factor, sigma70 (RpoD). Variable combinations of cis-acting promoter features and trans-acting protein factors determine whether a promoter is recognized by RNAP containing sigmaS or sigma70, or by both holoenzymes. How these promoter features impose sigmaS selectivity is further discussed. Moreover, additional pathways allow sigmaS to compete more efficiently than sigma70 for limiting amounts of core RNAP (E) and thereby enhance EsigmaS formation and effectiveness. Finally, these topics are discussed in the context of sigma factor evolution and the benefits a cell gains from retaining competing and closely related sigma factors with overlapping sets of target genes. PMID:17302812

  10. Functional and Activity Analysis of Cattle UCP3 Promoter with MRFs-Related Factors

    Wei Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 is mainly expressed in muscle. It plays an important role in muscle, but less research on the regulation of cattle UCP3 has been performed. In order to elucidate whether cattle UCP3 can be regulated by muscle-related factors, deletion of cattle UCP3 promoter was amplified and cloned into pGL3-basic, pGL3-promoter and PEGFP-N3 vector, respectively, then transfected into C2C12 myoblasts cells and UCP3 promoter activity was measured using the dual-Luciferase reporter assay system. The results showed that there is some negative-regulatory element from −620 to −433 bp, and there is some positive-regulatory element between −433 and −385 bp. The fragment (1.08 kb of UCP3 promoter was cotransfected with muscle-related transcription factor myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A. We found that UCP3 promoter could be upregulated by Myf5, Myf6 and MyoD and downregulated by MyoG and MEF2A.