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Sample records for activation pixe analysis

  1. A comparison of pixe and neutron activation techniques for thorium and uranium ore analysis

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques are used to estimate the concentrations of trace quantitites of thorium and uranium in powdered rock or ore samples. The accuracy of the two methods is compared in both a carbon matrix and a variety of ore matrices over the concentration range 1 to 10000 microgram per gram. Under the test conditions the PIXE and NAA concentration estimates for any individual sample in this range are found to be the same within a 3 sigma standard error of 9 per cent

  2. Analysis of ancient coins by activation with rapid neutrons and by PIXE method

    The quantitative analysis of valuable objects in archaelogical research calls for the use of strictly non-destructive methods, even on very small surfaces of the object to investigate. The analytical method used by L.A.R.N. for the determination of principal elements Cu, Sn and Pb and of trace elements As and Ag in coins have been: 1. the rapid neutron activation (14 Mev) for the analysis of Sn; 2. the PIXE (Proton-Induced X-ray Emission) technique for the surface and core measures in samples which have been sawn as Sn, Pb, Ag and As. These methods have been used to analyse the blanks of Argos supplied by the Institut d'Archeologie of the University of Louvain. (A.F.)

  3. Hair analysis using PIXE

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  4. Uncertainties in thick-target PIXE analysis

    Thick-target PIXE analysis insolves uncertainties arising from the calculation of thick-target X-ray production in addition to the usual PIXE uncertainties. The calculation demands knowledge of ionization cross-sections, stopping powers and photon attenuation coefficients. Information on these is reviewed critically and a computational method is used to estimate the uncertainties transmitted from this data base into results of thick-target PIXE analyses with reference to particular specimen types using beams of 2-3 MeV protons. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of thick-target PIXE is presented. (orig.)

  5. PIXE Analysis of Indoor Aerosols

    Johnson, Christopher; Turley, Colin; Moore, Robert; Battaglia, Maria; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We have performed a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol samples collected in academic buildings at Union College to investigate the air quality in these buildings and the effectiveness of their air filtration systems. This is also the commissioning experiment for a new scattering chamber in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. The aerosol samples were collected on Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates particles according to their aerodynamic size. The foils were bombarded with beams of 2.2-MeV protons from the Union College 1.1-MV Pelletron Accelerator and the X-ray products were detected with an Amptek silicon drift detector. After subtracting the contribution from the Kapton foils, the X-ray energy spectra of the aerosol samples were analyzed using GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the samples. We will describe the collection of the aerosol samples, discuss the PIXE analysis, and present the results.

  6. Pittsburgh rainwater analysis by PIXE

    K. C. Chan; Cohen, B. L.; Frohliger, J. O.; Shabason, L.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of thirteen elements in rainwater from the Pittsburgh, Pa., area were analysed by Charged Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). They were compared to rainwater in a rural area and air particulates in Pittsburgh. Local and non-local contributions are discussed. Washout ratios were calculated and found to be larger for smaller size particles, contrary to general belief. This work demonstrates the convenience of using PIXE.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1976.tb00647.x

  7. Combined XRF and PIXE analysis of flour

    Combined X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were used for the determination of trace and minor elements in two different samples of flour purchased at the local market. The significance of some of the elements found in the samples is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition. It is also shown that XRF can be a useful complementary technique for PIXE analysis of flour

  8. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    Budnar, Miloš; Uršič, Mitja; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Šelih, Vid Simon; Strlič, Matija

    2006-02-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  9. Micro-PIXE for single cell analysis

    The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STIM analysis provides high spatial resolution imaging (< 200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (< 0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for sub-cellular imaging of trace elements in various fields of interest will be presented: in patho-physiology of trace elements involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, and in toxicology of metals such as cobalt. (author)

  10. Establishing PIXE analysis conditions for sweat analysis

    This paper describes a technical analysis of biological samples of sweat by proton induced X-ray emission (hereafter referred to as PIXE). The choice of the irradiation conditions, the preparation of the targets, and the processing treatment of spectra are described. Two excitation systems were used, one under vacuum and the other in atmospheric pressure under helium. Advantages and disadvantages of the two systems are described and detection limits obtained in both cases are presented. A comparison with results obtained by X-ray analysis induced by radioactive sources is made. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of obsidians by PIXE technique

    This work presents the characterization of obsydian samples from different mineral sites in Mexico, undertaken by an Ion Beam Analysis: PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). As part of an intensive investigation of obsidian in Mesoamerica by anthropologists from Mexico National Institute of Anthropology and History, 818 samples were collected from different volcanic sources in central Mexico for the purpose of establishing a data bank of element concentrations of each source. Part of this collection was analyzed by Neutron activation analysis and most of the important elements concentrations reported. In this work, a non-destructive IBA technique (PIXE) are used to analyze obsydian samples. The application of this technique were carried out at laboratories of the ININ Nuclear Center facilities. The samples consisted of of obsydians from ten different volcanic sources. This pieces were mounted on a sample holder designed for the purpose of exposing each sample to the proton beam. This PIXE analysis was carried out with an ET Tandem Accelerator at the ININ. X-ray spectrometry was carried out with an external beam facility employing a Si(Li) detector set at 52.5 degrees in relation to the target normal (parallel to the beam direction) and 4.2 cm away from the target center. A filter was set in front of the detector, to determine the best attenuation conditions to obtain most of the elements, taking into account that X-ray spectra from obsydians are dominated by intense major elements lines. Thus, a 28 μ m- thick aluminium foil absorber was selected and used to reduce the intensity of the major lines as well as pile-up effects. The mean proton energy was 2.62 MeV, and the beam profile was about 4 mm in diameter. As results were founded elemental concentrations of a set of samples from ten different sources: Altotonga (Veracruz), Penjamo (Guanajuato), Otumba (Mexico), Zinapecuaro (Michoacan), Ucareo (Michoacan), Tres Cabezas (Puebla), Sierra Navajas (Hidalgo), Zaragoza

  12. PIXE AND IXX ANALYSIS OF MUSEUM PAPER-LIKE OBJECTS

    邬显慷; 曾先周; 等

    1994-01-01

    The study of paper damage under bombardments of protons and X-rays is reported.An on-demand beam pulsing system is useful for the PIXE analysis of delicate objects.IXX(or PIXE-induced XRF)is more suitable than PIXE in terms of damage to the sample.Some new PIXE and IXX applications of archaeological paper-like samples in recent years are given.

  13. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    Pascholati, Paulo R.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Barbosa, Marcel D.L.; Albuquerque, Cindy [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: pascholati@if.usp.br; rizzutto@if.usp.br; mbarbosa@if.usp.br; cindy@if.usp.br; Neves, Graziela [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: graziela@if.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  14. Introduction of PIXE analysis system in NIRS

    In March 1999, electrostatic accelerator, Tandetron (Model 4117MC, High Voltage Engineering Europe Co.) was installed in the Electrostatic Accelerator Building for PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis. The accelerating voltage is 0.4 to 1.7 MV, and the maximum beam current is 5μA at 3.4 MeV. This system has three beam ports for different types of PIXE analysis: normal, micro-beam and in-air. The first beam port is used for normal PIXE. Since two types of X-ray detecting device, Si (Li) and CdZnTe detectors, are available here, elements from Na (Z=11) to U (Z=92) are detectable. Fifteen samples can semi automatically be measured at one time using a proton beam of optical beam size from 0.5 to 2.0 mm at 100 nA beam current. A quadrupole triplet magnet (Model OM2000, Oxford Micro beams, Ltd.) attached to the second beam port produces a proton micro-beam of square shape less than 1μm x 1μm. Micro-beam scanning PIXE analysis is carried out with this beam at 50pA current and scanning area up to 2.0mm square. The in-air PIXE analysis is performed using the third beam port. The operation of this machine has been scheduled to start from April 2000 and is controlled by Division of Technology and Safety. Some results preliminarily obtained are also shorn. (author)

  15. Considerations about PIXE analysis under channeling conditions

    In this work we have studied some aspects of the X-ray yield induced by protons and H3+ molecules channeling along the and axial directions in GaAs and Si. In this way, it was possible to assess how a PIXE experiment could be affected when such analysis is carried out under channeling conditions. Since the ionization cross sections and the stopping powers have a strong dependence on whether the incoming ion is channeled or not in a particular material, this dependence, in the case of a channeling experiment, may lead to severe distortions of the final elemental concentrations if these effects are not taken into account properly. The results obtained for the matrix analysis of GaAs carried out with the GUPIX software package indicate that the elemental concentrations around the center of the channels are in good agreement with the expected ones. Finally, the potentialities of a channeling PIXE experiment using H3+ molecules are discussed

  16. Elemental analysis of hair using PIXE-tomography and INAA

    3D quantitative elemental maps of a section of a strand of hair were produced using a combination of PIXE-Tomography and simultaneous On/Off Axis STIM-Tomography at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The distributions of S, K, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were determined using the PIXE-T reconstruction package DISRA. The results were compared with conventional bulk PIXE analysis of tomographic data as determined using Dan32. The overall concentrations determined by PIXE were compared with elemental concentrations held in the University of Surrey Hair Database. All the entries currently in the database were produced using INAA. The merits and possible contributions of tomographic PIXE analysis to analysis of hair are discussed. The conclusions drawn from the PIXE-Tomography analysis can be used to argue for more stringent procedures for hair analysis at the University of Surrey. (author)

  17. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called “Quimbaya’s treasure” (QT) and the “Costa Rica collection” (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice

  18. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Climent Font, Aurelio [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia [Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia [Fundación Museos, Banco Central de Costa Rica, San José (Costa Rica); Rovira Llorens, Salvador [Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Calle Serrano 13, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexici DF 28006 (Mexico); Verde, Ana [Museo de América, Avda. de los Reyes Católicos 6, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called “Quimbaya’s treasure” (QT) and the “Costa Rica collection” (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  19. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  20. External PIXE analysis of old inks and papers

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE is a very well established analytical method. This technique of analysis can equally be applied both in vacuum, internal PIXE, and in atmosphere, external PIXE. External PIXE has been applied to material analysis in Van de Graaff laboratory at AEOI using filters and funny filters. Advantages of using these filters have been studied when analysing ancient written documents such as envelopes, inks, and newspapers. This technique clearly demonstrated the differences between new and old inks and papers. More data is needed to show other features of this technique. (author)

  1. PIXE and μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action

  2. PIXE analysis of trace elements in northern fur seal teeth

    Trace elements in teeth of northern fur seal Collorhinus ursinus were analyzed by PIXE and micro-PIXE (μ-PIXE). Trace elements such as Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, As, Br, Sr, and Pb were detected in the teeth, which were composed of hydroxyapatite crystals. Among these elements, the concentrations of Fe and Zn were relatively higher in winter and lower in summer and also Zn varied along with growth of individuals. These elemental fluctuation seems to correspond to the life history of the northern fur seal. It suggests that the PIXE analysis will make a powerful tool to reconstruct the life history

  3. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S

    1999-04-02

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  4. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and x-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.(Author)

  5. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle. (orig.)

  6. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    Montenegro, E. C.; Baptista, G. B.; De Castro Faria, L. V.; Paschoa, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.

  7. System of pattern analysis of PIXE spectra

    Murozono, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Inoue, J.; Ishii, K.; Kitamura, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    1996-07-01

    We have developed an analysis system based on the pattern analysis method. By testing the system, several difficulties of the present method have been identified. We found the following solutions for them: pre-selection of candidate elements in a sample and the use of a proper absorber. The pre-selection of the candidate elements will not be a serious drawback in the industrial PIXE, because it will be easy to pre-process the spectra for a few samples in the beginning of the mass processing of samples of the same kind. On the other hand, reduction of the efficiency due to the use of funny filter is significant only in the lower energy region, where we usually do not suffer from insufficient yields of lighter elements in common samples. The selection of the most suitable filter requires PIXE user to be deeply experienced. In particular, it is not easy to choose the best filter to suppress the yield of peak of an abundant element as the absorption edge filter. It will be important task to find a set of suitable combination of representative samples and corresponding filters. Furthermore, the peak profile model should be improved from the simple Gaussian approximation to more realistic ones with exponential tail, flat component below the peak and escape peaks, etc. It is also necessary to develop a theoretical approach for the background shape of the bremsstrahlung. (J.P.N.)

  8. Human hair analysis by PIXE

    Hair is the unique biological material which, because of its growth, reflects the biomedical and environmental history of the subject. Because of convenience in handling and sampling and relatively high concentrations of metals, trace-element analysis of human hair has been applied widely for different purposes. Although even the measurements of the bulk trace element levels contain some information, the real meaning is contained in longitudinal and radial concentration profiles. This is best achievable by X-ray emission spectroscopy measurements. (author) 98 refs

  9. PIXE analysis of medieval silver coins

    We applied the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique to twenty-eight medieval silver coins, selected from the Tunisian treasury. The purpose is to study the fineness evolution from the beginning of the 7th to the 15th centuries AD. Each silver coin was cleaned with a diluted acid solution and then exposed to a 3 MeV proton beam from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. To allow the simultaneous detection of light and heavy elements, a funny aluminum filter was positioned in front of the Si(Li) detector entrance which is placed at 135o to the beam direction. The elements Cu, Pb, and Au were observed in the studied coins along with the major component silver. The concentration of Ag, presumably the main constituent of the coins, varies from 55% to 99%. This significant variation in the concentration of the major constituent reveals the economical difficulties encountered by each dynasty. It could be also attributed to differences in the composition of the silver mines used to strike the coins in different locations. That fineness evolution also reflects the poor quality of the control practices during this medieval period. In order to verify the ability of PIXE analytical method to distinguish between apparently similar coins, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to our results to classify them into different subgroups of similar elemental composition.

  10. PIGE-PIXE analysis of human milk

    Olabanji, S. O.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Haque, A. M. I.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-04-01

    PIGE-PIXE nuclear techniques were employed for the determination of the elemental composition of human breast milk which is the main source of nutrients to babies in Nigeria. Samples were collected from 32 healthy lactating mothers from Obafemi Awolowo Teaching University Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The samples were homogenized and immediately frozen, and then freeze-dried. Pellets were made using a Perkin Elmer instrument and its accessory the 13 mm die. PIGE measurements of light elements were performed using 3.5 MeV collimated protons from the 7 MV CN Van de Graaff accelerator of INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy while PIXE analysis was carried out using 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator of the same Institute. The results show the presence of important elements that are essential for growth and development of babies. We searched for certain toxic elements which include As, Cd, Hg, Pb, etc. because of their negative roles in enhancing infant mortality rates, but none of them was detected except Pb.

  11. Expanding functions of GIT Arf GTPase-activating proteins, PIX Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GIT-PIX complexes.

    Zhou, Wu; Li, Xiaobo; Premont, Richard T

    2016-05-15

    The GIT proteins, GIT1 and GIT2, are GTPase-activating proteins (inactivators) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins, and function to limit the activity of Arf proteins. The PIX proteins, α-PIX and β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF6 and ARHGEF7, respectively), are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (activators) for the Rho family small GTP-binding protein family members Rac1 and Cdc42. Through their multi-domain structures, GIT and PIX proteins can also function as signaling scaffolds by binding to numerous protein partners. Importantly, the constitutive association of GIT and PIX proteins into oligomeric GIT-PIX complexes allows these two proteins to function together as subunits of a larger structure that coordinates two distinct small GTP-binding protein pathways and serves as multivalent scaffold for the partners of both constituent subunits. Studies have revealed the involvement of GIT and PIX proteins, and of the GIT-PIX complex, in numerous fundamental cellular processes through a wide variety of mechanisms, pathways and signaling partners. In this Commentary, we discuss recent findings in key physiological systems that exemplify current understanding of the function of this important regulatory complex. Further, we draw attention to gaps in crucial information that remain to be filled to allow a better understanding of the many roles of the GIT-PIX complex in health and disease. PMID:27182061

  12. PIXE and ion beam analysis in forensics

    Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)

  13. Thick target PIXE analysis and yield curve calculations

    Four computer programs used for thick target proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) research at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission are discussed. Different techniques of spectrum analysis are considered and a description is given of the spectrum synthesis code PUCK used in our analysis. Attention is focused on the use of theoretical thick target yield curves as a means of obtaining quantitative information on trace element concentration. Finally, several applications indicating the versatility of thick target PIXE analysis are mentioned. (orig.)

  14. Fish otoliths analysis by PIXE: application to stock discrimination

    Fish otoliths are continuously deposited from fish birth to its death along with encoding environmental information. In order to decode the information, PIXE was adopted as trace elemental analysis of the otoliths. Strontium to calcium concentration ratios of red sea bream otoliths varied among rearing stations. The Sr/Ca ratios of Lake Biwa catfishes also varied between male and female and among fishing grounds. The PIXE analysis was applied to the fish stock discrimination. (author)

  15. Fish otoliths analysis by PIXE: application to stock discrimination

    Arai, Nobuaki; Takai, Noriyuki; Sakamoto, Wataru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Yoshida, Koji; Maeda, Kuniko

    1996-12-31

    Fish otoliths are continuously deposited from fish birth to its death along with encoding environmental information. In order to decode the information, PIXE was adopted as trace elemental analysis of the otoliths. Strontium to calcium concentration ratios of red sea bream otoliths varied among rearing stations. The Sr/Ca ratios of Lake Biwa catfishes also varied between male and female and among fishing grounds. The PIXE analysis was applied to the fish stock discrimination. (author)

  16. Analysis of liquid waste using PIXE

    Non-radioactive liquid waste generated in the Kaya Memorial Takizawa Laboratory was analyzed using the PIXE system established at the Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center. Samples of the liquid waste were collected at several stages of the non-radioactive liquid waste purifying process. A simple sample preparation method for liquid sample was adopted. Liquid sample was dropped and dried directly on the backing film after adding the internal standard element, which produced appropriate targets to be analyzed by PIXE. Sodium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, iron and so on in the liquid sample were detected. The PIXE method used in this study showed outstanding properties for analyzing the liquid sample. (author)

  17. Exploratory analysis of Italian medieval pottery with PIXE

    A PIXE analysis has been performed on a small set of potsherds to explore the possibility of application of the method in future systematic analyses of the vast pottery production of medieval Italy for integration in historical and archeological studies. The samples analysed are from the Savona, Liguria and Pisa, Toscany regions, representing pottery types Graffita Arcaica Tirrenica, Ingobbiata Chiara, Ingobbiata Colorata and Maiolica Arcaica. PIXE analyses of Pb and Sn provide characteristic signals to distinguish different glazes. (orig.)

  18. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  19. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus

  20. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  1. PIXE analysis of medieval Romanian silver coins

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method is well suited for quick quantitative analysis of surface layers of thick metal alloys, like the silver coins (Romanian, XIVth century) reported here. No measurement with calibration standards is necessary since the elemental composition is deduced directly from known X-ray production cross sections, by correcting for proton energy loss, X-ray attenuation in the sample and detector efficiency; the correction for the secondary X-ray fluorescence was also included. A 3 MeV proton beam delivered by the tandem accelerator in Bucharest struck the silver coin oriented at 45 angle to the beam direction and the X-ray spectra have been taken with a Si(Li) detector at 90 angle relative to the beam direction. The correction scheme developed in this paper can be applied to the quantitative analysis of major constituents assuming that all elements could be detected in the spectra (in our conditions, having an atomic number Z≥15) and they have a homogeneous distribution over the projectile range. The primary X-ray yield of an element dependent on its abundance has been described considering the X-ray production cross sections for the decreasing energy of the projectile and the attenuation of the X-rays leaving the sample in the direction of the detector. The enhancement of the X-rays of those elements having absorption edges just below the emission energies of dominant elements was taken into account, although it gave only a small contribution in our case. Apart from Ag, other analyzed major elements were Cu, Pb, Au, Fe and Pt. The analysis procedure was checked with some thick Cu-Ag samples of known composition. (authors)

  2. PIXE - Analysis for environmental and biological samples

    The usefulness and accuracy of PIXE as an analytical tool in the study of trace elements in environmental samples of the Brazilian Cerrado are discussed. The report lists actual and forthcoming publications resulting from the study. The mechanism of exchange of elements in solution in water to aerosols has been investigated. For details of the procedure the reader is referred to an earlier report

  3. Parameter determination for quantitative PIXE analysis using genetic algorithms

    For biological and environmental samples, PIXE technique is in particular advantage for elemental analysis, but the quantitative analysis implies accomplishing complex calculations that require the knowledge of more than a dozen parameters. Using a genetic algorithm, the authors give here an account of the procedure to obtain the best values for the parameters necessary to fit the efficiency for a X-ray detector. The values for some variables involved in quantitative PIXE analysis, were manipulated in a similar way as the genetic information is treated in a biological process. The authors carried out the algorithm until they reproduce, within the confidence interval, the elemental concentrations corresponding to a reference material

  4. Development of sample preparation method for honey analysis using PIXE

    We developed an original preparation method for honey samples (samples in paste-like state) specifically designed for PIXE analysis. The results of PIXE analysis of thin targets prepared by adding a standard containing nine elements to honey samples demonstrated that the preparation method bestowed sufficient accuracy on quantitative values. PIXE analysis of 13 kinds of honey was performed, and eight mineral components (Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn) were detected in all honey samples. The principal mineral components were K and Ca, and the quantitative value for K accounted for the majority of the total value for mineral components. K content in honey varies greatly depending on the plant source. Chestnuts had the highest K content. In fact, it was 2-3 times that of Manuka, which is known as a high quality honey. K content of false-acacia, which is produced in the greatest abundance, was 1/20 that of chestnuts. (author)

  5. Characterization of metal threads using differential PIXE analysis

    The external differential-PIXE technique is presented in this work as an efficient and non-destructive tool for the characterization of the structure of ancient metal threads. A PIXE analysis for different proton energies has been performed in a selection of gold and silver threads belonging to the Collection of Textiles of La Alhambra (19th century) and to the Medieval Collection of Textiles of the National Archaeological Museum of Spain. The threads are made of metal strips, wound around a silk or cotton core. The use of differential PIXE allows to distinguish strips made of homogeneous alloys from those made of a silver and copper alloy, coated with a thin gold layer. In the same analysis it is also possible to detect the presence or absence of some trace elements of archaeological interest, such as Pb or Hg

  6. Calibration of PIXE-SP system of elementary analysis

    The set-up and calibration of the PIXE-SP System of Elementary Analysis located at the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo is described. The PIXE-SP, that operates with 8 MeV alpha beam, has been calibrated for elements with Z >= 11, by means of homemade evaporated standard targets of Al, Si, Bacl2, K2CrO4, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ge, Ag, Sn, and Au. Those targets are thin, homogeneous, and have been calbrated on a microbalance within an average precision of 6%. The overall precision of the PIXE-SP System is estimated in 10% for elements with 16 2 thick, irradiated with a 10 μC electric charge, shows a minimum of about 0,1 ng (approximated 4 ppm) for Mn. The PIXE-SP System has also been intercalibrated with the PIXE located at University of Gent, Belgium, by means of 12 atmospheric aerosol targets collected on two Batelle Cascade Impactors. The analyzed masses of elements with 16 <= Z < 30 agree within 20%. (Author)

  7. PIXE analysis on an ancient scroll sample

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn. (author)

  8. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.; Chalhoub, G.; Hamdan, M.

    2010-06-01

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  9. PIXE and ERDA analysis of composites for restorative dentistry

    We studied 14 commercial and 3 Romanian biomaterials using 3 MeV proton particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and copper-beam elastic detection analysis (ERDA). PIXE detected up to 27 elements with Z ≥ 14 (Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Cd, Ba, Nd, Ho, Yb, Hf, Au, Pb, many of them at trace levels), while ERDA evidenced up to 13 elements with Z ≤ 20 (H, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca). Relative concentrations were evaluated. (authors)

  10. Micro-PIXE and PIGE analysis of individual fluid inclusions

    Using the high resolution microprobe which combines PIXE with PIGE measurements, components of trapped fluids can be measured without opening individual inclusions. It is useful tool for nondestructive all elements' analysis. Micro-PIXE was used to detect the Z > 13 elements and the fluorine concentration was analyzed with micro-PIGE, using the 19F(p, αγ)16O reaction at 872 keV resonance energy. Primary work of the elemental distributions including light elements in fluid inclusions is also given. (Author)

  11. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    The PIXE technique was used to analyse the elemental composition of human hair. The PIXE experimental facility used in the Institute of High Energy Physics was described. The methods of sample preparation and elemental quantitative analysis were introduced in detail. The intercomparison material taken for trace element studies form human hair was analysed and the results were in good agreement with the other well established traditional methods. The hair from patients with hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease) was also analysed and compared with that from normal persons. The apparent abnormality of calcium and copper contents in the patient's hair were not observed

  12. Analysis of some medicinal plants in South-western Nigeria using PIXE

    Analysis of thirteen medicinal plants of various biological activities commonly used in South-western Nigeria was carried out using PIXE technique. Nine of these plants are anti-cancer while four are antimicrobial. PIXE measurements were carried out using collimated proton beams delivered by the 2. 5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), (LNL) Legnaro, (Padova), Italy. The results showed the presence of twenty three different elements in the plants and none of them contains any toxic heavy metals. Only Chenopodium ambrosioides showed detectable levels of selenium which is considered important in cancer prevention. (author)

  13. The scanning microbeam PIXE analysis facility at NIRS

    In March 1999, a HVEE Tandetron was installed in the Electrostatic Accelerator Building of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The specifications of the Tandetron accelerator system operating at NIRS are as follows: the accelerating voltage is 0.4-1.7 MV, and the maximum beam current is 500 nA at 3.4 MeV. The accelerator facility incorporates three beam lines for conventional, in-air and microbeam PIXE analysis. The scanning microbeam PIXE analysis line is based around an Oxford Microbeams OM2000 nuclear microscope end stage. This system provides the ability of multi-elemental mapping over sample areas up to 2 x 2 mm area with spatial resolutions routinely at 1 x 1 μm. The scheduled operation of this facility started in April 2000 and is controlled by the Division of Technical Service and Development. The result of beam resolution tests carried out in 2001 are as follows: for scanning transmission ion microscopy, the estimated beam size is 100 x 200 nm, measured using a 2.6 MeV proton beam scanned over a 12.7 μm repeat distance copper grid. For PIXE operation at 50 pA beam current the estimated best spot size is 0.4 x 0.6 μm. The microbeam facility is being used for research into the elemental distribution of small biological samples such as biological cells and tissue

  14. A new PIXE/PIGME analysis facility

    A new PIXE/PIGME ion beam facility is being developed for use on the 3MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. It will be used to analyse geological samples prepared on microscope slides. The samples will be movable in the X and Y axis using remote or computer controlled motorised micrometers. Other features of the rig include remote selection of X-ray detector filters and beam defining apertures. Beam current monitoring is by backscattering, whilst target positions are determined optically using a variable gain borescope. The rig will be a useful tool when analysing very small targets or when target scanning is necessary

  15. PIXE and XRF analysis of honey samples

    The systematic determination of trace-element concentrations in honey samples was done by the PIXE method using a 2 MeV proton beam and by the total reflection XRF method. The different kinds of honey samples were collected in the period of spring-summer in three places of Poland: in the centre of Warsaw (a highly polluted region) and about 100 km east of Warsaw and 70 km southwest of Warsaw (as regions free from industrial and transport pollution). The measured samples have shown that the concentrations of trace elements are similar in the honey samples from these places

  16. Micro-crystalline inclusions analysis by PIXE and RBS

    A characteristic feature of the nuclear microprobe using a 3 MeV proton beam is the long range of particles (around 70 μm in light matrices). The PIXE method, with EDS analysis and using the multilayer approach for treating the X-ray spectrum allows the chemistry of an intra-crystalline inclusion to be measured, provided the inclusion roof and thickness at the impact point of the beam (Z and e, respectively) are known (the depth of the inclusion floor is Z + e). The parameter Z of an inclusion in a mineral can be measured with a precision of around 1 μm using a motorized microscope. However, this value may significantly depart from Z if the analyzed inclusion has a complex shape. The parameter e can hardly be measured optically. By using combined RBS and PIXE measurements, it is possible to obtain the geometrical information needed for quantitative elemental analysis. This paper will present measurements on synthetic samples to investigate the advantages of the technique, and also on natural solid and fluid inclusions in quartz. The influence of the geometrical parameters will be discussed with regard to the concentration determination by PIXE. In particular, accuracy of monazite micro-inclusion dating by coupled PIXE-RBS will be presented

  17. Micro-crystalline inclusions analysis by PIXE and RBS

    Strivay, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege (Belgium); Institut des Sciences de la Terre d' Orleans, CNRS-Orleans (France)], E-mail: dstrivay@ulg.ac.be; Ramboz, C. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre d' Orleans, CNRS-Orleans (France); Gallien, J.-P. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-Saclay (France); Grambole, D. [Ionenstrahlzentrum, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Sauvage, T. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches par Irradiation, CNRS-Orleans (France); Kouzmanov, K. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre d' Orleans, CNRS-Orleans (France); Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Geneve (France)

    2008-05-15

    A characteristic feature of the nuclear microprobe using a 3 MeV proton beam is the long range of particles (around 70 {mu}m in light matrices). The PIXE method, with EDS analysis and using the multilayer approach for treating the X-ray spectrum allows the chemistry of an intra-crystalline inclusion to be measured, provided the inclusion roof and thickness at the impact point of the beam (Z and e, respectively) are known (the depth of the inclusion floor is Z + e). The parameter Z of an inclusion in a mineral can be measured with a precision of around 1 {mu}m using a motorized microscope. However, this value may significantly depart from Z if the analyzed inclusion has a complex shape. The parameter e can hardly be measured optically. By using combined RBS and PIXE measurements, it is possible to obtain the geometrical information needed for quantitative elemental analysis. This paper will present measurements on synthetic samples to investigate the advantages of the technique, and also on natural solid and fluid inclusions in quartz. The influence of the geometrical parameters will be discussed with regard to the concentration determination by PIXE. In particular, accuracy of monazite micro-inclusion dating by coupled PIXE-RBS will be presented.

  18. IBIXFIT: A Tool For The Analysis Of Microcalorimeter PIXE Spectra

    PIXE analysis software has been for long mainly tuned to the needs of Si(Li) detector based spectra analysis and quantification methods based on Kα or Lα X-ray lines. Still, recent evidences related to the study of relative line intensities and new developments in detection equipment, namely the emergence of commercial microcalorimeter based X-ray detectors, have brought up the possibility that in the near future PIXE will become more than just major lines quantification. A main issue that became evident as a consequence of this was the need to be able to fit PIXE spectra without prior knowledge of relative line intensities. Considering new developments it may be necessary to generalize PIXE to a wider notion of ion beam induced X-ray (IBIX) emission, to include the quantification of processes such as Radiative Auger Emission. In order to answer to this need, the IBIXFIT code was created based much on the Bayesian Inference and Simulated Annealing routines implemented in the Datafurnace code [1]. In this presentation, the IBIXFIT is used to fit a microcalorimeter spectrum of a BaxSr(1-x)TiO3 thin film sample and the specific possibility of selecting between fixed and free line ratios combined with other specificities of the IBIXFIT algorithm are shown to be essential to overcome the problems faced.

  19. PIXE analysis of umeboshi (dried plum)

    In recent years, the self-sufficiency ratio of food in Japan has gradually decreased and 60% of foods are now imported from abroad. Japanese people rely strongly upon imported food and should take care of their safety, but what is happening now is that soil pollution in country of origin grows into a serious problem and can affect imported food. Umeboshi is one of the traditional pickled food in Japan and very popular. In the case of umeboshi, more than 65% of it is imported. We analyzed imported umeboshi and domestic ones by using in-air PIXE system and submili-PIXE camera at Tohoku University. In this experiment, the concentrations of toxic heavy metals such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb were lower than standard values given by a food hygiene law. Concentrations of elements heavier than Ca show similar trend among each sample. On the other hand, lighter elements than Ca show large differences, which is related to food coloring or processing technique. (author)

  20. Environmental atmosphere suspended particulate matter analysis using PIXE

    One of the environmental indicators of the atmosphere environment is suspended particulate matter (SPM). Recently, the concentration of particulate matter under 2.5 micro-meters (PM2.5) among SPM is regarded as important, and an environmental standard has been established for PM2.5 concentration. S.H.I. Examination and Inspection (SEI), Ltd. analyzes the components of PM2.5 by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a Van de Graaff accelerator. SEI's PIXE analysis system quantifies the components by an external standard method. As a method for validating the reliability, the certified values of standard matter SRM2783 were compared with SEI's analysis values, and it was confirmed that the uncertainty of the analysis values of PM2.5 with this analysis system was within 10%. (author)

  1. Development of 2-dimensional element analysis system with micro PIXE

    Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Shouichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sato, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Asuka; Ishii, Keizo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-02-01

    Using a high proton beams focusing to about 1 {mu}m the 2-dimensional distribution of elements can be analyzed by the characteristic x-ray emitted from the irradiated samples in the atmosphere (PIXE). The analysis method of fluorine in the dentin is developed by the Nuclear Reaction Analysis method (NRA) using the nuclear reaction of {sup 19}F(P, {alpha} {gamma}){sup 16}O since the elements lighter than sodium can not be analyzed by the PIXE. This analysis system is used by the researchers of wide areas such as medical science, dentistry, biology, geology and environmental science. The observed data are saved in the FTP-server. Then the experimental data obtained can be owned jointly by the distant researchers through the Internet-system at the real time. This system is opened to the research groups of the inside and the outside of the Institute. (H. Katsuta)

  2. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Hinrichs, Ruth; Bertol, A. P. L.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  3. Applicability of PIXE for multielemental analysis in a biomedical application

    The applicability of PIXE for multielemental analysis is demonstrated. The method is used in a major systematic study on hair samples using one target analysis. The pathological state considered is agitated elderly people. The main elements examined are S, K, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Hg and Pb. The minimum detectable limits are 1-10 ppm using 180 μg of dry hair at 25 μe irradiations for elements between K and Br. The significance of differences between the hair elements in control populations and patients suffering from the pathological conditions are investigated. Investigations of possible linear and multiple-correlations between elements in each population are made. The work indicates that some elements do exhibit variation with pathological state, and the multielement PIXE analysis gives useful information about the subject. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  4. PIXE and ERDA analysis of composites for restorative dentistry

    Dental composites, made of silicates and oxides particles embedded in an organic polymer, replaced largely silver amalgam in dentistry. However they bring in the organism exogenous elements whose biological action is poorly understood. In the mouth element transfer and reactions can take place leading eventually to adverse effects of dental composites. Due to market pressure composites show a dynamic evolution, but they are rather expensive. Recently, Romanian biomaterials offered a low-cost alternative, and control of impurities appeared clinically essential. Sensitive surface multielement analysis required for these problems is rendered by ion beam methods. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used in studies of dental hard tissues and composites. Though highly sensitive for trace elements, PIXE usually fails to observe low Z elements. These can be detected by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). We applied PIXE and ERDA in a study on dental composites at the 8.5 MV HIPNE-HH tandem accelerator. Thick composite samples with a flat surface were prepared by polymerization of 14 commercial materials and of 3 Romanian products. Measurements were performed with: 3 MeV protons, a HP Ge detector, and using 0 or 30 mm Al foil for PIXE; and with 80 MeV 63 Cu10+ ions, using a compact DE(gas)-E(solid) telescope detector for ERDA. Altogether, PIXE spectra evidenced up to 24 elements with Z > 16 (Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ag, Cd, Ba, Nd, Ho, Yb, Hf, Au, Pb, many of them at trace levels), while ERDA detected up to 13 elements with Z < 21 (H, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca). Relative concentrations evaluated from the PIXE spectra using X-ray yields calculated for a simplified matrix allowed classification of the 14 biomaterials in two distinct groups: older generations dominated by Z = 17 - 30 elements and recent generations containing one or two elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, Yb (plus Ca in some cases). Composites with close

  5. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  6. PIXE analysis: an option for the study of atmospheric pollutants

    Several techniques have been utilized in studying atmospheric contamination samples. However, each lack some characteristics required for these studies. Spectroscopy of X-rays particularly where excitation models are produced using charged particles (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE), for its high sensitivity, is the one that best fitting itself to the scheme of analysis required. In this paper we report some qualitative results of the atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Mexico City. (Author)

  7. APF-IH type linac for PIXE analysis

    We are studying an APF-IH type linac for PIXE analysis use. The compact (L=1.5m) linac accelerate proton from 40 keV to 2.0 MeV. This APF (Alternating-Phase-Focus) system can not focus so high intense beam, but beam of several 100 μA is focused by combination of Focus-Defocus sequence. For PIXE analysis, intensity of bombard particles are several μA lower than several 100 μA. From particle orbit calculation, on energy width of ±0.25%, this linac can accept transverse emittance of 113 πmm·mrad, longitudinal phase of 35deg (by using a buncher, beam transmission get larger than 65%) and beam intensity of several 100 μA. The linac can accelerate proton to 2.0 MeV by RF power of about 10 kW. We designed the Interdigital H (IH) leaner accelerator by particle-orbit calculation. All PIXE analysis system occupy only 2mx3m. A half-model cavity was designed. The model is manufacturing now for measurement of RF characteristics. (author)

  8. In-air micro-pixe analysis of tissue samples

    Micro-PIXE is capable of providing spatial distributions of elements in the micro-meter scale and its application to biology is useful to elucidate the cellular metabolism. Since, in this method, a sample target is usually irradiated with proton or α-particle beams in vacuum, beam heating results in evaporation of volatile elements an shrinking of the sample. In order to avoid these side effects, we previously developed a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis for samples of cultured cells. In addition to these, analysis of exposed tissue samples from living subjects is highly desirable in biological and medical research. Here, we describe a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis of such tissue samples. The target samples of exposed tissue slices from a Donryu rat, in which a tumor had been transplanted, were analyzed with proton micro-beams of 2.6 MeV. We report that the shape of cells and the distribution of volatile elements in the tissue sample remain uncharged when using a target preparation based on a freeze-drying method. (author)

  9. PIXE spectrum analysis taking into account bremsstrahlung spectra

    Continuous background appearing over the wide region of X-ray energy in the PIXE spectrum is very troublesome presence in the peak fitting. In the usual manner, the spectrum of continuous background is predicted as a function of polynomial and is subtracted from the X-ray spectrum. However, the parameters of the polynomial are determined with difficulty in the case that the continuous background exists under many peaks of characteristic X-rays. We calculated the production cross sections of continuous X-rays for several elements on the basis of the theories of quasi-free electron bremsstrahlung (QFEB), secondary electron bremsstrahlung (SEB) and atomic bremsstrahlung (AB), and obtained the continuous X-ray spectrum as a function of atomic number and X-ray energy. X-ray spectra of a standard sample and of a bovine liver sample were analyzed by a pattern analysis method assuming the reference spectra consisting of characteristic X-rays and continuous X-rays for each element. The results of analysis are quite satisfactory. By the present method, the PIXE spectra can be analyzed under little influence of the background subtraction, and it enables us a full auto-analysis of PIXE spectrum

  10. Calibration of a PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols

    The results of the calibration of the PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols in the CNM is presented. The system was calibrated in order to lead to the project study of environmental aerosols using PIXE from the qualitative dimension to the quantitative one. Part of this work it was carried out in collaboration with the expert of the IAEA Dr. D. Crumpton. The calibration of the system it was achieved bombarding thin targets of well-known composition with protons of 2.5 MeV. Using this technique it was determined the absolute elementary concentration in samples of atmospheric aerosols. As an example the calculation of the lead concentration in one of them whose result was of 662 ± 49 ng m-3 is presented. This value agrees with the measurements made in the Crocker Nuclear Lab of the UCD. Its are also discussed the reproducibility and precision of the used technique. (Author)

  11. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  12. Development of a low-energy PIXE analysis system based on an ion implanter

    A low-energy particle-induced X-ray emission (LE-PIXE) analysis system with precise energy control was developed based on a 200 kV ion implanter. The energy dependence of LE-PIXE was evaluated using a millimeter-sized low-energy proton beam by varying the incident energy with precision better than 5 keV. LE-PIXE spectra were obtained for protons with an energy range of 40–120 keV. The LE-PIXE sensitivity was approximately proportional to the sixth power of the incident proton energy. The characteristic X-ray intensity strongly depended on the depth distribution of elements in the target. Experimental evaluation with multilayered thin film samples demonstrated that LE-PIXE was effective for depth distribution analysis to 1000 nm deep. Multilayered structures containing four different elements were characterized by LE-PIXE analysis using multiple probe energies

  13. Metal trace analysis by PIXE and PDMS techniques

    The risk for the human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used as complementary technique to the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to characterize aerosol samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a 6-stage cascade impactor (CI) in two sites of Rio de Janeiro City. One is an island (Fundao Island) in the Guanabara Bay close to an industrial zone and the other, in Gavea, is a residential zone close to a lagoon and to the seashore. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulates were in the fine fraction of the aerosols collected in both locations. In order to identify the contribution of the seawater particles from the Guanabara Bay in the aerosols, seawater samples were also collected at Fundao Island. The samples were analyzed by PIXE and PDMS techniques. The analysis of the results suggests that the aerosols are different in both sampling sites and also exist a contribution from the Guanabara Bay seawater particles to the aerosols collected in the Fundao Island. PIXE allows identification and quantification of the elements heavier than Na (Z=11) while PDMS allows identification of organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples, as these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization

  14. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Olise, Felix S., E-mail: felix_olise@rushpost.com [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P. [CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A. [IST/CTN: Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear (CTN), EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO{sub 3} levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  15. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples

  16. Combined PIXE and XPS analysis on republican and imperial Roman coins

    A combined PIXE and XPS analysis has been performed on a few Roman coins of the republican and imperial age. The purpose was to investigate via XPS the nature and extent of patina in order to be capable of extracting PIXE data relative to the coins bulk. The inclusion of elements from the surface layer, altered by oxidation and inclusion, is a known source of uncertainty in PIXE analyses of coins, performed to assess the composition and the provenance

  17. Combined PIXE and XPS analysis on republican and imperial Roman coins

    Daccà, A.; Prati, P.; Zucchiatti, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.; Gemme, G.; Parodi, R.; Pera, R.

    2000-03-01

    A combined PIXE and XPS analysis has been performed on a few Roman coins of the republican and imperial age. The purpose was to investigate via XPS the nature and extent of patina in order to be capable of extracting PIXE data relative to the coins bulk. The inclusion of elements from the surface layer, altered by oxidation and inclusion, is a known source of uncertainty in PIXE analyses of coins, performed to assess the composition and the provenance.

  18. Perfecting of a computer program for PIXE quantitative analysis

    PIXE technique is used to measure element abundance in geological, archaeological samples, in medicine ...In this thesis, the author recalls the theoretical bases of this analysis method, gives the calculation method of element ratios that he has used for thick samples, describes the computer programs (XMONO and PIXCO) and then verifies experimentally his results that he has obtained with the PIXCO program results. The comparative studies show that PIXCO program gives good results for the elements of 20< Z<40 but ignores X secondary emission. PIXCO program is interesting for the analysis of next samples in series

  19. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author)

  20. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis

  1. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eight hair strands each of nearly circular cross-section and having approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminium frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved in nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped onto a membrane filter using a micropipette. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis are discussed. (orig.)

  2. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    Cheng Lin [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: chenglinbnu@hotmail.com; Ding Xunliang [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng Huangsheng [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang WenJiang [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang 330008 (China); Fan Changsheng [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang 330008 (China)

    2006-03-15

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  3. PIXE analysis of suspended particulate matter originally collected for beta-ray absorption mass monitoring

    A method of transferring suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the used filter of a beta-absorption mass monitor to a polycarbonate filter for subsequent PIXE analysis has been developed. The method allows determination of the relative elemental composition of SPM. It was demonstrated that PIXE analysis can detect S, Cl, Fe and Zn in SPM sampled over a one-hour period. (author)

  4. Micro-crystalline inclusions analysis by PIXE and RBS

    Strivay, David; Ramboz, Claire; Gallien, J. P.; Grambole, D; Kouzmanov, Kalin

    2008-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the nuclear microprobe using a 3 MeV proton beam is the long range of particles (around 70 \\mu m in light matrices). The PIXE method, with EDS analysis and using the multilayer approach for treating the X-ray spectrum allows the chemistry of an intra-crystalline inclusion to be measured, provided the inclusion roof and thickness at the impact point of the beam (Z and e, respectively) are known (the depth of the inclusion floor is Z + e). The parameter Z of an inclu...

  5. Analysis of archaeological artefacts. PIXE, XRF or ICP-MS?

    Elemental analysis of ancient artefacts is of considerable benefit to the field of Archaeology and of general interest to earth scientists. Several techniques are currently available for this purpose. Capabilities of PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), XRF (X-ray Fluorescence) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) were evaluated to establish which of these instrumental methods was best suited especially for routine on-line usage. The elements of interest discussed in this paper are useful in archaeological provenance studies. (author)

  6. Sample preparation of archaeological materials for PIXE analysis

    A method to prepare thin samples of archaeological materials such as potteries and bones for PIXE analysis is presented. In this method fine powder of the matter under analysis is suspended and deposited on polycarbonate filters. The process takes place in a chamber where clean air and the powder are mixed and forced to pass through the filter. Thin samples with typical mass density of about 50 μg cm-2 are obtained. The uniformity of the mass deposit has been optically tested with a He-Ne laser showing fluctuations of the order of one percent. Samples of clay standards from NIST were prepared with this method and analyzed by PIXE. The agreement between these results and NIST values is very good, with linear correlation factors close to unity. The method was applied to study the elemental composition of clay from different fragments of a Chilean pre-Hispanic pottery piece. These results are very consistent showing that the analysis of samples from a small fragment can represent the whole piece. (author) 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Micro-crystalline inclusions analysis by PIXE and RBS

    Strivay, David; Gallien, J P; Grambole, D; Kouzmanov, Kalin

    2008-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the nuclear microprobe using a 3 MeV proton beam is the long range of particles (around 70 \\mu m in light matrices). The PIXE method, with EDS analysis and using the multilayer approach for treating the X-ray spectrum allows the chemistry of an intra-crystalline inclusion to be measured, provided the inclusion roof and thickness at the impact point of the beam (Z and e, respectively) are known (the depth of the inclusion floor is Z + e). The parameter Z of an inclusion in a mineral can be measured with a precision of around 1 \\mu m using a motorized microscope. However, this value may significantly depart from Z if the analyzed inclusion has a complex shape. The parameter e can hardly be measured optically. By using combined RBS and PIXE measurements, it is possible to obtain the geometrical information needed for quantitative elemental analysis. This paper will present measurements on synthetic samples to investigate the advantages of the technique, and also on natural solid and f...

  8. Analysis of size-fractionated coal combustion aerosols by PIXE and other analytical techniques

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to study the chemical composition of size-fractionated in-stack fly-ash particles emitted during coal combustion. The samples were collected before the electrostatic precipitator at a gas temperature of 120deg C during the combustion of Venezuelan coal in a 81 MW capacity circulating fluidized bed boiler. The sampling device consisted of a Berner low pressure impactor, which was operated with a cyclone precutter. The Nuclepore polycarbonate foils, which were used as collection surfaces in the low pressure impactor, were analyzed by the three techniques, and the results of common elements were critically compared. The PIXE results were systematically lower than the INAA data, and the percentage difference appeared to be stage-dependent, but virtually independent upon the element. The discrepancies are most likely due to bounce-off effects, particle reentrainment and other sampling artifacts, which may make that a fraction of the aerosol particles is deposited on the impaction foils outside the section analyzed by PIXE. However, by restoring to a 'mixed internal standard' approach, accurate PIXE data are obtained. Also in the comparison between the ICP-MS and the INAA data significant discrepancies were observed. These are most likely due to incomplete dissolution of the particulate material, and in particular of the alumino-silicate fly-ash matrix, during the acid digestion sample preparation step for ICP-MS. It is suggested that a comparison between ICP-MS data of acid digested samples and INAA can advantageously be used to provide speciation information on the various elements. Selected examples of size distributions are presented and briefly discussed. (orig.)

  9. A novel preconcentration technique for the PIXE analysis of water

    The potential of using dried algae as a novel preconcentration technique for the analysis of water samples by PIXE was examined. The algae cells were found to contain significant levels of P and S, indicative of phosphorous- and sulfur-containing groups on the cell wall or inside the algae cells which may serve as potential binding sites for metal ions. When C. vulgaris was used on mixed metal solutions, linear responses were observed for Ag+, Ba2+, and Cd2+ in the concentration range from 10 ng/g to 1 μg/g; for Cu2+ and Pb2+ from 10 ng/g to 5 μg/g; and for Hg2+ from 10 ng/g to 10 μg/g. When S. bacillaris was used, linear responses were observed from 10 ng/g up to 10 μg/g for all of the metal cations investigated. The PIXE results demonstrated that metal binding at low concentrations involves replacement of sodium on the cell wall and that at high concentrations magnesium was also replaced. Competitive binding studies indicate that the metal ions, Ag+, Ba2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+, share common binding sites with binding efficiencies varying in the sequence of Pb2+>Cu2+>Ag2+>Cd2+>Ba2+. The binding of Hg2+ involved a different binding site with an increase in binding efficiency in the presence of Ag+. (orig.)

  10. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p,p'γ)19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  11. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Makanju, O.V. [Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U.), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Haque, A.M.I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cherubini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the {sup 19}F(p,p`{gamma}){sup 19}F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  12. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  13. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    Santos, Hellen C., E-mail: hellencsa@gmail.com; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C.L.

    2015-02-15

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi – São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  14. PIXE analysis for bioaccumulation studies of trace elements

    Bioaccumulation by micro-alga in the ocean was simulated in nutritive seawater containing known amounts of trace metals, and the concentration factors for Fe, Zn and Cd were measured by PIXE. Trace transition metals in nearshore seawater were removed by Chelex-100. Then a culture solution was prepared by adding known amounts of trace metals and nutritive salts to the purified seawater. Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were purely cultured in the culture solution. An interested metal ion was added to the culture solution (0.01-5.0 mg/l). Alga in 10 ml of the culture solution was collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 ) by suction filtration and subjected to 2.9 MeV proton bombardment. Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cd were simultaneously determined. PIXE multi-element analysis was possible using less than 1 mg of analytical sample. The quantity of the metal in the alga was increased in proportion to the concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factors for Zn, Fe and Cd were measured, e.g., 10200 ± 300 ml/g to Zn for Phaeodactylum. The trend of the affinity for the trace metals in the case of Nannochloropsis was Fe3+ > Zn2+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+. (author)

  15. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  16. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

    2010-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  17. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    Santos, Hellen C.; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C. L.

    2015-02-01

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi - São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  18. Calibration of a PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols; Calibracion de un sistema PIXE para analisis de aerosoles ambientales

    Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Anguiano, G.; Flores M, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-04-15

    The results of the calibration of the PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols in the CNM is presented. The system was calibrated in order to lead to the project study of environmental aerosols using PIXE from the qualitative dimension to the quantitative one. Part of this work it was carried out in collaboration with the expert of the IAEA Dr. D. Crumpton. The calibration of the system it was achieved bombarding thin targets of well-known composition with protons of 2.5 MeV. Using this technique it was determined the absolute elementary concentration in samples of atmospheric aerosols. As an example the calculation of the lead concentration in one of them whose result was of 662 {+-} 49 ng m{sup -3} is presented. This value agrees with the measurements made in the Crocker Nuclear Lab of the UCD. Its are also discussed the reproducibility and precision of the used technique. (Author)

  19. PIXE analysis of tree leaves as a possible comparative integral monitor of particulates in urban areas

    The possibility of obtaing integral comparative data for particulate distribution in urban areas from PIXE analysis of tree leaves is discussed in relation to the leaf gross anatomy, to the diffusion of selected tree species in such areas and to the implementation of experimental techniques necessary to make PIXE analysis effective. Multielemental scans were performed on a small set samples; results are compared to PIXE analysis of typical urban aerosols. The validity of the method and the criteria for yearly relative comparisons of different areas are discissed

  20. PIXE-analysis of powder and liquid uranium-bearing samples

    Buhay, O.; Khachatrian, A.; Storizhko, V.Yu.

    2015-05-01

    The article concerns techniques of sample preparation from powder and liquid uranium-bearing materials for the PIXE analysis. Experiment procedure is described for elemental analysis of samples with proton induced X-ray emission. Advantages, disadvantages, and restrictions for successive X-rays filters for PIXE spectra are enlisted. Results of a quantitative analysis of the samples are reported. Their credibility is proved by analysis performed for a standard liquid sample.

  1. PIXE-analysis of powder and liquid uranium-bearing samples

    The article concerns techniques of sample preparation from powder and liquid uranium-bearing materials for the PIXE analysis. Experiment procedure is described for elemental analysis of samples with proton induced X-ray emission. Advantages, disadvantages, and restrictions for successive X-rays filters for PIXE spectra are enlisted. Results of a quantitative analysis of the samples are reported. Their credibility is proved by analysis performed for a standard liquid sample

  2. PIXE analysis of trace elements in Genus Hippophae L

    Trace elements in four kinds of the Genus Hippophae L pulps were analysed by PIXE. Optimization of the system performance was done by carefully selecting the absorbers. Analytical sensitivities of the PIXE system were obtained by means of 'external standard method'

  3. Analysis of an ancient bronze statue by external beam pixe

    A quantitative analysis of an ancient Buddha statue was performed by external beam Proton Induced X-ray Emission for the purpose of identifying its originality. It is shown how the PIXE method can be applied for archeological study. The elemental composition of the statue is compared with that of several samples with definite ages. The experiment was performed by extracting 2.4 MeV proton beam through a 2 mm diameter collimator and 7.6 μm kapton foil to the He atmosphere. X-rays were measured by a Si(Li) detector. The analysed elements were Fe, Cu, Ag, Au and Hg for gold coating and Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Sn, Au, Pb and Bi for bronze body. (author) 11 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  5. PIXE analysis of trace and other mineral elements in phytopharmaceutical drugs

    Despite of ongoing progress in the biochemistry of phytopharmaceutical drugs, their mineral micro- and trace elements have not been studied in detail. These elements may have therapeutic or toxic activity which should be assessed by sensitive investigations. The latter can be done by multielemental analysis with nuclear and atomic methods. We previously found 28 elements in some Romanian plant drugs by nuclear activation analysis. The availability of this method is, however, limited by the access to a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is an alternative method with high performances in biomedicine and requiring no sample preparation for drugs' studies. We applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of three plant drugs - Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte - used as invigorators, protectors and prophylactics in oxidative stress diseases. Measurements with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering) tandem accelerator, using a hyper-pure Ge detector and no additional absorber foil, evidenced unusually complex elemental compositions of drugs. Up to 31 elements with Z > 15 were found: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Hg, and As and/or Pb, from major to trace levels. The three drugs' qualitative composition were found to be rather similar. Relative concentrations were well evaluated with X-ray yields calculated for another kind of light element thick target. Drug's toxic elements - As and/or Pb, Hg, and possibly Ga - were all at trace levels, but their accumulation might be harmful. Some essential elements like K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr can be biologically useful. X-ray yields improvement and other ways for PIXE quantitative analysis of the phytotherapeutic drugs are outlined. (authors)

  6. Analysis of uranium distribution in rocks by μ-PIXE

    We examined distributions of U as well as P, Ca, Fe and Ti in rock samples collected at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia, using a micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) analyzing system developed in the TIARA facility of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The conventional scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was also applied to identify a U-bearing phosphate as saleeite, and to examine the distributions of the above elements to clarify relative advantages of μ-PIXE. The advantages of μ-PIXE are as follows: (1) the spatial resolution of μ-PIXE, about 0.8 μm2, is higher than that of SEM-EDS, about 7 μm2, (2) the contrast of elemental maps by μ-PIXE is better than that by SEM-EDS, (3) μ-PIXE detection of U using its L-line gives more reliable U distribution when clay minerals containing potassium are present. It is concluded that μ-PIXE is one of the best techniques that allows U to be accurately analyzed and mapped in K-bearing minerals, using its L-line

  7. Applications of PIGE and PIXE for analysis of ceramic archaeological artifacts

    Ion beam analysis techniques namely particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using proton beam have been utilized for multielement concentration determination in archaeological clay potteries from three different locations. Concentration determination of Si, Al and Na in 30 artifacts by PIGE and nine elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Zr by PIXE was carried out. An IAEA RM Soil-7 was analyzed by PIGE, PIXE and INAA for comparison of results as well as for validation of methods. (author)

  8. Analysis of candidate micro-reference materials of lichen and algae by SRXRF and PIXE

    The two micro-analysis techniques, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence and macro-proton induced X-ray emission (macro-PIXE), were used in a homogeneity test of two candidate reference materials (RMs), lichen IAEA-338 and algae IAEA-413 (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA), in the present work. The two candidate RMs had good homogeneity with the minimum sampling mass of 10 mg required for micro-analytical nuclear techniques. The elemental content in the RMs was also determined by macro-PIXE. The relative homogeneity factors HE of elements in the RMs were estimated on the base of our macro-PIXE results

  9. Recent PIXE analysis applied to bio-medical and environmental fields in Japan

    The distribution of minor and trace elements in biological samples is very informative for bio-medical and environmental research. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is a powerful tool for this subject since it can analyze many elements in samples non-destructively at high sensitivity and, with an advantage of micro-beam scanning capability. Recent studies in Japan on the application of PIXE analysis to these fields are introduced. (author)

  10. PIXE analysis of otoliths from several species of teleost fish

    In-air PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in otoliths from several species of teleost fish in order to examine the correlation between the trace elements concentrations and environmental conditions. Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr were detected accurately in the order of ppm by using the in-air PIXE. It seemed that concentrations of Sr and Zn in red sea bream otoliths increased in proportion to higher seawater temperature. In addition, there were significant differences in trace element composition between that of reared red sea bream and rockfish and that of wild ones. Preliminary results indicate that the PIXE is a powerful technique to investigate fish otoliths. (author)

  11. PIXE analysis of otoliths from several species of teleost fish

    Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Maeda, Kuniko

    1994-12-31

    In-air PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in otoliths from several species of teleost fish in order to examine the correlation between the trace elements concentrations and environmental conditions. Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr were detected accurately in the order of ppm by using the in-air PIXE. It seemed that concentrations of Sr and Zn in red sea bream otoliths increased in proportion to higher seawater temperature. In addition, there were significant differences in trace element composition between that of reared red sea bream and rockfish and that of wild ones. Preliminary results indicate that the PIXE is a powerful technique to investigate fish otoliths. (author).

  12. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He++ beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in human hair. Using an external beam, hair from workers exposed to GaAs was examined. The results are in fairly food agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the PIXE technique in vacuum hair from mentally defective children was analyzed and compared with the hair of normal children. In a similar way, hair from 3200 year old preserved mummy was studied. (orig.)

  14. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Ishii, K., E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H. [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173 (Japan); Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T. [Sasaki Taro memorial PIXE Center, Asano-cho 5, Hakodate 040-0076 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K. We also measured {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of {sup 40}K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of {sup 137}Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with {sup 137}Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  15. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Sera, K.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T.

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of 137Cs and 40K. We also measured 137Cs and 40K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of 40K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of 137Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with 137Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  16. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of 137Cs and 40K. We also measured 137Cs and 40K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of 40K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of 137Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with 137Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb

  17. Simultaneous PIXE and RBS data analysis using Bayesian Inference with the DataFurnace code

    Pascual-Izarra, C.; Reis, M. A.; Barradas, N. P.

    2007-01-01

    The Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques can be used to obtain complementary information about the characteristics of a sample but, traditionally, a gap has separated the available computer codes for analyzing data from each technique, being hard to simultaneously analyze data from the same sample. The recent development of a free and open source library, LibCPIXE, for PIXE simulation and analysis of arbitrary multilayered samples,...

  18. Is PIXE still a useful technique for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols? The LABEC experience

    Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; G. Calzolai; Chiari, M; Udisti, R.; Marino, F.

    2011-01-01

    At the 3-MV Tandetron accelerator of LABEC (INFN) an external beam facility is fully dedicated to particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma -ray emission (PIGE) measurements of atmospheric aerosol elemental composition. All the elements with Z > 10 are simultaneously detected by PIXE in a few minutes and an automatic system for positioning, changing and scanning of the samples allows the analysis of the aerosol collected by different kinds of devices: long series of da...

  19. PIXE-RBS analysis on potteries unearthed from Lijiaba Site

    Wu, Q.Q.; Zhu, J.J.; Liu, M.T.; Zhou, Z. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); An, Z., E-mail: anzhu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Huang, W.; He, Y.H.; Zhao, D.Y. [School of History and Culture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-02-01

    A simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis using 2 MeV proton beam and an aluminum funny filter was performed to identify and characterize elemental composition of 52 pottery shards in Shang-Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1700–B.C.221) unearthed from the Lijiaba Site, one of the habitations of Ba clan in the Three Gorges reservoir area in China. From the result of factor analysis of elemental composition, there was no obvious element assemblage phenomenon among the pottery shards with different types, which may suggest that there was no special clay source for special pottery at that time. Furthermore, a group of pottery elemental data from the Jinsha Site (B.C.1200–B.C.650) of Chengdu in China, the representative relic of Shu culture, was also employed to compare with those from the Lijiaba Site, and an obvious difference in elemental composition was observed, which perhaps indicated that only based on the elemental analysis of these potteries, no evidence of interchange was found between the two sites.

  20. PIXE-RBS analysis on potteries unearthed from Lijiaba Site

    Wu, Q. Q.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, M. T.; Zhou, Z.; An, Z.; Huang, W.; He, Y. H.; Zhao, D. Y.

    2013-02-01

    A simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis using 2 MeV proton beam and an aluminum funny filter was performed to identify and characterize elemental composition of 52 pottery shards in Shang-Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1700-B.C.221) unearthed from the Lijiaba Site, one of the habitations of Ba clan in the Three Gorges reservoir area in China. From the result of factor analysis of elemental composition, there was no obvious element assemblage phenomenon among the pottery shards with different types, which may suggest that there was no special clay source for special pottery at that time. Furthermore, a group of pottery elemental data from the Jinsha Site (B.C.1200-B.C.650) of Chengdu in China, the representative relic of Shu culture, was also employed to compare with those from the Lijiaba Site, and an obvious difference in elemental composition was observed, which perhaps indicated that only based on the elemental analysis of these potteries, no evidence of interchange was found between the two sites.

  1. PIXE-RBS analysis on potteries unearthed from Lijiaba Site

    A simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis using 2 MeV proton beam and an aluminum funny filter was performed to identify and characterize elemental composition of 52 pottery shards in Shang-Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1700–B.C.221) unearthed from the Lijiaba Site, one of the habitations of Ba clan in the Three Gorges reservoir area in China. From the result of factor analysis of elemental composition, there was no obvious element assemblage phenomenon among the pottery shards with different types, which may suggest that there was no special clay source for special pottery at that time. Furthermore, a group of pottery elemental data from the Jinsha Site (B.C.1200–B.C.650) of Chengdu in China, the representative relic of Shu culture, was also employed to compare with those from the Lijiaba Site, and an obvious difference in elemental composition was observed, which perhaps indicated that only based on the elemental analysis of these potteries, no evidence of interchange was found between the two sites

  2. Below-surface analysis of inclusions with PIXE and PIGE

    The composition of fluid inclusions in host minerals holds much information about the chemical environment of mineral formation. When solid inclusions are exposed through polishing, their content can readily be investigated with an electron or proton probe. However, with an electron probe, only the daughter minerals or the residue material left when a fluid inclusion is opened can be analyzed since electrons with energies of tens of keV cannot penetrate to the unexposed inclusion. On the other hand, proton beams of a few MeV can penetrate a few tens of μm of material and still be able to excite characteristic radiation. This phenomenon has been exploited for the analysis of subsurface inclusions. Ideally, standard petrographic sections are polished to that inclusions, targetted for analysis, are brought to within 10 μm of the surface. The overlying matrix reduces the sensitivity of PIXE for the elements of low Z such as Na and Al because of the attenuation of the X-rays. However, these elements, as well as elements of even lower Z, which cannot be analyzed with the electron probe, can readily be detected with PIGE at good sensitivity. (orig.)

  3. Determination of the sampling factor in biological standards using INAA and PIXE analysis

    Variations in the distribution of elemental concentrations in most biological materials suggest that a subsample, taken from a specimen containing the elements of interest, may not be representative of the specimen due to lack of homogeneity. It is therefore important when using a trace-element analysis technique, to know the representative mass, defined by a sampling factor for a given relative subsampling error, for whichever material is analysed and for each element detected. We have used two complementary techniques, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short-lived radionuclides and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis to determine the concentration of 17 elements and obtain their sampling factors in a number of biological standards. In the case of PIXE a 2 MeV, 0.5 mm diameter proton beam was used and the sampling factor was expressed in terms of the number of spots on the target material required for a representative sample mass to be analysed. Six elements, Cl, Ca, Cu, K, Mn and Br, were detected by both techniques and results show that the values of the sampling factors are technique-dependent. (orig.)

  4. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or μC/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 μC/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning

  5. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  6. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer. PMID:23625730

  7. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  8. Micro-PIXE and channeling PIXE analysis of Ag-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a 2 MeV He+ beam for channeling Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and PIXE analysis, was used to characterise Ag-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films and measure the lateral distribution of the Ag. The samples were prepared by in situ two-beam pulsed laser deposition in order to investigate the effects of such dopings on critical current densities . Films deposited at temperatures above 650 deg. C form needle-like surface structures with a length of up to 100 μm; these tend to align with in-plane a-b axis. Results for a sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 730 deg. C and a maximum Ag concentration of 5 at.% are discussed. The needle-like structures were found to be rich in Ag and Cu, and the YBa2Cu3O7-δ film contained 0.02 at.% Ag. Broad beam PIXE-channeling results indicate that 19% of the Ag is substitutional

  9. Development of the PIXE analysis technique at high energy with the ARRONAX Cyclotron

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is a fast, nondestructive, multi-elemental analysis technique. It is based on the detection of characteristic X-rays due to the interaction of accelerated charged particles with matter. This method is successfully used in various application fields using low energy protons (energies around few MeV), reaching a limit of detection of the order the μg/g (ppm). At this low energy, the depth of analysis is limited. At the ARRONAX cyclotron, protons and alpha particles are delivered with energy up to 70 MeV, allowing the development of the High Energy PIXE technique. Thanks to these beams, we mainly produce KX-rays, more energetic than the LX-rays used with standard PIXE for the heavy elements analysis. Thus, in depth analysis in thick materials is achievable. For light element analysis, the PIGE technique, based on the detection of gamma rays emitted by excited nuclei, may be used in combination with PIXE. First of all, we will introduce the characteristics and principles of high energy PIXE analysis that we have developed at ARRONAX. Then we will detail the performance achieved, particularly in terms of detection limit in various experimental conditions. Finally, we present the results obtained for the analysis of multilayer samples and quantification of trace elements in thick samples. (author)

  10. The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the quantitative analysis of elements in thin samples, in surface layers of thick samples, and in aerosol filters

    The PIXE analysis method for the determination of elements in thick samples was investigated. The text of the present thesis is arranged under the following headings: physical fundamentals and measuring equipment, quantitative analysis of thin samples, matrix effects at the PIXE analysis of thick samples, matrix correction methods, analysis of 'infinite thick' model substances, PIXE analysis of aerosol filters. (GSCH)

  11. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Qing dynasty porcelain

    Cheng, Huansheng; He, Wenquan; Tang, Jiayong; Yang, Fujia; Wang, Jianhua

    1996-09-01

    The major and minor chemical compositions and trace element content of white glaze made in Qing dynasty at kuan kiln have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that trace element contents RbSrZr are useful to distinguish the place of production of ancient porcelain. In the porcelain from different kilns situated in a same province, the trace element contents can be different from each other. Determining and comparing the major and minor compositions and trace elemental concentrations in white glaze by PIXE technique, we can distinguish a precious Qing dynasty porcelain made at kuan kiln from a fake.

  12. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer's disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer's disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si3+) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si2+) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease using 5 MeV Si3+ microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  13. PIXE and RBS analysis of high temperature superconductivity ceramics

    Full text: Development of high temperature superconductor production technology needs measuring a set of superconductor parameters at its different stages. And noninvasive analysis and high accuracy of PIXE and RBS methods give them considerable advantages over other methods of in-process measurements. Potentialities of the methods for a study of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) are presented in this work. Y-Ba-Cu-O ceramic plate of 1 mm thickness was used as a subject of a study. Proton beam of the EG-2 Van-de-Graaff generator built at the IAP NUU provided the measurements. The target fixed at 16-position sample holder was exposed at the proton beam formed by a collimator with beam-exit hole of 2 mm in diameter. A special monitor placed before the beam-exit hole monitored number of particles incident upon the target. Operating vacuum in the experimental chamber kept at a pressure of 8·10-6 mm Hg. 27Al(p,γ) resonance was used for energy calibration. X-ray emission was measured with a help of SL30165 type Si(Li) detector produced by Canberra Industries, Inc. that provided energy resolution of 165 eV at MnKα line. Protons backscattered at angle of 135o relatively to the beam axis were detected by a surface-barrier Si(Li) detector of PD50-12-100 type providing energy resolution of 12 KeV at energy of 5.5 MeV. Spectrometric data acquisition and processing by a Multi port 2 analyzer were controlled by Genie-2000 program

  14. PIXE analysis of sweat samples: comparison of sweat secretion in normal and cystic fibrosis children

    Sweat samples collected from different places of the body of four normal and five CF children were analyzed by PIXE. Comparison were made of sweat rates and sweat thresholds. After presentation of the protocol of the sweat test, sample preparation and PIXE analysis of sweat samples are described. Statistical analysis of data is also developed. Six elements (Na, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br and Ca) are found to be significantly different between the two groups. A multiple regression analysis allows to obtain an equation of the state of health of each patient. (author)

  15. Analysis of a single strand of hair by PIXE, IXX and synchrotron radiation

    The experimental methods of the analysis of a single strand of hair by PIXE, IXX and SR-XRF, respectively, are compared. IXX and SR-XRF are more suitable than PIXE for the direct analysis of hair due to their nondestructiveness and better sensitivity. The analysis of a few single strands of human hairs, general primate and unknown primate (wildman) in China are presented. The high Fe/Zn ratio in wildman hair is given by different analytical methods, and may be the first scientific evidence of the existence of the Chinese wildman. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of atmospheric aerosols by PIXE: the importance of real time and complementary measurements

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used for more than 30 yr in many urban and background air pollution studies. The technique has certainly contributed to the understanding of source-receptor relationship for aerosol particles as well as to aerosol physics and chemistry. In the last few years, where aerosol issues were strongly linked to global climate change through the relationship between aerosol and atmospheric radiation points to new challenges in atmospheric sciences, where PIXE could play an important role. Also the recognition for the inter-relationship between aerosol and liquid and gas phases in the atmosphere makes important to integrate PIXE aerosol analysis with other complementary measurements. The use of Nephelometers and Aethalometers to measure scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosol particles can be done in parallel with particle filter collection for PIXE analysis. Parallel measurements of trace gases using traditional monitors as well as with new techniques such as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) that can provide concentration of O3, SO2, NO3, NO2, HCHO, HNO3, Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene, is also important for both urban and remote aerosol studies. They provide information that allows a much richer interpretation of PIXE data. Recently developed instruments that provide real time aerosol data such as the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) PM10 monitor and automatic real time organic and elemental carbon analyzers provide extremely useful data to complement PIXE aerosol analysis. The concentrations of trace elements measured by PIXE comprise only 10-30% of the aerosol mass, leaving the organic aerosol characterization and measurement with an important role. The aerosol source apportionment provided by PIXE analysis can be extended with other aerosol measurements such as scattering and absorption, estimating for example, the radiative impact of each discriminated aerosol source. The aerosol

  17. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. - Highlights: • For the first time, PIXE technique was employed to analyze the East Indian natural moonstone gems. • The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique whereas major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD. • Adularia variety of moonstone is found to be abundant in the present study. • The PIXE analysis concludes that Eastern Ghats of India are rich not only in gemstones but also in trace elements

  18. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: bolormaa@n.cc.titech.ac.jp; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kawasaki, Katsunori [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Watanabe, Makiko [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  19. Analysis of bone marrow stromal cell transferred bacterial β-galactosidase gene by PIXE

    PIXE, Particle Induced X-ray Emission, is a powerful, multi-elemental analysis method which has many distinguishing features and has been used in varies research fields. Recently the method of applying baby cyclotrons for nuclear medicine to PIXE has been developed. This enables us to study biomedical phenomena from the physical point of view. Mouse bone marrow stromal cells were transferred bacterial β-galactosidase gene (LacZ gene) by murine retroviral vectors. Analysis of the bone marrow stromal cells with the LacZ gene by PIXE revealed remarkable changes of intracellular trace elements compared with the normal control cells. These results indicate that gene transfer by retroviral vectors may bring about a dynamic change of intracellular circumstances of the target cell. (author)

  20. Analysis of composites for restorative dentistry by PIXE, XRF and ERDA

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Ciortea, C.; Constantinescu, B.; Fluerasu, D.; Enescu, S.-E.; Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Preoteasa, E.

    2002-04-01

    Composites used in dentistry bring into the organism elements that may induce adverse biological effects. We applied 3 MeV proton particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and photon-excited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the qualitative analysis of 10 dental composites and we tested copper-beam elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) on one material. PIXE, and partly XRF, evidenced Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag, Zr, Cd, In, Ba, Yb, Y, Ho, Hf and Pb, many of them at trace levels, while ERDA detected H, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al and Si.

  1. Trace element analysis of blood samples from mentally challenged children by PIXE

    The accelerator based ion beam analysis method of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for analysing up to 14 elements in the blood serum of patients, collected from rehabilitation centres for the mentally retarded and from Medical College Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The experimental subjects of the different groups displayed significant variations in their levels of certain trace elements such as zinc, iron, copper, phosphorus, chlorine, and rubidium. The results are compared with those of healthy control subjects and are discussed in detail in this paper. Hence, PIXE as a method of trace element analysis can be used to determine trace element content in mentally challenged patients

  2. Trace element analysis of placentas of alcoholics and controls with external beam PIXE

    External beam PIXE analysis with a proton beam of 2.4 MeV was used to study trace element concentrations in human placentas. The aim was to check the suitability of PIXE analysis regarding soft tissue samples. The elements of interest (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and Sr) were easily detected. A comparison was made with placental samples of alcoholics and controls to determine whether trace element concentrations in the placenta play a role in the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol syndrome. (author)

  3. Analysis of composites for restorative dentistry by PIXE, XRF and ERDA

    Composites used in dentistry bring into the organism elements that may induce adverse biological effects. We applied 3 MeV proton particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and photon-excited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the qualitative analysis of 10 dental composites and we tested copper-beam elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) on one material. PIXE, and partly XRF, evidenced Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag, Zr, Cd, In, Ba, Yb, Y, Ho, Hf and Pb, many of them at trace levels, while ERDA detected H, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al and Si

  4. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 μm diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  5. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    Pichon, L., E-mail: laurent.pichon@culture.gouv.f [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre -14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Beck, L.; Walter, Ph.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre -14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 {mu}m diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  6. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al2O3 and SiO2. The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  7. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques

  8. PIXE analysis of nephrite minerals from different deposits

    Zhang, Z.W., E-mail: zwzhang@siom.ac.c [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Gan, F.X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 20043 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-02-15

    External-beam PIXE was used to determine the major, minor and trace elements of 45 nephrite minerals from 14 different deposits, including China and other countries. Depending on the R* value (mole percent of Mg{sup 2+}/(Mg{sup 2+} + Fe{sup 2+(3+)})) and content of Cr, Co and Ni, two types of nephrite minerals from dolomite and serpentinized ultramafic deposits can be more accurately distinguished. Besides, the nephrite minerals from Xiaomeiling and Wenchuan deposit can be distinguished with others from dolomite deposits, through the content of Sr and Mn/Fe value, respectively. Moreover, depending on the Sr content, clear evidence was given to prove that the raw materials of ancient nephrite artifacts from Liangzhu culture ruins are not from Xiaomeiling nephrite deposit. Furthermore, PIXE as a non-destructive method will be more used to study ancient nephrite artifacts, so these results can provide scientific basis for seeking the provenance of nephrite raw materials.

  9. The PIXE analysis of hair of 'wild man' and some animals

    Considering the geometric shape of the hair, a calculation program was designed for the PIXE analysis of hair samples with different sizes. A comparison analysis of hair was made between 'wild man' and some animals. The measurement shows that one of the hair samples seems to belong to a 'wild man'

  10. Elemental analysis of agricultural soil samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    In agriculture, elements essential to vital processes are also called nutrients. A suitable and reliable particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methodology for content determination of essential nutrients in soil samples was developed and its effectiveness proved. The PIXE method is applied to intermediate thickness samples, whose mass per area unit are smaller than 1 μg/cm2. Precision and accuracy of the method was estimated after repeated measurements of a single reference material: CRM PACS-2 (estuarine sediment) with a matrix quite similar to the soil samples measured. This paper reports the results of elemental measurements in soil samples. A discussion of agricultural soil sample preparation for PIXE analysis is also presented

  11. PIXE analysis and fission track dating of obsidian from South American prehispanic cultures (Colombia, Ecuador)

    In the present work we have coupled PIXE with fission track dating to characterise obsidian artefacts from about 40 archaeological sites of Colombia and Ecuador. PIXE analysis, carried out with the external beam line of the AGLAE tandem accelerator, yields the content in about 15 elements with Z>8, whereas fission track dating is applied to ages in excess of about 10,000 years. About 120 artefacts were investigated by PIXE, of which 50 were dated by fission tracks. Ages and compositions were compared to those of obsidians from all known geological sources of the region. We show that this double characterisation allows us to determine the number of obsidian sources exploited in an ancient past and to give some insight into obsidian circulation

  12. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Tejedor, J. García; Martina, S.; Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N.

    2015-11-01

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  13. The PIXE analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill

    The experimental results of the analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are reported. By using PIXE technology, an appraisal of the jades unearthed from Fuquan hill can be made. The experimental results show that the Fuquan hill's jades can be distinguished into two classes: Xiu jade and soft jade, and they are different to Xiaomeiling' s jade but similar to the soft jade from Hetian, Xinjiang province. Furthermore, by analyzing proportion of iron and magnesium, some information of mineral structure and the color exuding of the jade from Fuquan hill can be obtained without any interference from impurity element

  14. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  15. THE MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF DRINKING WATER USING PROTON-INDUCED X-RAY EMISSION (PIXE)

    A new, rapid, and economical method for the multielemental analysis of drinking water samples is described. The concentrations of 76 elements heavier than aluminum are determined using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technology. The concentration of sodium is evaluated using...

  16. An indirect method to measure the electric charge deposited on insulators during PIXE analysis

    Dinator, M.I.; Cancino, S.A.; Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Morales, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-10-15

    Total charge deposited by a proton beam in an insulator during PIXE analysis has been indirectly determined using a Mylar film coated with cobalt. Elemental concentrations in the samples, pieces of volcanic glass, were obtained and compared to concentrations determined by ICP OES on the same samples. The strong agreement between these results shows the accuracy of the charge determined by this method.

  17. Proton backscatter as a means of mass measurement in PIXE analysis of hair

    It is demonstrated that, contrary to a recent report, the yield of elastically scattered protons from hair specimens is correlated with mass of hair. This provides a means, admittedly approximate, of effecting mass corrections in PIXE microbeam analysis of hair. (orig.)

  18. A new method for preparing thin samples of pottery shards for PIXE analysis

    A novel method, based on the centrifugal precipitation technique, has been used for preparing thin (1 mg/cm2) uniform and homogeneous samples of pottery shards for PIXE analysis. The reproducibility of the results has been tested on standard Perlman-Asaro samples and ancient Greek pottery shards. The abundances of more than 12 elements can be reliably measured. (orig.)

  19. PIXE-PIGE analysis of late roman glass fragments

    A set of Roman glass fragments, excavated at Sevilla and dated in the 5th century A.D., has been analysed by PIXE and PIGE techniques using the external beam set-up of the 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator of the CNA at the University of Sevilla. Using a simple quantification method, based on the indirect charge calculation on the sample by monitoring the X-ray induced by the proton beam on the exit window, the composition of the glasses has been determined. From the obtained results, the use of soda as flux has been inferred and colouring manufacture procedures have been identified

  20. Bronze analysis by k0-NAA and PIXE

    Five copper alloys were prepared with modern powder metallurgical processes in the frame of the European project 'Improvement of Means of Measurement on Archaeological Copper-Alloys for Characterisation and Conservation (IMMACO)' and certified for As, Pb, Sn and Zn mass fractions. Similar in their composition to archaeological bronze alloys, these Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are to be used for calibration of XRF instruments for characterization of archaeological samples either in the laboratory or in the field. Successful contribution of non-destructive analytical methods (k0-NAA and PIXE) to the IMMACO project and to the certification of the five reference materials is presented. (author)

  1. PIXE analysis of fish otoliths. Application to fish stock discrimination

    PIXE was adopted to analyze trace elements in otoliths of Japanese flounder to discriminate among several local fish stocks. The otoliths were removed from samples caught at five different sea areas along with the coast of the Sea of Japan: Akita, Ishikawa, Kyoto (2 stations), and Fukuoka. Besides calcium as main component, strontium, manganese, and zinc were detected. Especially Sr concentrations were different among 4 areas except between 2 stations in Kyoto. It suggested that the fish in the 2 stations in Kyoto were the same stock differed to the others. (author)

  2. PIXE analysis of fish otoliths. Application to fish stock discrimination

    Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Lab. of Fisheries and Environmental Oceanography; Tateno, Koji; Yoshida, Koji

    1996-12-31

    PIXE was adopted to analyze trace elements in otoliths of Japanese flounder to discriminate among several local fish stocks. The otoliths were removed from samples caught at five different sea areas along with the coast of the Sea of Japan: Akita, Ishikawa, Kyoto (2 stations), and Fukuoka. Besides calcium as main component, strontium, manganese, and zinc were detected. Especially Sr concentrations were different among 4 areas except between 2 stations in Kyoto. It suggested that the fish in the 2 stations in Kyoto were the same stock differed to the others. (author)

  3. PIXE-PIGE analysis of late roman glass fragments

    Gomez-Tubio, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: tubio@us.es; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Amores Carredano, F. [Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Dona Maria de Padilla s/n, 41010 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Acuna, D. [Departamento de Geografia, Historia y Filosofia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. de Utrera Km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    A set of Roman glass fragments, excavated at Sevilla and dated in the 5th century A.D., has been analysed by PIXE and PIGE techniques using the external beam set-up of the 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator of the CNA at the University of Sevilla. Using a simple quantification method, based on the indirect charge calculation on the sample by monitoring the X-ray induced by the proton beam on the exit window, the composition of the glasses has been determined. From the obtained results, the use of soda as flux has been inferred and colouring manufacture procedures have been identified.

  4. A brief overview of the first twenty years (1970-1989) of aerosol analysis by PIXE and ten-year study (1995-2004) of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE

    light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis [3]. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following 9 anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of -34%, -25%, +26%, and -40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.5 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other 3 seasons. V and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly heavy oil burning. Trajectory statistics [4], using 1 O-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, was applied to assess the source areas. S originated mostly from southeastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the southeastern part of European Russia. [1] T. B. Johansson, R. Akselsson, S. A. E. Johansson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 84 (1970) 141-143. [2] P. R. Bevington, Data reduction and error analysis for the physical sciences, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969. [3]W. Maenhaut, N. Raes, W. Wang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. 269 (2011) 2693-2698. [4] A. Lupu, W. Maenhaut, Atmos. Environ. 36 (2002) 5607 5618. (author)

  5. A brief overview of the first twenty years (1970-1989) of aerosol analysis by PIXE and ten-year study (1995-2004) of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE

    Maenhaut, W. [Ghent University, Dept. Analytical Chemistry, Gent (Belgium); Dept. Pharm. Sci., University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Karnieli, A. [Remote Sensing Laboratory, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); Andreae, M.O. [Biogeochemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis [3]. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following 9 anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of -34%, -25%, +26%, and -40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.5 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other 3 seasons. V and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly heavy oil burning. Trajectory statistics [4], using 1 O-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, was applied to assess the source areas. S originated mostly from southeastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the southeastern part of European Russia. [1] T. B. Johansson, R. Akselsson, S. A. E. Johansson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 84 (1970) 141-143. [2] P. R. Bevington, Data reduction and error analysis for the physical sciences, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969. [3]W. Maenhaut, N. Raes, W. Wang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. 269 (2011) 2693-2698. [4] A. Lupu, W. Maenhaut, Atmos. Environ. 36 (2002) 5607 5618. (author)

  6. PIXE analysis of the obsidian support of two paintings from the Louvre by Murillo

    The very unusual black backings of two paintings by the Spanish master Murillo (1617-1682) representing Passion Scenes, on display at the Louvre museum, have been analyzed by PIXE with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF. The support proved to be obsidian, a natural volcanic glass widely employed to produce archaeological artefacts, in particular in South and Meso-America. Five archaeological artifacts with similar shape to the paintings called 'obsidian mirrors', originating from Mexico and belonging to the collections of the Musee de l'Homme in Paris, have been analyzed and the composition of four of them showed to be very similar to Murillo obsidians. The comparison with the results obtained on reference obsidian samples from Mexican sources and with data from the literature by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) suggested that the Ucareo/Zinapecuaro, Michoacan, Mexico is the source of the obsidian employed for the paintings. A field trip to this area was therefore organized to collect samples whose natural slab shape and chemical composition confirmed the Ucareo provenance hypothesis. The rectangular backing of Murillo paintings are unlikely archaeological artefacts but rather objects specially made after the Spanish conquest by Meso american craftsmen, among which some were exported to Europe where Murillo spent all his life. The observation, in the walls of the church and other Christian monuments in Ucareo, of obsidian inlays, a material of particular significance in the pre-Hispanic culture, underlines the complex intrication of native culture and European influences which are also carried by Murillo paintings. Meanwhile, a third painting on obsidian by Murillo as been identified in the Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas, U.S.A. This study also points out that even if the ranges of elements dosed by PIXE and INAA do not fully overlap, the measurements obtained by both techniques can be efficiently used for provenancing obsidians objects. (Author)

  7. PIXE analysis of the obsidian support of two paintings from the Louvre by Murillo

    Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Chiappero, P.J. [Dep. Histoire de la Terre, Museum National d ' Histoire Naturelle, USM201, 6I rue Bufon, 75005 Paris (France); Gendron, F.; Gonthier, E. [Dep. de Prehistoire, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Museum National d ' Histoire Naturelle, 1 rue Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Meslay, O. [Departement des peintures, Musee du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Poupeau, G. [lnstiut de Recherche sur les Archeomateriaux, UMR 5060 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 3, Maison de l ' Archeologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607, Pessac (France); Tenorio, D. [ININ, km 36 carretera Mexico-Toluca, CP 52045, Edo. Mex. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The very unusual black backings of two paintings by the Spanish master Murillo (1617-1682) representing Passion Scenes, on display at the Louvre museum, have been analyzed by PIXE with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF. The support proved to be obsidian, a natural volcanic glass widely employed to produce archaeological artefacts, in particular in South and Meso-America. Five archaeological artifacts with similar shape to the paintings called 'obsidian mirrors', originating from Mexico and belonging to the collections of the Musee de l'Homme in Paris, have been analyzed and the composition of four of them showed to be very similar to Murillo obsidians. The comparison with the results obtained on reference obsidian samples from Mexican sources and with data from the literature by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) suggested that the Ucareo/Zinapecuaro, Michoacan, Mexico is the source of the obsidian employed for the paintings. A field trip to this area was therefore organized to collect samples whose natural slab shape and chemical composition confirmed the Ucareo provenance hypothesis. The rectangular backing of Murillo paintings are unlikely archaeological artefacts but rather objects specially made after the Spanish conquest by Meso american craftsmen, among which some were exported to Europe where Murillo spent all his life. The observation, in the walls of the church and other Christian monuments in Ucareo, of obsidian inlays, a material of particular significance in the pre-Hispanic culture, underlines the complex intrication of native culture and European influences which are also carried by Murillo paintings. Meanwhile, a third painting on obsidian by Murillo as been identified in the Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas, U.S.A. This study also points out that even if the ranges of elements dosed by PIXE and INAA do not fully overlap, the measurements obtained by both techniques can be efficiently used for provenancing obsidians

  8. Refinement of major- and minor-element PIXE analysis of rocks and minerals

    Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Campbell, John L.; Czamanske, Gerald K.

    2016-01-01

    An attempt has been made to assess the accuracy of the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) fundamental parameters with standards approach to quantifying major- and minor-element constituents of silicate glasses and minerals. A deviation from linearity at low energies in the channel-energy calibration relationship was identified as a source of undesired residues in GUPIX-fitting. A correction for this effect was developed using a general-purpose spectrum fitting program and was incorporated in GUPIX. The PIXE spectra of sixteen well-characterized electron microprobe standards were then processed. Complementary electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) measurements were used to support the comparison of the PIXE results with previous characterizations. Major element concentrations were found to differ on average from literature values as follows: SiO2 (-0.28 ± 0.12%), Al2O3 (0.72 ± 0.74%), MgO (0.11 ± 0.63%), Na2O (-2.6 ± 1.2%), K2O (1.1 ± 0.7%), CaO (-0.35 ± 0.37%), TiO2 (2.5 ± 1.9%), MnO (0.8 ± 4.7%), FeO (0.98 ± 0.93%). These results indicate that major and minor elemental analysis can be achieved with high accuracy using the present Guelph micro-PIXE setup.

  9. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  10. A quantitative basis for hair analysis using PIXE

    Li, Hong-Kou; Akselsson, K. Roland

    1985-09-01

    The PIXE technique offers the possibility of scanning a single hair strand longitudinally with a millimetre proton beam for trace elements. However, the accuracy of the method has been questioned since the quantification of the mass concentration has been a serious problem. In this paper a specific beam-hair-detector geometry is assumed, and the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and the X-ray absorption in a regular hair is calculated. 43 hair segments from 8 individuals, ranging from 45 to 110 μm in in diameter were analyzed giving a mean value of 4.32% (standard deviation 0.25%) for sulphur, and a mean value of 149 ppm (standard deviation 35 ppm) for zinc. It is shown that the correction is important not only for the determination of the absolute elemental concentrations but also for the determination of their relative longitudinal distributions. The secondary corrections accounting for the inhomogeneous elemental distribution over the cross section and the irregular shape and/or the differing mass density of a hair are also calculated. It is concluded that the accuracy and precision of the PIXE method does not become considerably lower when it is applied to single hair strands, and accuracy and precision below 10% may be reached by implementing the procedure described.

  11. Nigerian coal analysis by PIXE and HEBS techniques

    PIXE and HEBS techniques were employed for the measurement of the concentrations of the major, minor and trace elements in Nigerian coal samples from a major deposit. The samples were irradiated with 2.55 MeV protons from the 3 MeV tandem accelerator (NEC 3 UDH) in Lund. The PIXE results are reported and compared with an earlier work on Nigerian coal using FNAA and INAA analytical techniques while the HEBS results are compared with ASTM previous results. The results corroborate the assertion that Nigerian coals are of weak and noncoking grades with low sulphur (0.82-0.99%) and relatively high hydrogen (4.49-5.16%) contents. The motivation for this work is partly due to the projected usage of coal as metallurgical feedstocks and as fuel, and partly because of the genuine concern about the concomitant environmental effects of the increased burning of coal. The knowledge of the concentration of all elements is important for the characterization of coal and the determination and control of its products. Economic parameters such as the ash contents and calorific values are associated with the concentrations of coal's constituents. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  13. Paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and PIXE Analysis of Oligocene-Miocene sediments (Bennett County, South Dakota)

    Karbalaei Saleh, F.; Martin, J.; Sidorovskaia, N.; Richter, C.; Hollerman, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present paleo- and rock magnetic results together with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) data from an Oligocene-Miocene aged section in central South Dakota. Sediment samples recovered by the High-Plains Aquifer Drilling Program of the South Dakota Geological Survey retrieved well-preserved core material for paleomagnetic and geochemical analysis. A 250 m long core was retrieved from the Tertiary Arikaree Group, which consists predominantly of fine-grained sandstones and limestones with interbedded silt and clay. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements were carried out at 30 cm resolution on more than 200 discrete samples, and geochemical analysis using PIXE at the Louisiana Accelerator Center on twenty selected samples, with the goal of extracting a geomagnetic polarity time scale and to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Stepwise demagnetization of the natural remnant magnetization yields excellent to poor demagnetization behavior, with a viscous isothermal remnant magnetization drilling overprint effectively removed during the 20 mT demagnetization step. Paleomagnetic data are characterized by normal and reversed inclinations, consistent with the site position in South Dakota. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the sediments correlate well with the observed changes in lithology. PIXE sample preparation procedures and calibration techniques to obtain absolute concentrations of heavy elements in the core samples are discussed. An empirical correlation between susceptibility measurements and concentration of the magnetic materials in the core obtained from PIXE will be presented. The results are promising in augmenting traditional paleomagnetic studies to develop a quantitative relationship between the measured magnetization and the concentration of magnetic materials needed for relative paleointensity studies. The PIXE analysis shows also potential in deciphering paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during the deposition of the

  14. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX leads to activation of the Rac 1 GTPase/glycogen phosphorylase pathway in interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated T cells

    Llavero, Francisco; Urzelai, Bakarne; Osinalde, Nerea;

    2015-01-01

    . More specifically, αPIX, a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPases of the Rho family, preferentially Rac 1, mediates PYGM activation in Kit 225 T cells stimulated with IL-2. Using directed mutagenesis, phosphorylation of αPIX Rho-GEF serines 225 and 488 is required for activation...... of the Rac 1/PYGM pathway. IL-2-stimulated serine phosphorylation was corroborated in Kit 225 T cells cultures. A parallel pharmacological and genetic approach identified PKCθ as the serine/threonine kinase responsible for αPIX serine phosphorylation. The phosphorylated state of αPIX was required to...... activate first Rac 1 and subsequently PYGM. These results demonstrate that the IL-2 receptor activation, among other early events, leads to activation of PKCθ. To activate Rac 1 and consequently PYGM, PKCθ phosphorylates αPIX in T cells. The biological significance of this PKCθ/αPIX/Rac 1 GTPase...

  15. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    Beasley, D.G., E-mail: dgbeasley@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barberet, Ph.; Bourret, S.; Devès, G.; Gordillo, N.; Michelet, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Le Trequesser, Q. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB, UPR9048) CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Marques, A.C. [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Seznec, H. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Silva, R.C. da [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans – a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed.

  16. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans – a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed

  17. PIXE, micro-PIXE and RBS analysis of thermal aged rubber material: On the additives behaviour versus aging time

    PIXE, micro-PIXE and RBS techniques were employed to monitor the behaviour of additives in formulated industrial rubber material as affected by thermal aging at 152 deg. C in oxidative ambient for a period of time ranging between 0 to 39 weeks. It was found that, with aging time, the rubber looses gradually some of its additives by surface segregation followed by thermal destruction of the segregated species. The comparison of the variation in the relative concentrations of additives and the variation in the mechanical properties as aging time increases can highlight some aspects related to the aging process of the rubber material itself

  18. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair

    Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

  19. External-beam PIXE analysis of aerosol samples at GIC4117 Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of Beijing Normal University

    Full text: The external-beam facility at GIC4117 tandem accelerator laboratory of Beijing Normal University for PIXE analysis has been introduced, the influence of different aerosol sampling membrane filters on the beam current measurement with a homemade Faraday cup was studied by analysis of a Mn(44.0μg/cm2) MicroMatter standards sample with different filters behind it. Average and the lowest of the external-beam PIXE analysis compared with in-vacuum PIXE over about 360 aerosol samples. External-beam PIXE analysis results of PM2.5 aerosol fractions collected on Teflon filters on daily basis over 2010 at south campus of Beijing Normal University also were shown. (author)

  20. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease

    Yumoto, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Fujii, K.; Kakimi, S.; Mizutani, T.; Matsushima, H.; Ishikawa, A.

    1996-12-31

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer`s disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer`s disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si{sup 3+}) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si{sup 2+}) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using 5 MeV Si{sup 3+} microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  1. PIXE analysis of western han dynasty ancient glasses unearthed in Yangzhou city

    Chemical composition analysis is one of the most important research aspects to provide scientific proof for the technical origin and development of Chinese ancient glass. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is a kind of multi-element quantitative analysis method with high sensitivity and without destruction of samples. Chemical composition of the Western Han dynasty glass garment flakes, which were excavated from Yangzhou city, was analyzed by PIXE, quantitatively. It was found that these glass flakes were attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass originated in China. These flakes all consist of a glass core and a corroded outer layer with different thickness. There are relatively higher PbO, P2O5 and CaO, while much lower BaO and SiO2 in the corroded layers than in the glass cores. The experimental results were discussed

  2. Mercury distribution by micro PIXE analysis in Stenopsyche marmorata exposed to mercuric chloride

    Aquatic insects, such as caddisflies, are used as reference organisms for water pollution. The precise distribution of contaminated metals in the insect, however, remains unknown. In this study, we used micro PIXE analysis to examine mercury distribution in Stenopsyche marmorata, a typical caddisfly, exposed to mercuric chloride. The mercury level in the caddisflies after exposure to mercuric chloride at 1 mg/L for 5 days was 93.3±25.0 μg/g wet weight. Micro PIXE analysis also revealed a site-specific distribution of mercury in the insects. Mercury was high in the digestive tract, where it was localized in the basement membrane and the peritrophic membrane. Mercury was also detected in the tissue surrounding the digestive tract. Further examination of the tissue identified mercury in the fat body but not in the silk gland. (author)

  3. Efficiency calibration of an HPGe X-ray detector for quantitative PIXE analysis

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is an analytical technique, which provides reliably and accurately quantitative results without the need of standards when the efficiency of the X-ray detection system is calibrated. The ion beam microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory at the University of North Texas is equipped with a 100 mm2 high purity germanium X-ray detector (Canberra GUL0110 Ultra-LEGe). In order to calibrate the efficiency of the detector for standard less PIXE analysis we have measured the X-ray yield of a set of commercially available X-ray fluorescence standards. The set contained elements from low atomic number Z = 11 (sodium) to higher atomic numbers to cover the X-ray energy region from 1.25 keV to about 20 keV where the detector is most efficient. The effective charge was obtained from the proton backscattering yield of a calibrated particle detector

  4. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  5. Comparative experimental study of PIXE and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    PIXE and X RF techniques are powerful analysis instruments in the determination of traces of elements. Although the physical processes characteristic X-rays production (ionization-emission) are similar in both methods, the representative background of each technique, responsible of its sensitivity, are different. This is because the interaction between exciter agents and the matter produces different effects. In PIXE, the background is caused by the radiation produced by the braking of the secondary electrons: Bremsstrahlung. In X RF, the background is due to the elastic and inelastic scattering of photons: Rayleigh and Compton effects. In this work, we have compared the results of the analysis of environmental samples using both methods, in order to know the scope of each one and develop them as complementary techniques. (Author)

  6. PIXE and PIGE techniques for the analysis of Antarctic ice dust and continental sediments

    Marino, F.; G. Calzolai; S. Caporali; Castellano, E; Chiari, M; Lucarelli, F.; V. Maggi; Nava, S.; Sala, M; Udisti, R.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been implemented in this work for an accurate geochemical characterization and quantitative analysis of the fine dust (particles diameter < 5 mu m) trapped in Antarctic ice cores and the fine fraction of potential source areas (PSA) sediments by size selection, filtering and PIXE-PIGE combined measurements. The underestimation of concentrations of the lighter elements, like Na, Mg, Al and Si, due to X-ray self-absorption inside each individual aerosol particle, was...

  7. PIXE Analysis for the pigment identification in the Nizet manucript (18th century)

    Machowski, Mélanie; Calvo del Castillo, Helena; Oger, Cécile; Chene, Grégoire; Strivay, David

    2013-01-01

    Written in 1740, the Nizet Manuscript is a heraldry book compiling the genealogy of the Nizet family (Verviers, Belgium). It presents a large number of hand-painted heraldries in traditional heraldic colours; the gold- and silver-like colours have undergone alteration and induced the degradation of the paper. The first inspection of the book with a binocular lens and UV-visible spectroscopy has led to the selection of representative points to be studied by PIXE analysis for the different g...

  8. PIXE analysis of otoliths from reared red sea bream, pagrus major (temminck et schlegl)

    PIXE analysis was applied to estimate mineral concentration in red sea bream otoliths without cutting or polishing. Detected elements include Sr, Fe, Mn and Zn, which are commonly found in the otoliths in marine fishes. Strontium-Calcium concentration ratio is calculated by means of combined X-ray yields. The ratio doesn't indicate clear correlaion with mean reared seawater temperature. It is caused by the diffraction error induced by rough topographies of the otoliths surface. (author)

  9. Micro-PIXE analysis of thick frozen lenses with cataracts

    The microprobe of 27 MeV α particles has been utilized for the study of a possible role of ions in causing hereditary cataracts of mice. The distributions of S to Ca in lenses were determined at a resolution around 50 μm. In order to obtain the elemental concentrations on wet weight basis, thick frozen hydrated specimens were analyzed. The sample preparation method and the experimental setup developed to minimize redistributions of diffusible elements as well as dehydration of specimens are described. The ratio of the X-ray peak intensity to the continuum background intensity was used for quantification. The accuracy of this P/B method used for PIXE analyses of thick soft tissues was examined both by computer calculations and by experiments with biological standards such as Spurr's epoxy resins and NBS SRMs. The elemental distributions in cataractous lenses were obtained for two different types of hereditary cataract: Nakano mice and its congenic strain. The features of distributions and quantitative concentrations of S, Cl, K and Ca were compared. (orig.)

  10. Trace elements analysis by PIXE (particle induced x-ray excitation) and AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) from environmental samples

    The aim of this work is the micro elemental analysis of environmental samples by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Excitation) method and AAS (Atomic Absrobtion Spectrometry). The samples were collected from neighborhood of Targoviste city (mulberry, apple, poplar, walnut, prune, maple). The concentration data have been obtain for the elements: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr by PIXE method and Mn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Se, Zn by AAS method. A good correlation b

  11. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and TOF-SIMS techniques

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like LC-MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, . . .), elemental IBA like PIXE and PIGE techniques, using small tandem accelerator of 1 - 2 MV, can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparations. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick Target PIXE and PIGE technique for rapid and accurate quantification of low concentration of different fluorinated, sulfured and chlorinated active ingredients in several commercial anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory commercial drugs. In this work we will demonstrate the ability of PIXE and PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of Celecoxib and Atorvastatin active ingredients contained in several solid commercial drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. In addition, the Time of Flight Secondary Ion Emission using multicharged Ar ions with ∼ 10 MeV energy, delivered by a 4 MV Vander Graaf single stage accelerator, was used for structural and chemical analysis for some cases of binary commercial drugs containing two different active ingredients. The aspect of sample preparation and the role of excipient will be highlighted and discussed. (author)

  12. MAPPIX: A software package for off-line micro-pixe single particle aerosol analysis

    In the framework of a multiannual experiment performed at Baia Terra Nova, Antarctica, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected by using a 12-stage SDI impactor (Hillamo design). Approximately 2800 particles, belonging to the first four supermicrometric SDI stages - 8.39, 4.08, 2.68, 1.66 μm dynamic aerosol diameter cuts - were analyzed at the INFN-LNL micro-PIXE facility, a three lens Oxford Microprobe (OM) product, installed in the early nineties. Four regions on each of the 12 sub-samples were measured; 60 aerosol particles were detected on average in each of the analyzed regions. The off-line single aerosol particle (SAP) analysis of such big amount of data required software that is able to rapidly handle the acquired data, with a simple and fast area selection procedure; the subsequent automated PIXE spectra analysis with a specialized code was also needed. The MAPPIX 2.0 software was designed to make easier and faster the user jobs during the SAP analysis. The package is composed of two separate routines: the first one is devoted to data format conversion (OM-LMF file format to MAPPIX format), while the second one is devoted to micro-PIXE maps graphical presentation and aerosol particle selection procedure. The MAPPIX data format and software features will be discussed; a short report of the speed performances will be presented.

  13. MAPPIX: A software package for off-line micro-pixe single particle aerosol analysis

    Ceccato, D.

    2009-06-01

    In the framework of a multiannual experiment performed at Baia Terra Nova, Antarctica, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected by using a 12-stage SDI impactor (Hillamo design). Approximately 2800 particles, belonging to the first four supermicrometric SDI stages - 8.39, 4.08, 2.68, 1.66 μm dynamic aerosol diameter cuts - were analyzed at the INFN-LNL micro-PIXE facility, a three lens Oxford Microprobe (OM) product, installed in the early nineties. Four regions on each of the 12 sub-samples were measured; 60 aerosol particles were detected on average in each of the analyzed regions. The off-line single aerosol particle (SAP) analysis of such big amount of data required software that is able to rapidly handle the acquired data, with a simple and fast area selection procedure; the subsequent automated PIXE spectra analysis with a specialized code was also needed. The MAPPIX 2.0 software was designed to make easier and faster the user jobs during the SAP analysis. The package is composed of two separate routines: the first one is devoted to data format conversion (OM-LMF file format to MAPPIX format), while the second one is devoted to micro-PIXE maps graphical presentation and aerosol particle selection procedure. The MAPPIX data format and software features will be discussed; a short report of the speed performances will be presented.

  14. Development of the PIXE analysis technique at high energy with the ARRONAX cyclotron

    HE-PIXE 'High Energy-Particle Induced X-ray Emission' is a non destructive multi-elemental analysis technique that we are developing at the ARRONAX cyclotron, France. This technique allows to analyze medium and heavy elements in thin (μm), thick (mm) and multi-layer samples. ARRONAX (Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes Atlantique) is a high energy, (70 MeV) and high intensity (up to 750 μA) cyclotron, devoted to the production of radionuclide for medicine and research in radiochemistry. It is a multi particle accelerator: protons can be accelerated from 30 MeV up to 70 MeV, deuterons from 15 up to 35 MeV and alpha particles at fixed 68 MeV. HE-PIXE presents several advantages: thick targets can be studied; data analysis is quite simple due to the slow evolution of the X-ray emission cross sections. In addition to the HE-PIXE, especially in the analysis of multilayer samples, we can expose the target, after irradiation, to a HPGe detector dedicated for γ-spectrometry. These gamma rays will allow us to determine the thicknesses of the layers

  15. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  16. Application of PIXE analysis to study urban atmospheric aerosols from downtown Havana City

    The present work reports, the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (in fine and coarse particle size fractions) collected at the Atmospheric Monitoring Station in the Municipality of Centro Habana, using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. At present, there is not information available about elements contents in airborne particulate matter from this region. For this study, we carried out a sampling campaign during five months (November 14, 2006 to April 19, 2007). The samples were collected every second day during 24 h under an air flux of 20 l/min. The air sampler used was a Gent Sampler equipped with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected (72 correspond to the fine mass particle and 72 to the coarse mass particle). For PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.5 MeV energy protons from the 2MV Van de Graff Tandetron Accelerator from the Laboratory of PIXE analysis at ININ, Mexico. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected in both particle size fractions with minimum detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng/m3. The quantitative results obtained from PIXE elemental analysis for mass of particles in both fractions have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. A general discussion about these results is presented in this paper. (author)

  17. PIXE analysis of trace and other mineral elements in Romanian dental composites

    Dental composites made of silicates and oxides particles embedded in an organic polymer, show a dynamic evolution but are rather expensive. Recently, the Romanian biomaterial 'Restacril' offered a low-cost alternative. Because the durability of the composite dental fillings depends both on the main chemical composition and on the impurities that may influence the inorganic particles' properties and thus modifying the bio material clinical behaviour, the elemental analysis of the material is necessary for improving its quality. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), a sensitive method for multielemental trace detection widely used in biomedical applications, allowed us to evidence 21 mineral elements with Z > 14 in some commercial dental composites. Here we evaluate the performances of PIXE for the control of dental composites by carrying out qualitative analysis of three Romanian biomaterials. PIXE measurements on thick composite samples with a flat surface were done with 3 MeV protons at the NIPNE-HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering) tandem accelerator, using a hyper-pure Ge detector, 30 mm thick Al absorber foil and integration of beam current. Up to 21 elements with Z > 19 were detected: K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Ba, Yb, Nd, Hf, Au, As and Pb. The orders of magnitude of relative concentrations were evaluated using X-ray yields obtained for another light element thick composite target. The Romanian composites have specific and diverse compositions, containing a great number of minor and trace elements, many of whom are impurities. Use of higher purity raw materials is suggested to reduce the latter and improve the materials' quality. Refinement of X-ray yields by better matching matrixes calculations and use of concentration standards are proposed for quantitative PIXE analysis of the dental composites. (authors)

  18. Quantitative multielemental analysis of titaniferous magnetites by PIXE, EDXRF, and their iron mineral characterization by 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Two representative titaniferous magnetite samples procured from Moulabhanj, Orissa, India have been studied by PIXE, EDXRF, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and XRD techniques. Major iron-bearing phases identified in the samples by Moessbauer spectroscopy and XRD are magnetite, hematite, ferrous ilmenite and ferric ilmenite. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio and the relative percentages of different minerals were determined from the resonance areas of Moessbauer spectra. Quantitative multielemental analysis was carried out by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Nineteen minor and trace elements have been quantified by EDXRF whereas by PIXE eighteen elements have been analyzed quantitatively. Concentrations of trace elements determined by EDXRF and PIXE were used in interpreting the physicochemical condition of the depositional basin. (author)

  19. Micro-beam scanning PIXE analysis system at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)

    In 2000, micro-beam scanning particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis system was installed in NIRS. This system provides the ability of multi-elemental mapping on maximum 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm area in a spatial resolution of about 1 μm with quadrupole triplet magnets and a scanning coil. The estimated beam size on good tuning was 0.40 x 0.65 μm2, that is one of the best capacity of micro-beam scanning PIXE system in the world. The performance was tested using small biological samples such as fish scale, pollen and small fish eye. Fine elemental maps were obtained in the samples of about 30 μm to a few mm size in the special resolution of about 1 μm. (author)

  20. Trace metal analysis in sea grasses from Mexican Caribbean Coast by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    The growing urban and tourist activity in the Mexican Caribbean coasts has resulted in an increase of chemical substances, metals in particular, discharged to the coastal waters. In order to reach an adequate management and conservation of these marine ecosystems it is necessary to perform an inventory of the actual conditions that reflect the vulnerability and the level of damage. Sea-grasses are considered good biological indicators of heavy metal contamination in marine systems. The goal of this preliminary work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Thalassia testudinum, a very common sea-grass in the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Samples were collected from several locations in the coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula: Holbox, Blanquizal and Punta Allen, areas virtually uninfluenced by anthropogenic activities. Trace elements in different part plants were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This is a very suitable technique since it offers a fast, accurate and multi-element analysis. Also, the analysis by PIXE can be performed directly on powdered leaves without a laborious sample preparation. The trace metal concentration determined in sea-grasses growing in Caribbean generally fall in the range of the lowest valuables reported for sea grasses from the Gulf of Mexico. The results indicate that the studied areas do not present contamination by heavy metals. (Author)

  1. Elemental analysis of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere using PIXE and identification of pollution sources.

    Esmaili, N; Khashman, S; Lamehi-Rachti, M; Agha Aligol, D; Shokouhi, F; Oliaiy, P; Farmahini Farahani, M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been applied to measure the elemental composition and concentrations of particulate matter of 220 samples of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere within a 450-day time interval starting from March 2009 and ending in June 2010, covering all four seasons. PIXE analysis shows the samples are comprised of various elements including Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. Also, to obtain more information about the sources of pollution and to identify the major sources of urban particulate matter, principal component analysis (PCA) was used. Furthermore, micro-PIXE was performed to study individual aerosols in some samples. Results revealed that the concentration of elements originating from vehicle emissions increases three times in winter; whereas the concentration of elements with soil origin remains constant. Based on wind rose maps, it is inferred that the high concentrations of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe are associated with natural dust brought by winds into Tehran from the west. PMID:25027779

  2. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  3. Improved Dynamic Analysis method for quantitative PIXE and SXRF element imaging of complex materials

    Ryan, C. G.; Laird, J. S.; Fisher, L. A.; Kirkham, R.; Moorhead, G. F.

    2015-11-01

    The Dynamic Analysis (DA) method in the GeoPIXE software provides a rapid tool to project quantitative element images from PIXE and SXRF imaging event data both for off-line analysis and in real-time embedded in a data acquisition system. Initially, it assumes uniform sample composition, background shape and constant model X-ray relative intensities. A number of image correction methods can be applied in GeoPIXE to correct images to account for chemical concentration gradients, differential absorption effects, and to correct images for pileup effects. A new method, applied in a second pass, uses an end-member phase decomposition obtained from the first pass, and DA matrices determined for each end-member, to re-process the event data with each pixel treated as an admixture of end-member terms. This paper describes the new method and demonstrates through examples and Monte-Carlo simulations how it better tracks spatially complex composition and background shape while still benefitting from the speed of DA.

  4. Mineral elements in dental composites by atomic and nuclear analytical methods. II. Improved analysis by PIXE

    In the corrosive environment of the mouth, a diversity of interactions take place at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling. Moreover, the mineral elements of the restorative material may induce a complex response of the organism. The approach of these problems requires sensitive surface elemental analysis of the composite and of the dental enamel and dentine. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is such a method and has been applied in investigations of hard dental tissues; however, it was not used so far in the study of dental composites. We continue our study by evaluating the potential of PIXE for analysis of these materials. Three types of composites with two color shades each have been studied. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons, using a hyperpure Ge detector in a spectroscopic chain connected to a computer. The spectra were processed with the dedicated program Leone. PIXE without additional Al absorbent foil allowed the detection of Z > 14 elements in composites. In two glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr and In in Tetric Ceram (Vivadent); and Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental), after elimination of the escape peaks. In quartz-based Evicrol (Spofa), Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn were seen. Materials with different color shades showed variations of Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu in Evicrol, as contrasted to Tetric Ceram and Valux Plus whose spectra were color-invariant. By its sensitivity and low background, PIXE enables the detection of many trace elements in dental composites; it could serve also in new materials' development and forensic expertise. (authors)

  5. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and ToF-SIMS techniques

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like HPLC, LC-MS/MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, Br, ...), elemental IBA technique can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparation. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick target PIXE (TT-PIXE) and the TT-PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of celecoxib and atorvastatin in commercial solid drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. PIXE analysis as a tool for dating of ice cores from the Greenland ice sheet

    Sections from the 2037 m long Dye 3 ice core drilled in 1979-1981 in the ice sheet of Southern Greenland were analysed with PIXE. The seven selected sections were from depths between 1778 and 1813 m, which corresponds to a time interval between about 8 500 and 10 000 years B.C. at the end of the last Ice Age. During this time period, fast climatic changes of several degrees centrigrade per century are known to have taken place. The exact time scales of these changes need yet to be verified by renewed measurements using nonconventional stratigraphic dating techniques such as PIXE. The problem is highly relevant for the prediction of climatic changes in our present age. A new sample preparation technique was developed which enables the determination of annual thicknesses of the parts of the ice core representing 10 000-40 000 years before present, where the thickness of the annual ice layers are believed to be less than 2.5 cm. More commonly used techniques of dating, such as measurements of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes δ18O and δD, nitrate, acidity or conductivity all have difficulties in resolving annual cycles in thicknesses of less than about 2 cm. The new technique involves sublimation of 18 cm long ice sections, after which the material contained in the ice is deposited on the thin backing. In this way, the material to be analysed is preconcentrated through the removal of the H2O, while still retaining the spatial distribution pattern of the various water soluble and insoluble components along the ice core. The resulting spatial resolution of the sublimation technique is estimated to be ±1 mm. A PIXE analysis was performed in contiguous millimeter steps across the sublimated ice sections. Estimations of annual ice layer thicknesses were based on the patterns of seasonal variation along the ice sections for several major and minor elements quantified with PIXE. (orig./TW)

  7. WDX-PIXE analysis of low energy X-rays using a microbeam

    A high-energy resolution PIXE system developed at a heavy ion microbeam line was used to analyze low energy X-rays below 1 keV. The system is equipped with a plane crystal spectrometer with a gas flow position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC), which enables high-energy resolution PIXE analysis using a microbeam. In order to improve the detection efficiency for the low energy X-rays, the X-ray entrance window of the PSPC was replaced with a thin polymer film supported by a metal grid. As the result, the detectable energy range was extended to carbon K X-rays and chemical effect in Fe and Cu L X-rays could be detected. A preliminary result of high-energy resolution PIXE mapping of Cu mesh (no. 500) showed that it is possible to obtain the Cu Lα mapping image using a 2 MeV proton microbeam with the size of 20x20 μm

  8. Quantitative analysis of major elements in silicate minerals and glasses by micro-PIXE

    Campbell, J.L.; Czamanske, G.K.; MacDonald, L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Guelph micro-PIXE facility has been modified to accommodate a second Si(Li) X-ray detector which records the spectrum due to light major elements (11 ??? Z ??? 20) with no deleterious effects from scattered 3 MeV protons. Spectra have been recorded from 30 well-characterized materials, including a broad range of silicate minerals and both natural and synthetic glasses. Sodium is mobile in some of the glasses, but not in the studied mineral lattices. The mean value of the instrumental constant H for each of the elements Mg, Al, and Si in these materials is systematically 6-8% lower than the H-value measured for the pure metals. Normalization factors are derived which permit the matrix corrections requisite for trace-element measurements in silicates to be based upon pure metal standards for Mg, Al and Si, supplemented by well-established, silicate mineral standards for the elements Na, K and Ca. Rigorous comparisons of electron microprobe and micro-PIXE analyses for the entire, 30-sample suite demonstrate the ability of micro-PIXE to produce accurate analysis for the light major elements in silicates. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Towards truly simultaneous PIXE and RBS analysis of layered objects in cultural heritage

    For a long time, RBS and PIXE techniques have been used in the field of cultural heritage. Although the complementarity of both techniques has long been acknowledged, its full potential has not been yet developed due to the lack of general purpose software tools for analysing the data from both techniques in a coherent way. In this work we provide an example of how the recent addition of PIXE to the set of techniques supported by the DataFurnace code can significantly change this situation. We present a case in which a non homogeneous sample (an oxidized metal from a photographic plate - heliography - made by Niepce in 1827) is analysed using RBS and PIXE in a straightforward and powerful way that can only be performed with a code that treats both techniques simultaneously as a part of one single and coherent analysis. The optimization capabilities of DataFurnace, allowed us to obtain the composition profiles for these samples in a very simple way

  10. Setting up of in-vacuum PIXE system for direct elemental analysis of thick solid environmental samples.

    Rihawy, M S; Ismail, I M; Halloum, D

    2016-04-01

    Experimental set-up, development, characterization, and calibration of an in-vacuum PIXE system at the tandem accelerator facility of the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) is described. The PIXE system calibration involved experimental characterization of the X-ray detector parameters and careful determination of the H-values that control dependence of the detector solid angle with the X-ray energies and correct imperfect values of the detector efficiency. Setting up of an electron flood gun to compensate charge built up and utilization of a beam profile monitor to perform indirect measurement of the beam charge, provide a direct PIXE measurement of thick insulating samples in-vacuum. The PIXE system has been subsequently examined to verify its ability to perform direct PIXE measurements on geological materials. A combination of minimum sample preparation procedures and specific experimental conditions applied enables simple and accurate elemental analysis. Elemental concentrations of several elements heavier than sodium in different reference geological samples, at about 5-10% absolute accuracy for most elements, have been determined. Comprehensive discussion of the obtained elemental concentration values, for most elements of visible X-ray peaks in the PIXE spectra, has been considered. PMID:26803668

  11. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun state of Nigeria

    Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various

  12. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun state of Nigeria

    Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Facully of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various

  13. Development of in-air micro-PIXE analysis and data sharing systems in JAERI Takasaki

    An external scanning ion microbeam system has been developed for in-air micro-PIXE analysis at JAERI Takasaki. The analysis system is widely used for various researches in recent years. The system consists of the external scanning ion microbeam system, a multi-parameter data acquisition system, a file transfer protocol (FTP) server and analysis software. The software of the system provides a graphical user interface for interaction between users and an experimental setup. The server is connected to the Internet and allows remote users to access the experimental data. (author)

  14. Problems associated with routine PIXE analysis in quantifying elemental concentrations of leukocytes from Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery patients

    Whole blood from patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) operations was separated into leukocyte subfractions of polymorphonuclearcytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Blood samples were collected and analyzed at various timepoints to determine the elemental composition to provide a better understanding of recovery mechanisms and to indicate complications that may occur post-operatively. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) using the University of Surrey microprobe was employed to determine the concentrations of a range of elements. Accurate two-dimensional PIXE analysis however, requires knowledge of the sample matrix composition. These samples, on the other hand, showed varying thickness, lacked matrix homogeneity and displayed non-uniform trace element distribution. This paper discusses the results and problems associated with routine PIXE analysis and demonstrates the potential ability of ion beam analysis (IBA) depth profiling software, previously unused in PIXE analysis, to model a RBS spectrum of inhomogeneous, multi-layered samples prior to performing PIXE analysis. (author)

  15. Performance of an on-demand excitation system for PIXE analysis

    A system for electrostatic on-demand beam excitation in PIXE analysis has been built and carefully tested. Significantly increased count rate capability without any need for corrections for electronic dead time and with less target deterioration makes the system superior to a traditional system with electronic pile-up rejection. By adding a fast external electronic pulse pile-up rejection system, a pile-up interval of about 250 ns is obtained. The detailed behaviour of the particle beam during deflection and experience from using the system in routine analysis are reported. (Authors)

  16. Non-destructive analysis of early glass unearthed in south China by external-beam PIXE

    External-beam PIXE was used for the non-destructive analysis of early glasses unearthed from the tombs of Warring States (475-221 BC) and Han Dynasty (BC 206-AD 220) in south China. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system and K2O-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had exactly the same recipe. The source of the K2O flux and the correlation between PbO and BaO are discussed. Some archaeological information is revealed. (author)

  17. PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiments have been carried out at the AGLAE facility (Paris) on several mural samples containing Maya blue from different Prehispanic archaeological sites (Cacaxtla, El Tajin, Tamuin, Santa Cecilia Acatitlan) and from several colonial convents in the Mexican plateau (Jiutepec, Totimehuacan, Tezontepec and Cuauhtinchan). The analysis of the concentration of several elements permitted to extract some information on the technique used for painting the mural, usually fresco. Principal component analysis permitted to classify the samples into groups. This grouping is discussed in relation to geographic and historic data

  18. Local analysis of strontium using fish scale by micro-PIXE with a CdTe X-ray detector

    Sr is an indicator used in studies on fish migration. In this study, the Sr profiles of ridges, which are growth lines in fish scales, in Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi) were examined by micro-PIXE analysis. Sakhalin taimen were reared under freshwater conditions for six months. The ridges that formed during the rearing experiment were subjected to PIXE spot analysis. This analysis was performed in a 5 x 5 μm2 area in the center region of each ridge of the scale section, and the Sr levels were calculated using the thin-section standard. The mean Sr concentration in the ridges was 428 ± 48 μg/g. The quantitative PIXE spot analysis successfully provided Sr profiles for the scale corresponding to ridge formation. (author)

  19. Application of vertical-beam in-air PIXE to surface analysis of plant root exposed to aluminum stress

    Elemental composition of living cells and tissues reflects their physiological function and status. However, it has been difficult to know in-situ elemental distribution by conventional analytical methods. In-air PIXE seems suitable for surface analysis of living cells and tissues because any treatment (e.g. freeze drying, digestion) is not required before and during measurement. We applied Via (vertical-beam in-air) PIXE to surface analysis of plant roots exposed to aluminum (Al). Aluminum stress is a major factor that limits elongation of plant roots in acid soils. We previously reported decrease in atomic ratio of potassium to phosphorus (K/P ratio) of dried root-tip of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under Al stress using in-vacuum PIXE. In Via PIXE, 5 to 7-minute irradiation by 3 MeV proton beams of 200 pA was sufficient to obtain X-ray spectra without drying root samples. Decrease in K/P ratio in surface cells of root-tips was observed by short-term (6-8 h) exposure of root to Al. Via PIXE is recognized as a powerful tool for in-situ surface analysis of plant material. (author)

  20. On the Application of Elastic Scattering Analysis as a Complement to PIXE for the Determination of Light Elements in Thin Aerosol Samples

    Bohgard, Mats; Johansson, Eva-Marta; Martinsson, Bengt

    1983-01-01

    The potential of elemental analysis of light elements by measuring elastically scattered particles as a complement to PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission analysis), when using a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator is discussed. The discussion is based on protons and He ions with energies suitable for PIXE. Some experimental results of scattering yields are included.

  1. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis

  2. The combined application of PIXE analysis and thermoluminescence (TL) dating for elucidating the origin of iron manufacturing in Japan

    For elucidating the origin of iron manufacturing in Japan, the usefulness of PIXE analysis was reconfirmed and a new technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dating was applied. Through reproducing experiments of iron manufacturing and forging, PIXE analysis was tested for classifying the iron slag produced from these two different process. The TL dating method was improved for experiments with the iron manufacturing furnace, burnt at high temperature (about 1300 K) and irradiated with relatively low dose. Utilizing PIXE analysis, the iron manufacturing furnace can be distinguished from the older forging furnace used for the imported iron plate. Adopting TL dating, the oldest iron manufacturing furnace can be found out. Some ancient samples in Japan were used as a test of this combined application, and the results were positive, thus proving the suitability of the method

  3. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    Hassan, Md. Taufique, E-mail: thassan@tulane.edu [Department of Physics, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh); Shariff, Md. Asad [Tandem Accelerator Facilities division, INST, AERE, Savar (Bangladesh); Hossein, Amzad; Abedin, Md. Joynal [Accelerator Facilities division, AECD (Bangladesh); Fazlul Hoque, A.K.M. [Daffodil International University, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Chowdhuri, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-01

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis.

  4. Trace element analysis of material scalp hair by external beam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    An external beam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) system has been constructed for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Optimization of sample preparation and experimental PIXE set-up produced a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and reliable PIXE analysis procedure. The analytical procedure was evaluated using scalp hair of pregnant women at 16-19 weeks of gestation. The samples were irradiated with 3.5 MeV protons from the Rutgers Nuclear Physics Department's 8 MV Tandem Fn Van de Graaff accelerator. The concentrations of the elements calcium to cadmium in hair are reported for 50 subjects. The analytical procedure is suitable for non-invasive clinical analysis for evaluation of nutritional states and for environmental exposure to toxic metals. (author)

  5. Elemental content of erythrocytes from patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery using PIXE analysis

    This on-going study was conducted on erythrocytes to further establish the content of elements of blood fractions from patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery. As the quality and quantity of elements in these samples were unknown, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was chosen for its multi-elemental analysis capabilities on small mass samples. Previous work demonstrated the detection of several elements using PIXE analysis and that the elemental concentrations of S, Cl, Ca and Fe were worthy of note. It is indicated that continuing analysis of these cell fractions may be significant in the study of trace element metabolism as it provides insight into understanding mechanisms for preventative, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and hence a patient's state of health. The analysis of erythrocytes was conducted at pre, during and post-operative timepoints to investigate the changes that occur during and post-surgical intervention. Elements Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb were detected in erythrocytes at all surgery timepoints and from normalized graphs, elements S, K and Fe revealed that the changes in concentration through surgery followed an almost identical pattern. It is anticipated that statistical correlation and interpretation of data may provide, in the long-term, information that could have an impact on the patients' rate of recovery or appropriate aftercare. (author)

  6. PIXE analysis of proto-porcelain excavated from Tingziqiao kiln site of Deqing (China)

    Particle induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to analyze the proto-porcelain excavated from Tingziqiao kiln site of Warring States (475-221 BC) in Deqing County of Zhejiang Province, China. It was found that the porcelain body and glaze differ from each other in recipes. The porcelain clay of high silicon and low aluminum might be used to make the body of proto-porcelain. Lime and plant or wood ashes might be added into the glaze of the proto-porcelain. Cluster analysis was done to reveal the compositional relationship between the proto-porcelain samples. (authors)

  7. Elemental Analysis of Lapis Lazuli sample, using complementary techniques of IBIL and MicroPIXE

    T Nikbakht; Kakuee, O. R.; M Lamehi Rachti; M Sedaghati Boorkhani

    2015-01-01

    Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) is a useful IBA technique which could be utilized to obtain information about the nature of chemical bonds in materials. Regarding the probed area, this non-destructive and fast technique is a suitable complementary one for MicroPIXE. Since most minerals are luminescent, IBIL is an applicable analytical technique in mineralogy. In this research work, to characterize a Lapis lazuli sample, a 2.7 MeV proton beam is utilized. After data collection and analysi...

  8. Elemental Analysis of Soil Samples Using Thick Target-Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (TT-PIXE) Technique

    Sunil Kumar; Mehta, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work thick target-proton induced x-ray emission (TT-PIXE) technique has been employed for the elemental analysis of soil samples collected from Budha nullah region of Ludhiana city, Punjab. TT-PIXE analysis of samples has been carried out using 3 MeV proton beam from 3 UD pelletron (9SDH2 from NEC, USA) facility at the Institute of Physics (IOP), Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The emitted x-rays were detected using Si(Li) detector (CANBERRA US, FWHM = 180 eV at 5.9 keV) positioned at 90° to the...

  9. Determining aerosol particles by in-air micro-IL analysis combined with micro-PIXE

    Kada, Wataru, E-mail: kada.wataru@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    A new external ion microbeam ion luminescence (micro-IL) imaging system was developed on a microbeam line of a 3 MV single-ended accelerator at the TIARA facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Micro-IL was combined with an in-air micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) system to determine the chemical composition and structures of microscopic airborne particles of several micrometers in size. The hardware and software for the combined in-air micro-IL analysis system, called ion luminescence microscopic imaging and spectroscopy (ILUMIS), were studied. Wavelength-dispersive optics, including a collimator lens, a monochromator, and a photon-counting photomultiplier, were installed on the beam line. The signal processing of the IL photon signals, which were collected as spectra and two-dimensional microscopic images, was examined. Several aerosol particles were characterized to demonstrate the ILUMIS/PIXE combined analysis. The external microbeam ILUMIS analysis method provided a variety of information on the chemical and elemental composition of the micrometer-sized aerosol targets under ambient atmospheric conditions.

  10. Study of particulate emissions near a steel plant in Genova by continuous sampling and PIXE hourly analysis

    The particulate emissions near a large steel plant located in a densely inhabited suburb of the town of Genova (Italy) have been studied for a period of six months. We have used two-stage continuous streaker samplers and subsequent PIXE analysis with hourly resolution, to follow both seasonal and daily trends. The first streaker sampler remained installed very close to the plant cokery and furnaces, while another sampler was moved to different locations. Samples have been analysed by PIXE, deducing concentrations for elements from Na to Pb. During part of the campaign, the aerosol fractions with aerodynamic diameter (Dae)ae<10 μm (coarse fraction) have been separately collected. We have measured and analysed about 8500 PIXE spectra: the steel plant emissions have been identified to some extent and resolved from other aerosol sources

  11. Characterization of pre-Hispanic pottery from Teotihuacan, Mexico, by a combined PIXE-RBS and XRD analysis

    Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Manzanilla, L.; Miranda, J.; Canetas Ortega, J.; Lopez, C

    1999-04-02

    A combined analysis of IBA techniques (Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)) and a complementary study by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize pottery corresponding to the Epiclassic period (A.D. 700-900) from Teotihuacan, Mexico. Elemental compositions of pottery samples were measured by simultaneous PIXE and RBS using 2.6 MeV protons. Red, white and brown pottery pigments were studied by non-vacuum PIXE and a proton beam of 3 MeV. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified by XRD. From pottery elemental compositions and its mineralogical phases, some differences among the pottery samples and groups were established.

  12. Characterization of pre-Hispanic pottery from Teotihuacan, Mexico, by a combined PIXE-RBS and XRD analysis

    A combined analysis of IBA techniques (Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)) and a complementary study by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize pottery corresponding to the Epiclassic period (A.D. 700-900) from Teotihuacan, Mexico. Elemental compositions of pottery samples were measured by simultaneous PIXE and RBS using 2.6 MeV protons. Red, white and brown pottery pigments were studied by non-vacuum PIXE and a proton beam of 3 MeV. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified by XRD. From pottery elemental compositions and its mineralogical phases, some differences among the pottery samples and groups were established

  13. Characterization of pre-Hispanic pottery from Teotihuacan, Mexico, by a combined PIXE-RBS and XRD analysis

    Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Manzanilla, L.; Miranda, J.; Cañetas Ortega, J.; López, C.

    1999-04-01

    A combined analysis of IBA techniques (Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)) and a complementary study by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize pottery corresponding to the Epiclassic period (A.D. 700-900) from Teotihuacan, Mexico. Elemental compositions of pottery samples were measured by simultaneous PIXE and RBS using 2.6 MeV protons. Red, white and brown pottery pigments were studied by non-vacuum PIXE and a proton beam of 3 MeV. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified by XRD. From pottery elemental compositions and its mineralogical phases, some differences among the pottery samples and groups were established.

  14. Efficiency calibration of an HPGe X-ray detector for quantitative PIXE analysis

    Mulware, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephenmulware@my.unt.edu; Baxley, Jacob D., E-mail: jacob.baxley351@topper.wku.edu; Rout, Bibhudutta, E-mail: bibhu@unt.edu; Reinert, Tilo, E-mail: tilo@unt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is an analytical technique, which provides reliably and accurately quantitative results without the need of standards when the efficiency of the X-ray detection system is calibrated. The ion beam microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory at the University of North Texas is equipped with a 100 mm{sup 2} high purity germanium X-ray detector (Canberra GUL0110 Ultra-LEGe). In order to calibrate the efficiency of the detector for standard less PIXE analysis we have measured the X-ray yield of a set of commercially available X-ray fluorescence standards. The set contained elements from low atomic number Z = 11 (sodium) to higher atomic numbers to cover the X-ray energy region from 1.25 keV to about 20 keV where the detector is most efficient. The effective charge was obtained from the proton backscattering yield of a calibrated particle detector.

  15. PIXE and SPM analysis of V, Cr, Cu and Bi in nodular cast iron

    The nodular cast iron was prepared with the same nodularizing process in which the elements V, Cr, Cu and Bi were added respectively. The graphite phase was extracted from the nodular cast iron to measure the trace elements in it. It was made into a thick target and measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The contents of V, Cr and Cu were 3, 40 and 14 ppm respectively in the graphite, as the element was separately increased to 2100, 5000 and 2500 ppm in the matrix. Therefore, V, Cr and Cu do not intrude the graphite as the contents of these elements are lower, and have no obvious effect on the nodularization. Bi, which belongs to the antinodular elements, easier intrudes into the graphite than others. The content of Bi in graphite was 74 ppm and the nodularizing rate went down by 34% when it was 200 ppm in the matrix. The distributions of V, Cr, Cu and Bi in the sample were measured using a scanning proton microprobe (SPM) to research the properties of these elements further. The results showed that most of the V, Cu and Cr distributed in the matrix. Some of the Cu intruded into the graphite, some existed in the matrix yet as Bi was increased to 200 ppm. These results of SPM agree with that of the PIXE analysis. (orig.)

  16. K, L, and M shell datasets for PIXE spectrum fitting and analysis

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Siegele, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Routine PIXE analysis programs, like GUPIX, GEOPIXE and PIXAN generally perform at least two key functions firstly, the fitting of K, L and M characteristic lines X-ray lines to a background, including unfolding of overlapping lines and secondly, the use of a fitted primary Kα, Lα or Mα line area to determine the elemental concentration in a given matrix. To achieve these two results to better than 3-5% the data sets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections should be determined to better than 3%. There are many different theoretical and experimental K, L and M datasets for these parameters. How they are applied and used in analysis programs can vary the results obtained for both fitting and concentration determinations. Here we discuss several commonly used datasets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections for K, L and M subshells and suggests an optimum set to obtain consistent results for PIXE analyses across a range of elements with atomic numbers from 5 ⩽ Z ⩽ 100.

  17. Monitoring river water and sediment samples by both PIXE analysis and radioactivity determination

    In cooperation with the Shanghai Environmental Specimen Bank (SESB) research project and in support of the Shanghai government's comprehensive plan to harness the Suzhou River, we collected water and sediment samples in the every spring season since 1998. The elemental analysis of sediment and water samples was performed by the PIXE technique using the 3 x 2 MeV NEC Tandem accelerator at the Taipei Institute of Physics. The characterization of a and a radioactive levels for water and sediment samples was performed using BH1216, low-background, radioactivity instrument at the Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research. PIXE results showed that the content of Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Pb in river water gradually decreased with the rising tide. At high tide, their concentrations were minimum, and then once again increased toward the ebb tide. The analysis also demonstrated that the radioactivity of water samples had been gradually decreasing year by year. It was found that the decreasing rate of a radioactivity was a little quicker than that of a radioactivity. Further aspects of environmental data evaluation and assessment are also discussed in detail. (author)

  18. Potential of PIXE for the elemental analysis of calcium hydroxide used in dentistry

    Calcium hydroxide is used in dentistry and generally shows a clinically acceptable biocompatibility. However various commercial assortments show differences in their clinical performances, suggesting that certain aspects of their action are not completely understood and pointing to the necessity of new investigation methods. We report a preliminary study on two types of calcium hydroxide products carried out by thick target PIXE with 3.0 MeV protons, aiming to assess the potential of this method for the analysis of such biomaterials used in endodontic dentistry. (Semi)quantitative analysis was performed by use of reference materials, and relative concentrations of elements with respect to Ca were determined with an accuracy of about 30%; tentative absolute concentrations were also estimated by using Ca as a reference element. In both formulations, a number of trace elements (Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr, and possibly Cu and Pb - probably impurities from the raw materials) were evidenced. These trace elements together with the Ba/Ca ratio are reliable fingerprints for the identification of the materials, and evidenced a different origin for the Ca(OH)2 used in the two specimens. Possible applications of PIXE in dental research may bring relevant compositional insight, and further studies of such materials are suggested. (authors)

  19. Improved PIXE analysis of micro- and trace elements in dental composites

    Due to the interactions occurring at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling, the mineral elements of the restorative composite may induce a complex response of the organism. To study such problems, sensitive surface trace element analysis is required. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has a detection limit one order of magnitude lower than XRF and has been used for hard dental tissues, but not yet for dental composites. We evaluated the potential of PIXE in a study of ten types of composites used in restorative dentistry, some of them with two color shades each. The samples were prepared as described for XRF. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons from a van de Graaff tandem linear accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector and collecting the spectra for 1.5-4 hours. The spectra were processed with the program Leone. The proton route in the sample calculated with the Trim program (∼ 50-100 μm) exceeded the size of mineral particles (0.02-30 μm), thus granularity did not affect the analysis. The PIXE analysis detected Z ≥ 19 elements in all composites, and Z≥14 elements in only one low Z material. PIXE detected generally the same dominant elements, but many more trace elements than XRF. Thus both Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer) contained Ba as the major element, but trace elements were Ni, Zn, In, in the first, and Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag in the second. In other glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr, In, and possibly Ti in Tetric Ceram and in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental); Sr, Ba (major), K, Fe, Mn (minor), and traces of Ni, Zn, In, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental); Ba (major) and traces of Fe, Ni, Sr in Surefil (Dentsply). In quartz-based materials we detected: Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cl, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn in Evicrol (Spofa); low and trace levels of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu in

  20. Micro-PIXE analysis of silicate reference standards

    Czamanske, G.K.; Sisson, T.W.; Campbell, J.L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the University of Guelph proton microprobe have been evaluated through trace-element analysis of well-characterized silicate glasses and minerals, including BHVO-1 glass, Kakanui augite and hornblende, and ten other natural samples of volcanic glass, amphibole, pyroxene, and garnet. Using the 2.39 wt% Mo in a NIST steel as the standard, excellent precision and agreement between reported and analyzed abundances were obtained for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb. -from Authors

  1. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  2. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  3. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis

    Módenes, A.N., E-mail: anmodenes@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Espinoza-Quiñones, F.R.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Rizzutto, M.A. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Divalent metal ion removals by Egeria densa biosorbent. • Multielements concentrations in biosorbent samples by PIXE analysis. • Elements mass balance in liquid and solid phase before and after metal removals. • Assessment of the mechanisms involved in Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} removal by biosorbent. • Confirmation of the signature of ion exchange process in metal removal. -- Abstract: In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2 h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass.

  4. First study of airborne particulate pollution using PIXE analysis in Habana city, Cuba

    The present work reports the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (fine and coarse) collected at the Municipality of Centro Habana, Havana City, Cuba, using the PIXE technique. At present, there is not any information available about element contents in airborne particulate from this region. A five months sampling campaign was carried out, collecting the samples under an air flux of 20 l/min with a Gent SFU Sampler equipped with a system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected. For the PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.0 MeV energy protons from a 2 MV Tandetron Accelerator. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected with minimum detection limits from 1 ng/m3 to 10 ng/m3 for most of the elements. Enrichment factors were also calculated for both fractions in order to identify the natural and anthropogenic group of elements. The quantitative results obtained have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. (author)

  5. PIXE analysis of low concentration aluminum in brain tissues of an Alzheimer's disease patient

    An excess accumulation and presence of metal ions may significantly alter a brain cell's normal functions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify the density and distribution of excessive accumulations of constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca) in the brain, as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al). This is particularly important in cases of neuropathological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS. The aim of this paper was to measure the Al present in the temporal cortex of the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient. The specimens were taken from an unfixed autopsy brain which has been preserved for a period of 4 years in the deep freezer at -80 degree sign C. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy was used for the measurement of Al concentration in this brain tissue. A tandem accelerator with 2 MeV of energy was also used. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorbers were removed. The results show that the peak height depends on the measurement site. However, in certain cases an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in the PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those in the other major elements of the brain's matrix element. Samples from tissues affected by the same disease were analyzed using the EDX analyzer. The results are quantitatively in very good agreement with those of the PIXE analysis

  6. Analysis of some ancient glass samples unearthed in Sichuan area by PIXE

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is an effective method for the chemical composition analysis of ancient glass samples without destruction. Chemical composition of the ancient glass samples dated from the Warring States Period (770-476 B.C.) to the Six Dynasties Period (220-589 A.D.), which were unearthed in Sichuan area, was quantitatively determined by the PIXE technique. The results show that the glass Bi (disc) and the glass eye beads of the Warring States Period all belong to the PbO-BaO-SiO2 system. According to the composition and shape, we infer that these glass Bi and eye beads were made in China. Whereas, the chemical compositions of the glass ear pendants and beads of the Six Dynasties Period are varied, including K2O-CaO-SiO2, K2O-SiO2 and other glass systems, Based on the obtained results and those from literatures, some questions related to the technical propagation of the ancient Chinese glass are discussed. (authors)

  7. Analysis of ancient Indian silver punch-marked coins by external PIXE

    Rautray, Tapash R., E-mail: tapash.rautray@gmail.com [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa (India); Nayak, Suman S. [Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 201 North Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-2302 (United States); Tripathy, Bipin B. [Department of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India); Das, Saubhagyalaxmi [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa (India); Das, Manas R. [Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technical education and Research, SOA University, Jagmohan Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Das, Satya R. [Department of Computer Science, Institute of Technical education and Research, SOA University, Jagmohan Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Chattopadhyay, Pranab K. [Centre for Archaeological Studies and Training, Eastern India, 4 Camac Street (1st Floor), Kolkata 700016 (India)

    2011-10-15

    Seven silver punch-marked coins were analysed using external particle induced X-ray emission technique. The main group of elements like Ag, Cu, Au, Pb and Fe were estimated along with a number of trace/minor elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Rb in the analysed silver coins. Gold was found in all the coins and varied between 0.7% and 6.2% indicating the better economic condition of that civilisation. - Highlights: > The silver punch-marked coins, in the current study, were in use in India between 6th century BC to 6th century AD and have been analysed by in-air PIXE. > These sets of coins have immense archaeological importance because of their very rare availability. > These coins are distinguished from other coins because of the presence of gold as major element. > While the British period coins were fabricated using modern technologies, the punch-marked coins were shaped manually with developed metal technology. > The analysis of punch-marked coins using external PIXE beam has been done for the first time, which is unique of its kind.

  8. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar Kα X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  9. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Kakuee, Omidreza, E-mail: okakuee@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A. [The Library, Museum and Documentation Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran Parliament, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135 Degree-Sign while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K{sub {alpha}} X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  10. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad; Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A.

    2012-02-01

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K α X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  11. PIGE-PIXE analysis of medicinal plants and vegetables of pharmacological importance

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed to the study of elemental constituents of some traditional medicinal plants generally used in curing many diseases and ailments in South-Western Nigeria. Analysis were also carried out on commonly edible vegetables of medicinal and pharmacological importance. PIGE measurements were carried out using 3.5 MeV collimated protons from the 7 MV CN Van-de-Graaff accelerator of INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova), Italy, while the PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van-de-Graaff accelerator of the same laboratory. The results show that many of the medicinal plants contain elements of cardinal importance in man's metabolism. The results from the vegetables also show that presence of vital elements that are needed for growth and developments. In addition, some of the toxic elements which include arsenic, cadmium, mercury, etc. were not detected. However, some of the recipes contain trace amounts of lead at very low concentrations. This calls for proper control of dose rates in some samples to prevent the attendant negative cumulative effects. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. PIXE cluster analysis of ancient ceramics from North Syria

    Kieft, I.E.; Jamieson, D.N. E-mail: dnj@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Rout, B.; Szymanski, R.; Jamieson, A.S

    2002-05-01

    Tell Ahmar is a place situated on the east bank of the Euphrates river, near the Turkish border. The site was well known as a major trade centre in the Iron Age. From the many potsherds excavated from the site, it is necessary to distinguish pottery imported from outside from that made locally. Therefore a sample of the Iron Age potsherds that were excavated from this site was analyzed with particle induced X-ray emission to identify the characteristic composition of the different sherds. Potsherds from four other places near Tell Ahmar were also analyzed. The samples were irradiated with a scanned 3 MeV proton beam in the Melbourne nuclear microprobe. The composition of all sherds measured by this method was similar. However, cluster analysis of the 12 most abundant elements, ranging from Mn to Ba, revealed that the samples known to be from Tell Ahmar could be distinguished from those known to be from elsewhere.

  13. PIXE analysis of ashes generated in the incinerator for radioactive waste

    Ashes generated in the incinerator for radioactive waste at the Kaya Memorial Takizawa Laboratory was analyzed using the PIXE system established at the Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center. An easy method of sample preparation of ash powder for the PIXE is described. Many elements in the ash sample were detected. The PIXE used in this study is shown to be a very valuable method for analyzing the ash. (author)

  14. On the Applications of IBA Techniques to Biological Samples Analysis: PIXE and RBS

    The analytical techniques based on ion beams or IBA techniques give quantitative information on elemental concentration in samples of a wide variety of nature. In this work, we focus on PIXE technique, analyzing thick target biological specimens (TTPIXE), using 3 MeV protons produced by an electrostatic accelerator. A nuclear microprobe was used performing PIXE and RBS simultaneously, in order to solve the uncertainties produced in the absolute PIXE quantifying. The advantages of using both techniques and a nuclear microprobe are discussed. Quantitative results are shown to illustrate the multielemental resolution of the PIXE technique; for this, a blood standard was used

  15. Analysis for pollutant heavy metals in Danube River Delta by PIXE method

    The study and quantitative and qualitative determination of pollutant heavy metals in lacustrine and alluvial sediments in Danube River Delta constitutes a priority issue particularly following the ecological accidents which took place in the last two years, namely: - pollutant heavy metal discharge in Tisa River tributaries; - alleged polluting events at Nicopole town with residuals discharged in Danube River from Turnu Magurele chemical complex; - Siret River pollution from Metodet Co. The measurements implied radioisotope identification, concentration determination, in-deep and surface distribution determinations. As analytical method the NAA (Thermal Neutron Induced Activity Analysis) was used but it cannot supply satisfactory information for a number of elements like: Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, V, Mn. The elemental analysis based on atomic instrumental method consists in exciting characteristic rays (X-ray fluorescence) with photons, electrons, or charged particles. The performance of the PIXE elemental analysis consists in the possibility of detecting a large variety of trace elements (Z>17) with high sensitivity. The target samples were obtained from sediment samples taken in 1996 from the lakes Mesteru, Sulimanca, Furtuna Est, Canal Sontea and for Sinoe lake. Chemical and physical procedures for obtaining thin and/or thick targets are described. The measurements were carried out by the 9 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem Accelerator of IFIN-HH at a 3 MeV proton beam with the 0.5 nA. The gamma rays were detected with a Ge HP detector of 189 eV/5.9 keV. The element identification was done from the energies of X-Kα and K β or X-Lα and Lβ. The intensity of the X-rays was determined with a least- squares fit code (LEONE). The X-ray spectra were corrected accurately by eliminating the continuously background, the pile-up lines, the escape lines, the lines from nuclear reactions and Compton scattering. Additional information was obtained in case of partial or total overlap of

  16. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  17. Scanning-PIXE analysis of gold lace embroideries in a relic of St. Francis

    In this work, we describe the compositional analysis performed by scanning-mode PIXE on the metal threads of a XIII century embroidery. The precious work analysed is the pillow-case used to cover the pillow, on which - according to tradition - St. Francis of Assisi was resting his head when he died. Measurements were performed in order to characterise the embroideries of the two sides and the passementerie in the lateral hems. Several areas, each of the order of two square millimetres, were scanned with a 3 MeV proton external beam of 20 μm size on target, using the external micro-beam facility of our laboratory, with list-mode acquisition. Analysis of elemental maps and spectra from selected homogeneous sub-areas allowed us to extract the quantitative composition of the gilded tape and estimates of its thickness

  18. PIXE, a new technique for the trace element analysis of high explosives

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for the first time for the analysis of trace elements in high explosives. Characteristic X-ray spectra were collected from samples of PE4 during irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons. These spectra were examined with the specific aim of investigating whether trace elements could be used as a 'fingerprint' for the year of manufacture of the explosive. Analysis has shown that the levels of trace elements in PE4 explosive was significantly lower in batches manufactured after 1985. Similar analyses were also performed on the ash residues of the explosives, revealing increased trace element concentrations, and therefore a greater sensitivity, and confirmed that post-1985 PE4 was of higher purity

  19. Presumed cause of mass deaths of rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator) using PIXE analysis

    Eighty-nine wild birds were found dead in Ogata Village in northern Japan in March 2006. Eighty-eight of the birds were rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator), which are migratory birds. Since the use of rodenticide (thallium sulfide and zinc phosphide) in the area around where the birds had been found was revealed by a survey, etiological and pathological examinations including elemental analysis by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were conducted. Elemental analysis showed high concentrations (56-365 dry-μg/g) of thallium in the lungs, gastric contents, intestines, livers and kidneys. Histopathological examination revealed vacuolar degeneration of hepatic cells and granular and/or hyaline droplet degeneration of renal tubular epithelia. The results suggest that the mass deaths were caused by thallium poisoning. (author)

  20. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element concentrations of natural rubies from different locations in Myanmar

    Sanchez, J. L.; Osipowicz, T.; Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.; Win, T. T.

    1997-07-01

    The trace element concentrations found in geological samples can shed light on the formation process. In the case of gemstones, which might be of artificial or natural origin, there is also considerable interest in the development of methods that provide identification of the origin of a sample. For rubies, trace element concentrations present in natural samples were shown previously to be significant indicators of the region of origin [S.M. Tang et al., Appl. Spectr. 42 (1988) 44, and 43 (1989) 219]. Here we report the results of micro-PIXE analyses of trace element (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ga) concentrations of a large set ( n = 130) of natural rough rubies from nine locations in Myanmar (Burma). The resulting concentrations are subjected to statistical analysis. Six of the nine groups form clusters when the data base is evaluated using tree clustering and principal component analysis.

  1. Study of paleodiet by means of the PIXE analysis of ancient human bones from Teotihuacan; Estudio de paleodieta mediante el analisis PIXE de restos oseos de Teotihuacan

    Ruvalcaba S, J.L.; Becerra R, V. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    This work focuses on the study of the paleodiet of individuals from Teotihuacan corresponding to the end of the Classic period and Mazapa phase. The analysis lies on the chemical composition variability of major and trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr, and Ba among others, of bone remains. Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE) was used to analyze the individual bone remains and sediments associated to the burial context. The bone remains were stripped of their external layer by mechanical cleaning, then powdered to prepare pellets. The bone and sediment pellets were irradiated using a 3 MeV proton beam and an external beam setup. Elemental concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr and Ba, among other elements, were measured in bones and sediments from the archaeological excavations. An evaluation of the sample preparation, the effects of the archaeological context, as well as the paleodiet results are presented. (Author) 20 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Differential and scanning-mode external PIXE for the analysis of the painting 'Ritratto Trivulzio' by Antonello da Messina

    Extensive PIXE investigations have been performed at the LABEC accelerator laboratory in Florence on the painting 'Ritratto Trivulzio' by Antonello da Messina, one of the great Italian masters of XV Century and a pioneer in modern oil painting. It is well known that a complete and unambiguous characterisation of materials in paintings is often difficult, owing to their complex structure. For the 'Ritratto Trivulzio', the combination of advanced variants of PIXE, such as differential and scanning-mode analysis, provided a relevant contribution to the characterisation of paint layers, in terms of composition and structure, in a totally non-invasive and non-destructive way. Single-spot mode PIXE with external proton beams of about half millimetre diameter was first used for a general characterisation of different areas of the painting. Differential PIXE performed in many spots led to reconstruct the sequence of paints employed by the artist and to estimate in some cases the local paint layer thickness. A second run carried out with the external scanning microbeam facility, using a 3 MeV proton beam of about 80 μm size, was then crucial to clarify some issues raised by the first analysis. In particular, elemental maps from selected areas helped to understand the way some colour shades had been obtained on the red mantle of the portrayed gentleman, using different pigments irregularly distributed on the surface.

  3. Integration of XRF spectrometer for simultaneous and/or complementary use with PIXE at the external ion beam analysis setup

    Full text: The Rudjer Boskovic Institute Tandem Accelerator Facility is equipped with a number of end-stations dedicated to ion beam analysis (IBA), modification of materials and nuclear physics experiments. IBA is performed at the: (1) nuclear microbeam, (2) broad-beam in-vacuum and (3) external beam end-stations. Several lBA techniques can be used simultaneously, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) at the external beam end-station, and additionally Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) at the in-vacuum end-station. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a technique complementary to PIXE. Both techniques offer high analytical potential for multi-elemental investigations and material characterization. Due to different excitation mechanisms, PIXE generally exhibits higher sensitivity for lighter elements and XRF for heavier, whereas they also have different in-sample depth sensitivities. Although they use different excitation sources, both techniques can use the same data acquisition modules. With the development of miniature, low power and lightweight X-ray tubes it is possible to incorporate an X-ray source within the IBA setup and combine the two techniques for simultaneous use. In this work, the unification of the PIXE and XRF techniques at the RBI external ion beam analysis setup has been investigated and the results are discussed. This has been done by installing a transmission miniature X-ray tube at the end-station. The tube has been properly positioned in order to irradiate the same spot on the sample as the ion beam used for PIXE/PIGE measurements. Our home made data acquisition system SPECTOR, used regularly for the IBA measurements, has been also used to acquire the XRF spectra. At first, the X-ray tube has been installed at the in-vacuum IBA station, and then to the external beam end-station. Test measurements have been carried out on various standard reference materials using both systems and the

  4. Integration of XRF spectrometer for simultaneous and/or complementary use with PIXE at the external ion beam analysis setup

    Fazinic, S.; Cosic, D.; Jaksic, M. [Laboratory for lon Beam Interactions, Division of Experimental Physics, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Migliori, A.; Karydas, A.G. [Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Desnica, V. [Laboratory for Science and Technology in Art, Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia); Mudronja, D. [Natural Science Laboratory, Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Rudjer Boskovic Institute Tandem Accelerator Facility is equipped with a number of end-stations dedicated to ion beam analysis (IBA), modification of materials and nuclear physics experiments. IBA is performed at the: (1) nuclear microbeam, (2) broad-beam in-vacuum and (3) external beam end-stations. Several lBA techniques can be used simultaneously, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) at the external beam end-station, and additionally Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) at the in-vacuum end-station. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a technique complementary to PIXE. Both techniques offer high analytical potential for multi-elemental investigations and material characterization. Due to different excitation mechanisms, PIXE generally exhibits higher sensitivity for lighter elements and XRF for heavier, whereas they also have different in-sample depth sensitivities. Although they use different excitation sources, both techniques can use the same data acquisition modules. With the development of miniature, low power and lightweight X-ray tubes it is possible to incorporate an X-ray source within the IBA setup and combine the two techniques for simultaneous use. In this work, the unification of the PIXE and XRF techniques at the RBI external ion beam analysis setup has been investigated and the results are discussed. This has been done by installing a transmission miniature X-ray tube at the end-station. The tube has been properly positioned in order to irradiate the same spot on the sample as the ion beam used for PIXE/PIGE measurements. Our home made data acquisition system SPECTOR, used regularly for the IBA measurements, has been also used to acquire the XRF spectra. At first, the X-ray tube has been installed at the in-vacuum IBA station, and then to the external beam end-station. Test measurements have been carried out on various standard reference materials using both systems and the

  5. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element composition and their distribution in minerals of mantle peridotite

    The proton microprobe and the quantitative micro-PIXE analysis technique are used to determine trace element composition and distribution in minerals of mantle peridotite, therefore, additional useful information is provided on the study of upper mantle mineral phase transformation. An example reported here is the study on the geochemical behavior of trace elements in minerals of Suoluoshu mantle peridotite from Shandong province, which was in the process of mineral phase transformation from spinel to garnet. The study shows that trace element composition and distribution display obvious change in minerals while the mineral phase is transformed from spinel to garnet. Most of the trace elements analyzed reside in clinopyroxene and spinel. However, garnet is nearly poor in all of these elements. This phenomenon is associated with the infiltration of solution and the existence of micrograined inclusions in minerals in the process of mantle metasomatism

  6. Background considerations in the analysis of PIXE spectra by Artificial Neural Systems.

    Correa, R.; Morales, J. R.; Requena, I.; Miranda, J.; Barrera, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the importance of background in PIXE spectra to determine elemental concentrations in atmospheric aerosols using artificial neural systems ANS, two independently trained ANS were constructed, one which considered as input the net number of counts in the peak, and another which included the background. In the training and validation phases thirty eight spectra of aerosols collected in Santiago, Chile, were used. In both cases the elemental concentration values were similar. This fact was due to the intrinsic characteristic of ANS operating with normalized values of the net and total number of counts under the peaks, something that was verified in the analysis of 172 spectra obtained from aerosols collected in Mexico city. Therefore, networks operating under the mode which include background can reduce time and cost when dealing with large number of samples.

  7. Analysis of powdered milk by PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission)

    The purpose of this work was to establish the conditions to analyze elements of Z>15 in powdered milk samples using the PIXE technique. Ten different commercial samples were analyzed: 2 full-cream, 3 half-cream and 5 for infant feeding. They were all purchased in Toluca City, Mexico. Thick targets were prepared and irradiated with 1.5 and 3 MeV protons beam in Mexico's Nuclear Center Tandem Van de Graff Accelerator. The obtained data were analyzed by two computers programs. Iron, the reference element was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of the following elements: phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, calcium, chrome, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, bromine, rubidium, molybdenum and cadmium were evaluated. The concentrations of the first four elements were usually high, whereas those of the other elements remained in some ppm. The experimental conditions set up in this work were suitable for the analysis of powdered milk and can be applied to other organic samples (Author)

  8. Obsidian sourcing studies in Papua New Guinea using PIXE-PIGME analysis

    Over 100 obsidian samples were analysed using PIXE-PIGME in 1990. These samples were collected during intensive surveys of the source areas around Talasea, Garua Island, and the Mopir area in 1988, 1989 and 1990. A ratio combination of 9 elements were used to separate out groups as per previous studies: F/Na, Al/Na, K/Fe, Ca/Fe, Mn/Fe, Rb/Fe, Y/Zr, Sr/Fe and Zr/Fe. In spite of variations in major elements, the close agreement between results for minor and trace elements concentrations in artefacts and known source material indicates that the provenance of each artefact can be reliably determined. This conclusion provides important validation of the use of ion beam analysis in artefact characterisation. ills

  9. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr6+ mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  10. Trace elemental analysis of adenoma and carcinoma thyroid by PIXE method

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Anjaneyulu, Ch.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Sundareswar, B.; Vijayan, V.

    2002-11-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of normal, adenoma and carcinoma thyroids using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, I, Hg and Pb were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of the elements Ca, Cu, Zn, As, I and Hg are found to be much lower in carcinoma thyroid than those in the normal thyroid while the concentration of the elements K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Sr in carcinoma thyroid are higher than the concentrations in normal thyroid. The lower and higher values of some of the elements in carcinoma thyroid may be attributed to some pathological factors.

  11. Analysis of trace elements in RSSR and its original juice by PIXE method

    This work has analyzed trace element contents in the flesh of fruit and its original juice of RSSR growing in Gansu province by PIXE method. The analysis data show that RSSR contains the sufficient trace elements, the most past of which are necessary for the human body, for example, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, Mn, Rb, Zn and Sr etc. elements have higher contents, among them, the contents of both K and Ca are quite rich, in total amount of the 13 elements; only their content sum account for above 95% the contents of toxic elements of Pb, As are lower than the level of permit dose. So, the drinks made with RSSR are benefit to the human health

  12. Application of micro-PIXE to fish life history analyses: trace element analysis of otoliths

    Otoliths are biogenic, carbonate concretions which form part of the hearing/balance system in fishes. The radial growth of otoliths and the variation of trace elements along the radius appear to capture important aspects of fishes' environmental history. At the Lund Nuclear Microprobe Laboratory, we have begun to use Proton-Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopy (PIXE) for micro-elemental analysis of otoliths. The experimental procedure is discussed and a number of examples of what can be investigated are presented. In particular, movement of diadromous species (eel, menhaden, and anadromous brown trout) can be detected between fresh and brackish water by Sr/Ca ratio. This technique has also been used to identify fish that were raised in freshwater hatcheries and then released to brackish water (pike-perch example)

  13. An elementary analysis on the data quality of trace element determination in hair by PIXE

    The data quality of trace element determination in human hair by PIXC is fairly improved, when three measures are adopted: 1), The sample is thin homogeneous and smooth, especially the sample thickness is controlled in about 0.1-0.2 mg/cm2 2), A multi function computer program is used for the analysis of compelx X-ray spectra (PAXMF). The PAXMF program not only gives out the net areas of characteristic peaks but also can calculate the concentration of elements in the sample, can subtract the interferences contributed by impurities in 'blank sample' and can provide practical detection limits for the users. 3), System error is corrected by means of determination of trace elements in human hair standard material. 16 trace elements are analysed in human hair sample by PIXE as an intercomprarision. The values of 7 elements (Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb) are in good agreement with the recommended values

  14. Study of paleodiet by means of the PIXE analysis of ancient human bones from Teotihuacan

    This work focuses on the study of the paleodiet of individuals from Teotihuacan corresponding to the end of the Classic period and Mazapa phase. The analysis lies on the chemical composition variability of major and trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr, and Ba among others, of bone remains. Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE) was used to analyze the individual bone remains and sediments associated to the burial context. The bone remains were stripped of their external layer by mechanical cleaning, then powdered to prepare pellets. The bone and sediment pellets were irradiated using a 3 MeV proton beam and an external beam setup. Elemental concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr and Ba, among other elements, were measured in bones and sediments from the archaeological excavations. An evaluation of the sample preparation, the effects of the archaeological context, as well as the paleodiet results are presented. (Author) 20 refs., 10 figs

  15. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: f.espinoza@terra.com.br; Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Modenes, A.N.; Palacio, S.M.; Silva, E.A.; Rossi, F.L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr{sup 6+} mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  16. Application of micro-PIXE to fish life history analyses: trace element analysis of otoliths

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K. E.; Kristiansson, P.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    1999-04-01

    Otoliths are biogenic, carbonate concretions which form part of the hearing/balance system in fishes. The radial growth of otoliths and the variation of trace elements along the radius appear to capture important aspects of fishes' environmental history. At the Lund Nuclear Microprobe Laboratory, we have begun to use Proton-Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopy (PIXE) for micro-elemental analysis of otoliths. The experimental procedure is discussed and a number of examples of what can be investigated are presented. In particular, movement of diadromous species (eel, menhaden, and anadromous brown trout) can be detected between fresh and brackish water by Sr/Ca ratio. This technique has also been used to identify fish that were raised in freshwater hatcheries and then released to brackish water (pike-perch example).

  17. Application of micro-PIXE to fish life history analyses: trace element analysis of otoliths

    Elfman, M. E-mail: mikael.elfman@nuclear.lu.se; Limburg, K.E.; Kristiansson, P.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J

    1999-04-02

    Otoliths are biogenic, carbonate concretions which form part of the hearing/balance system in fishes. The radial growth of otoliths and the variation of trace elements along the radius appear to capture important aspects of fishes' environmental history. At the Lund Nuclear Microprobe Laboratory, we have begun to use Proton-Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopy (PIXE) for micro-elemental analysis of otoliths. The experimental procedure is discussed and a number of examples of what can be investigated are presented. In particular, movement of diadromous species (eel, menhaden, and anadromous brown trout) can be detected between fresh and brackish water by Sr/Ca ratio. This technique has also been used to identify fish that were raised in freshwater hatcheries and then released to brackish water (pike-perch example)

  18. Obsidian sourcing studies in Papua New Guinea using PIXE-PIGME analysis

    Summerhayes, G.R.; Gosden, C. [La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, VIC (Australia); Bird, R.; Hotchkis, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Specht, J.; Torrence, R.; Fullaga, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Div. of Anthropology

    1993-12-31

    Over 100 obsidian samples were analysed using PIXE-PIGME in 1990. These samples were collected during intensive surveys of the source areas around Talasea, Garua Island, and the Mopir area in 1988, 1989 and 1990. A ratio combination of 9 elements were used to separate out groups as per previous studies: F/Na, Al/Na, K/Fe, Ca/Fe, Mn/Fe, Rb/Fe, Y/Zr, Sr/Fe and Zr/Fe. In spite of variations in major elements, the close agreement between results for minor and trace elements concentrations in artefacts and known source material indicates that the provenance of each artefact can be reliably determined. This conclusion provides important validation of the use of ion beam analysis in artefact characterisation. ills.

  19. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  20. Conference on instrumental activation analysis - IAA 89

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especialy on neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods. (J.P.)

  1. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  2. PIXE as a complement to ICP-OES trace metal analysis in Sudanese medicinal plants.

    Mubark Ebrahim, Ammar; Etayeb, M A; Khalid, H; Noun, Manale; Roumie, M; Michalke, B

    2014-08-01

    This paper compares trace element concentrations (Ca, K, Sr, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Co and Cr) in 27 Sudanese medical plants determined in parallel by PIXE and ICP-OES to get information on which technique is preferable at different matrices and element concentrations. PIXE correlates well to ICP-OES for Sr, Mn, Ca, K, Zn and Fe determinations. ICP-OES seems to be the superior technique over PIXE when measuring low concentrated elements (chromium, cobalt, nickel and copper) in the medicinal plants. PMID:24814608

  3. PIXE as a complement to ICP-OES trace metal analysis in Sudanese medicinal plants

    This paper compares trace element concentrations (Ca, K, Sr, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Co and Cr) in 27 Sudanese medical plants determined in parallel by PIXE and ICP-OES to get information on which technique is preferable at different matrices and element concentrations. PIXE correlates well to ICP-OES for Sr, Mn, Ca, K, Zn and Fe determinations. ICP-OES seems to be the superior technique over PIXE when measuring low concentrated elements (chromium, cobalt, nickel and copper) in the medicinal plants

  4. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    Rizzutto, M.A., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Moro, M.V.; Silva, T.F.; Trindade, G.F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Kajiya, E.M.; Campos, P.H.V. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Magalhães, A.G.; Barbosa, M. [Museum of Contemporary Art, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship.

  5. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship

  6. Biomedical applications of PIXE at Fudan University

    The aspects of the PIXE technique in the Van de Graaff Laboratory of Fudan University are reported. The analytical precision is within 5% when handling with care and within 10% in routine analysis. Some recent applications of PIXE are presented, including the pathogeny analysis of Kashin-Beck's disease and cancer, hair analysis of pregnant women and an unknown primate, and PIXE analysis in DNA study. (author) 69 refs

  7. Artificial neural networks applied to quantitative elemental analysis of organic material using PIXE

    An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained with real-sample PIXE (particle X-ray induced emission) spectra of organic substances. Following the training stage ANN was applied to a subset of similar samples thus obtaining the elemental concentrations in muscle, liver and gills of Cyprinus carpio. Concentrations obtained with the ANN method are in full agreement with results from one standard analytical procedure, showing the high potentiality of ANN in PIXE quantitative analyses

  8. Artificial neural networks applied to quantitative elemental analysis of organic material using PIXE

    Correa, R. [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 1242, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rcorrea@utem.cl; Chesta, M.A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Medina Allende s/n Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: chesta@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Morales, J.R. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Dinator, M.I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: mdinator@uchile.cl; Requena, I. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es; Vila, I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecologia, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: limnolog@uchile.cl

    2006-08-15

    An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained with real-sample PIXE (particle X-ray induced emission) spectra of organic substances. Following the training stage ANN was applied to a subset of similar samples thus obtaining the elemental concentrations in muscle, liver and gills of Cyprinus carpio. Concentrations obtained with the ANN method are in full agreement with results from one standard analytical procedure, showing the high potentiality of ANN in PIXE quantitative analyses.

  9. An excel utility for the rapid characterization of 'funny filters" in PIXE analysis.

    Nejedly, Zdenek; Campbell, John L; Gama, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    "Funny filters", i.e. compound absorbers with an aperture in one layer, provide an effective means of recording both trace and major element X-ray lines in a single PIXE spectrum. However, the characterization of funny filters has some pitfalls. An Excel utility has been developed to characterize the physical parameters of the filter on the assumption of a constant H-value for the PIXE system. Its application is illustrated using data taken independently at two laboratories.

  10. PIXE and XRF analysis of particulate matter samples: an inter-laboratory comparison

    G. Calzolai; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; MAZZEI F.; Nava, S.; Prati, P.; Valli, G; Vecchi, R.

    2008-01-01

    PIXE and XRF are very effective techniques in atmospheric aerosol investigation, therefore they are extensively used by the authors. In this work an inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained analysing several samples (collected on different substrata) with both techniques is presented: the samples were analysed by PIXE (in Florence, at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of LABEC laboratory) and by XRF (in Genoa and Milan, where two Oxford XRF instruments are operational). The results of...

  11. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  12. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfate determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  13. PIXE application for multi-element analysis of marine micro-algae and measurement of the concentration factor of zinc

    Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., Phaeodactylum sp., etc.) were obtained from the Pacific Ocean of Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and cultured purely in nutritive seawater, PES and artificial seawater, ASP7 as a culture solution. The algae in 5 ml of the culture solution was collected on a polycarbonate film (pore size: 1.0 μm) by suction filtration. The algae on the film was subjected to PIXE analysis. A 2.9 MeV proton beam bombarded it at 50 nA for 15 minutes. Induced X-ray was measured by Si(Li) detector. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr were determined simultaneously. PIXE can used for multi-element analysis of a sample below 1 mg, so the culture size for algae was 10-250 ml and every apparatus was small and of low cost. Nannochloropsis sp. was given a different culture solution (PES) including Zn2+ from 0.050 to 1.0 mg/l and incubated at 22 deg C, 2000 lux for 10 hours. Zn in Nannochloropsis sp, increased in proportion to the Zn2+ concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factor was given as 1600 ± 100 (wet weight base) and 9000 ± 500 (dry weight base). It was shown that PIXE was a powerful tool for multi-element analysis of micro organisms and the measurement of bioaccumulation. (author)

  14. Elemental Analysis of Soil Samples Using Thick Target-Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (TT-PIXE Technique

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work thick target-proton induced x-ray emission (TT-PIXE technique has been employed for the elemental analysis of soil samples collected from Budha nullah region of Ludhiana city, Punjab. TT-PIXE analysis of samples has been carried out using 3 MeV proton beam from 3 UD pelletron (9SDH2 from NEC, USA facility at the Institute of Physics (IOP, Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The emitted x-rays were detected using Si(Li detector (CANBERRA US, FWHM = 180 eV at 5.9 keV positioned at 90° to the beam line and using suitable electronics. The trace elements 15P, 16S, 19K, 20Ca, 22Ti, 24Cr, 25Mn, 26Fe, 29Cu, 30Zn, 33As, 37Rb, 38Sr, and 82Pb were quantified in the soil samples. The quantitative estimation of PIXE spectrum of the soil samples was performed using GUPIX computer code. The presence of 24Cr, 33As, and 82Pb toxic elements in soils is likely to be due to the pollution caused by seepage of the water at the breached locations of nullah. The present study brings to focus the need to improve the effluent treatment of the industrial wastes and repair of the breached Budha nullah. In comparison to other analytical techniques for elemental analysis, PIXE is sensitive and its multi-elemental character brings advantage to investigators for the determination of minor and trace elements in a variety of soil samples.

  15. Gamma-ray spectroscopic and PIXE analysis of selected samples from the phosphorite deposits of Northwestern Saudi Arabia

    Phosphorite deposits from northwestern Saudi Arabia were analyzed by natural radioactivity measurements to detect the presence of radioactive elements. PIXE was used to obtain an average elemental composition of these deposits. From the analysis of radiations from 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes, the samples were found to contain U, Th and K in concentrations up to 130 ppm, 30 ppm and 2,5 wt%, respectively. PIXE showed the presence of a number of trace elements such as Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y and U in concentrations ranging from a few ppm to several hundred ppm. The occurrence of these radioactive and non-radioactive elements are discussed for their geological significance in the phosphorite deposits. (author)

  16. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Mexico. A first survey

    A first survey of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was performed using PIXE. This second largest industrial city is located 715 km north of Mexico City, and counts with a population of nearly three million inhabitants in its conurbation. Air pollution in the place comes from a great variety of industries ranging from iron smelters to furniture manufacturing, as well as from fuel combustion in vehicles and industries. This study presents results of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter in two particle size fractions: PM2.5 and PM15. The samples were collected during five weeks on working days, Monday-Friday, from 9 December 1996 to 14 January 1997. Two samples a day were collected, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. These first results show local pollution as typical from a large urban area in conjunction with an active industry. Thirteen elements were consistently detected in most of the samples and some episodes due to both industrial and human activities were identified. A general discussion about the results obtained is presented

  17. In-air PIXE set-up for automatic analysis of historical document inks

    The iron gall inks were one of the writing materials mostly applied in historical documents of the western civilization. Due to the ink corrosive character, the documents are faced with a danger of being seriously, and in some cases also irreversibly changed. The elemental composition of the inks is an important information for taking the adequate conservation action [Project InkCor, http://www.infosrvr.nuk.uni-lj.si/jana/Inkcor/index.htm, and references within]. Here, the in-air PIXE analysis offers an indispensable tool due to its sensitivity and almost non-destructive character. An experimental approach developed for precise and automatic analysis of documents at Jozef Stefan Institute Tandetron accelerator is presented. The selected documents were mounted, one at the time, on the positioning board and the chosen ink spots on the sample were irradiated by 1.7 MeV protons. The data acquisition on the selected ink spots is done automatically throughout the measuring pattern determined prior to the measurement. The chemical elements identified in the documents ranged from Si to Pb, and between them the significant iron gall ink components like Fe, S, K, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni were deduced with precision of ±10%. The measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated documents

  18. PIXE analysis of jewels from an Achaemenid tomb (IVth century BC)

    Querré, G.; Bouquillon, A.; Calligaro, T.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ion beam analysis has seldom been applied to gemmology. The privileged location of the Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France, close to some of the most prestigious art collections, along with the implementation of the AGLAE IBA facility, have allowed us to initiate several gemmological research programs since 1991. The latest of these deals with a series of Achaemenid jewels (IVth century BC) exhibited in the Louvre museum. The aim of the present research is three-fold: determination of the coloured materials inlayed in gold, composition of the golden alloys and the inlay fixation technique. Analyses have been carried out by PIXE using an external proton beam under conditions set from test experiments on reference gemstones in order to optimise the experimental parameters. Quantitative chemical analysis of both major and trace elements has allowed us to distinguish between 15 types of fine or ornamental stones as well as man-made materials and to identify a peculiar cement technique. We will describe the analytical procedure in detail, then present the main results obtained on coloured inlays and cement and underline a potential drawback of the technique, i.e. a transient colour variation of the target under the impact of the beam, which needs further investigation.

  19. PIXE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Sambaqui do Panaquatira

    Ikeoka, R.A.; Appoloni, C.R., E-mail: renatoikeoka@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (CCE/UEL), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Rizzutto, M.A.; Silva, T.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAMFI/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos; Bandeira, A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The study of cultural heritage of ancient people through fossils, monuments and engines has fundamental importance in the construction of the memory of any society. Such knowledge can be acquired by researches in archaeological sites and the detailed study of the different kind of objects which can be found in these places. This work deals with objects from the Sambaqui of Panaquatira located in Sao Luis do Maranhao (Brazil). Ancient civilizations that inhabited that territory were characterized as fishing populations - catchers - hunters and ceramists. From a selection of 95 pottery fragments of surface; 5 to 10 cm; 20 to 30 cm; 40 to 50 cm; 65 to 70 cm; 80 to 90 cm; 90 to 100 cm; 130 to 140 cm and 160 to 170 cm stratigraphic levels, a representative set was analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology. PIXE measurements were performed with an external beam setup with ~2.4 MeV proton beam in the LAMFI laboratory using three X-ray detectors, two Si-PIN detectors and one HPGe with standard spectrometry electronics; each spectrum was taken for 600s. The spectra analyses were performed with the Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Software (WinQXAS), distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were identified in the different fragments. It was analysed the kind of applied treatment on the concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste of the fragments. From the determination of the elemental composition of the fragments, it was possible to identify that the elements Ti, Mn, Fe and Zn are present in the fragments with larger amounts at concave and convex sides, compared to the ceramic paste, indicating a different surface treatment that leads to an enrichment of these elements. One fragment from the 20-25cm stratigraphy has a lighter colour region which is characterized by containing the highest concentration of the elements Ti, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn. (author)

  20. PIXE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Sambaqui do Panaquatira

    Full text: The study of cultural heritage of ancient people through fossils, monuments and engines has fundamental importance in the construction of the memory of any society. Such knowledge can be acquired by researches in archaeological sites and the detailed study of the different kind of objects which can be found in these places. This work deals with objects from the Sambaqui of Panaquatira located in Sao Luis do Maranhao (Brazil). Ancient civilizations that inhabited that territory were characterized as fishing populations - catchers - hunters and ceramists. From a selection of 95 pottery fragments of surface; 5 to 10 cm; 20 to 30 cm; 40 to 50 cm; 65 to 70 cm; 80 to 90 cm; 90 to 100 cm; 130 to 140 cm and 160 to 170 cm stratigraphic levels, a representative set was analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology. PIXE measurements were performed with an external beam setup with ~2.4 MeV proton beam in the LAMFI laboratory using three X-ray detectors, two Si-PIN detectors and one HPGe with standard spectrometry electronics; each spectrum was taken for 600s. The spectra analyses were performed with the Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Software (WinQXAS), distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were identified in the different fragments. It was analysed the kind of applied treatment on the concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste of the fragments. From the determination of the elemental composition of the fragments, it was possible to identify that the elements Ti, Mn, Fe and Zn are present in the fragments with larger amounts at concave and convex sides, compared to the ceramic paste, indicating a different surface treatment that leads to an enrichment of these elements. One fragment from the 20-25cm stratigraphy has a lighter colour region which is characterized by containing the highest concentration of the elements Ti, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn. (author)

  1. In-air PIXE analysis for pollution studies using nominal regime protons at the U-120 cyclotron

    Short communication.To determine impurity concentrations (especially metals) liquids and solid samples related to environmental pollution control in-air PIXE analysis is very advantageous. We have used 3-4 MeV proton beams obtained from the 6.5 MeV U-120 Cyclotron nominal regime protons extracted through a pressure-air cooled 100 μm aluminium foil into the air, striking the sample after 8-10 cm. To avoid the strong straggling effects large sizes are used (50-80 mm diameter). X-rays are detected through reflection using a 4.3 mm active area diameter horizontal Si (Li) detector (1 mm plexiglass absorber). To minimize the strong gamma-ray background a lead collimator from the extraction foil to the target is used. Standard Fe, Cu, Mo, Sn, Cs aqueous solutions (10 to 500 ppm) have been used to determine method's performances. So, maximum sensitivities have been obtained in the 22 ≤Z≤30 region (down to 1 ppm for Fe and Cu at the q = 40 n A x 600 s 24 μ C). Obtained spectra on distilled water and some usual chemical reagents (HCl, H NO3) are also presented. (Author)

  2. Development and application of micro-PIXE system for trace element analysis in mineral samples

    Micro PIXE system was developed to investigate the trace elemental concentration in single fluid inclusions of mineral samples on the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator at University of Tsukuba. Fluid inclusions are important as the most convincing information of fluid activities and vein-type ore formation in the Earth. In particular, elemental compositions of fluid inclusions provide a direct evidence for chemistry of fluids and elemental transportation related to magmatic process. The sample image can be observed on a monitor using a CCD camera and enlarged the magnification up to 360 by the microscope with a 102 mm working distance. The angle of observation was 180deg with respect to the incident beam using a 45deg mirror with a beam through hole. The sample stage can be moved to 90 and 25 mm along the horizontal and vertical axes with a minimum step of 1 μm respectively. The quadrupole doublet lens was designed to form a microfocused beam of less than 10 μm with a beam current of 1 nA. Observed spectrum of the fluid inclusion consisted mainly of the K-X ray peaks from Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and the L-X ray peaks from Pb. (author)

  3. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Technical Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Ma, B. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Q.H. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, P. [Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology, Urumchi 830011 (China); Gan, F.X. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-10-15

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} system, K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} system, Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} system and Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} glass and the K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} glass (including the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  4. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  5. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Vogel-Mikus, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kreft, I. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kreft@guest.arnes.si; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  6. The external PIXE setup for the analysis of manuscripts at the Florence University

    The external beam PIXE setup of the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Florence is extensively used for the analysis of parchments, rulings, inks and miniature temperas of Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts. The beam is collimated to about 200 μm and exits from the vacuum environment through a 8 μm Kapton window. Beam currents from 200 to 500 pA are used; they have been found to produce no visible damage to the examined materials. Two Si(Li) detectors are simultaneously used with different geometries in order to cover the widest possible Z-range of the detected elements: Even Na is detected with good sensitivity. A robust and versatile support has been constructed for safe and easy handling of the manuscripts. A laser alignment system allows accurate aiming at the detail of interest. A rotating chopper samples the beam at a frequency of the order of 1 Hz; X-rays produced on a Ni layer evaporated on the graphite vane of the chopper are used for charge normalization, since the weak current pulses would be unreliably measured in air due, in particular, to space, charge effects. An application is shortly presented, concerning the materials used for the 'colour' rulings which are found, starting from the 11th century, to delimit the writing field for the copyist. (orig.)

  7. PIXE and ICP analysis of chemical elements in the downer cow syndrome

    The aim of this study was the microelemental analysis of blood serum samples collected from healthy and ill cows (downer cow syndrome DCS). The origin of this syndrome is uncertain but the clinical experience denotes that the DCS is advanced by the hypocalcaemic paresis of parturition. The diminution of some nutritive elements from food can be a cause of DCS. The cows are more sensitive to the diminution of P in food in comparison with the diminution of Ca. Another interesting aspect about the origin of DCS is the ratio Ca/P in food. The samples were collected from cows at some animal farms: 20 healthy cows and 12 DCS cows breeds on the same conditions. Concentrations of P, Cl, K, Ca and Fe elements were obtained by using particle induced X - ray emission (PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The mineral concentrations in the serum have values in normal limits for healthy cows even during the winter, when the mineral content of dry food is very poor. On the other hand, we can observe important decreases under the normal limits of the amount of Ca, P and Mg in the blood serum of DCS cows. It is easy to see the tendency of the DCS animals to have hypocalcemia and hypophosphataemia. Those perturbations can be the causes of the installations of the ill cows in the lypostatic and decubital attitudes. (authors)

  8. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, K2O-SiO2 system, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system and Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass and the K2O-SiO2 glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass (including the Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced

  9. In-vacuum micro-PIXE analysis of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state

    The first in-vacuum measurements of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state using proton microbeam have been performed at Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, South Africa. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen in propane cooled by liquid nitrogen, fractured, carbon coated and transferred onto the cold stage (100 K) in the nuclear microprobe chamber. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. Quantitative results were obtained by standardless method, tested using 20% gelatine standards with added PbCl2. The differences between the concentrations obtained for frozen-hydrated and next freeze-dried specimens and the value calculated on the basis of weighted mass of PbCl2 added to gelatine were statistically insignificant. Leaf tissue of Senecio anomalochrous and larvae of Chysolina pardalina were used as examples of plant and animal tissue. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed the same distribution pattern in both cases

  10. Optimisation of Pt sensitivity in PIXE analysis of thin biological samples

    To obtain Pt concentration distributions in tumor biopsies, micro-PIXE is used. The limit of detection (LOD) for Pt is determined by the background production cross section together with the production cross section for the Pt-L lines. Both are functions of the type and energy of the projectile. In order to optimise the experimental conditions, the proton energy is varied from 2.5 to 5 MeV and the corresponding X-ray spectra are analysed. The optimum LOD is about 1 μg/g for a sample thickness of 1 mg/cm2 and a total charge of 100 μC. A study is performed to investigate the possibility of elemental analysis by means of α excitation. The corresponding LOD is 6 μg/g with 200 μC charge (He++ was used). For α excitation, sample damage limits the beam current and, thus, causes a tremendous increase in the measurement time. (orig.)

  11. Microprobe PIXE analysis of aluminium in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Yumoto, S.; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Fujii, K.

    1996-04-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), we examined aluminium (Al) in the rat liver, and in the brains (hippocampus) of Alzheimer's disease patients using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobe and proton (2 MeV) microprobe PIXE analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si 2+) have several time's higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. (1) In the rat liver, Al was detected in the cell nuclei, where phosphorus (P) was most densely distributed. (2) We also demonstrated Al in the cell nuclei isolated from Alzheimer's disease brains using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobes. Al spectra were detected using 2 MeV proton microprobes in the isolated brain cell nuclei. Al could not be observed in areas where P was present in relatively small amounts, or was absent. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells.

  12. Application of PIXE to source identification of Kosa aerosol: analysis of desert soils in China

    Eighteen samples of soil from six areas in three desert regions of China were subjected to X-PIXE and X-ray diffraction analysis. The samples were composed mainly of quartz, feldspar group minerals and calcite. The quartz content differed remarkably depending on the sampling area. Fourteen elements were detected and determined in almost all samples. The concentration ratio Mn/Fe ranged from 0.018 to 0.027 and was almost the same as those values reported previously for airborne mineral dusts and desert soils. Other ratios such as Al/Fe, Si/Fe, K/Fe and Ca/Fe also were in the ranges of the previously reported values for the dusts and soils. Other ratios such as Al/Fe, Si/Fe, K/Fe and Ca/Fe also were in the ranges of the previously reported values for the dusts and soils. Of these ratios, Si/Fe and Ca/Fe showed clear differences among the source regions of soil samples, and it is suggested that these differences can be useful to identify the source region of soil specimens. (orig.)

  13. Development of an Innovative Multipurpose Reaction Chamber for Simultaneous Analysis of PIGE, PIXE and RBS

    The Van de Graaff Laboratory (VDG lab) of the Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI) in Tehran has a long history of applying low energy ion beams in various kinds of IBA analysis or fundamental research [2.5-2.9]. In this lab, a 3MV Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator is used to produce energetic ion beams of H+, D+ and He+ up to 3 MeV. Accurate analysis of various samples is being carried out in seven beamlines equipped either with modern facilities such as a microbeam system (manufactured by Oxford Microbeam Ltd.) and a RBS-channeling system (manufactured by HVE), or with home-made complementary reaction chambers and equipment. The need for accurate measurement of PIGE cross sections in this CRP as well as our desire to introduce an innovative multipurpose reaction chamber for simultaneous analysis of PIGE, PIXE and RBS to the IBA community led us to design and fabricate a reaction chamber. Design and fabrication of the PIGE reaction chamber and side equipment: The multipurpose PIGE reaction chamber is designed and fabricated for simultaneous measurements of PIGE, PIXE and RBS. The chamber is made of an aluminum alloy with a lining of tin (Sn) to minimize the PIGE background radiation. In fact, for measurement of low concentration elements in sample, minimized background radiation is an important requirement. The following factors were taken into account in the design of the PIGE chamber: - Maximization of attainable solid angle for measurement of PIGE reaction products with the smallest physical volume of the chamber for rapid evacuation. - Capability for interchanging the samples without breaking the vacuum. - Possibility for measuring products of nuclear reaction at scattering angles of 55o and 90o using HPGe detector. - Equipping the chamber with a surface barrier detector so that RBS analysis and measurement of incident beam current are feasible. - Equipping the chamber with a Si(Li) detector for measurement of characteristic X

  14. Towards truly simultaneous PIXE and RBS analysis of layered objects in cultural heritage

    Pascual-Izarra, C.; Barradas, N. P.; Reis, M. A.; Jeynes, C.; Menu, M.; Lavedrine, B.; Ezrati, J. J.; Röhrs, S.

    2007-01-01

    For a long time, RBS and PIXE techniques have been used in the field of cultural heritage. Although the complementarity of both techniques has long been acknowledged, its full potential has not been yet developed due to the lack of general purpose software tools for analysing the data from both techniques in a coherent way. In this work we provide an example of how the recent addition of PIXE to the set of techniques supported by the DataFurnace code can significantly change this situation. W...

  15. Two new installations for non-destructive sample analysis: PIXE and PGAA

    Kudejova, Petra

    2005-01-01

    A new Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) set-up has been designed and built at the Tandem Accelerator of the University of Cologne. The PIXE installation is used for the determination of elemental composition of thin samples or sample surfaces. The set-up was calibrated and tested with various types of samples. The experiments have been automated and the standard analogue based acquisition system has been replaced by a digital one based on the XIA DGF-4C modules. A small Peltier-cooled XFla...

  16. PIXE and ICP-AES comparison in evaluating the efficiency of metal extraction and analysis in aerosol samples

    Full text: A recent EU regulation (EN 149022005) requests the quantification of selected metals in the atmospheric particulate by mineralization with H202 and HN03 in microwave oven.This method might possibly conflict with the determination of the total metal content. In fact, the more the aerosol is enriched in crustal elements the more the difference in the two methods are expected, since the H202+ HN03, extraction is not reliable for metals in silicate form. In order to evaluate the extracted fraction, PIXE and ICP-AES measurements were carried out on the two halves of a series of PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected on Teflon filters in an urban site in the surrounding of Florence (Italy). An ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) method was optimized by an ultrasound nebuliser (CETAC 5000 AT+), in order to improve reproducibility and detection limit. In these conditions, it was possible quantifying AI, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Vatsub-ppb levels. PIXE analysis using the external beam set-up at LABEC and a 3 MeV proton beam was carried out in order to measure the total elemental content of the metals. By comparing the ICP-AES and the PIXE results, a preliminary evaluation of the efficiency of the H202 and HN03 extraction method was performed. The obtained results (the mean values for the ICP-AES/PIXE ratio are reported in Table 1) show that the extraction procedure following the EN 14902 directive allows quantitative recoveries (80-120%, including the analytical uncertainties)for the majority of the analysed metals, especially for those mainly emitted by anthropic sources. This result points out that anthropic metals are present in the atmosphere as relatively available species (free metals, labile complexes, carbonates, oxides). On the contrary, lower recoveries were obtained for AI (mean value around 75%), a metal that has a relevant crustal fraction. Percentage of recovery of ICP-AES versus PIXE determination: Al=75, As=102, Cu

  17. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. PMID:24055999

  18. The identification of Chenghua white and blue porcelain by using PIXE and multivariate statistical analysis

    The major and minor chemical compositions of ancient white and blue porcelain made in Chenghua empire, Ming Dynasty and in Kangxi empire, Qing Dynasty have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that a real precious Chenghua white and blue porcelain made in Ming Dynasty at Kuan Kiln can be distinguished from the fakes made in Kangxi empire, Qing Dynasty

  19. PIXE analysis of U and Pu from hot particles: K-lines vs L-lines

    Jiménez-Ramos, M.C.; García López, J.; Eriksson, M.;

    2012-01-01

    . (2007) [1] and Jiménez-Ramos et al. (2010) [2], radioactive particles from aircraft accidents in Palomares and Thule have been characterized. Using micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE) and confocal X-ray fluorescence microprobe (μ-XRF), the L-lines of the main components in these particles, U...

  20. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  1. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    Bado, S.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Migliori, A.; Forster, B. P.; Jaksic, M.; Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R.; Laimer, M.

    2016-03-01

    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  2. PIXE analysis of prehistoric and protohistoric Caborn-Welborn phase copper artifacts from the lower Ohio River Valley

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry is being used to nondestructively determine the elemental composition of copper-based artifacts excavated from prehistoric/protohistoric sites in the Ohio River Valley. Copper objects from Caborn-Welborn (C-W) and contemporary Fort Ancient sites are being studied so as to differentiate between native American and European copper. The trace element analysis of metal artifacts enables archaeologists to more accurately assess the material culture and chronological development of C-W society (A.D. 1400-1700) with particular reference to geological sources of copper and brass. (author)

  3. Analysis of HgI2 and PbI2 crystals and detectors by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and ion backscattering spectroscopy (IBS)

    The Ion Micro-Analysis Group (IMAG) in Livermore conducts quantitative trace elemental analysis with PIXE and depth profiling with IBS using an MeV ion microbeam. The system has the capability to produce two-dimensional trace element and IBS images. PIXE analyses have been conducted on HgI2 and PbI2 crystals and detector materials in order to identify and quantify near surface trace contaminants. IBS measurements have been conducted to investigate elemental depth distributions in various materials. The results of measurements on several different samples are reported and a discussion of factors affecting quantitative in vacuo microanalysis of these materials is presented

  4. Resolution of air pollution from regional aerosol components in western Japan by factor analysis of elemental concentrations measured by PIXE

    During a kosa (yellow sand) dust event, with dust and pollution transport from the Asian mainland across the Sea of Japan, aerosol was sampled in Western Japan, time sequentially. The aerosol samples were collected by a Step Sampler (Nikkobo KE-101), which is specially designed for time sequential sampling, for each 4 h, and 50 samples were analyzed by PIXE. Nuclepore filters with coarse pores (8 μm) and fine pores (1 μm) were used for sampling coarse particles (CP) and total (coarse+fine) particles (TP), respectively. During kosa dust event, sulfur was collected mainly as CP, associated with kosa dust, while at other times almost only as TP was collected, showing its presence as fine particle sulfur. When fine sulfur particles were abundant, Cl in TP was much lower than in CP, indicating that a large part of Cl escaped from TP samples by volatilization, reacted with acidic sulfate. Factor analysis was applied for 20 elements: Two factors in the CP samples were significant, representing soil and sea salt rich aerosols. Time sequential sampling of aerosol by two types of filters, coarse and fine, and multielemental analysis by PIXE together with factor analysis has proved effective for distinguishing their origins. (orig.)

  5. The trace element analysis of ancient Indian coins using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    Elemental analysis of ancient Indian coins viz. thirty-three punched marked coins (6th century B.C.), fifty-nine coins belonging to Kusanas (78-250 A.D) and twenty-five coins belonging to medieval period (11th-14th century A.D), from India have been analysed using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The elements namely S, Ca, Fe, Ag, Cu, Ni and Pb were detected in most of the punch-marked coins while elements namely S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As and Zn were detected in most of the Kusanas coins and the S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Ag, Sn, Pb were detected in 11th-14th century A.D. coins. Based on the elemental analysis different hypotheses put forward in the earlier literature were examined. This is the first attempt where reasonable number of ancient coins belonging to different periods were analysed by modern non destructive multi-elemental technique such as PIXE and has put the importance of the elemental analysis of ancient Indian coins in the proper perspective

  6. Micro-PIXE analysis of strontium in Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus, otoliths from Quttinirpaaq National Park, Nunavut, Canada

    Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus, exhibit either lake resident or anadromous (sea-run) life histories. Anadromy is less prevalent at the northern and southern extremes of the distribution. Effective conservation and management of char requires knowledge of life histories exhibited by individuals and populations. Micro-PIXE line-scans were used to determine the distribution of strontium (Sr) in otoliths from which life history patterns were determined for Arctic char from 10 lakes in Quttinirpaaq National Park in the Canadian High Arctic. Although most populations were lake resident as expected, the data indicated that a component of the char population from one lake was anadromous. This represents the most northerly known char population to exhibit anadromy. Mean Sr concentrations in otoliths of char from all populations, as determined by point analysis and also from line-scan data, showed no significant differences between the methods. Mean Sr concentrations (from point analysis) showed significant differences between some of the populations. These differences combined with other analyses (e.g. morphometrics, genetics) can be used to differentiate biological populations. Thus, micro-PIXE analysis is a useful tool for assessing diversity in Arctic char and contributing to their management and conservation in the park

  7. Silver surface enrichment controlled by simultaneous RBS for reliable PIXE analysis of ancient coins

    Evidence of silver surface enrichment of ancient silver-copper coins has been pointed out in the past years. Surface enrichment can be fortuitous or intentional. In this paper, we have investigated the cleaning procedures usually performed after excavation or in museums. We have shown that chemicals or commercial products routinely used dissolve preferentially the copper phase and consequently contribute to the silver surface enrichment. As a result, surface analyses such as PIXE or XRF can be strongly affected by this effect. By using simultaneously RBS and PIXE, it is possible to check through the silver surface enrichment and then select the reliable measurements, characteristic of the bulk composition. Results on coins recently discovered and mechanically or chemically cleaned are presented

  8. Results from the nuclear microprobe PIXE analysis of selected rare earth fluor compounds

    Most previous research measures fluorescence properties over the macroscopic regime. Properties of individual microscopic grains could be significantly different than those measured over the macroscopic scale. Until recently, it was difficult to measure properties of individual fluor grains. Existing characterization techniques like scanning electron microscopy are not practical, since the resulting fluorescence masks the electron surface profile. Starting in September 2000, a research program was initiated at the Acadiana Research Laboratory to determine microscopic fluorescence properties for selected inorganic rare earth compounds. The initial phase of this program utilized microscopic proton induced X-ray emission (μPIXE) to characterize the elemental composition of individual fluor grains. Results show that both individual grains and small clusters of grains could be seen using μPIXE. Maps of this type can be used to estimate grain dimensions for the selected rare earth fluor. This technique is a new and innovative method to characterize a fluor material

  9. Identification of elements in polutants of Mexico City's atmosphere, using the pixe analysis

    A review of the fundamentals and actual state in Mexico of the pixe (particle induced X- ray emission) technique are done. Elemental identification in samples of Mexico City's atmosphere taken in two sites is performed using this technique. A 3 MeV proton beam is used to irradiate the samples. Factors (Bremsstrahlung and interference) that difficult the use of the technique are discussed. The sensitivity of the method is enhanced as a main characteristic. It is shown that tje pixe technique together with an appropriate sampling system can be used to study environmental aerosols. Identified elements are bromine, lead, copper, iron, zinc, titanium, vanadium, calcium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur and silicon. Temporal variations of these elements are discussed. (Author)

  10. Micro-PIXE analysis of fish otoliths. Methodology and evaluation of first results for stock discrimination

    Micro-PIXE has been used to measure the trace element distribution in otoliths from several species of ocean fish, in order to investigate its possible use in stock discrimination. Trace elements detected include Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Se, Cd, Br, Hg and Pb. Trace elements Na, K, Cl, S and Cl were detected with the electron microprobe. The high sensitivity of PIXE demands a meticulous sample preparation procedure to avoid contamination problems. Practical problems associated with the application of the technique were investigated in detail. Preliminary results indicate that most trace elements except Sr, are present at close to the limits of detection at few ppm, but biologically significant data can be obtained for stock discrimination applications. (author)

  11. Micro-PIXE analysis of fish otoliths. Methodology and evaluation of first results for stock discrimination

    Sie, S.H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Thresher, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    Micro-PIXE has been used to measure the trace element distribution in otoliths from several species of ocean fish, in order to investigate its possible use in stock discrimination. Trace elements detected include Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Se, Cd, Br, Hg and Pb. Trace elements Na, K, Cl, S and Cl were detected with the electron microprobe. The high sensitivity of PIXE demands a meticulous sample preparation procedure to avoid contamination problems. Practical problems associated with the application of the technique were investigated in detail. Preliminary results indicate that most trace elements except Sr, are present at close to the limits of detection at few ppm, but biologically significant data can be obtained for stock discrimination applications. (author).

  12. Analysis by PIXE and PIGME of biomineralized tissues in the chiton Clavarizona hirtosa

    Procedures have been developed to determine, by PIXE and PIGME, the elemental composition of small samples (ca. 1 mg) of biomineralized tissue. The Fe, Ca and P contents of the radula of the chiton C. hirtosa increase considerably from the early to the late stage of mineralization. However, F is absent, indicating that at least in C. hirtosa, Ca and P biomineral deposits are most likely hydroxyapatite rather than fluoroapatite which has been reported in several other species

  13. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    Saha, Priyanka [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, 92, APC Road, 700009 Kolkata (India); Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, 92, APC Road, 700009 Kolkata (India)], E-mail: sarmistha_rc@rediffmail.com; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal [UGC-DAE consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Radiation Biology Division, 3/LB Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, 700098 Kolkata (India)

    2010-03-15

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  14. Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells

    Jeynes, J.C.G., E-mail: J.C.Jeynes@surrey.ac.u [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bailey, M.J. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Coley, H. [Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, K.J.; Jeynes, C. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Microbeam PIXE was used to analyse platinum in single ovarian cancer cells. Carboplatin sensitive and resistant cells were grown as a monolayer on polypropylene and treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin. Pt from the carboplatin could not be detected. The Pt from cisplatin in the cells could be detected, and significantly more Zn was found in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive cells. The sensitive cells probably accumulated more cisplatin than the resistant ones.

  15. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  16. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk.

    Saha, Priyanka; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-03-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations. PMID:20047839

  17. PIXE analysis of trace elements in hair and their correlation with acute cerebrovascular diseases

    The PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) technique has been used to analyze trace elements in more than 200 human hair samples from 60 patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases and 28 normal controls. Trace element differences in hair between the patients and the normal controls have been observed. A Van de Graaff accelerator and a Si(Li) semiconductor at Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology of Sichuan University were used. (author)

  18. PIXE analysis of trace elements in teeth of northern fur seals

    Levels of trace elements in calcified tissues of marine organisms have a good relation with environmental variables. The trace elements in teeth of northern fur seals Collorhinus ursinus were analyzed by PIXE to investigate impacts of regime shifts such as drastic change of seawater temperature. Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Br, Sr, Zn, As, Ni, Co and Zr were detected in the teeth. Among them, concentration of eight elements seemed to correspond to the regime shifts. (author)

  19. Micro-PIXE analysis of varied sulfide populations from the Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    Micro-PIXE spot analysis and true elemental imaging of pyrrhotite and pyrite crystals from the Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR) of the Witwatersrand basin, the world's most important gold resource, are reported. The objective was to evaluate the use of this technique with regard to its analytical resolution concerning the detection limits for the elements encountered in these samples and their spatial distribution. Furthermore, this project was designed to identify chemical signatures characteristic for particular textural types of VCR sulfides. Micro-PIXE is indeed a highly useful technique for the analysis of such materials and provided results that could not be obtained by optical and SEM microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro-inclusions could be made visible through elemental area scanning. Chemical zonation in the interior of apparently homogeneous grains was detected, which has obvious implications for the interpretation of the multi-stage evolution of Witwatersrand mineralization. The available data do not yet allow unambiguous chemical classification of different sulfide types (generations), but a distinct late growth of As-enriched sulfide was detected. These late overgrowths may be enriched in Ni or not. No unambiguous relation between As and Au could be observed in these samples

  20. Instrumentation for PIXE and RBS

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of instrumentation for PIXE and Rutherford backscattering analysis, including hardware and software needed to perform the analysis, including detectors, analyzers, data acquisition systems and data analysis software. It also provides some information on accelerators needed for these applications

  1. Micro-PIXE and quantitative cathodoluminescence spectroscopy: Combined high resolution trace element analyses in minerals

    We combined high resolution Cathodoluminescence (CL)-spectroscopy and micro-PIXE to study the correlation of the activator concentration and the CL-intensity. Based on these results the Quantitative High Resolution Spectral analysis of Cathodoluminescence (QHRS-CL) is developed. Micro-PIXE and the new method (QHRS-CL) have been used to investigate trace elements in minerals. Using micro-PIXE and related methods the crystal lattice site and charge state of the analysed elements cannot be determined. This can be analysed exactly by using QHRS-CL. So the combination of micro-PIXE and QHRS-CL is a powerful tool for analysing trace element concentration above 100 ppb, the charge state and the lattice site of these elements in crystal structures

  2. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by μ-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission (μ-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by μ-PIGE and μ-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F applications or

  3. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by μ-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    Okuyama, Katsushi; Komatsu, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Pereira, Patricia N. R.; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Sato, Takahiro; Sano, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission (μ-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by μ-PIGE and μ-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F applications or

  4. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    Okuyama, Katsushi, E-mail: katsu@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan) and School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Department of Operative Dentistry, 302 Brauer, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450 (United States); Komatsu, Hisanori [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiroko [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Osaka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Pereira, Patricia N.R. [School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Department of Operative Dentistry, 302 Brauer, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450 (United States); Bedran-Russo, Ana K. [University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, 801 S. Paulina St., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Nomachi, Masaharu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Osaka, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sato, Takahiro [TARRI, JAEA, Advanced Radiation Technology, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Gunma, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Sano, Hidehiko [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission ({mu}-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by {mu}-PIGE and {mu}-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F

  5. PIXE simulation: Models, methods and technologies

    The simulation of PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) is discussed in the context of general-purpose Monte Carlo systems for particle transport. Dedicated PIXE codes are mainly concerned with the application of the technique to elemental analysis, but they lack the capability of dealing with complex experimental configurations. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes provide powerful tools to model the experimental environment in great detail, but so far they have provided limited functionality for PIXE simulation. This paper reviews recent developments that have endowed the Geant4 simulation toolkit with advanced capabilities for PIXE simulation, and related efforts for quantitative validation of cross sections and other physical parameters relevant to PIXE simulation.

  6. PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS analysis of Cu-doped ZnO films

    Zhang, B., E-mail: binzhang@fudan.edu.cn; Yang, C.; Wang, J.Z.; Shi, L.Q., E-mail: lqshi@fudan.edu.cn; Cheng, H.S.

    2014-08-01

    Cu-doped ZnO films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate at different atmosphere. Microstructure of these films and Cu occupation sites were investigated using PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS. Only 2.9 at.% Cu, no other magnetic impurities (e.g., Fe, Co and Ni) were detected. The ZnO:Cu films possessed the wurtzite ZnO structures and no precipitates (e.g., CuO and Cu{sub 2}O or Cu cluster) were found. Cu atoms were incorporated into ZnO crystal lattice by occupying Zn atomic sites.

  7. PIXE analysis of ancient Greek copper coins minted in Epirus, Illyria, Macedonia and Thessaly

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Katsanos, A. A.; Potiriadis, C.; Oeconomidou, M.; Touratsoglou, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ancient copper coins from Greek cities and confederacies such as Amphipolis, Veroia, Dion, Edessa, Magnetes, Stobi, Apollonia, Kerkyra, Pella, Philippoi, Phoenike, and the Macedonian and Thessalian Koina, were analyzed non-destructively by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) after removal of the patina. The copper coins were minted during Roman Imperial times (31 B.C.-268 A.D.). Eleven elements were determined quantitatively. The correlation between the composition and the minting time is examined. The results are compared with those of a previous study for coins from the cities of Nikopolis in Epirus and Thessaloniki in Macedonia, in the same period.

  8. Elemental analysis of ancient Chinese bronze artifacts with external-beam PIXE

    External-beam PIXE has been applied for the determination of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese bronze artifacts. Characteristic x-ray spectra from the samples bombarded with protons of 3 MeV have been measured with a HPGe detector. At each sample three spots were irradiated per run. Results of measurements on three fragments of bronze drinking vessels and helmet of Chinese ancient Chou and Shang dynasties (17th-8th century B.C.) are presented. To check the analytical method, we have also made measurements on the elemental composition of some modern coins. The results are discussed. (author)

  9. Human hair analysis by PIXE: pattern recognition of trace element composition

    The feasibility of classifying human hair specimens according to their trace metal composition as determined by PIXE is investigated. Protons of 3.5 MeV were used to analyse 150 samples by energy-dispersive spectrometry using a Si(Li) detector. The methods of the Minimal Spanning Tree and Non-Linear Mapping were used to establish correlation among the specimens. As a result of distinct groupings obtained by these methods it was inferred that these techniques could usefully by applied to environmental pollution studies. (author)

  10. PIXE analysis of trace elements in serum and hair of patients with brain tumors

    Authors determined trace elements in serum and hair of patients with brain tumors by the PIXE method in order to seek out the interrelation between trace elements and brain tumors and have got good results. The contents of Fe, Sr and Zn in serum of patients are lower than those of healthy people, the notable difference exits (p<0.05 and p<0.01) between patients and the healthy. Also, the contents of the Cu, Zn, Sr and Ca in hair of patients are lower, the difference is significant (p<0.01)

  11. Activation analysis in Greece

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  12. Differential and scanning-mode external PIXE for the analysis of the painting 'Ritratto Trivulzio' by Antonello da Messina

    Grassi, Novella [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Firenze (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) - Sezione di Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@fi.infn.it

    2009-03-15

    Extensive PIXE investigations have been performed at the LABEC accelerator laboratory in Florence on the painting 'Ritratto Trivulzio' by Antonello da Messina, one of the great Italian masters of XV Century and a pioneer in modern oil painting. It is well known that a complete and unambiguous characterisation of materials in paintings is often difficult, owing to their complex structure. For the 'Ritratto Trivulzio', the combination of advanced variants of PIXE, such as differential and scanning-mode analysis, provided a relevant contribution to the characterisation of paint layers, in terms of composition and structure, in a totally non-invasive and non-destructive way. Single-spot mode PIXE with external proton beams of about half millimetre diameter was first used for a general characterisation of different areas of the painting. Differential PIXE performed in many spots led to reconstruct the sequence of paints employed by the artist and to estimate in some cases the local paint layer thickness. A second run carried out with the external scanning microbeam facility, using a 3 MeV proton beam of about 80 {mu}m size, was then crucial to clarify some issues raised by the first analysis. In particular, elemental maps from selected areas helped to understand the way some colour shades had been obtained on the red mantle of the portrayed gentleman, using different pigments irregularly distributed on the surface.

  13. Functional analysis of metals distribution in organs of the beetle Chrysolina pardalina exposed to excess of nickel by Micro-PIXE

    Przybylowicz, W.J. E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za; Mesjasz Przybylowicz, J.; Migula, P.; Glowacka, E.; Nakonieczny, M.; Augustyniak, M

    2003-09-01

    Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution within organs of Chrysolina pardalina beetle feeding on a nickel hyperaccumulating plant species Berkheya coddii, was used to check its ability to cope with excess of nickel and to study quantitative and qualitative relations between nickel and other elements in physiologically important structures. Data analysis was performed using a new PC based version of the GeoPIXE software (GeoPIXE II). The use of micro-PIXE, supported with analysis of electronograms demonstrated mechanism of Ni rejection from the insects' body. Concretions rich in Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Br are formed in Malpighian tubules and in the midgut cells. Organs important for maintaining homeostasis are protected against excess of metals. Malpighian tubules play a crucial role in Ni elimination from hemolymph, further rejected through the digestive tract and in larve also with exuvia during molting. Both used methods proved that midgut cells in adults could regenerate. Such an adaptive mechanism has not been earlier described in adult beetles.

  14. PIXE analysis of museum soapstone sculptures from Esie, south west Nigeria

    The PIXE technique was employed for the study of Esie museum stone sculptures using 2.55 MeV protons from the 3 MeV tandem accelerator (NEC 3 UDH) in Lund, coupled with the geological and archaeological findings. The aim is to elucidate and decipher the prodigious but rather enigmatic and bewildering stone sculptures. PIXE results show that the composition of the stone sculptures are 40.69% talc-tremolite schist, 30.88% talc-chlorite schist, 15.20% talc-tremolite-anthophyllite schist and 13.24% talc-amphibolite schist. Thus the composition of Esie sculptures are found to be the same with the locally available talc-schists present around Esie. The geological evidence (mineralogical results) corroborated this as there was no textural or mineralogical difference between the talc-bearing country rock (outcrop) in Esie and the museum soapstone samples studied. Consequently, there is a very high probability that the sculptures were carved using the locally available talc-schists. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Trace element analysis of the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts by PIXE

    Kohno, M.; Yoshida, K.; Moritani, K.; Norizawa, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo, Kyoto (Japan); Enami, K.; Kasajima, H. [Ryukoku Univ., Department of Mechanical and System Engineering, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Ueyama, D. [Ryukoku Univ., Faculty of Intercultural Communication, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Takada, J.; Matsushita, R. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    1999-07-01

    In order to classify the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts, their trace elements were analyzed by PIXE. The paper samples of these manuscripts were fallen off when they were photographed for a CD-ROM catalog. These samples were very small and their size was less than several millimeters. In addition, some paper fragments dating from the late Edo-era of Japan and the late Qing Dynasty of China, and modern Japanese handmade paper were analyzed using PIXE and NAA. Quite interesting results were obtained when analyzing the trace elements - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Ba, Pb, La, Sm. It was found that Dunhuang and Turfan papers of the Otani Collection were characterized by its highest iron and bromine content. The reason of the highest iron content probably originates in their making process and/or depends on their preservative environment. On the other hand, it became clear as for the highest bromine content that the origin is from fumigation of methyl bromide. (author)

  16. Trace element analysis of the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts by PIXE

    In order to classify the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts, their trace elements were analyzed by PIXE. The paper samples of these manuscripts were fallen off when they were photographed for a CD-ROM catalog. These samples were very small and their size was less than several millimeters. In addition, some paper fragments dating from the late Edo-era of Japan and the late Qing Dynasty of China, and modern Japanese handmade paper were analyzed using PIXE and NAA. Quite interesting results were obtained when analyzing the trace elements - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Ba, Pb, La, Sm. It was found that Dunhuang and Turfan papers of the Otani Collection were characterized by its highest iron and bromine content. The reason of the highest iron content probably originates in their making process and/or depends on their preservative environment. On the other hand, it became clear as for the highest bromine content that the origin is from fumigation of methyl bromide. (author)

  17. Elemental concentrations of four types of human gallstones by PIXE analysis

    Elemental concentrations of human gallstones were determined by PIXE method. Gallstone samples analyzed in this report are classified into cholestrol gallstone (pure cholestrol stone and mixed stone) and pigment gallstone (black stone and calcium bilirubinate stone). The targets were prepared by paste spreading method previously reported, which enable us to determine also volatile elements, such as halogen atoms, Hg and so on, under acidic condition. Concentrations of 17 kinds of elements were determined and characteristic distributions are presented for each type of gallstone. Ca values are the highest among them in all types of gallstones. Pigment gallstones contain significantly higher concentrations of 9 kinds of elements (Na, Mg, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) than cholesterol gallstones. Concentrations of S, Fe, and Zn in black stones are significantly higher than those in calcium bilirubinate stones. Almost all elements contained in the samples can be determined by PIXE method, and it is supposed that the elements or some of them affect formation of gallstones and their pigment. Some samples of the pigment gallstones included I, Hg, and Pb. (author)

  18. PIXE analysis of the serum of mice acquired radio-resistibility by low dose X-rays

    It is not only important for maintenance and improvement of health, but also indispensable for diagnosis and remedy of diseases to make inquiries into the biological defence mechanisms. Yonezawa et al. came across an induction of yet unknown defence mechanism(s) in mice which acquired radioresistance two weeks after low dose X-irradiation with 0.5 Gy. The 30-day survival rate after midlethal X-irradiation of the mice significantly increased by the pre-irradiation, but contrary to the common knowledge on radiation protection, recovery of the blood cell counts of thrombocytes, leukocytes and erythrocytes were not stimulated by the pre-irradiation. This study was planned to find some keys to elucidate the mechanism for the acquired radioresistance. Metal ions are well known to be important for enzyme activities as well as for metabolisms. Eleven elements, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Br were analysed in mice sera by PIXE. (author)

  19. Study of new sheep bone and Zn/Ca ratio around TiAlV screw: PIXE-RBS analysis

    This study reports on in vivo particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements combined with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses of new remodeled sheep bone formed around TiAlV screws. The implants (screws) were anodized by a modified TiMaxTM process. The interface between the implant and the bone was carefully investigated. [Zn]/[Ca] in-depth composition profiles as well as Ca, Fe elemental maps were recorded. The thickness of new bone formed around the screw reached 300-400 μm. Osteon and Osteoid phases were identified in the new bone. A higher [Zn]/[Ca] ratio was observed in the new bone as compared to the mature bone. Blood vessels were observed in the bone in close contact with the screw. This study shows the potential of ion beam analysis for biological and biomedical characterization

  20. Development of a PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis device using an extracted proton beam

    The experimental device described allows the extention of the PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method to the analysis, by means of proton beams, of solid or liquid samples, which can not be analyzed under vacuum conditions. The homogeneity of the surfaces to be analysed and elements (in the atmosphere) which absorb X-rays must be taken into account. Liquid samples do not need special care. The results show that: at high energies, the extracted beam sensibility is of the same order of magnitude as those obtained under vacuum; at low energies, the performance under vacuum conditions is better. The particles energy losses, at the exit membrane and in the outer atmosphere, decrease the X-rays production efficiency

  1. PIXE analysis of proto-porcelain excavated from the Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province

    Background: Zhejiang Province is an important producing area of proto-porcelain. Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County is the only kiln known currently for firing proto-porcelain from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the late Spring and Autumn Period. Also it is the earliest kiln site unearthed for only firing proto-porcelain so far. It is of great significance for the exploration of Chinese early celadon firing technology. Purpose: The aim is to disclose the elemental characteristics of these proto-porcelains and study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. Methods: We selected 18 samples made at the early period (from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring and Autumn Period), 15 samples made at the middle and last period (the last period of the middle Spring and Autumn Period), and 17 samples made at the last period (the last period of the late Spring and Autumn Period). Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to analyze these samples and measure the chemical compositions of these proto-porcelains. The factor analysis is used to study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains made in the different periods. Results: The results show that for the raw materials of body and glaze, the proto-porcelains at the last period are different from those at the early period, while the same as those at the middle and last period. Conclusion: PIXE combining with factor analysis can be used to study effectively the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. (authors)

  2. Application of INAA and PIXE for analysis of archaeological pottery samples

    Analysis of archaeological artifacts like potteries, bricks and tiles by nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) like instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and ion beam analysis (IBA) is very useful for obtaining simultaneous multielement profiles at major to trace concentration levels. Archaeological studies are often focused on provenance studies to establish whether they are from same or different origin. The preliminary information is obtained by the physical appearance and the confirmation of provenance is mainly done by chemical composition analysis

  3. Characterization of regional atmospheric aerosols over Hungary by PIXE elemental analysis. Appendix 9

    Earlier PIXE analytical data obtained on rural aerosol samples from Hungary have been extended by the results of further analyses in the frame of the present international Co-ordinated Research Programme. Samples have been collected in three more rural, one suburban and two urban stations. A comparison of the data revealed the distribution of aerosol loading by several trace elements over the country, supported the determination of aerosol budget indicating long-range transport from industrial sources and Saharan dust intrusion. The data show that Hungarian air is moderately polluted by aerosols from regional and faraway sources. Methodological results have been obtained in setting up a new microbeam channel for individual characterization of aerosol particles. (author)

  4. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis.

    Módenes, A N; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Santos, G H F; Borba, C E; Rizzutto, M A

    2013-10-15

    In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass. PMID:23921177

  5. PIXE analysis of apatite from granitic pegmatite dikes near cross lake

    The study of the elements in 31 accessory apatites in pegmatite field illustrates the usefulness of PIXE in the measurement of elements in rocks and minerals. Based on the elemental composition results, the behavior of REE and other trace elements within the pegmatite system is discussed, the concentration distribution of the substitution elements in apatite to their locations in the field and to the geochemical characteristics of the K-feldspars. The average cK/cRb value for the core margin K-feldspars is considered as a reliable indicator of the general level of the fractionation by the pegmatite. Consequently the element concentration distribution trend due to fractionation may be illustrated by a plot of it against the cK/cRb ratio

  6. Heavy metal distribution in Suillus luteus mycorrhizas - as revealed by micro-PIXE analysis

    Suillus luteus/Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizas, collected from zinc wastes in Southern Poland, were selected as potential biofilters on the basis of earlier studies carried out with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) microanalytical system coupled to scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Using the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) nuclear microprobe, elemental concentrations in the ectomycorrhiza parts were for the first time estimated quantitatively. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) true elemental maps from freeze-dried and chemically fixed mycorrhizas revealed strong accumulation of Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb within the fungal mantle and in the rhizomorph. Vascular tissue was enriched with P, S and K, while high concentrations of Si and Cl were present in the endodermis. Cu was the only element showing elevated concentrations in the cortex region. Elemental losses and redistributions were found in mycorrhizas prepared by chemical fixation. Some problems related to elemental imaging are discussed

  7. Heavy metal distribution in Suillus luteus mycorrhizas - as revealed by micro-PIXE analysis

    Turnau, K. E-mail: ubturnau@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W.J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J

    2001-07-01

    Suillus luteus/Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizas, collected from zinc wastes in Southern Poland, were selected as potential biofilters on the basis of earlier studies carried out with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) microanalytical system coupled to scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Using the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) nuclear microprobe, elemental concentrations in the ectomycorrhiza parts were for the first time estimated quantitatively. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) true elemental maps from freeze-dried and chemically fixed mycorrhizas revealed strong accumulation of Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb within the fungal mantle and in the rhizomorph. Vascular tissue was enriched with P, S and K, while high concentrations of Si and Cl were present in the endodermis. Cu was the only element showing elevated concentrations in the cortex region. Elemental losses and redistributions were found in mycorrhizas prepared by chemical fixation. Some problems related to elemental imaging are discussed.

  8. Provenance study of excavated pottery from Beirut using PIXE cluster analysis

    Roumie, Mohamad [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, LAEC/CNRSL, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: mroumie@cnrs.edu.lb; Reynolds, Paul [Department of History and Archeology, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Atallah, Carol [Institut Francais au Proche Orient IFPO, Beirut (Lebanon); Bakraji, Elias [Chemistry Department, AECS, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Zahraman, Khaled [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, LAEC/CNRSL, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Nsouli, Bilal [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, LAEC/CNRSL, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2006-08-15

    The study of imported ceramics found in Beirut and suspected to belong to north Syrian products will provide key evidence for the roles in trade of the various postulated centers in northern Syria and northern Lebanon. It is proposed that a comprehensive range of likely north Syrian products imported to Beirut will be chemically analyzed by PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) in order to characterize, compare and isolate the various regional production centers that supplied the city from the Persian to Byzantine periods. In this work, we were mainly focusing on the characterization of Amrit products, by using 3 MeV proton beam and Al funny filter, as X-ray absorber.

  9. Trace element analysis of the scalp hair from pregnant women by PIXE

    On the basis of a self-comparison method for each individual, a study on the changes of the elemental concentrations in the scalp hair from pregnant women before and after childbirth was made by PIXE. The hair samples were collected from 10 young mothers about 3 months after the delivery of their first child. In the control group, the hair samples from 11 normal girls were collected and analyzed in the same manner. Experimental results show that no significant changes of the trace element Cu and Zn concentrations in the hair correlated with pregnancy were observed while remarkable changes in the Ca, Fe and Mn concentrations in the hair before and after delivery were found. These results were compared with previously published data on the changes of the corresponding elements during pregnancy in serum

  10. PIXE analysis of hilar gland for the evaluation of personal history of exposure to environmental contaminants

    Seven autopsied cases were studied for the evaluation of individual history of exposure to environmental contaminants based on the elemental profile of hilar gland by PIXE and lung tissue by AAS. The results well characterized their occupational history, especially from Cr, Al, Si and As detection. Moreover, it might be possible that these analyses would provide data to suspect the chemical form of each element in deposited particles of lung parenchyma, since the solubility could reflect the different profile of element between hilar gland and lung parenchyma. In addition to these retrospective analyses using the materials obtained from autopsies, it is possible to assess the individual risk using small quantity of hilar gland or lung tissue obtained by biopsy or surgical resection. (author)

  11. Micro-PIXE analysis in invasive ductal carcinoma tissues after treatment of astaxanthin

    Trace elements play an important role in a number of biological processes. Astaxanthin, a carotoid pigment found in certain marine plant and animals, has shown anti cancer and anti free radical properties. This work intended to understand the effect of Astaxanthin in breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma) by using micro-PIXE method. For this aim the concentration of trace elements were compared in healthy, cancerous and cancer treated with astaxanthin in the breast and liver tissues of breast cancer bearing mice, using proton induced X-ray emission. Materials and Methods: Proton induced X-ray emission was used In a study intending to compare the concentration of trace elements in breast and liver tissues of mice bearing tumor, three groups of mice: healthy, cancerous, and cancerous treated by astaxanthin, were considered. Astaxanthin was supplied from Research Institute of women, Alzahra University. Results: Comparing the untreated tumor tissue, treatment with Astaxanthm significantly decreased the amount Fe, P, S, and Ca elements level in tumor tissue of the breast cancer. It is also found that the concentrations of those elements in liver of the untreated mice and the liver of treated mice with astaxanthin were fairly equal. Astaxanthln significantly decrease the accumulation of elements in the site of tumor, and caused the breast cancer cell membrane to lose their desire to collect the elements from healthy tissues. Conclusion: The micro -PIXE technique could calculate elemental concentrations in tissues. Changes in metallic elements may affect microenvironment and cell functions, which might led lead to cell degeneration or death, the results shows that astaxanthin reduces vital element concentration in tumor site, thus it could be used as an anti tumor agent.

  12. Element analysis of the eutardigrades Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE

    Charlotta Nilsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Semi-terrestrial tardigrades are well-known for their tolerance to a variety of environmental extremes, including desiccation, freezing and radiation. Despite several attempts to reveal the genetic and molecular mechanisms behind the resilience of tardigrades, it is still unknown how these animals are able to maintain the integrity of their cellular components under severe stress. Quantitative or qualitative changes in molecular compounds (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins are expected, and have been the main line of research towards understanding the tolerance of tardigrades. In radiation tolerant bacteria, a tolerance mechanism based on manganese has been proposed. We evaluate this hypothesis in tardigrades and provide the first data on element composition in desiccated and non-desiccated specimens of two eutardigrade species, Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum. A focused 2 MeV proton microbeam was utilised to determine the elemental content, distributions and concentrations, using the ion beam analytical technique particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. The presence of six elements – phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium and iron – were confirmed in all tardigrade specimens, at levels up to a few mg g–1. However, manganese was found in less than 10% of the analysed specimens, and in low amounts, thus our study provides no evidence for the manganese hypothesis. We also show that the distributions and/or concentrations of some elements differ between the two species as well as between the dehydrated and hydrated state. In particular, very low levels of iron were found in dehydrated M. cf. asiaticum. Our analysis shows that the PIXE technique is a useful tool for investigating questions on the distribution of elements both in dehydrated and hydrated tardigrades.

  13. Determination of metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by X-ray irradiation using PIXE analysis

    In the environmental pollution studies, it is very important to detect not only pollutants but also changes induced in organisms in the environment with various environmental stresses such as heavy metal toxicity radiation and agricultural chemicals. In the latter, monitoring is carried out using biological indicators to find out the changes, which have wide spectra from visible like deformity of the body to invisible such as changes in some enzyme activities. Changes of the balance of essential elements could occur in organisms to deal with the stresses. If we detect an elemental balance shift, we may see the environmental pollution in its early stages. Moreover, in the actual environment, combined effects, additive or reductive with coexistent elements or other stresses, is an important subject for investigation. Therefore, measurement of many elements in the biological indicator's simultaneously and determination of the distribution in the organisms are useful in clarifying the action of pollutants at sublethal levels. A small fresh water fish, Medaka can be used as one of the biological-indicators for determination of water quality. In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), an inbred strain of Medaka Orizias laptipes was established and has been maintained for the research purposes. Since the genetic background of inbred animals is almost uniform, the individual deviation among animals is very small. This characteristic is very useful to investigate the physiological effects of environmental stresses. We have continued to investigate the balance shift of essential elements induced in the bodies of Medaka by several stresses. In this paper, elemental content in various organs of the X-ray irradiated fish determined by PIXE method are reported in comparison with that of the control fish to observe the effect of the X-rays. Body size of Medaka is about 3 cm long, and the internal organs are very small (about l mm on average). PIXE is the most

  14. Imaging Ni segregation in synthetic diamond using ionoluminescence (IL) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    Ionoluminescence (IL) performed with a nuclear microprobe is potentially a highly sensitive method for measuring optically active impurities and defects in diamonds. In this study, a Sumitomo synthetic diamond sample grown in the presence of a Ni catalyst is imaged with IL and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Ni impurities incorporated during the growth are identified with IL spectroscopy, and shown to segregate into growth sectors with IL imaging. This finding is consistent with previously published luminescence results. PIXE analysis performed on the same regions of the sample confirm the presence of Ni. PIXE and IL analyses are compared and used to show that the improved sensitivity of IL over PIXE is ideal for imaging such optically active impurities in diamonds

  15. PixE promotes dark oligomerization of the BLUF photoreceptor PixD

    Yuan, Hua; Bauer, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria perceive and move (phototax) in response to blue light. In this study, we demonstrate that the PixD blue light-sensing using FAD (BLUF) photoreceptor that governs this response undergoes changes in oligomerization state upon illumination. Under dark conditions we observed that PixD forms a large molecular weight complex with another protein called PixE. Stoicheometric analyses, coupled with sedimentation equilibrium and size exclusion chromatography, demonstrates that PixE drive...

  16. Unification of PIXE, PIGE and RBS ion beam analysis techniques for use as a single package for sample characterization in environmental and materials research

    The accelerator based ion beam analysis techniques of PIXE and PIGE using 2-3 MeV protons have been combined into one software analysis package which includes matrix corrections from PIGE for light elements being iteratively fed back into the matrix corrections for PIXE. This package can run in batch mode analysing hundreds of spectra at a time for elemental concentrations from fluorine to uranium to for concentrations from μg/g to 100%. This software package is called 'doiba' and has been published as an ANSTO external report. Future work is ongoing to include the proton Rutherford Backscattering technique as well into this doiba package particularly for carbon, nitrogen and oxide matrix corrections. (author)

  17. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported1. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  18. Comparative Trace Elemental Analysis in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissues Using PIXE

    Stephen Juma Mulware

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high or low levels of trace metals in human tissues has been studied widely. There have been detectable significant variations in the concentrations of trace metals in normal and cancerous tissues suggesting that these variations could be a causative factor to various cancers. Even though essential trace metals play an important role such as stabilizers, enzyme cofactors, elements of structure, and essential elements for normal hormonal functions, their imbalanced toxic effects contribute to the rate of the reactive oxygen species (ROS and formation of complexities in the body cells which may lead to DNA damage. The induction of oxidative-induced DNA damage by ROS may lead to isolated base lesions or single-strand breaks, complex lesions like double-strand breaks, and some oxidative generated clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs which are linked to cell apoptosis and mutagenesis. The difference in published works on the level of variations of trace metals in different cancer tissues can be attributed to the accuracy of the analytical techniques, sample preparation methods, and inability of taking uniform samples from the affected tissues. This paper reviews comparative trace elemental concentrations of cancerous and noncancerous tissues using PIXE that has been reported in the published literature.

  19. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  20. Pollution assessment in the Trancao river basin (Portugal) by PIXE, EDXRF and isotopic analysis

    This paper reports on the inorganic contamination assessment of a river basin and local water resources in order to establish quality standards. PIXE was applied to the elemental determination of the freeze-dried water dry residue and EDXRF was used for the evaluation of elemental content of sediments. To infer the water provenance the electrical conductivity was measured as well as the isotopic composition of surface waters using the 18O/16O ratio. The combined isotopic and elemental composition information enables to establish dominant contamination contributions from the several tributaries. Moreover, the variability observed for certain parameters, associates them with specific basin regions as for instance, dry residue mass, conductivity and Br, or S, Cl and As or Cr, Ni, Zn and Pb which permit to establish both pollution characterisation and their origin (agriculture, industrial, etc.). At certain locations, enhanced concentrations of elements as Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb are observed both in sediments and in the surface water. The elemental particular associations also permit to characterise pollution sources

  1. Element analysis by PIXE of environmental samples of the Brazilian Cerrado

    A vast region in the Brazilian central plateau is characterized by a flora denominated Cerrado and a somewhat peculiar fauna. An area of about 13 km2 in this region is maintained as an ecological reserve. A number of scientists, including biologists, chemists, geologists, botanists and physicists are involved in several research projects in this ecological reserve. The present paper deals only with the contribution to the study of soil and particulate matter suspended in natural springs and rainwater of the area, by using the PIXE technique as an analytical tool to determine the metal concentrations in these materials. The concentrations of titanium, zinc, chromium, copper and calcium in relation to iron have been determined in samples of soil and suspended materials in springwater to serve as a basis for future comparisons with similar samples from several origins. Variations in the concentrations of potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, nickel, copper and zinc in relation to iron have been monitored in the suspended matter found in rainwater collected within the area

  2. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal

  3. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    Olabanji, S.O. [ICTP Fellow on sabbatical leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [lstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported{sup 1}. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  4. Element analysis of teeth from children with and without cystic fibrosis by PIXE-PIGE

    The objective of this research is to determine whether there is a difference in the Ca, P, Fe, F, Mg, and Sr concentrations in teeth from children with and without cystic fibrosis (CF) as a function of age, sex of the child, maternal smoking habit, maternal drinking habit, and fluoridation of water supply. The nuclear analytical methods used were Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton-Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE). The findings are: (1) the concentration of Mg is higher in the teeth of children with cystic fibrosis who took antibiotics other than tetracycline (CF+NT) than in non-cystic fibrosis (NCF) teeth for the 'female' category; (2) P concentration is less in (CF+NT) teeth for the 'age greater than ten' group; (3) Fe concentration is greater for females in the NCF group; (4) Ca and Fe concentrations are lower for CF than for NCF in the 'mother smokes' group; (5) F and Sr concentrations for CF+NT are higher for the 'mother drinks' group than for the 'mother does not drink' group; (6) 'mother smokes' shows a depletion of Ca and Fe compared to 'mother does not smoke' for CF+NT. (7) 'fluoridation of water supply' shows an increase in F, except for NCF teeth. (author)

  5. PIXE analysis of trace elements in human hair of patients with liver disorders

    Human hairs of cirrhosis, acute viral hepatitis patients and healthy people in Ulaanbaatar, capital city of Mongolia, were analyzed for the presence of heavy elements by PIXE spectrometry using 2.5 MeV proton beam at the Tokyo Institute of Technology Van de Graaff Laboratory. The samples were dissolved in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Then a 20μl aliquot was dropped on a Nuclepore Track-etch Membrane. The IAEA Reference Hair IAEA-086 certified reference material was used in order to verify accuracy of the method and the results were in good agreement with the certified values. To determine the interaction among nine elements in hair, correlation coefficients were evaluated for several pairs of elements. in the group of healthy control, no correlation between elements was identified. Opposite to this, the strong positive correlations were observed for Zn and Ca or Fe; Mn and Ca or Ti; Sr and Zn or Fe in the patients hair. In the present study, the mean concentrations of Ca, Ti, As and Sr in Mongolian patients were higher than those in the hair of normal people in Japan, Mongolia, Iran and Indonesia. The levels of Cu, Zn and Mn concentration in hair of normal people were almost the same for all the cohorts. (Author)

  6. PIXE analysis of U and Pu from hot particles: K-lines vs L-lines

    Transuranic nuclides have been released into the environment since the beginning of the nuclear age. In many of the areas so contaminated, a significant fraction of the plutonium appears under the form of radioactive particles (also called ‘hot’ particles). In previous works, García López et al. (2007) and Jiménez-Ramos et al. (2010) , radioactive particles from aircraft accidents in Palomares and Thule have been characterized. Using micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE) and confocal X-ray fluorescence microprobe (μ-XRF), the L-lines of the main components in these particles, U and Pu, were analyzed. In this work, the key goal is the possibility to determine elemental ratios and concentration of transuranic elements in hot particles from the same areas but using their K-lines, because of their advantages in comparison with the study of L-lines. Indeed, the U and Pu K-lines present not overlapping between the main peaks in the spectra and the X-ray absorption in the sample is much lower than for L-lines.

  7. Development of micro-PIXE method for geochemical analysis. Quantitative trace element analyses of minerals and single fluid inclusions by micro-PIXE

    This work was performed by University of Tsukuba under contract with Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In this study, quantitative trace element analytical techniques for minerals and single fluid inclusions by micro-PIXE have been developed investigate a behavior of radioactive nuclide in rocks and chemical compositions of deep underground water that is retained in minerals as fluid inclusions. By using the developed methods, trace elements in glasses and minerals were determined with average estimated relative error of ±10%. For single fluid inclusions, elements with concentrations of 10 to 1000 ppm were measured with average estimated relative error of ±7%. For natural fluid inclusions with 30 μm radius and 20 μm depth in quartz, the total analytical errors were estimated to be ±40% relative for Ca, ±16% for Fe, ±13% for Zn, ±12% for Sr, and ±11% for Br and Rb, by considering uncertainties in microscopic measurements of inclusion depths. Detection limits of 4 to 46 ppm for elements of mass numbers 25-50 were achieved for analyses of a spherical fluid inclusion with 30-μm radius and 20-μm depth in quartz at an integrated charge of 1.0 μC. The trace element compositions of single fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz veins from Nagano and Nagasaki Prefecture were also determined by using the developed method. High concentration (wt.%) of Ca and Fe, and tens to thousands ppm Mn, Zn, Cu, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Ge, were observed in the fluid inclusions indicating higher metal contents in hydrothermal fluid released from granite. (author)

  8. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ''fine sgraffito'' and ''Zeuxippus ware'' types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ''Zeuxippus ware'' has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends

  9. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liege have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si3N4 window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one γ-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  10. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    Mathis, F.; Othmane, G.; Vrielynck, O.; Calvo del Castillo, H.; Chêne, G.; Dupuis, T.; Strivay, D.

    2010-06-01

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liège have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si 3N 4 window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one γ-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum [1] and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  11. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    Mathis, F., E-mail: francois.mathis@ulg.ac.b [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Othmane, G. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Vrielynck, O. [Service Public de Wallonie Direction de l' Archeologie (Belgium); Calvo del Castillo, H. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G.; Dupuis, T. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Service Public de Wallonie Direction de l' Archeologie (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liege have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one {gamma}-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  12. Dating and classification of Syrian excavated pottery from Tell Saka Site, by means of thermoluminescence analysis, and multivariate statistical methods, based on PIXE analysis

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques have been utilized for the study of archaeological pottery fragment samples from Tell Saka Site, which is located at 25 km south east of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were chosen randomly from the site, two from third level and two from fourth level for dating using TL technique and the results were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. Twenty-eight sherds were analyzed using PIXE technique in order to identify and characterize the elemental composition of pottery excavated from third and fourth levels, using 3 MV tandem accelerator in Damascus. The analysis provided almost 20 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb). However, only 14 elements as follows: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb were chosen for statistical analysis and have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, Cluster and Factor analysis. The studied pottery were classify into two well defined groups. (author)

  13. Elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory with PIXE technique complemented with SEM/EDX

    The aim of this work is to characterize surface aerosols at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory located at Pampa Amarilla, near Malargüe city, in the Andes region of Argentina, with experimental sampling techniques used for the first time in a cosmic ray observatory, adding to information provided by the existing Auger aerosol monitors. A good knowledge of the optical attenuation due to aerosols is crucial for a good reconstruction of the signals from cosmic ray showers detected by the fluorescence detectors of the Observatory. Aerosols were collected in filters, during the Southern Hemisphere winter and spring in 2008. Concentrations in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 filters were determined by gravimetric analysis and their elemental composition by the PIXE technique, complemented with SEM/EDX. Low aerosol concentrations were measured during the sampling period. The mean total mass PM10 (=PM2.5 + PM2.5–10 fractions) value was [mean(se)] 9.8(1.0) μg/m3 [sd = 5.9 μg/m3]. The mean PM10 value during winter was 7(1.1) μg/m3 [sd = 4.5 μg/m3], about half of the 13.1(1.5) [sd = 5.7 μg/m3] measured during springtime. The PM2.5 fraction was approximately 30% of the PM10 fraction. PIXE results gave levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe in the analyzed aerosol samples, showing that these elements correspond to 25% and 13% of the PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 total mass respectively. The rest of the mass was due to the elements with low Z (below 16) which cannot be detected by our X-ray setup. Comparison with SEM/EDX analysis showed that most of them were Si and Al (aluminosilicates). Our results indicate that most of the aerosols at the Auger Observatory would most likely come from the soil of the region. Due to its vast atmospheric monitoring network, the Auger Observatory is an interesting reference site for further atmospheric studies.

  14. Elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory with PIXE technique complemented with SEM/EDX

    Micheletti, M.I., E-mail: micheletti@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, UNR, Suipacha 531 (2000), Rosario (Argentina); CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Murruni, L.G. [Servicio Geologico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenbusch, M. [CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Graf, M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize surface aerosols at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory located at Pampa Amarilla, near Malarguee city, in the Andes region of Argentina, with experimental sampling techniques used for the first time in a cosmic ray observatory, adding to information provided by the existing Auger aerosol monitors. A good knowledge of the optical attenuation due to aerosols is crucial for a good reconstruction of the signals from cosmic ray showers detected by the fluorescence detectors of the Observatory. Aerosols were collected in filters, during the Southern Hemisphere winter and spring in 2008. Concentrations in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 filters were determined by gravimetric analysis and their elemental composition by the PIXE technique, complemented with SEM/EDX. Low aerosol concentrations were measured during the sampling period. The mean total mass PM10 (=PM2.5 + PM2.5-10 fractions) value was [mean(se)] 9.8(1.0) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 5.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}]. The mean PM10 value during winter was 7(1.1) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}], about half of the 13.1(1.5) [sd = 5.7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}] measured during springtime. The PM2.5 fraction was approximately 30% of the PM10 fraction. PIXE results gave levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe in the analyzed aerosol samples, showing that these elements correspond to 25% and 13% of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 total mass respectively. The rest of the mass was due to the elements with low Z (below 16) which cannot be detected by our X-ray setup. Comparison with SEM/EDX analysis showed that most of them were Si and Al (aluminosilicates). Our results indicate that most of the aerosols at the Auger Observatory would most likely come from the soil of the region. Due to its vast atmospheric monitoring network, the Auger Observatory is an interesting reference site for further atmospheric studies.

  15. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  16. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  17. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  18. Elemental analysis of wood materials by external millibeam thick target PIXE

    Saarela, K.-E.

    2009-07-01

    PIXE (Particle Induce X-ray Emission spectrometry) was used for analysing stem bark and stem wood of Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch. Thick samples were irradiated, in laboratory atmosphere, with 3 MeV protons and the beam current was measured indirectly using a photo multiplicator (PM) tube. Both point scans and bulk analyses were performed with the 1 mm diameter proton beam. In bulk analyses, whole bark and sectors of discs of the stem wood were dry ashed at 550 deg C. The ashes were homogenised by shaking and prepared to target pellets for PIXE analyses. This procedure generated representative samples to be analysed, but the enrichment also enabled quantification of some additional trace elements. The ash contents obtained as a product of the sample preparation procedure also showed to be of great importance in the evaluation of results in environmental studies. Spot scans from the pith of pine wood outwards, showed clearly highest concentrations of manganese, calcium and zinc in the first spot irradiated, or 2-3 times higher than in the surrounding wood. For stem wood from the crown part of a pine this higher concentration level was found in the first four spots/mms, including the pith and the two following growth rings. Zinc showed increasing concentrations outwards in sapwood of the pine stem, with the over-all lowest concentrations in the inner half of the sapwood. This could indicate emigration of this element from sapwood being under transformation to heartwood. Point scans across sapwood of pine and spruce showed more distinct variations in concentrations relative to hearth wood. Higher concentrations of e.g. zinc, calcium and manganese were found in earlywood than in denser latewood. Very high concentrations of iron and copper were also seen for some earlywood increments. The ash content of stem bark is up to and order higher than for the stem wood. However, when the elemental concentration in ashes of bark and wood of the same disc were

  19. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications

  20. PIXE, 252Cf-PDMS and radiochemistry applied for soil and vegetable analysis

    The aim of this work is to identify the elements present in vegetables and soils using PIXE (particle induced X-rays emission) and 252Cf-PDMS (252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry) techniques in order to estimate the possible influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. In this work, metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from several regions, where different agricultural techniques were employed. Si, Zr, Ce, Th, Sc and Pb identified in the soil samples were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br identified in the tubercles indicate that spray pesticide used on the vegetable leaves was absorbed by them. 232Th and 238U present in the soil were not absorbed by the vegetables. The airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (as CFn, VCn) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources present in soil as V+, VCO3, HPO4, Cr+, CrOH+, Mn+, FeH+, Fe(OH)n and in the bioorganic compounds as N+, Ca(China)n+ and CnH+ were identified in vegetables. The metal absorption by the vegetables is not dependent of the metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions such as the elements present in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by vegetables. The absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. The use of pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and the metal speciation

  1. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  2. Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols in Frankfurt/Main in the period 1966-1977 using the method of PIXE - analysis

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol loaded filter samples, to get first information about the temporal evolution of anthropogenic components in the atmosphere at Frankfurt/Main. The filter samples were collected at the Institut fuer Kernphysik (Johann Wolfgang Goethe - Universitaet Frankfurt/Main) eight times daily (3 hours for each collecting period) from 1966 to 1977. The samples originally not being collected for the purpose of PIXE - studies, allowed, however, the quantitative analysis of the time dependence of the elemental concentrations of the elements Sulfur, Potassium, Zinc, Copper, Bromine and Lead. From the total volume of samples those samples were selected, which were collected under the same meteorological conditions during the sampling period i.e. zero precipitation high-pressure condition, and uniform collecting time (O9 GMT). The results show a pronounced decrease of 5 to 24 ng m-3 NTP a-1 in the anthropogenic contamination of the air with Sulfur, Bromine, Potassium, Lead and Zinc during the period 1966 to 1977. No significant decreases was found for Copper. These are the first quantitative data on evolution of anthropogenic components over a long time period, meassured in Frankfurt/Main. (orig.)

  3. 福泉山良渚文化玉器的PIXE分析%The PIXE analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill

    朱海信; 承焕生; 杨福家; 黄宣佩; 熊樱菲

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results of the analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are reported. By using PIXE technology, an appraisal of the jades unearthed from Fuquan hill can be made. The experimental results show that the Fuquan hill's jades can be distinguished into two classes: Xiu jade and soft jade, and they are different to Xiaomeiling' s jade but similar to the soft jade from Hetian, Xinjiang province. Furthermore, by analyzing proportion of iron and magnesium, some information of mineral structure and the color exuding of the jade from Fuquan hill can be obtained without any interference from impurity element.%报道用质子激发X荧光技术(PIXE)分析福泉山良渚文化玉器的实验结果。采用PIXE方法可以可靠地鉴别福泉山玉器的种类,福泉山玉器中有软玉,也有岫玉。它们与江苏溧阳小梅岭玉在元素含量上差别很大,但软玉与新疆和田出产的软玉很类似。分析福泉山软玉铁镁占位比S,可排除杂质元素干扰,得到矿物结构和沁色信息。

  4. Application of micro-PIXE analysis for a migration history study of Hucho perryi focused on strontium distribution in fish scales

    Sakhalin taimen, Hucho perryi, is one of the largest freshwater fish in Japan, where it is close to extinction because of indiscriminate fishing, water pollution, and river construction. Interpretable ecological information about the species, however, is scarce. We examined the migration history of H. perryi by analysis of strontium (Sr) content in fish scales using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Sr distributions associated with ridges (growth lines) in the scales, with micro-beam scanning PIXE (micro-PIXE) analyses. Sr levels in the scales of H. perryi collected along the Sarufutsu coast were higher than those of salmonid collected at Shumarinai, a freshwater lake. Micro-PIXE line analyses showed that the scale Sr values of the Shumarinai Lake samples remained consistently low from the edge toward the core of the scales. The Sr values from the Sarufutsu coast samples remained relatively high from the edge toward the core; Sr levels from second to fourth position from the edge were about ten times higher than the mean levels of Shumarinai Lake samples. These results suggested that H. perryi from the Sarufutsu Coast had experienced the marine environment. (author)

  5. Tree-ring analysis by pixe for a historical record of soil chemistry response to acidic air pollution

    Legge, Allan H.; Kaufmann, Henry C.; Winchester, John W.

    1984-04-01

    Tree cores have been analyzed intact in 1 mm steps, corresponding to time intervals in the rings as short as half a growing season, providing a chronological record of 16 elemental concentrations extending over thirty years back to 1950. Samples were collected in a forested region of western Canada in sandy soil which was impacted by acid-forming gases released by a sulfur recovery sour natural gas plant. Tree core samples of the hybrid lodgepole-Jack pine ( Pinns contorta Loud. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were taken in five ecologically similar locations between 1.2 and 9.6 km from the gas plant stacks. Concentrations of some elements showed patterns suggesting that the annual rings preserved a record of changing soil chemistry in response both to natural environmental conditions and to deposition from sulfur gas emissions, commencing after plant start-up in 1959 and modified by subsequent modifications in plant operating procedures. These patterns were most pronounced nearest the gas plant. Certain other elements did not exhibit these patterns, probably reflecting greater importance of biological than of soil chemical properties. The high time resolution of tree-ring analysis, which can be achieved by PIXE, demonstrates that the rings preserve a historical record of elemental composition which may reflect changes in soil chemistry during plant growth as it may be affected by both natural ecological processes and acidic deposition from the atmosphere.

  6. Preparation of thin polycarbonate film and its application to PIXE analysis of anionic elements in water samples

    A polycarbonate film of thin and uniform thickness was prepared. A casting solution for film-formation was made up by diluting a solution of poly(bisphenol A carbonate) in chloroform by a factor of two to three with benzene. A uniform film was created by dropping 0.2-0.3 cm3 of the casting solution slowly on a water surface within an aperture (20 mm diameter) of Mylar target frame floating on 50 wt% sucrose aqueous solution. Films of 0.14-0.27 mg/cm2 thickness thus prepared offer a good combination of mechanical strength and low continuum backgrounds. To test PIXE analysis of anionic species in water, targets containing SO42-, Cr2O72-, AsO43-, and Ga3+-internal standard were prepared by depositing 100 μl of the test solutions onto the polycarbonate film, and irradiated in vacuum by 3 MeV proton beams. The difference between the nominal and the analyzed concentrations seldom exceeded ±15 % in the range from 10 to 2000 ppb. (author)

  7. Determination of the metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by X-ray irradiation using PIXE analysis

    The balance of essential elements in organisms can be changed by environmental stresses. A small fresh water fish, the medaka, was irradiated with X-rays (total dose: 17 Gy, which is not a lethal dose for this fish). Essential elements in the liver, gall bladder, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of the fish were measured by the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method and compared with those of a control fish. Various changes in the elemental balance shift were observed. The PIXE method can analyze many elements in a small sample simultaneously, and so the changes in elemental content induced by irradiation were readily determined. (author)

  8. Intercomparison of PIXE spectrometry software packages

    During the year 2000, an exercise was organized to make a intercomparison of widely available software packages for analysis of particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) spectra. This TECDOC describes the method used in this intercomparison exercise and presents the results obtained. It also gives a general overview of the participating software packages. This includes basic information on their user interface, graphical presentation capabilities, physical phenomena taken in account, way of presenting results, etc. No recommendation for a particular software package or method for spectrum analysis is given. It is intended that the readers reach their own conclusions and make their own choices, according to their specific needs. This TECDOC will be useful to anyone involved in PIXE spectrum analysis. This TECDOC includes a companion CD with the complete set of test spectra used for intercomparison. The test spectra on this CD can be used to test any PIXE spectral analysis software package

  9. PIXE, Particel Induced X-Ray Emission A Concise Review

    GARİP, A. İnhan

    1998-01-01

    PIXE-Particle Induced X-Ray Emission is a multielemental, sensitive and non-estructive method which has been in use in trace elemental analysis since 1970. This review aims to explain the main features of PIXE. References will be given at the end for those that seek more detailed knowledge on the principles and applications of this technique.

  10. A study on characteristics and sources of winter time atmospheric aerosols in Kyoto and Seoul using PIXE and supplementary analysis

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected using a two stages filter sampler to classify into the fine and coarse fraction in Kyoto and Seoul in winter season. Elemental concentrations of aerosols were analyzed by PIXE and EAS as well as ion concentrations by IC. Analyzed data were used to source of aerosol particles. (author)

  11. Chronological studies of tree-rings from the Amazon Basin using thick target PIXE and proton backscattering analysis

    A tree-core sample (Aspidosperma obscurinervium, popular name: 'pequia marfim') about 161 years old (cut in 1990), from the Ducke Reserve at the Amazon Basin, Manaus, Brazil was analyzed by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering in 136 different spots along its life. Twenty-two elements plus the density of the wood were measured (C, O, H, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Co, Rb, W and Pb). Average C, O, and H results (49.77% ± 0.15%, 44.29% ± 0.14% and 5.95% ± 0.12%, respectively) compare well with literature values for the biomass in the Amazon region. The variability of trace elements along the tree rings showed important features that could be caused by modifications in the environment during the life of the tree. The well behaved variability of some trace elements (like K, P, Mn, Ca, etc.) seems to reflect the physiological response of the tree to external changes in the environment. The concentration of K varied from about 4 up to 2000 ppm in a given period of the life of the tree. The same period also shows important changes in the bulk composition and structure of the rings (e.g. C and density series). Multivariate statistical methods (cluster and factor analyses) were used for data interpretation, helping in the separation of periods of important transformations in the tree. The elemental time series is compared with historical records of regional development and with some global events that could possibly affect the tree. The period of maximum variation in the elemental concentrations appears to be related to the Brazilian rubber boom (1859-1912), responsible for several transformations in the Amazon region. In particular in the Manaus region, large development has occurred in the beginning of the 20th century, which are reflected in the results of this tree-core analysis

  12. Activation analysis

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  13. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  14. Elemental composition of erythrocytes from coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus using PIXE analysis

    A study was conducted on erythrocytes in order to determine the composition and concentration of elements from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with and without type II diabetes. Samples were taken at various timeperiods and analyzed by means of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Elements detected reliably were P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. In particular, elements worthy of note are S, Cl and Ca, which have strong implications in surgical procedures and aftercare. (author)

  15. Development of a micro-PIXE camera

    We developed a system of μ-PIXE analysis at the division of Takasaki ion accelerator for advanced radiation application (TIARA) in Japan Atomic Energy Research institute (JAERI), which consists of a microbeam apparatus, a multi-parameter data acquisition system and a personal computer. Elemental analysis in the region of 500 μm x 500 μm can be performed with a spatial resolution of < 0.3 μm and multi-elemental distributions are presented as images on a computer display even during measurement. We call this system a micro-PIXE camera. (author)

  16. Thin and thick target PIXE analysis of the study of Cu{sup 2+} biosorption mechanism by the Egeria densa

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R.; Módenes, A.N.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil). Departameto de Engenharia Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao; Rizzutto, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: In this work the PIXE technique was used to study of metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass. As biosorbent particulates of Egeria densa biomass was chosen in order to remove divalent copper from an aqueous solution. Several batch copper-sorption experiments were performed by using 0.3 9 of Egeria densa dry biomass into 50 mL of aqueous solution containing 127 mgL{sup -1}Cu{sup 2+} at pH 5. PIXE measurements were performed in thick and thin target samples, which were prepared from treated Egeria densa biosorbents and aqueous solutions, respectively. Element concentration in thick target samples was determined by the Clara software. Based on the mass balance among the major elements in the biosorbent and aqueous solution before and after Cu-removal experiments, ion exchange process is suggested as the main mechanism. (author)

  17. Application of PIXE in pollution control of the Matola River in Mozambique-analysis of fish scales

    Guambe, J.F. [Freshwater Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Edouardo Mondlane, C.P. 257, Maputo (Mozambique); Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Mars, J.A., E-mail: marsja@cput.ac.za [Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Day, J. [Freshwater Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2012-02-15

    Since PIXE is able to distinguish concentrations of elements at very small spatial scales, it can be used for estimating levels of metal pollution in biological material. This paper provides a preliminary report of a pilot study on the use of PIXE for the identification and quantification of elements (Al (3 wt%), Si 0.5 wt%), S (1.5 wt%), Cl (15 ppm), Mn (5 ppm), Fe (50 ppm), Ni (3 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Rb (2 ppm), Sr (800 ppm) and Se (3 ppm)) in scales of the estuarine fish Pomadasys kaakan caught in the Matola River upstream from the Maputo estuary and, downstream of an aluminium smelter. Concentrations of both aluminium and sulphur were high (3 wt% and 1.5 wt%, respectively).

  18. Application of PIXE in pollution control of the Matola River in Mozambique-analysis of fish scales

    Since PIXE is able to distinguish concentrations of elements at very small spatial scales, it can be used for estimating levels of metal pollution in biological material. This paper provides a preliminary report of a pilot study on the use of PIXE for the identification and quantification of elements (Al (3 wt%), Si 0.5 wt%), S (1.5 wt%), Cl (15 ppm), Mn (5 ppm), Fe (50 ppm), Ni (3 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Rb (2 ppm), Sr (800 ppm) and Se (3 ppm)) in scales of the estuarine fish Pomadasys kaakan caught in the Matola River upstream from the Maputo estuary and, downstream of an aluminium smelter. Concentrations of both aluminium and sulphur were high (3 wt% and 1.5 wt%, respectively).

  19. Application of PIXE in pollution control of the Matola River in Mozambique-analysis of fish scales

    Guambe, J. F.; Mars, J. A.; Day, J.

    2012-02-01

    Since PIXE is able to distinguish concentrations of elements at very small spatial scales, it can be used for estimating levels of metal pollution in biological material. This paper provides a preliminary report of a pilot study on the use of PIXE for the identification and quantification of elements (Al (3 wt%), Si 0.5 wt%), S (1.5 wt%), Cl (15 ppm), Mn (5 ppm), Fe (50 ppm), Ni (3 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Rb (2 ppm), Sr (800 ppm) and Se (3 ppm)) in scales of the estuarine fish Pomadasys kaakan caught in the Matola River upstream from the Maputo estuary and, downstream of an aluminium smelter. Concentrations of both aluminium and sulphur were high (3 wt% and 1.5 wt%, respectively).

  20. Quantitative PIXE analysis of single fluid inclusions in quartz vein: Chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids related to granite

    Compositions of fluids trapped as inclusions during the growth of minerals, or during later healing of fluid-filled cracks, provide information on hydrothermal vein-type ore formation. Trace elements in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz vein related to granite were determined by micro-PIXE. High concentration (wt.%) of Ca and Fe, and tens to thousands ppm Mn, Zn, Cu, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb and Ge, were observed in the inclusions, indicating higher metal contents in hydrothermal fluid released from granite

  1. Identification of urushi coated films taken from ancient Buddha images by using PIXE, FT-IR, and organic elemental analysis

    Six types of samples including urushi, urushi tree and black coating films taken from ancient Buddha images were examined by analyses of PIXE, organic element and FT-IR to identify with urushi or another material. Based on the results of three analytical experiments above mentioned, the coating materials aging over hundreds of years were identified with weathered urushi films mixed with other material. Further investigation may reveal the urushi coating techniques used in the past. (author)

  2. Identification of urushi coated films taken from ancient Buddha images by using PIXE, FT-IR, and organic elemental analysis

    Kagemori, N.; Umemura, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Inoue, M.; Kawai, S. [Wood Research Institute, Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Yano, K. [Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Uenokouen, Tokyo (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical Univ., Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Futatsugawa, S. [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [Kyoto National Museum, Higashiyama, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Six types of samples including urushi, urushi tree and black coating films taken from ancient Buddha images were examined by analyses of PIXE, organic element and FT-IR to identify with urushi or another material. Based on the results of three analytical experiments above mentioned, the coating materials aging over hundreds of years were identified with weathered urushi films mixed with other material. Further investigation may reveal the urushi coating techniques used in the past. (author)

  3. External-beam PIXE analysis of Chinese archaic jades and jade minerals%玉石及中国古代玉器的PIXE分析

    张朱武; 承焕生; 干福熹

    2009-01-01

    本文用外束PIXE技术分析了中国古代玉器和玉石的主量、微量元素的种类和含量.实验结果表明,外束PIXE技术在判定古代玉器的玉料来源和区别不同产地玉石方面具有广阔的应用前景.%External-beam proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a high-sensitive, non-destructive and multi-element quantitative analysis method, which can be used to analyze the variety and content of major and trace elements of Chinese archaic jades and jade mineral samples. In this paper, the analysis results of the variety and content of major and trace elements of several Chinese archaic jades and jade mineral samples are presented, which are shown that the external-beam PIXE can be a useful tool for identifying the geological formation of jade minerals and source of Chinese artifacts.

  4. Attempt at in-air PIXE analysis of spot samples on a filter-tape mounted in an automated beta-ray absorption mass monitor

    We attempted in-air-PIXE analysis of SPM using spot samples on a filter-tape mounted in an automated beta-ray absorption mass monitor. Al, Si, S, Fe and Zn, etc., which are of interest for identifying the behavior and characteristics of SPM, were detected on the SPM spot samples on a glass-fiber filter-tape, but the peaks of these elements were nearly identical to those of blank glass-fiber filter-tape. As such, it was difficult to detect elements present in SPM from the X-ray spectra of the spot samples. On the other hand, in the case of a PTFE membrane filter-tape, the S peak was distinct and the Fe peak was also clear, and peaks for elements Al, Mn and Zn, etc., were also confirmed. Consequently, if a method for determining quantity is established, direct multi-elemental analysis by in-air-PIXE of high time-resolution SPM spot samples collected on a PTFE membrane filter-tape mounted in a SPM monitor will be possible. (author)

  5. Characterization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets using PIXE, RBS, and STIM analysis.

    Li, Yongqiang; Liu, Xue; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Yiyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Min; Shen, Hao

    2013-08-01

    Quality control of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target in the laser fusion program is vital to ensure that energy deposition from the lasers results in uniform compression and minimization of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The technique of nuclear microscopy with ion beam analysis is a powerful method to provide characterization of ICF targets. Distribution of elements, depth profile, and density image of ICF targets can be identified by particle-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and scanning transmission ion microscopy. We present examples of ICF target characterization by nuclear microscopy at Fudan University in order to demonstrate their potential impact in assessing target fabrication processes. PMID:23702102

  6. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G.J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B

    2003-07-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions.

  7. Timepix and FitPix detection system for RBS/C materials analysis

    David-Bosne, Eric; Wahl, Ulrich

    This thesis reports the implementation of a Timepix position sensitive detector in a ion beam facility with a 0.5 mm collimated beam of 2MeV 1H$^{+}$ and 4He$^{+}$ for use in Rutherford Back-scattering Spectrometry channeling (RBS/C). A complete description is given of the methodology used for energy calibration, RBS data analysis and simulation with the FLUX Monte Carlo simulation program. Energy calibration was performed with internal test pulses and resulting resolution and accuracy were verified in two ways. The first time using a triple alpha source with the isotopes $^{239}$Pu, $^{241}$Am and $^{244}$Cm and secondly using a RBS spectrum of a thin film sample of Au/SiO$_{2}$/C. Setup characterization for channeling measurements was performed using single crystals of Si, 6H$^{-}$SiC and SrTiO$_{3}$. An energy resolution of 47.2 keV at 1862 keV for He$^{+}$ and an angular resolution of 0.11 (standard deviation) was achieved. Count rates as high as 2kHz were achieved with a frame rate of 15 frames/s. Higher...

  8. On the characterization of the “Paris” meteorite using PIXE, RBS and micro-PIXE

    “Paris” meteorite is a CM type carbonaceous chondrite, a primitive meteorite whose parent body has been formed in the early stage of the solar system and that has experienced low alterations (thermal and aqueous) since its formation. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and micro-PIXE techniques were used to characterize the elemental content and chemical composition of a “Paris” meteorite fragment from MNHN-France (Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle). As expected for a carbonaceous chondrite, macro-PIXE analysis revealed high overall concentrations in Fe, Si, Mg, while RBS showed 55 at.% of O and 7.7 at.% of C in average. Among the other elements, macro-PIXE analysis shows a relative enrichment of the fragment analyzed in Ca. Besides, a carbonaceous chondrite is a heterogeneous composite of different sized mineral and organic grains. Thus, we used a micro-beam to scan and analyze some micron-sized inclusions. By micro-PIXE analysis, it was possible to identify two types of crystals and an inclusion containing less than 0.1 wt.% of molybdenum

  9. On the characterization of the “Paris” meteorite using PIXE, RBS and micro-PIXE

    Noun, M. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR 8608, Université Paris Sud, Paris (France); Roumie, M., E-mail: mroumie@cnrs.edu.lb [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des musées de France, CNRS UMR 171, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Nsouli, B. [Accelerator Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRSL, Beirut (Lebanon); Brunetto, R.; Baklouti, D.; D’Hendecourt, L. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, UMR 8617, Université Paris-Sud, Bat 121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Della-Negra, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, UMR 8608, Université Paris Sud, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    “Paris” meteorite is a CM type carbonaceous chondrite, a primitive meteorite whose parent body has been formed in the early stage of the solar system and that has experienced low alterations (thermal and aqueous) since its formation. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and micro-PIXE techniques were used to characterize the elemental content and chemical composition of a “Paris” meteorite fragment from MNHN-France (Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle). As expected for a carbonaceous chondrite, macro-PIXE analysis revealed high overall concentrations in Fe, Si, Mg, while RBS showed 55 at.% of O and 7.7 at.% of C in average. Among the other elements, macro-PIXE analysis shows a relative enrichment of the fragment analyzed in Ca. Besides, a carbonaceous chondrite is a heterogeneous composite of different sized mineral and organic grains. Thus, we used a micro-beam to scan and analyze some micron-sized inclusions. By micro-PIXE analysis, it was possible to identify two types of crystals and an inclusion containing less than 0.1 wt.% of molybdenum.

  10. A PIXE analysis for measuring the trace elements concentration in breast tissue of Iranian women

    A powerful and improved technique, proton induced x-ray emission has been performed-yielding the elemental composition of 17 samples of surgically excised malignant and normal tumors of breast tissue. The samples without any further process as thick targets were put on cap ton foil backing. There are no homogenizing processes. The proton induced x-ray emission spectra analysis was performed using he non-linear least square fitting code AXIL and GUPIX. The samples are taken form patients in the wide range of age and are bombarded by 2.0 MeV energy proton beams produced by van de Graaff accelerator in vacuum. The quantitative comparison between two of tissue was evaluated by assessing the presence of calcium. Potassium, Iron, Copper and Zinc, as minor and trace elements. results in this study indicate that relative values of Cu/Zn, P/K and also Ca and S in being type were higher than those in those in malignant type, but the concentration of Fe and Zn in cancerous tissues was significantly higher than those for being type. Results suggest significant elevation of zinc in the pathological tissues. Cu/Zn ratio for both type of tissues are evaluated. The results show that this ratio in patients with breast cancer is significantly lower than the normal group. Selenium and arsenic was not obtained in any of 17 samples. Most of the tissues of benign kind (fibrocystic and fib ro adenoma)contain cadmium. Calcium concentration in normal tissues is significantly higher than tumorous tissues

  11. Role of βPix in the kidney

    Alexander eStaruschenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases function as molecular switches in cell signaling, alternating between an inactive, GDP-bound state, and active GTP-bound state. βPix is one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs that catalyze the exchange of bound GDP for ambient GTP. The central goal of this review article is to summarize recent findings on βPix and the role it plays in kidney pathology and physiology. Recent studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the signaling mechanisms mediated by βPix. This manuscript provides a review of the various mechanisms whereby βPix has been shown to function within the kidney through a wide range of actions. Both canonical GEF activity and non-canonical signaling pathways mediated by βPix are discussed. Distribution patterns of βPix in the kidney will be also covered. Much has yet to be discerned, but it is clear that βPix plays a significant role in the kidney.

  12. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography; Les ceramiques byzantines des fouilles de Pergame. Caracterisation des productions locales et importees par analyse elementaire par les methodes PIXE et INAA et par petrographie

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-12

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ``fine sgraffito`` and ``Zeuxippus ware`` types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ``Zeuxippus ware`` has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends.

  13. Nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) applied to analysis of pre hispanic metals of the Templo Mayor at Tenochtitlan

    This work has the objective of determining by means of the utilization of nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) the composition and the alloy type of diverse aztec ornaments corresponding to Post classic period, they were manufactured principally with copper and gold such as bells, beads and disks; all they belonging at 9 oblations of Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. It is presented here briefly the historical and archaeological antecedents of the devices as well as the analytical methods for conclude with the results obtained. (Author)

  14. Recent Developments on PIXE Simulation with Geant4

    M. G. PiaINFN, Sezione di Genova; G. WeidenspointnerMPI Halbleiterlabor; M. AugelliCNES; L. QuintieriINFN, Sezione di Frascati; P. SaraccoINFN, Sezione di Genova; M. SudhakarINFN, Sezione di Genova; A. ZoglauerUniversity of California, Space Science Laboratory

    2014-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is an important physical effect that is not yet adequately modelled in Geant4. This paper provides a critical analysis of the problem domain associated with PIXE simulation and describes a set of software developments to improve PIXE simulation with Geant4. The capabilities of the developed software prototype are illustrated and applied to a study of the passive shielding of the X-ray detectors of the German eROSITA telescope on the upcoming Russian Spec...

  15. Recent Developments on PIXE Simulation with Geant4

    Pia, M G; Augelli, M; Quintieri, L; Saracco, P; Sudhakar, M; Zoglauer, A

    2009-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is an important physical effect that is not yet adequately modelled in Geant4. This paper provides a critical analysis of the problem domain associated with PIXE simulation and describes a set of software developments to improve PIXE simulation with Geant4. The capabilities of the developed software prototype are illustrated and applied to a study of the passive shielding of the X-ray detectors of the German eROSITA telescope on the upcoming Russian Spectrum-X-Gamma space mission.

  16. The use of the PIXE technique with nuclear microprobes

    A review is given of very recent developments in the use of nuclear microprobes for PIXE analysis. New aspects of instrumentation are discussed, including focusing systems, data collection and target chambers. Some preliminary estimates are given of the temperature rises induced in biological specimens by focused ion beams. Finally, the most recent published microbeam PIXE analysis is discussed and two new applications of the technique are described. (orig.)

  17. μ-PIXE mapping of archeological glazed pottery from Egypt

    Sadek, H.

    2015-03-01

    μ-PIXE has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work μ-PIXE used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed pottery from Al-Fustat excavation repository have been chosen to represent different chemical compositions (fluxes and colorants) of glaze depending on its color. The chemical compositions with deterioration factors (humidity and temperature) worked together to make chemical changes on the surface of glaze.

  18. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by μ-PIGE/PIXE system

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air μ-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IXGP FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 μm of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  19. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system

    Komatsu, H., E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Satoh, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Oikawa, S. [National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX{sub GP} FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 {mu}m of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  20. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by μ-PIGE/PIXE system

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, S.

    2011-10-01

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air μ-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IXGP FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 μm of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  1. PIXE analysis of Late La Tene scabbards with non-ferrous openwork plates (and associated swords) from Slovenia: Analize PIXE poznolatenskih nožnic s predrtimi okovi (in pripadajočih mečev) iz Slovenije:

    Šmit, Žiga; Istenič, Janka; Perovšek, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Z metodo protonsko vzbujenih rentgenskih žarkov (PIXE) smo analizirali meče iz 1. stoletja pr. n. št. in pripadajoče nožnice s predrtim okrasom iz Ljubljanice pri Bevkah, s Strmca nad Belo Cerkvijo in iz Verduna (grob 37 in grob 131). Rezultati analiz kažejo, da so pri izdelavi teh predmetov uporabljali železo in medenino.

  2. Gold pickings and PIXE analysis. More about the Bronze age gold found in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse (Namur, Belgium)

    Warmenbol, Eugene E-mail: ewarmenb@ulb.ac.be

    2004-11-01

    Gold remains a rare material during the whole Bronze Age. It is a metal that circulates amongst the elites exclusively. The exchange of gold artefacts over very long distances is fundamental in the build-up of socio-political relations. Fifty artefacts found during subaquatic excavations in the river Lesse in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse have been submitted to quantitative elemental analysis using PIXE, a method never used before on archaeological material found in Belgium. The results show that there are clearly three groups of artefacts. The first one (discs, 'baskets', pearls) proves of local manufacture, as also suggested by the discovery of two ingots. The second one (gilded rings) could have been locally made too, but is a lot less homogeneous. The third one (filigreed and granulated beads or pin's heads) must be imported and most probably originates in the Mediterranean.

  3. PIXE applications to the toxicological field

    Full text: Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the toxicological properties of some chemical elements in different type of biological samples. lon beam techniques, in particular PIXE, have been successfully used to analyze the elemental composition of food, beverage, plants and animal tissues. In this context, the PIXE line of the lon Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, Brazil) have been used in the last few years to study food and beverage processing and biological specimens exposed to contaminated environment. The aim of this study is to present some of our results using PIXE analysis applied to toxicological research field. For instance, a recent published research [1] investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic effects in tobacco farmers exposed to metal-based formulated pesticides. Levels of Mg, AI, CI, Zn, Cr and Br, elements associated with DNA damage, were higher in the blood samples of tobacco farmers exposed to pesticide than in the non-exposed group. The occupational genotoxicity among copper smelters was also investigated [2]. The elemental content of blood samples were analyzed by PIXE. DNA damage in the peripheral blood Iymphocytes of workers exposed to copper smelter was observed. However, no clear correlation was found between the metal content and DNA damage. [1] F. R. da Silva, J. da Silva, M. C. AlIgayer, C. F. Simon, J. F. Dias, C. E. I. dos Santos, M. Salvador, C. Branco, N. B. Schneider, V. Kahl, P. Rohr, K. Kvitko, J. Hazard. Mat., 225-226 (2012) 81-90. (author)

  4. PIXE applications to the toxicological field

    Santos, C.E.I. dos; Dias, J.F.; Jobim, P.F.C.; Yoneama, M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica; Andrade, V.M. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular; Amaral, L.; Silva, J. da [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Toxicologia Generica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the toxicological properties of some chemical elements in different type of biological samples. lon beam techniques, in particular PIXE, have been successfully used to analyze the elemental composition of food, beverage, plants and animal tissues. In this context, the PIXE line of the lon Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, Brazil) have been used in the last few years to study food and beverage processing and biological specimens exposed to contaminated environment. The aim of this study is to present some of our results using PIXE analysis applied to toxicological research field. For instance, a recent published research [1] investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic effects in tobacco farmers exposed to metal-based formulated pesticides. Levels of Mg, AI, CI, Zn, Cr and Br, elements associated with DNA damage, were higher in the blood samples of tobacco farmers exposed to pesticide than in the non-exposed group. The occupational genotoxicity among copper smelters was also investigated [2]. The elemental content of blood samples were analyzed by PIXE. DNA damage in the peripheral blood Iymphocytes of workers exposed to copper smelter was observed. However, no clear correlation was found between the metal content and DNA damage. [1] F. R. da Silva, J. da Silva, M. C. AlIgayer, C. F. Simon, J. F. Dias, C. E. I. dos Santos, M. Salvador, C. Branco, N. B. Schneider, V. Kahl, P. Rohr, K. Kvitko, J. Hazard. Mat., 225-226 (2012) 81-90. (author)

  5. Artificial patinas analyzed with PIXE method

    Aiming at the restoration and conservation of the archaeological metallic objects, the artificial patinas can be used to simulate the natural patinas (corrosion products in metal and its alloys), permitting the characterization and corrosion mechanisms studies. The natural patinas formation is difficult to study because of the long corrosion production process in materials which take years to be formed. On the other hand the artificial patinas can be easily produced in a shorter time, moreover, they can be used as simulation of the corrosion process and in substitution of monuments and old art objects, damaged for some reason. In our study artificial patinas were produced over pellets of copper and bronze with sulfate, chloride and nitrate solutions and were analyzed with PIXE (Proton Induced X-Ray Emission) technique to supply qualitative and quantitative information of the corrosion elements. The quantitative PIXE analysis takes into account the incident ion beam absorption and the emergent X-ray of the sample, as well as the patina layer and the backing. The PIXE results have shown the presence of S, Cl and Fe and some other elements already known form the backings, such as Cu, Sn, etc. PIXE measurements were also realized in reference metallic materials. (author)

  6. LibCPIXE: a PIXE simulation open-source library for multilayered samples

    Pascual-Izarra, C.; Barradas, N. P.; Reis, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Most particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data analysis codes are not focused on handling multilayered samples. We have developed an open-source library called "LibCPIXE", for PIXE data analysis. It is written in standard C and implements functions for simulating X-ray yields of PIXE spectra taken from arbitrary samples, including multilayered targets. The library is designed to be fast, portable, modular and scalable, as well as to facilitate its incorporation into any existing program. In...

  7. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  8. Determination of chromium(VI) in water by PIXE analysis using ion exchange paper. Limit of detection and interference by coexisting anions

    Concerning the PIXE analysis of Cr(VI) in water using ion-exchange filters, the limit of detection (LOD) and the influence of matrix anions were investigated. In order to look for the experimental condition for obtaining the minimum LOD, we measured the Cr-Kα X-ray counts and background counts under the Kα X-ray peak as a function of the incident proton energy and the thickness of the Mylar absorber foil in front of the detector. To investigate the interference by coexisting anions, each of PO43-, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, and F- ions and Cr(VI) ions were mixed in aqueous solutions and adsorbed on DE81-DEAE cellulose paper, a weakly basic anion exchanger with diethylaminoethyl functional groups. Then the filter samples were measured by PIXE using 2.5 MeV proton beams. We obtained a LOD of 0.16 μg or 8 ppb for 20 mL samples at a proton energy of 2.5 MeV and a Mylar film thickness of 50 or 100 μm. The experimental results on the mixed solutions indicated that NO3-, Cl-, and F- as coexisting ions didn't interfere significantly with determination of a 50 μg/L Cr(VI) concentration for 40 mL total solution volume, despite the total amount of anions was about 90% of ion exchange capacity of a filter. On the other hand, slight interferences by PO43- ions were observed. However, under the same condition, we found that if the total amount of SO42- ions was higher than 20% of ion exchange capacity, they induced significant interferences in determining Cr(VI). (author)

  9. Applications of external beam PIXE at RMIT

    Moser, M.; Bubb, I. F.; Johnston, P. N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W. B.; Short, R. C.

    1998-04-01

    The development of an external Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) facility for the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator based at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology has enabled the analysis of artefacts from the Museum of Victoria. Analyses of antique bullets, Egyptian glass samples, an Egyptian wall paint fragment and pigments from soils have been carried out. The results from the analysis of antique bullets determined the composition of blue spots on one bullet and aided in the conservation process. External PIXE analysis of two Egyptian glass samples enabled the partial determination of the colouring transition metals. Analysis of an Egyptian wall paint fragment and pigments from soils originating from the archaeological excavation of the town of Ismant el-Kharab as part of the Dakhleh Oasis Project revealed the necessity to find additional pigments to enable identification of the geographical origin of the wall paint.

  10. Applications of external beam PIXE at RMIT

    The development of an external proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) facility for the 1 MV tandetron accelerator based at Royal Melbourne institute of technology has enabled the analysis of artefacts from the Museum of Victoria. Analyses of antique bullets, Egyptian glass samples, an Egyptian wall paint fragment and pigments from soils have been carried out. The results from the analysis of antique bullets determined the composition of blue spots on one bullet and aided in the conservation process. External PIXE analysis of two Egyptian glass samples enabled the partial determination of the colouring transition metals. Analysis of an Egyptian wall paint fragment and pigments from soils originating from the archaeological excavation of the town of Ismant el-Kharab as part of the Dakhleh Oasis Project revealed the necessity to find additional pigments to enable identification of the geographical origin of the wall paint. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) applied to analysis of pre hispanic metals of the Templo Mayor at Tenochtitlan; Tecnicas nucleares (PIXE y RBS) aplicadas al analisis de metales prehispanicos del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Mendez U, I.; Tenorio, D.; Galvan, J.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work has the objective of determining by means of the utilization of nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) the composition and the alloy type of diverse aztec ornaments corresponding to Post classic period, they were manufactured principally with copper and gold such as bells, beads and disks; all they belonging at 9 oblations of Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. It is presented here briefly the historical and archaeological antecedents of the devices as well as the analytical methods for conclude with the results obtained. (Author)

  12. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    Kanjilal NB

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight were performed four weeks before DENA treatment and continued till the end of the experiment (16 weeks. PIXE analysis revealed the restoration of near normal value of zinc, copper, and iron, which were substantially altered when compared to carcinogen treated groups. Supplementation of both vanadium and beta-carotene four weeks before DENA injection was found to offer significant (64.73%, P

  13. Development of External Beam PIXE Set-up and Applications to Pottery Provenance Studies

    Nissinen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is an ion beam analysis technique. In PIXE, atoms in the sample are excited when the sample is bombarded with protons, alpha particles, or heavy ions. X-rays are emitted when atoms in the sample de-excite. Each element has unique characteristic x-rays. In the spectrum, area of each peak is proportional to the elemental concentration in the sample. The existing PIXE set-up in the accelerator laboratory was upgraded to external beam PIXE to do...

  14. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  15. Analysis of elements in the soft tissue covering titanium plates and screws for internal bone fixation by the PIXE method

    We made a comparative study of the elements in the periosteum on titanium plates and screws for internal bone fixation, normal periosteum, and oral mucosa by the PIXE method. We studied 11 patients, 4 men and 7 women, with mandibular fracture or facial deformity. The implanted time length of the materials in the body was 5 to 16 months. The analyzed samples were 11 periostea on the materials, 11 normal periostea and 4 oral mucosae. The results were as follows. Twenty- four essential and 11 contaminated elements were detected in the periostea on the materials as well as in the normal periostea and the oral mucosae. In the mean values of titanium and aluminum, there were significantly higher values in the periostea on the materials than in the normal periostea. The mean concentration values of the other elements did not differ significantly between that in the periostea on the materials and that in the normal periostea. The concentration of titanium in the periostea on the materials was not correlated with sex, age of the patients, or the implanted time length. However, there was a significantly higher titanium concentration value in tile periostea on the plates than on the screws. Our results could indicate that the existence of a titanium element in the periostea on the materials was caused by its dissolution from the materials. (author)

  16. Use of micro-PIXE analysis for the identification of contaminants in the metal deposition on a CMS pitch adapter

    Massi, M; Fedi, M E; Arilli, C; Grassi, N; Mando, P A; Migliori, A; Focardi, E

    2004-01-01

    In the silicon tracker for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider of CERN, each silicon sensor is connected to the front-end electronics by a pitch adapter, the structure of which consists of a fan of very thin chromium strips coated with a few microns aluminium deposition, on a glass support. The absence of contaminants in the depositions is of crucial importance for the electrical and mechanical reliability of the micro-bonding connections. The PIXE set-up of the Florence external micro-beam facility appeared to be suitable to analyse the metal deposition of an adapter, on which the micro-bonds had shown mechanical and electrical problems. Our measurements pointed out a significant copper contamination of the metal deposition on the faulty adapter, while no copper was detected in another one, which showed a correct behaviour at bonding. This suggests a possible role of Cu impurities in the encountered problems during micro-bonding.

  17. Micro-PIXE analysis of an ancient Egyptian papyrus: Identification of pigments used for the 'Book of the Dead'

    This paper reports a study of colours and inks of an ancient Egyptian papyrus using an external proton microprobe in PIXE mode. Representing the Book of the Dead, this papyrus is dated from the 19th dynasty, New Kingdom (c.1295-1186 BC). Elemental maps were obtained by moving the papyrus under a fixed focused external beam using a motorised support. The maps were compared to photographic pictures taken in visible light. Inks used in the hieroglyph text appeared to be based on carbon (black) and iron oxide (red). Coloured drawings illustrating the text showed a wider palette: hematite, ochre, orpiment, Egyptian blue, verdigris. Most intriguing was the observation in several parts of the drawing of a whitish pigment containing strontium. Deposits of strontium-rich minerals (e.g. strontianite, celestite) have been identified in Egypt. The exact nature and the archaeological implications of this pigment have still to be determined. Finally, fine powder and coarse grains of arsenic oxide were observed, probably remaining from an early preservation treatment against insect attacks after excavation

  18. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  19. Application of photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy and PIXE/PIGME tot he analysis and provenancing of inorganic pigments from an archaeological site

    As part of a larger study into the sources of ochre used by indigenous people in south eastern Cape York Peninsula, Australia, the ochres found in excavated deposits and paint samples from the stencils and painted panels in Fern Cave, near Chillagoe, were investigated. Previous work in the analysis of paints has identified the need to used non-destructive techniques and the necessity of taking samples of microgram quantities. When selecting the techniques for use in this study these factors were kept in mind. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was selected because it can be applied to samples of only a few micrograms and because it is completely non-destructive when necessary. To compliment and support the information obtained from the FTIR-PAS, elemental analysis was also carried out on the same samples using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA), proton induced x-ray and gamma ray emission (PIXE/PIGME). The spectra were obtained with little or no sample preparation and provided the structural and compositional information to identify the major and minor mineral present in both excavated and painted samples

  20. Biological activity of a SiO2-CaO-P2O5 sol-gel glass highlighted by PIXE-RBS methods

    Lao, Jonathan; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Moretto, P.; Jallot, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    It is proposed in this study to observe the influence of P2O5 on the formation of the apatite-like layer in a bioactive glass via a complete PIXE characterization. A glass in the SiO2-CaO-P2O5 ternary system was elaborated by sol-gel processing. Glass samples were soaked in biological fluids for periods up to 10 days. The surface changes were characterized using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) associated to Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), which are efficient methods for m...

  1. Provenance studies of amber by PIXE

    Analyses by Infrared Spectroscopy and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance are suitable to determine the paleobotanic source of amber, but cannot differentiate between beds of the same paleobotanic source. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using an external set-up is presented as a new and non-destructive semiquantitative method for provenance studies of amber. PIXE analysis is focused at inorganic contents of amber, considering that the composition of microscopic inclusions depends on the sedimentation environment and it can be used to determine similarities and differences between amber samples and correlate them with amber beds. Results of analyses on amber samples from several world regions and a group of archaeological samples from Chiapas, Mexico, are presented. Amber from different regions have specific inorganic elemental contents; archaeological samples can be associated with beds, even if they have the same paleobotanic origin. (Author)

  2. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission): A non-destructive analysis method adapted to the thin decorative coatings of antique ceramics

    Recent trends in study of Greek and Roman potteries have been to develop non-abrasive methods to determine the elemental composition of their thin coatings. This paper investigates the potential of PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) in this field. This technique has been currently used to determine the bulk elemental composition of several types of artifacts because of its fast and simultaneous ability to measure a large number of elements with good accuracy and without any damage to the sample. However, until now it has never been applied to the measurement of the composition of thin layers owing to the difficulty in limiting the depth of analysis to the layer thickness. In this paper, we show, through a comparative study of reference clay pellets and thin coatings of Terra Sigillata ceramics that reducing the energy of the particle beam the problem can be solved. The decrease of proton energy from 3 MeV (standard condition) to 1.5 MeV allowed us to limit the analyzed depth to the coating thickness without significant alteration of the results. Quantitative elemental analysis remains possible and the quality of results is similar to the one obtained from electron microprobe.

  3. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission): A non-destructive analysis method adapted to the thin decorative coatings of antique ceramics

    Leon, Y. [CNRS, CEMES, BP 94347, 29 rue J. Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, CEMES, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Sciau, Ph., E-mail: philippe.sciau@cemes.fr [CNRS, CEMES, BP 94347, 29 rue J. Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, CEMES, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Bouquillon, A.; Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 14 quai F. Mitterrand, F-75001 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Parseval, Ph. de [Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, GET, 14 av. E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2012-11-15

    Recent trends in study of Greek and Roman potteries have been to develop non-abrasive methods to determine the elemental composition of their thin coatings. This paper investigates the potential of PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) in this field. This technique has been currently used to determine the bulk elemental composition of several types of artifacts because of its fast and simultaneous ability to measure a large number of elements with good accuracy and without any damage to the sample. However, until now it has never been applied to the measurement of the composition of thin layers owing to the difficulty in limiting the depth of analysis to the layer thickness. In this paper, we show, through a comparative study of reference clay pellets and thin coatings of Terra Sigillata ceramics that reducing the energy of the particle beam the problem can be solved. The decrease of proton energy from 3 MeV (standard condition) to 1.5 MeV allowed us to limit the analyzed depth to the coating thickness without significant alteration of the results. Quantitative elemental analysis remains possible and the quality of results is similar to the one obtained from electron microprobe.

  4. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission): A non-destructive analysis method adapted to the thin decorative coatings of antique ceramics

    Leon, Y.; Sciau, Ph.; Bouquillon, A.; Pichon, L.; de Parseval, Ph.

    2012-11-01

    Recent trends in study of Greek and Roman potteries have been to develop non-abrasive methods to determine the elemental composition of their thin coatings. This paper investigates the potential of PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) in this field. This technique has been currently used to determine the bulk elemental composition of several types of artifacts because of its fast and simultaneous ability to measure a large number of elements with good accuracy and without any damage to the sample. However, until now it has never been applied to the measurement of the composition of thin layers owing to the difficulty in limiting the depth of analysis to the layer thickness. In this paper, we show, through a comparative study of reference clay pellets and thin coatings of Terra Sigillata ceramics that reducing the energy of the particle beam the problem can be solved. The decrease of proton energy from 3 MeV (standard condition) to 1.5 MeV allowed us to limit the analyzed depth to the coating thickness without significant alteration of the results. Quantitative elemental analysis remains possible and the quality of results is similar to the one obtained from electron microprobe.

  5. Spectroscopy and perturbation analysis of the CO A$^1\\Pi-$X$^1\\Sigma^+$ (2,0), (3,0) and (4,0) bands

    Niu, M L; Heays, A N; de Oliveira, N; Field, R W; Ubachs, W

    2015-01-01

    The (2,0) (3,0) and (4,0) bands of the A$^1\\Pi-$X$^1\\Sigma^+$ system of $^{12}$C$^{16}$O have been re-investigated by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. A VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer, illuminated by synchrotron radiation, was applied to record a jet-cooled spectrum, a room temperature static gas spectrum and a high temperature (900 K) quasi-static gas spectrum, resulting in absolute accuracies of 0.01$-$0.02 cm$^{-1}$ for the rotational line frequencies. Precise laser-based data were included in the analysis allowing for a highly accurate determination of band origins. Rotational levels up to $J=52$ were observed. The data were used to perform an improved analysis of the perturbations in the A$^1\\Pi$, $v=2$, $v=3$, and $v=4$ levels by vibrational levels of the D$^1\\Delta$, I$^1\\Sigma^-$, e$^3\\Sigma^-$, d$^3\\Delta$, and a$'^3\\Sigma^+$ states.

  6. Portable XRF and PIXE as complementary techniques for the analysis of old books: study of decorated flyleaves and edges

    Traditionally in the study of ancient books, the binding (leather, parchment, cloth) and their decorations have not the same importance than other parts of the book. Most of the times, paper, inks and internal decorations attract entirely the attention for analytical studies. Nevertheless, it must be considered that the binding keep the book safe and it may be exposed D higher deterioration. Moreover, often it is changed and the historical value of this part of the book is lost. his is also the case of binding's decorations. For these reasons, it is clear that he binding of ancient books must be studied as a part of their material essence. In this work, methodology based on t]he combined use of microscopic and elemental analyses was applied in order to study four types of decorations of guards of books (marbled, colored, splashed, dotted). In particular, this study was focused on Colonial and Mexican books from XVIII and XIX centuries from the collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, lNAH. Twelve books and 62 decoration's colors were analyzed in situ, in the library, using a portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy system (XRF) for a quick nondestructive pigment identification and to select a reduced number of books for complementary analyses at the laboratory by Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE). By combining these nondestructive techniques, it was possible to identify most of the pigments used in the decorations and to establish a general pattern of use of colorants and pigments in XVIII and XIX centuries for the guard's decorations. This work represents the first study on this topic. (Author)

  7. Dating and classification of Syrian excavated pottery Dating and classification of Syrian excavated pottery from Tell Saka Site, by means of thermoluminescence analysis, and multivariate statistical methods, based on PIXE analysis

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques have been utilized for the study of archaeological pottery fragment samples from Tell Saka Site, which is located at 25 km south east of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were chosen randomly from the site, two from third level and two from fourth level for dating using TL technique and the results were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. Twenty-eight sherds were analyzed using PIXE technique in order to identify and characterize the elemental composition of pottery excavated from third and fourth levels, using 3 MV tandem accelerator in Damascus. The analysis provided almost 20 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb). However, only 14 elements as follows: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb were chosen for statistical analysis and have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, Cluster and Factor analysis. The studied pottery were classified into two well defined groups. (author)

  8. PIXE and its applications to biological samples

    Throughout this century, industrialized society has seriously affected the ecology by introducing huge amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere as well as marine and soil environments. On the other hand, it is known that these pollutants, in excess of certain levels of concentration, not only put at risk the life of living beings but may also cause the extinction of some species. It is therefore of basic importance to substantially increase quantitative determinations of trace element concentrations in biological specimens in order to assess the effects of pollutants. It is in this field that PIXE plays a key role in these studies, where its unique analytical properties are decisive. Moreover, since the importance of these research has been recognized in many countries, many scientists have been encouraged to continue or initiate new research programmes aimed to solve the worldwide pollution problem. This document presents an overview of those papers reporting the application of PIXE analysis to biological samples during this last decade of the 20th century and recounts the number of PIXE laboratories dedicating their efforts to find the clues of the biological effects of the presence of pollutants introduced in living beings. Sample preparation methods, different kinds of samples under study and the use of complementary analytical techniques are also illustrated. (author). 108 refs

  9. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Diaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J., E-mail: raul.diaz@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: jose.lopezm@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear Nabor Carrillo, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: albertoe@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-}2{sub .5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1{sup st} , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil

  10. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry, and biomass

  11. Potentialities and possible applications of a new analytical method (PIXE)

    In 1970, a new method was introduced for trace analysis, namely, the X-ray emission induced by charged particles (PIXE). It has been shown that when protons in the few MeV range are used for the excitation of inner shell electrons and solid state detectors for the detection of the characteristic X-rays, we dispose of a powerful multi-elemental analytical tool of high sensitivity. In contrast to activation spectrometry, this is an in beam technique, irradiation and measuring being performed at the same time. The foundations of the method are described experimental arrangements and problems related to beam transport, target preparation an spectrum analysis. A detailed discussion on precision, accuracy and sensitivity is presented. Applications in biology, medicine, environmental and materials sciences are discussed. (Author)

  12. PIXE elemental mapping on original manuscripts with an external microbeam. Application to manuscripts damaged by iron-gall ink corrosion

    Remazeilles, Celine E-mail: cremazei@univ-lr.fr; Quillet, Veronique; Calligaro, Thomas; Claude Dran, Jean; Pichon, Laurent; Salomon, Joseph

    2001-07-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) mapping and PIXE spot analysis have been performed on three original manuscripts. We observed that the precision of the spot measurements for the analysis of the ink composition is limited by the heterogeneity of the writing. PIXE mapping proved to be a complementary technique which is much more sensitive, and which makes it possible to evaluate the migration of some elements, such as sulphur, iron and calcium around inscriptions.

  13. PIXE elemental mapping on original manuscripts with an external microbeam. Application to manuscripts damaged by iron-gall ink corrosion

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) mapping and PIXE spot analysis have been performed on three original manuscripts. We observed that the precision of the spot measurements for the analysis of the ink composition is limited by the heterogeneity of the writing. PIXE mapping proved to be a complementary technique which is much more sensitive, and which makes it possible to evaluate the migration of some elements, such as sulphur, iron and calcium around inscriptions

  14. Source apportionment by PMF on elemental concentrations obtained by PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece

    Manousakas, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Achaia (Greece); E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Diapouli, E. [E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Papaefthymiou, H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Achaia (Greece); Migliori, A.; Karydas, A.G.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Bogovac, M.; Kaiser, R.B. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency, 2400 Seibersdorf (Austria); Jaksic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Eleftheriadis, K. [E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important constituent of atmospheric pollution especially in areas under the influence of industrial emissions. Megalopolis is a small city of 10,000 inhabitants located in central Peloponnese in close proximity to three coal opencast mines and two lignite fired power plants. 50 PM{sub 10} samples were collected in Megalopolis during the years 2009–11 for elemental and multivariate analysis. For the elemental analysis PIXE was used as one of the most effective techniques in APM analytical characterization. Altogether, the concentrations of 22 elements (Z = 11–33), whereas Black Carbon was also determined for each sample using a reflectometer. Factorization software was used (EPA PMF 3.0) for source apportionment analysis. The analysis revealed that major emission sources were soil dust 33% (7.94 ± 0.27 μg/m{sup 3}), biomass burning 19% (4.43 ± 0.27 μg/m{sup 3}), road dust 15% (3.63 ± 0.37 μg/m{sup 3}), power plant emissions 13% (3.01 ± 0.44 μg/m{sup 3}), traffic 12% (2.82 ± 0.37 μg/m{sup 3}), and sea spray 8% (1.99 ± 0.41 μg/m{sup 3}). Wind trajectories have suggested that metals associated with emission from the power plants came mainly from west and were connected with the locations of the lignite mines located in this area. Soil resuspension, road dust and power plant emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while traffic/secondary, sea spray and biomass burning become dominant during the cold season.

  15. Source apportionment by PMF on elemental concentrations obtained by PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece

    Manousakas, M.; Diapouli, E.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Migliori, A.; Karydas, A. G.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Bogovac, M.; Kaiser, R. B.; Jaksic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important constituent of atmospheric pollution especially in areas under the influence of industrial emissions. Megalopolis is a small city of 10,000 inhabitants located in central Peloponnese in close proximity to three coal opencast mines and two lignite fired power plants. 50 PM10 samples were collected in Megalopolis during the years 2009-11 for elemental and multivariate analysis. For the elemental analysis PIXE was used as one of the most effective techniques in APM analytical characterization. Altogether, the concentrations of 22 elements (Z = 11-33), whereas Black Carbon was also determined for each sample using a reflectometer. Factorization software was used (EPA PMF 3.0) for source apportionment analysis. The analysis revealed that major emission sources were soil dust 33% (7.94 ± 0.27 μg/m3), biomass burning 19% (4.43 ± 0.27 μg/m3), road dust 15% (3.63 ± 0.37 μg/m3), power plant emissions 13% (3.01 ± 0.44 μg/m3), traffic 12% (2.82 ± 0.37 μg/m3), and sea spray 8% (1.99 ± 0.41 μg/m3). Wind trajectories have suggested that metals associated with emission from the power plants came mainly from west and were connected with the locations of the lignite mines located in this area. Soil resuspension, road dust and power plant emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while traffic/secondary, sea spray and biomass burning become dominant during the cold season.

  16. Ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis direct drive of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets

    The complementary techniques of ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) are used to provide micro-characterization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets for density uniformity, sphericity, and trace element spatial distributions. ICF target quality control in the laser fusion program is important to ensure that the energy deposition from the lasers results in uniform compression and minimization of Taylor-Rayleigh instabilities. We obtain 1% density determinations using IMT with spatial resolution approaching two microns. Utilizing PIXE, we can map out dopant and impurity distributions with elemental detection sensitivities on the order of a few ppm. We present examples of IMT and PIXE analyses performed on several ICF targets

  17. Quantitative PIXE trace element imaging of minerals using the new CSIRO-GEMOC Nuclear Microprobe

    The design of the new CSIRO-GEMOC Nuclear Microprobe for high sensitivity imaging of mineral samples, combined with a new GeoPIXE software environment, incorporating the dynamic analysis (DA) method for projecting quantitative PIXE trace element images, yields quantitative PIXE images at 1.8 μm spatial resolution with detection limits in silicates for extracted concentrations down to ∼0.2 ppm (Br). Detection limits (99% confidence level) down to 39 ppb (Ge) have been achieved in diamond. Advances in PIXE technique include the correction of DA images for the effects on PIXE yields of spatial variation of sample composition, interactive software tools for DA projection and concentration extraction, and their integration with simultaneous PIGE imaging for light elements in a new efficient PC environment. Application areas include the analysis and imaging of melt inclusions, sulfides from ancient and modern settings, and fluid inclusions in minerals

  18. Soluble metals in the atmosphere and their biological implications: A study to identify important aerosol components by statistical analysis of PIXE data

    Multivariate statistical analysis has been applied to time series measurements of aerosol elemental composition from PIXE analysis of filter samples, and principal components have been resolved that represent distinct particle types in an external mixture in the atmosphere. In this study, it is argued that a combination of chemical and statistical analyses of the data may be more powerful in determining chemical species in atmospheric aerosols than studies that employ mainly direct chemical analysis of chemical species in unresolved mixtures of aerosol particle samples. Sulfur is generally associated with mineral dust elements. It is reasoned that the association may represent sulfuric acid coatings on particles that can lead to mineral dissolution and solubilization of significant amounts of aluminum, iron, and other metals. Upon wet or dry deposition to the surface, the fluxes of these metals in biologically-available form may be sufficient to affect primary productivity in the world ocean and cause ecological damage in lakes. As a consequence, the fluxes of biogenic trace gases to the atmosphere may be changed, possible leading to changes in the tropospheric concentration of ozone. The inputs to lakes of soluble aluminum, which is toxic to fish, may be partly by deposition directly from the atmosphere, thus not limited to leaching of soils by acid deposition. Human inhalation of soluble aluminum and other solubilized mineral metals may account, in part, for the observed geographic pattern of deaths attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that show high rates in cities of the Western US and the southeast region, but low in most of the midwest and northeast

  19. Recent advances in PIXE microanalysis at the CSIRO

    Progress in PIXE microanalysis method development at the HIAF laboratory of CSIRO over the past two years has been concentrated in three areas development of an integrated system for data acquisition, computer control of the microprobe sample stage, automated microprobing of minerals, and automatic on-line quantitative analysis; development of a geological database incorporating μPIXE trace element analyses and development of a method for quantitative in-situ analysis of intact fluid inclusions in minerals. This paper briefly summarises the progress in these areas. 7 refs., 1 fig

  20. PIXE and PIXE-induced XRF for chemical specification

    Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectra with fine structures in the PIXE and PIXE-induced XRF spectra have been proved to be very much useful for chemical specification of condensed matters. The fine structures have been reproduced theoretically by introducing molecular orbital calculations, the shake-off and resonant orbital rearrangement (ROR) processes, together with the direct Coulomb interaction between projectiles and target atoms, and the self-absorption of emitted X-rays through the targets. Comparison between observed and theoretical spectra is given here for F and S atoms

  1. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  2. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: calli@culture.nl; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G

    1999-04-02

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations.

  3. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1999-04-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  4. Analysis of the fly ash from the processing of wood chips in a pilot-scale downdraft gasifier: Comparison of inorganic constituents determined by PIXE and ICP-AES

    Gasification of biomass ultimately generates at least one solid byproduct in which the inorganic constituents of the biomass are concentrated. Given the potential for utilization, or issues with disposal, facile methods are needed for determining the compositions of the fly ashes from recently-available gasifier-based bioenergy systems. Proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were used to characterize the fly ash recovered from a pilot-scale (25 kW) modular bioenergy system operated with wood chips as the feedstock. The composition of the fly ash from the downdraft gasifier showed some similarities to compositions reported for boiler wood ashes, apart from one half of the material being unburned carbon. Although ICP-AES showed greater sensitivity for the analysis of the fly ash, especially for small amounts of heavy metal contaminants, PIXE proved to be a powerful analytical tool for screening of elements from sodium to uranium. Such broad spectrum screenings could prevent the inadvertent land application of unsuspected pollutant elements. Fly ashes from biomass gasification appear to be suitable for use as ash-based fertilizers for forest lands; however, combustion to remove unburned carbon may be advisable. -- Highlights: ► Fly ash composition data for commercial modular bioenergy systems are now reported. ► PIXE analysis better suited for analysis of fly ashes rich in silicates. Fly ashes generated by biomass gasification may be suitable for land application. ► Combustion of biomass-derived fly ashes is recommended before use as soil amendments

  5. Portable XRF and PIXE as complementary techniques for the analysis of old books: study of decorated flyleaves and edges; FRX portatil y PIXE como tecnicas complementarias para el analisis de libros antiguos: estudio de guardas y cantos decorados

    Torner M, L.; Gonzalez T, C. [Laboratorio de Conservacion, Biblioteca Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, INAH, Paseo dela Reforma y Gandhi s/n Chapultepec Polanco, Mexico DF 11560 (Mexico); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. A.P. 20-364, Mexico DF 01000 (Mexico)]. e-mail: luciatorner@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Traditionally in the study of ancient books, the binding (leather, parchment, cloth) and their decorations have not the same importance than other parts of the book. Most of the times, paper, inks and internal decorations attract entirely the attention for analytical studies. Nevertheless, it must be considered that the binding keep the book safe and it may be exposed D higher deterioration. Moreover, often it is changed and the historical value of this part of the book is lost. his is also the case of binding's decorations. For these reasons, it is clear that the binding of ancient books must be studied as a part of their material essence. In this work, methodology based on t]he combined use of microscopic and elemental analyses was applied in order to study four types of decorations of guards of books (marbled, colored, splashed, dotted). In particular, this study was focused on Colonial and Mexican books from XVIII and XIX centuries from the collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, lNAH. Twelve books and 62 decoration's colors were analyzed in situ, in the library, using a portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy system (XRF) for a quick nondestructive pigment identification and to select a reduced number of books for complementary analyses at the laboratory by Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE). By combining these nondestructive techniques, it was possible to identify most of the pigments used in the decorations and to establish a general pattern of use of colorants and pigments in XVIII and XIX centuries for the guard's decorations. This work represents the first study on this topic. (Author)

  6. Sediment varve counting with PIXE

    The feasibility of the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique for varve counting of vertically taken marine and lacustrine sediments was studied aiming at its possible use as a dating procedure by observing the yearly variation of the constituent elements. The samples were impregnated with a low viscosity epoxy resin to obtain slabs with preserved layered structure suitable for the PIXE analyses. PIXE-spectra were taken as a function of depth distance and the normalized X-ray peak area variations were determined. Especially, concentration changes of silicon and iron were found to be clear. Due to the employed sample preparation technique the observed chlorine concentration corresponds to the amount of water in the initial sample. Maximum chlorine concentration appeared at positions where the Si and Fe concentrations were near minimum. By plotting the Si/Cl or Fe/Cl peak area ratios, an even more distinct position dependent variation was noted. (author)

  7. Late Bronze Age Hoard studied by PIXE

    Gutiérrez Neira, P. C.; Zucchiatti, A.; Montero-Ruiz, I.; Vilaça, R.; Bottaini, C.; Gener, M.; Climent-Font, A.

    2011-01-01

    The hoards of metallic objects belonging to the Late European Bronze Age can be interpreted differently depending on the type, number and composition of the artefacts. PIXE analysis has been performed in nine items from the Hoard of Freixanda in Portugal comprising 4 socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and a casting debris. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace elements of interest like, As, Pb, Ni and A...

  8. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    Kanjilal NB; Doloi Manika; Vijayan V; Kulkarni Indira; Mukherjee Sutapa; Chattopadhyay Mitali; Chatterjee Malay

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight) of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA) induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum) in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight) were performed four ...

  9. Diagnosis of spatial resolution for microbeam scanning PIXE using STIM method and CR-39 track detector in PASTA

    In PIXE analysis system and Tandem Accelerator facility (PASTA) of NIRS, we are using Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) method and solid track detector to diagnose the spatial resolution of scanning microbeam PIXE analysis system. These methods are widely used by many microbeam facilities. (author)

  10. Monte Arci Obsidians: Some More Geochemical Data from EMP-WDS, SEM-EDS and PIXE

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Lugliè, Carlo; Dubernet, Stephan; Bohn, Marcel; Poupeau, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    We bring new geochemical data on Monte Arci (Sardinia) obsidians from elemental analyses by electron microprobe (EMP) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Obsidians from the geochemical groups SA, SB1, SB2 and SC can be sorted out from their major element contents by EMP and from their trace element contents by PIXE. While EMP analysis requires for analysis a few milligrams polished fragment, PIXE is strictly non-destructive. Forty samples were part of a program aimed at the geochemical ...

  11. Pixe method as microanalytical instrument

    The PIXE method (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) as analytical method presenting the evolution, the theoretical fundaments, the detection limit, the optimization for operational conditions is evaluated. The applications of the method to air pollution control and aerosol studies in regions such as Antartic, Amazon and other regions are analysed. (M.C.K.)

  12. Micro-PIXE for the quantitative imaging of chemical elements in single cells

    Ortega, R. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, Gradignan (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The aim of this seminar will be to present the recent achievements in this field using micro-PIXE analysis. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) and STIM (Scanning Transmission lon Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STlM analysis will be more specifically highlighted as it provides high spatial resolution imaging (<200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (<0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence or the techniques based on mass spectrometry. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for subcellular imaging of trace elements in the various fields of interest will be presented such as metal-based toxicology, pharmacology, and neuro degeneration [1] R. Ortega, G. Devés, A. Carmona. J. R. Soc. Interface, 6, (2009) S649-S658. (author)

  13. Micro-PIXE for the quantitative imaging of chemical elements in single cells

    Full text: The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The aim of this seminar will be to present the recent achievements in this field using micro-PIXE analysis. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) and STIM (Scanning Transmission lon Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STlM analysis will be more specifically highlighted as it provides high spatial resolution imaging (<200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (<0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence or the techniques based on mass spectrometry. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for subcellular imaging of trace elements in the various fields of interest will be presented such as metal-based toxicology, pharmacology, and neuro degeneration [1] R. Ortega, G. Devés, A. Carmona. J. R. Soc. Interface, 6, (2009) S649-S658. (author)

  14. PIXE法及其在食品元素分析中的应用%The Application of PIXE In Food Element Analysis

    张文德

    2010-01-01

    @@ 质子荧光分析主要有质子激发X射线荧光分析(ParticIe lnduced X-Ray Emission,PIXE)、外束质子X荧光分析和质子显微镜三种形式.凡是配有小型粒子加速器的实验室都可以开展X荧光分析.

  15. Multi-elemental analysis of atmospheric pollutants and determination of particle size using the PIXE method, a cascade impactor and a filter unit constructed in Mexico

    This work presents: 1) The methodology and the experimental conditions of the PIXE technique so that it is used as a better option inside the analytical methods in aerosols studies, 2) The development, tests and applications of a cascade impactor of the Batelle type built to determine particle size to use it jointly with the mentioned technique in the determination of the elements concentration according to its size.By this way is fulfilled with the first goal of this extensive project. (Author)

  16. PESA as a complementary tool to PIXE at CTU Prague

    Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) is a simple convenient method for hydrogen analysis in thin samples. A Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) target chamber was equipped with a PIPS detector for detection of forward-scattered protons. One of the objectives was to perform PIXE and PESA analyses of air particulate targets simultaneously. Tests and calibrations were fulfilled mainly with Mylar foils 1.5-6.5 μm thick in the proton energy region between 1.35 and 2.3 MeV. The energy dependence of scattering cross section is different from the Rutherford formula. Comparison of PIXE/PESA analysis with the Guelph Scanning Proton Microprobe Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Canada on seven aerosol samples was carried out. The intercomparison results validated our PESA/PIXE quality assurance protocol. In addition, repeated measurements of Gelman TefloTM filters indicated a gradual increase of hydrogen content by 1 ng/cm2 per 1 μC/cm2 proton dose

  17. Present role of PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research

    Maenhaut, Willy

    2015-11-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s nearly half of the elemental analyses of atmospheric aerosol samples were performed by PIXE. Since then, other techniques for elemental analysis became available and there has been a steady increase in studies on organic aerosol constituents and other aspects of aerosols, especially in the areas of nucleation (new particle formation), optical properties, and the role of aerosol particles in cloud formation and properties. First, a brief overview and discussion is given of the developments and trends in atmospheric aerosol analysis and research of the past three decades. Subsequently, it is indicated that there is still invaluable work to be done by PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research, especially if one teams up with other aerosol researchers and performs complementary measurements, e.g., on small aerosol samples that are taken with high-time resolution. Fine examples of such research are the work done by the Lund group in the CARIBIC aircraft studies and the analysis of circular streaker samples by the Florence PIXE group. These and other examples are presented and other possibilities of PIXE are indicated.

  18. Intra-tumor distribution of metallofullerene using micro-particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE).

    Yamamoto, Yohei; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Shirakawa, Makoto; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira

    2014-06-01

    To clarify the intra tumor distribution of gadlinium containing fullerene (Gd@C82), micro particle induced X-ray emission (Micro-PIXE) analysis were performed. The tumor bearing BALB/c mice were injected Gd@C82 and subcutaneous tumors were taken from 48h after the intravenous injection. Using the Micro-PIXE method, we could visualize Gd intra tumor distribution. Therefore our results indicate the possibility that Micro-PIXE is useful technique for imaging the bioditribution of Gd, and Gd@C82 is potentially useful Gd carrier for NCT. PMID:24491681

  19. Intra-tumor distribution of metallofullerene using micro-particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    To clarify the intra tumor distribution of gadlinium containing fullerene (Gd@C82), micro particle induced X-ray emission (Micro-PIXE) analysis were performed. The tumor bearing BALB/c mice were injected Gd@C82 and subcutaneous tumors were taken from 48 h after the intravenous injection. Using the Micro-PIXE method, we could visualize Gd intra tumor distribution. Therefore our results indicate the possibility that Micro-PIXE is useful technique for imaging the bioditribution of Gd, and Gd@C82 is potentially useful Gd carrier for NCT

  20. The potential of PIXE analytical work in water pollution

    Yamazaki, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishii, K. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    A method has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in a variety of water samples in our surroundings. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-{mu}m pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film, and in turn heavy metals in trace amounts were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target through the use of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. These three kinds of targets were analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beams. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of {approx}24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of various aqueous sample such as river water, rain water and water leaking from disposal sites of industrial wastes. Hence, the methodology for preparing three types of targets promotes the PIXE analysis to a truly effective means for monitoring a water-pollution problem in our surroundings. (author)