WorldWideScience

Sample records for activation heat

  1. Thyroid activity in heat adaptation

    The effect of acute and chronic (22 day round-the-clock) exposure to microenvironmental heat stress (37 deg C DBT) on thyroid activity was studied in Hariana x Holstein Frisian, Hariana x Brown Swiss and Hariana x Jersey non-cycling F1 crossbred heifers. Vis-a-vis their no-heat norms, the percentage uptake of tri-iodothyronine-125I by resin registered a steep fall (about 45 to 60 percent) on acute heat exposures reaching a minimum value in about 2 hrs. The levels started recouping by the 2nd day, plateuing out on the 5th day onwards at slightly subnormal level with up and down fluctuations throughout the three week duration of exposure to heat. There were no significant differences in the pattern or magnitude of response amongst breeds, though in case of Holstein Frisian and Brown Swiss cross-breds the levels of T3 tended, at times, to overshoot the no-stress norm. (author)

  2. Heating entrepreneur activity in 2003

    According to TTS Institute information, at the end of 2003 there were heating entrepreneurs responsible for fuel management and heat production in at least 212 heating plants in Finland. The number of operative plants increased by 36 from the previous year. At the end of 2003, the total boiler capacity for solid fuel in the plants managed by the heating entrepreneurs exceeded 100 megawatts. The average boiler capacity of the plants was 0.5 megawatts. Heating entrepreneur-ship was most common in west Finland, where 40 percent of the plants are located. There were some 94 heating plants managed by cooperatives or limited companies. Single entrepre neurs or entrepreneur networks consisting of several entrepreneurs were responsible for heat production in 117 plants. Heating entrepreneurs used approximately 290,000 loose cubic metres of forest chips, which is about seven percent of the volume used for heating and power plant energy production in 2003. In addition, the heating entrepreneurs used a total of 40,000 loose cubic metres of other wood fuel and an estimated 20,000 loose cubic metres of sod and milled peat. Municipalities are still the most important customer group for heating entrepreneurs. However, thenumber of private customers is growing. Industrial company, other private company or properly was the main customer already for every fourth plant established during 2003. (orig.)

  3. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  4. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  5. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  6. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  7. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins.

    Weber, Jeffrey K; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S

    2015-08-18

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  8. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Lefrois, R.T.; Knowles, G.R.; Mathur, A.K.; Budimir, J.

    1979-02-01

    The report describes active heat exchange concepts for use with thermal energy storage systems in the temperature range of 250/sup 0/C to 350/sup 0/C, using the heat of fusion of molten salts for storing thermal energy. It identifies over 25 novel techniques for active heat exchange thermal energy storage systems. Salt mixtures that freeze and melt in appropriate ranges are identified and are evaluated for physico-chemical, economic, corrosive and safety characteristics. Eight active heat exchange concepts for heat transfer during solidification are conceived and conceptually designed for use with selected storage media. The concepts are analyzed for their scalability, maintenance, safety, technological development and costs. A model for estimating and scaling storage system costs is developed and is used for economic evaluation of salt mixtures and heat exchange concepts for a large scale application. The importance of comparing salts and heat exchange concepts on a total system cost basis, rather than the component cost basis alone, is pointed out. Comparison of these costs with current state-of-the-art systems should be avoided due to significant differences in developmental status. The heat exchange concepts were sized and compared for 6.5 MPa/281/sup 0/C steam conditions and a 1000 MW(t) heat rate for six hours. A cost sensitivity analysis for other design conditions is also carried out. The study resulted in the selection of a shell and coated-tube heat exchanger concept and a direct contact-reflux boiler heat exchange concept. For the storage medium, a dilute eutectic mixture of 99 wt % NaNO/sub 3/ and 1 wt % NaOH is selected for use in experimenting with the selected heat exchanger concepts in subsequent tasks.

  9. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    As with their macroscopic counterparts, the moving parts of nanoscale protein machines grow hot while in operation. A portion of the energy biomolecules harness to perform meaningful work is always dissipated as heat into the surroundings. Here, we feature a methodology by which dominant dissipative trajectories can be extracted from detailed models of protein dynamics. In two important classes of signaling proteins [kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs)], we find that the regions o...

  10. Activation experiments on vanadium alloy NIFS-HEAT-2

    In the present study, activation analysis of impurities and evaluation of activation properties were performed on NIFS-HEAT-2 by DT neutron irradiation at FNS facility. Similar analysis and evaluation were performed on US and Chinese V-4Cr-Ti samples for comparison. For impurity analysis and direct evaluation of activation properties of vanadium alloys, activation experiments with DT neutron irradiations were performed on NIFS-HEAT-2 and Round-Robin samples from the US and China. Eight nuclides of 24Na, 28Al, 54Mn, 56Mn, 57Co, 58Co, 89Zr and 92mNb were identified form analysis of the gamma peaks and concentrations of Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zr, Nb and Mo were evaluated. It was confirmed that the concentration of Al in NIFS-HEAT-2, which is harmful for low activation property, was lower than the criteria required for recycling of used material after reactor shutdown. The results were almost consistent with those by chemical analysis. Until ∼8 months after irradiation, significant influence of impurities was not observed in the decay heat measurement. Results of decay heat measurement with the Whole Energy Absorption Spectrometer and those of calculation with MNCP-4C, ACT-4 and JENDL Activation File were consistent within ∼ 15%. Activation calculation considering impurity concentrations from the present analysis indicated that decay heat of 60Co transmuted from Ni impurity will be dominant ∼6 years after irradiation. (author)

  11. Oxidative Activity of Heated Coal Affected by Antypirogens

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Borovikov, I. F.; Yakutova, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of antypirogens on chemical activity of heated coal is studied. It is proved that ammonium sulfate, calcium phosphate, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and acid fluoride are the most effective antypirogens.

  12. Balloons and Bottles: Activities on Air-Sea Heat Exchange.

    Murphree, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to demonstrate how heating and cooling an air mass affects its temperature, volume, density, and pressure. Illustrates how thermal energy can cause atmospheric motion such as expansion, contraction, and winds. (Author/WRM)

  13. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    Nasol, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  14. Active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger - experimental results for heat transfer and concept for high pressure steam

    Zipf, Verena; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    An innovative active latent heat storage concept was invented and developed at Fraunhofer ISE. It uses a screw heat exchanger (SHE) for the phase change during the transport of a phase change material (PCM) from a cold to a hot tank or vice versa. This separates heat transfer and storage tank in comparison to existing concepts. A test rig has been built in order to investigate the heat transfer coefficients of the SHE during melting and crystallization of the PCM. The knowledge of these characteristics is crucial in order to assess the performance of the latent heat storage in a thermal system. The test rig contains a double shafted SHE, which is heated or cooled with thermal oil. The overall heat transfer coefficient U and the convective heat transfer coefficient on the PCM side hPCM both for charging and discharging have been calculated based on the measured data. For charging, the overall heat transfer coefficient in the tested SHE was Uch = 308 W/m2K and for discharging Udis = 210 W/m2K. Based on the values for hPCM the overall heat transfer coefficients for a larger SHE with steam as heat transfer fluid and an optimized geometry were calculated with Uch = 320 W/m2K for charging and Udis = 243 W/m2K for discharging. For pressures as high as p = 100 bar, an SHE concept has been developed, which uses an organic fluid inside the flight of the SHE as working media. With this concept, the SHE can also be deployed for very high pressure, e.g. as storage in solar thermal power plants.

  15. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Lefrois, R. T.; Knowles, G. R.; Mathur, A. K.; Budimir, J.

    1979-01-01

    Active heat exchange concepts for use with thermal energy storage systems in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C, using the heat of fusion of molten salts for storing thermal energy are described. Salt mixtures that freeze and melt in appropriate ranges are identified and are evaluated for physico-chemical, economic, corrosive and safety characteristics. Eight active heat exchange concepts for heat transfer during solidification are conceived and conceptually designed for use with selected storage media. The concepts are analyzed for their scalability, maintenance, safety, technological development and costs. A model for estimating and scaling storage system costs is developed and is used for economic evaluation of salt mixtures and heat exchange concepts for a large scale application. The importance of comparing salts and heat exchange concepts on a total system cost basis, rather than the component cost basis alone, is pointed out. The heat exchange concepts were sized and compared for 6.5 MPa/281 C steam conditions and a 1000 MW(t) heat rate for six hours. A cost sensitivity analysis for other design conditions is also carried out.

  16. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  17. Heating of active region cores: Impulsive or steady?

    Tripathi, Durgesh

    The question of active region heating has proven to be highly challenging since its discovery in 1940s. The recent observational facilities have shed new lights towards the understanding of this problem. In this paper we review some of the new measurements to study the heating mechanisms in the hot core loops of active regions using the observations recorded by Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) onboard SoHO and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard Hinode. These new measurements show that the properties of hot core loops are consistent with by impulsive heating -- low frequency nanoflare - scenario. However, the evidences are not strong enough to rule-out steady heating completely. Further measurement using better spectral resolution and temperature coverage is required, which will be provided by Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) and Solar-C in near future.

  18. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...

  19. Experimental research on a CFCs free thermally activated heat pump

    This paper deals with test results of a new type of Thermally Activated Heat Pump (TAHP) based on the highly efficient Vuilleumier cycle using helium gas as its refrigerant and natural gas as fuel of its external system. These test results show that, in addition to being CFCs free, this heat pump brings about lower CO2 and NOx emissions. (TEC). 7 figs., 6 refs

  20. Heat and mass flux estimation of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity

    ZHAI Shikui; WANG Xingtao; YU Zenghui

    2006-01-01

    Research on heat and mass flux yielded by modern seafloor hydrothermal activity is very important, because it is involved not only in the base of ocean environment research, but also in the historical evolution of seawater properties. Currently, estimating heat flux is based on the observation data of hydrothermal smokers, low-temperature diffusive flow and mid-ocean ridge mainly. But there are some faults, for example, there is lack of a concurrent conductive item in estimating the heat flux by smokers and the error between the half-space cooling model and the observation data is too large. So, three kinds of methods are applied to re-estimating the heat flux of hydrothermal activity resepectively, corresponding estimation is 97.359 GW by hydrothermal smoker and diffusive flow, 84.895 GW by hydrothermal plume, and 4.11 TW by exponential attenuation method put forward by this paper. Research on mass flux estimation is relatively rare, the main reason for this is insufficient field observation data. Mass fluxes of different elements are calculated using hydrothermal vent fluid data from the TAG hydrothermal area on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge for the first time. Difference of estimations by different methods reflects the researching extent of hydrothermal activity, and systematically in-situ observation will help to estimate the contribution of hydrothermal activity to ocean chemical environment, ocean circulation and global climate precisely.

  1. Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support

    Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-08

    We report that even under the heated condition, the conformation and activity of a protein can be hoarded in a functionalized nanoporous support via non-covalent interaction, although the hoarded protein was not exhibiting the full protein activity, the protein released subsequently still maintained its native conformation and activity. Glucose oxidase (GOX) was spontaneously and largely entrapped in aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-FMS) at 20 oC via a dominant electrostatic interaction. Although FMS-GOX displayed 45% activity of the free enzyme in solution, the GOX released from FMS exhibited its 100% activity prior to the entrapment. Surprisingly, the released GOX from FMS still maintained 89% of its initial activity prior to the entrapment after FMS-GOX was incubated at 60 oC for 1 h prior to release, while the free GOX in solution lost nearly all activity under the same incubation. Intrinsic fluorescence emission of GOX and native electrophoresis demonstrated that the heating resulted in significant conformational changes and oligomeric structures of the free GOX, but FMS efficiently maintained the thermal stability of GOX therein and resisted the thermal denaturation and oligomeric aggregation.

  2. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications.

    Yang, Fugui; Li, Ming; Gao, Lidan; Sheng, Weifan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-06-15

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as the subnanometer scale and that the variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a one-dimensional surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach toward effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques. PMID:27304296

  3. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications

    Yang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities, because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as sub-nanometer scale, and that variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach towards effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.

  4. Effects of heat-activated persulfate oxidation on soil microorganisms

    Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Smets, Barth F.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2008-01-01

    The effects of heat-activated persulfate on indigenous microorganisms and microcosms augmented with Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were studied in laboratory batch reactors with aquifer material. Microscopic enumeration was used to measure the changes in cell density, and acetate consumption was used to....../L). The results emphasize the necessity of using multiple toxicity assays and indigenous cultures in order to realistically assess the potential effects of in situ chemical oxidation on soil microorganisms. A comparison to other studies suggests that the effects of activated persulfate on soil...

  5. [Physical activity in the heat: physiology of hydration recommendations].

    Koulmann, N; Banzet, S; Bigard, A X

    2003-01-01

    Physical exercise in the heat causes severe disturbances in homeostasis. The need for evaporative thermolysis is increased due to the combination of endogenous and exogenous heat production. Despite a marked increase in cardiac output, muscles and skin must compete for sufficient blood flow. In addition progressive dehydration can impair the ability of the cardiocirculatory to adjust adequately. The most serious risk associated with exercise in a hot environment is heat stroke. Although deleterious effects of dehydration occur only if large amounts of water and electrolytes are lost without being replaced, even moderate fluid depletion can reduce both physical and cognitive performance. Another mechanism by which heat exposure directly affects performance involves core temperature elevation which can induce profound changes in muscular activity and energy consumption, thereby accelerating exhaustion. Prevention of deleterious effects on health and performance requires an effective rehydration strategy to maintain body fluid balance. This strategy must optimize all three potentially limiting factors for fluid replacement, i.e., fluid intake, gastric emptying, and intestinal absorption. Practical guidelines are given to answer the questions of when, what and how much to drink. PMID:15077428

  6. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods:Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC). The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata). Results:Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00) mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67) mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67) mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67) mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P Conclusions:To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  7. DNA polymerase activity in heat killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization of mammalian cells as observed after fractionated heat treatments.

    Jorritsma, J B; Burgman, P; Kampinga, H H; Konings, A W

    1986-03-01

    Possible relations between hyperthermic inactivation of alpha and beta DNA polymerase activity and hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization were investigated. Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) cells and HeLa S3 cells were treated with fractionated doses of hyperthermia. The heating schedules were chosen such that the initial heat treatment resulted in either thermotolerance or thermosensitization (step-down heating) for the second heat treatment. The results show that for DNA polymerase activity and heat radiosensitization (cell survival) no thermotolerance or thermosensitization is observed. Thus hyperthermic cell killing and DNA polymerase activity are not correlated. The correlation of hyperthermic radiosensitization and DNA polymerase activity was substantially less than observed in previous experiments with normotolerant and thermotolerant HeLa S3 cells. We conclude that alpha and beta DNA polymerase inactivation is not always the critical cellular process responsible for hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization. Other possible cellular systems that might determine these processes are discussed. PMID:3754338

  8. DNA polymerase activity in heat killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization of mammalian cells as observed after fractionated heat treatments

    Jorritsma, J.B.; Burgman, P.; Kampinga, H.H.; Konings, A.W.

    1986-03-01

    Possible relations between hyperthermic inactivation of alpha and beta DNA polymerase activity and hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization were investigated. Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) cells and HeLa S3 cells were treated with fractionated doses of hyperthermia. The heating schedules were chosen such that the initial heat treatment resulted in either thermotolerance or thermosensitization (step-down heating) for the second heat treatment. The results show that for DNA polymerase activity and heat radiosensitization (cell survival) no thermotolerance or thermosensitization is observed. Thus hyperthermic cell killing and DNA polymerase activity are not correlated. The correlation of hyperthermic radiosensitization and DNA polymerase activity was substantially less than observed in previous experiments with normotolerant and thermotolerant HeLa S3 cells. We conclude that alpha and beta DNA polymerase inactivation is not always the critical cellular process responsible for hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization. Other possible cellular systems that might determine these processes are discussed.

  9. Active thermal insulation for induction heating of specific metal parts

    Ulrych, B.; Kotlan, V.; Doležel, Ivo

    Plzeň : University of West Bohemia, 2011, s. 3-4. ISBN 978-80-7043-993-7. [AMTEE’11- Advanced Methods of the Theory of Electrical Engineering. Klatovy (CZ), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0498; GA ČR GA102/09/1305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : active thermal insulation * induction heating * temperature field Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://amtee.zcu.cz/AMTEE/Default.aspx

  10. Changes of spontaneous oscillatory activity to tonic heat pain.

    Weiwei Peng

    Full Text Available Transient painful stimuli could induce suppression of alpha oscillatory activities and enhancement of gamma oscillatory activities that also could be greatly modulated by attention. Here, we attempted to characterize changes in cortical activities during tonic heat pain perception and investigated the influence of directed/distracted attention on these responses. We collected 5-minute long continuous Electroencephalography (EEG data from 38 healthy volunteers during four conditions presented in a counterbalanced order: (A resting condition; (B innoxious-distracted condition; (C noxious-distracted condition; (D noxious-attended condition. The effects of tonic heat pain stimulation and selective attention on oscillatory activities were investigated by comparing the EEG power spectra among the four experimental conditions and assessing the relationship between spectral power difference and subjective pain intensity. The change of oscillatory activities in condition D was characterized by stable and persistent decrease of alpha oscillation power over contralateral-central electrodes and widespread increase of gamma oscillation power, which were even significantly correlated with subjective pain intensity. Since EEG responses in the alpha and gamma frequency band were affected by attention in different manners, they are likely related to different aspects of the multidimensional sensory experience of pain. The observed contralateral-central alpha suppression (conditions D vs. B and D vs. C may reflect primarily a top-down cognitive process such as attention, while the widespread gamma enhancement (conditions D vs. A may partly reflect tonic pain processing, representing the summary effects of bottom-up stimulus-related and top-down subject-driven cognitive processes.

  11. Heat Exchanger Anchors for Thermo-active Tunnels

    Mimouni, Thomas; Dupray, Fabrice; Minon, Sophie; LALOUI, Lyesse

    2013-01-01

    Shallow geothermal power represents an important energy resource for the heating and cooling of the buildings. Due to relatively low temperature levels encountered at shallow depths in the soil, between 10°C and 20°C, heat pumps are required to process the extracted heat, forming the so called ground source heat pump system. Different types of heat exchangers with the ground were developed in order to optimize the heat exchanges, from simple geothermal loops grouted in boreholes reaching dept...

  12. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Moussa Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods: Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC. The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata. Results: Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00 mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67 mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67 mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67 mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P<0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that the TPC and colour is not correlated with the antimycotic capacity. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  13. Protein kinase A binds and activates heat shock factor 1.

    Ayesha Murshid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many inducible transcription factors are regulated through batteries of posttranslational modifications that couple their activity to inducing stimuli. We have studied such regulation of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1, a key protein in control of the heat shock response, and a participant in carcinogenisis, neurological health and aging. As the mechanisms involved in the intracellular regulation of HSF1 in good health and its dysregulation in disease are still incomplete we are investigating the role of posttranslational modifications in such regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a proteomic study of HSF1 binding partners, we have discovered its association with the pleiotropic protein kinase A (PKA. HSF1 binds avidly to the catalytic subunit of PKA, (PKAcα and becomes phosphorylated on a novel serine phosphorylation site within its central regulatory domain (serine 320 or S320, both in vitro and in vivo. Intracellular PKAcα levels and phosphorylation of HSF1 at S320 were both required for HSF1 to be localized to the nucleus, bind to response elements in the promoter of an HSF1 target gene (hsp70.1 and activate hsp70.1 after stress. Reduction in PKAcα levels by small hairpin RNA led to HSF1 exclusion from the nucleus, its exodus from the hsp70.1 promoter and decreased hsp70.1 transcription. Likewise, null mutation of HSF1 at S320 by alanine substitution for serine led to an HSF1 species excluded from the nucleus and deficient in hsp70.1 activation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings of PKA regulation of HSF1 through S320 phosphorylation add to our knowledge of the signaling networks converging on this factor and may contribute to elucidating its complex roles in the stress response and understanding HSF1 dysregulation in disease.

  14. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including 60Co, 95Zr, 124Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  15. Infrared micro-thermography of an actively heated preconcentrator device

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, C. A.; Stepnowski, Stanley V.; Mott, David R.; McGill, R. Andrew

    2008-03-01

    We report infrared micro-thermography measurements and analysis of static and transient temperature maps of an actively heated micro-fabricated preconcentrator device that incorporates a dual serpentine platinum heater trace deposited on a perforated polyimide membrane and suspended over a silicon frame. The sorbent coated perforated membrane is used to collect vapors and gases that flow through the preconcentrator. After heating, a concentrated pulse of analyte is released into the detector. Due to its small thermal mass, precise thermal management of the preconcentrator is critical to its performance. The sizes of features, the semi-transparent membrane, the need to flow air through the device, and changes in surface emissivity on a micron scale present many challenges for traditional infrared micro-thermography. We report an improved experimental test-bed. The hardware incorporates a custom-designed miniature calibration oven which, in conjunction with spatial filtering and a simple calibration algorithm, allows accurate temperature maps to be obtained. The test-bed incorporates a micro-bolometer array as the infrared imager. Instrumentation design, calibration and image processing algorithms are discussed and analyzed. The procedure does not require prior knowledge of the emissivity. We show that relatively inexpensive uncooled bolometers arrays can be used in certain radiometric applications. Heating profiles were examined with both uniform and non-uniform air flow through the device. The conclusions from this study provide critical information for optimal integration of the preconcentrator within a detection system, and in the design of the heater trace layout to achieve a more even temperature distribution across the device.

  16. Active solar heating and cooling information user study

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  17. Sawtooth Activity in Ohmically Heated Plasma on HT-7 Tokamak

    2001-01-01

    Sawtooth activity on HT-7 tokamak has been investigated experimentally mainly by using soft x-ray diode array and magnetic probes. Their behaviors and occurrences are correlatedclosely to the discharge conditions: the electron density Ne, the electron temperature Te, the safetyfactor qa on plasma boundary and wall condition etc. When central line-averaged electron densityNe(0) is over 2.0×1013cm-3, major sawtooth activity emerges with a period of up to 6.5 ms and afluctuation amplitude of up to 2~30 % of SXR radiation signal. In some cases such as the safetyfactor between 4.2~4.7 and Zeff=3.0~6.0, a monster sawtooth activity often emerges withoutapparent deterioration of plasma confinement and without major disruption. During these events,abundant MHD phenomena are observed including partial sawtooth oscillations. In this paper, theobserved sawtooth behaviors and their dependence on the and their dependence density Ne andwall condition in ohmically heated plasma are introduced, the results are discussed and presented.

  18. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  19. Stress-Specific Activation and Repression of Heat Shock Factors 1 and 2

    Mathew, Anu; Mathur, Sameer K.; Jolly, Caroline; Fox, Susan G.; Kim, Soojin; Richard I Morimoto

    2001-01-01

    Vertebrate cells express a family of heat shock transcription factors (HSF1 to HSF4) that coordinate the inducible regulation of heat shock genes in response to diverse signals. HSF1 is potent and activated rapidly though transiently by heat shock, whereas HSF2 is a less active transcriptional regulator but can retain its DNA binding properties for extended periods. Consequently, the differential activation of HSF1 and HSF2 by various stresses may be critical for cells to survive repeated and...

  20. Degradation of Biochemical Activity in Soil Sterilized by Dry Heat and Gamma Radiation

    Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

  1. The Chemistry of Self-Heating Food Products: An Activity for Classroom Engagement

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Two commercial self-heating food products have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and heat transfer in a classroom activity. These products are the self-heating beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…

  2. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    Tang, Wei [ORNL; Chen, Gaoqiang [ORNL; Chen, Jian [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zone mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.

  3. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Pengkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggested that heat treatment does not adversely affect SOD or DNase activity, polysaccharide content, or cordycepin dissolution. Thus, heat treatment might be a safe processing method to extend the storage time of wild C. sinensis without compromising biological activity.

  4. Numerical model of heat conduction in active volcanoes induced by magmatic activity

    Atmojo, Antono Arif; Rosandi, Yudi

    2015-09-01

    We study the heat transfer mechanism of active volcanoes using the numerical thermal conduction model. A 2D model of volcano with its conduit filled by magma is considered, and acts as a constant thermal source. The temperature of the magma activity diffuses through the rock layers of the mountain to the surface. The conduction equation is solved using finite-difference method, with some adaptations to allow temperature to flow through different materials. Our model allows to simulate volcanoes having dikes, branch-pipes, and sills by constructing the domain appropriately, as well as layers with different thermal properties. Our research will show the possibility to monitor magma activity underneath a volcano by probing its surface temperature. The result of our work will be very useful for further study of volcanoes, eruption prediction, and volcanic disaster mitigation.

  5. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  6. Heat-activated Plasmonic Chemical Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Carpenter, Michael [SUNY Polytechnic Inst., Albany, NY (United States); Oh, Sang-Hyun [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A passive plasmonics based chemical sensing system to be used in harsh operating environments was investigated and developed within this program. The initial proposed technology was based on combining technologies developed at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) and at the University of Minnesota (UM). Specifically, a passive wireless technique developed at UM was to utilize a heat-activated plasmonic design to passively harvest the thermal energy from within a combustion emission stream and convert this into a narrowly focused light source. This plasmonic device was based on a bullseye design patterned into a gold film using focused ion beam methods (FIB). Critical to the design was the use of thermal stabilizing under and overlayers surrounding the gold film. These stabilizing layers were based on both atomic layer deposited films as well as metal laminate layers developed by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS). While the bullseye design was never able to be thermally stabilized for operating temperatures of 500oC or higher, an alternative energy harvesting design was developed by CNSE within this program. With this new development, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The method was further improved by patterning rods which harvested energy in the near infrared, which led to a factor of 10 decrease in data acquisition times as well as demonstrated selectivity with a reduced wavelength data set. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting

  7. Visible light active photocatalyst from recycled disposable heating pads

    Lee, Meng-Chien; Wang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Che-Chin; Wang, Chih-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-Fe2O3 (α-Fe2O3) is cheap and abundant and has potential to be a highly efficient photocatalyst for water splitting. According to the report, there are a huge amount of disposable heating pads being created every year, and the pads are used one time then thrown away. We found that the main product of used heating pads is α-Fe2O3. Here, we collect and purify the α-Fe2O3 powder in the used heating pads using low power consumption processes. It is shown that the recycled heating pads can be used as a cost-effective photocatalyst for H2 energy and for decomposition of organic pollutants as well. Additionally, the plasmonic enhanced photocatalysis reaction of α-Fe2O3 is also investigated. It is found that H2 evolution rate can be enhanced 15% using α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with a thin Au layer. The degradation of methylene blue can also enhance 12% compared to photocatalyst α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated without Au layer.

  8. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  9. Active solar heating system performance and data review

    Bates, J.; Bertarelli, L.; Schmidt, G.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the performance and costs of solar heating systems in Europe, and their relevance to systems in the UK. Details are given of the identification and review of the available data, the collection of information on UK and overseas systems, and the assessment and analysis of the data. Appendices give a lists of the monitored parameters, European contacts, data sources, the questionnaire for gathering information, and a printout of the data files. (uk)

  10. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    When organisms are exposed to an increase in temperature, they undergo a heat shock response (HSR) regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1). The heat shock response includes the rapid changes in gene expression initiated by binding of HSF-1 to response elements in the promoters of heat shock genes. Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect proteins during periods of elevated temperature and other stress. During infection, hookworm infective third stage larvae (L3) undergo a temperature shift from ambient to host temperature. This increased temperature is required for the resumption of feeding and activation of L3, but whether this increase initiates a heat shock response is unknown. To investigate the role of the heat shock in hookworm L3 activation and parasitic development, we identified and characterized the expression profile of several components of the heat shock response in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. We cloned DNAs encoding an hsp70 family member (Aca-hsp-1) and an hsp90 family member (Aca-daf-21). Exposure to a heat shock of 42°C for one hour caused significant up-regulation of both genes, which slowly returned to near baseline levels following one hour attenuation at 22°C. Neither gene was up-regulated in response to host temperature (37°C). Conversely, levels of hsf-1 remained unchanged during heat shock, but increased in response to incubation at 37°C. During activation, both hsp-1 and daf-21 are down regulated early, although daf-21 levels increase significantly in non-activated control larvae after 12h, and slightly in activated larvae by 24h incubation. The heat shock response modulators celastrol and KNK437 were tested for their effects on gene expression during heat shock and activation. Pre-incubation with celastrol, an HSP90 inhibitor that promotes heat shock gene expression, slightly up-regulated expression of both hsp-1 and daf-21 during heat shock. KNK437, an inhibitor of heat shock

  11. Status report on preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    1978-05-01

    Information presented provides status and progress on the development of solar heating and cooling systems. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities as part of the contract requirements.

  12. Heating and active control of profiles and transport by IBW in the HT-7 tokamak

    Significant progress on Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating and control of profiles has been obtained in HT-7. Both on-axis and off-axis electron heating with global peaked and local steep electron pressure profiles were realized if the position of the resonant layer was selected to be plasma far from the plasma edge region. Reduction of electron heat transport has been observed from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Improvement of both particle and energy confinement was slight in the on-axis and considerable in the off-axis heating cases. The improved confinement in off-axis heating mode may be due to the extension of the high performance plasma volume caused by IBW. These studies demonstrate that IBWs are potentially a tool for active control of plasma profiles and transport. (author)

  13. Role of heat shock factor-1 activation in the doxorubicin-induced heart failure in mice

    Vedam, Kaushik; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Khan, Mahmood; Moldovan, Nicanor I.; Zweier, Jay L.; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2010-01-01

    Treating cancer patients with chemotherapeutics, such as doxorubicin (Dox), cause dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure because of oxidative stress. On the other hand, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a transcription factor for heat shock proteins (Hsps), is also known to be activated in response to oxidative stress. However, the possible role of HSF-1 activation and the resultant Hsp25 in chemotherapeutic-induced heart failure has not been investigated. Using HSF-1 wild-type (HSF-1...

  14. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m2 and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust

  15. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Wang, L., E-mail: lwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Guo, H.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Li, J.; Wan, B.N.; Gong, X.Z.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Xu, G.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luo, G.N.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.Q.; Gan, K.F.; Liu, S.C.; Wang, H.Q.; Chen, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m{sup 2} and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust.

  16. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Pengkai Wu; Zhi Tao; Huafeng Liu; Guixiang Jiang; Changhua Ma; Chunmei Wang; Di Geng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current methods of extending the storage time of wild Cordyceps sinensis adversely affect the nutritive and medicinal value of the product. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of heat treatment, a relatively safe storage extension method, on the biological activity of wild C. sinensis. Methods: Samples were heated to 60, 80, or 100°C for 15, 30, or 60 minutes. SOD activity in wild C. sinensis before and after heating was assayed using a standard colorimetri...

  17. Innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system for simultaneous heating and cooling of office buildings

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the energy savings potential of an innovative two-pipe system in an active chilled beam application for heating and cooling of office buildings. The characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling by transferring...... heating, cooling and ventilation loads were calculated by the program and an annual energy consumption evaluation of the system was made. Simulation results showed that the innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system used approximately 5% less energy than a conventional four-pipe system....

  18. Monster Sawtooth Activity in Ohmically Heated HT-7 Plasma

    胡立群; 石跃江; 刘胜侠

    2001-01-01

    Experimental properties of monster sawtooth activities in ohmic HT-7 plasma are presented in this paper. The monster sawtooth activities belong to global fluctuations and are characterized with a series of large core collapses on SXR intensity traces with a long period, a large amplitude fluctuation and a large inversion radius. However, they emerge without apparent deterioration of plasma confinement and without major plasma disruption. During the events,long partial sawtooth collapses and abundant MHD phenomena are also observed.

  19. Effects of Different Catalytic Activation Techniques on the Thermal Performance of Flip Chip Heat Spreader

    This paper presents the effects of two different catalytic activation techniques on the thermal performance of flip chip heat spreaders. Electroless nickel plating is used as a plating technique as it can form a uniform thickness of nickel layer onto the copper substrate. Catalytic activation process needs to be done first to deposit some nickel atom onto copper substrate, so that the deposited nickel is able to catalyze the following reduction process. The two activation techniques investigated are galvanic initiation and thin nickel-copper strike. High temperature storage tests were ran to investigate the extent of intermetallic diffusion between the nickel and copper layers. Thermal diffusivity of these heat spreaders was studied using the Nano-flash apparatus. The results obtained showed that heat spreaders processed with thin nickel copper strike have lower thermal diffusivities (35-65 mm2 s-1) compared to those heat spreaders processed with galvanic-initiation (60-85 mm2 s-1). It is also discovered that the nickel-copper intermetallic layers of these heat spreaders grew thicker from 0.2 μm at initial time until 0.55 μm after high temperature storage of 168 hours. Nickel-copper intermetallic layers have lower thermal conductivity compared to pure copper, this further degrading the thermal diffusivity of these heat spreaders. As a conclusion, the galvanic initiation technique provides better thermal performance for heat spreaders used in semiconductor package. (author)

  20. Ethnic differences in thermoregulatory responses during resting, passive and active heating: application of Werner's adaptation model.

    Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    For the coherent understanding of heat acclimatization in tropical natives, we compared ethnic differences between tropical and temperate natives during resting, passive and active heating conditions. Experimental protocols included: (1) a resting condition (an air temperature of 28°C with 50% RH), (2) a passive heating condition (28°C with 50% RH; leg immersion in a hot tub at a water temperature of 42°C), and (3) an active heating condition (32°C with 70% RH; a bicycle exercise). Morphologically and physically matched tropical natives (ten Malaysian males, MY) and temperate natives (ten Japanese males, JP) participated in all three trials. The results saw that: tropical natives had a higher resting rectal temperature and lower hand and foot temperatures at rest, smaller rise of rectal temperature and greater temperature rise in bodily extremities, and a lower sensation of thirst during passive and active heating than the matched temperate natives. It is suggested that tropical natives' homeostasis during heating is effectively controlled with the improved stability in internal body temperature and the increased capability of vascular circulation in extremities, with a lower thirst sensation. The enhanced stability of internal body temperature and the extended thermoregulatory capability of vascular circulation in the extremities of tropical natives can be interpreted as an interactive change to accomplish a thermal dynamic equilibrium in hot environments. These heat adaptive traits were explained by Wilder's law of initial value and Werner's process and controller adaptation model. PMID:21437607

  1. Thermo Active Building Systems – Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany...... multistory buildings. By activating the building mass, there is a direct heating-cooling effect. Also, because of the thermal mass, the peak load will be reduced and some of the cooling load will be transferred beyond the time of occupancy. Because these systems for cooling operate at water temperatures...... close to room temperature, they increase the efficiency of heat pumps, ground heat exchangers and other systems using renewable energy sources....

  2. A novel heat flux study of a geothermally active lake - Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand

    Tivey, Maurice A.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Walker, Sharon L.; Fornari, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    A new technique for measuring conductive heat flux in a lake was adapted from the marine environment to allow for multiple measurements to be made in areas where bottom sediment cover is sparse, or even absent. This thermal blanket technique, pioneered in the deep ocean for use in volcanic mid-ocean rift environments, was recently used in the geothermally active Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand. Heat flow from the lake floor propagates into the 0.5 m diameter blanket and establishes a thermal gradient across the known blanket thickness and thereby provides an estimate of the conductive heat flux of the underlying terrain. This approach allows conductive heat flux to be measured over a spatially dense set of stations in a relatively short period of time. We used 10 blankets and deployed them for 1 day each to complete 110 stations over an 11-day program in the 6 × 3 km lake. Results show that Lake Rotomahana has a total conductive heat flux of about 47 MW averaging 6 W/m2 over the geothermally active lake. The western half of the lake has two main areas of high heat flux; 1) a high heat flux area averaging 21.3 W/m2 along the western shoreline, which is likely the location of the pre-existing geothermal system that fed the famous Pink Terraces, mostly destroyed during the 1886 eruption 2) a region southwest of Patiti Island with a heat flux averaging 13.1 W/m2 that appears to be related to the explosive rift that formed the lake in the 1886 Tarawera eruption. A small rise in bottom water temperature over the survey period of 0.01 °C/day suggests the total thermal output of the lake is ~ 112-132 MW and when compared to the conductive heat output suggests that 18-42% of the total thermal energy is by conductive heat transfer.

  3. Effects of calmodulin on DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor in vitro

    2003-01-01

    The DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor (HSF) was induced by heat shock (HS) of a whole cell extract. Addition of antiserum, specific to CaM, to a whole cell extract reduced bind of the HSF to the heat shock element (HSE) with maize, and the re-addition of CaM to the sample restored the activity of the HSF for binding to HSE. In addition, DNA-binding activity of the HSF was also induced by directly adding CaM to a whole cell extract at non-HS temperature with maize. Similar results were obtained with wheat and tomato. Our observations provide the first example of the involvement of CaM in regulation of the DNA-binding activity of the HSF.

  4. Determination of antigenicity by radioimmunoassay and of trypsin inhibitory activities in heat or enzyme denatured ovomucoid

    The effects of heat treatment and enzymic digestion on the antigenic reactivity of ovomucoid were studied. This reactivity was mainly examined by a solid phase competitive radioimmunoassay. The trypsin inhibitory activity was also measured to elucidate its relationship to the antigenic reactivity. The antigenic reactivity and trypsin inhibitory activity diminished in parallel with increase of heating time. However, enzymic digestion caused a more rapid decrease in antigenic reactivity than in trypsin inhibitory activity. From these results, it is suggested that the structure of the antigenic determinants is destroyed in a similar manner to that of the trypsin inhibitory active site when ovomucoid is heated, while the former structure is destroyed more easily than the latter by enzymic digestion

  5. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  6. A Joule-Heated Melter Technology For The Treatment And Immobilization Of Low-Activity Waste

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  7. Procedure of Active Residual Heat Removal after Emergency Shutdown of High-Temperature-Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Xingtuan Yang; Yanfei Sun; Huaiming Ju; Shengyao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    After emergency shutdown of high-temperature-gas-cooled reactor, the residual heat of the reactor core should be removed. As the natural circulation process spends too long period of time to be utilized, an active residual heat removal procedure is needed, which makes use of steam generator and start-up loop. During this procedure, the structure of steam generator may suffer cold/heat shock because of the sudden load of coolant or hot helium at the first few minutes. Transient analysis was ca...

  8. How a retrotransposon exploits the plant's heat stress response for its activation.

    Vladimir V Cavrak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons are major components of plant and animal genomes. They amplify by reverse transcription and reintegration into the host genome but their activity is usually epigenetically silenced. In plants, genomic copies of retrotransposons are typically associated with repressive chromatin modifications installed and maintained by RNA-directed DNA methylation. To escape this tight control, retrotransposons employ various strategies to avoid epigenetic silencing. Here we describe the mechanism developed by ONSEN, an LTR-copia type retrotransposon in Arabidopsis thaliana. ONSEN has acquired a heat-responsive element recognized by plant-derived heat stress defense factors, resulting in transcription and production of full length extrachromosomal DNA under elevated temperatures. Further, the ONSEN promoter is free of CG and CHG sites, and the reduction of DNA methylation at the CHH sites is not sufficient to activate the element. Since dividing cells have a more pronounced heat response, the extrachromosomal ONSEN DNA, capable of reintegrating into the genome, accumulates preferentially in the meristematic tissue of the shoot. The recruitment of a major plant heat shock transcription factor in periods of heat stress exploits the plant's heat stress response to achieve the transposon's activation, making it impossible for the host to respond appropriately to stress without losing control over the invader.

  9. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT. PMID:24645431

  10. A correction factor to f-chart predictions of active solar fraction in active-passive heating systems

    Evans, B. L.; Beckman, W. A.; Duffie, J. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Klein, S. A.

    1983-11-01

    The extent to which a passive system degrades the performance of an active solar space heating system was investigated, and a correction factor to account for these interactions was developed. The transient system simulation program TRNSYS is used to simulate the hour-by-hour performance of combined active-passive (hybrid) space heating systems in order to compare the active system performance with simplified design method predictions. The TRNSYS simulations were compared to results obtained using the simplified design calculations of the f-Chart method. Comparisons of TRNSYS and f-Chart were used to establish the accuracy of the f-Charts for active systems. A correlation was then developed to correct the monthly loads input into the f-Chart method to account for controller deadbands in both hybrid and active only buildings. A general correction factor was generated to be applied to the f-Chart method to produce more accurate and useful results for hybrid systems.

  11. Evaluation of the heat-storage capability of shallow aquifers using active heat tracer tests and Fiber-Optics Distributed-Temperature-Sensing

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Chirila, Marian Andrei; Bumberger, Jan; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In the course of the energy transition, geothermal energy storage and heat generation and cooling have proven to be environmental friendly alternatives to conventional energy. However, to ensure sustain usage, the heat transport behavior of aquifers and its distribution has to be studied. A tool to achieve this is the active heat tracer test, eg. Leaf et al. (2012). If active heat tracer tests are combined with in aquifer heat testing via electric heating-cables, eg. Liu et al. (2013), it is possible to observe heat transport and temperature signal decay without disturbing the original pressure field within the aquifer. In this field study a two channel High-Resolution-Fiber-Optic-Distributed-Temperature-Sensing and Pt100 were used to measure temperature signals within in two wells of 1.4 m distance, where the temperature difference was generated using a self regulating heating cable in the upstream well. High resolution Distributed-Temperature-Sensing measurements were achieved by coiling the fiber around screened plastic tubes. The upstream well was also used to observe heating (Δ Tmax approx. 24K) and temperature signal decay, while the downstream well was used to observe heat transport between both wells. The data was analyzed and compared to thermal conductivity of soil samples and Direct-Push (DP) Electrical-Conductivity-Logging and DP Hydraulic-Profiling results. The results show good agreement between DP data and temperature measurements proving the active heat tracer test is a suitable tool for providing reliable information on aquifer heat-storage capability. References Leaf, A.T., Hart, D.J., Bahr, J.M.: Active Thermal Tracer Tests for Improved Hydrostratigraphic Characterization. Ground Water, vol. 50, 2012 Liu, G., Knobbe, S., Butler, J.J.Jr.: Resolving centimeter-scale flows in aquifers and their hydrostratigraphic controls. Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 40, 2013

  12. Heat and Dust in Active Layers of Protostellar Disks

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for magnetic coupling and accretion in the active layer of a protostellar disk are re-examined, and some implications for thermal emission from the layer are discussed. The ionization and electrical conductivity are calculated following the general scheme of Ilgner and Nelson but with an updated UMIST database of chemical reactions and some improvements in the grain physics, and for the minimum-mass solar nebula rather than an alpha disk. The new limits on grain abundance are slightly more severe than theirs. Even for optimally sized grains, the layer should be at least marginally optically thin to its own thermal radiation, so that narrow, highly saturated emission lines of water and other molecular species would be expected if accretion is driven by turbulence and standard rates of ionization prevail. If the grain size distribution extends broadly from well below a micron to a millimeter or more, as suggested by observations, then the layer may be so optically thin that its cooling is dominated...

  13. On the relationship between photospheric footpoint motions and coronal heating in solar active regions

    Coronal heating theories can be classified as either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) mechanisms, depending on whether the coronal magnetic field responds quasi-statically or dynamically to the photospheric footpoint motions. In this paper we investigate whether photospheric footpoint motions with velocities of 1-2 km s–1 can heat the corona in active regions, and whether the corona responds quasi-statically or dynamically to such motions (DC versus AC heating). We construct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models for the Alfvén waves and quasi-static perturbations generated within a coronal loop. We find that in models where the effects of the lower atmosphere are neglected, the corona responds quasi-statically to the footpoint motions (DC heating), but the energy flux into the corona is too low compared to observational requirements. In more realistic models that include the lower atmosphere, the corona responds more dynamically to the footpoint motions (AC heating) and the predicted heating rates due to Alfvén wave turbulence are sufficient to explain the observed hot loops. The higher heating rates are due to the amplification of Alfvén waves in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that magnetic braiding is a highly dynamic process.

  14. Effect of heat treatment on anodic activation of aluminium by trace element indium

    Graver, Brit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Nisancioglu, Kemal, E-mail: kemal.nisancioglu@material.ntnu.n [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Indium segregation activates AlIn alloy surface anodically in chloride solution. {yields} Enrichment of In on Al surface can occur thermally by heat treatment at 300 {sup o}C. {yields} Increasing temperature homogenises indium in aluminium reducing anodic activation. {yields} Indium can activate AlIn surface by segregating through dealloying of aluminium. {yields} Anodic activation is caused by AlIn amalgam formation at aluminium surface. - Abstract: The presence of trace elements in Group IIIA-VA is known to activate aluminium anodically in chloride environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface segregation of trace element In by heat treatment and resulting surface activation. Model binary AlIn alloys, containing 20 and 1000 ppm by weight of In, were characterized after heat treatment at various temperatures by use of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electrochemical polarization. Heat treatment for 1 h at 300 {sup o}C gave significant segregation of discrete In particles (thermal segregation), which activated the surface. Indium in solid solution with aluminium, obtained by 1 h heat treatment at 600 {sup o}C, also activated by surface segregation of In on alloy containing 1000 ppm In, resulting from the selective dissolution of the aluminium component during anodic oxidation (anodic segregation). The effect of anodic segregation was reduced by decreasing indium concentration in solid solution; it had negligible effect at the 20 ppm level. The segregated particles were thought to form a liquid phase alloy with aluminium during anodic polarization, which in turn, together with the chloride in the solution destabilized the oxide.

  15. Leishmania amazonensis: effects of heat shock on ecto-ATPase activity.

    Peres-Sampaio, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Giarola, Naira Ligia Lima; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-05-01

    In this work we demonstrated that promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis exhibit an Mg-dependent ecto-ATPase activity, which is stimulated by heat shock. The Mg-dependent ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 and 28 degrees C was 41.0+/-5.2 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells and 184.2+/-21.0 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells, respectively. When both promastigotes were pre-incubated at 37 degrees C for 2h, the ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 degrees C was increased to 136.4+/-10.6 nmol Pi/h x 10(7) whereas that the ATPase activity of cells grown at 28 degrees C was not modified by the heat shock (189.8+/-10.3 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells). It was observed that Km of the enzyme from cells grown at 22 degrees C (Km=980.2+/-88.6 microM) was the same to the enzyme from cells grown at 28 degrees C (Km=901.4+/-91.9 microM). In addition, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid) and suramin, two inhibitors of ecto-ATPases, also inhibited similarly the ATPase activities from promastigotes grown at 22 and 28 degrees C. We also observed that cells grown at 22 degrees C exhibit the same ecto-phosphatase and ecto 3'- and 5'-nucleotidase activities than cells grown at 28 degrees C. Interestingly, cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suppressed the heat-shock effect on ecto-ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 degrees C were exposed at 37 degrees C for 2h. A comparison between the stimulation of the Mg-dependent ecto-ATPase activity of virulent and avirulent promastigotes by the heat shock showed that avirulent promastigotes had a higher stimulation than virulent promastigotes after heat stress. PMID:18295760

  16. "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores Heated by Single Nanoflares

    Barnes, Will Thomas; Cargill, Peter; Bradshaw, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    We use hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the EBTEL code, to investigate the properties expected of "hot" (i.e. between 106.7 and 107.2 K) non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions. Here we focus on single nanoflares and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK that is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium and, for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the "smoking gun" of nanoflare heating, lies between 1 MK and 10 MK. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  17. Active Power Flow Optimization of Industrial Power Supply with Regard to the Transmission Line Conductor Heating

    Leyzgold D.Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the problem of the transmission line conductor heating effect on the active power flows optimization in the local segment of industrial power supply. The purpose is to determine the optimal generation rating of the distributed power sources, in which the power flow values will correspond to the minimum active power losses in the power supply. The timeliness is the need to define the most appropriate rated power values of distributed sources which will be connected to current industrial power supply. Basing on the model of active power flow optimization, authors formulate the description of the nonlinear transportation problem considering the active power losses depending on the transmission line conductor heating. Authors proposed a new approach to the heating model parameters definition based on allowable current loads and nominal parameters of conductors as part of the optimization problem. Analysis of study results showed that, despite the relatively small active power losses reduction to the tune 0,45% due to accounting of the conductors heating effect for the present configuration of power supply, there are significant fluctuations in the required generation rating in nodes of the network to 9,32% within seasonal changes in the outer air temperature. This fact should be taken into account when selecting the optimum power of distributed generation systems, as exemplified by an arbitrary network configuration.

  18. DIAGNOSING THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. II. NANOFLARE TRAINS

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Klimchuk, J. A., E-mail: jeffrey.reep@rice.edu, E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: james.a.klimchuk@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Lab., Code 671, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    The time dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution coolward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a 'nanoflare train' and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration {Delta} {sub H} to the post-train cooling and draining timescale {Delta} {sub C}, where {Delta} {sub H} depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time interval between successive events ({tau} {sub C}); (3) {tau} {sub C} may be diagnosed from the width of the hot component of the emission measure provided that the temperature bins are much smaller than 0.1 dex; (4) the slope of the emission measure alone is not sufficient to provide information about any timescale associated with heating-the length and density of the heated structure must be measured for {Delta} {sub H} to be uniquely extracted from the ratio {Delta} {sub H}/{Delta} {sub C}.

  19. Dipeptidase activity and growth of heat-treated commercial dairy starter culture.

    Garbowska, Monika; Pluta, Antoni; Berthold-Pluta, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Growing expectations of consumers of fermented dairy products urge the search for novel solutions that would improve their organoleptic properties and in the case of rennet cheeses-that would also accelerate their ripening process. The aim of this study was to determine the peptidolytic activities and growth of heat-treated commercial culture of lactic acid bacteria. The analyzed culture was characterized by a relatively high peptidolytic activity. The growth of bacterial culture subjected to heat treatment at 50-80 °C for 15 s, 10 and 3 min was delayed by a few or 10-20 h compared to the control culture. Based on the results achieved, it may be concluded that in the production of rennet cheeses, the application of additional, fermentation-impaired starter cultures (via heating for ten or so minutes) may serve to accelerate their ripening and to improve their sensory attributes. PMID:25542242

  20. Compound A, a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, enhances heat shock protein Hsp70 gene promoter activation.

    Ilse M Beck

    Full Text Available Compound A possesses glucocorticoid receptor (GR-dependent anti-inflammatory properties. Just like classical GR ligands, Compound A can repress NF-κB-mediated gene expression. However, the monomeric Compound A-activated GR is unable to trigger glucocorticoid response element-regulated gene expression. The heat shock response potently activates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, upregulates Hsp70, a known GR chaperone, and also modulates various aspects of inflammation. We found that the selective GR modulator Compound A and heat shock trigger similar cellular effects in A549 lung epithelial cells. With regard to their anti-inflammatory mechanism, heat shock and Compound A are both able to reduce TNF-stimulated IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. We established an interaction between Compound A-activated GR and Hsp70, but remarkably, although the presence of the Hsp70 chaperone as such appears pivotal for the Compound A-mediated inflammatory gene repression, subsequent novel Hsp70 protein synthesis is uncoupled from an observed CpdA-induced Hsp70 mRNA upregulation and hence obsolete in mediating CpdA's anti-inflammatory effect. The lack of a Compound A-induced increase in Hsp70 protein levels in A549 cells is not mediated by a rapid proteasomal degradation of Hsp70 or by a Compound A-induced general block on translation. Similar to heat shock, Compound A can upregulate transcription of Hsp70 genes in various cell lines and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, whereas Compound A-dependent Hsp70 promoter activation is GR-dependent but HSF1-independent, heat shock-induced Hsp70 expression alternatively occurs in a GR-independent and HSF1-dependent manner in A549 lung epithelial cells.

  1. Dehydration, Heat Stroke, or Hyponatremia? The Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention of Hyponatremia Caused by High Exercise Outdoor Activities.

    Cochran, Brent

    Hyponatremia (severe sodium depletion) has symptoms similar to heat exhaustion and heat stroke and can easily be misdiagnosed. The number of wilderness users and extreme adventure activities has increased in recent years, and more cases are being diagnosed. Given that a 1993 study found that 1 in 10 cases of heat-related illnesses were…

  2. Electric space heating scheduling for real-time explicit power control in active distribution networks

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bernstein, Andrey; Chamorro, Lorenzo Reyes;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for abstracting the flexibility of a building space heating system and using it within a composable framework for real-time explicit power control of microgrids and, more in general, active distribution networks. In particular, the proposed approach is de...

  3. Buildings as solar heat stores. Heating system control and room activation; Das Gebaeude als Solarspeicher. Heizungsregelung mit Raumaktivierung

    Heckmeier, J. [Orange Energy, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); SHK-Betrieb Josef Heckmeier Haustechnik (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    When solar heating systems are used as auxiliary heating systems, there is often a gap between heat production and heat demand, especially with large collector surfaces. An intelligent control concept (innovative room bus system) is presented which narrows this gap and makes a significant contribution to energy conservation and CO2 reduction. The newly developed system also offers high comfort and user-friendliness. (orig.)

  4. Thermal activation of OSL as a geothermometer for quartz grain heating during fault movements

    Rink, W J; Rees-Jones, J; Schwarcz, H P

    1999-01-01

    In discussions of ESR dating of fault movements, there has been much debate whether zeroing of ESR signals is a mechanical shearing effect or caused by frictional heating. The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) sensitivity of quartz is known to increase after heating. This thermal activation of dose response of the OSL in quartz should be useful as a geothermometer to test whether quartz particles in fault gouge had been heated. We tested the OSL sensitivities of quartz from fault gouge, and from a control (quartz grains from sandstone) and were able to show heat-induced enhancement of OSL sensitivity to a test dose. We observed that relative enhancement of OSL dose response (ratio of heated to unheated single aliquots) is significantly less for the finest grains (45-75 and 100-150 mu m) compared with coarser grains (150-250 mu m). These data are consistent with a model of zeroing of the quartz grains during faulting, by frictional heating localized to the grain boundaries, which would be expected to aff...

  5. Dipeptidase Activity and Growth of Heat-Treated Commercial Dairy Starter Culture

    Garbowska, Monika; Pluta, Antoni; Berthold-Pluta, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Growing expectations of consumers of fermented dairy products urge the search for novel solutions that would improve their organoleptic properties and in the case of rennet cheeses-that would also accelerate their ripening process. The aim of this study was to determine the peptidolytic activities and growth of heat-treated commercial culture of lactic acid bacteria. The analyzed culture was characterized by a relatively high peptidolytic activity. The growth of bacterial culture subjected to...

  6. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pbiomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future. PMID:26055916

  7. PARP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by sumoylation upon heat shock.

    Martin, Nadine; Schwamborn, Klaus; Schreiber, Valérie; Werner, Andreas; Guillier, Christelle; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Bischof, Oliver; Seeler, Jacob-S; Dejean, Anne

    2009-11-18

    Heat shock and other environmental stresses rapidly induce transcriptional responses subject to regulation by a variety of post-translational modifications. Among these, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and sumoylation have received growing attention. Here we show that the SUMO E3 ligase PIASy interacts with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1, and that PIASy mediates heat shock-induced poly-sumoylation of PARP-1. Furthermore, PIASy, and hence sumoylation, appears indispensable for full activation of the inducible HSP70.1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that PIASy, SUMO and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 are rapidly recruited to the HSP70.1 promoter upon heat shock, and that they are subsequently released with kinetics similar to PARP-1. Finally, we provide evidence that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 mediates heat-shock-inducible ubiquitination of PARP-1, regulates the stability of PARP-1, and, like PIASy, is a positive regulator of HSP70.1 gene activity. These results, thus, point to a novel mechanism for regulating PARP-1 transcription function, and suggest crosstalk between sumoylation and RNF4-mediated ubiquitination in regulating gene expression in response to heat shock. PMID:19779455

  8. Thermal activation of OSL as a geothermometer for quartz grain heating during fault movements

    In discussions of ESR dating of fault movements, there has been much debate whether zeroing of ESR signals is a mechanical shearing effect or caused by frictional heating. The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) sensitivity of quartz is known to increase after heating. This thermal activation of dose response of the OSL in quartz should be useful as a geothermometer to test whether quartz particles in fault gouge had been heated. We tested the OSL sensitivities of quartz from fault gouge, and from a control (quartz grains from sandstone) and were able to show heat-induced enhancement of OSL sensitivity to a test dose. We observed that relative enhancement of OSL dose response (ratio of heated to unheated single aliquots) is significantly less for the finest grains (45-75 and 100-150 μm) compared with coarser grains (150-250 μm). These data are consistent with a model of zeroing of the quartz grains during faulting, by frictional heating localized to the grain boundaries, which would be expected to affect smaller grains more than large ones. This argues against a zeroing model in which the entire fault gouge is heated by friction. Higher laboratory preheating of sandstone quartz reduces between-aliquot variability of OSL dose response in the unheated grains to nearly zero. Unheated coarsest fault gouge grains displayed virtually no among-aliquot variability, whereas fine grains showed much larger between-aliquot variability; as with the quartz sand, variability dropped to near zero after laboratory heating, suggesting that fine grains in fault gouge have experienced a wide range of natural thermal histories during faulting. This may present a problem for ESR dating of fault gouge using the plateau method

  9. Effects of heat processing on soya bean fatty acids content and the lipoxygenase activity

    Žilić Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased temperatures on the lipoxygenase activity and changes of soya bean fatty acids were observed in the present study. The kernels of soya bean cultivars Bosa and ZPS 015 were subjected to the treatments of extrusion, autoclaving, micronisation and microwave roasting. Depending on the technological processing procedure, the kernels were exposed to temperatures ranging from 60 to 150°C for 25 to 30 seconds during extrusion and for 30 minutes during autoclaving. The temperature that developed in the course of the microwave radiation and autoclaving did not cause statistically significant differences between oil content in heat treated and fresh kernels of soya bean. However, the oil content was higher in soya bean flakes (micronized kernels and lower in grits than in fresh kernels. The heat treatments resulted in the significant decrease of the linolenic fatty acid content. Depending on the temperature and applied heat treatments, the content of linoleic and oleic fatty acid oscillated. High temperatures caused changes in unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms resulting in relative increase of the stearic acid content. The lipoxygenase activity decreased in correlation with increased temperatures and the time of heating. The maximum drop of the activity was observed after kernel exposure to the extrusion and micronisation processes at the temperature of 100oC. However, a significant lipoxygenase activity increase was recorded in both studied cultivars after one-minute microwave heating, i.e. at the temperature about 60°C. A further temperature increase led to a gradual denaturation of the enzyme and therefore to its decreased activity.

  10. DIAGNOSING THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. II. NANOFLARE TRAINS

    The time dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution coolward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a 'nanoflare train' and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration Δ H to the post-train cooling and draining timescale Δ C, where Δ H depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time interval between successive events (τ C); (3) τ C may be diagnosed from the width of the hot component of the emission measure provided that the temperature bins are much smaller than 0.1 dex; (4) the slope of the emission measure alone is not sufficient to provide information about any timescale associated with heating—the length and density of the heated structure must be measured for Δ H to be uniquely extracted from the ratio Δ H/Δ C.

  11. Effect of Activation Temperature and Heating Duration on Physical Characteristics of Activated Carbon Prepared from Agriculture Waste

    Tham Yee Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of activated carbon prepared from durian shell in varied heating durations from 10 min to 30 min and activation temperatures of 400C and 500C. Durian shells have been characterized in term of ultimate and proximate analysis, chemical composition and thermal behaviour with a view to be used as activated carbon precursor. Durian shell activated carbon was prepared by impregnating 10g of sample in 10% (v/v concentration of phosphoric acid for 24 h, followed by carbonization at 400C and 500C with different heating durations under nitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that various treatment conditions affect the percentage of yield, BET surface area, micropore volume, and average pore diameter. The highest surface area (SBET 1024 m2/g was obtained at 500C and 20 min of heating duration with 63% of yield and 0.21 cm3/g micropore volume.

  12. Active charge/passive discharge solar heating systems: Thermal analysis and performance comparisons and performance comparisons

    Swisher, J.

    1981-06-01

    This type of system combines liquid-cooled solar collector panels with a massive integral storage component that passively heats the building interior by radiation and free convection. The TRNSYS simulation program is used to evaluate system performance and to provide input for the development of a simplified analysis method. This method, which provides monthly calculations of delivered solar energy, is based on Klein's Phi-bar procedure and data from hourly TRNSYS simulations. The method can be applied to systems using a floor slab, a structural wall, or a water tank as the storage component. Important design parameters include collector area and orientation, building heat loss, collector and heat exchanger efficiencies, storage capacity, and storage to room coupling. Performance simulation results are used for comparisons with active and passive solar designs.

  13. Novel ac Heating-dc Detection Method for Active Thermoelectric Scanning Thermal Microscopy

    Miao, Tingting; Ma, Weigang; Zhang, Xing

    2015-11-01

    A novel and reliable ac heating-dc detection method is developed for active thermoelectric scanning thermal microscopy, which can map out local thermal property imaging by point-heating and point-sensing with nanoscale spatial resolution. The thermoelectric probe is electrically heated by an ac current, and the corresponding dc thermoelectric voltage is detected. Using the measured dc voltage, the temperature information can be extracted with the known Seebeck coefficient of the thermoelectric probe. The validity and accuracy of this method have been verified by a 25.4 \\upmu m thick K-type thermocouple by both experiment and numerical simulation in high vacuum and in air. The experimental results show that the proposed method is reliable and convenient to monitor the temperature of the junction.

  14. Evaluation of a large capacity heat pump concept for active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure

    Pagel, L. L.; Herring, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Results of engineering analyses assessing the conceptual feasibility of a large capacity heat pump for enhancing active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure are presented. A unique heat pump arrangement which permits cooling the structure of a Mach 6 transport to aluminum temperatures without the aid of thermal shielding is described. The selected concept is compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants, with Freon R-11 selected as the preferred refrigerant. Condenser temperatures were limited to levels compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants by incorporating a unique multipass condenser design, which extracts mechanical energy from the hydrogen fuel, prior to each subsequent pass through the condenser. Results show that it is technically feasible to use a large capacity heat pump in lieu of external shielding. Additional analyses are required to optimally apply this concept.

  15. Degradation of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene using heat and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation

    Mondal, P.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    Toluene, ethylbenze, and xylene (TEX) are common contaminants in the subsurface. Activated persulfate has shown promise for degrading a wide variety of organic compounds. However, studies of persulfate application for in situ degradation of TEX and effects on the subsequent bioremediation are limited. In this work, degradation studies of TEX in aqueous media and soil are being conducted using heat activated and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation in batch and flow-through column experiments. In the batch experiments, sodium persulfate is being used at different concentrations to provide an initial persulfate to TEX molar ratios between 10:1 and 100:1. Sodium persulfate solutions are being activated at 20, 37, 60, and 80 oC temperatures for the heat activated oxidation. For the chelated-ferrous iron activated oxidation, ferrous iron and citric acid, both are being used at concentration of 5 mM. In the experiments with soil slurry, a soil to water ratio of 1 to 5 is being used. Flow through water saturated column experiments are being conducted with glass columns (45 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter) uniformly packed with soils, and equilibrated with water containing TEX at the target concentrations. Both the heat activation and chelated-ferrous iron activation of persulfate are being employed in the column experiments. Future experiments are planned to determine the suitability of persulfate oxidation of TEX on the subsequent biodegradation using batch microcosms containing TEX degrading microbial cultures. In these experiments, the microbial biomass will be monitored using total phospholipids, and the microbial community will be determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on the extracted DNA. This study is expected to provide suitable operating conditions for in situ chemical oxidation of TEX with activated persulfate followed by bioremediation.

  16. Evaluating the accuracy of the Distributed Activation Energy Model for biomass devolatilization curves obtained at high heating rates

    Highlights: • DAEM was applied to biomass pyrolysis using a wide range of heating rates. • The validity of the method was evaluated for high heating rates. • Activation energy of low heating rates differs from that of higher rates. - Abstract: The characteristic parameters of devolatilization, the activation energy and the frequency factor, can be obtained following different experimental approaches. In the Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM), these parameters are derived from several TGA curves that are typically obtained for constant, low heating rate experiments. Then, the results are used to model high heating rate processes typical of industrial combustors. In this work, a wide range of heating rates were employed to obtain different TGA curves of the biomass pyrolysis, in order to analyse the validity of DAEM when extrapolating the kinetic parameters obtained for low heating rate curves used in the laboratory to higher heating rates present in industrial applications. The TGA curves of the biomass pyrolysis employed in DAEM were varied from low heating rates (around 10 K/min, values typically found in the literature on DAEM), to high heating rates (up to 200 K/min). The differences in the activation energy and the frequency factor obtained for different heating rates, were evaluated and the validity of the model was discussed. The results show differences between the activation energy and the frequency factor obtained using low and high heating rates during the TGA tests. Therefore, if an accurate approximation is required when extrapolating the data to high heating rates, the tests should be carried out at high heating rates

  17. The production of activated carbon using the equipment of thermal power plants and heating plants

    Osintsev, K. V.; Osintsev, V. V.; Dzhundubaev, A. K.; Kim, S. P.; Al'musin, G. T.; Akbaev, T. A.; Bogatkin, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    The production technology of activated carbon using the conventional equipment of the thermal power stations and boiler houses is proposed. The obtained product is directed into the systems of chemical water preparation and water drain of enterprises. The production cycle is invariable when producing the activated carbon by the proposed technology. The fuel consumption and heat losses are considerably reduced when implementing this technology compared with the known analogs of the carbon sorbent. The production efficiency increases if small dust particles are preliminary separated and coal is activated in narrow ranges of fraction sizes.

  18. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  19. Heat Shock Factor 1 Is a Substrate for p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases.

    Dayalan Naidu, Sharadha; Sutherland, Calum; Zhang, Ying; Risco, Ana; de la Vega, Laureano; Caunt, Christopher J; Hastie, C James; Lamont, Douglas J; Torrente, Laura; Chowdhry, Sudhir; Benjamin, Ivor J; Keyse, Stephen M; Cuenda, Ana; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2016-09-15

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) monitors the structural integrity of the proteome. Phosphorylation at S326 is a hallmark for HSF1 activation, but the identity of the kinase(s) phosphorylating this site has remained elusive. We show here that the dietary agent phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) inhibits heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), the main negative regulator of HSF1; activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); and increases S326 phosphorylation, trimerization, and nuclear translocation of HSF1, and the transcription of a luciferase reporter, as well as the endogenous prototypic HSF1 target Hsp70. In vitro, all members of the p38 MAPK family rapidly and stoichiometrically catalyze the S326 phosphorylation. The use of stable knockdown cell lines and inhibitors indicated that among the p38 MAPKs, p38γ is the principal isoform responsible for the phosphorylation of HSF1 at S326 in cells. A protease-mass spectrometry approach confirmed S326 phosphorylation and unexpectedly revealed that p38 MAPK also catalyzes the phosphorylation of HSF1 at S303/307, previously known repressive posttranslational modifications. Thus, we have identified p38 MAPKs as highly efficient catalysts for the phosphorylation of HSF1. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the magnitude and persistence of activation of p38 MAPK are important determinants of the extent and duration of the heat shock response. PMID:27354066

  20. Heating Treated Carbon Nanotubes As Highly Active Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Graphical abstract: Heating treatment for multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the air introduces abundant structure defects which improve catalytic performances for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). There is a positive correlation between the defect levels and ORR activities. The product shows better methanol tolerance and long-term durability than commercial Pt/C which makes it applicable in fuel cells. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely developed for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices for replacement of high-cost Pt-based catalysts. In this paper, a simple and convenient method is developed for improving the catalytic activity of CNTs in a controlled way. By simple heating treatment in the air, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) change with special morphologies, compositions and abundant defects (denoted as h-CNT). Those defects significantly improve the electrocatalytic performances for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which proceeds in a nearly four-electron pathway. The heating conditions have important effects on the structures and defect properties of h-CNTs which show a positive correlation between the defect levels and ORR performances. The small amounts of iron residues originated from nanotube growth and nitrogen doping during heating treatment also contribute to some catalytic activity. The inner walls of h-CNT remain intact during heating treatment and provide sufficient conductivity which facilitates charge transport during ORR. The h-CNT electrocatalyst shows better methanol tolerance and long-term durability than commercial Pt/C in alkaline media which makes it an alternative cathode catalyst in fuel cells

  1. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    Grosman, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) has been an essential stage towards long powerful tokamak operations for Tore-Supra, it lasted about 10 years. This paper deals with the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) that is able to sustain up to 10 MW/m{sup 2} of nominal heat flux. This device is based on hardened copper alloy heat sink structures covered by a carbon fiber composite armour, it resulted in the manufacturing of 600 elementary components, called finger elements, to achieve the 7.6 m{sup 2} TPL. This assembly has been operating in Tore-Supra since spring 2002. Some difficulties occurred during the manufacturing phase, the valuable industrial experience is summarized in the section 2. The permanent monitoring of PFC surface temperature all along the discharge is performed by a set of 6 actively cooled infrared endoscopes. The heat flux monitoring and control issue but also the progress made in our understanding of the deuterium retention in long discharges are described in the section 3. (A.C.)

  2. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) has been an essential stage towards long powerful tokamak operations for Tore-Supra, it lasted about 10 years. This paper deals with the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) that is able to sustain up to 10 MW/m2 of nominal heat flux. This device is based on hardened copper alloy heat sink structures covered by a carbon fiber composite armour, it resulted in the manufacturing of 600 elementary components, called finger elements, to achieve the 7.6 m2 TPL. This assembly has been operating in Tore-Supra since spring 2002. Some difficulties occurred during the manufacturing phase, the valuable industrial experience is summarized in the section 2. The permanent monitoring of PFC surface temperature all along the discharge is performed by a set of 6 actively cooled infrared endoscopes. The heat flux monitoring and control issue but also the progress made in our understanding of the deuterium retention in long discharges are described in the section 3. (A.C.)

  3. The SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 regulate HSF1 activity and the heat shock response.

    Rachel Raynes

    Full Text Available The heat shock response, the cellular response to protein damaging stress, is critical in maintaining proteostasis. The heat shock response is regulated by the transcription factor HSF1, which is activated upon heat shock and other stresses to induce the expression of molecular chaperones. SIRT1 has previously been shown to activate HSF1 by deacetylating it, leading to increased DNA binding ability. We have investigated how the heat shock response may be controlled by factors influencing SIRT1 activity. We found that heat shock results in an increase in the cellular NAD(+/NADH ratio and an increase in recruitment of SIRT1 to the hsp70 promoter. Furthermore, we found that the SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 have an impact on hsp70 transcription, HSF1 acetylation status, and HSF1 recruitment to the hsp70 promoter. Therefore, AROS and DBC1 are now two new targets available for therapeutic regulation of the heat shock response.

  4. Heat production and quantitative oxidation of nutrients by physical activity in humans

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K;

    1994-01-01

    The effect of physical activity on heat production and oxidation of nutrients was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. The experiment included 6 male and 4 female healthy subjects who, during a 24-hour stay in the respiration chambers, performed, in the morning and afternoon, 15 min cycling...... with the total work of 6,750 kg m. Experiments were repeated twice (3- to 4-week interval) showing no differences between the gas exchange in the morning and afternoon and between first and second experiment. The gas exchange during cycling was about 4 times higher than during basal periods. The identical work...... of 66.2 kJ by cycling caused on average a heat increment of 309 kJ, yielding the mean energetic efficiency for the performed work of 0.22. The activity caused an increment of 11.5 g oxidized carbohydrate and 2.6 g oxidized fat....

  5. Evaluation of induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distribution after shutdown in ITER

    Maki, Koichi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Satoh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Koubun; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1997-03-01

    Induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distributions after shutdown were estimated for 1MWa/m{sup 2} operation in ITER. The activity in the inboard blanket one day after shutdown is 1.5x10{sup 11}Bq/cm{sup 3}, and the average decay heating rate 0.01w/cm{sup 3}. The dose rate outside the 120cm thick concrete biological shield is two order higher than the design criterion of 5{mu}Sv/h. This indicates that the biological shield thickness should be enhanced by 50cm in concrete, that is, total thickness 170cm for workers to enter the reactor room and to perform maintenance. (author)

  6. Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin

    Leclere, Lionel; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Despite enormous efforts that have been made in the search for novel drugs and treatments, cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Moreover, the emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy often prevents complete remission. Researchers have thus turned to natural products mainly from plant origin to circumvent resistance. Pectin and pH- or heat-modified pectin have demonstrated chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers. The focus...

  7. Heat-Activated Effect of Exchange Coupling Between Two Ferromagnets Separated by an Amorphous Semiconducting Barrier

    肖明文; 李正中; 许望

    2002-01-01

    We try to extend our previous zero-temperature tunnelling theory for the exchange coupling between two ferromagnets separated by an amorphous semiconducting barrier to the case of finite temperature. The result exhibits that the tunnelling electrons can absorb or emit phonons when they tunnel through the amorphous barrier at finite temperatures so that the interlayer exchange coupling is heat activated. This agrees with the experiments.

  8. Hybrid ground-source heat pump system with active air source regeneration

    Highlights: • A hybrid ground source heat pump system with two separate borefields is modelled. • The maximum underground storage temperature depends on the size of the drycooler. • Drycooler selection curves are given as function of underground storage temperature. • The size of the cold storage is reduced with 47% in the cost optimal configuration. • The cooling seasonal performance factor decreases with reduced storage capacity. - Abstract: Ground-source heat pump systems (GSHP) offer great advantages over traditional heating and cooling installations. However, their applications are limited due to the high initial costs of borehole drilling. One way to avoid these costs is by reducing the size of the borefield, e.g. by combining the system with other renewable energy sources or by using active regeneration to increase the system efficiency. In this paper a hybrid ground-source heat pump system (HGSHP) is analyzed. The borefield is split into a warm part and a cold part, which allows for seasonal thermal-energy storage. Additionally, supplementary drycoolers capture heat during summer and cold during winter. The relationship between the underground storage size and temperature and the drycooler capacity is described, using an office building in Flanders (Belgium) as reference case. Results show that with a HGSHP system a significant borefield size reduction can be achieved without compromising system performance; i.e. for the reference case a reduction of 47% was achieved in the cost-optimal configuration. It is also shown that the cooling seasonal performance factor decreases significantly with underground storage capacity. In addition, the HGSHP can be used to maintain or restore thermal balance in the geothermal source when heating and cooling loads do not match

  9. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T. Sridhar; Chauhan, M. S.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the oocytes subjected to heat stress (40.5 and 41.5 °C) during meiotic maturation compared to the oocytes matured under standard in vitro culture conditions (38.5 °C). Also, the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the treatment groups compared to the control group. Therefore, the present study clearly establishes that heat stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS.

  10. Thermoregulation and heat exchange in a nonuniform thermal environment during simulated extended EVA. Extravehicular activities

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Hubel, A.; Nelson, E. D.; Tranchida, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonuniform heating and cooling of the body, a possibility during extended duration extravehicular activities (EVA), was studied by means of a specially designed water circulating garment that independently heated or cooled the right and left sides of the body. The purpose was to assess whether there was a generalized reaction on the finger in extreme contradictory temperatures on the body surface, as a potential heat status controller. METHOD: Eight subjects, six men and two women, were studied while wearing a sagittally divided experimental garment with hands exposed in the following conditions: Stage 1 baseline--total body garment inlet water temperature at 33 degrees C; Stage 2--left side inlet water temperature heated to 45 degrees C; right side cooled to 8 degrees C; Stage 3--left side inlet water temperature cooled to 8 degrees C, right side heated to 45 degrees C. RESULTS: Temperatures on each side of the body surface as well as ear canal temperature (Tec) showed statistically significant Stage x Side interactions, demonstrating responsiveness to the thermal manipulations. Right and left finger temperatures (Tfing) were not significantly different across stages; their dynamic across time was similar. Rectal temperature (Tre) was not reactive to prevailing cold on the body surface, and therefore not informative. Subjective perception of heat and cold on the left and right sides of the body was consistent with actual temperature manipulations. CONCLUSIONS: Tec and Tre estimates of internal temperature do not provide accurate data for evaluating overall thermal status in nonuniform thermal conditions on the body surface. The use of Tfing has significant potential in providing more accurate information on thermal status and as a feedback method for more precise thermal regulation of the astronaut within the EVA space suit.

  11. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. PMID:25681947

  12. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  13. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  14. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  15. Procedure of Active Residual Heat Removal after Emergency Shutdown of High-Temperature-Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After emergency shutdown of high-temperature-gas-cooled reactor, the residual heat of the reactor core should be removed. As the natural circulation process spends too long period of time to be utilized, an active residual heat removal procedure is needed, which makes use of steam generator and start-up loop. During this procedure, the structure of steam generator may suffer cold/heat shock because of the sudden load of coolant or hot helium at the first few minutes. Transient analysis was carried out based on a one-dimensional mathematical model for steam generator and steam pipe of start-up loop to achieve safety and reliability. The results show that steam generator should be discharged and precooled; otherwise, boiling will arise and introduce a cold shock to the boiling tubes and tube sheet when coolant began to circulate prior to the helium. Additionally, in avoiding heat shock caused by the sudden load of helium, the helium circulation should be restricted to start with an extreme low flow rate; meanwhile, the coolant of steam generator (water should have flow rate as large as possible. Finally, a four-step procedure with precooling process of steam generator was recommended; sensitive study for the main parameters was conducted.

  16. Enhanced detection of hydraulically active fractures by temperature profiling in lined heated bedrock boreholes

    Pehme, P. E.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Molson, J. W.; Greenhouse, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of borehole profiling using a temperature probe for identifying hydraulically active fractures in rock has improved due to the combination of two advances: improved temperature sensors, with resolution on the order of 0.001 °C, and temperature profiling within water inflated flexible impermeable liners used to temporarily seal boreholes from hydraulic cross-connection. The open-hole cross-connection effects dissipate after inflation, so that both the groundwater flow regime and the temperature distribution return to the ambient (background) condition. This paper introduces a third advancement: the use of an electrical heating cable that quickly increases the temperature of the entire static water column within the lined hole and thus places the entire borehole and its immediate vicinity into thermal disequilibrium with the broader rock mass. After heating for 4-6 h, profiling is conducted several times over a 24 h period as the temperature returns to background conditions. This procedure, referred to as the Active Line Source (ALS) method, offers two key improvements over prior methods. First, there is no depth limit for detection of fractures with flow. Second, both identification and qualitative comparison of evidence for ambient groundwater flow in fractures is improved throughout the entire test interval. The benefits of the ALS method are demonstrated by comparing results from two boreholes tested to depths of 90 and 120 m in a dolostone aquifer used for municipal water supply and in which most groundwater flow occurs in fractures. Temperature logging in the lined holes shows many fractures in the heterothermic zone both with and without heating, but only the ALS method shows many hydraulically active fractures in the deeper homothermic portion of the hole. The identification of discrete groundwater flow at many depths is supported by additional evidence concerning fracture occurrence, including continuous core visual inspection

  17. Heat conduction through geological mattresses from cells storing mean activity and long life nuclear wastes

    Document available in extended abstract form only. ANDRA ordered in 2008 a campaign of numerical simulations to assess the efficiency of the ventilation system designed for cells storing mean activity and long life nuclear wastes. Numerical models were performed by ACRIIN as research engineering office. The main objectives were to assess the risks of atmospheric explosions due to high rate of hydrogen and to determine the efficiency of the system to evacuate released heat from storage packages. Further calculations have been carried out to evaluate temperature gradients in the surrounding geological medium. Three-dimensional numerical models of a reference cell were built to simulate the air flow injected at the cell entrance and retrieved and the other extremity. The reference case is based on a cell full of storage packages, with rows and columns of packages methodically ordered. Analytic and numerical calculations have been performed introducing progressively each complex physical phenomenon in order to dissociate origins of transport of released mass or heat. Three kinds of flows have been physically distinguished: 1) Ventilation in a cell with storage package that are thermally inert, i.e. no heat release, but with hydrogen release. 2) Flow in a cell with storage packages that emit heat and warm the injected air, supposing that no heat were lost towards the surrounding concrete walls of the cell. 3) Air Flow warmed by the storage packages with heat losses towards concrete walls and geological medium. Simulations with absence of thermal effects allowed the knowledge of main topics of the ventilation air flows that may be synthesized as follows: - Flows infiltrate clearances between piles and rows of storage packages. Such apertures are a few centimetres wide. The flow is disorganised between the first rows, with distribution in both transversal and longitudinal directions. After a few tens of rows, the flow reaches its hydraulic equilibrium, with a nearly pure

  18. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realisation and first results in Tore Supra

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing components (PFCs) has been an essential part of the Tore Supra programme towards long powerful tokamak operation. The Tore Supra PFC programme has culminated in the installation and operation of a toroidal pump limiter, since 2002, which already allowed to reach new world records in steady state operation (1 GJ injected in a 6 min discharge). The HHF PFCs development and manufacturing was achieved through a long lead development and industrialisation programme (about 10 years) marked out with a number of challenges. The major technical topics cope with bonding technology analysis involving an adequate material selection and procurement, repair processes development and implementation, development of destructive and non-destructive testing methods, and more generally industrialisation assessment. All these lessons are relevant to the ITER divertor PFCs manufacturing, although the technical solution adopted for Tore Supra (flat tiles concept) is different from the one proposed for the ITER divertor (monoblock concept). The routine operation of the actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL), capable to sustain up to 10 MW m-2 of nominal convected heat flux, is described. Up to now, the limiter fulfills its objectives in terms of heat exhaust. However, the thermographic monitoring exhibits unexpected behavior of the surface temperature. Particle exhaust control displays a complex pattern, due to the high fraction of the injected deuterium, which remains in the wall. The first experimental results with a full actively cooled wall gives access to ITER relevant information on wall conditioning, hydrogen plasma density and vacuum vessel inventory control, carbon erosion and redeposition and capability of in situ monitoring in a completely actively cooled environment

  19. 主动蓄放热-热泵联合加温系统在日光温室的应用%Application of heating system with active heat storage-release and heat pump in solar greenhouse

    孙维拓; 杨其长; 方慧; 张义; 管道平; 卢威

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese solar greenhouse has a unique greenhouse structure that regards solar energy as the main energy source, and has characteristics such as high efficiency, energy saving, and low cost. During a cold winter night, air temperature inside a solar greenhouse is low for crop growth, which would affect crop yield and quality, due to the heat-transfer characteristics and heat capacity limit of the north wall. In recent years, in trying to promote the heat storage capacity of the solar greenhouse, the thought of active heat storage-release came forward. Solar energy is a kind of clean renewable energy, but has intermittent and unstable performance when used for greenhouse heating. Meanwhile, the heat collecting efficiency of the solar thermal collector decreases with an increase in operating temperature. Thus, an active heat storage-release system (AHSRS) is difficult to use to ensure an appropriate temperature for a solar greenhouse in a frigid region or when it encounters weather conditions with weak solar radiation. As an efficient means of raising low-grade energy, the heat pump has been more and more applied to greenhouse heating which can reduce the operating temperature of the AHSRS when used in combination. In order to promote heating performance and stability of the AHSRS and improve air temperature inside a solar greenhouse at night, based on the concept of active heat storage-release, an active heat storage-release associated with heat pump heating system (AHSRHPS) applicable to solar greenhouse heating was designed in the present study. During the day, the solar energy reaching the north wall surface was absorbed by the circulating water and stored in reservoirs when the AHSRS was running. Running the heat pump unit was intended to promote low-grade heat energy and reduce the circulating water temperature which contributes to increasing the heat collecting efficiency of the AHSRS and maximum water temperature of the reservoir. When air temperature

  20. Neutral-Line Magnetic Shear and Enhanced Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Gary, G. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1997-01-01

    By examining the magnetic structure at sites in the bright coronal interiors of active regions that are not flaring but exhibit persistent strong coronal heating, we establish some new characteristics of the magnetic origins of this heating. We have examined the magnetic structure of these sites in five active regions, each of which was well observed by both the Yohkoh SXT and the Marshall Space Flight Center Vector Magnetograph and showed strong shear in its magnetic field along part of at least one neutral line (polarity inversion). Thus, we can assess whether this form of nonpotential field structure in active regions is a characteristic of the enhanced coronal heating and vice versa. From 27 orbits' worth of Yohkoh SXT images of the five active regions, we have obtained a sample of 94 persistently bright coronal features (bright in all images from a given orbit), 40 long (greater than or approximately equals 20,000 km) neutral-line segments having strong magnetic shear throughout (shear angle greater than 45 deg), and 39 long neutral-line segments having weak magnetic shear throughout (shear angle less than 45 deg). From this sample, we find that: (1) all of our persistently bright coronal features are rooted in magnetic fields that are stronger than 150 G; (2) nearly all (95%) of these enhanced coronal features are rooted near neutral lines (closer than 10,000 km); (3) a great majority (80%) of the bright features are rooted near strong-shear portions of neutral lines; (4) a great majority (85%) of long strong-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; (5) a large minority (40%) of long weak-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; and (6) the brightness of a persistently bright Coronal feature often changes greatly over a few hours. From these results, we conclude that most persistent enhanced heating of coronal loops in active regions: (1) requires the

  1. Comparison of swimming pools alternative passive and active heating systems based on renewable energy sources in Southern Europe

    This article examines different passive and active heating systems for swimming pools. The passive systems introduced in this article are: * The swimming pools' enclosure. * The placement of floating insulating covers on the pools' surfaces whenever they are not used. The examined active systems in this article are: * A biomass heater. * A biomass heater and solar collectors combi-system. * Vertical geothermal heat exchangers (GHE) co-operating with geothermal heat pumps (GHP). The methodology employed for the introduced systems' evaluation is the arithmetic computational simulation of the swimming pools' annual heating, using annual time series of averaged hourly values for the available solar radiation and the calculated pools' thermal power demand (heating loads). The dimensioning of the active systems aims at the maximisation of the heating production from R.E.S. (renewable energy sources). and the optimisation of the corresponding investments' economic indexes. The examined systems are evaluated technically and economically versus fundamental criteria. It is proved that significant reduction of the heating loads is achieved with the introduced passive systems. The reduced swimming pools' heating loads can be successfully covered by the proposed R.E.S. active systems. The fossil fuels consumption is eliminated. The corresponding investments' payback periods can be lower than 5 years. - Highlights: • The passive solar systems reduce the swimming pools heating loads more than 90%. • The examined active heating system exhibit payback periods lower than 3.5 years. • The energy saving is maximised with a biomass heater – solar collectors system. • Single biomass heaters exhibits the shortest payback period. • GHE–GHP can be used in cases of low solar radiation and lack of biomass fuels

  2. Dual-reporter in vivo imaging of transient and inducible heat-shock promoter activation.

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Genevois, Coralie; Chapolard, Mathilde; Santalucía, Tomàs; Planas, Anna M; Couillaud, Franck

    2014-02-01

    Gene promoter activity can be studied in vivo by molecular imaging methods using reporter gene technology. Transcription of the reporter and the reported genes occurs simultaneously. However, imaging depends on reporter protein translation, stability, and cellular fate that may differ among the various proteins. A double transgenic mouse strain expressing the firefly luciferase (lucF) and fluorescent mPlum protein under the transcriptional control of the thermo-inducible heat-shock protein (Hspa1b) promoter was generated allowing to follow up the reporter proteins by different and complementary in vivo imaging technologies. These mice were used for in vivo imaging by bioluminescence and epi fluorescence reflectance imaging (BLI & FRI) and as a source of embryonic fibroblast (MEF) for in vitro approaches. LucF, mPlum and endogenous Hsp70 mRNAs were transcribed simultaneously. The increase in mRNA was transient, peaking at 3 h and then returning to the basal level about 6 h after the thermal stimulations. The bioluminescent signal was transient and initiated with a 3 h delay versus mRNA expression. The onset of mPlum fluorescence was more delayed, increasing slowly up to 30 h after heat-shock and remaining for several days. This mouse allows for both bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) of Hsp70 promoter activation showing an early and transient lucF activity and a retrospective and persistent mPlum fluorescence. This transgenic mouse will allow following the transient local induction of Hsp-70 promoter beyond its induction time-frame and relate into subsequent dynamic biological effects of the heat-shock response. PMID:24575340

  3. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events

  4. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.

  5. Adsorption of SO2 onto oxidized and heat-treated activated carbon fibers (ACFS)

    Daley, M.A.; Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Riha, S.; Lizzio, A.A.; Donnals, G.L.; Economy, J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and heat-treated oxidized ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume for the adsorption of SO2 and its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. For untreated ACFs, the initial rate of SO2 adsorption from flue gas was shown to be inversely related to pore size. At longer times, the amount of SO2 adsorbed from flue gas was dependent on both the pore size and pore volume. Oxidation of the ACFs, using an aqueous oxidant, decreased their adsorption capacity for SO2 from flue gas due to a decrease in pore volume and repulsion of the SO2 from acidic surface groups. If these samples were heat-treated to desorb the oxygen containing function groups, the amount of SO2 adsorption increased. This increase in adsorption capacity was directly correlated to the amount of CO2 evolved during heat-treatment of the oxidized ACFs. The amount of SO2 adsorbed for these samples was related to the pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume. This analysis is explained in more detail in this paper. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. The effects of excessive heat on heat-activated membrane currents in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons from neonatal rat

    Lyfenko, Alla; Vlachová, Viktorie; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Dittert, Ivan; Kress, M.; Reeh, P. W.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2002), s. 207-214. ISSN 0304-3959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : nociception * noxious heat * capsacin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2002

  8. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on stimulated radiation during ionospheric second electron gyroharmonic heating

    Bordikar, M. R.; Scales, W. A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Kim, H.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Redmon, R.; Samimi, A. R.; Brizcinski, S.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, narrowband emissions ordered near the H+ (proton) gyrofrequency (fcH) were reported in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum during active geomagnetic conditions. This work presents new observations and theoretical analysis of these recently discovered emissions. These emission lines are observed in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum when the transmitter is tuned near the second electron gyroharmonic frequency (2fce) during recent ionospheric modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research (HAARP) facility near Gakona, Alaska. The spectral lines are typically shifted below and above the pump wave frequency by harmonics of a frequency roughly 10% less than fcH (≈ 800 Hz) with a narrow emission bandwidth less than the O+ gyrofrequency (≈ 50 Hz). However, new observations and analysis of emission lines ordered by a frequency approximately 10% greater than fcH are presented here for the first time as well. The interaction altitude for the heating for all the observations is in the range of 160 km up to 200 km. As described previously, proton precipitation due to active geomagnetic conditions is considered as the reason for the presence of H+ ions known to be a minor background constituent in this altitude region. DMSP satellite observations over HAARP during the heating experiments and ground-based magnetometer and riometer data validate active geomagnetic conditions. The theory of parametric decay instability in multi-ion component plasma including H+ ions as a minority species described in previous work is expanded in light of simultaneously observed preexisting SEE features to interpret the newly reported observations. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on the SEE spectrum as a diagnostic tool for proton precipitation event characterization is discussed.

  9. Effects of different heat treatments on lysozyme quantity and antimicrobial activity of jenny milk.

    Cosentino, C; Labella, C; Elshafie, H S; Camele, I; Musto, M; Paolino, R; D'Adamo, C; Freschi, P

    2016-07-01

    Thermal treatments are used to improve milk microbial safety, shelf life, and biological activity of some of its components. However, thermal treatments can reduce the nutritional quality of milk, affecting the molecular structure of milk proteins, such as lysozyme, which is a very important milk component due to its antimicrobial effect against gram-positive bacteria. Jenny milk is characterized by high lysozyme content. For this reason, in the last few years, it has been used as an antimicrobial additive in dairy products as an alternative to hen egg white lysozyme, which can cause allergic reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pasteurization and condensation on the concentration and antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk. Furthermore, lysozyme quantity and activity were tested in raw and pasteurized milk after condensation at 40 and 20% of the initial volume. Reversed-phase HPLC was performed under fluorescence detection to monitor lysozyme in milk samples. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the tested milk against Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis, Clavibacter michiganensis, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Xanthomonas campestris, and Escherichia coli. Condensation and pasteurization did not affect the concentration or antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk, except for B. mojaventis, which showed resistance to lysozyme in milk samples subjected to heat treatments. Moreover, lysozyme in jenny milk showed antimicrobial activity similar to synthetic antibiotics versus some gram-positive strains and also versus the gram-negative strain X. campestris. PMID:27157571

  10. Low effective activation energies for oxygen release from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates.

    Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Oxygen release from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-energy values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate. PMID:24619858

  11. Recurrent Heat Stroke in a Runner: Race Simulation Testing for Return to Activity.

    Roberts, William O; Dorman, Jason C; Bergeron, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Exertional heat stroke (EHS) occurs in distance runners and is a life-threatening condition. A 30-yr-old healthy recreational male distance runner (CR) collapsed at the 12-mile mark in two half marathon races 6 wk apart in fall 2009. In both episodes, CR was found on the ground confused, incoherent, sweaty, and warm to touch. The emergency medical team responded, and he was treated empirically for suspected EHS by cooling en route to the emergency department. In the emergency department, rectal temperatures were 40°C and 40.5°C for each episode, respectively. The first race start temperature was 16°C with 94% relative humidity (RH), and the second was 3°C, 75% RH. Heat tolerance test was within the normal range indicating low EHS risk. A race simulation test (environmental chamber, 25°C, 60% RH) at a treadmill pace of 10.5-12.9 km·h was stopped at 70 min coincident with a rectal temperature of 39.5°C. CR's body weight dropped 3.49 kg with an estimated sweat loss of 4.09 L and an estimated total sweat Na loss of 7610 mg. We recommended that he limit his runs to <1 h and replace salt and fluid during and (mostly) after activity, run with a partner, acclimate to heat before racing, and reduce his pace or stop at the first sign of symptoms. Race simulation testing should be considered in athletes with recurrent EHS to assist with the return-to-activity recommendation. PMID:26694842

  12. Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin

    Lionel eLeclere

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite enormous efforts that have been made in the search for novel drugs and treatments, cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Moreover, the emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy often prevents complete remission. Researchers have thus turned to natural products mainly from plant origin to circumvent resistance. Pectin and pH- or heat-modified pectin have demonstrated chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers. The focus of this review is to describe how pectin and modified pectin display these activities and what are the possible underlying mechanisms. The failure of conventional chemotherapy to reduce mortality as well as serious side effects makes natural products, such as pectin-derived products, ideal candidates for exerting synergism in combination with conventional anticancer drugs.

  13. Management of the endoplasmic reticulum stress by activation of the heat shock response in yeast

    Hou, Jin; Tang, Hongting; Liu, Zihe;

    2014-01-01

    In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by Hac1p. The heat shock response (HSR) mediated by Hsf1p, mainly regulates cytosolic processes and protects......-wide transcriptional response in order to propose regulatory mechanisms that govern the interplay between UPR and HSR and followed up for the hypotheses by experiments in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the regulation of ER stress response via HSR is (1) only partially dependent on over-expression of...... Kar2p (ER resident chaperone induced by ER stress); (2) does not involve the increase in protein turnover via the proteasome activity; (3) is related to the oxidative stress response. From the transcription data, we also propose that HSR enhances ER stress resistance mainly through facilitation of...

  14. AGN activity and IGM heating in fossil cluster RX J1416.4+2315

    Miraghaei, H; Sengupta, C; Raychaudhury, S; Jetha, N N; Abbassi, S

    2015-01-01

    We study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in the fossil galaxy cluster, RX J1416.4+2315. Radio observations were carried out using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at two frequencies, 1420 MHz and 610 MHz. A weak radio lobe that extends from the central nucleus is detected in 610 MHz map. Assuming the radio lobe originated from the central AGN, we show the energy injection into the Inter Galactic Medium (IGM) is only sufficient to heat up the central 50 kpc within the cluster core, while the cooling radius is larger ( $\\sim$ 130 kpc). In the hardness ratio map, three low energy cavities have been identified. No radio emission is detected for these regions. We evaluated the power required to inflate the cavities and showed that the total energy budget is sufficient to offset the radiative cooling. We showed that the initial conditions would change the results remarkably. Furthermore, efficiency of Bondi accretion to power the AGN has been estimated.

  15. Self-folding origami: shape memory composites activated by uniform heating

    Self-folding is an approach used frequently in nature for the efficient fabrication of structures, but is seldom used in engineered systems. Here, self-folding origami are presented, which consist of shape memory composites that are activated with uniform heating in an oven. These composites are rapidly fabricated using inexpensive materials and tools. The folding mechanism based on the in-plane contraction of a sheet of shape memory polymer is modeled, and parameters for the design of composites that self-fold into target shapes are characterized. Four self-folding shapes are demonstrated: a cube, an icosahedron, a flower, and a Miura pattern; each of which is activated in an oven in less than 4 min. Self-sealing is also investigated using hot melt adhesive, and the resulting structures are found to bear up to twice the load of unsealed structures. (paper)

  16. THIDA-2: an advanced code system for calculation of transmutation, activation, decay heat and dose rate

    In a D-T burning fusion reactor, the radioactivity induced by the 14 MeV neutrons causes many problems. It limits personnel access to the reactor during shutdown, generates decay heat and produces radwastes. A code system THIDA had been developed in 1978 to calculate the radioactivity and dose rate around a fusion device. The THIDA system consisted of the followings: one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport codes; induced activity calculation code; three libraries for transmutation and decay chain data, transmutation cross sections and delayed gamma-ray emission data. The present report gives a complete description of THIDA-2, a new advanced version of the THIDA system which has the following major improvements: 1. Capability to treat three-dimensional calculation models by the use of a Monte Carlo transport code. 2. Accurate decay heat calculation following the transport of delayed gamma rays. 3. Simplification of the data input process by the use of free format scheme and closer coupling between the radiation transport codes and the induced activity calculation code. 4. Self-descriptive output format and additional plotter output. 5. Capability to calculate problems requiring larger core memory by the use of variable dimension. (author)

  17. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in activated carbon tank for hydrogen storage

    Xiao, Jinsheng [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Progressing, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Hydrogen Research Institute, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC G9A 5H7 (Canada); Tong, Liang [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Huaxia College, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Deng, Caihua [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Benard, Pierre; Chahine, Richard [Hydrogen Research Institute, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    The charging process of hydrogen storage tank based on bed of activated carbon in a steel container at room temperature (295 K) and medium storage pressure (10 MPa) is simulated with an axisymmetric geometry model using the finite volume commercial solver Fluent. The mass flux profile at the entrance is established using user-defined functions (UDFs). The heat and mass transfer processes in the cylindrical steel tank packed with activated carbon are discussed considering the influence of viscous resistance and inertial resistance of the porous media. The velocity distribution and its effect on the temperature distribution are analyzed. The effects of the flow rate at the inlet and of the adsorption factor on the charging process are studied. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on finite volume simulations is used. Results show that the temperature near the bottom of the tank is higher than that at the entrance, temperature in the center of the tank is higher than that near the wall and rises somewhat faster along the axial compared to the radial direction. The highest hydrogen absolute adsorption occurs at the entrance of the tank. A good agreement is found between the simulation results and the available experimental data. The maximum magnitude of the axial velocity is much higher than that of the radial component, resulting in more heat energy transfer along the axial direction than radial direction. In addition, the pressure reaches equilibrium earlier when the mass flow is higher, and the temperature reaches a maximum value faster. (author)

  18. Catharanthus roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 confers UV and heat tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Raina, Susheel Kumar; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash Pandhari; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important source of pharmaceutically important Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs). Accumulation of many of the MIAs is induced in response to abiotic stresses such as wound, ultra violet (UV) irradiations, etc. Recently, we have demonstrated a possible role of CrMPK3, a C. roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase in stress-induced accumulation of a few MIAs. Here, we extend our findings using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the role of CrMPK3 in giving tolerance to abiotic stresses. Yeast cells transformed with CrMPK3 was found to show enhanced tolerance to UV and heat stress. Comparison of CrMPK3 and SLT2, a MAPK from yeast shows high-sequence identity particularly at conserved domains. Additionally, heat stress is also shown to activate a 43 kDa MAP kinase, possibly CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaves. These findings indicate the role of CrMPK3 in stress-induced MIA accumulation as well as in stress tolerance. PMID:23221751

  19. Plasma hyperosmolality elevates the internal temperature threshold for active thermoregulatory vasodilation during heat stress in humans.

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Aoki, Ken; Morimoto, Keiko; Johnson, John M; Takamata, Akira

    2009-12-01

    Plasma hyperosmolality delays the response in skin blood flow to heat stress by elevating the internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation. This elevation could be because of a delayed onset of cutaneous active vasodilation and/or to persistent cutaneous active vasoconstriction. Seven healthy men were infused with either hypertonic (3% NaCl) or isotonic (0.9% NaCl) saline and passively heated by immersing their lower legs in 42 degrees C water for 60 min (room temperature, 28 degrees C; relative humidity, 40%). Skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry at sites pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block sympathetic vasoconstriction selectively and at adjacent control sites. Plasma osmolality was increased by approximately 13 mosmol/kgH(2)O following hypertonic saline infusion and was unchanged following isotonic saline infusion. The esophageal temperature (T(es)) threshold for cutaneous vasodilation at untreated sites was significantly elevated in the hyperosmotic state (37.73 +/- 0.11 degrees C) relative to the isosmotic state (36.63 +/- 0.12 degrees C, P < 0.001). A similar elevation of the T(es) threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was observed between osmotic conditions at the BT-treated sites (37.74 +/- 0.18 vs. 36.67 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0.001) as well as sweating. These results suggest that the hyperosmotically induced elevation of the internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation is due primarily to an elevation in the internal temperature threshold for the onset of active vasodilation, and not to an enhancement of vasoconstrictor activity. PMID:19812357

  20. Activated corrosion products in ITER first wall and shielding blanket heat transfer system

    Corrosion and erosion phenomena play an important role in mobilizing activated materials in fusion machines. This paper deals with the assessment of the activated corrosion products (ACPs) related to the primary heat transfer system (PHTS) of the first wall/shielding blanket (FW/SB) of the ITER plant. ACPs could be a cause for concern in terms of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) in maintenance scenarios. They could also be relevant in the case of severe accidents, such as ex-vessel LOCAs. The assessment mainly refers to the TAC-4 design developed for ITER. The mobilization of the activated material has been estimated with the qualified CEA code PACTOLE. It considers all the chemical and physical phenomena responsible for corrosion, activation and transport of corrosion products in cooling loops. The XSDNRPM-S code is used for neutronic calculations; the ANITA-2 code for activation calculations. The results obtained show the improvement gained, in terms of corrosion and radioactive inventory reduction, by avoiding the use of the boron as additive. Results obtained point out the impact of the main water chemistry parameters (e.g., water temperature and pH) on ACP production, transport and deposition. A parametric comparison has been carried out considering the coolant flowing during dwell periods, two different in-vessel FW/SB AISI 316L compositions and two fluences: 0.3 and 3 MW·y/m2

  1. Heat Shock Protein-70 Expression in Vitiligo and its Relation to the Disease Activity

    Doss, Reham William; El-Rifaie, Abdel-Aziz A; Abdel-Wahab, Amr M; Gohary, Yasser M; Rashed, Laila A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is a progressive depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. The etiopathogenesis of vitiligo is still unclear. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are prime candidates to connect stress to the skin. HSPs were found to be implicated in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and other skin disorders as psoriasis. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to map the level of HSP-70 in vitiligo lesions to declare its role in the pathogenesis and activity of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: The study included thirty patients with vitiligo and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Vitiligo patients were divided as regards to the disease activity into highly active, moderately active, and inactive vitiligo groups. Skin biopsies were taken from the lesional and nonlesional skin of patients and from the normal skin of the controls. HSP-70 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Our analysis revealed a significantly higher expression of HSP-70 mRNA in lesional skin biopsies from vitiligo patients compared to nonlesional skin biopsies from vitiligo patients (P vitiligo showed higher mean HSP-70 level compared to those with inactive disease. Conclusions: HSP-70 plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and may enhance the immune response in active disease.

  2. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003; Programme 'Solaire actif - Chaleur et Stockage de chaleur'. Activites et projets en 2003

    Hadorn, J.-C. [Base Consultants, Geneva (Switzerland); Renaud, P. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD

  3. Coatings of active and heat-resistant cobalt-aluminium xerogel catalysts.

    Schubert, Miriam; Schubert, Lennart; Thomé, Andreas; Kiewidt, Lars; Rosebrock, Christopher; Thöming, Jorg; Roessner, Frank; Bäumer, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    The application of catalytically coated metallic foams in catalytic processes has a high potential for exothermic catalytic reactions such as CO2 methanation or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis due to good heat conductivity, improved turbulent flow properties and high catalyst efficiencies. But the preparation of homogenous catalyst coats without pore blocking is challenging with conventional wash coating techniques. Here, we report on a stable and additive free colloidal CoAlOOH suspension (sol) for the preparation of catalytically active Co/Al2O3 xerogel catalysts and coatings. Powders with 18wt% Co3O4 prepared from this additive free synthesis route show a catalytic activity in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and CO2 methanation which is similar to a catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) after activating the material under flowing hydrogen at 430°C. Yet, the xerogel catalyst exhibits a much higher thermal stability as compared to the IWI catalyst, as demonstrated in catalytic tests after different heat agings between 430°C and 580°C. It was also found that the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the sol influences the catalytic properties of the formed xerogels negatively. Only non-reducible cobalt spinels were formed from a CoAlOOH sol with 20wt% PEG. Metallic foams with pores sizes between 450 and 1200μm were coated with the additive free CoAlOOH sol, which resulted in homogenous xerogel layers. First catalytic tests of the coated metal foams (1200μm) showed good performance in CO2 methanation. PMID:27240245

  4. A sexual dimorphism influences bicyclol-induced hepatic heat shock factor 1 activation and hepatoprotection.

    Chen, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jianjian; Han, Conghui; Dai, Huijuan; Kong, Xianming; Xu, Longmei; Xia, Qiang; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Bicyclol [4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-bis(methylenedioxy)-2-hydroxy-methyl-2'-methoxycarbonyl biphenyl] is a synthetic hepatoprotectant widely used in clinical practice, but resistance to this treatment is often observed. We found that the hepatoprotective effect of bicyclol was greatly compromised in female and castrated male mice. This study was to dissect the molecular basis behind the sex difference, which might underlie the clinical uncertainty. We compared bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection between male and female mice using acute liver damage models. Inducible knockout by the Cre/loxp system was used to decipher the role of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Functional experiments, western blot, and histopathological analysis were used to determine the key causative factors which might antagonize bicyclol in female livers. HSF1 activation and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression, which were responsible for bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection, were compromised in female and castrated male livers. Compromised HSF1 activation was a result of HSF1 phosphorylation at serine 303, which was catalyzed by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Testosterone was necessary for bicyclol to inhibit hepatic GSK3β activity. Administration of testosterone or GSK3β inhibitors restored bicyclol-induced protection in females. Bicyclol induces sex-specific hepatoprotection based on a sex-specific HSF1/Hsp70 response, in which testosterone and GSK3β play key roles. Because a lot of patients suffering from liver diseases have very low testosterone levels, our results give a possible explanation for the clinical variation in bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection, as well as practicable solutions to improve the effect of bicyclol. PMID:25901028

  5. ISOTROPIC HEATING OF GALAXY CLUSTER CORES VIA RAPIDLY REORIENTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with Pjet = 1044–45 erg s–1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  6. CO2 emission baseline construction for Activities Implemented Jointly reporting in heat production sector

    The present work is dedicated to the calculation method for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions developed within the Joint Implementation projects of the Climate Change Framework Convention based on the case study of Estonian heat supply in 1990ies. Data of the Estonian Statistical Office and data of the Estonian Energy Research Institute on the use of fuels and heat production in recent decade have been used in the paper. CO2 emissions by the types of fuels have been calculated and emission reduction trend for the whole country is given based on the detailed statistics of the consumption of various fuels. This has been taken for a basis for calculating the decrease of CO2 emissions as a result of Joint Implementation pilot phase implementation between Sweden and Estonia. Baseline of CO2 emission has been constructed, considering the changes in the structure of fuel consumption as well as the forecasts of energy sector as whole. Constructed by authors of present paper baseline has been used by donor country for reporting to U N FCCC Secretariat in Bonn. Decision on credit sharing and emission trading between parties to Climate Convention has not been made yet, but Estonia and Sweden are ready for that looking forward to decisions to be made during the next conference of parties, COP 6. Authors do hope sincerely that the present contribution will elaborate to the solutions for future activities between two neighbours. (author)

  7. Adsorption characteristics and heat of adsorption measurements of R-134a on activated carbon

    Saha, Bidyut B. [Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Habib, Khairul; Koyama, Shigeru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); El-Sharkawy, Ibrahim I. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents adsorption isotherms of R-134a (HFC-134a) on highly porous pitch based activated carbon (Maxsorb III) in the temperature range of 5-70 C and pressures up to 12 bar, using desorption method. The experimental data have been fitted with the Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) isotherm equation. The adsorption isotherms of R-134a on Maxsorb III obtained from the present study are compared with the adsorption isotherm results of R-134a on similar type of adsorbents obtained by other researchers and they are found to be fairly consistent. The isosteric heat of adsorption of the assorted adsorbent-refrigerant pair has also been extracted from the present experimental data. (author)

  8. PEPIN, Methodology for Computing Concentrations, Activities, Gamma-Ray Spectra, and Residual Heat from Fission Products

    1 - Description of program or function: The concentrations, activities, gamma-ray spectra and residual heat from fission products can be calculated as a function of time for instantaneous fission or for one or more irradiation steps. 2 - Methods: Using the basic data in the libraries, the PEPIN code solves the differential equations satisfied by the fission product concentrations. Data Libraries: Independent Yields Library: 8 independent yields for 235U, 238U, 239U, 232U, 233U. Chain library: Precursor chain file for 635 nuclides. Gamma-Ray Energies Library: Average beta and gamma-ray energies in increasing order. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The number of nuclides must not exceed 650. The number of Gamma-Rays must not exceed 8500. The number of decay times must not exceed 59. The number of irradiation steps must not exceed 40

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of active cooling/heating methods for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles in extreme conditions

    The battery cooling/heating with active methods is required for EVs (electric vehicles) in the extreme temperature conditions. This work presents a new active battery cooling/heating method based on PCS (phase change slurry) cycle. Two typical often used active cooling/heating methods so-called the direct cabin air blow and refrigerant circulation are also illustrated in detail. The thermodynamic assessment is conducted on these battery active cooling/heating methods with both of 1st Law and 2nd Law analysis. The variations of extra thermal load to the vehicle air-conditioning system are investigated as changes of ambient temperature, humidity and thermal load for the direct cabin air blow method. The simulation results show that the direct cabin air blow method causes more extra thermal load to the air-conditioning system without considering the cabin ventilation effect. The PCS cycle method performs higher exergy efficiency than that of using refrigerant circulation method. - Highlights: • An active EV battery cooling/heating method based on PCS cycle is proposed. • Thermodynamic assessments are performed for the proposed methods. • The sensitivities of operation conditions to the methods are investigated

  10. Regional Heat Sources and the Active and Break Phases of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Variability

    Annamalai, H; Sperber, K R

    2003-12-15

    The boreal summer intraseasonal variability (BSISV) associated with the 30-50 day mode is represented by the co-existence of three components, poleward propagation of convection over the Indian and tropical west Pacific longitudes and eastward propagation along the equator. The hypothesis that the three components influence each other has been investigated using observed OLR, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, and solutions from an idealized linear model. The null hypothesis is that the three components are mutually independent. Cyclostationary EOF (CsEOF) analysis is applied on filtered OLR to extract the life-cycle of the BSISV. The dominant mode of CsEOF is significantly tied to observed rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. The components of the heating patterns from CsEOF analysis serve as prescribed forcings for the linear model. This allows us to ascertain which heat sources and sinks are instrumental in driving the large-scale monsoon circulation during the BSISV life-cycle. We identify three new findings: (1) the circulation anomalies that develop as a Rossby wave response to suppressed convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the previous break phase of the BSISV precondition the ocean-atmosphere system in the western Indian Ocean and trigger the next active phase of the BSISV, (2) the development of convection over the tropical west Pacific forces descent anomalies to the west. This, in conjunction with the weakened cross-equatorial flow due to suppressed convective anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean reduce the tropospheric moisture over the Arabian Sea, and promote westerly wind anomalies that do not recurve over India. As a result the low-level cyclonic vorticity shifts from India to southeast Asia and break conditions are initiated over India, and (3) the circulation anomalies forced by equatorial Indian Ocean convective anomalies significantly influence the active/break phases over the tropical west Pacific. Our model solutions support

  11. A practical cooling strategy for reducing the physiological strain associated with firefighting activity in the heat.

    Barr, D; Gregson, W; Sutton, L; Reilly, T

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether a practical cooling strategy reduces the physiological strain during simulated firefighting activity in the heat. On two separate occasions under high ambient temperatures (49.6 +/- 1.8 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) 13 +/- 2%), nine male firefighters wearing protective clothing completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km/h, 7.5% gradient) separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which firefighters were either cooled (cool) via application of an ice vest and hand and forearm water immersion ( approximately 19 degrees C) or remained seated without cooling (control). There was no significant difference between trials in any of the dependent variables during the first bout of exercise. Core body temperature (37.72 +/- 0.34 vs. 38.21 +/- 0.17 degrees C), heart rate (HR) (81 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 17 beats/min) and mean skin temperature (31.22 +/- 1.04 degrees C vs. 33.31 +/- 1 degrees C) were significantly lower following the recovery period in cool compared with control (p second bout of activity in cool compared to control. Mean skin temperature, HR and thermal sensation were significantly lower during bout 2 in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this practical cooling strategy is effective at reducing the physiological strain associated with demanding firefighting activity under high ambient temperatures. PMID:19401892

  12. The heat shock protein 90 of Plasmodium falciparum and antimalarial activity of its inhibitor, geldanamycin

    Barik Sailen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The naturally occurring benzoquinone ansamycin compound, geldanamycin (GA, is a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 and is a potential anticancer agent. Since Plasmodium falciparum has been reported to have an Hsp90 ortholog, we tested the possibility that GA might inhibit it and thereby display antiparasitic activity. Results We provide direct recombinant DNA evidence for the Hsp90 protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of fatal malaria. While the mRNA of Hsp90 was mainly expressed in ring and trophozoite stages, the protein was found in all stages, although schizonts contained relatively lower amounts. In vitro the parasitic Hsp90 exhibited an ATP-binding activity that could be specifically inhibited by GA. Plasmodium growth in human erythrocyte culture was strongly inhibited by GA with an IC50 of 20 nM, compared to the IC50 of 15 nM for chloroquine (CQ under identical conditions. When used in combination, the two drugs acted synergistically. GA was equally effective against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains (3D7 and W2, respectively and on all erythrocytic stages of the parasite. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that an active and essential Hsp90 chaperone cycle exists in Plasmodium and that the ansamycin antibiotics will be an important tool to dissect its role in the parasite. Additionally, the favorable pharmacology of GA, reported in human trials, makes it a promising antimalarial drug.

  13. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  14. Enzyme activity and effect of heat treatment on some fungal diseases of postharvest tomato fruits.

    Amer, M A; El-Abd, S M; Mansour, F G F

    2013-01-01

    The activity of heat treatments for controlling tomato black mould caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Pers. wWas tested. Spore suspension of the grey mold pathogen which was exposed to hot water treatment at 58 degrees C for 6 min., failed to germinate, whereas A. alternata failed to germinate when exposed to hot water at 58 degrees C, for 8 min. Exposing discs bearing growth of any both tested fungi to hot air at 48 degrees C for 72 h caused growth suppression for the both tested pathogens. Dipping tomato fruits in hot water at 58 degrees C for 8 min or keeping in hot air for 72 h at 40 degrees C prevented decay development in non inoculated or artificially inoculated fruits with A. alternata and B. cinerea up to 12 days when stored at 24 degrees C. The high amount of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylestrase (BME) enzymes were investigated in infected fruits by the two tested pathogens as compared by healthy ones. The culture filtrate of A. alternata had the highest protease activity, white B. cinerea was the lowest. Protease activity was higher when CD liquid medium contain casein was used. PMID:25151835

  15. Heating of dust in the broad-line regions of active galaxies and quasars

    In this paper we discuss the relevant energy sources which heat (and, in many cases, destroy) the dust grains in the emission-line clouds (ELCs) which give rise to the broad-line emission seen in active extragalactic objects. We compare the heating rates from the external radiation field, trapped line radiation, and the diffuse bound-free continua. We find that in hot clouds (T/sub e/ = 1.5 x 104 K) Lyα dominates the dust heating rate, while in cooler clouds (T/sub e/ = 1.0 x 104 K) the external radiation field dominates. In all cases, the dust residing in the broad-line clouds is quite hot (T>500 K). These results are discussed in light of the observed infrared properties of active galaxies and quasars, and the following conclusions are reached: (1) If the infrared emission of Seyfert 1 galaxies is primarily thermal in origin, then the redder near-IR colors distinguishing the Seyfert 1 galaxies from the Seyfert 2 galaxies may be understood in terms of the broad-line regions (BLR) concentrating hot dust within the inner parsec of the of the nucleus. (2) Substantial near-infrared dust emission may originate in the neutral regions of the ELCs with only minor accompanying reddening of the hydrogen Balmer lines, since dust confined to the neutral zone reddens only lines emitted from the back side of the cloud. (3) If the broad-line regions of the quasars are characterized by hotter temperatures than Seyfert 1 galaxies, dust may not be able to exist in this region, thereby explaining the apparent lack of thermal dust emission in quasars. (4) Because of the cooling times of the ELCs, near-IR variability due to changes in the dust temperature is dominated by light travel considerations. (5) The present calculations suggest that the dust-to-gas mass ratio in the BLRs of Seyfert 1 galaxies is substantially smaller than the value of 0.01 typically found in our Galaxy

  16. Surface Cleaning or Activation?Control of Surface Condition Prior to Thermo-Chemical Heat Treatment

    Brigitte Haase; Juan Dong; Jens Heinlein

    2004-01-01

    Actual heat treatment processes must face increasing specifications with reference to process quality, safety and results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. They can be met only if the parts' surface condition is controlled during manufacturing and, especially, prior to the treatment. An electrochemical method for the detection of a steel part's surface condition is presented, together with results, consequences, and mechanisms concerning surface pre-treatment before the thermochemical process. A steel surface's activity or passivity can be detected electrochemically, independently from the chemical background. The selected method was the recording of potential vs. time curves at small constant currents, using a miniaturized electrochemical cell, a (nearly) non-destructive electrolyte and a potentio-galvanostatic setup. The method enables to distinguish types of surface contamination which do not interfere with the thermochemical process, from passive layers which do and must be removed. Whereas some types of passive layers can be removed using conventional cleaning processes and agents, others are so stable that their effects can only be overcome by applying an additional activation pre-treatment, e.g. oxynitriding.

  17. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal

    Sankar Nath; S D Kotal; P K Kundu

    2016-02-01

    The upper ocean heat content up to 700 m depth (OHC700) is an important climatic parameter required for atmospheric and oceanographic studies like a cyclone. In this study, therefore, an attempt has been made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the Bay of Bengal (BOB) for the post-monsoon season (October–December) during 1955–2013 periods. The sea-surface temperature (SST), geopotential height at 500 hPa, low-level vorticity at 850 hPa, vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, middle tropospheric humidity at 500 hPa and outgoing long-wave radiation are also being studied using seasonal mean data. The results show a significant inter-decadal variation during 1955–2013, with two distinct decadal periods: active decadal period (ADP) (1955–1988) and inactive decadal period (IDP) (1989–2013). The anomalies of these parameters are opposite in phase for two periods. It is found that the large scale atmospheric features and oceanic parameters have significant inter-decadal variability, but frequency of the tropical cyclone is attributed to the variation in the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic conditions rather than the variation of oceanic parameters OHC700 and SSTs during the post-monsoon season.

  18. Impact of individual acid flue gas components on mercury capture by heat-treated activated carbon

    Jian-ming ZHENG; Jin-song ZHOU; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN

    2012-01-01

    Elemental mercury capture on heat-treated activated carbon (TAC) was studied using a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor.The capability of TAC to perform Hg0 capture under both N2 and baseline gas atmospheres was studied and the effects of common acid gas constituents were evaluated individually to avoid complications resulting from the coexistence of multiple components.The results suggest that surface functional groups (SFGs) on activated carbon (AC) are vital to Hg0 capture in the absence of acid gases.Meanwhile,the presence of acid gas components coupled with defective graphitic lattices on TAC plays an important role in effective Hg0 capture.The presence of HCl,NO2,and NO individually in basic gases markedly enhances Hg0 capture on TAC due to the heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 on acidic sites created on the carbon surface and catalysis by the defective graphitic lattices on TAC.Similarly,the presence of SO2 improves Hg0 capture by about 20%.This improvement likely results from the deposition of sulfur groups on the AC surface and oxidation of the elemental mercury by SO2 due to catalysis on the carbon surface.Furthermore,O2 exhibits a synergistic effect on Hg0 oxidation and capture when acid gases are present in the flue gases.

  19. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal

    Nath, Sankar; Kotal, S. D.; Kundu, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    The upper ocean heat content up to 700 m depth (OHC700) is an important climatic parameter required for atmospheric and oceanographic studies like a cyclone. In this study, therefore, an attempt has been made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the Bay of Bengal (BOB) for the post-monsoon season (October-December) during 1955-2013 periods. The sea-surface temperature (SST), geopotential height at 500 hPa, low-level vorticity at 850 hPa, vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, middle tropospheric humidity at 500 hPa and outgoing long-wave radiation are also being studied using seasonal mean data. The results show a significant inter-decadal variation during 1955-2013, with two distinct decadal periods: active decadal period (ADP) (1955-1988) and inactive decadal period (IDP) (1989-2013). The anomalies of these parameters are opposite in phase for two periods. It is found that the large scale atmospheric features and oceanic parameters have significant inter-decadal variability, but frequency of the tropical cyclone is attributed to the variation in the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic conditions rather than the variation of oceanic parameters OHC700 and SSTs during the post-monsoon season.

  20. Inference of Heating Properties from "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores I. Single Nanoflares

    Barnes, W T; Bradshaw, S J

    2016-01-01

    The properties expected of "hot" non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions are investigated using hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the EBTEL code. Here we study a single nanoflare and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK that is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium and, for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the "smoking gun" of nanoflare heating, lies between $10^{6.6}$ and $10^7$ K. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  1. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element...... the performance of the new deck with PCM concrete is the thermal properties of such a new material, as the PCM concrete is yet to be well defined. The results presented in the paper include models in which the PCM concrete material properties, such as thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity were first...... with and without microencapsulated PCM are presented. The new concrete deck with microencapsulated PCM is the standard deck on which an additional layer of the PCM concrete was added and, at the same time, the latent heat storage was introduced to the construction. The challenge of numerically simulating...

  2. Apparent activation energy for densification of -Al2O3 powder at constant heating-rate sintering

    W Q Shao; S O Chen; D Li; H S Cao; Y C Zhang; S S Zhang

    2008-11-01

    The apparent activation energy for densification is a characteristic quantity that elucidates the fundamental diffusion mechanisms during the sintering process. Based on the Arrhenius theory, the activation energy for densification of -Al2O3 at constant heating-rates sintering has been estimated. Sintering of -Al2O3 powder has been executed by the way of a push rod type dilatometer. It is shown that the apparent activation energy does not have a single value but depends directly on the relative density. The apparent activation energy corresponding to lower relative density was higher than that corresponding to higher relative density. In addition, the value of the evaluated activation energy is different at the same density level when the Arrhenius plot involves different heating rates.

  3. Heat Treatment of Small Heat Shock Proteins α-Crystallin and Hsp16.3: Structural Changes vs. Chaperone-like Activity

    毛启龙; 柯丹霞; 昌增益

    2001-01-01

    Both α-crystallin from bovine eye lens and Hsp16.3 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are members of the small heat shock protein family, They were preincubated at 100 C for 15 min and then cooled on ice immediately. The chaperone-like activities of preheated proteins were measured at 37 C using DTT-treated insulin B chains as substrates. Both preheated proteins exhibited greatly enhanced chaperone-like activities, accompanied with almost unchanged secondary structures and surface hydrophobicity but with a minor change in tertiary structures. The dramatically enhanced chaperone-like activities of preheated α-crystallln and Hsp16.3 may have resulted from the irreversible change in the tertiary structure as detected by near-UV CD spectra.

  4. Diagnosing the time-dependence of active region core heating from the emission measure: II. Nanoflare trains

    Reep, Jeffrey W; Klimchuk, James A; 10.1088/0004-637X/764/2/193

    2013-01-01

    The time-dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution cool-ward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a "nanoflare train" and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are: (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration $\\Delta_H$ to the post-train cooling and draining timescale $\\Delta_C$, where $\\Delta_H$ depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time ...

  5. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K

  6. Oral vaccination with heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis activates the complement system to protect against tuberculosis.

    Beatriz Beltrán-Beck

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV. Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar.

  7. Intersession reliability of fMRI activation for heat pain and motor tasks

    Raimi L. Quiton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the practice of conducting longitudinal fMRI studies to assess mechanisms of pain-reducing interventions becomes more common, there is a great need to assess the test–retest reliability of the pain-related BOLD fMRI signal across repeated sessions. This study quantitatively evaluated the reliability of heat pain-related BOLD fMRI brain responses in healthy volunteers across 3 sessions conducted on separate days using two measures: (1 intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC calculated based on signal amplitude and (2 spatial overlap. The ICC analysis of pain-related BOLD fMRI responses showed fair-to-moderate intersession reliability in brain areas regarded as part of the cortical pain network. Areas with the highest intersession reliability based on the ICC analysis included the anterior midcingulate cortex, anterior insula, and second somatosensory cortex. Areas with the lowest intersession reliability based on the ICC analysis also showed low spatial reliability; these regions included pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and posterior insula. Thus, this study found regional differences in pain-related BOLD fMRI response reliability, which may provide useful information to guide longitudinal pain studies. A simple motor task (finger-thumb opposition was performed by the same subjects in the same sessions as the painful heat stimuli were delivered. Intersession reliability of fMRI activation in cortical motor areas was comparable to previously published findings for both spatial overlap and ICC measures, providing support for the validity of the analytical approach used to assess intersession reliability of pain-related fMRI activation. A secondary finding of this study is that the use of standard ICC alone as a measure of reliability may not be sufficient, as the underlying variance structure of an fMRI dataset can result in inappropriately high ICC values; a method to eliminate these false positive results

  8. The influence of electric ARC activation on the speed of heating and the structure of metal in welds

    Savytsky Oleksandr M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research related to the impact of electric arc activation onto drive welding energy and metal weld heating speed. It is confirmed that ATIG and AMIG methods, depending on metal thickness, single pass weldability and chemical composition of activating flux, enable the reduction of welding energy by 2-6 times when compared to conventional welding methods. Additionally, these procedures create conditions to increase metal weld heating speed up to 1,500-5,500°C/s-1. Steel which can be rapidly heated, allows for a hardened structure to form (with carbon content up to 0.4%, together with a released martensitic structure or a mixture of bainitic-martensitic structures. Results of the research of effectiveness of ATIG and AMIG welding showed that increase in the penetration capability of electric arc, which increases welding productivity, is the visible side of ATIG and AMIG welding capabilities.

  9. RhoA Activation Sensitizes Cells to Proteotoxic Stimuli by Abrogating the HSF1-Dependent Heat Shock Response

    Meijering, Roelien A. M.; Wiersma, Marit; van Marion, Denise M. S.; Zhang, Deli; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Schmidt, Martina; Wieland, Thomas; Kampinga, Harm H.; Henning, Robert H.; Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The heat shock response (HSR) is an ancient and highly conserved program of stress-induced gene expression, aimed at reestablishing protein homeostasis to preserve cellular fitness. Cells that fail to activate or maintain this protective response are hypersensitive to proteotoxic stress.

  10. Preparation and analysis of active rat model of rheumatoid arthritis with features of TCM toxic heat-stasis painful obstruction

    Yanan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The CIA model established in this study presents both active RA pathologic features and characteristics of the symptoms of toxic heat-stasis painful obstruction 12 weeks after successful establishment of an animal model. In addition, this study may be a valuable reference for development of animal studies with combined Eastern and Western medicines in dialectics and identification of diseases.

  11. Ion-heated thermal Comptonization models and x-ray spectral correlations in active galactic nuclei

    Recent Ginga observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies NGC 4051 and MCG 6-30-15 show a positive correlation between the 2-10 keV luminosity and photon spectral index α. Similar behavior has also been reported in Exosat and Einstein observations of other active galactic nuclei, and is suggested in hard x-ray low-state data of the galactic black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1. A two-temperature thermal Comptonization model with internal soft-photon production provides a simple explanation for this correlation. The electron temperature, determined by a balance between ion heating and radiative cooling, decreases in response to an enhancement of the soft photon flux, resulting in a softening of the spectrum and an increase in the soft x-ray luminosity. The bulk of the soft photons are produced through pion production in collisions between the hot ions. Pivoting of the spectrum at photon energies var-epsilon > 50 keV is a consequence of variations in the ion temperature. An important test of the model would be time correlations between soft and hard x-ray bands. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  13. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans

    Petrie, Michael A.; Kimball, Amy L.; McHenry, Colleen L.; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Methods: Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. Results: We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05); while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05). Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05), but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05) while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold) and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative

  14. Effects of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) on evolution of astrocyte activation following stroke in the mouse

    Barreto, George E.; White, Robin E.; Xu, Lijun; Palm, Curtis J.; Giffard, Rona G.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocyte activation is a hallmark of the response to brain ischemia consisting of changes in gene expression and morphology. Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) protects from cerebral ischemia, and although several protective mechanisms have been investigated, effects on astrocyte activation have not been studied. To identify potential mechanisms of protection, microarray analysis was used to assess gene expression in the ischemic hemispheres of wild-type (WT) and Hsp72-overexpressing (Hsp72Tg) mi...

  15. Enzyme Activity Dynamics in Response to Climate Change: 2011 Drought-Heat Wave

    Extreme weather events such as severe droughts and heat waves may have permanent consequences on soil quality and functioning in agroecosystems. The Southern High Plains (SHP) region of Texas, U.S., a large cotton producing area, experienced a historically extreme drought and heat wave during 2011,...

  16. Thermo Active Building Systems Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany...

  17. RhoA Activation Sensitizes Cells to Proteotoxic Stimuli by Abrogating the HSF1-Dependent Heat Shock Response.

    Roelien A M Meijering

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is an ancient and highly conserved program of stress-induced gene expression, aimed at reestablishing protein homeostasis to preserve cellular fitness. Cells that fail to activate or maintain this protective response are hypersensitive to proteotoxic stress. The HSR is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, which binds to conserved heat shock elements (HSE in the promoter region of heat shock genes, resulting in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP. Recently, we observed that hyperactivation of RhoA conditions cardiomyocytes for the cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation. Also, the HSR is annihilated in atrial fibrillation, and induction of HSR mitigates sensitization of cells to this disease. Therefore, we hypothesized active RhoA to suppress the HSR resulting in sensitization of cells for proteotoxic stimuli.Stimulation of RhoA activity significantly suppressed the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR in HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes as determined with a luciferase reporter construct driven by the HSF1 regulated human HSP70 (HSPA1A promoter and HSP protein expression by Western Blot analysis. Inversely, RhoA inhibition boosted the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR. While active RhoA did not preclude HSF1 nuclear accumulation, phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation, it did impair binding of HSF1 to the hsp genes promoter element HSE. Impaired binding results in suppression of HSP expression and sensitized cells to proteotoxic stress.These results reveal that active RhoA negatively regulates the HSR via attenuation of the HSF1-HSE binding and thus may play a role in sensitizing cells to proteotoxic stimuli.

  18. Fluoridation and oxidation behavior of JLF-1 and NIFS-HEAT-2 low activation structural materials

    Full text of publication follows: Corrosion of structural materials, such as JLF-1 (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.1C-V-Ta) and NIFSHEAT- 2 (V-4Cr-4Ti), is paid attention most in Flibe (LiF-BeF2) blanket development. In a previous corrosion study on steels, only oxides were identified as corrosion products after a conventional Flibe exposure test, while fluorides were indicated in another report with high purity Flibe after dehydration treatment. In order to clarify the corrosion mechanism in Flibe, it is essential to understand the competitive process by fluoridation and oxidation. Purpose of the present study is to characterize corrosion products of the low activation materials after fluoridation, oxidation and Flibe exposure tests, and to evaluate corrosion resistance of the materials in various conditions. JLF-1 JOYO-II heat and NIFS-HEAT-2 were machined and polished into specimens with 1 x 10 x 20 mm or 1 x 10 x 15 mm in size. The same size specimens of pure Fe, Cr, W, V and Ti were also prepared. The specimens were exposed to HF-H2O solution at room temperature, and to flowing He-HF-O2 gas mixture and static molten salt Flibe at 673-873 K. High purity HF gas was made by a reaction between NiF2 and dehydrated He-H2 gas mixture. Flibe was dehydrated by HF gas bubbling treatment. After the exposure tests, weight change was measured. Corrosion products and microstructural change at the surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). In a XRD spectrum of JLF-1 after Flibe exposure at 823 K for 2003 hr, some peaks considered as FeF2 and CrF2 were observed, however their intensity was not enough to identify the compounds. The morphology and composition of the corrosion products were analyzed by SEM and compared with the one made in accelerated fluoridation tests with various composition of He-HF-O2 gas mixture. (authors)

  19. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages......, occupancy scenarios and ventilation rates. The gained results indicate that the heat capacity coefficient of the ceiling surface is reduced by around 30% when the suspended ceiling covering is 70% of the total ceiling area, and 45% when the covering area is up to 87%. The results also demonstrate...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout....

  20. Study of plate-fin heat exchanger and cold plate for the active thermal control system of Space Station

    Chyu, MING-C.

    1992-01-01

    Plate-fin heat exchangers will be employed in the Active Thermal Control System of Space Station Freedom. During ground testing of prototypic heat exchangers, certain anomalous behaviors have been observed. Diagnosis has been conducted to determine the cause of the observed behaviors, including a scrutiny of temperature, pressure, and flow rate test data, and verification calculations based on such data and more data collected during the ambient and thermal/vacuum tests participated by the author. The test data of a plate-fin cold plate have been also analyzed. Recommendation was made with regard to further tests providing more useful information of the cold plate performance.

  1. Scientific feedback from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) are one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m-2 of nominal convected heat flux. A technical feedback is given from the whole development up to the industrialization and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about the injected gas during long discharges. (authors)

  2. Antimicrobial activity of plant compounds against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and the influence of heat and storage on the antimicrobial activity.

    Chen, Cynthia H; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Marchello, John; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica is a predominant foodborne pathogen that causes diarrheal illness worldwide. A potential method of inhibiting pathogenic bacterial growth in meat is through the introduction of plant-derived antimicrobials. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of heat (70°C for 5 min) and subsequent cold storage (4°C up to 7 days) on the effectiveness of oregano and cinnamon essential oils and powdered olive and apple extracts against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and to evaluate the activity of the most effective antimicrobials (cinnamon oil and olive extract) at higher concentrations in heated ground pork. The surviving Salmonella populations in two groups (heated and unheated) of antimicrobial-treated pork were compared. Higher concentrations of the most effective compounds were then tested (cinnamon oil at 0.5 to 1.0% and olive extract at 3, 4, and 5%) against Salmonella Typhimurium in heated ground pork. Samples were stored at 4°C and taken on days 0, 3, 5, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. The heating process did not affect the activity of antimicrobials. Significant 1.3- and 3-log reductions were observed with 1.0% cinnamon oil and 5% olive extract, respectively, on day 7. The minimum concentration required to achieve . 1-log reduction in Salmonella population was 0.8% cinnamon oil or 4% olive extract. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of these antimicrobials against multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in ground pork and their stability during heating and cold storage. The most active formulations have the potential to enhance the microbial safety of ground pork. PMID:23834804

  3. Modeling active galactic nucleus feedback in cool-core clusters: The balance between heating and cooling

    We study the long-term evolution of an idealized cool-core galaxy cluster under the influence of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback using three-dimensional high-resolution (60 pc) adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The feedback is modeled with a pair of precessing jets whose power is calculated based on the accretion rate of the cold gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The intracluster medium first cools into clumps along the propagation direction of the jets. As the jet power increases, gas condensation occurs isotropically, forming spatially extended structures that resemble the observed Hα filaments in Perseus and many other cool-core clusters. Jet heating elevates the gas entropy, halting clump formation. The cold gas that is not accreted onto the SMBH settles into a rotating disk of ∼1011 M ☉. The hot gas cools directly onto the disk while the SMBH accretes from its innermost region, powering the AGN that maintains a thermally balanced state for a few Gyr. The mass cooling rate averaged over 7 Gyr is ∼30 M ☉ yr–1, an order of magnitude lower than the classic cooling flow value. Medium resolution simulations produce similar results, while in low resolution runs, the cluster experiences cycles of gas condensation and AGN outbursts. Owing to its self-regulating mechanism, AGN feedback can successfully balance cooling with a wide range of model parameters. Our model also produces cold structures in early stages that are in good agreement with the observations. However, the long-lived massive cold disk is unrealistic, suggesting that additional physical processes are still needed.

  4. Heat Capacity Changes and Disorder-to-Order Transitions in Allosteric Activation.

    Cressman, William J; Beckett, Dorothy

    2016-01-19

    Allosteric coupling in proteins is ubiquitous but incompletely understood, particularly in systems characterized by coupling over large distances. Binding of the allosteric effector, bio-5'-AMP, to the Escherichia coli biotin protein ligase, BirA, enhances the protein's dimerization free energy by -4 kcal/mol. Previous studies revealed that disorder-to-order transitions at the effector binding and dimerization sites, which are separated by 33 Å, are integral to functional coupling. Perturbations to the transition at the ligand binding site alter both ligand binding and coupled dimerization. Alanine substitutions in four loops on the dimerization surface yield a range of energetic effects on dimerization. A glycine to alanine substitution at position 142 in one of these loops results in a complete loss of allosteric coupling, disruption of the disorder-to-order transitions at both functional sites, and a decreased affinity for the effector. In this work, allosteric communication between the effector binding and dimerization surfaces in BirA was further investigated by performing isothermal titration calorimetry measurements on nine proteins with alanine substitutions in three dimerization surface loops. In contrast to BirAG142A, at 20 °C all variants bind to bio-5'-AMP with free energies indistinguishable from that measured for wild-type BirA. However, the majority of the variants exhibit altered heat capacity changes for effector binding. Moreover, the ΔCp values correlate with the dimerization free energies of the effector-bound proteins. These thermodynamic results, combined with structural information, indicate that allosteric activation of the BirA monomer involves formation of a network of intramolecular interactions on the dimerization surface in response to bio-5'-AMP binding at the distant effector binding site. PMID:26678378

  5. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of extracts prepared from fermented heat-stabilized defatted rice bran.

    Webber, Daniel M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Li, Ruiqi; Horax, Ronny; Theivendran, Sivarooban

    2014-11-01

    Heat-stabilized, defatted rice bran (HDRB) serves as a potential source of phenolic compounds which have numerous purported health benefits. An estimated 70% of phenolics present in rice bran are esterified to the arabinoxylan residues of the cell walls. Release of such compounds could provide a value-added application for HDRB. The objective of this study was to extract and quantify phenolics from HDRB using fermentation technology. Out of 8 organisms selected for rice bran fermentation, Bacillus subtilis subspecies subtilis had the maximum phenolic release of 26.8 mg ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram HDRB. Response surface methodology was used to further optimize the release of rice bran phenolics. An optimum of 28.6 mg FAE/g rice bran was predicted at 168 h, 0.01% inoculation level, and 100 mg HDRB/mL. Fermentation of HDRB for 96 h with B. subtilis subspecies subtilis resulted in a significant increase in phenolic yield, phenolic concentration, and radical scavenging capacity. Fermented rice bran had 4.86 mg gentistic acid, 1.38 mg caffeic acid, 6.03 mg syringic acid, 19.02 mg (-)-epicatechin, 4.08 mg p-courmaric acid, 4.64 mg ferulic acid, 10.04 mg sinapic acid, and 17.59 mg benzoic acid per 100 g fermented extract compared to 0.65 mg p-courmaric acid and 0.36 mg ferulic acid per 100 g nonfermented extract. The high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented HDRB extract indicates that rice bran fermentation under optimized condition is a potential means of meeting the demand for an effective and affordable antioxidant. PMID:25307751

  6. Blockage of protease-activated receptor 1 ameliorates heat-stress induced intestinal high permeability and bacterial translocation.

    Xu, Qiu-lin; Guo, Xiao-hua; Liu, Jing-xian; Chen, Bin; Liu, Zhi-feng; Su, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidences indicate intestinal lesions play an important role in the pathogenesis of heatstroke. However, the underlying mechanisms by which heat stress causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in heat stress-induced intestinal hyper-permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal permeability in heat stressed mouse was evaluated by determining plasma endotoxin concentration and urinal lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio with gastric administration of L/M solution. Venous blood, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node tissues were collected for bacterial load test. Real time PCR was used to determine ileum PAR1 mRNA expression. In vitro study, permeability was assessed by determining trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. RWJ-58259, a selective antagonist of PAR1, was used both in vivo and in vitro studies. The results showed that heat stress could increase ileum PAR1 mRNA level, urinal L/M ratio, plasma endotoxin concentration and bacterial load in the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Blocking PAR1 with RWJ-58259 (10 mg/kg) pretreatment could significantly reduce heat stress-induced above changes, but have no role to PAR1 mRNA level. In Caco-2 cells, heat stress-induced high permeability could also be reduced by RWJ-58259 (5-20 µmol/L). In summary, our results demonstrated that PAR1 signaling pathway may play an important role in the heat stress-induced elevation of intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and the occurrence of endotoxemia. PMID:25492552

  7. Heat stress activates phospholipase D and triggers PIP2 accumulation at the plasma membrane and nucleus

    M. Mishkind; J.E.M. Vermeer; E. Darwish; T. Munnik

    2009-01-01

    Heat stress induces an array of physiological adjustments that facilitate continued homeostasis and survival during periods of elevated temperatures. Here, we report that within minutes of a sudden temperature increase, plants deploy specific phospholipids to specific intracellular locations: phosph

  8. Mesothelioma Cells Escape Heat Stress by Upregulating Hsp40/Hsp70 Expression via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

    Michael Roth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy with hyperthermal chemotherapy in pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma had limited benefits for patients. Here we investigated the effect of heat stress on heat shock proteins (HSP, which rescue tumour cells from apoptosis. In human mesothelioma and mesothelial cells heat stress (39–42°C induced the phosphorylation of two mitogen activated kinases (MAPK Erk1/2 and p38, and increased Hsp40, and Hsp70 expression. Mesothelioma cells expressed more Hsp40 and were less sensitive to heat stress compared to mesothelial cells. Inhibition of Erk1/2 MAPK by PD98059 or by Erk1 siRNA down-regulated heat stress-induced Hsp40 and Hsp70 expression and reduced mesothelioma cell survival. Inhibition of p38MAPK by SB203580 or siRNA reduced Hsp40, but not Hsp70, expression and also increased mesothelioma cell death. Thus hyperthermia combined with suppression of p38 MAPK or Hsp40 may represent a novel approach to improve mesothelioma therapy.

  9. Heat generates oxidized linoleic acid metabolites that activate TRPV1 and produce pain in rodents

    Patwardhan, Amol M.; Akopian, Armen N.; Ruparel, Nikita B.; Diogenes, Anibal; Weintraub, Susan T; Uhlson, Charis; Murphy, Robert C.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is the principal detector of noxious heat in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 is expressed in many nociceptors and is involved in heat-induced hyperalgesia and thermoregulation. The precise mechanism or mechanisms mediating the thermal sensitivity of TRPV1 are unknown. Here, we have shown that the oxidized linoleic acid metabolites 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE) are formed in mouse and rat skin biopsies b...

  10. Convex optimization of MRI exposure for mitigation of RF-heating from active medical implants

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient’s anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant’s RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI. The study emphasizes the complementary performances of the different formulations. The analysis demonstrates that RF-induced heating of elongated metallic medical implants can be carefully controlled and balanced against MRI quality. A reduction of heating of up to 25 dB can be achieved at the cost of reduced uniformity in the magnitude of the B1+ field of less than 5%. The current formulations incorporate a priori knowledge of clinically-specific parameters, which is assumed to be available. Before these techniques can be applied practically in the broader clinical context, further investigations are needed to determine whether reduced access to a priori knowledge regarding, e.g. the patient’s anatomy, implant routing, RF-transmitter, and RF-implant coupling, can be accepted within reasonable levels of uncertainty.

  11. Effects of Heat, pH, and Gamma Irradiation Treatments on Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Sargassum thunbergii Ethanol Extract

    Inhibitory activity of Sagassum thunbergii (ST) against porcine pancreatic lipase was assessed after heat treatment, pH changes, and gamma irradiation. This analysis revealed that the ST ethanol extract exhibited high lipase inhibitory activity (37.37%) at 5 mg/mL. The ST ethanol extract was treated with heat at 60°C for 10, 30, and 60 min; 80 and 100°C for 10 and 20 min; and 121°C for 15 min, pH (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) and γ -irradiation (3, 7 and 20 kGy). The lipase inhibitory activity of the ST ethanol extract increased in all heat treatments, especially at 121°C for 15 min (51.55%) compared with the control. With regard to pH stability, the ST ethanol extract showed no significant changes at pH 4 ~ 8, but somewhat decreased inhibitory activity was revealed at pH 2 (26.25%) and 10 (29.93%). On the other hand, the ST ethanol extract was not affected by γ -irradiation treatment conditions used in this study. These results suggest that ST has a potential role as a functional food agent. (author)

  12. The response of electron transport mediated by active NADPH dehydrogenase complexes to heat stress in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803

    2008-01-01

    The electron-transport machinery in photosynthetic membranes is known to be very sensitive to heat. In this study, the rate of electron transport (ETR) driven by photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) during heat stress in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (WT) and its ndh gene inactiva-tion mutants △ndhB (M55) and △ndhD1/ndhD2 (D1/D2) was simultaneously assessed by using the novel Dual-PAM-100 measuring system. The rate of electron transport driven by the photosystems (ETRPSs) in the WT, M55, and D1/D2 cells incubated at 30℃ and at 55℃ for 10 min was compared. Incubation at 55 ℃ for 10 min significantly inhibited PSII-driven ETR (ETRPSII) in the WT, M55 and D1/D2 cells, and the ex-tent of inhibition in both the M55 and D1/D2 cells was greater than that in the WT cells. Further, PSI-driven ETR (ETRPSI) was stimulated in both the WT and D1/D2 cells, and this rate was increased to a greater extent in the D1/D2 than in the WT cells. However, ETRPSI was considerably inhibited in the M55 cells. Analysis of the effect of heat stress on ETRPSs with regard to the alterations in the 2 active NDH-1 complexes in the WT, M55, and D1/D2 cells indicated that the active NDH-1 supercomplex and medi-umcomplex are essential for alleviating the heat-induced inhibition of ETRPSII and for accelerating the heat-induced stimulation of ETRPSI, respectively. Further, it is believed that these effects are most likely brought about by the electron transport mediated by each of these 2 active NDH-1 complexes.

  13. Comparison of the effects of millimeter wave irradiation, general bath heating, and localized heating on neuronal activity in the leech ganglion

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.

  14. Cloning of ubiquitin-activating enzyme and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme genes from Gracilaria lemaneiformis and their activity under heat shock.

    Li, Guang-Qi; Zang, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Lu, Ning; Ding, Yan; Gong, Le; Chen, Wen-Chao

    2014-03-15

    To study the response of Gracilaria lemaneiformis to heat stress, two key enzymes - ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) - of the Ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway (UPP) were studied in three strains of G. lemaneiformis-wild type, heat-tolerant cultivar 981 and heat-tolerant cultivar 07-2. The full length DNA sequence of E1 contained only one exon. The open reading frame (ORF) sequence was 981 nucleotides encoding 326 amino acids, which contained conserved ATP binding sites (LYDRQIRLWGLE, ELAKNVLLAGV, LKEMN, VVCAI) and the ubiquitin-activating domains (VVCAI…LMTEAC, VFLDLGDEYSYQ, AIVGGMWGRE). The gene sequence of E2 contained four exons and three introns. The sum of the four exons gave an open reading frame sequence of 444 nucleotides encoding 147 amino acids, which contained a conserved ubiquitin-activating domain (GSICLDIL), ubiquitin-conjugating domains (RIYHPNIN, KVLLSICSLL, DDPLV) and ubiquitin-ligase (E3) recognition sites (KRI, YPF, WSP). Real-time-PCR analysis of transcription levels of E1 and E2 under heat shock conditions (28°C and 32°C) showed that in wild type, transcriptions of E1 and E2 were up-regulated at 28°C, while at 32°C, transcriptions of the two enzymes were below the normal level. In cultivar 981 and cultivar 07-2 of G. lemaneiformis, the transcription levels of the two enzymes were up-regulated at 32°C, and transcription level of cultivar 07-2 was even higher than that of cultivar 981. These results suggest that the UPP plays an important role in high temperature resistance of G. lemaneiformis and the bioactivity of UPP is directly related to the heat-resistant ability of G. lemaneiformis. PMID:24365593

  15. Decay Heat Code Validation Activities at ORNL: Supporting Expansion of NRC Regulatory Guide 3.54

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long history of involvement in the development and validation of the ORIGEN series of isotope summation codes and nuclear data libraries, widely recognized and used to predict the decay heat for spent nuclear fuel. In particular, the ORIGEN-S code, the depletion/decay module of the SCALE code system, has been extensively validated using experimental isotopic assay data and decay heat measurements for commercial spent fuel. This work was used in the development of the technical basis for NRC Regulatory Guide 3.54 on spent fuel decay heat. The bulk of the experimental data used to validate spent fuel decay heat predictions are from programs of the 1970s and 1980s and consequently involve older-design fuel assemblies with a relatively low enrichment and burnup. This has led to a situation where the spent fuel now being discharged from operating reactors extends well beyond the regime of the experimental data and area of code applicability based on the data. The absence of validation data for modern fuel designs has potentially serious consequences for decay heat predictions in terms of added safety factors to account for larger uncertainties and lower volumetric transport and storage capacities

  16. A contribution to the investigation of the heat load of shock absorbers of semi-active suspensions in motor vehicles

    Miroslav D. Demić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modeling, has a significant role during the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant vehicle parameters are to be defined. Shock absorbers as executive parts of vehicle semi-active suspension systems suffer thermal loads, which may result in damage and degradation of ther characteristics. Therefore,this paper shows an attempt to analyze converting of mechanical work into heat by using the dynamic simulation method. Introduction Shock absorbers are integral elements of semi-active suspension systems for vehicles (hereinafter SASS. They directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of shock absorbers is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the road and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. The kinetic energy of vehicle vibrations transforms into mechanical work or heat in shock absorbers. In practice, in the first stage of vehicle development, the shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping vibrations of vehicles, but their thermal shock loads should be also taken into account. Motor vehicles have complex dynamic characteristics manifested by spatial movement, parameters change during operation, a number of disturbing influences, backlash, friction, hysteresis, etc. The above-mentioned dynamic phenomena, especially vibration, lead to fatigue of driver and users, reduce the life of the vehicle and its systems, etc. The main objective of the system is to reduce the reliance of the above-mentioned negative effects, improving the vehicle behavior on the road and allow the exploitation of vehicles in a wide range of service conditions. Classical systems cannot satisfiy these conditions, so there was a need to introduce new suspension systems with controlled characteristics (briefly called "semi-active", or "active" systems. Oscillatory model of vehicle The differential equations of vibratory motion of

  17. Heat shock protein 70 prevents secretagogue-induced cell injury in the pancreas by preventing intracellular trypsinogen activation

    Bhagat, Lakshmi; Singh, Vijay P.; Hietaranta, Antti J.; Agrawal, Sudhir; Steer, Michael L; Saluja, Ashok K

    2000-01-01

    Rodents given a supramaximally stimulating dose of cholecystokinin or its analogue cerulein develop acute pancreatitis with acinar cell injury, pancreatic inflammation, and intrapancreatic digestive enzyme (i.e., trypsinogen) activation. Prior thermal stress is associated with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and protection against cerulein-induced pancreatitis. However, thermal stress can also induce expression of other HSPs. The current studies were performed using an in vitro syste...

  18. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ∆(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity. PMID:26094213

  19. Modification of Activated Carbon by Means of Microwave Heating and Its Effects on the Pore Texture and Surface Chemistry

    Bing Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of typical Activated Carbons (coal based AC and coconut shell based AC were modified in a flow of N0 gas has been carried out using a microwave device operating at 2450 MHz and different input power, instead of a conventional furnace. The samples were analyzed by means of low temperatureN0 adsorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration. The results show that microwave heating is an effective means of activated carbon modification. The temperature of activated carbon increases rapidly under microwave heating and then gradual increase to a quasi-stationary temperature. The pore texture of activated carbon changes slightly after microwave treatment and the two activated carbons still keep rich pore structure. The oxygen functional groups decompose and evolve with the form of CO and CO2. This in turn gives rise to a significant decrease in oxygen content. These changes of oxygen contents increase as the microwave input power increases. During microwave treatment, a gradual decrease in the surface acidic functional groups is observed. More important, with the removal of the surface acidic groups, the number of the basic group increased gradually, the activated carbon with oxygen functional groups become basic properties material.

  20. Electrospun magnetic nanofibre mats – A new bondable biomaterial using remotely activated magnetic heating

    Zhong, Yi [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Leung, Victor; Yuqin Wan, Lynn [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Dutz, Silvio [Institut für Biomedizinische Technik und Informatik, Technische Universität Ilmenau (Germany); Department of Nano Biophotonics, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Ko, Frank K., E-mail: frank.ko@ubc.ca [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Häfeli, Urs O., E-mail: urs.hafeli@ubc.ca [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    A solvothermal process was adopted to produce hydrophilic magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles which were subsequently emulsified with a chloroform/methanol (70/30 v/v) solution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and then electrospun into a 0.2 mm thick PCL mat. The magnetic heating of the mats at a field amplitude of 25 kA/m and frequency of 400 kHz exhibited promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of about 40 W/g for the magnetic mat. The produced heat was used to melt the magnetic mat onto the surrounding non-magnetic polymer mat from within, without destroying the nanostructure of the non-magnetic polymer more than 0.5 mm away. Magnetic nanofibre mats might thus be useful for internal heat sealing applications, and potentially also for thermotherapy.

  1. Electrospun magnetic nanofibre mats - A new bondable biomaterial using remotely activated magnetic heating

    Zhong, Yi; Leung, Victor; Yuqin Wan, Lynn; Dutz, Silvio; Ko, Frank K.; Häfeli, Urs O.

    2015-04-01

    A solvothermal process was adopted to produce hydrophilic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles which were subsequently emulsified with a chloroform/methanol (70/30 v/v) solution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and then electrospun into a 0.2 mm thick PCL mat. The magnetic heating of the mats at a field amplitude of 25 kA/m and frequency of 400 kHz exhibited promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of about 40 W/g for the magnetic mat. The produced heat was used to melt the magnetic mat onto the surrounding non-magnetic polymer mat from within, without destroying the nanostructure of the non-magnetic polymer more than 0.5 mm away. Magnetic nanofibre mats might thus be useful for internal heat sealing applications, and potentially also for thermotherapy.

  2. Electrospun magnetic nanofibre mats – A new bondable biomaterial using remotely activated magnetic heating

    A solvothermal process was adopted to produce hydrophilic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles which were subsequently emulsified with a chloroform/methanol (70/30 v/v) solution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and then electrospun into a 0.2 mm thick PCL mat. The magnetic heating of the mats at a field amplitude of 25 kA/m and frequency of 400 kHz exhibited promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of about 40 W/g for the magnetic mat. The produced heat was used to melt the magnetic mat onto the surrounding non-magnetic polymer mat from within, without destroying the nanostructure of the non-magnetic polymer more than 0.5 mm away. Magnetic nanofibre mats might thus be useful for internal heat sealing applications, and potentially also for thermotherapy

  3. Heat-stimulated exoelectron emission of uranium activated crystals of lithium and sodium fluorides

    Heat-stimulated exoelectron emission of LiF-U, Cu; LiF, Sr; NaF-U, Sr monocrystals after irradiation by 1 keV electrons for 1 s at current density of 1 μA/cm2 and heating at a rate of 20 K/s was studied. New high-temperature peaks were detected and parameters of heat-stimulated exoelectron emission were determined. It was pointed out that dose dependence of the emission peak intensity has a linear section up to ∼ 103 Gy. It suggests potentiality of (Li, Na) F-U, Me crystals application as high-temperature thermo-emission dosemeters for radiation situation monitoring, for instance, in radioactive waste storage

  4. Heat shock factor activation in human muscles following a demanding intermittent exercise protocol is attenuated with hyperthermia

    Palomero, J; Broome, C S; Rasmussen, P;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The present study investigated whether increased activation of heat shock factors (HSF) following exercise relates primarily to the increased muscle temperature or to exercise in general. METHODS: Six subjects completed 40 min of intermittent cycling (15s:15s exercise:recovery at 300 +/- 22 W...... exercise at 40 degrees C (reduced by 21 +/- 22%) whereas it increased by 29 +/- 51% following exercise at 20 degrees C. CONCLUSION: It appears that increased temperature is not the major factor responsible for activation of HSF DNA binding....

  5. High heat flux test of a HIP-bonded first wall panel of reduced activation ferritic steel F-82H

    Reduced activation ferritic steel F-82H is a primary candidate structural material of DEMO fusion reactors. In fabrication technology, development of the DEMO blanket in JAERI, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding method, especially for the first wall structure with built-in cooling tubes has been proposed. A HIP-bonded F-82H first wall panel was successfully fabricated with selected manufacturing parameters. A high heat flux test of the HIP-bonded F-82H first wall panel has been performed to examine the thermo-mechanical performance of the panel including the integrity of the HIP-bonded interfaces and the fatigue behavior. A maximum heat flux of 2.7 MW/m2 was applied to accelerate the fatigue test up to 5000 cycles in test blanket inserted ITER. The maximum temperature of the panel was ∼450 deg. C under this heat flux. Through this test campaign, no damage such as cracks was observed on the surface of the panel, and no degradation in heat removal performance was observed either from the temperature responses. The thermal fatigue lifetime of the panel was found to be longer than the fatigue data obtained by mechanical testing

  6. Photocatalytic activity and reusability of ZnO layer synthesised by electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    Akhmal Saadon, Syaiful; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Hakim Wirzal, Mohd Dzul; Rahmalan, Muhammad Taufiq; Nur, Hadi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer was synthesised on the surface of Zn plates by three different techniques, i.e. electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment. The synthesised ZnO layers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO layer was further assessed against methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was achieved up to 84%, 79% and 65% within 1 h for ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis, heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively. The reusability results show that electrolysis and heat-treated ZnO layers have considerable photocatalytic stability. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO was directly associated with the thickness and enlarged surface area of the layer. Finally, this study proved that the ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis and heat treatment had shown better operational stability and reusability. PMID:26732538

  7. Laboratory Activity: Specific Heat by Change in Internal Energy of Silly Putty

    Koser, John

    2011-01-01

    Students in introductory physics courses often don't study thermodynamics or thermodynamic events. If any thermal physics is taught in introductory courses (e.g., Physics 101 for Liberal Arts Majors), it usually involves the concepts of specific heat and various temperature scales. Seldom are the first and second laws of thermodynamics taught in…

  8. Prostaglandins with antiproliferative activity induce the synthesis of a heat shock protein in human cells

    Prostaglandins (PGs)A1 and J2 were found to potently suppress the proliferation of human K562 erythroleukemia cells and to induce the synthesis of a 74-kDa protein (p74) that was identified as a heat shock protein related to the major 70-kDa heat shock protein group. p74 synthesis was stimulated at doses of PGA1 and PGJ2 that inhibited cell replication, and its accumulation ceased upon removal of the PG-induced proliferation block. PGs that did not affect K562 cell replication did not induce p74 synthesis. p74 was found to be localized mainly in the cytoplasm of PG-treated cells, but moderate amounts were found also in dense areas of the nucleus after PGJ2 treatment. p74 was not necessarily associated with cytotoxicity or with inhibition of cell protein synthesis. The results described support the hypothesis that synthesis of the 70-kDa heat shock proteins is associated with changes in cell proliferation. The observation that PGs can induce the synthesis of heat shock proteins expands our understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds whose regulatory role is well known in many physiological phenomena, including the control of fever production

  9. Activation, Heating and Exposure Rates for Mo-99 Experiments with 25-Disk Targets

    An MCNPX model of the 25-disk target assembly inside the vacuum cube inside the shielded box was prepared. This was used to calculate heating and photon and neutron fluxes throughout the model. Production rates for photonuclear reaction products were calculated using the photon fluxes and ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Measured isomer to ground state yield ratios were used where available. Where not available the new correlation between spin deficit and isomer to ground state yield ratios presented at AccApp'11 was used. The photonuclear production rates and neutron fluxes were input to CINDER2008 for transmutation calculations. A cross section update file was used to supply (n,n') reactions missing from CINDER2008 libraries. Decay photon spectra produced by CINDER2008 were then used to calculate exposure rates using the MCNPX model. Two electron beam irradiations were evaluated. The first was for a thermal test at 15 MeV with 1300 (micro)A incident on one target end and the second was for a production test at 35 MeV with 350 (micro)A incident on both target ends (700 (micro)A total current on target). For the thermal test 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h irradiation times were simulated, each followed by decay time steps out to 42 days. For the production test 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h irradiation times were simulated followed by the same decay periods. For all simulations beam FWHMs in x and y were both assumed to be 6 mm. Simulations were run for Mo-100 enriched and natural Mo targets for both tests. It is planned that thermal test will be run for 4 h with natural target disks and production test will be run for 24 h with enriched target disks. Results for these two simulations only are presented in this report. Other results can be made available upon request. Post irradiation exposure rates were calculated at 30 cm distances from left, right, front and back of the following configurations: (1) Shielded box with everything in it (beam pipes, cooling pipes, vacuum cube

  10. Reduction in Activity/Gene Expression of Anthocyanin Degradation Enzymes in Lychee Pericarp is Responsible for the Color Protection of the Fruit by Heat and Acid Treatment

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Zhao-qi; ZHANG Xue-lian; WU Zhen-xian; YIN Hui-fang; PANG Xue-qun

    2013-01-01

    Heat and acid treatments were reported to be a promising substitute for SO2 fumigation in color protection of postharvest lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruits, but the mechanism was not clear. In the present study, hot water (70°C) dipping followed by immersion in 2%HCl (heat-acid) substantially protected the red color of the fruit during storage at 25°C and inhibited anthocyanin degradation while hot water dipping alone (heat) led to rapidly browning and about 90%loss in anthocyanin content. The pH values in the pericarp of the heat-acid treated fruit dropped to 3.2, while the values maintained around 5.0 in the heat-treated and control fruit. No significantly different pH values were detected among the arils of heat-acid, heat treated and control fruit. Heat-acid treatment dramatically reduced the activities of anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase in the pericarp. A marked reduction in LcPOD gene expression was also detected in heat-acid treated fruit, in contrast, induction was found in heat treated fruit. The pericarp of heat-acid treated fruit exhibited significantly lower respiration rate but faster water loss than that of the untreated or heat treated fruit. Taken together, heat treatment triggered quick browning and anthocyanin loss in lychee fruit, while heat-acid treatment protected the fruit color by a great reduction in the activities/gene expression of anthocyanin degradation enzymes and acidification of lychee pericarp.

  11. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    Brosius, Jeffrey W. [Catholic University of America at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Daw, Adrian N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rabin, D. M., E-mail: Jeffrey.W.Brosius@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Code 670, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  12. Vibro-fluidized bed heat pump drying of mint leaves with respect to phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and color indices

    Ataei Ardestani Seyed Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of high porosity and stickiness of mint leaves, they could not be fluidized well during fluidization. In this study, a vibro-fluidized bed dryer assisted heat pump system was designed and fabricated to overcome this problem. The drying experiments were carried out at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The quality of the dehydrated samples was assessed based on color indices, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content. Drying process primarily occurred in falling rate period. The effective coefficient of moisture transfer of the samples was increased with air temperature and varied from 4.26656×10-11 to 2.95872×10-10 m2 s-1 for heat pump drying (HPD method, and 3.71918×10-11 to 1.29196×10-10 m2 s-1 for none-heat pump drying (NHPD method. The color indices for temperatures of 40 and 50 °C were very close to each other, whereas by increasing temperature to 60 °C, a remarkable loss of green color was observed. The highest phenolic content was found in methanolic extract for HPD at 60 °C, and NHPD at 50 °C contained the lowest amount of phenolic compounds. NHPD treatments showed lower antioxidant activity compared to HPD treatments at the same temperature due to the longer drying times.

  13. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec2 (2.58 × 109 km2, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  14. Proteasome activity or expression is not altered by activation of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 in cultured fibroblasts or myoblasts.

    Taylor, David M; Kabashi, Edor; Agar, Jeffrey N; Minotti, Sandra; Durham, Heather D

    2005-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) with chaperoning function work together with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to prevent the accumulation of misfolded, potentially toxic proteins, as well as to control catabolism of the bulk of cytoplasmic, cellular protein. There is evidence for the involvement of both systems in neurodegenerative disease, and a therapeutic target is the heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, which mediates upregulation of Hsps in response to cellular stress. The mechanisms regulating expression of proteasomal proteins in mammalian cells are less well defined. To assess any direct effect of Hsf1 on expression of proteasomal subunits and activity in mammalian cells, a plasmid encoding a constitutively active form of Hsf1 (Hsf1act) was expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Hsf1 and in cultured human myoblasts. Plasmid encoding an inactivatible form of Hsf1 (Hsf1inact) served as control. In cultures transfected with plasmid hsf1act, robust expression of the major stress-inducible Hsp, Hsp70, occurred but not in cultures transfected with hsf1inact. No significant changes in the level of expression of representative proteasomal proteins (structural [20Salpha], a nonpeptidase beta subunit [20Sbeta3], or 2 regulatory subunits [19S subunit 6b, 11 Salpha]) or in chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and caspaselike activities of the proteasome were measured. Thus, stress-induced or pharmacological activation of Hsf1 in mammalian cells would upregulate Hsps but not directly affect expression or activity of proteasomes. PMID:16184768

  15. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-12-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (T(th)) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0-38.5 °C) in a broad range of T(a) (3-30 °C). At warmer conditions (T(a)=30-39 °C) T(th) increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of T(body)-T(a) of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a T(a) of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase T(th) by about 1-3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher T(a) they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high T(th) also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees' suction pump even at low T(a). This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing T(a) bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. PMID:20705071

  16. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I–Q–T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I–Q–T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I–Q–T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance

  17. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Heated Sterilized Pepsin Hydrolysate Derived from Half-Fin Anchovy (Setipinna taty

    Dongfeng Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the heated pepsin hydrolysate from a marine fish half-fin anchovy (HAHp-H. Furthermore, we compared the chemical profiles including the amino acid composition, the browning intensity, the IR and UV-visible spectra, and the molecular weight distribution between the half-fin anchovy pepsin hydrolysate (HAHp and HAHp-H. Results showed that heat sterilization on HAHp improved the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, the antiproliferative activities were all increased for HAHp-H on DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line, 1299 human lung cancer cell line and 109 human esophagus cancer cell line. The contents of free amino acid and reducing sugar of HAHp-H were decreased (P < 0.05. However, hydrophobic amino acid residues and the browning intensity of HAHp-H were increased. FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that amide I and amide III bands of HAHp-H were slightly modified, whereas band intensity of amide II was reduced dramatically. Thermal sterilization resulted in the increased fractions of HAHp-H with molecular weight of 3000–5000 Da and below 500 Da. The enhanced antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of HAHp-H might be attributed to the Maillard reaction.

  18. Heat treatment of curdlan enhances the enzymatic production of biologically active β-(1,3)-glucan oligosaccharides.

    Kumagai, Yuya; Okuyama, Masayuki; Kimura, Atsuo

    2016-08-01

    Biologically active β-(1,3)-glucan oligosaccharides were prepared from curdlan using GH64 enzyme (KfGH64). KfGH64 showed low activity toward native curdlan; thereby pretreatment conditions of curdlan were evaluated. KfGH64 showed the highest activity toward curdlan with heat treatment. The most efficient pretreatment (90°C for 0.5h) converted approximately 60% of curdlan into soluble saccharides under the optimized enzyme reaction conditions (pH 5.5, 37°C, 100rpm mixing speed, 24h, and 10μg of KfGH64/1g of curdlan). The resulting products were predominantly laminaripentaose and a small amount of β-(1,3)-glucans with an average degree of polymerization (DP) of 13 and 130. The products did not contain small oligosaccharides (DPhydrolysis of heat-treated curdlan by KfGH64 is a suitable method for the production of biologically active β-(1,3)-glucan oligosaccharides. PMID:27112889

  19. Aerosol palladium activation for electroless copper deposition and heat treatment with NO injection to fabricate Cu oxide/carbon fibre

    This paper introduces a novel method for fabricating copper (Cu) oxide/activated carbon fibre (ACF) through the aerosol palladium (Pd) activation for use in electroless Cu deposition and heat treatment of Cu deposited ACF with nitric monoxide (NO) gas injection. Electroless Cu deposition was initiated by catalytically activating the ACF surface with spark generated Pd aerosol nanoparticles. The catalytically activated ACF was placed into a solution used for the electroless Cu deposition. Subjecting the Cu deposited ACF to a heat treatment in a NO/nitrogen (N2) gas injection (1000 ppm NO) resulted in changes to the morphology of the Cu particles. As the temperature increased from 100 to 500 deg. C, the relative mass fraction of oxygen in the Cu particles increased from 3.6% to 14.2% and the fraction of Cu decreased from 41.2% to 34.1%, which was caused by the formation of Cu oxides (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding surface area and pore volume of the ACF decreased from 1019 m2 g-1 to 401 m2 g-1 and from 0.40 cm3 g-1 to 0.18 cm3 g-1, respectively. The morphological evolution and decrease in porosity were attributed to volume expansion of Cu particles during oxidation.

  20. Aerosol palladium activation for electroless copper deposition and heat treatment with NO injection to fabricate Cu oxide/carbon fibre

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Hwang, Jungho

    2009-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for fabricating copper (Cu) oxide/activated carbon fibre (ACF) through the aerosol palladium (Pd) activation for use in electroless Cu deposition and heat treatment of Cu deposited ACF with nitric monoxide (NO) gas injection. Electroless Cu deposition was initiated by catalytically activating the ACF surface with spark generated Pd aerosol nanoparticles. The catalytically activated ACF was placed into a solution used for the electroless Cu deposition. Subjecting the Cu deposited ACF to a heat treatment in a NO/nitrogen (N2) gas injection (1000 ppm NO) resulted in changes to the morphology of the Cu particles. As the temperature increased from 100 to 500 °C, the relative mass fraction of oxygen in the Cu particles increased from 3.6% to 14.2% and the fraction of Cu decreased from 41.2% to 34.1%, which was caused by the formation of Cu oxides (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding surface area and pore volume of the ACF decreased from 1019 m2 g-1 to 401 m2 g-1 and from 0.40 cm3 g-1 to 0.18 cm3 g-1, respectively. The morphological evolution and decrease in porosity were attributed to volume expansion of Cu particles during oxidation.

  1. Heat production and quantitative oxidation of nutrients by physical activity in pigs

    Jakobsen, K; Chwalibog, André; Henckel, S; Thorbek, G

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of pigs weighing 90 (Expt A) or 80 (Expt B) kg walked on a horizontal moving rubber belt for a distance of 315 m at a speed of 25.6 +/- 0.38 and 28.8 +/- 0.35 m/min respectively for 10 min in an open-air-circuit respiration unit. From measurements of VO2 and VCO2, heat production and o...

  2. A review of health, planning, insurance and property value issues related to active solar heating systems

    The research reported here considers the potential health risks, local authority planning implications, insurance and property value aspects of solar water heating systems. The United Kingdom market for this technology is also discussed. Methodologies employed, including literature reviews, telephone and postal survey and re-analysis of a 1995 survey, are explained. No major problems are identified in any of the target areas although recommendations for water temperature management and coordinated local authority policies on renewable energy are given. (UK)

  3. Shape-memory surface with dynamically tunable nano-geometry activated by body heat.

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Idota, Naokazu; Hoffman, John M; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-01-10

    Shape-memory surfaces with on-demand, tunable nanopatterns are developed to observe time dependent changes in cell alignment using temperature-responsive poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) films. Temporary grooved nanopatterns are easily programmed on the films and triggered to transition quickly to permanent surface patterns by the application of body heat. A time-dependent cytoskeleton remodeling is also observed under biologically relevant conditions. PMID:21954058

  4. mTOR is essential for the proteotoxic stress response, HSF1 activation and heat shock protein synthesis.

    Shiuh-Dih Chou

    Full Text Available The target of rapamycin (TOR is a high molecular weight protein kinase that regulates many processes in cells in response to mitogens and variations in nutrient availability. Here we have shown that mTOR in human tissue culture cells plays a key role in responses to proteotoxic stress and that reduction in mTOR levels by RNA interference leads to increase sensitivity to heat shock. This effect was accompanied by a drastic reduction in ability to synthesize heat shock proteins (HSP, including Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110. As HSP transcription is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, we examined whether mTOR could directly phosphorylate this factor. Indeed, we determined that mTOR could directly phosphorylate HSF1 on serine 326, a key residue in transcriptional activation. HSF1 was phosphorylated on S326 immediately after heat shock and was triggered by other cell stressors including proteasome inhibitors and sodium arsenite. Null mutation of S326 to alanine led to loss of ability to activate an HSF1-regulated promoter-reporter construct, indicating a direct role for mTOR and S326 in transcriptional regulation of HSP genes during stress. As mTOR is known to exist in at least two intracellular complexes, mTORC1 and mTOR2 we examined which complex might interact with HSF1. Indeed mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented HSF1-S326 phosphorylation, suggesting that this complex is involved in HSF1 regulation in stress. Our experiments therefore suggest a key role for mTORC1 in transcriptional responses to proteotoxic stress.

  5. Regional and total body active heating and cooling of a resting diver in water of varied temperatures

    Bardy, Erik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Grove City College, 100 Campus Drive, Grove City, PA 16127 (United States); Mollendorf, Joseph [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, 318 Jarvis Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States); Pendergast, David [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, 318 Jarvis Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States)

    2008-02-07

    Passive insulations alone are not sufficient for maintaining underwater divers in thermal balance or comfort. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the active heating and cooling requirements to keep a diver at rest in thermal balance and comfort in water temperatures between 10 and 40 deg. C. A diver wearing a prototype tubesuit and a wetsuit (3 or 6.5 mm foam neoprene) was fully submersed (0.6 m) in water at a specified temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 deg. C). During immersion, the tubesuit was perfused with 30 deg. C water at a flow rate of 0.5 L min{sup -1} to six individual body regions. An attempt was made to keep skin temperatures below 42 deg. C in hot water (>30 deg. C) and elevated but below 32 deg. C in cold water (<20 deg. C). A skin temperature of 32 deg. C is the threshold for maximal body thermal resistance due to vasoconstriction. Skin temperatures and core temperature were monitored during immersion to ensure they remained within set thermal limits. In addition skin heat flux, oxygen consumption and the thermal exchange of the tubesuit were measured. In both wetsuit thicknesses there was a linear correlation between the thermal exchange of the tubesuit and ambient water temperature. In the 6.5 mm wetsuit -214 W to 242 W of heating (-) and cooling (+) was necessary in 10 deg. C to 40 deg. C water, respectively. In the 3 mm wetsuit -462 to 342 W was necessary in 10 deg. C to 40 deg. C water, respectively. It was therefore concluded that a diver at rest can be kept in thermal balance in 10-40 deg. C water with active heating and cooling.

  6. Photothermally Activated Pyroelectric Polymer Films for Harvesting of Solar Heat with a Hybrid Energy Cell Structure.

    Park, Teahoon; Na, Jongbeom; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-12-22

    Photothermal effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s (PEDOTs) were explored for pyroelectric conversion. A poled ferroelectric film was coated on both sides with PEDOT via solution casting polymerization of EDOT, to give highly conductive and effective photothermal thin films of PEDOT. The PEDOT films not only provided heat source upon light exposure but worked as electrodes for the output energy from the pyroelectric layer in an energy harvester hybridized with a thermoelectric layer. Compared to a bare thermoelectric system under NIR irradiation, the photothermal-pyro-thermoelectric device showed more than 6 times higher thermoelectric output with the additional pyroelectric output. The photothermally driven pyroelectric harvesting film provided a very fast electric output with a high voltage output (Vout) of 15 V. The pyroelectric effect was significant due to the transparent and high photothermal PEDOT film, which could also work as an electrode. A hybrid energy harvester was assembled to enhance photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of a solar cell with a thermoelectric device operated by the photothermally generated heat. The PCE was increased more than 20% under sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G) utilizing the transmitted light through the photovoltaic cell as a heat source that was converted into pyroelectric and thermoelectric output simultaneously from the high photothermal PEDOT electrodes. Overall, this work provides a dynamic and static hybrid energy cell to harvest solar energy in full spectral range and thermal energy, to allow solar powered switching of an electrochromic display. PMID:26308669

  7. Manufacturing and thermomechanical testing of actively cooled all beryllium high heat flux test pieces

    Vasiliev, N.N.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shatalov, G.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    One of the problems affiliated to ITER high heat flux elements development is a problem of interface of beryllium protection with heat sink routinely made of copper alloys. To get rid of this problem all beryllium elements could be used as heat receivers in places of enhanced thermal loads. In accordance with this objectives four beryllium test pieces of two types have been manufactured in {open_quotes}Institute of Beryllium{close_quotes} for succeeding thermomechanical testing. Two of them were manufactured in accordance with JET team design; they are round {open_quotes}hypervapotron type{close_quotes} test pieces. Another two ones are rectangular test sections with a twisted tape installed inside of the circular channel. Preliminary stress-strain analysis have been performed for both type of the test pieces. Hypervapotrons have been shipped to JET where they were tested on JET test bed. Thermomechanical testing of pieces of the type of {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} have been performed on Kurchatov Institute test bed. Chosen beryllium grade properties, some details of manufacturing, results of preliminary stress-strain analysis and thermomechanical testing of the test pieces {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} type are given in this report.

  8. The influence of milk composition on pH and calcium activity measured in situ during heat treatment of reconstituted skim milk.

    Chandrapala, Jayani; McKinnon, Ian; Augustin, Mary Ann; Udabage, Punsandani

    2010-08-01

    The pH and calcium activity of reconstituted skim milk solutions (9-21% w/w milk solids non-fat) on heating and after cooling were studied as a function of milk pH prior to heating (pH 6.2-7.2 at 25 degrees C) and added calcium complexing agents (phosphate or EDTA). The pH decreased as the temperature was raised from 25 to 90 degrees C and the magnitude of the pH decrease was greater with increase in initial pH at 25 degrees C before heating or milk concentration. The pH decrease on heating from 25 to 90 degrees C in skim milk solutions with added calcium complexing agents was lower than that of milk without the addition of these salts. The calcium activity decreased on heating from 25 to 60 degrees C. The magnitude of the change decreased with increase in initial pH at 25 degrees C before heating and milk concentration. The decrease in calcium activity on heating from 25 to 60 degrees C for skim milk solutions with added calcium complexing agents was lower than that of milk solutions without the addition of calcium complexing agents. The changes in pH and calcium activity on heating milk were largely reversible after cooling the milk. The results suggested that the pH and calcium activity at high temperatures are a function of the milk composition. Knowledge of the initial pH prior to heating alone is not sufficient for predicting the changes that occur during heating. PMID:20196897

  9. Material composition and nuclear data libraries' influence on nickel-chromium alloys activation evaluation: a comparison with decay heat experiments

    The paper presents the activation analyses on Inconel-600 nickel-chromium alloy. Three activation data libraries, namely the EAF-4.1, the EAF-97 and the FENDL/A-2, and the FENDL/D-2 decay data library, have been used to perform the calculation with the European activation code ANITA-4/M. The neutron flux distribution into the material samples was provided by JAERI as results of 3D Monte-Carlo MCNP transport code experiment simulation. A comparison with integral decay heat measurement performed at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS), JAERI, Tokai, Japan, is used to validate the computational approach. The calculation results are given and discussed. The impact of the material composition, including impurities, on the decay heat of samples irradiated in fusion-like neutron spectra is assessed and discussed. The discrepancies calculations-experiments are within the experimental errors, that is between 6% and 10%, except for the short cooling times (less than 40 min after the end of irradiation). To improve calculation consistency with the experimental results, the knowledge of the material impurities content is mandatory

  10. Material composition and nuclear data libraries' influence on nickel-chromium alloys activation evaluation: a comparison with decay heat experiments

    Cepraga, D G

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the activation analyses on Inconel-600 nickel-chromium alloy. Three activation data libraries, namely the EAF-4.1, the EAF-97 and the FENDL/A-2, and the FENDL/D-2 decay data library, have been used to perform the calculation with the European activation code ANITA-4/M. The neutron flux distribution into the material samples was provided by JAERI as results of 3D Monte-Carlo MCNP transport code experiment simulation. A comparison with integral decay heat measurement performed at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS), JAERI, Tokai, Japan, is used to validate the computational approach. The calculation results are given and discussed. The impact of the material composition, including impurities, on the decay heat of samples irradiated in fusion-like neutron spectra is assessed and discussed. The discrepancies calculations-experiments are within the experimental errors, that is between 6% and 10%, except for the short cooling times (less than 40 min after the end of irradiation). To improve calcul...

  11. Compilation of Data on Radionuclide Data for Specific Activity, Specific Heat and Fission Product Yields

    Gibbs, A.; Thomason, R.S.

    2000-09-05

    This compilation was undertaken to update the data used in calculation of curie and heat loadings of waste containers in the Solid Waste Management Facility. The data has broad general use and has been cross-checked extensively in order to be of use in the Materials Accountability arena. The fission product cross-sections have been included because they are of use in the Environmental Remediation and Waste Management areas where radionuclides which are not readily detectable need to be calculated from the relative fission yields and material dispersion data.

  12. Compilation of Data on Radionuclide Data for Specific Activity, Specific Heat and Fission Product Yields

    This compilation was undertaken to update the data used in calculation of curie and heat loadings of waste containers in the Solid Waste Management Facility. The data has broad general use and has been cross-checked extensively in order to be of use in the Materials Accountability arena. The fission product cross-sections have been included because they are of use in the Environmental Remediation and Waste Management areas where radionuclides which are not readily detectable need to be calculated from the relative fission yields and material dispersion data

  13. CORONAL HEATING BY THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS AND THE QUIET SUN OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important puzzles in solar physics and astrophysics. Here we report Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of coronal heating by the interaction between emerging active regions (EARs) and the surrounding quiet Sun (QS). The EARs continuously interact with the surrounding QS, resulting in dark ribbons which appear at the boundary of the EARs and the QS. The dark ribbons visible in extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths propagate away from the EARs with speeds of a few km s−1. The regions swept by the dark ribbons are brightening afterward, with the mean temperature increasing by one quarter. The observational findings demonstrate that uninterrupted magnetic reconnection between EARs and the QS occurs. When the EARs develop, the reconnection continues. The dark ribbons may be the track of the interface between the reconnected magnetic fields and the undisturbed QS’s fields. The propagating speed of the dark ribbons reflects the reconnection rate and is consistent with our numerical simulation. A long-term coronal heating which occurs in turn from nearby the EARs to far away from the EARs is proposed

  14. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Neelam Ara; Korakot Nakkanong; Wenhui Lv; Jinghua Yang; Zhongyuan Hu; Mingfang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant inte...

  15. Development and Evaluation of Active Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries using Solid-State Thermoelectric Heat Pump and Heat Pipes with Electric Vehicular Applications

    Parekh, Bhaumik Kamlesh

    Lithium-Ion batteries have become a popular choice for use in energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) because of high power and high energy density. But the use of EV and HEV in all climates demands for a battery thermal management system (BTMS) since temperature effects their performance, cycle life and, safety. Hence the BTMS plays a crucial role in the performance of EV and HEV. In this paper, three thermal management systems are studied: (a) simple aluminum as heat spreader material, (b) heat pipes as heat spreader, and (c) advanced combined solid state thermoelectric heat pump (TE) and heat pipe system; these will be subsequently referred to as Design A, B and C, respectively. A detailed description of the designs and the experimental setup is presented. The experimental procedure is divided into two broad categories: Cooling mode and Warming-up mode. Cooling mode covers the conditions when a BTMS is responsible to cool the battery pack through heat dissipation and Warming-up mode covers the conditions when the BTMS is responsible to warm the battery pack in a low temperature ambient condition, maintaining a safe operating temperature of the battery pack in both modes. The experimental procedure analyzes the thermal management system by evaluating the effect of each variable like heat sink area, battery heat generation rate, cooling air temperature, air flow rate and TE power on parameters like maximum temperature of the battery pack (T max), maximum temperature difference (DeltaT) and, heat transfer through heat sink/cooling power of TE (Q c). The results show that Design C outperforms Design A and Design B in spite of design issues which reduce its efficiency, but can still be improved to achieve better performance.

  16. Absence of arterial baroreflex modulation of skin sympathetic activity and sweat rate during whole-body heating in humans

    Wilson, T. E.; Cui, J.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    1. Prior findings suggest that baroreflexes are capable of modulating skin blood flow, but the effects of baroreceptor loading/unloading on sweating are less clear. Therefore, this project tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically induced alterations in arterial blood pressure in heated humans would lead to baroreflex-mediated changes in both skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and sweat rate. 2. In seven subjects mean arterial blood pressure was lowered (approximately 8 mmHg) and then raised (approximately 13 mmHg) by bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Moreover, in a separate protocol, arterial blood pressure was reduced via steady-state administration of sodium nitroprusside. In both normothermia and heat-stress conditions the following responses were monitored: sublingual and mean skin temperatures, heart rate, beat-by-beat blood pressure, skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry), local sweat rate and SSNA (microneurography from peroneal nerve). 3. Whole-body heating increased skin and sublingual temperatures, heart rate, cutaneous blood flow, sweat rate and SSNA, but did not change arterial blood pressure. Heart rate was significantly elevated (from 74 +/- 3 to 92 +/- 4 beats x min(-1); P < 0.001) during bolus sodium nitroprusside-induced reductions in blood pressure, and significantly reduced (from 92 +/- 4 to 68 +/- 4 beats x min(-1); P < 0.001) during bolus phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure, thereby demonstrating normal baroreflex function in these subjects. 4. Neither SSNA nor sweat rate was altered by rapid (bolus infusion) or sustained (steady-state infusion) changes in blood pressure regardless of the thermal condition. 5. These data suggest that SSNA and sweat rate are not modulated by arterial baroreflexes in normothermic or moderately heated individuals.

  17. Modeling the heat and mass transfers in temperature-swing adsorption of volatile organic compounds onto activated carbons

    Sylvain Giraudet; Pascaline Pre; Pierre Le Cloirec [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2009-02-15

    A theoretical model was built to simulate the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto activated carbons in a fixed bed. This model was validated on a set of experimental data obtained for the adsorption of acetone, ethyl formate, and dichloromethane onto five commercial activated carbons. The influence of operating conditions was modeled with various VOC contents at the inlet of the adsorber and superficial velocities of the gas-phase from 0.14 to 0.28 m.s{sup -1}. Breakthrough times and maximum temperature rises were computed with a coefficient of determination of 0.988 and 0.901, respectively. The simulation was then extended to the adsorption of mixtures of VOCs. From the comparison of simulation and experimental results, the advantage of accounting for dispersions of heat and mass is shown and the importance in taking into account the temperature effect on the equilibrium data is demonstrated. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Characterization and damaging law of CFC for high heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components

    Chevet, G.; Martin, E.; Boscary, J.; Camus, G.; Herb, V.; Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Missirlian, M.

    2011-10-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite (CFC) Sepcarb N11 has been used in the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak (Cadarache, France) as armour material for the plasma facing components. For the fabrication of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) divertor (Greifswald, Germany), the NB31 material was chosen. For the fabrication of the ITER divertor, two potential CFC candidates are the NB31 and NB41 materials. In the case of Tore Supra, defects such as microcracks or debonding were found at the interface between CFC tile and copper heat sink. A mechanical characterization of the behaviour of N11 and NB31 was undertaken, allowing the identification of a damage model and finite element calculations both for flat tiles (TS and W7-X) and monoblock (ITER) armours. The mechanical responses of these CFC materials were found almost linear under on-axis tensile tests but highly nonlinear under shear tests or off-axis tensile tests. As a consequence, damage develops within the high shear-stress zones.

  19. State opportunities for action: Update of states' combined heat and power activities

    Brown, Elizabeth [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Elliott, R. Neal [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2003-10-01

    This report updates the review of state policies with regard to CHP that the American Council for and Energy Efficient Economy completed in 2002. It describes the current activities of states with programs during the initial survey and also reviews new programs offered by the states.

  20. On the estimation of heating effects in the atmosphere because of seismic activities

    Meister, Claudia-Veronika; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric model for waves in the Earth's ionosphere is further developed and applied to possible electro-magnetic phenomena in seismic regions. In doing so, in comparison to the well-known dielectric wave model by R.O. Dendy [Plasma dynamics, Oxford University Press, 1990] for homogeneous systems, the stratification of the atmosphere is taken into account. Moreover, within the frame of many-fluid magnetohydrodynamics also the momentum transfer between the charged and neutral particles is considered. Discussed are the excitation of Alfvén and magnetoacoustic waves, but also their variations by the neutral gas winds. Further, also other current driven waves like Farley-Buneman ones are studied. In the work, models of the altitudinal scales of the plasma parameters and the electromagnetic wave field are derived. In case of the electric wave field, a method is given to calculate the altitudinal scale based on the Poisson equation for the electric field and the magnetohydrodynamic description of the particles. Further, expressions are derived to estimate density, pressure, and temperatur changes in the E-layer because of the generation of the electromagnetic waves. Last not least, formulas are obtained to determine the dispersion and polarisation of the excited electromagnetic waves. These are applied to find quantitative results for the turbulent heating of the ionospheric E-layer. Concerning the calculation of the dispersion relation, in comparison to a former work by Meister et al. [Contr. Plasma Phys. 53 (4-5), 406-413, 2013], where a numerical double-iteration method was suggested to obtain results for the wave dispersion relations, now further analytical calculations are performed. In doing so, different polynomial dependencies of the wave frequencies from the wave vectors are treated. This helped to restrict the numerical calculations to only one iteration process.

  1. Steady-state heat and particle removal with the actively cooled Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter in Tore Supra

    Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL) is a modular actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation. During its initial operation in 1993, the OPL successfully removed about 1 MW of power during ohmically heated shots of up to 10 seconds duration and reached (steady state) thermal equilibrium. The particle pumping of the Phase III OPL was found to be about 50% greater than the Phase II OPL which had a radial distance between the last closed flux surface and the entrance of the pumping throat of 3.5 cm compared with only 2.5 cm for the Phase III OPL. This paper gives examples of power distribution over the limiter from IR measurements of surface temperature and from extensive calorimetry (34 thermocouples and 10 flow meters) and compares the distributions with values predicted by a 3-D model (HF3D) with a detailed magnetic configuration (e.g., includes field ripple)

  2. Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on impact behavior of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Charpy tests were conducted on eight normalized-and-tempered reduced-activation ferritic steels irradiated in two different normalized conditions. Irradiation was conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 393 C to {approx}14 dpa on steels with 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% Cr (0.1% C) with varying amounts of W, V, and Ta. The different normalization treatments involved changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The faster cooling rate produced 100% bainite in the 2.25 Cr steels, compared to duplex structures of bainite and polygonal ferrite for the slower cooling rate. For both cooling rates, martensite formed in the 5 and 9% Cr steels, and martensite with {approx}25% {delta}-ferrite formed in the 12% Cr steel. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The difference in microstructure in the low-chromium steels due to the different heat treatments had little effect on properties. For the high-chromium martensitic steels, only the 5 Cr steel was affected by heat treatment. When the results at 393 C were compared with previous results at 365 C, all but a 5 Cr and a 9 Cr steel showed the expected decrease in the shift in DBTT with increasing temperature.

  3. Effect of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) heat treatment of bovine milk on the activities of some enzymes, the milk fat globule and pH

    Dickow, Jonathan Ahrens; Thorup Nielsen, Martin; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) treatment at temperatures 70–150 C on the enzymatic activities of the indigenous milk enzymes alkaline phosphatase, lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasmin in comparison with two...... reference heat treatments of 63 C for 30 s and of 72 C for 15 s by indirect heating. Milk fat globule (MFG) size distributions and pH were also monitored. Alkaline phosphatase, LPO, XO and LPL activities decreased with increasing LSI temperature. Plasmin activity was increased at temperatures <80 C and...

  4. Heat Shock Protein 90 Indirectly Regulates ERK Activity by Affecting Raf Protein Metabolism

    Fei DOU; Liu-Di YUAN; Jing-Jing ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nerve system diseases. As more and more kinases have been discovered to be the client proteins of the molecular chaperone Hsp90, the use of Hsp90 inhibitors to reduce abnormal kinase activity is a new treatment strategy for nerve system diseases. This study investigated the regulation of the ERK pathway by Hsp90. We showed that Hsp90 inhibitors reduce ERK phosphorylation without affecting the total ERK protein level. Further investigation showed that Raf, the upstream kinase in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway,forms a complex with Hsp90 and Hsp70. Treating cells with Hsp90 inhibitors facilitates Raf degradation,thereby down-regulating the activity of ERK.

  5. Catharanthus roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 confers UV and heat tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Raina, Susheel Kumar; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash Pandhari; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important source of pharmaceutically important Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs). Accumulation of many of the MIAs is induced in response to abiotic stresses such as wound, ultra violet (UV) irradiations, etc. Recently, we have demonstrated a possible role of CrMPK3, a C. roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase in stress-induced accumulation of a few MIAs. Here, we extend our findings using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the role of CrMPK3 in giving tole...

  6. Modelling the activity of 99Tc the primary heat transport system of a CANDU reactor

    A physical model has been developed to describe the coolant activity behaviour of 99Tc, during constant and reactor shutdown operations. This analysis accounts for the fission production of technetium and molybdenum, in which their chemical form and volatility is determined by a thermodynamic treatment using a Gibbs-energy minimization. The release kinetics are calculated according to the rate-controlling step of diffusional transport in the fuel matrix and vaporization from the fuel-grain surface. Based on several in-reactor tests with defective fuel elements, and as supported by the thermodynamic analysis, the model accounts for the washout of molybdenum from the defective fuel on reactor shutdown. The model also considers the recoil release of both 99Mo and 99Tc from uranium contamination, as well as a corrosion source due to activation of 98Mo. The model has provided an estimate of the activity ratio 99Tc/137Cs in the ion-exchange columns of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, i.e., 6 x 10-6 (following ∼200 d of steady reactor operation) and 4 x 10-6 (with reactor shutdown). These results are consistent with that measured by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories with a mixed-bed resin-sampling device installed in a number of Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor plants. (author)

  7. Influence of mass recovery on the performance of a heat pipe type ammonia sorption refrigeration system using CaCl2/activated carbon as compound adsorbent

    The performance analyses of a sorption refrigeration system with different mass recovery processes are presented, in which compound adsorbent of CaCl2 and activated carbon is used to improve the mass and heat transfer performances of sorption bed. The heating, cooling and heat recovery processes between two sorption beds were performed by multifunction heat pipes without additional power consumption. The experimental Clapeyron diagrams showed that the cycles with mass recovery (MR), with heat and mass recoveries (HMR), and with mass and heat recoveries (MHR), have better thermodynamic performances when compared with the sorption cycle without mass recovery (MR0). The implementary order of mass recovery and heat recovery has strong influence on the efficacy of mass recovery while it has little influence on the efficacy of heat recovery. In sorption cycles with HMR and with MHR, the hot beds can be pre-cooled and cold beds can be pre-heated effectively during the switching process, and heat consumption from external heat source during desorption phase is thereby reduced. Mass recovery can enlarge cycled refrigerant mass due to the transfer of refrigerant gas between two sorption beds during mass recovery process. In comparison with sorption cycle with MR0, sorption cycles with MR, with HMR, and with MHR can generally improve the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling power (SCP) by more than 20% and 16%, respectively. Especially, sorption cycle with MHR has the highest performance among different mass recovery processes due to the fact that MHR has the advantages of MR and HMR, and it can improve the COP by 46.7% when compared with the cycle with MR0

  8. Pre-exposure to heat shock inhibits peroxynitrite-induced activation of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase and protects against peroxynitrite cytotoxicity in J774 macrophages.

    Szabó, C; Wong, H R; Salzman, A L

    1996-11-14

    The reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with superoxide yields the cytotoxic oxidant peroxynitrite, produced during inflammation and shock. A novel pathway of peroxynitrite cytotoxicity involves activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase, and concomitant ADP-ribosylation. NAD+ consumption and exhaustion of intracellular energy stores. In the present report we provide evidence that pre-exposure of J774 macrophages to heat shock reduces peroxynitrite-induced activation of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase and protects against the peroxynitrite-induced suppression of mitochondrial respiration. The protection was significant at 8 h after heat shock, but was absent at 24 h after heat shock. Thus, the protection showed a temporal correlation with the expression of heat shock protein 70, the expression of which was maximal at 8 h. Exposure to heat shock did not alter the expression of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase over 24 h. In summary, the heat shock phenotype or heat shock proteins may protect against peroxynitrite induced cytotoxicity. PMID:8960887

  9. Role of trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192 in the enzymatic and cytotonic activities of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    C.C. Grant; Messer, R J; Cieplak, W

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin have suggested that proteolytic cleavage plays an important role in the expression of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and toxicity. Specifically, several studies have implicated a trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192, which lies within an exposed region subtended by a disulfide bond in the intact A subunit, in toxicity. To investigate the role of this modification in the enzymatic and cytotonic properties of heat-...

  10. Red American Ginseng: Ginsenoside Constituents and Antiproliferative Activities of Heat-Processed Panax quinquefolius Roots

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Ni, Ming; Wu, Ji-An; Tong, Robin; Wicks, Sheila; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Red Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is used in many Oriental countries. In this study, the saponin constituents and anticancer activities of steamed American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots were evaluated. The contents of 12 ginsenosides in the roots were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the steaming treatment (100 – 120 °C for 1 h and 120 °C for 0.5 – 4 h), the quantity of 7 ginsenosides decreased and that of 5 others increase...

  11. Effects of auxiliary heat sources on energy efficiency of active solar heating systems%辅助热源对主动式太阳能供暖系统节能性的影响

    于国清; 周继瑞

    2015-01-01

    根据太阳能贡献率和辅助加热设备的能源效率,将系统的能耗折算成一次能源,分析不同辅助热源对太阳能供暖系统节能性的影响,认为主动式太阳能供暖系统要达到节能效果必须满足一定的前提条件。研究结果表明:辅助热源方式和太阳能贡献率对系统的节能性影响很大;相对于燃气锅炉单独供暖,电加热辅助太阳能供暖系统只有在太阳能贡献率高于65.4%时才节能,而大多数系统的太阳能贡献率很难达到这么高,因此要尽量避免使用;热泵辅助太阳能供暖系统在大多数情况下都是节能的(热泵的平均 COP =2.5时,太阳能贡献率需高于7%);采用平均COP 高于3.0的热泵或采用燃气锅炉作为辅助热源时,系统都是节能的,太阳能贡献率越高,节能效果越明显。%According to the solar fraction and the energy efficiency of auxiliary heating equipments, analyses the effects of different auxiliary heat sources on the energy efficiency of active solar heating systems by converting energy consumption to primary energy,and believes that the active solar heating system must satisfy certain conditions for achieving energy saving effect.The results indicate that the auxiliary heat source and the solar fraction have a great impact on the energy efficiency of solar heating systems.Compared to the gas-fired boiler heating alone,the solar heating system assisted by electric heating is energy efficient only when the solar fraction is greater than 65.4%,which is very difficult to achieve for many real systems.The primary energy consumption of the solar heating system assisted by heat pump is lower in general instances (when the average COP of heat pump is 2.5,the solar fraction should be greater than 7%).When heat pumps with average COP above 3.0 or gas-fired boilers are used as auxiliary heat sources,the solar heating system is energy efficient,and the higher the solar

  12. Parametric studies of an active solar water heating system with various types of PVT collectors

    Roonak Daghigh; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2015-10-01

    This study simulated active photovoltaic thermal solar collectors (PV/T) for hot water production using TRNSYS. The PV/T collectors consist of the amorphous, monocrystalline and polycrystalline. The long-term performances for the glazed and unglazed PV/T collectors were also evaluated. In this simulation, the design parameters used were collector area of 4 m2, collector slope angle of 15 degree and mass flow rate to the collector area ratio of 8–20 kg/hm2. In addition the tank height between 0.9 m to 1.1 m for unglazed PV/T collectors and 0.9 m to 1 m for glazed collectors, as well as the storage tank volume between 200 and 300 L has been used. The climate parameters used were solar radiation levels range of 4–4.9 kWh/m2, the mean ambient temperature in the range of 25–28°C. The results of the simulation indicated that there was an increase in solar fraction and electrical power output of the active PV/T hot water system.

  13. Activation cross sections related to nuclear heating of high Tc superconductors

    Activation cross-sections have been measured for some isotopes of the elements in Tl2Ca1Ba2Cu2O8 high Tc superconducting oxide. In addition, cross-sections for producing long-lived isotopes in Cu and Ag were also determined. Results for the following reactions were given at En = 14.5 MeV: 63Cu(n,α)60gCo, 90Zr(n,2n)89Zr, 107Ag(n,2n)106mAg, 109Ag(n,2n)108mAg, 134Ba(n,2n)133gBa, 134Ba(n,p)134gCs, 136Ba(n,p)136Cs, 137Ba(n,p)137Cs and 203Tl(n,2n)202Tl. Results are compared to the corresponding data published in the literature and given by systematics. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Effect of site-directed mutagenic alterations on ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    Lobet, Y; Cluff, C W; Cieplak, W

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin, an NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase, suggested that a small amino-terminal region of amino acid sequence similarity to the active fragments of both cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin represents a region containing critical active-site residues that might be involved in the binding of the substrate NAD+. Other studies of two other bacterial toxins possessing ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, diphtheria toxin a...

  15. Structural transformations in the a-tricalcium phosphate powders after mechanical activation and subsequent heat treatment

    Shamray, V. F.; Karpihin, A. E.; Fedotov, A. Y.; Komlev, V. S.; Barinov, S. M.; Sirotinkin, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray diffraction analysis of the structural phase evolution in the a-TCP powder subjected to milling in the planetary mill in butanol, and followed by annealing at 1300 °C was performed. After milling, there was a systematic smoothing of the X-ray diffraction pattern of α-TCP. Significant changes in lattice constants and atomic parameters were not observed. The average particle size was reduced from 10 to 2 micrometers. The decrease of the size of coherently scattering domains CSD (250 to 80 nm) makes the main contribution to the X-ray lines broadening. The value of microstrain changes from 1 *10-6 to 2*10-4. After annealing at 1300 °C for 2 hours the phase with apatite structure was found. The content of the apatite phase increases with increasing of time of mechanical activation. Possible mechanisms of deformation of α-TCP particles and structural transformations α-TCP → HA are considered.

  16. Transport and Application of Heat-Activated Persulfate for In-situ Chemical Oxidation of Residual Trichloroethylene

    Quig, L.; Johnson, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    characterizing the overall transport behavior and application of persulfate/heat-activated persulfate in a natural porous media for the ISCO of residual nonaqueous phase liquid, this work aids in improving the implementation of persulfate ISCO systems.

  17. Efficient activation of gene expression using a heat-shock inducible Gal4/Vp16-UAS system in medaka

    Wittbrodt Joachim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic interference by DNA, mRNA or morpholino injection is a widely used approach to study gene function in developmental biology. However, the lack of temporal control over the activity of interfering molecules often hampers investigation of gene function required during later stages of embryogenesis. To elucidate the roles of genes during embryogenesis a precise temporal control of transgene expression levels in the developing organism is on demand. Results We have generated a transgenic Gal4/Vp16 activator line that is heat-shock inducible, thereby providing a tool to drive the expression of specific effector genes via Gal4/Vp16. Merging the Gal4/Vp16-UAS system with the I-SceI meganuclease and the Sleeping Beauty transposon system allows inducible gene expression in an entirely uniform manner without the need to generate transgenic effector lines. Combination of this system with fluorescent protein reporters furthermore facilitates the direct visualization of transgene expressing cells in live embryos. Conclusion The combinatorial properties of this expression system provide a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function during embryonic and larval development in fish by ectopic expression of gene products.

  18. Tyrosine 601 of Bacillus subtilis DnaK undergoes phosphorylation and is crucial for chaperone activity and heat shock survival

    Lei eShi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen for cellular substrates of the Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA, and its cognate phosphotyrosine-protein phosphatase PtpZ, we performed a triple SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteome analysis. Detected tyrosine phosphorylation sites for which the phosphorylation level decreased in the ΔptkA strain and increased in the ΔptpZ strain, compared to the wild type, were considered as potential substrates of PtkA/PtpZ. One of those sites was the residue tyrosine 601 of the molecular chaperone DnaK. We confirmed that DnaK is a substrate of PtkA and PtpZ by in vitro phosphorylation and dephosphorylation assays. In vitro, DnaK Y601F mutant exhibited impaired interaction with its co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE, along with diminished capacity to hydrolyze ATP and assist the re-folding of denatured proteins. In vivo, loss of DnaK phosphorylation in the mutant strain dnaK Y601F, or in the strain overexpressing the phosphatase PtpZ, led to diminished survival upon heat shock, consistent with the in vitro results. The decreased survival of the mutant dnaK Y601F at an elevated temperature could be rescued by complementing with the wild type dnaK allele expressed ectopically. We concluded that the residue tyrosine 601 of DnaK can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated by PtkA and PtpZ, respectively. Furthermore, Y601 is important for DnaK chaperone activity and heat shock survival of B. subtilis.

  19. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  20. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

    Inbal Nussbaum

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  1. Effect of site-directed mutagenic alterations on ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    Lobet, Y; Cluff, C W; Cieplak, W

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin, an NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase, suggested that a small amino-terminal region of amino acid sequence similarity to the active fragments of both cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin represents a region containing critical active-site residues that might be involved in the binding of the substrate NAD+. Other studies of two other bacterial toxins possessing ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, have revealed the presence of essential glutamic acid residues vicinal to the active site. To help determine the relevance of these observations to activities of the enterotoxins, the A-subunit gene of the E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin was subjected to site-specific mutagenesis in the region encoding the amino-terminal region of similarity to the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin delineated by residues 6 through 17 and at two glutamic acid residues, 110 and 112, that are conserved in the active domains of all of the heat-labile enterotoxin variants and in cholera toxin. Mutant proteins in which arginine 7 was either deleted or replaced with lysine exhibited undetectable levels of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. However, limited trypsinolysis of the arginine 7 mutants yielded fragmentation kinetics that were different from that yielded by the wild-type recombinant subunit or the authentic A subunit. In contrast, mutant proteins in which glutamic acid residues at either position 110 or 112 were replaced with aspartic acid responded like the wild-type subunit upon limited trypsinolysis, while exhibiting severely depressed, but detectable, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The latter results may indicate that either glutamic acid 110 or glutamic acid 112 of the A subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin is analogous to those active-site glutamic acids identified in several other ADP-ribosylating toxins. Images PMID:1908825

  2. Analysis of the heat shock response in mouse liver reveals dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARalpha)

    Vallanat, B.; Anderson, S.P.; Brown-Borg, H.M.; Ren, H.; Kersten, A.H.; Jonnalagadda, S.; Srinivasan, S.; Corton, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by heat shock (HS) through

  3. Removal of Pb(II) from water by the activated carbon modified by nitric acid under microwave heating.

    Yao, Shuheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Shen, Dekui; Xiao, Rui; Gu, Sai; Zhao, Ming; Liang, Junyu

    2016-02-01

    The rice husk based activated carbon (RH-AC) was treated by nitric acid under microwave heating, in order to improve its capability for the removal of heavy metal ions from water. The optimal conditions for the modification of RH-AC (M-RH-AC) were determined by means of orthogonal array experimental design, giving those as the concentration of nitric acid of 8mol/L, modification time of 15min, modification temperature of 130°C and microwave power of 800W. The characteristics of the M-RH-AC and RH-AC were examined by BET, XRD, Raman spectrum, pH titration, zeta potential, Boehm titration and FTIR analysis. The M-RH-AC has lower pore surface area, smaller crystallite, lower pHIEP and more oxygen-containing functional groups than the RH-AC. Removal capacity of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC and RH-AC from water solution was estimated concerning the influence of contact time, pH value, and initial concentration. The equilibrium time of Pb(II) removal was found to be around 90min after modification process. Two kinetic models are adopted to describe the possible Pb(II) adsorption mechanism, finding that the adsorption rate of Pb(II) ions by the M-RH-AC is larger than that of RH-AC. PMID:26520818

  4. Phosphorylated heat shock protein 27 promotes lipid clearance in hepatic cells through interacting with STAT3 and activating autophagy.

    Shen, Lei; Qi, Zhilin; Zhu, Yanyan; Song, Xiaomeng; Xuan, Chunxia; Ben, Peiling; Lan, Lei; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2016-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the major liver disease worldwide. Recently, several studies have identified that the activation of autophagy attenuates hepatic steatosis. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is involved in autophagy in response to various stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that phosphorylated Hsp27 stimulates autophagy and lipid droplet clearance and interacts with STAT3. In vivo study showed that high fat diet (HFD) feeding increased Hsp25 (mouse orthology of Hsp27) phosphorylation and autophagy in mouse livers. Inhibition of Hsp25 phosphorylation exacerbated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. In vitro study showed that palmitate-induced lipid overload in hepatic cells was enhanced by Hsp27 knockdown, KRIBB3 treatment and Hsp27-3A (non-phosphorylatable) overexpression but was prevented by Hsp27-WT (wild type) and Hsp27-3D (phosphomimetic) overexpression. Mechanism analysis demonstrated that palmitate could induce Hsp27 phosphorylation which promoted palmitate-induced autophagy. Phosphorylated Hsp27 interacted with STAT3 in response to palmitate treatment, and disrupted the STAT3/PKR complexes, facilitated PKR-dependent eIF2α phosphorylation, and thus stimulated autophagy. To conclude, our study provides a novel mechanism by which the phosphorylated Hsp27 promotes hepatic lipid clearance and suggests a new insight for therapy of steatotic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:27185187

  5. X-ray heating and ionization of broad-emission-line regions in QSO's and active galaxies

    Weisheit, J.C.; Shields, G.A.; Tarter, C.B.

    1980-07-01

    Absorption of x-rays deep within the broad-line emitting clouds in QSO's and the nuclei of active galaxies creates extensive zones of warm (T approx. 10/sup 4/K), partially ionized N/sub e//N approx. 0.1) gas. Because Lyman alpha photons are trapped in these regions, the x-ray energy is efficiently channeled into Balmer lines collisionally excited from the n = 2 level. The HI regions plus the HII regions created by ultraviolet photons illuminating the surfaces of the clouds give rise to integrated L..cap alpha../H..cap alpha.. line emission ratios between 1 and 2. Enhanced MgII line emission from the HI regions gives rise to integrated MgII/H..cap alpha.. ratios near 0.5. The OI line lambda 8446 is efficiently pumped by trapped H..cap alpha.. photons and in the x-ray heated zone an intensity ratio I (lambda 8446)/I(H..cap alpha..) approx. < 0.1 is calculated. All of these computed ratios now are in agreement with observations.

  6. Composition, activity- and heat-inventory of different waste streams from LWR and FBR nuclear fuel cycles

    According to the German concept, spent reactor fuel elements are intended to be reprocessed. The resulting radioactive wastes are planned to be disposed of in a salt dome. Long-term safety analysis for the nuclear waste repository and the evaluation of waste treatment methods require detailed information about the composition, activity- and heat-inventory of the waste streams. In this report data are listed which were calculated for radioactive wastes from reprocessed fuel elements (high-level waste concentrate, medium-level waste concentrate, dissolver residues) and radioactive wastes from the fabrication of nuclear fuel elements. Data are given for the reprocessing and the fabrication of uranium dioxide and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel elements for light-water reactors. In addition the corresponding waste streams from a fast breeder reactor nuclear fuel cycle are characterized. For the calculations the KORIGEN-code was used with input data for reference-type reactors. The calculation of the time dependent radionuclide composition of the wastes was based on element separation factors which were experimentally determined. (orig.)

  7. Role of trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192 in the enzymatic and cytotonic activities of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    Grant, C C; Messer, R J; Cieplak, W

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin have suggested that proteolytic cleavage plays an important role in the expression of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and toxicity. Specifically, several studies have implicated a trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192, which lies within an exposed region subtended by a disulfide bond in the intact A subunit, in toxicity. To investigate the role of this modification in the enzymatic and cytotonic properties of heat-labile enterotoxin, the response of purified, recombinant A subunit to tryptic activation and the effect of substituting arginine 192 with glycine on the activities of the holotoxin were examined. The recombinant A subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin exhibited significant levels of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity that were only nominally increased (approximately twofold) by prior limited trypsinolysis. The enzymatic activity also did not appear to be affected by auto-ADP-ribosylation that occurs during the high-level synthesis of the recombinant A subunit in E. coli. A mutant form of the holotoxin containing the arginine 192-to-glycine substitution exhibited levels of cytotonic activity for CHO cells that were similar to that of the untreated, wild-type holotoxin but exhibited a marked delay in the ability to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells. The results indicate that trypsin-like cleavage of the A subunit of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin at arginine 192 is not requisite to the expression of enzymatic activity by the A subunit and further reveal that this modification, although it enhances the biological and enzymatic activities of the toxin, is not absolutely required for the enterotoxin to elicit cytotonic effects. Images PMID:7927684

  8. Inhibition of Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen Processing by Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Requires an Enzymatically Active A Subunit

    Matousek, Milita P.; Nedrud, John G.; Cieplak, Witold; Harding, Clifford V.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) were found to inhibit intracellular antigen processing. Processing was not inhibited by mutant LT with attenuated ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, CT B or LT B subunit, which enhanced presentation of preexisting cell surface peptide-class II major histocompatibility complex complexes. Inhibition of antigen processing correlated with A subunit ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PMID:9632629

  9. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Effects of Heat Shock on a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutant With a Constitutively Activated cAMP-Dependent Pathway

    Lubomira Stateva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used DNA microarray technology and 2-D gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to investigate the effects of a drastic heat shock from 30℃ to 50℃ on a genome-wide scale. This experimental condition is used to differentiate between wild-type cells and those with a constitutively active cAMP-dependent pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whilst more than 50% of the former survive this shock, almost all of the latter lose viability. We compared the transcriptomes of the wildtype and a mutant strain deleted for the gene PDE2, encoding the high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase before and after heat shock treatment. We also compared the two heat-shocked samples with one another, allowing us to determine the changes that occur in the pde2Δ mutant which cause such a dramatic loss of viability after heat shock. Several genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis and carbon source utilization had altered expression levels, suggesting that these processes might be potential factors in heat shock survival. These predictions and also the effect of the different phases of the cell cycle were confirmed by biochemical and phenotypic analyses. 146 genes of previously unknown function were identified amongst the genes with altered expression levels and deletion mutants in 13 of these genes were found to be highly sensitive to heat shock. Differences in response to heat shock were also observed at the level of the proteome, with a higher level of protein degradation in the mutant, as revealed by comparing 2-D gels of wild-type and mutant heat-shocked samples and mass spectrometry analysis of the differentially produced proteins.

  11. Pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy: fast gas heating and active particle production

    Popov, N. A.

    2016-08-01

    The results of a numerical study on kinetic processes initiated by a pulsed nanosecond discharge in air at high specific deposited energy, when the dissociation degree of oxygen molecules is high, are presented. The calculations of the temporal dynamics of the electron concentration, density of atomic oxygen, vibrational distribution function of nitrogen molecules, and gas temperature agree with the experimental data. It is shown that quenching of electronically excited states of nitrogen N2(B3Πg), N2(С3Πu), N2(a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) by oxygen molecules leads to the dissociation of O2. This conclusion is based on the comparison of calculated dynamics of atomic oxygen in air, excited by a pulsed nanosecond discharge, with experimental data. In air plasma at a high dissociation degree of oxygen molecules ([O]/[O2]  >  10%), relaxation of the electronic energy of atoms and molecules in reactions with O atoms becomes extremely important. Active production of NO molecules and fast gas heating in the discharge plasma due to the quenching of electronically excited N2(B3Πg, C3Πu, a‧1 Σ \\text{u}- ) molecules by oxygen atoms is notable. Owing to the high O atom density, electrons are effectively detached from negative ions in the discharge afterglow. As a result, the decay of plasma in the afterglow is determined by electron–ion recombination, and the electron density remains relatively high between the pulses. An increase in the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules at the periphery of the plasma channel at time delay t  =  1–30 μs after the discharge is obtained. This is due to intense gas heating and, as a result, gas-dynamic expansion of a hot gas channel. Vibrationally excited N2(v) molecules produced near the discharge axis move from the axial region to the periphery. Consequently, at the periphery the vibrational temperature of nitrogen molecules is increased.

  12. Mapping variability of soil water content and flux across 1–1000 m scales using the Actively Heated Fiber Optic method

    Sayde, C.; Buelga, J.B.; Rodriguez-Sinobas, L.; El Khoury, L.; English, M.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Selker, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Actively Heated Fiber Optic (AHFO) method is shown to be capable of measuring soil water content several times per hour at 0.25 m spacing along cables of multiple kilometers in length. AHFO is based on distributed temperature sensing (DTS) observation of the heating and cooling of a buried fiber-optic cable resulting from an electrical impulse of energy delivered from the steel cable jacket. The results presented were collected from 750 m of cable buried in three 240 m colocated transects...

  13. District heating

    The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Heat Waves

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  15. Preliminary Design of the Active Residual Heat Removal System and a Circulation Pump in the Research Reactor

    The main purpose of a research reactor is pool type research reactor is widely designed in consideration of the heat removal of the core, reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom. Primary cooling system (PCS) circulates the coolant from the reactor core to the heat exchanger. Therefore the heat generated from the reactor core is removed continuously. PCS is designed based on the required thermal design flow rate of the reactor core assembly and the operation characteristics of equipment and measuring instruments. Primary coolant is dumped into the pool and goes to the reactor core through the flow guide structure. The fission heat generated from the fuel assembly is transferred to the primary coolant, and then heated primary coolant goes to the PCS equipment room in order to remove the heat by the heat exchanger. The PCS inlet pipe is connected to the outlet nozzle of the reactor structure assembly. ARHSR is designed based on the required flow rate and system constraints. And, centrifugal pump of Case 1 with a non-dimensional specific speed of 1.45 and specific diameter of 2.55 is chosen as the preliminary design of the ARHRS pump based on the system operation

  16. Effect of Postdeposition Heat Treatment on the Crystallinity, Size, and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles Produced via Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles were produced using chemical vapour deposition (CVD at different deposition temperatures (300–700°C. All the samples were heat treated at their respective deposition temperatures and at a fixed temperature of 400°C. A scanning electron microscope (SEM, a transmission electron microscope (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to characterize the nanoparticles in terms of size and crystallinity. The photocatalytic activity was investigated via degradation of methylene blue under UV light. The effects of post deposition heat treatment are discussed in terms of crystallinity, nanoparticle size as well as photocatalytic activity. Crystallinity was found to have a much larger impact on photocatalytic activity compared to nanoparticle size. Samples having a higher degree of crystallinity were more photocatalytically active despite being relatively larger in size. Surprisingly, the photocatalytic activity of the samples reduced when heat treated at temperatures lower than the deposition temperature despite showing an improvement in crystallinity.

  17. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  18. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    Zhu, Y. Z.; Cheng, J. L.; Ren, M.; Yin, L.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (phens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (phens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens. PMID:26104406

  19. Antitumor activity of mixed heat shock protein/peptide vaccine and cyclophosphamide plus interleukin-12 in mice sarcoma

    Sui Xiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune factors heat shock protein (HSP/peptides (HSP/Ps can induce both adaptive and innate immune responses. Treatment with HSP/Ps in cancer cell-bearing mice and cancer patients revealed antitumor immune activity. We aimed to develop immunotherapy strategies by vaccination with a mixture of HSP/Ps (mHSP/Ps, HSP60, HSP70, Gp96 and HSP110 enhanced with cyclophosphamide (CY and interleukin-12 (IL-12. Methods We extracted mHSP/Ps from the mouse sarcoma cell line S180 using chromatography. The identity of proteins in this mHSP/Ps was assayed using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis with antibodies specific to various HSPs. BALB/C mice bearing S180 cells were vaccinated with mHSP/Ps ×3, then were injected intraperitoneally with low-dose CY and subcutaneously with IL-12, 100 μg/day, ×5. After vaccination, T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were analyzed using FACScan and Cytotoxicity (CTL was analyzed using lactate dehydrogenase assay. ELISPOT assay was used to evaluate interferon γ (IFN-γ, and immune cell infiltration in tumors was examined in the sections of tumor specimen. Results In mice vaccinated with enhanced vaccine (mHSP/Ps and CY plus IL-12, 80% showed tumor regression and long-term survival, and tumor growth inhibition rate was 82.3% (30 days, all controls died within 40 days. After vaccination, lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltrated into the tumors of treated animals, but no leukocytes infiltrated into the tumors of control mice. The proportions of natural killer cells, CD8+, and interferon-γ-secreting cells were all increased in the immune group, and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity was increased. Conclusions In this mice tumor model, vaccination with mHSP/Ps combined with low-dose CY plus IL-12 induced an immunologic response and a marked antitumor response to autologous tumors. The regimen may be a promising therapeutic agent against tumors.

  20. The use of nuclear energy for district heating. The branch program of activities. NIKIET design efforts on the advanced nuclear co-generation plant with VK-300 reactor, the Ruta nuclear heating plant and small power units

    Full text: District heating is among the top priorities of the state economic and energy policy of Russia and is the largest and expanding sector of the national power industry. The nuclear sources of energy are regarded as the promising option for this sector of the power industry. The branch program of activities which is being implemented is intended for developing the policy and program of nuclear district heating. The priority task is to provide co-generated heat from the NPPs and nuclear co-generation plants to the amount of 30 mln Gcal/year by 2020 as specified in the Energy Policy of Russia for the period until 2020. NIKIET named after N.A. Dollezhal has been developing the special purpose reactor facilities for the power units of the nuclear co-generation plants and nuclear heating plants. The detailed design of the power unit with the simplified passive boiling water reactor VK-300 has been developed for the nuclear co-generation plant (NCP) intended to be deployed in the large-scale power industry. It has been demonstrated that NCP with VK-300 reactor is competitive with respect to the operating and advanced fossil thermal co-generation plants. It is envisaged to construct the four-unit first of-the-kind NCP with VK-300 reactor in Arkhangelsk region. The nuclear heating plant based on the pool RUTA reactors operating under atmospheric pressure is being developed for the small towns. It is planned to construct the pilot plant of such kind on the site of RF State Research Center FEI, Obninsk. In the frame of conversion of the defense-oriented works NIKIET has developed the UNITHERM reactor facility for a small NPP to be located in the distant and difficult-to access regions of Russia. To provide heat and electricity to the small communities, meteorological observatories, lighthouses and radio navigation stations in a reliable and safe way, it is possible to use non-attended small nuclear power plants based on the self-regulating water-water reactor and

  1. Synthesis of g-C3N4 with heating acetic acid treated melamine and its photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution

    Wu, Ming; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xue-wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The g-C3N4 is synthesized by directly heating the acetic acid treatment melamine. A combination of XRD, SEM, TEM, PL and UV-vis are utilized to characterize the composition, morphology and optical properties of g-C3N4. This method synthesized g-C3N4 shows smaller particles and some holes which high up the photocatalytic activity compared with the bulk g-C3N4.

  2. Parenteral Adjuvant Activities of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin and Its B Subunit for Immunization of Mice against Gastric Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Weltzin, Richard; Guy, Bruno; Thomas, William D.; Giannasca, Paul J.; Monath, Thomas P.

    2000-01-01

    The heat-labile toxin (LT) of Escherichia coli is a potent mucosal adjuvant that has been used to induce protective immunity against Helicobacter felis and Helicobacter pylori infection in mice. We studied whether recombinant LT or its B subunit (LTB) has adjuvant activity in mice when delivered with H. pylori urease antigen via the parenteral route. Mice were immunized subcutaneously or intradermally with urease plus LT, recombinant LTB, or a combination of LT and LTB prior to intragastric c...

  3. Variations of daytime and nighttime electron temperature and heat flux in the upper ionosphere, topside ionosphere and lower plasmasphere for low and high solar activity

    Truhlík, Vladimír; Třísková, Ludmila; Bilitza, D.; Podolská, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, 17-18 (2009), s. 2055-2063. ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420603 Grant ostatní: NASA(US) NNH06CD17C Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Electron temperature * Solar activity variation * Latitudinal and field aligned profiles * Heat flux Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2009

  4. INVESTIGATION OF DUAL ACTIVE NUCLEI, OUTFLOWS, SHOCK-HEATED GAS, AND YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN MARKARIAN 266

    Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B. H. P. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Iwasawa, K., E-mail: mazz@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: bchan@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: kazushi.iwasawa@icc.ub.edu [ICREA and Institut del Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-11-01

    Results of observations with the Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes are presented for the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) merger Markarian 266. The SW (Seyfert 2) and NE (LINER) nuclei reside in galaxies with Hubble types SBb (pec) and S0/a (pec), respectively. Both companions are more luminous than L* galaxies and they are inferred to each contain a Almost-Equal-To 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} black hole. Although the nuclei have an observed hard X-ray flux ratio of f{sub X} (NE)/f{sub X} (SW) = 6.4, Mrk 266 SW is likely the primary source of a bright Fe K{alpha} line detected from the system, consistent with the reflection-dominated X-ray spectrum of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Optical knots embedded in an arc with aligned radio continuum radiation, combined with luminous H{sub 2} line emission, provide evidence for a radiative bow shock in an AGN-driven outflow surrounding the NE nucleus. A soft X-ray emission feature modeled as shock-heated plasma with T {approx} 10{sup 7} K is cospatial with radio continuum emission between the galaxies. Mid-infrared diagnostics provide mixed results, but overall suggest a composite system with roughly equal contributions of AGN and starburst radiation powering the bolometric luminosity. Approximately 120 star clusters have been detected, with most having estimated ages less than 50 Myr. Detection of 24 {mu}m emission aligned with soft X-rays, radio continuum, and ionized gas emission extending {approx}34'' (20 kpc) north of the galaxies is interpreted as {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} of dust entrained in an outflowing superwind. At optical wavelengths this Northern Loop region is resolved into a fragmented morphology indicative of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in an expanding shell of ionized gas. Mrk 266 demonstrates that the dust 'blow-out' phase can begin in a LIRG well before the galaxies fully coalesce during a

  5. INVESTIGATION OF DUAL ACTIVE NUCLEI, OUTFLOWS, SHOCK-HEATED GAS, AND YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN MARKARIAN 266

    Results of observations with the Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes are presented for the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) merger Markarian 266. The SW (Seyfert 2) and NE (LINER) nuclei reside in galaxies with Hubble types SBb (pec) and S0/a (pec), respectively. Both companions are more luminous than L* galaxies and they are inferred to each contain a ≈2.5 × 108 M☉ black hole. Although the nuclei have an observed hard X-ray flux ratio of fX (NE)/fX (SW) = 6.4, Mrk 266 SW is likely the primary source of a bright Fe Kα line detected from the system, consistent with the reflection-dominated X-ray spectrum of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Optical knots embedded in an arc with aligned radio continuum radiation, combined with luminous H2 line emission, provide evidence for a radiative bow shock in an AGN-driven outflow surrounding the NE nucleus. A soft X-ray emission feature modeled as shock-heated plasma with T ∼ 107 K is cospatial with radio continuum emission between the galaxies. Mid-infrared diagnostics provide mixed results, but overall suggest a composite system with roughly equal contributions of AGN and starburst radiation powering the bolometric luminosity. Approximately 120 star clusters have been detected, with most having estimated ages less than 50 Myr. Detection of 24 μm emission aligned with soft X-rays, radio continuum, and ionized gas emission extending ∼34'' (20 kpc) north of the galaxies is interpreted as ∼2 × 107 M☉ of dust entrained in an outflowing superwind. At optical wavelengths this Northern Loop region is resolved into a fragmented morphology indicative of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in an expanding shell of ionized gas. Mrk 266 demonstrates that the dust 'blow-out' phase can begin in a LIRG well before the galaxies fully coalesce during a subsequent ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phase, and rapid gas consumption in luminous dual AGNs with kiloparsec-scale separations

  6. Direct Optical Ice Sensing and Closed-Loop Controller Design for Active De-icing of Wind Turbines Using Distributed Heating

    Shajiee, Shervin

    Ice accumulation on wind turbines operating in cold regions reduces power generation by degrading aerodynamic efficiency and causes mass imbalance and fatigue loads on the blades. Due to blade rotation and variation of the pitch angle, different locations on the blade experience large variations of Reynolds number, Nusselt number, heat loss, and non-uniform ice distribution. Hence, applying different amounts of heat flux in different blade locations can provide more effective de-icing for the same total power consumption. This large variation of required heat flux motivates using distributed resistive heating, with the capability of locally adjusting thermal power as a function of location on the blade. The main contributions of this research are developing the experimental feasibility of direct ice sensing using an optical sensing technique as well as development of a computational framework for implementation of closed-loop localized active de-icing using distributed sensing. A script-base module was developed in a commercial finite-element software (ANSYS) which provides the capability of (i) Closed-loop de-icing simulations for a distributed network of sensors and actuators, (ii) investigating different closed-loop thermal control schemes and their de-icing efficiency (iii) optimizing thermal actuation for a distributed resistive heating, and (iv) analyzing different faulty scenarios for sensors and thermal actuators under known faults in the network. Different surrogate models were used to enhance the computational efficiency of this approach. The results showed that optimal value of control parameters in a distributed network of heaters depends on convective heat transfer characteristics, layout of heaters and type of closed-loop controller scheme used for thermal actuation. Furthermore, It was shown that closed-loop control provides much faster de-icing than the open-loop constant heat flux thermal actuation. It was observed both experimentally and

  7. Heat Stress

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW Criteria ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  8. MED16 and MED23 of Mediator are coactivators of lipopolysaccharide- and heat-shock-induced transcriptional activators

    Kim, Tae Whan; Kwon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Jung Mo; Song, Young-Hwa; Kim, Se Nyun; Kim, Young-Joon

    2004-01-01

    Transcriptional activators interact with diverse proteins and recruit transcriptional machinery to the activated promoter. Recruitment of the Mediator complex by transcriptional activators is usually the key step in transcriptional activation. However, it is unclear how Mediator recognizes different types of activator proteins. To systematically identify the subunits responsible for the signal- and activator-specific functions of Mediator in Drosophila melanogaster, each Mediator subunit was ...

  9. Solar heating and cooling of buildings: activities of the private sector of the building community and its perceived needs relative to increased activity

    1976-01-01

    A description of the state of affairs existing in the private sector of the building community between mid-1974 and mid-1975 with regard to solar heating and cooling of buildings is presentd. Also, information on the needs perceived by the private sector with regard to governmental actions (besides research) required to induce widespread application of solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings is given. The information is based on surveys, data obtained at workshops, sales literature of manufacturers, symposia, and miscellaneous correspondence. Selected interests and projects of individuals and organizations are described. (WHK)

  10. The Role of Sulfhydryl Reactivity of Small Molecules for the Activation of the KEAP1/NRF2 Pathway and the Heat Shock Response

    Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The KEAP1/NRF2 pathway and the heat shock response are two essential cytoprotective mechanisms that allow adaptation and survival under conditions of oxidative, electrophilic, and thermal stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks of genes with versatile protective functions. The two pathways are independently regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2 and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, respectively. The activity of these transcriptional master regulators increases during conditions of stress and also upon encounter of small molecules (inducers, both naturally occurring as well as synthetically produced. Inducers have a common chemical property: the ability to react with sulfhydryl groups. The protein targets of such sulfhydryl-reactive compounds are equipped with highly reactive cysteine residues, which serve as sensors for inducers. The initial cysteine-sensed signal is further relayed to affect the expression of large networks of genes, which in turn can ultimately influence complex cell fate decisions such as life and death. The paper summarizes the multiple lines of experimental evidence demonstrating that the reactivity with sulfhydryl groups is a major determinant of the mechanism of action of small molecule dual activators of the KEAP1/NRF2 pathway and the heat shock response.

  11. The control of polyphenol oxidase activity in fruits and vegetables. A study of the interactions between the chemical compounds used and heat treatment.

    Almeida, M E; Nogueira, J N

    1995-04-01

    Objective of this research was to find alternative methods for the control of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fruits and vegetables with the purpose of reducing or eliminating the use of SO2 for this purpose. Interactions between the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, EDTA, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment (70 degrees C for 2 min) in the control of PPO activity were studied in avocado (var. Fortuna), banana (var. Nanica), apple (var. Ana, Fuji, Gala & Golden), pear (var. D'Agua), peach (var. Réal), potato (var. Bintje), eggplant (var. Super F100), mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and hearts-of-palm (Euterpe edulis Mart). The results demonstrated that PPO of avocado and eggplant was most resistant to inhibition by the methods used. The least efficient method tested for the control of PPO was the addition of ascorbic acid and EDTA, while the most efficient methods investigated included the use of ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium metabisulphite and heat treatment. The results indicated that, with the exception of PPO from avocado, the most adequate alternative method to substitute for the use of SO2 in the control of PPO was a combination of ascorbic acid, citric acid and heat treatment. PMID:7659702

  12. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Activities of the Private Sector of the Building Community and Its Perceived Needs Relative to Increased Activity.

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Solar Energy in the Heating and Cooling of Buildings.

    This report is essentially a collection of information gathered from a broad cross-section of the building community that provides a description of the state of affairs existing mid-1974 through mid-1975 in the private sector of the building community with regard to solar heating and cooling of buildings. The report additionally contains…

  13. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and hemolysin activities and heat susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes after growth in media containing sodium chloride.

    Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1990-01-01

    The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and a thiol-activated hemolysin produced by four strains of Listeria monocytogenes propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride were examined. L. monocytogenes 7644 showed an increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and thiol-activated hemolysin activities when grown in a medium containing 2.5% (wt/vol) NaCl followed by a decrease in activities when propagated in media containing salt concentrations higher than 2...

  14. Fatigue experiment on bursting disk device in non-active heat discharging system of chinese experimentation fast reactor

    Passive residual heat removal system is very important for faster reactors to ensure its safety. Bursting disk is one passive discharging device under over-pressure. Action performance of the bursting diak is carried out by adding fatigue loads repeatedly in this paper. The load stress is 80% of the nominal bursting pressure of the bursting disk, and the load cycles is over 105. The experimental result shows that the action pressure difference before and after the fatigue experiment of the bursting disk is less than 1.5%, which indicates that the fatigue resistance of the bursting disk for the passive residual heat removal system is excellent, and it can ensure the reliable work of the passive system. (authors)

  15. The wing in yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) DNA-binding domain is required for full activity

    Cicero, Marco P.; T. Hubl, Susan; Harrison, Celia J.; Littlefield, Otis; Hardy, Jeanne A.; Nelson, Hillary C. M.

    2001-01-01

    The yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) belongs to the winged helix family of proteins. HSF binds DNA as a trimer, and additional trimers can bind DNA co-operatively. Unlike other winged helix–turn–helix proteins, HSF’s wing does not appear to contact DNA, as based on a previously solved crystal structure. Instead, the structure implies that the wing is involved in protein–protein interactions, possibly within a trimer or between adjacent trimers. To unders...

  16. Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of PFOA, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, and PFOS under conditions suitable for in-situ groundwater remediation.

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Linda S; Medina, Victor F; Zull, Aaron; Waisner, Scott

    2016-02-01

    PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) oxidation (0.121-6.04 μM) by heat-activated persulfate was evaluated at 20-60 °C with 4.2-84 mM [Formula: see text] and in the presence of soluble fuel components to assess feasibility for in-situ remediation of groundwater. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid/sulfonate (6:2 FTSA) and PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) persulfate oxidation was also evaluated in a subset of conditions given their co-occurrence at many sites. High performance liquid chromatography electron spray tandem mass spectrometry was used for organic analysis and fluoride was measured using a fluoride-specific electrode. PFOA pseudo-1st order transformation rates (k1,PFOA) increased with increasing temperature (half-lives from 0.1 to 7 d for 60 to 30 °C) sequentially removing CF2 groups ('unzipping') to shorter chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and F(-). At 50 °C, a 5-fold increase in [Formula: see text] led to a 5-fold increase in k1,PFOA after which self-scavenging by sulfate radicals decreased the relative rate of increase with more [Formula: see text] . Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene did not affect k1,PFOA even at 40 times higher molar concentrations than PFOA. A modeling approach to explore pathways strongly supported that for 6:2 FTSA, both the ethyl linkage and CF2-CH2 bond of 6:2 FTSA oxidize simultaneously, resulting in a ratio of ∼25/75 PFHpA/PFHxA. The effectiveness of heat-activated [Formula: see text] on PFOA oxidation was reduced in a soil slurry; therefore, repeated persulfate injections are required to efficiently achieve complete oxidation in the field. However, PFOS remained unaltered even at higher activation temperatures, thus limiting the sole use of heat-activated persulfate for perfluoroalkyl substances removal in the field. PMID:26692515

  17. Heat pumps

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  18. Indian herb `Sanjeevani' (Selaginella bryopteris) can promote growth and protect against heat shock and apoptotic activities of ultra violet and oxidative stress

    Nand K Sah; Shyam Nandan P Singh; Sudhir Sahdev; Sharmishta Banerji; Vidyanath Jha; Zakir Khan; Seyed E Hasnain

    2005-09-01

    Selaginella bryopteris is a lithophyte with remarkable ressurection capabilities. It is full of medicinal properties, hence also known as ‘Sanjeevani’ (one that infuses life). For lack of credible scientific evidence the plant is not in active use as a medicinal herb. We provide scientific evidence for why S. bryopteris is known as ‘Sanjeevani’. The aqueous extract of S. bryopteris possesses growth-promoting activity as well as protective action against stress-induced cell death in a number of experimental cell systems including mammalian cells. Treatment of the cells in culture with 10% aqueous extract enhanced cell growth by about 41% in Sf9 cells and 78% in mammalian cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the Selaginella extract (SE) (1–2.5%) protected against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced cell death. The killing potential of ultra violet (UV) was also significantly reduced when the cells were pre-treated with SE for 1 h. Thermal radiation suppressed cell growth by about 50%. Pre-treatment of cells with SE for 1 h afforded complete protection against heat-induced growth suppression. SE may possess anti-stress and antioxidant activities that could be responsible for the observed effects. Chemical analysis shows that SE contains hexoses and proteins. Taken together, S. bryopteris extract may help in stress-induced complications including those due to heat shock.

  19. Heat shock protein 60 stimulates the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and ERK MAPK activation

    Ying Zhao; Chenxu Zhang; Xuge Wei; Pei Li; Ying Cui; Yuanhua Qin; Xiaoqing Wei; Minli Jin; Kazuhiro Kohama; Ying Gao

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that heat shock protein (HSP) 60 is strongly associated with the pathology of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the precise mechanisms by which HSP60 promotes atherosclerosis remain unclear. In the present study, we found that HSP60 mRNA and protein expression levels in the thoracic aorta are enhanced not only in a mouse model of AS but also in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. HSP60 expression and secretion was activated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and...

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties in the weld heat affected zone of 9Cr-2W-VTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for fusion

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel demonstrated excellent resistance to the neutron irradiation and mechanical properties. The investigation of weldability in company with the development of RAFM steel is essential for construction of the fusion reactor. Generally, the superior mechanical properties of the RAFM steel can be upset during welding process due to microstructural change by rapid heating and cooling in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ). The phase transformation and mechanical properties in the weld HAZ of RAFM steel were investigated. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite and two carbides. During rapid welding thermal cycle, the microstructure of the base steel was transformed into martensite and δ-ferrite. In addition, the volume fraction of δ-ferrite and grain size increased with increase in the peak temperature and heat input. The strength of the HAZs was higher than that of the base steel due to the formation of martensite, whereas the impact properties of the HAZs deteriorated as compared with the base steel due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The PWHT improved the impact properties of the HAZs, resulting from the formation of tempered martensite

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties in the weld heat affected zone of 9Cr-2W-VTa reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel for fusion

    Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Changhoon; Lee, Taeho; Jang, Minho; Park, Mingu [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel demonstrated excellent resistance to the neutron irradiation and mechanical properties. The investigation of weldability in company with the development of RAFM steel is essential for construction of the fusion reactor. Generally, the superior mechanical properties of the RAFM steel can be upset during welding process due to microstructural change by rapid heating and cooling in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ). The phase transformation and mechanical properties in the weld HAZ of RAFM steel were investigated. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite and two carbides. During rapid welding thermal cycle, the microstructure of the base steel was transformed into martensite and δ-ferrite. In addition, the volume fraction of δ-ferrite and grain size increased with increase in the peak temperature and heat input. The strength of the HAZs was higher than that of the base steel due to the formation of martensite, whereas the impact properties of the HAZs deteriorated as compared with the base steel due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The PWHT improved the impact properties of the HAZs, resulting from the formation of tempered martensite.

  2. Influence of heat treatment to conductivity and activation energy in composite of (Lil)X(Al2O3)1-X

    The composite (Lil)x(Al2O3)1-x has been prepared by mixing of Lil with Al2O3 powders. Process mixture both powder with various concentration Lil begin 0.6 to 0.9. Then composite of (Lil)x(Al2O3)1-x was compacted with diameter 1.5 cm and pressure 4000 psi, then the composite had been done heated with heating to begin 300 °K to 570 °K. The x-ray diffraction of (Lil)x(Al2O3)1-x show that peaks of Lil and Al2O3. The composite crystal size of (Lil)x(Al2O3)1-x increase with increasing concentration of Lil, except at weight fraction x = 0.9. The composite conductivity of (Lil)x(Al2O3)1-x is measured by LCR-meter method at the frequency between 0.1 Hz to 100 kHz. The result show that the composite conductivities of (Lil)x(Al2O3)1-x decreased with increasing temperature, but activation energy the composite of (Lil)x(Al2O3)1-x increased and decreased disorder with increasing of heating temperature and concentration of Lil. (author)

  3. Effect of Amino Acids on the Generation of Ginsenoside Rg3 Epimers by Heat Processing and the Anticancer Activities of Epimers in A2780 Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    Park, Jun Yeon; Choi, Pilju; Lee, Dahae; Kim, Taejung; Jung, Eun Bee; Hwang, Buyng-Su; Kang, Ki Sung; Ham, Jungyeob

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides are the active components of Panax ginseng. Many research studies indicate that these deglycosylated, less-polar ginsenosides have better bioactivity than the major ginsenosides. In the present study, we sought to verify the enhanced anticancer effect of P. ginseng extract after undergoing the Maillard reaction as well as elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. The effects of 9 amino acids were tested; among them, the content of 20(S)-Rg3 in the ginseng extract increased to more than 30, 20, and 20% when processed with valine, arginine, and alanine, respectively, compared with that after normal heat processing. The ginseng extract that was heat-processed with arginine exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect on A2780 ovarian cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the generation of 20(S)-Rg3 was suggested to be involved in this effect. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of 20(S)-Rg3 on A2780 cell proliferation was significantly stronger than that of 20(R)-Rg3. Protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP in the A2780 ovarian cancer cells markedly increased, whereas the expression of BID decreased after 20(S)-Rg3 treatment. Therefore, we confirmed that the anticancer effects of the products of ginseng that was heat-processed with arginine are mediated mainly via the generation of the less-polar ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3. PMID:27051448

  4. Effect of Amino Acids on the Generation of Ginsenoside Rg3 Epimers by Heat Processing and the Anticancer Activities of Epimers in A2780 Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Jun Yeon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenosides are the active components of Panax ginseng. Many research studies indicate that these deglycosylated, less-polar ginsenosides have better bioactivity than the major ginsenosides. In the present study, we sought to verify the enhanced anticancer effect of P. ginseng extract after undergoing the Maillard reaction as well as elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. The effects of 9 amino acids were tested; among them, the content of 20(S-Rg3 in the ginseng extract increased to more than 30, 20, and 20% when processed with valine, arginine, and alanine, respectively, compared with that after normal heat processing. The ginseng extract that was heat-processed with arginine exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect on A2780 ovarian cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the generation of 20(S-Rg3 was suggested to be involved in this effect. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of 20(S-Rg3 on A2780 cell proliferation was significantly stronger than that of 20(R-Rg3. Protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP in the A2780 ovarian cancer cells markedly increased, whereas the expression of BID decreased after 20(S-Rg3 treatment. Therefore, we confirmed that the anticancer effects of the products of ginseng that was heat-processed with arginine are mediated mainly via the generation of the less-polar ginsenoside 20(S-Rg3.

  5. Influence of short-term experimental warming on heat-water processes of the active layer in a swamp meadow ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    GuangSheng Liu; GenXu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is now evident in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), with impacts on the alpine ecosystem, particularly on water and heat balance between the active layer and the atmosphere. Thus, we document the basic characteristics of changes in the water and heat dynamics in response to experimental warming in a typical alpine swamp meadow ecosystem. Data sets under open top chambers (OTC) and the control manipulations were collected over a complete year. The results show that annual (2008) air temperatures of OTC-1 and OTC-2 were 6.7 °C and 3.5 °C warmer than the control. Rising temperature promotes plant growth and development. The freeze-thaw and isothermal days of OTCs appeared more frequently than the control, owing to comparably higher water and better vegetation conditions. OTCs soil moisture decreased with the decrease of soil depth; however, there was an obviously middle dry aquifer of the control, which is familiar in QTP. Moreover, experimental warming led to an increase in topsoil water content due to poorly drained swamp meadow ecosystem with higher organic matter content and thicker root horizons. The results of this study will have some contributions to alpine cold ecosystem water-heat process and water cycle under climate change.

  6. Effective elastic thickness of the continental lithosphere in China from heat flow: Implications for the lithospheric rheology and active tectonics

    Liu, S.; Wang, L.

    2009-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness (Te) of continental lithosphere is one important parameter that describes the response of the lithosphere to long-term loads. However, the estimation of Te is still controversial and various forward and inverse methods have been proposed since the last 20 years. Besides the general application of gravity-topography based inverse method, thermal aspect and related technique is more emphasized, since the mechanical behavior of lithosphere is obviously influenced by temperature. Here we present the effective elastic thickness of the continental lithosphere in China from heat flow data by the method proposed by Burov et al, J. Geophys. Res., 1995, 100(B3):3905-3927. Our results show that Te varies much in different areas of China due to diverse and complicated geological evolution and associated change in thermal regime. Te is much larger than the crustal thickness in the regions where the heat flow is really low (usually less than 50mW/m2) and the lithosphere is relatively thick, indicating much more contribution from the upper mantle to the whole strength of lithosphere. Under this condition, the rheology of the mantle with olivine dominates the deformation manner and processes of the lithosphere and the typical cases in China are those blocks (Tarim, Junggar, Ordos and Sichuan) in central-western China. For instance, the Te of the Tarim basin is 66

  7. Heat Shock Proteins Regulate Activation-induced Proteasomal Degradation of the Mature Phosphorylated Form of Protein Kinase C*

    Lum, Michelle A.; Balaburski, Gregor M; Murphy, Maureen E.; Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mechanisms of activation-induced PKC down-regulation are poorly understood. A characterized pathway involves priming site dephosphorylation and degradation of the dephosphorylated species.

  8. Heat pumps

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  9. Large-scale jets from active galactic nuclei as a source of ICM heating: cavities and shocks

    Perucho, Manel; Quilis, Vicent; Ricciardelli, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of powerful extragalactic jets is not only interesting by itself, but also for its impact on the evolution of the host galaxy and its surroundings. We have performed long-term axisymmetric numerical simulations of relativistic jets with different powers to study their evolution through an environment with a pressure and density gradient. Our results show key differences in the evolution of jets with different powers in terms of the spatial and temporal scales of energy deposition. According to our results, the observed morphology in X-ray cavities requires that an important fraction of the jet's energetic budget is in the form of internal energy. Thus, light, lepton-dominated jets are favoured. In all cases, heating is mainly produced by shocks. Cavity overpressure is sustained by an important population of thermal particles. Our simulations reproduce the cool-core structure in projected, luminosity-weighted temperature. We have performed an additional simulation of a slow, massive jet and discu...

  10. Depth Distribution Studies of Carbon in Steel Surfaces by Means of Charged Particle Activation Analysis with an Account of Heat and Diffusion Effects in the Sample

    Depth distribution studies of carbon in steel and iron were carried out in the concentration range 0.05-1 %, using proton activation analysis. Surface content studies were performed in the concentration range 0.01-1 % using deuteron activation analysis. The following reactions were utilized: 12C(p,γ)13N and 12C(d,n)13N Evaluations of depth distribution were based on resonances in the excitation function. The carbon content was determined with the aid of the positron emitter, 13N, using either single-peak or coincidence measurements. The heat dissipation in the irradiated region of the samples was calculated, and the temperature rise was measured using thermocouples. The temperature distribution within the hot zone subjected to irradiation by charged particles, together with the temperature distribution around this zone, was studied in order to estimate any effect this might have on the carbon diffusion. A device for automatic sample exchange which is remotely controlled is described

  11. Heat shock protein expression and change of cytochrome c oxidase activity: presence of two phylogenic old systems to protect tissues in ischemia and reperfusion.

    Vogt, Sebastian; Portig, Irene; Irqsusi, Mark; Ruppert, Volker; Weber, Petra; Ramzan, Rabia

    2011-08-01

    Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp) has been shown to protect cells from ischemia by providing transient tolerance against myocardial injury and improving postischemic functional recovery. Attenuation of ATP depletion and earlier restoration of ATP content on reperfusion are thought to play a role in this scenario. Hsp induction is accompanied by altered enzyme activity of the respiratory chain, the major generator of ATP under physiological conditions. This report addresses the question whether processing and final assembly of the active holoenzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO, complex IV), member of the respiratory chain, is compromised under hypoxic conditions unless protected by stress proteins. Special focus is laid on function of the enzyme's subunits and importance of cellular energy availability and maintenance. PMID:21792694

  12. ANALYSIS AND THINKING OF ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING HOUSE%太阳能主动式采暖实测与分析

    李元哲; 单明; 何端练

    2009-01-01

    通过对一栋位于北京昌平地区的主动式太阳房的全冬季测试数据进行分析,得到了太阳能保证率及其若干重要影响因素,并给出了其辅助热源的合理设计和运行方式.%It has provided widest application prospect for more and more attentions are paid to energy saving and discharge reduction all over the world. As an important aspect of solar energy utilization of low temperature, active solar energy heating is involved in many factors, which can influence the running effect and economy of the whole system dramatical-ly. Detailed testing data about an active solar house in Beijing Changping district has been analyzed in this paper. Solar fraction and its several influencing factors were discussed. Based on the results, the reasonable design method and opera-tion way has been established when an air-source heat pump was acted as auxiliary source of solar energy.

  13. Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum

    Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

  14. Heat shock protein 60 stimulates the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and ERK MAPK activation

    Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Chenxu; Wei, Xuge; Li, Pei; Cui, Ying; Qin, Yuanhua; Wei, Xiaoqing; Jin, Minli; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Gao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that heat shock protein (HSP) 60 is strongly associated with the pathology of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the precise mechanisms by which HSP60 promotes atherosclerosis remain unclear. In the present study, we found that HSP60 mRNA and protein expression levels in the thoracic aorta are enhanced not only in a mouse model of AS but also in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. HSP60 expression and secretion was activated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and interleukin (IL)-8 in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HSP60 was found to induce VSMC migration, and exposure to HSP60 activated ERK MAPK signaling. U0126, an inhibitor of ERK, reduced VSMC migration. The HSP60-stimulated VSMCs were found to express TLR4 mRNA but not TLR2 mRNA. Knockdown of TLR4 by siRNA reduced HSP60-induced VSMC migration and HSP60-induced ERK activation. Finally, HSP60 induced IL-8 secretion in VSMCs. Together these results suggest that HSP60 is involved in the stimulation of VSMC migration, via TLR4 and ERK MAPK activation. Meanwhile, activation of HSP60 is one of the most powerful methods of sending a ‘danger signal’ to the immune system to generate IL-8, which assists in the management of an infection or disease. PMID:26477505

  15. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata” and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Neelam Ara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C and severe (42 °C heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2− and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  16. Integrated Data from the NEPTUNE Observatory Highlight the Role of Sub-seafloor Processes in Rapid Temperature, Salinity, and Heat spiking after Seismic Activity.

    Larson, B. I.; Xu, G.; Lilley, M. D.; Bemis, K. G.; Butterfield, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating chemical and temperature changes in hydrothermal venting in the wake of seismic activity has typically been hampered by limited sampling in time and space. Seafloor observatories afford the opportunity for continuous collection of multiple data streams distributed over an area of interest to understand how geological, physical, and chemical processes are linked. Here we present results from chemical and geophysical sensor packages installed on the NEPTUNE observatory operated by Ocean Networks Canada to monitor temperature, chemistry and heat transport of the hydrothermal vent, Grotto, at Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Benthic and Resistivity Sensors (BARS) make in-situ measurements of temperature and chloride concentration in high temperature hydrothermal fluid at one smoker. The Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) measures rise rates and heat transport in three nearby plumes and in areas of local diffuse discharge. These instruments are located in the vicinity of ocean bottom seismometers and alongside a Remote Access Sampler (RAS), a time-series fluid sampling device. BARS captured slow changes in temperature and chloride from September, 2013 to January, 2014, and rapid changes in the wake of seismic activity in March 2014. COVIS also captured a possible spike in heat transport above the most distal of the three plumes around the same time as the rapid variability in BARS data. Potential causes consistent with these data include seismic and fluid response to cracking of fresh rock, or earthquake-triggered changes in the underlying plumbing system. For the first scenario, spikes in the chloride signal can be used to constrain PT conditions of fluid phase separation by assuming peak and baseline chloride values represent brine and vapor conjugates, respectively. From this we estimate 422 °C and 336 bars as the conditions under which conjugates formed. For the second scenario, a single pass numerical model of the release of

  17. Heat Pipes

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  18. Effects of synthesis and heat-treatment conditions on the optical properties of glasses activated with compound semiconductors

    Influence of concentration of reducing agent (carbon) and chalcogens (sulfur and selenium), as well as repeated thermal treatment, on spectral properties of amorphous media activated by CuInS2 compounds and CuInS1.2Se0.8 solid solution was studied. Both separate and joint introduction of the reducing agent and chalcogens was considered. It is shown that carbon plays the decisive role during synthesis of activated amorphous media, its optimal concentration making up 2.0 wt. %. It is ascertained that repeated thermal treatment under different temperature-duration conductions does not produce essential effect on spectral properties of activated amorphous media. It relates to the fact that formation of colour centres occurs at earlier stages, i.e. during the melt cooling down

  19. Pulmonary heat shock protein expression after exposure to a metabolically activated Clara cell toxicant: relationship to protein adduct formation

    Heat shock proteins/stress proteins (Hsps) participate in regulation of protein synthesis and degradation and serve as general cytoprotectants, yet their role in lethal Clara cell injury is not clear. To define the pattern of Hsp expression in acute lethal Clara cell injury, mice were treated with the Clara cell-specific toxicant naphthalene (NA), and patterns of expression compared to electrophilic protein adduction and previously established organellar degradation and gluathione (GSH) depletion. In sites of lethal injury (distal bronchiole), prior to organellar degradation (1 h post-NA), protein adduction is detectable and ubiquitin, Hsp 25, Hsp 72, and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) are increased. Maximal Hsp expression, protein adduction, and GSH depletion occur simultaneous (by 2-3 h) with early organelle disruption. Hsp expression is higher later (6-24 h), only in exfoliating cells. In airway sites (proximal bronchiole) with nonlethal Clara cell injury elevation of Hsp 25, 72, and HO-1 expression follows significant GSH depletion (greater than 50% 2 h post-NA). This data build upon our previous studies and we conclude that (1) in lethal (terminal bronchiole) and nonlethal (proximal bronchiole) Clara cell injury, Hsp induction is associated with the loss of GSH and increased protein adduction, and (2) in these same sites, organelle disruption is not a prerequisite for Hsp induction

  20. Investigation of Dual Active Nuclei, Outflows, Shock-Heated Gas, and Young Star Clusters in Markarian 266

    Mazzarella, J M; Vavilkin, T; Armus, L; Kim, D -C; Bothun, G; Evans, A S; Spoon, H W W; Haan, S; Howell, J H; Lord, S; Marshall, J A; Ishida, C M; Xu, C K; Petric, A; Sanders, D B; Surace, J A; Appleton, P; Chan, B H P; Frayer, D T; Inami, H; Khachikian, E Ye; Madore, B F; Privon, G C; Sturm, E; U., Vivian; Veilleux, S

    2012-01-01

    Results of observations with the Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes are presented for the Luminous Infrared Galaxy (LIRG) merger Mrk 266. The SW (Seyfert 2) and NE (LINER) nuclei reside in galaxies with Hubble types SBb (pec) and S0/a (pec), respectively. Both galaxies have L > L*, and they are inferred to each contain a ~2.5x10^8 M_sun black hole. Mrk 266 SW is likely the primary source of a bright Fe K-alpha line detected from the system, consistent with the reflection-dominated X-ray spectrum of a heavily obscured AGN. Optical knots embedded in an arc with aligned radio continuum radiation, combined with luminous H_2 line emission, provide evidence for a radiative bow shock in an AGN-driven outflow surrounding the NE nucleus. Soft X-ray emission modeled as shock-heated plasma is co-spatial with radio continuum emission between the galaxies. Mid-IR diagnostics indicate roughly equal contributions of AGN and starburst radiation powering the bolometric luminosity. Approximately 1...

  1. Oxidative stress in deep scattering layers: Heat shock response and antioxidant enzymes activities of myctophid fishes thriving in oxygen minimum zones

    Lopes, Ana Rita; Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Pires, Vanessa; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Diel vertical migrators, such as myctophid fishes, are known to encounter oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) during daytime in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and, therefore, have to cope with temperature and oxidative stress that arise while ascending to warmer, normoxic surface waters at night-time. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant defense strategies and heat shock response (HSR) in two myctophid species, namely Triphoturus mexicanus and Benthosema panamense, at shallow and warm surface waters (21 kPa, 20-25 °C) and at hypoxic, cold (≤1 kPa, 10 °C) mesopelagic depths. More specifically, we quantified (i) heat shock protein concentrations (HSP70/HSC70) (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], and (iii) lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. HSP70/HSC70 levels increased in both myctophid species at warmer, well-oxygenated surface waters probably to prevent cellular damage (oxidative stress) due to increased oxygen demand under elevated temperatures and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. On the other hand, CAT and GST activities were augmented under hypoxic conditions, probably as preparatory response to a burst of oxyradicals during the reoxygenation phase (while ascending). SOD activity decreased under hypoxia in B. panamense, but was kept unchanged in T. mexicanus. MDA levels in B. panamense did not change between the surface and deep-sea conditions, whereas T. mexicanus showed elevated MDA and HSP70/HSC70 concentrations at warmer surface waters. This indicated that T. mexicanus seems to be not so well tuned to temperature and oxidative stress associated to diel vertical migrations. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how different species might respond to the impacts of environmental stressors (e.g. expanding mesopelagic hypoxia

  2. Zinc L-carnosine protects colonic mucosal injury through induction of heat shock protein 72 and suppression of NF-kappaB activation.

    Odashima, Masaru; Otaka, Michiro; Jin, Mario; Wada, Isao; Horikawa, Youhei; Matsuhashi, Tamotsu; Ohba, Reina; Hatakeyama, Natsumi; Oyake, Jinko; Watanabe, Sumio

    2006-11-10

    In this study, we investigated the effects of zinc L-carnosine, an anti-ulcer drug, on acetic acid-induced colonic mucosal injury and the correlation of these effects with expression of 72-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP72) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in rat colonic mucosa in vivo. After intrarectal administration of zinc L-carnosine, the rats received intrarectal infusion of 5% acetic acid (1 ml). The colonic mucosal damage was evaluated by macroscopic assessments 24 h after the intrarectal infusion of acetic acid. Expression of HSP72 in rat colonic mucosa was evaluated by Western blot analysis before and after zinc L-carnosine administration. NF-kappaB activation was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Zinc L-carnosine inhibited visible damage in rat colonic mucosa by acetic acid. Expression of HSP72 was significantly increased at 6 h after zinc L-carnosine administration. Furthermore, NF-kappaB activation in colonic mucosa was suppressed 6 h after zinc L-carnosine treatment. These results suggested that zinc L-carnosine protects the colonic mucosa against acetic acid by induction of HSP72 and suppression of NF-kappaB activation and zinc L-carnosine may be a novel therapeutic agent for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:16949620

  3. Influence of Linker Length Variations on the Biomass-Degrading Performance of Heat-Active Enzyme Chimeras.

    Rizk, Mazen; Antranikian, Garabed; Elleuche, Skander

    2016-04-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of complex polysaccharides such as cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose, the synergistic action of several cellulases is required. Some anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria form multienzyme complexes, namely cellulosomes, while other microorganisms produce a portfolio of diverse enzymes that work in synergistic fashion. Molecular biological methods can mimic such effects through the generation of artificial bi- or multifunctional fusion enzymes. Endoglucanase and β-glucosidase from extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacteria Fervidobacterium gondwanense and Fervidobacterium islandicum, respectively, were fused end-to-end in an approach to optimize polysaccharide degradation. Both enzymes are optimally active at 90 °C and pH 6.0-7.0 representing excellent candidates for fusion experiments. The direct linkage of both enzymes led to an increased activity toward the substrate specific for β-glucosidase, but to a decreased activity of endoglucanase. However, these enzyme chimeras were superior over 1:1 mixtures of individual enzymes, because combined activities resulted in a higher final product yield. Therefore, such fusion enzymes exhibit promising features for application in industrial bioethanol production processes. PMID:26921187

  4. Insulin-like growth factor I receptor dose not contribute to heat shock-induced activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mouse embryo fibroblasts

    We have investigated the role of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in heat shock-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI3-K) pathways. We utilized mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) devoid of endogenous IGF-LR (R-) and MEFs overexpressing human IGF-IR (WT) and examined the activation kinetics of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt following heat shock treatment. There were no differences in the kinetics or temperature dependence of activation of either ERK or Akt between the cell lines. As expected, heat shock failed to induce autophosphorylation of IGF-IR overexpressed in WT cells. Surprisingly, the autophosphorylation of endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is thought to play an important role in heat shock-induced activation of the MAPK and PI3-K pathways, was not observed in either WT or R-cells. These results suggest that neither IGF-IR nor EGFR contributes to the heat shock-induced activation of ERK and Akt in these cell lines. (author)

  5. Observation of SOL Current Correlated with MHD Activity in NBI-heated DIII-D Tokamak Discharges

    This work investigates the potential roles played by the scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) in MHD activity of tokamak plasmas, including effects on stability. SOLCs are found during MHD activity that are: (1) slowly growing after a mode-locking-like event, (2) oscillating in the several kHz range and phase-locked with magnetic and electron temperature oscillations, (3) rapidly growing with a sub-ms time scale during a thermal collapse and a current quench, and (4) spiky in temporal behavior and correlated with spiky features in Da signals commonly identified with the edge localized mode (ELM). These SOLCs are found to be an integral part of the MHD activity, with a propensity to flow in a toroidally non-axisymmetric pattern and with magnitude potentially large enough to play a role in the MHD stability. Candidate mechanisms that can drive these SOLCs are identified: (a) toroidally non-axisymmetric thermoelectric potential, (b) electromotive force (EMF) from MHD activity, and (c) flux swing, both toroidal and poloidal, of the plasma column. An effect is found, stemming from the shear in the field line pitch angle, that mitigates the efficacy of a toroidally non-axisymmetric SOLC to generate a toroidally non-axisymmetric error field. Other potential magnetic consequences of the SOLC are identified: (i) its error field can introduce complications in feedback control schemes for stabilizing MHD activity and (ii) its toroidally non-axisymmetric field can be falsely identified as an axisymmetric field by the tokamak control logic and in equilibrium reconstruction. The radial profile of a SOLC observed during a quiescent discharge period is determined, and found to possess polarity reversals as a function of radial distance

  6. Observation of SOL Current Correlated with MHD Activity in NBI-heated DIII-D Tokamak Discharges

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.J. Schaffer; M.E. Austin; T.E. Evans; L.L. Lao; J.G. Watkins

    2004-03-26

    This work investigates the potential roles played by the scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) in MHD activity of tokamak plasmas, including effects on stability. SOLCs are found during MHD activity that are: (1) slowly growing after a mode-locking-like event, (2) oscillating in the several kHz range and phase-locked with magnetic and electron temperature oscillations, (3) rapidly growing with a sub-ms time scale during a thermal collapse and a current quench, and (4) spiky in temporal behavior and correlated with spiky features in Da signals commonly identified with the edge localized mode (ELM). These SOLCs are found to be an integral part of the MHD activity, with a propensity to flow in a toroidally non-axisymmetric pattern and with magnitude potentially large enough to play a role in the MHD stability. Candidate mechanisms that can drive these SOLCs are identified: (a) toroidally non-axisymmetric thermoelectric potential, (b) electromotive force (EMF) from MHD activity, and (c) flux swing, both toroidal and poloidal, of the plasma column. An effect is found, stemming from the shear in the field line pitch angle, that mitigates the efficacy of a toroidally non-axisymmetric SOLC to generate a toroidally non-axisymmetric error field. Other potential magnetic consequences of the SOLC are identified: (i) its error field can introduce complications in feedback control schemes for stabilizing MHD activity and (ii) its toroidally non-axisymmetric field can be falsely identified as an axisymmetric field by the tokamak control logic and in equilibrium reconstruction. The radial profile of a SOLC observed during a quiescent discharge period is determined, and found to possess polarity reversals as a function of radial distance.

  7. Phase transformation and impact properties in the experimentally simulated weld heat-affected zone of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    In this work, the phase transformation and impact properties in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel are investigated. The HAZs were experimentally simulated using a Gleeble simulator. The base steel consisted of tempered martensite through normalizing at 1000 °C and tempering at 750 °C, while the HAZs consisted of martensite, δ-ferrite and a small volume of autotempered martensite. The impact properties using a Charpy V-notch impact test revealed that the HAZs showed poor impact properties due to the formation of martensite and δ-ferrite as compared with the base steel. In addition, the impact properties of the HAZs further deteriorated with an increase in the δ-ferrite fraction caused by increasing the peak temperature. The impact properties of the HAZs could be improved through the formation of tempered martensite after post weld heat treatment (PWHT), but they remained lower than that of the base steel because the δ-ferrite remained in the tempered HAZs

  8. Effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement

    Shin, Tae-Bong; Lee, Joo-Hee; Ahn, Kang-Min; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and heat activation of silane on the shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite posts to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS The specimens were prepared to evaluate the bond strength of epoxy resin-based fiber posts (D.T. Light-Post) to dual-curing resin cement (RelyX U200). The specimens were divided into four groups (n=18) according to different surface treatments: group 1, no treatment; group 2, silanization; group 3, silanization after hydrogen peroxide etching; group 4, silanization with warm drying at 80℃ after hydrogen peroxide etching. After storage of the specimens in distilled water at 37℃ for 24 hours, the shear bond strength (in MPa) between the fiber post and resin cement was measured using a universal testing machine. The fractured surface of the fiber post was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis with Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). RESULTS Silanization of the fiber post (Group 2) significantly increased the bond strength in comparison with the non treated control (Group 1) (P.05). CONCLUSION Fiber post silanization and subsequent heat treatment (80℃) with warm air blower can be beneficial in clinical post cementation. However, hydrogen peroxide etching prior to silanization was not effective in this study. PMID:27141252

  9. Low-Frequency Wave Activity Detected by MMS during Dusk Magnetopause Crossings and its Relation to Heating and Acceleration of Particles

    Le Contel, O.; Roux, A.; Retino, A.; Mirioni, L.; Sahraoui, F.; Chust, T.; Berthomier, M.; Chasapis, A.; Aunai, N.; Leroy, P.; Alison, D.; Lavraud, B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Vaivads, A.; Marklund, G. T.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Moore, T.; Ergun, R. E.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Macri, J.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Fischer, D.; Leinweber, H. K.; Anderson, B. J.; Nakamura, R.; Argall, M. R.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Pollock, C. J.; Mauk, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goodrich, K.; Wilder, F. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 9th of July, the MMS fleet of four satellites have evolved into a tetrahedral configuration with an average inter-satellite distance of 160 km and an apogee of 12 earth radii on the dusk side. In this study we report on ultra-low (1 mHz to ~10 Hz) and very-low (10 Hz to ~ 4 kHz) frequency wave activity measured by the four satellites during several crossings of the dusk equatorial magnetopause. Since the Larmor radius of magnetosheath protons is of the order of 50 km, this inter-satellite distance allows us to investigate in detail the physics of the magnetopause at proton scales including current structures related to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability as well as other energy transfer processes. From wave polarization analysis, we characterize the different types of emissions and discuss different mechanisms of heating and acceleration of particles. In particular, we focus on the electron heating by kinetic Alfvén waves and lower hybrid waves and the electron acceleration by oblique whistler mode waves, which have been suggested as possible mechanisms from previous Cluster and THEMIS measurements.

  10. Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Hydroalcoholic and Hexanic Extract of Heated Female Cannabis Sativa Flowertops on Anxiety Behavior, Motor Coordination and Locomotor Activity in the Male Rats

    B Farhadi Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decarboxylated phytocannabinoids activates CB1 receptors of endocannabinoid system in the central nervous system. Endocannabinoid system interacts with dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, which seems to be effective on the behavior processes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic and hexanic extract of heated female Cannabis sativa flowertops containing decarboxylated cannabinoids on anxiety, motor coordination and locomotor activity. Methods: In this experimental study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly (200 to 250 g used in two groups(n=7 of control and sham (administration of the solution vehicle (Tween 80, ethanol and saline with 1:1:8 proportions. IP administration of hydroalcoholic extract (50mg/kg dosage, and hexanic extract (50mg/kg dosage were applied. The elevated plus maze, open field and rotarod apparatus were used in order to measure the anxiety, locomotor activity and motor coordination in each group, respectively. Moreover, the data analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA and Neumann-keuls post-hoc test. Results: The study results indicated that IP administration of hexanic extract (50mg/kg dosage significantly reduced the numbers of entries into the open arms (P<0.05 as well as time of stay in the open arms (P<0.01 in evaluated plus maze. Furthermore, motor activity (P <0.01 and time coordination (P <0.001 were reported to significantly reduce. Conclusion: The study findings revealed thst administration of hexanic extract has probably more decarboxylated cannabinoids than hydroalcoholic extract resulting in a decrease in the motor activity and time of motor coordination, yet an increase in anxiety via activation of CB1 receptors.

  11. Hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein activates the pro-apoptotic gene CHOP and anti-apoptotic heat shock proteins.

    Lijo John

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a non-enveloped plus-strand RNA virus that causes acute hepatitis. The capsid protein open reading frame 2 (ORF2 is known to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress in ORF2 expressing cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we found that HEV ORF2 activates the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP. ORF2 stimulates the CHOP promoter mainly through AARE (amino acid response elements and to a minor extent the ERSE (endoplasmic reticulum stress response elements. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 protein binds and activates the AARE regulatory sites of the CHOP promoter. ORF2 expression also leads to increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α that in turn initiates the translation of ATF4 mRNA. The pro-apoptotic gene CHOP is an important trigger to initiate endoplasmic reticulum stress induced apoptosis. However, the activation of CHOP by ORF2 in this study did not induce apoptosis, nor did BCL2-associated X protein (Bax translocate to mitochondria. Microarray analysis revealed an ORF2 specific increased expression of chaperones Hsp72, Hsp70B', and co-chaperone Hsp40. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP and in silico molecular docking analysis suggests that HEV ORF2 interacts with Hsp72. In addition, Hsp72 shows nuclear accumulation in ORF2 expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide new insight into simultaneously occurring counter-acting effects of HEV ORF2 that may be part of a strategy to prevent host suicide before completion of the viral replication cycle.

  12. Flows and Motions in Moss in the Core of a Flaring Active Region: Evidence for Steady Heating

    Brooks, David H

    2009-01-01

    We present new measurements of the time variability of intensity, Doppler and non-thermal velocities in coronal moss in the core of an active region that was observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode in 2007, June. The measurements are derived from line profiles of the Fe12 195A line. Using the EIS 2" slit, we repeatedly scanned 150" by 150" in a few mins. This is the first time it has been possible to make such velocity measurements in the moss, and the data presented are the highest cadence spatially resolved maps of moss Doppler and non-thermal velocities ever obtained in the corona. The observed active region produced numerous C- and M- class flares with several occurring in the core close to the moss. The magnetic field was therefore clearly changing in the active region core, and so we ought to be able to detect dynamic signatures in the moss if they exist. Our measurements of moss intensities agree with previous studies in that a less than 15% variability is seen over a period of 16 hour...

  13. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  14. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete

  15. Approximating ambient D-region electron densities using dual-beam HF heating experiments at the high-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP)

    Agrawal, Divya

    Dual-beam ELF/VLF wave generation experiments performed at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are critically compared with the predictions of a newly developed ionospheric high frequency (HF) heating model that accounts for the simultaneous propagation and absorption of multiple HF beams. The dual-beam HF heating experiments presented herein consist of two HF beams transmitting simultaneously: one amplitude modulated (AM) HF beam modulates the conductivity of the lower ionosphere in the extremely low frequency (ELF, 30 Hz to 3 kHz) and/or very low frequency (VLF, 3 kHz to 30 kHz) band while a second HF beam broadcasts a continuous waveform (CW) signal, modifying the efficiency of ELF/VLF conductivity modulation and thereby the efficiency of ELF/VLF wave generation. Ground-based experimental observations are used together with the predictions of the theoretical model to identify the property of the received ELF/VLF wave that is most sensitive to the effects of multi-beam HF heating, and that property is determined to be the ELF/VLF signal magnitude. The dependence of the generated ELF/VLF wave magnitude on several HF transmission parameters (HF power, HF frequency, and modulation waveform) is then experimentally measured and analyzed within the context of the multi-beam HF heating model. For all cases studied, the received ELF/VLF wave magnitude as a function of transmission parameter is analyzed to identify the dependence on the ambient D-region electron density (Ne) and/or electron temperature ( Te), in turn identifying the HF transmission parameters that provide significant independent information regarding the ambient conditions of the D-region ionosphere. A theoretical analysis is performed to determine the conditions under which the effects of Ne and Te can be decoupled, and the results of this analysis are applied to identify an electron density profile that can reproduce the unusually high level of ELF

  16. Heat management

    The conference was based on the Heat Management Ordinance of December 1991 which requires the establishment of heat use concepts for many plants that are subject to licensing. For an industrial enterprises, a good heat use concept is also an energy concept. The papers and discussions of the conference discussed the practical implementation of the Heat Management Ordinance in industrial enterprises and the consequences for licensing practice. Examples of specific plants were presented. The 16 conference papers are available as separate entries on this database. (orig./HP)

  17. Heat shock protein 27 regulates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes:mechanisms via reactive oxygen species generation and Akt activation

    LIU Li; ZHANG Xiao-jin; JIANG Su-rong; DING Zheng-nian; DING Guo-xian; HUANG Jun; CHENG Yun-lin

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased reactive oxygen species(ROS)formation,which in turn promotes cardiomyocytes apoptosis,is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of various cardiac diseases such as ischemia and heart failure.Recent studies have shown that over expression of heat shock protein 27(Hsp27)confers resistance to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.However,not much is known about the regulation of myocyte survival by Hsp27.Methods The rat cardiac cell line H9c2,with a stable overexpression of Hsp27,was established,with empty vector transfected H9c2 cells as controls.Following the cells challenged by Hydrogen Peroxide(H2O2),lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)release,apoptosis,intracellular ROS,cell morphology,mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the activation of serine/threonine kinase Akt were determined.Results Along with marked suppression of H2O2-induced injury by Hsp27 overexpression in H9c2 cells,ROS generation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were also significantly depressed.Furthermore,augmented Akt activation was observed in Hsp27 overexpressed H9c2 cells following H2O2 exposure.Conclusions Hsp27 inhibits oxidative stress-induced H9c2 damage and inhibition of ROS generation and the augmentation of Akt activation may be involved in the protective signaling.

  18. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented. PMID:22700857

  19. Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can...... be self-made to keep the price down. The system is working, but heat exchange from plastic piping to sand is rather poor. The dimensioning of the volume is rather difficult based on common knowledge. Passive heating, hence reduction of heat demand, due to the storage and especially due to the oversized...

  20. Water activities of NaClO4, Ca(ClO4)2, and Mg(ClO4)2 brines from experimental heat capacities: Water activity >0.6 below 200 K

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.

    2016-05-01

    Perchlorate salts found on Mars are extremely hygroscopic and form low eutectic temperature aqueous solutions, which could allow liquid water to exist on Mars despite cold and dry conditions. The formation, dynamics, and potential habitability of perchlorate salt solutions can be broadly understood in terms of water activity. Water activity controls condensation and evaporation of water vapor in brines, deliquescence and efflorescence of crystalline salts, and ice formation during freezing. Furthermore, water activity is a basic parameter defining the habitability of aqueous solutions. Despite the importance of water activity, its value in perchlorate solutions has only been measured at 298.15 K and at the freezing point of water. To address this lack of data, we have determined water activities in NaClO4, Ca(ClO4)2, and Mg(ClO4)2 solutions using experimental heat capacities measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Our results include concentrations up to near-saturation and temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 178 K. We find that water activities in NaClO4 solutions increase with decreasing temperature, by as much as 0.25 aw from 298.15 to 178 K. Consequently, aw reaches ∼0.6-0.7 even for concentrations up to 15 molal NaClO4 below 200 K. In contrast, water activities in Ca(ClO4)2 and Mg(ClO4)2 solutions generally decrease with decreasing temperature. The temperature dependence of water activity indicates that low-temperature NaClO4 solutions will evaporate and deliquesce at higher relative humidity, crystallize ice at higher temperature, and potentially be more habitable for life (at least in terms of water activity) compared to solutions at 298.15 K. The opposite effects occur in Ca(ClO4)2 and Mg(ClO4)2 solutions.

  1. 新型微波技术再生载甲苯活化秸秆炭%Regeneration of toluene using microwave heating method on wheat straw activated biochar

    冒海燕; 周定国; Zaher Hashisho; 汪孙国; 陈恒; 王海燕

    2012-01-01

    Wheat straw activated biochar prepared by the microwave heating was used as the ad- sorbent in this study, with generation rate above 99% a comparison of microwave and conductive heating methods on heating time, generation rate and energy consumption for the regeneration of toluene from wheat straw activated biochar was conducted. Experimental results show that the adsorption capacity is unchanged (33 %) compared with original wheat straw activated biochar for both microwave and conductive heating over 5 cycles. Microwave heating with constant power consumes the shortest heating time of 1 rain for toluene, while the time for microware heating with constant temperature and conductive heating is 10 min and 120 min respectively. The energy consumption of microwave heating with constant power of 600 W and constant temperature of 150 ℃ is only 4.5 kJ/g and 9.0 kJ/g respectively but 36 kJ/g for conductive heating method. The microwave heating method could be an energy-efficient, resourceful and efficient regeneration technique for wheat straw activated biochar. 4 tabs, 3 figs, 11 refs.%采用微波加热制备的活化秸秆炭作为吸附剂,通过微波法和电加热法对载甲苯活化秸秆炭进行再生。在确保再生率99%以上的前提下,测定了这两种方法的加热时间、再生效率和能耗等参数。结果表明:经过5次吸附-微波辐射再生之后,吸附量基本保持原有新鲜活化秸秆炭吸附量的为33%;恒功率微波加热法、恒温微波加热法和电加热法所需要的时间分别为1、10和120min;从能耗角度看,微波再生法恒功率(600W)和恒温(150℃)的能耗分别为4.5和9.0kJ/g,而电加热法的能耗则为36kJ/g。因此,微波再生法是一种节能、环保和高效的再生方法,为工业化应用奠定了基础数据。

  2. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems.

  3. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  4. RADIO ACTIVE GALAXY NUCLEI IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: HEATING HOT ATMOSPHERES AND DRIVING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE GROWTH OVER COSMIC TIME

    We estimate the average radio active galactic nucleus (AGN, mechanical) power deposited into the hot atmospheres of galaxy clusters over more than three quarters of the age of the Universe. Our sample was drawn from eight major X-ray cluster surveys and includes 685 clusters in the redshift range 0.1 44 erg s–1 exceeds the X-ray luminosity of 44% of the clusters, indicating that the accumulation of radio-AGN energy is significant in these clusters. Integrating the AGN mechanical power to redshift z = 2.0, using simple models for its evolution and disregarding the hierarchical growth of clusters, we find that the AGN energy accumulated per particle in low luminosity X-ray clusters exceeds 1 keV per particle. This result represents a conservative lower limit to the accumulated thermal energy. The estimate is comparable to the level of energy needed to 'preheat' clusters, indicating that continual outbursts from radio-AGN are a significant source of gas energy in hot atmospheres. Assuming an average mass conversion efficiency of η = 0.1, our result implies that the supermassive black holes that released this energy did so by accreting an average of ∼109 M ☉ over time, which is comparable to the level of growth expected during the quasar era.

  5. Variation of mechanical properties with addition of Al in low activity ferritic/martensitic heat resistant steels

    The effect of aluminum on mechanical properties in low activation martensitic steel has been studied. Impact test and tensile test were performed at high temperature. Aluminum is in solid solution state after normalizing so the grain size of prior austenite was not changed. AlN was precipitated during tempering treatment. The size of Cr2N precipitates were decreased due to the precipitation of AlN in 0.10wt.%N steel. But the precipitation of nitride such as V(C,N) and Cr2N was suppressed by the formation of AlN in 0.08wt.%N steel. The addition of aluminum have little effect on the impact properties such as DBTT and upper shelf energy. The increase of tensile strength and yield strength by addition of aluminum appeared in 0.10wt.%N steel, but not in 0.08wt.%N steel. But the tensile and yield strength of aluminum added 0.10wt.%N steel is not higher than that of 0.08wt.%N steel

  6. Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-09-26

    The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

  7. Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions

    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. - Highlights: • EU27 energy and industry sector heat recycling resources are mapped and quantified. • Target regions for large-scale implementation of district heating are identified. • 46% of total EU27 excess heat volume is seized in 63 strategic heat synergy regions. • Large urban zones have lead roles to play in transition to sustainability in Europe. • Higher recognition of heat sector is needed in future EU energy policy for realisation

  8. The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor SNX5422 has a synergistic activity with histone deacetylase inhibitors in induction of death of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitor SNX5422 alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors PXD101, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and trichostatin A (TSA) on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells was investigated. In 8505C and CAL62 cells, SNX5422 caused cell death with concomitant changes in the expression of hsp90 client proteins. After treatment of both SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA, compared with treatment of SNX5422 alone, cell viability was diminished, whereas inhibition rate and cytotoxic activity were enhanced. All of the combination index values were lower than 1.0, suggesting the synergism between SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA in induction of cell death. In cells treated with both SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA, compared with cells treated with SNX5422 alone, the protein levels of Akt, phospho-4EBP1, phospho-S6 K, and survivin were diminished, while those of γH2AX, acetyl. histone H3, acetyl. histone H4, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3 were enhanced. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SNX5422 has a cytotoxic activity in conjunction with alterations in the expression of hsp90 client proteins in ATC cells. Moreover, SNX5422 synergizes with HDAC inhibitors in induction of cytotoxicity accompanied by the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and survivin, and the overexpression of DNA damage-related proteins in ATC cells. PMID:26219406

  9. Anti-tumor activity of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 on Meth-A tumor cells in BALB/c mice.

    Shin, Ryoichi; Itoh, Yukie; Kataoka, Motoyuki; Iino-Miura, Shiori; Miura, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeo; Fujisawa, Tomohiko

    2016-09-01

    Probiotics exert numerous effects on human well-being. Here, heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 (H-Lp) was isolated as a potent immuno-modulator among 15 strains of lactobacilli in terms of TNF-α induction ability in peritoneal macrophages. In vitro TNF-α and IFN-γ induction in Peyer's patch (PP) cells was higher when incubated with H-Lp than with live L. plantarum BF-LP284 (L-Lp). Suppression of syngeneic Meth-A tumors in a murine model by oral administration of H-Lp was also greater than that of L-Lp and of controls. H-Lp stimulated IFN-γ production in spleen cells, which displayed inhibited tumor growth in Winn assays when treated with H-Lp. Moreover, H-Lp increased the ratio of CD3(+ )cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Meth-A tumor-bearing mice, suggesting an H-Lp-mediated anti-tumor mechanism whereby immune cells that are activated by H-Lp in PP and acquire anti-tumor activity in the spleen migrate to tumor sites through lymphocyte homing to inhibit tumor growth. PMID:27198983

  10. Proposal of a fluid flow layout to improve the heat transfer in the active absorber surface of solar central cavity receivers

    The main objective of concentrated solar power is to increase the thermal energy of a fluid, for the fluid to be used, for example, in a power cycle to generate electricity. Such applications present the requirement of appropriately designing the receiver active absorber surface, as the incident radiation flux can be very high. Besides that, the solar image in the receiver is not uniform, so conventional boilers designs are not well suited for these purposes. That point is particularly critical in solar central receivers systems (CRS), where concentrated solar flux is usually above 500 kW/m2, causing thermal and mechanical stress in the absorber panels. This paper analyzes a new thermofluidynamic design of a solar central receiver, which optimizes the heat transfer in the absorber surface. This conceptual receiver presents the following characteristics: the fluid flow pattern is designed according to the radiation flux map symmetry, so more uniform fluid temperatures at the receiver outlet are achieved; the heat transfer irreversibilities are reduced by circulating the fluid from the lower temperature region to the higher temperature region of the absorber surface; the width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient, to get lower temperature differences between the side tubes of the same pass; and the cooling requirement is ensured by means of adjusting the fluid flow velocity per tube, taking into account the pressure drop. This conceptual scheme has been applied to the particular case of a molten salt single cavity receiver, although the configuration proposed is suitable for other receiver designs and working fluids. - Highlights: ► The solar receiver design proposed optimizes heat transfer in the absorber surface. ► The fluid flow pattern is designed according to the solar flux map symmetry at noon. ► The fluid circulates from the lower to the higher temperature regions. ► The width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient. ► The

  11. Evaluation of efficacy of commercial denture cleansing agents to reduce the fungal biofilm activity from heat polymerized denture acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    Mithilesh M Dhamande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare and evaluate Candida removing effects of three most commonly available varieties of commercial denture cleansers from heat polymerized acrylic resins. To compare and evaluate Candida lytic effects of denture cleansers. To assess the effect of time on ability of denture cleansers in reducing Candidal biofilm. Materials and Methods: A specially designed metal mold was fabricated to obtain wax plates of uniform dimensions which were used to fabricate heat cure acrylic resin plates. A square-shaped window of dimension 15 mm and thickness of 1.5 mm was provided in metal mould to simulate thickness of denture base. All samples used in this study were prepared using this mould. Candida albicans colonies were then cultured on this acrylic resin plates by colonization assay. Yeast removing test for samples was performed using microscope and yeast lytic test was performed using photo colorimeter. Results: Denture cleanser D2 showed the highest Candida removing activity when compared with cleansers D1, D3, and control solution. Denture cleansers D2 showed increased yeast lytic ability when compared with denture cleansers D1, D3, and control solution. More time span shared a definite influence on yeast lytic ability of denture cleansers. Conclusions: The effect of cleansing agents on removal of colonized yeasts particularly fungal biofilm from acrylic resins was assessed for clinical implications. The observation indicated superior performance of cleanser D2 when compared with D1 and D3 even though they all belong to same chemical group of alkaline peroxide. The increased effectiveness may be due to presence of sodium lauryl sulphate in formula of D2.

  12. Stability of active prophages in industrial Lactococcus lactis strains in the presence of heat, acid, osmotic, oxidative and antibiotic stressors.

    Ho, Chun-Hoong; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Beatson, Scott A; Bansal, Nidhi; Turner, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    system that maintains prophages in the dormant state in cheese making lactococcal strains is very tight and that several stressors encountered singularly are not predicted to be major inducers of prophage activation. PMID:26773254

  13. Heat pipes

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  14. 微波加热方法制备活化生物质炭的研究%Preparation of Activated Biochar by Microwave Heating

    冒海燕; Zaher Hashisho; 汪孙国; 陈恒; 王海燕; 周定国

    2012-01-01

    The study presents the preparation of activated biochar from pinechips by chemical activation using KOH and microwave heating. The effect of KOH/biochar mass ratio (0.5, 1.5 and 3.0) on toluene adsorption capacity along with the physical characteristics of activated biochar is investigated and compared. The biochar activated under a KOH/biochar mass ratio of 3.0 shows the highest adsorption capacity of 56% at a toluene concentration of 400 ppm (v), having the greatest BET surface area of 2 044m2/g amongst the three studied ratios. At higher concentrations of toluene, activated biochar with a KOH/biochar ratio of 3.0 reaches a higher adsorption capacity of 71.9%. Toluene adsorption isotherms investigated for all produced activated biochars with different KOH/ biochar ratios fit the QSAR isotherm equation well.%笔者采用微波加热的方式以松木片为原料、KOH为活化剂制备活化生物质炭,探索了3种不同KOH/生物质炭的配比(0.5、1.5和3.0)条件下的活化生物质炭的孔结构和甲苯吸附量.甲苯吸附量的测试采用了一种简便、高效、环保和廉价的方法.结果表明,配比为3.0的活化生物质炭达到最高的比表面积2044m2/g,微孔比表面积也达到最高值1 712m2/g.对不同浓度的甲苯进行吸附,在甲苯浓度为400ppmv时,配比为3.0的活化生物质炭显示了最大的吸附量56.0%.而对高浓度甲苯吸附,配比为3.0的活化生物质炭的吸附量则可达到71.9%,并且其吸附等温线数据能很好的拟合DQSAR吸附模型.

  15. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs

  16. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author)

  17. Analysis of the heat shock response in mouse liver reveals transcriptional dependence on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα

    Jonnalagadda Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by heat shock (HS through activation by HS factor-1 (HSF1. We hypothesized that there are interactions on a genetic level between PPARα and the HS response mediated by HSF1. Results Wild-type and PPARα-null mice were exposed to HS, the PPARα agonist WY-14,643 (WY, or both; gene and protein expression was examined in the livers of the mice 4 or 24 hrs after HS. Gene expression profiling identified a number of Hsp family members that were altered similarly in both mouse strains. However, most of the targets of HS did not overlap between strains. A subset of genes was shown by microarray and RT-PCR to be regulated by HS in a PPARα-dependent manner. HS also down-regulated a large set of mitochondrial genes specifically in PPARα-null mice that are known targets of PPARγ co-activator-1 (PGC-1 family members. Pretreatment of PPARα-null mice with WY increased expression of PGC-1β and target genes and prevented the down-regulation of the mitochondrial genes by HS. A comparison of HS genes regulated in our dataset with those identified in wild-type and HSF1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated that although many HS genes are regulated independently of both PPARα and HSF1, a number require both factors for HS responsiveness. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the PPARα genotype has a dramatic effect on the transcriptional targets of HS and support an expanded role for PPARα in the regulation of proteome maintenance genes after exposure to diverse forms of environmental stress including HS.

  18. Oxidation of heat shock protein 60 and protein disulfide isomerase activates ERK and migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2

    Lin, Chung-Yi; Hu, Chi-Tan; Cheng, Chuan-Chu; Lee, Ming-Che; Pan, Siou-Mei; Lin, Teng-Yi; Wu, Wen-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met were frequently deregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Signaling pathways activated by HGF-c-Met are promising targets for preventing HCC progression. HGF can induce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling for cell adhesion, migration and invasion of tumors including HCC. On the other hand, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), member of mitogen activated kinase, can be activated by ROS for a lot of cellular processes. As expected, HGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK and progression of HCC cell HepG2 were suppressed by ROS scavengers. By N-(biotinoyl)-N′-(iodoacetyl)-ethylenediamine (BIAM) labeling method, a lot of cysteine (−SH)-containing proteins with M.W. 50–75 kD were decreased in HepG2 treated with HGF or two other ROS generators, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and phenazine methosulfate. These redox sensitive proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Among them, two chaperones, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), were found to be the most common redox sensitive proteins in responding to all three agonists. Affinity blot of BIAM-labeled, immunoprecipitated HSP60 and PDI verified that HGF can decrease the cysteine (−SH) containing HSP60 and PDI. On the other hand, HGF and TPA increased cysteinyl glutathione-containing HSP60, consistent with the decrease of cysteine (−SH)-containing HSP60. Moreover, depletion of HSP60 and PDI or expression of dominant negative mutant of HSP60 with alteration of Cys, effectively prevented HGF-induced ERK phosphorylation and HepG2 migration. In conclusion, the redox sensitive HSP60 and PDI are required for HGF-induced ROS signaling and potential targets for preventing HCC progressions. PMID:26840563

  19. Magnetar heating

    Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2016-01-01

    We examine four candidate mechanisms that could explain the high surface temperatures of magnetars. (1) Heat flux from the liquid core heated by ambipolar diffusion. It could sustain the observed surface luminosity $L_s\\approx 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ if core heating offsets neutrino cooling at a temperature $T_{\\rm core}>6\\times 10^8$ K. This scenario is viable if the core magnetic field exceeds $10^{16}$ G, the magnetar has mass $M10^{16}$ G varying on a 100 meter scale could provide $L_s\\approx 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$. (4) Bombardment of the stellar surface by particles accelerated in the magnetosphere. This mechanism produces hot spots on magnetars. Observations of transient magnetars show evidence for external heating.

  20. Flow and heat transfer enhancement in tube heat exchangers

    Sayed Ahmed, Sayed Ahmed E.; Mesalhy, Osama M.; Abdelatief, Mohamed A.

    2015-11-01

    The performance of heat exchangers can be improved to perform a certain heat-transfer duty by heat transfer enhancement techniques. Enhancement techniques can be divided into two categories: passive and active. Active methods require external power, such as electric or acoustic field, mechanical devices, or surface vibration, whereas passive methods do not require external power but make use of a special surface geometry or fluid additive which cause heat transfer enhancement. The majority of commercially interesting enhancement techniques are passive ones. This paper presents a review of published works on the characteristics of heat transfer and flow in finned tube heat exchangers of the existing patterns. The review considers plain, louvered, slit, wavy, annular, longitudinal, and serrated fins. This review can be indicated by the status of the research in this area which is important. The comparison of finned tubes heat exchangers shows that those with slit, plain, and wavy finned tubes have the highest values of area goodness factor while the heat exchanger with annular fin shows the lowest. A better heat transfer coefficient ha is found for a heat exchanger with louvered finned and thus should be regarded as the most efficient one, at fixed pumping power per heat transfer area. This study points out that although numerous studies have been conducted on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer in round, elliptical, and flat tubes, studies on some types of streamlined-tubes shapes are limited, especially on wing-shaped tubes (Sayed Ahmed et al. in Heat Mass Transf 50: 1091-1102, 2014; in Heat Mass Transf 51: 1001-1016, 2015). It is recommended that further detailed studies via numerical simulations and/or experimental investigations should be carried out, in the future, to put further insight to these fin designs.

  1. Activation of an immune-regulatory macrophage response and inhibition of lung inflammation in a mouse model of COPD using heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin-loaded PLGA microparticles

    van Noort, Johannes M.; Bsibsi, Malika; Nacken, Peter J.; Gerritsen, Wouter H.; Amor, Sandra; Holtman, Inge R.; Boddeke, Erik; van Ark, Ingrid; Leusink-Muis, Thea; Folkerts, Gert; Hennink, Wim E.; Amidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    As an extracellular protein, the small heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin (HSPB5) has anti-inflammatory effects in several mouse models of inflammation. Here, we show that these effects are associated with the ability of HSPB5 to activate an immune-regulatory response in macrophages via endosomal

  2. An inducible heat shock protein 70 small molecule inhibitor demonstrates anti-dengue virus activity, validating Hsp70 as a host antiviral target.

    Howe, Matthew K; Speer, Brittany L; Hughes, Philip F; Loiselle, David R; Vasudevan, Subhash; Haystead, Timothy A J

    2016-06-01

    An estimated three billion people are at risk of Dengue virus (DENV) infection worldwide and there are currently no approved therapeutic interventions for DENV infection. Due to the relatively small size of the DENV genome, DENV is reliant on host factors throughout the viral life cycle. The inducible form of Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70i) has been implicated as a host factor in DENV pathogenesis, however the complete role remains to be elucidated. Here we further illustrate the importance of Hsp70i in dengue virus pathogenesis and describe the antiviral activity of the allosteric small molecule inhibitor that is selective for Hsp70i, called HS-72. In monocytes, Hsp70i is expressed at low levels preceding DENV infection, but Hsp70i expression is induced upon DENV infection. Targeting Hsp70i with HS-72, results in a dose dependent reduction in DENV infected monocytes, while cell viability was maintained. HS-72 works to reduce DENV infection by inhibiting the entry stage of the viral life cycle, through disrupting the association of Hsp70i with the DENV receptor complex. This work highlights Hsp70i as an antiviral target and HS-72 as a potential anti-DENV therapeutic agent. PMID:27058774

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression cycle system activated with low temperature heat sources using low GWP fluids

    A combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression cycle (ORC–VCC) system activated by low temperature heat sources was studied. Two low GWP fluids were considered as working fluids for the VCC and two different low GWP fluids for the ORC. System performance was evaluated through computational modeling over different operating conditions. The computed thermal COP of the ORC–VCC system varied between 0.30 and 1.10 over the range of operating conditions studied. The computed electrical COP of the ORC–VCC system, defined as the ratio of the rate of cooling and the ORC pump power consumption, varied between 15 and 110. The choice of VCC working fluid had only a limited influence on system thermal or electrical efficiency, with HFO-1234ze(E) presenting slightly better results. Use of HFO-1336mzz(Z) as the ORC working fluid resulted in slightly higher system thermal efficiencies and significantly higher system electrical efficiencies throughout the range of operating conditions studied. Furthermore, the system is evaluated for a typical application and the feasibility study shows good economical results. - Highlights: • A combined organic Rankine cycle and vapor compression cycle system was studied. • Low GWP fluids were considered as working fluids for the VCC and for the ORC. • The computed thermal COP of the ORC–VCC system varied between 0.30 and 1.10. • The computed electrical COP of the ORC–VCC system varied between 15 and 110

  4. Performance of heat engines with non-zero heat capacity

    Highlights: ► Finite heat capacity is a second irreversibility mechanism in addition to thermal resistance. ► Heat capacity introduces thermal transients and reverse heat flow. ► Engine maximum power and efficiency are lower for finite heat capacity. ► Implementing the optimal engine cycle requires active control. - Abstract: The performance of a heat engine is analyzed subject to two types of irreversibility: a non-zero heat capacity, together with the more common finite heat transfer rate between the engine and the external heat reservoirs. The heat capacity represents an engine body that undergoes significant temperature variations during the engine cycle. An option to cut off the heat exchange between the engine and the external surrounding for part of the engine cycle is also explored. A variational approach was taken to find the engine’s internal temperature profile (which defines the internal thermodynamic cycle) that would produce maximum power. The maximum power is shown to be lower than the case of zero heat capacity, due to a loss of heat that is stored in the engine body and then lost, bypassing the thermodynamic cycle. The maximum efficiency and the efficiency at maximum power are also lower than the zero heat capacity case. Similar to the Curzon–Ahlborn analysis, power can be traded for increased efficiency, but for high heat capacity, the range of efficiency that is available for such a trade is diminished. Isolating the engine during part of the cycle reduces maximum power, but the efficiency at maximum power and the maximum efficiency are improved, due to better exploitation of heat stored in the engine body. This might be useful for real engines that are limited by the internal energy change during a single engine cycle or by the operating frequency, leading to a broader power–efficiency curve.

  5. Sperm activation by heat shock protein 70 supports the migration of sperm released from sperm storage tubules in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Hiyama, Gen; Matsuzaki, Mei; Mizushima, Shusei; Dohra, Hideo; Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Sasanami, Tomohiro

    2014-02-01

    Systems for maintaining the viability of ejaculated sperm in the female reproductive tract are widespread among vertebrates and invertebrates. In birds, this sperm storage function is performed by specialized simple tubular invaginations called sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in the uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of the oviduct. Although the incidence and physiological reasons for sperm storage in birds have been reported extensively, the mechanisms of sperm uptake by the SSTs, sperm maintenance within the SSTs, and control of sperm release from the SSTs are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the highly conserved heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) stimulates sperm motility in vitro and also that HSP70 expressed in the UVJ may facilitate the migration of sperm released from the SSTs. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of HSP70 mRNA in the UVJ increases before ovulation/oviposition. Gene-specific in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis with a specific antibody to HSP70 demonstrated that HSP70 is localized in the surface epithelium of the UVJ. Furthermore, injection of anti-HSP70 antibody into the vagina significantly inhibited fertilization in vivo. In addition, we found that recombinant HSP70 activates flagellar movement in the sperm and that the binding of recombinant HSP70 to the sperm surface is mediated through an interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel protein 2 (VDAC2). Our results suggest that HSP70 binds to the sperm surface by interacting with VDAC2 and activating sperm motility. This binding appears to play an important role in sperm migration within the oviduct. PMID:24194572

  6. Waste heat recovery system

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  7. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra) Information for adults A A A ... bumps can suddenly occur, as seen here. Overview Heat rash (miliaria rubra), also known as prickly heat, ...

  8. Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke

    ... activity. Drink extra water all day. Keep in mind that heat-related illnesses are not only caused by high temperatures and a loss of fluids, but also a lack of salt in the body. Some sports drinks can help replenish the salt ...

  9. What Is Heat? Inquiry regarding the Science of Heat

    Rascoe, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This lab activity uses inquiry to help students define heat. It is generic in that it can be used to introduce a plethora of science content across middle and high school grade levels and across science disciplines that include biology, Earth and space science, and physical science. Even though heat is a universal science phenomenon that is…

  10. Soil enzyme activities during the 2011 Texas record drought/heat wave and implications to biogeochemical cycling and organic matter dynamics

    Extreme weather events such as severe droughts and heat waves may have permanent consequences on soil quality and functioning in agroecosystems. The Southern High Plains (SHP) region of Texas, U.S., a large cotton producing area, experienced a historically extreme drought and heat wave during 2011,...

  11. District heating in sequential energy supply

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  12. Heat exchanger

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  13. Monopole heat

    Upper bounds on the flux of monopoles incident on the Earth with velocity -5 c(1016 GeV m-1) and on the flux of monopoles incident on Jupiter with velocity -3 c(1016 GeV m-1), are derived. Monopoles moving this slowly lose sufficient energy to be stopped, and then catalyse nucleon decay, releasing heat. The limits are obtained by requiring the rate of energy release from nucleon decay to be less than the measured amount of heat flowing out from the surface of the planet. (U.K.)

  14. Heat transfer

    Holman, J P

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most popular heat transfer texts, Jack Holman's "Heat Transfer" is noted for its clarity, accessible approach, and inclusion of many examples and problem sets. The new tenth edition retains the straight-forward, to-the-point writing style while covering both analytical and empirical approaches to the subject. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on physical understanding while, at the same time, relying on meaningful experimental data in those situations that do not permit a simple analytical solution. New examples and templates provide students with updated resources for computer-numerical solutions.

  15. Convective Heat Transfer

    Favre-Marinet, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Convection heat transfer is an important topic both for industrial applications and fundamental aspects. It combines the complexity of the flow dynamics and of the active or passive scalar transport process. It is part of many university courses such as Mechanical, Aeronautical, Chemical and Biomechanical Engineering. The literature on convective heat transfer is large, but the present manuscript differs in many aspects from the existing ones, particularly from the pedagogical point of view. Each chapter begins with a brief yet complete presentation of the related topic. This is followed by a

  16. Heat exchanger

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  17. Impact of Human Activity on Local Climate Change in Veľké Turovce by Heating and Possibilities for Carbon Dioxide Decrease

    Hudec Matej

    2014-01-01

    The paper is aimed at detecting CO2 emissions from heating process of households in Veľké Turovce. It offers solutions for 100 % and 20 % replacement of conventional fuels by solar collector systems. In the village, 242 households heat by natural gas during average length of 21 weeks a year. Average amount of energy consumed in heating process after conversion is 18,503.06 kWh per household. For 100 % replacement of natural gas, 63 units of vacuum tube solar collector type Watt CP C 9 are req...

  18. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  19. Spectral energy distributions of QSOs at z > 5: Common active galactic nucleus-heated dust and occasionally strong star-formation

    We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 69 QSOs at z > 5, covering a rest frame wavelength range of 0.1 μm to ∼80 μm, and centered on new Spitzer and Herschel observations. The detection rate of the QSOs with Spitzer is very high (97% at λrest ≲ 4 μm), but drops toward the Herschel bands with 30% detected in PACS (rest frame mid-infrared) and 15% additionally in the SPIRE (rest frame far-infrared; FIR). We perform multi-component SED fits for Herschel-detected objects and confirm that to match the observed SEDs, a clumpy torus model needs to be complemented by a hot (∼1300 K) component and, in cases with prominent FIR emission, also by a cold (∼50 K) component. In the FIR-detected cases the luminosity of the cold component is of the order of 1013 L ☉ which is likely heated by star formation. From the SED fits we also determine that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) dust-to-accretion disk luminosity ratio declines with UV/optical luminosity. Emission from hot (∼1300 K) dust is common in our sample, showing that nuclear dust is ubiquitous in luminous QSOs out to redshift 6. However, about 15% of the objects appear under-luminous in the near infrared compared to their optical emission and seem to be deficient in (but not devoid of) hot dust. Within our full sample, the QSOs detected with Herschel are found at the high luminosity end in L UV/opt and L NIR and show low equivalent widths (EWs) in Hα and in Lyα. In the distribution of Hα EWs, as determined from the Spitzer photometry, the high-redshift QSOs show little difference to low-redshift AGN.

  20. Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer and is up-regulated upon heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition

    Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. However, its exact role in cancer is discussed controversially because both tumor suppressive and oncogenic effects have been described. Here we followed-up on our previous observation that inhibition of Hsp90 may increase ATF3 expression and sought to determine the role of ATF3 in colon cancer. Regulation of ATF3 was determined in cancer cells using signaling inhibitors and a heat-shock protein-90 (Hsp90) antagonist. Human HCT116 cancer cells were stably transfected with an ATF3-shRNA or a luciferase-shRNA expression plasmid and alterations in cell motility were assessed in migration assays. The impact of ATF3 down-regulation on cancer growth and metastasis were investigated in a subcutaneous tumor model, a model of hepatic tumor growth and in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Human colon cancer tissues were analyzed for ATF3 expression. The results show that therapeutic Hsp90 inhibition substantially up-regulates the expression of ATF3 in various cancer cells, including colon, gastric and pancreatic cancer. This effect was evident both in vitro and in vivo. RNAi mediated knock-down of ATF3 in HCT116 colon cancer cells significantly increased cancer cell migration in vitro. Moreover, in xenogenic mouse models, ATF3 knock-down promoted subcutaneous tumor growth and hepatic metastasis, as well as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Importantly, ATF3 expression was lower in human colon cancer specimens, as compared to corresponding normal surrounding tissues, suggesting that ATF3 may represent a down-regulated tumor suppressor in colon cancer. In conclusion, ATF3 down-regulation in colon cancer promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti-metastatic transcription factor

  1. The Effect of Artificial Aging on The Bond Strength of Heat-activated Acrylic Resin to Surface-treated Nickel-chromium-beryllium Alloy

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S.; Zinelis, Spiros; Al Taweel, Sara M.; Nagy, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The debonding load of heat-activated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin material to a nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloy conditioned by three different surface treatments and utilizing two different commercial bonding systems was investigated. Materials and Methods Denture resin (Lucitone-199) was bonded to Ni-Cr-Be alloy specimens treated with Metal Primer II, the Rocatec system with opaquer and the Rocatec system without opaquer. Denture base resin specimens bonded to non-treated sandblasted Ni-Cr-Be alloy were used as controls. Twenty samples for each treatment condition (80 specimens) were tested. The 80 specimens were divided into two categories, thermocycled and non-thermocycled, containing four groups of ten specimens each. The non-thermocycled specimens were tested after 48 hours’ storage in room temperature water. The thermocycled specimens were tested after 2,000 cycles in 4°C and 55°C water baths. The debonding load was calculated in Newtons (N), and collected data were subjected by non parametric test Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks and Dunn’s post hoc test at the α = 0.05. Results The Metal Primer II and Rocatec system without opaquer groups produced significantly higher bond strengths (119.9 and 67.6 N), respectively, than did the sandblasted and Rocatec system with opaquer groups, where the bond strengths were 2.6 N and 0 N, respectively. The Metal Primer II was significantly different from all other groups (P<0.05). The bond strengths of all groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05) after thermocycling. Conclusions Although thermocycling had a detrimental effect on the debonding load of all surface treatments tested, the Metal Primer II system provided higher values among all bonding systems tested, before and after thermocycling. PMID:27335613

  2. Evaluation of efficacy of commercial denture cleansing agents to reduce the fungal biofilm activity from heat polymerized denture acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    Mithilesh M Dhamande; Pakhan, Ashok J; Ram U Thombare; Shyam L Ghodpage

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To compare and evaluate Candida removing effects of three most commonly available varieties of commercial denture cleansers from heat polymerized acrylic resins. To compare and evaluate Candida lytic effects of denture cleansers. To assess the effect of time on ability of denture cleansers in reducing Candidal biofilm. Materials and Methods: A specially designed metal mold was fabricated to obtain wax plates of uniform dimensions which were used to fabricate heat cure acrylic resin plat...

  3. Heat Exchanger

    A liquid metal heated tube and shell heat exchanger where straight tubes extend between upper and lower tube sheets. In order to prevent thermal stress problems, one tube sheet is fixed to the shell, and the other tube sheet is sealed to the shell by means of a flexible bellows. In the event of a catastrophic bellows failure, a housing that utilizes a packing gland sliding seal is used to enclose and back-up the bellows. Also, a key and slot arrangement is provided for preventing relative rotation between the shell and tube sheet which could damage the bellows and cause failure thereof. This exchanger is seen to be of use in sodium cooled reactors between the liquid sodium circuit on the steam generator

  4. Enhancing Extreme Heat Health-Related Intervention and Preparedness Activities Using Remote Sensing Analysis of Daily Surface Temperature, Surface Observation Networks and Ecmwf Reanalysis

    Garcia, R. L.; Booth, J.; Hondula, D.; Ross, K. W.; Stuyvesant, A.; Alm, G.; Baghel, E.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme heat causes more human fatalities in the United States than any other natural disaster, elevating the concern of heat-related mortality. Maricopa County Arizona is known for its high heat index and its sprawling metropolitan complex which makes this region a perfect candidate for human health research. Individuals at higher risk are unequally spatially distributed, leaving the poor, homeless, non-native English speakers, elderly, and the socially isolated vulnerable to heat events. The Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University and NASA DEVELOP LaRC are working to establish a more effective method of placing hydration and cooling centers in addition to enhancing the heat warning system to aid those with the highest exposure. Using NASA's Earth Observation Systems from Aqua and Terra satellites, the daily spatial variability within the UHI was quantified over the summer heat seasons from 2005 - 2014, effectively establishing a remotely sensed surface temperature climatology for the county. A series of One-way Analysis of Variance revealed significant differences between daily surface temperature averages of the top 30% of census tracts within the study period. Furthermore, synoptic upper tropospheric circulation patterns were classified to relate surface weather types and heat index. The surface weather observation networks were also reviewed for analyzing the veracity of the other methods. The results provide detailed information regarding nuances within the UHI effect and will allow pertinent recommendations regarding the health department's adaptive capacity. They also hold essential components for future policy decision-making regarding appropriate locations for cooling centers and efficient warning systems.

  5. 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States

    ... news/fullstory_160028.html 'Heat Dome' Heats Up United States Much of the country to be under ... As a massive "heat dome" stretches across the United States this week, sending temperatures and humidity levels ...

  6. The elastic-plastic cracking under the irradiation and cyclic loadings caused by thermo-acoustic instability of the heat-carrier in active zone

    In conditions at which occurrence thermo-acoustic instability of heat-carrier (TAI) in an active zone of some reactors is possible, in particular for water-water reactors (WER installations of reactor) WER-1000 they are determined. In metal uranium thermal emission element's (TEE's) (both in the uranium core, and in a protective environment) thus there is an elastic - plastic development of cracks. In the generalized diagram of radiation-thermal creep of the metals, showing dependence of creep mechanisms on thermodynamic parameters such, as temperature, loading and neutron flux density is submitted. In it is shown, that in metal uranium at moderate temperatures and high neutron flux densities the radiation point defect concentrations considerably may exceed thermally equilibrium, also it is submitted the theoretical model of the established radiation creep within the framework of the mechanism of dislocation gliding and climbing, based on the conception of a dislocation as nonideal sink for point radiation defects. The similar phenomena it is necessary to expect and in a material of a protective environment which because of close contact to uranium also is exposed to intensive operation of division nucleus splinters of uranium. Computer modeling of radiation creep of metal uranium fuel has revealed its temperature nonlinearity. These temperature nonlinearities have served the reason for search of nonlinear effects and modes (in particular, concentration waves of point defects and their influence on radiating creep) in open nonlinear stochastic system which the system metal uranium fuel under an irradiation. As mechanisms of radiation-thermal plastic deformation in top of a crack, are identical to mechanisms of radiation-thermal creep the changes of mechanisms of radiation-thermal creep received in law on thermodynamic parameters may be the basis for development of the appropriate mechanisms of elastic - plastic development of cracks in metal uranium fuel. In the

  7. A Heat Switch for Space Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various planned NASA missions require heat switches for active thermal control. As an example cryocoolers, including redundant coolers are incorporated on select...

  8. Effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum and Turmeric (Curcuma ‎Longa Powder on Performance, Enzyme Activity, and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Baghban Kanani P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cinnamon and turmeric powders on performance, and blood parameters of broiler chickens under heat stress were investigated. 200 one-day-old male chicks (Ross 308 were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replicates with 10 birds in each replicate. All birds were treated with heat stress (32οC and were either fed no any supplement (control, or 0.5% turmeric, 0.5% cinnamon, and a blend of cinnamon and turmeric (0.25% each when they were 25 to 42 days of age. We found that supplementation of turmeric, cinnamon, and their combination increased feed intake and body weight gain compared to control birds (P 0.05. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of cinnamon and turmeric either alone or together improve the performance of broiler chickens under heat stress by reducing lipid peroxidation.

  9. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  10. Heat transfer

    Jorge, Kubie; Thomas, Grassie

    2012-01-01

    A core task of engineers is to analyse energy related problems. The analytical treatment is usually based on principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but is increasingly being handled computationally.This unique resource presents a practical textbook, written for both undergraduates and professionals, with a series of over 60 computer workbooks on an accompanying CD.The book emphasizes how complex problems can be deconstructed into a series of simple steps. All thermophysical property computations are illustrated using diagrams within text and on the compani

  11. Heat pipes

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  12. 热活化过硫酸盐降解水中的2-氯苯酚%Degradation of o-chlorophenol by heat activated persulfate

    刘国强; 王斌楠; 廖云燕; 邵娟; 武瑾玮; 孔德洋; 陆隽鹤

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of o-chlorophenol by sulfate radicals generated by heat activation of persulfate was investigated. This research focused on the influence of temperature, pH, humic acid (HA), inorganic ions to the degradation efficiency. The results indicated that the high temperature and persulfate concerntration promoted the degradation of o-chlorophenol. Degradation of o-chlorophenol exhibited a second-order kinetics and the activation energy was 4. 32 kJ·mol-1 . Acidic condition is more beneficial for the o-chlorophenol degradation than alkaline condition. Both HA and CO2-3 inhibited the o-chlorophenol degradation. Cl- also inhibited the reaction at acidic and neutral conditions. However, at basic condition, such inhibition was not significant. It was presumed that o-chlorophenol was eventually mineralized. However, chlorophenol dimers as intermediates were detected during this process.%利用加入活化K2 S2 O8产生的硫酸根自由基( SO-4·)降解水中2-氯苯酚( o-chlorophenol),探讨了温度、pH、腐殖酸( HA)、无机离子对2-氯苯酚降解的影响.结果表明,增加溶液中过硫酸盐的浓度或提高溶液反应温度,可促进2-氯苯酚的降解,而且2-氯苯酚的降解符合准一级反应动力学规律,其反应表观活化能为4.32 kJ·mol-1.酸性条件下2-氯苯酚的降解效果明显好于碱性条件.2-氯苯酚的降解受到Cl-、CO2-3和腐殖酸的影响.其中,腐殖酸和CO2-3都对反应有明显的抑制作用.Cl-在酸性和中性条件下也会抑制2-氯苯酚降解,但在碱性条件对反应影响不大.2-氯苯酚在SO-4·的作用下会最终降解为乙酸等小分子有机物并最终矿化,有时会伴随有中间产物二聚物的生成.

  13. Heat transfer enhancement by pin elements

    Sahiti, N.; Durst, F.; Dewan, A. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Heat transfer enhancement is an active and important field of engineering research since increases in the effectiveness of heat exchangers through suitable heat transfer augmentation techniques can result in considerable technical advantages and savings of costs. Considerable enhancements were demonstrated in the present work by using small cylindrical pins on surfaces of heat exchangers. A partly quantitative theoretical treatment of the proposed method is presented. It uses simple relationships for the conductive and convective heat transfer to derive an equation that shows which parameters permit the achievement of heat transfer enhancements. Experiments are reported that demonstrate the effectiveness of the results of the proposed approach. It is shown that the suggested method of heat transfer enhancements is much more effective than existing methods, since it results in an increase in heat transfer area (like fins) and also an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  14. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  15. Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings

    The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately

  16. Heat-Related Illnesses

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  17. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  18. Low temperature nuclear heat

    Kotakorpi, J.; Tarjanne, R. (comps.)

    1977-08-01

    The meeting was concerned with the use of low grade nuclear heat for district heating, desalination, process heat, and agriculture and aquaculture. The sessions covered applications and demand, heat sources, and economics.

  19. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady-State

    Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…

  20. Agricultural uses of waste heat

    Pile, R.S.; Behrends, L.L.; Burns, E.R.; Maddox, J.J.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    A major concern of the Tennessee Valley Authority is to ensure efficient use of Tennessee Valley resources in achieving optimum economic development without degrading the environment. As part of this effort, TVA is exploring many uses for waste heat. Activities to develop ways to use waste heat in agricultural production are described. Primary objectives are to: (1) identify potential agricultural uses of waste heat, (2) develop and test technologies and management criteria for more productive uses, (3) demonstrate technologies in commercial-scale production facilities, and (4) provide technical assistance for commercial application. Waste heat research and development projects under investigation or being planned by TVA independently or cooperatively include: (1) controlled environment greenhouses, (2) biological ecycling of nutrients from livestock manures, (3) soil heating and irrigation, and (4) environmental control for livestock housing. (MHR)

  1. Interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil Interferência do aquecimento sobre a atividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae)

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima; José Maria Barbosa Filho; Márcia Ortiz Mayo Marques

    2008-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, essential oil has a variety of biological properties and its antimicrobial activity has received a renewed interest for use in food conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of O. vulgare essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil kept at room temperature and exposed to different heating temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120 °C during 1 hour) w...

  2. Segmented heat exchanger

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  3. Generation of Domestic Hot Water, Space Heating and Driving Pattern Profiles for Integration Analysis of Active Loads in Low Voltage Grids

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Pigazo, Alberto; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2013-01-01

    household level. Despite of the well-known flexible service that this kind of loads can provide, their flexibility is highly dependent of the domestic hot water and space heating demand and the driving habits of each user. This paper presents two methodologies employed to randomly generate thermal power...... demand and electric vehicle driving profiles, to be used for power grid calculations. The generated thermal profiles relied on a statistical analysis made from real domestic hot water and space heating data from 25 households of a typical Danish residential area. The driving profiles instead were formed...... based on conclusions derived from previous analysis on Danish driving patterns and the driving cycles extracted from the European project ARTEMIS. The obtained random profiles will allow electrical networks in Denmark to be analyzed while maintaining the probability of the original data set....

  4. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    None

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  5. Square Heating Applied to Shearography and Active Infrared Thermography Measurements Coupling: From Feasibility Test in Laboratory to Numerical Study of Pultruded CFRP Plates Glued on Concrete Specimen

    THEROUX, Luc D.; Dumoulin, Jean; MALADAGUE, X

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates thermography and shearography couplings, using feasibility trials and numerical simulations, for non-destructive control evaluations of bonding of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer plates glued over concrete structures. Those are well-known methods in non-destructive testing (NDT) applied to civil engineering, but in this context, they are seen as paired because they use the same excitation source: square-pulsed optical heating. Furthermore, because both methods are base...

  6. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter. PMID:27554151

  7. Multiple heat priming enhances thermo-tolerance to a later high temperature stress via improving subcellular antioxidant activities in wheat seedlings

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were firstly twice heat-primed at 32/24 °C, and subsequently subjected to a more severe high temperature stress at 35/27 °C. The later high temperature stress significantly decreased plant biomass and leaf total soluble sugars concentration. Howeve....... Collectively, heat priming effectively improved thermo-tolerance of wheat seedlings subjected to a later high temperature stress, which could be largely ascribed to the enhanced anti-oxidation at the subcellular level.......Seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were firstly twice heat-primed at 32/24 °C, and subsequently subjected to a more severe high temperature stress at 35/27 °C. The later high temperature stress significantly decreased plant biomass and leaf total soluble sugars concentration. However......, plants experienced priming (PH) up-regulated the Rubisco activase B encoding gene RcaB, which was in accordance with the higher photosynthesis rate in relation to the non-primed plants (NH) under the later high temperature stress. In relation to NH, the major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene Cab was...

  8. Investigation of Martensite Formation in Fe Based Alloys During Heating From Boiling Nitrogen Temperature

    Villa, Matteo; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Hansen, Mikkel F.;

    2015-01-01

    heating was convincingly demonstrated for all investigated materials by showing heating rate dependent transformation kinetics. Moreover, magnetometry showed that the heating rate influences the fraction of martensite formed during the thermal treatment. The activation energy for thermally activated...

  9. Enhancement of heat and mass transfer by cavitation

    Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. N.; Du, X. Z.; Xian, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a brief summary of effects of cavitation on the heat and mass transfer are given. The fundamental studies of cavitation bubbles, including its nonlinearity, rectified heat and mass diffusion, are initially introduced. Then selected topics of cavitation enhanced heat and mass transfer were discussed in details including whales stranding caused by active sonar activity, pool boiling heat transfer, oscillating heat pipe and high intensity focused ultrasound treatment.

  10. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    In the current Danish energy system, the majority of electricity and heat is produced in combined heat and power plants. With increasing shares of intermittent renewable power production, it becomes a challenging task to match power and heat production, as heat demand and production capacity...... constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  11. Tissue physiology and the response to heat

    Horsman, Michael Robert

    2006-01-01

    heating is terminated, perfusion and oxygenation commonly recover, although how quickly this occurs appears to be tumour-specific. While these effects are unlikely to have any anti-tumour activity they can be exploited to improve the combination of heat with other therapies. However, since similar...... physiological effects should occur in normal tissues, such combination therapies must be carefully applied. Heating tumours to higher temperatures typically causes a transient increase in perfusion during heating, followed by vascular collapse which if sufficient will increase tumour necrosis. The speed and...... can also be exploited to improve the response to heat. Decreasing blood flow, using transient physiological modifiers or longer acting vascular disrupting agents prior to the initiation of heating, can both increase the accumulation of physical heat in the tumour, as well as increase heat sensitivity...

  12. A Conceptual Change Model for Teaching Heat Energy, Heat Transfer and Insulation

    Lee, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the existing knowledge that pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) have regarding heat energy, heat transfer and insulation. The PSETs' knowledge of heat energy was initially assessed by using an activity: determining which container would be best to keep hot water warm for the longest period of time. Results showed that…

  13. Heat pump technology

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  14. Cryogenic heat transfer

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  15. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for a Regenerative Heat Exchanger in the International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the system dynamics was created using Excel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  16. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for an International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the systems dynamics was created using an Excel Spreadsheet. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  17. Activities.

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  18. The heat response of hydrocortisone receptors

    The sensitivity of hydrocortisone (HC) receptors to heat damage has been measured in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The impetus for the study came from three observations: A. Hormone receptors (e.g. insulin) are very heat sensitizer and may be a primary target for heat damage (BBA 756, 1 (1983)). B. HC induces a receptor-mediated heat resistance in CHO cells (J. Cell. Physiol. 128, 127 (1986)). C. The HC receptor is a soluble protein complex, which, in its unactivated state, contains HSP 89 (EMBO J. 4, 3131 (1985); JBC 260 12398 (1985)). Upon binding of the ligand, HSP 89 dissociates and the activated receptor enters the nucleus and binds DNA. The current study reveals that the HC receptor is also very heat sensitive, losing 50% of its activity after 5 min at 450C, 10 min at 440C or 20 min at 430C. Receptor activity recovers quickly after heat, returning to levels close to normal within 2-4 hours after a treatment of 10 min at 450C which initially reduces receptor activity to less than 20% of control. Pretreatment with HC, using conditions that induce heat resistance, depresses receptor activity to 10-20% of control, but residual receptors display a heat sensitivity similar to that of control cells. So far, the authors have been unable to demonstrate any heat protection of HC receptors in thermotolerant cells

  19. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  20. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    ... heat rash consist of controlling heat and humidity. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help to reduce fever. Remove ... without any sweat. Your child may complain of dizziness, nausea, weakness, headache, confusion, or difficulty breathing. This ...

  1. The effect of plate heat exchanger’s geometry on heat transfer

    Oana GIURGIU; Angela PLEŞA; Dan OPRUŢA

    2014-01-01

    The study presents further Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical analysis for two models of plate heat exchangers. Comparatively was studied the influence of geometric characteristics of plates on the intensification process of heat exchange. For this purpose, it was examined the distribution of velocity and temperatures fields on active plate height. Heat transfer characteristics were analysed through the variation of mass flow on the primary heat agent.

  2. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  3. Oscillating heat pipes

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  4. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  5. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Defatted Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Flour in Water or Ethanol Heated using Microwave Irradiation at Varying Temperatures

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has potential to be a nutritionally beneficial crop due to its high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. We explored new technologies to enhance buckwheat phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Buckwheat achenes were ground and flour was extracted for 15 ...

  7. Optimisation of combined heat and power production for buildings using heat storage

    Highlights: • Half-hourly heat demand data shows the high variability of building heat demand. • Sharp spikes in heat demand were observed when some heating systems are activated. • 25% of the annual heat demand was found to be independent of outdoor temperatures. • Seasonal differences of heat store operation affect its environmental and economic advantages. - Abstract: Reducing carbon emissions from buildings is vital to achieve goals for avoiding dangerous climate change, and supplying them with low-carbon heat is essential. In the UK, the development of heat networks for supplying low-carbon heat is being encouraged for urban areas where there is high heat demand density. This paper investigates heat demand variability, the role of heat networks and combined heat and power (CHP) in satisfying this demand, and finally the advantages of using heat storage in the system. Building heat demands from 50 buildings were analysed at a half-hour resolution with modelling to determine CHP operation patterns with and without heat storage. Daily total heat demand was found to vary from 25% of the full-year average in summer months up to 235% of the average on the coldest days in winter. The heat demand was shown to correlate to outdoor temperatures measured with the degree-day parameter, except for approximately 100 days during the warmest part of the year falling outside the heating season. Sharp spikes in heat demand were seen at the half-hourly time scale coinciding with the switching on of heating systems in some buildings with consequences for building energy supply options. It was shown that for an annual heat demand of 40,000 MW h, the use of thermal storage can significantly increase the running time of a CHP energy centre with 4 MW capacity designed to supply this demand. The cost savings resulting from increased on-site heat and electricity production resulted in a payback period for heat storage investment of under four years with further benefits if it

  8. In vivo and in vitro adjuvant activities of the B subunit of Type IIb heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-IIb-B5) from Escherichia coli

    Liang, Shuang; Hosur, Kavita B.; Nawar, Hesham F.; Russell, Michael W.; Terry D Connell; Hajishengallis, George

    2009-01-01

    The pentameric B subunit of the Escherichia coli LT-IIb enterotoxin (LT-IIb-B5) activates TLR2 signaling in macrophages. Herein we demonstrate that LT-IIb-B5, in contrast to a TLR2-nonbinding point mutant, induces functional activation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and stimulates CD4+ T cell proliferation, activities which suggested that LT-IIb-B5 might function as an adjuvant in vivo. Indeed, in an intranasal mouse immunization model, LT-IIb-B5 augmented specific mucosal and serum a...

  9. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  10. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  11. Heat Illness in Hawai‘i

    Gordon, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Heat illness is a commonly encountered health problem in the Hawaiian Islands. Year round warm temperatures, proximity to the equator, and high humidity combined with a plethora of opportunities for outdoor activities put many individuals at risk. This paper will focus on the physiology, identification, and treatment of varying forms of heat illness. Severe heat illness can be life threatening. All outdoor enthusiasts should have a basic understanding of how to recognize this potentially life...

  12. Liquid for absorption of solar heat

    Nakamura, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kadotani, K.; Marui, T.

    1984-11-13

    A liquid for the absorption of solar heat, useful as an heat-absorbing medium in water heaters and heat collectors comprises: a dispersing medium selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, mixture of propylene glycol with water, mixture of propylene glycol with water and glycerin, and mixture of glycerin with water, a dispersant selected from the group consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone, caramel, and mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone with caramel, and a powdered activated carbon as a black coloring material.

  13. Heat pump evaluation for Space Station ATCS evolution

    Ames, Brian E.; Petete, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the application of a vapor compression heat pump to the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) of SSF is presented. This paper focuses on the methodology of raising the surface temperature of the radiators for improved heat rejection. Some of the effects of the vapor compression cycle on SSF examined include heat pump integration into ATCS, constraints on the heat pump operating parameters, and heat pump performance enhancements.

  14. Decay heat calculations for reactors

    Estimation of release of energy (decay heat) over an extended period of time after termination of neutron induced fission is necessary for determining the heat removal requirements when the reactor is shutdown, and for fuel storage and transport facilities as well as for accident studies. The method of decay heat estimation relies on the measurements over practical time intervals as well as on calculation for predictions over very long time intervals. Neutron cross-sections, fission yields and decay data together with operational history are the basic inputs to such. A code used to calculate decay heat would require to generate isotopic inventory that would be present at the shutdown based on operational history of the reactor and follow up the decay over an extended period of time. Aspects of decay heat estimation based on standards like ANS 5.1 and by fuel cycle analysis codes shall be discussed. A Fuel Cycle Analysis Code, ADWITA (Activation, Decay, Waste Incineration and Transmutation Analysis) which can generate inventory based on irradiation history and calculate radioactivity and decay heat for extended period of cooling, has been written. The method and data involved in Fuel Cycle Analysis Code ADWITA and some results obtained shall also be presented. (author)

  15. Heat Roadmap Europe

    Hansen, Kenneth; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    The cost of heat savings in buildings increase as more heat savings are achieved due to the state of the building stock and hence, alternatives other than savings typically become more economically feasible at a certain level of heat reductions. It is important to identify when the cost of heat s...

  16. Transient Heat Conduction

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  17. The Gravitational Heat Exchanger

    De Aquino, Fran

    2015-01-01

    The heat exchangers are present in many sectors of the economy. They are widely used in Refrigerators, Air-conditioners, Engines, Refineries, etc. Here we show a heat exchanger that works based on the gravity control. This type of heat exchanger can be much more economic than the conventional heat exchangers.

  18. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  19. 热休克转录因子1的抗炎症作用%The anti-inflammative activities of heat shock factor 1

    吴畅; 任安经; 袁文俊; 林丽

    2008-01-01

    热休克转录因子1(heat shock factor 1, HSF1)是调节细胞保护性应激蛋白--热休克蛋白表达的主要转录因子,可被热应激、氧化应激等多种理化因素激活.近年研究表明,HSF1具有抗炎症作用:HSF1可抑制TNFα、IL-1β、M-CSF等致炎因子表达,促进IL-10等抗炎因子表达,并降低NF-κB、AP-1等致炎转录因子的活性.HSF1上调热休克蛋白和抑制炎症的双重活性,提示其很可能是联系应激反应和炎症反应的重要因子.

  20. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    María José Misa Agustiño

    2012-07-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR, which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01 after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 W/Kg or 0.104±5.10−3 W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity.

  1. Process heat supply requirements on HTGRs

    Since it has been claimed that the MHTGR is competitive with coal in producing electricity, the MHTGR must be competitive in producing process heat. There is a huge process heat market and there are quite a number of processes where the industrial MHTGR = HTRI could supply the necessary process heat and energy. However, to enhance its introduction on the market and to conquer a reasonable share of the market, the HTRI should fulfill the following major requirements: Unlimited constant and flexible heat supply, no secondary heat transport system at higher temperatures and low radioactive contamination level of the primary helium. Unlimited constant and flexible heat supply could be achieved with smaller HTRIs having heat generation capacities below 100 MW-th. The process heat generated by smaller HTRIs need not be more expensive since the installed necessary heat supply redundancy is smaller and the excess power density lower. The process heat at elevated temperatures generated by a HTRI with a secondary heat transfer system is much more expensive due to the additional investment and operating cost as well as the reduced helium temperature span available. For some processes, the HTRI is not able to cover the total process heat requirement while other processes can consume only part of the heat offered. These limitations could be reduced by using higher core outlet and inlet temperatures or both. Due to the considerably lower heat transfer rates and the resulting larger heat transfer areas in process plants, the diffusion of nuclear activity at elevated temperatures may increase so that a more efficient helium cleaning system may be required. (author). 5 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Heat Pipe Planets

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  3. Heat shock transcription factors regulate heat induced cell death in a rat histiocytoma

    Kolla V, P Rasad; Aftab Taiyab; D Jyothi; Usha K Srinivas; Amere S Sreedhar

    2007-04-01

    Heat shock response is associated with the synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps) which is strictly regulated by different members of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). We previously reported that a rat histiocytoma, BC-8 failed to synthesize Hsps when subjected to typical heat shock conditions (42°C, 60 min). The lack of Hsp synthesis in these cells was due to a failure in HSF1 DNA binding activity. In the present study we report that BC-8 tumor cells when subjected to heat shock at higher temperature (43°C, 60 min) or incubation for longer time at 42°C, exhibited necrosis characteristics; however, under mild heat shock (42°C, 30 min) conditions cells showed activation of autophagy. Mild heat shock treatment induced proteolysis of HSF1, and under similar conditions we observed an increase in HSF2 expression followed by its enhanced DNA binding activity. Inhibiting HSF1 proteolysis by reversible proteasome inhibition failed to inhibit heat shock induced autophagy. Compromising HSF2 expression but not HSF1 resulted in the inhibition of autophagy, suggesting HSF2 dependent activation of autophagy. We are reporting for the first time that HSF2 is heat inducible and functions in heat shock induced autophagic cell death in BC-8 tumor cells.

  4. STABILITAS AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK BEKATUL BERAS MERAH TERHADAP OKSIDATOR DAN PEMANASAN PADA BERBAGAI pH [Stability of Antioxidant Activity of Red Rice Bran Extract Subjected to Oxidator and Heating in Various pH

    I Wayan Rai Widarta1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is acknowledged as the highest nutritious part of rice grain as well as rich in bioactive phytochemicals. Coloured rices are reported as potent sources of antioxidants therefore are regarded as viable source of antioxidants for functional foods. The aim of this study was to extract the bioactive component of red rice bran, and further the component was subjected to antioxidant activity and stability tests. The research design was a factorial randomized complete design with two factors. The first factor was the pH of the maceration that consisted of 3 levels, i.e. 1, 2.5, and 4. The second factor was the ratios of bran and solvent that consisted of 4 levels, namely: 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10. Total phenol, total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were measured. The results showed that extraction at the pH of 1 and under the optimized conditions of a material–solvent ratio of 1:10 (wt./vol. produced the most potent extract. This treatment resulted in 5.45 mg/100 g of total anthocyanins, 743.51 mg/100 g of total phenolics, 92.19% of antioxidant activity, and 441.74 mg/L of IC50. Reduction of the antioxidant activities as a result of heating of the red rice bran extract was greater than that of oxidator.

  5. The Heat Is On

    Brian Hill

    2014-01-01

    Qualification in track and field events involves runners competing against individuals within their heat and runners in other heats. Given that the heats are run sequentially, runners in each heat have different information about their competitors. Using data on track and field events from 2001-2011, this article examines whether an individual’s placement in a specific heat and their peers affect their performance and qualification probability. Results indicate that runners’ times and qua...

  6. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  7. Introduction to heat transfer

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  8. Heating efficacy of external heat supply during and after open-heart surgery with hypothermia.

    Joachimsson, P O; Nyström, S O; Tydén, H

    1987-01-01

    Heat balance after cardiac surgery with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was studied in 156 patients. In spite of rewarming during CPB there was residual hypothermia at the end of operation. This heat deficit could not be prevented by intraoperative use of a heating mattress at 38 degrees C and/or heated (39 degrees C) humidified inspired gases. Postoperatively, in four groups of patients, the core and finger skin temperatures were recorded and the mean skin and mean body temperatures and heat balance were calculated. Heating of humidified inspired gases (n = 22) gave little improvement in the time course of the temperatures and heat balance as compared with that in a control group with no external warming postoperatively (n = 49). A thermal ceiling (a low-temperature radiator suspended above the bed and providing radiant heat (n = 35] significantly increased the measured temperatures, which were restored to normal earlier than those in the controls. Also, with this radiant heat postoperative shivering was almost abolished. With a combination of radiant heat and heated, humidified gases (n = 50), the postoperative heat balance was improved somewhat further. For patients treated with radiant heat, postoperative rewarming was accomplished in a shorter time and almost without active endogenous muscular thermogenesis, as was evident by the great reduction in postoperative shivering. PMID:3825479

  9. Signal Transduction Pathways Leading to Heat Shock Transcription

    Calderwood, S K; Xie, Y.; X. Wang; Khaleque, M. A.; Chou, S. D.; Murshid, A.; Prince, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are essential for intracellular protein folding during stress and protect cells from denaturation and aggregation cascades that can lead to cell death. HSP genes are regulated at the transcriptional level by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) that is activated by stress and binds to heat shock elements in HSP genes. The activation of HSF1 during heat shock involves conversion from an inert monomer to a DNA binding trimer through a series of intramolecular foldi...

  10. Open district heating and marginal cost based heat pricing

    Mäkelä, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Currently, an increasing usage of individual heating systems such as heat pumps and solar heat collectors, pose a challenge to the district heating market. However, individual heating technologies together with industrial processes produce excess heat, which can be utilized in district heating. The usage of excess heat can be seen as an opportuni-ty for new business strategies in district heating. The objective of this thesis was to simulate hourly district heat production in an open dist...

  11. Review of passive heat transfer augmentation techniques

    Dewan, A.; Mahanta, P.; Sumithra Raju, K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Suresh Kumar, P. [Indian Institute of technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Oocean Engineering and Naval Architecture

    2004-12-01

    Heat transfer augmentation techniques (passive, active or a combination of passive and active methods) are commonly used in areas such as process industries, heating and cooling in evaporators, thermal power plants, air- conditioning equipment, refrigerators, radiators for space vehicles, automobiles, etc. Passive techniques, where inserts are used in the flow passage to augment the heat transfer rate, are advantageous compared with active techniques, because the insert manufacturing process is simple and these techniques can be easily employed in an existing heat exchanger. In design of compact heat exchangers, passive techniques of heat transfer augmentation can play an important role if a proper passive insert configuration can be selected according to the heat exchanger working condition (both flow and heat transfer conditions). In the past decade, several studies on the passive techniques of heat transfer augmentation have been reported. The present paper is a review on progress with the passive augmentation techniques in the recent past and will be useful to designers implementing passive augmentation techniques in heat exchange. Twisted tapes, wire coils, ribs, fins, dimples, etc., are the most commonly used passive heat transfer augmentation tools. In the present paper, emphasis is given to works dealing with twisted tapes and wire coils because, according to recent studies, these are known to be economic heat transfer augmentation tools. The former insert is found to be suitable in a laminar flow regime and the latter is suitable for turbulent flow. The thermohydraulic behaviour of an insert mainly depends on the flow conditions (laminar or turbulent) apart from the insert configurations. The present review is organized in five different sections: twisted tape in laminar flow; twisted tape in turbulent flow; wire coil in laminar flow; wire coil in turbulent flow; other inserts such as ribs, fins, dimples, etc. (author)

  12. Stochastic heating of cooling flows

    Pavlovski, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the heating of gas in clusters of galaxies by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a form of feedback. Feedback is required to ensure a long term, sustainable balance between heating and cooling. This work investigates the impact of proportional stochastic feedback on the energy balance in the intracluster medium. Using a generalised analytical model for a cluster atmosphere, it is shown that an energy equilibrium can be reached exponentially quickly. Applying the tools of stochastic calculus it is demonstrated that the result is robust with regard to the model parameters, even though they affect the amount of variability in the system.

  13. Heat transfer in granular beds in radiative heat supply

    Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Kovenskii, V. I.

    2010-07-01

    The basic regularities of stationary heat transfer throughout the space of an infiltrated granular bed in radiative heat supply in cocurrent-flow (solar collector 1) and counterflow (solar collector 2) regimes have been investigated within the framework of a two-temperature model. The boundary layer of the third kind for the skeleton of particles at exit from the bed has been formulated; this condition allows for the degree of turbulence of the heat-transfer-agent flow. A quasihomogeneity criterion making it possible to evaluate the thermal state of a two-phase system has been introduced. The approximation dependences for calculation of the active-portion length, the bed’s resistance, the solar-collector efficiency, and the average relative phase-temperature difference have been established.

  14. Potentials for Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methodologies for analysing heat saving potentials. The background for the lack of activities in that field is suggested. Various elements of heat savings are described, including changes in daily behaviour and life styles. Definition of various levels of potentials are...... suggested. Two scenarios for future heat savings are established, deviating in the rates of renovation, demolition, and construction of buildings, as well as in the thermal insulation standards, ventilation systems ,and in the daily behaviour. The results are that compared to the base year 1995, heat...

  15. Preliminary Study on Performance in an Active Lighting and Heating Storage Type Solar Greenhouse%主动采光蓄热型日光温室性能初探

    高文波; 张勇; 邹志荣; 孙亚琛

    2015-01-01

    A new type of solar greenhouse called active lighting and heating storage type solar greenhouse was studied based on experimental comparison and its properties were investigated.Both tilting roof technologies and active heating storage fan systems technologies have been integrated in the new solar greenhouse so that varying incidence angle of the solar greenhouse and increasing the efficiency of thermal storage of the back wall by manual were realized.The experi-ment was carried out at the modern agriculture demonstrate area located at County Zichang, Shaanxi during the winter of 2013.Technical performance of indoor lighting and temperature was discussed and compared theoretically.Under experi-mental condition of this study, the average lighting performance and mean indoor temperature of the active lighting and heating storage type solar greenhouse in winter solstice increased by 15.42% and 2.6℃, respectively.The average lighting performance and mean indoor temperature in a cloudy day increased by 11.73% and 2.1℃, respectively.The average lighting performance and mean indoor temperature in a sunny day increased by 21.28%and 5.6℃, respective-ly.In conclusion, the active lighting and heating storage type solar greenhouse was more efficient in utilization of solar energy and raising temperature.%研究了一种新型主动采光蓄热型日光温室,该日光温室应用了倾转屋面技术和主动蓄热风机系统技术,实现了人为调节日光温室采光面角度和提高后墙蓄热效率,并对其温光性能进行了试验研究。试验测定了位于陕西省子长县现代农业示范园内的试验温室,并选取2013年冬季冬至日、典型多云天和典型晴天的试验数据,分析研究了主动采光蓄热型日光温室与普通日光温室室内光照度和温度的差别。在本试验条件下,与普通日光温室相比,冬至日主动采光蓄热型日光温室室内光照度平均提高了15.42

  16. Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives

    Neena Philips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives, through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally, III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs.

  17. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  18. High morphogenic activity in the permafrost-affected rock walls of the Mont Blanc massif during the 2015 summer heat wave

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Magnin, Florence; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    In order to test the geomorphological hypothesis on the link between permafrost degradation and rock wall destabilisation, we survey all the rockfalls that occur in the central part of the Mont-Blanc massif using a network of observers since 2007. 511 rockfalls (100 administrative closures of the Goûter hut (3835 m a.s.l.) were necessary to prevent climbers from the huge risk of rockfalls in the access couloir, known for its rockfall activity since its snow/ice cover thaws earlier and earlier in the hot season. This raises the question of the future of mountaineering in certain high altitude areas in the context of global warming.

  19. Heat pipes for temperature control

    Heat pipes have known for years as effective constructional elements for temperature control. With the aid of special techniques (gas, liquid, steam, and voltage control), special operating characteristics can be obtained, e.g. variable heat conduction or diode behaviour. Their main field of application is in spacecraft technology and in nuclear technology in the isothermalisation of irradiation capsules. The different control techniques are presented and critically evaluated on the basis of characteristic properties like heat transfer capacity, volume and mass requirements, complexity of structure and production, reliability, and temperature control characteristics. Advantages and shortcomings of the different concepts are derived and compared. The state of the art of these control techniques is established on the basis of four development levels. Finally, the necessity and direction of further R + D activities are discussed, and suggestions are made for further work. (orig./HP)

  20. Perioperative thermoregulation and heat balance.

    Sessler, Daniel I

    2016-06-25

    Core body temperature is normally tightly regulated to within a few tenths of a degree. The major thermoregulatory defences in humans are sweating, arteriovenous shunt vasoconstriction, and shivering. The core temperature triggering each response defines its activation threshold. General anaesthetics greatly impair thermoregulation, synchronously reducing the thresholds for vasoconstriction and shivering. Neuraxial anaesthesia also impairs central thermoregulatory control, and prevents vasoconstriction and shivering in blocked areas. Consequently, unwarmed anaesthetised patients become hypothermic, typically by 1-2°C. Hypothermia results initially from an internal redistribution of body heat from the core to the periphery, followed by heat loss exceeding metabolic heat production. Complications of perioperative hypothermia include coagulopathy and increased transfusion requirement, surgical site infection, delayed drug metabolism, prolonged recovery, shivering, and thermal discomfort. Body temperature can be reliably measured in the oesophagus, nasopharynx, mouth, and bladder. The standard-of-care is to monitor core temperature and to maintain normothermia during general and neuraxial anaesthesia. PMID:26775126

  1. Candesartan ameliorates acute myocardial infarction in rats through inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor‑κB, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1, activator protein‑1 and restoration of heat shock protein 72.

    Lin, Xuefeng; Wu, Min; Liu, Bo; Wang, Junkui; Guan, Gongchang; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anticancer activities, with specific pharmacological effects. The present study investigated the mechanisms and protective effect of candesartan on acute myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (8‑week‑old) were induced as a model of acute myocardial infarction and treated with candesartan (0.25 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. The present study first measured the activities of casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK‑MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the level of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and infarct size. Subsequently, western blot analysis was performed to analyze the protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) in the rats. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect iNOS and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) activity. In addition, gene expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 (MCP‑1) and activating protein‑1 (AP‑1) were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Finally, the activities of caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 were examined using colorimetric assay kits. In the serum of the rat model of acute myocardial infarction, candesartan significantly increased the activities of CK, CK‑MB and LDH, and the level of cTnT. The infarction size was perfected by candesartan treatment. Candesartan significantly reduced the protein expression and activity of iNOS, the activity of NF‑κB p65, and the gene expression levels of MCP‑1 and AP‑1 in the rat model of acute myocardial infarction. Candesartan increased the protein expression of HSP‑72 in the acute myocardial infarction rat model. However, candesartan did not effect the levels of caspase‑3 or caspase‑9 in the rat model of acute myocardial infarction. These results suggested that candesartan ameliorates

  2. Basic heat transfer

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  3. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  4. Plasma heat pump and heat engine

    A model system where cold charged particles are locally confined in a volume VP within a warm plasma of volume V (VPE. The law of thermodynamics involving PE and an equation of state for PE are obtained. It is shown that the expansion/compression of electrostatic fields associated with charged particles is a new mechanism that converts mechanical work into plasma heat and vice versa. Two applications of this theory are, first we propose a pumping device which heats plasmas by an adiabatic/isothermal compression of fields. Heating power ranging from a few hundred watts to a few kilowatts is possible with the present day technology. Second, we discuss the feasibility of constructing an electrostatic heat engine which converts plasma heat into mechanical work via plasma electric fields. Effects of PE are shown to be observable in colloidal solutions.

  5. Heat Transfer Augmentation for Electronic Cooling

    Suabsakul Gururatana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The performance of electronic devices has been improving along with the rapid technology development. Cooling of electronic systems is consequently essential in controlling the component temperature and avoiding any hot spot. The study aims to review the present electronic cooling methods which are widely used in electronic devices. Approach: There are several methods to cool down the electronics components such as the pin-fin heat sink, confined jet impingement, heat pipe, micro heat sink and so on. Results: The cooling techniques can obviously increase heat transfer rate. Nonetheless, for active and passive cooling methods the pressure drop could extremely rise, when the heat transfer rate is increased. Conclusion: When the cooling techniques are used, it is clearly seen that the heat transfer increases with pressure drop. To avoid excessive expense due to high pressure drop, optimization method is required to obtain optimum cost and cooling rate.

  6. Passive heat removal in CANDU

    CANDU has a tradition of incorporating passive systems and passive components whenever they are shown to offer performance that is equal to or better than that of active systems, and to be economic. Examples include the two independent shutdown systems that employ gravity and stored energy respectively, the dousing subsystem of the CANDU 6 containment system, and the ability of the moderator to cool the fuel in the event that all coolant is lost from the fuel channels. CANDU 9 continues this tradition, incorporating a reserve water system (RWS) that increases the inventory of water in the reactor building and profiles a passive source of makeup water and/or heat sinks to various key process systems. The key component of the CANDU 9 reserve water system is a large (2500 cubic metres) water tank located at a high elevation in the reactor building. The reserve water system, while incorporating the recovery system functions, and the non-dousing functions of the dousing tank in CANDU 6, embraces other key systems to significantly extend the passive makeup/heat sink capability. The capabilities of the reserve water system include makeup to the steam generators secondary side if all other sources of water are lost; makeup to the heat transport system in the event of a leak in excess of the D2O makeup system capability; makeup to the moderator in the event of a moderator leak when the moderator heat sink is required; makeup to the emergency core cooling (ECC) system to assure NPSH to the ECC pumps during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), and provision of a passive heat sink for the shield cooling system. Other passive designs are now being developed by AECL. These will be incorporated in future CANDU plants when their performance has been fully proven. This paper reviews the passive heat removal systems and features of current CANDU plants and the CANDU 9, and briefly reviews some of the passive heat removal concepts now being developed. (author)

  7. Heat acclimation alters the sleep and behavior based thermoregulatory dynamics of rats in heat stress

    Sinha RK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well understood that the high environmental heat significantly affects the brain physiology of mammals, particularly the sleep and behavior of the subjects. The objective of the present work is to quantify the effects of acclimatization to the high environmental heat on sleep and behavioral activities in heat stress conditions. Methods: The polygraphic data involved simultaneous recordings of cortical electroencephalogram (EEG, electrooculogram (EOG, and electromyogram (EMG were recorded both on chart as well as in digital format to study the sleep-wake parameters in three different age groups of freely moving rats following exposure to high environmental heat. Each age group was subdivided into four groups: the acute heat stress group, subjected to a single exposure of 4h at 38°C in the biological oxygen demand (BOD incubator; the chronic heat stress group, exposed for 21 days, for 1 h each day, at 38°C in the BOD; acute heat stress followed by 21 days of chronic heat acclimatization and the handling control group. Open field and elevated plus-maze behavior was also analyzed following different exposure setup of high environmental heat. Results: The analyses of results suggest that acclimatization to the high environmental heat significantly alters the effects of acute exposure of high environmental heat on different sleep-wake as well as behavioral parameters. Conclusion: Acclimatization to environmental heat shifts the thermoregulatory set-point and thus these altered changes in sleep and behavior have been observed. Paste Full conclusion here

  8. Deuterium isotope effect on molar heat capacities and apparent molar heat capacities in dilute aqueous solutions: A multi-channel heat-flow microcalorimeter study

    The molar heat capacities of chloroform, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide, benzene, dimethylformamide, toluene, and cyclohexane, as well as their deuterated isotopologues, were measured using a multi-channel heat conduction TAM (Thermal Activity Monitor) III microcalorimeter. In addition, the apparent molar heat capacities of some of the associated dilute aqueous solutions (0.0039 i < 0.0210) were also measured. A temperature drop method from (298.15 to 297.15) K at 0.1 MPa was employed. The corresponding heat capacities were determined from the integration of the measured heat flow. The heat capacity results are shown to be in good to very good agreement with the available literature values. In addition, good correlations were obtained for the effect of isotopic substitution on both molar heat capacity and apparent molar heat capacity in aqueous solutions. These correlations should be useful in the prediction of the molar heat capacities or the apparent molar heat capacities of other deuterated compounds. Since these measurements were conducted with ampoules, the effects of heat of condensation and/or vapor space on the accuracy of the heat capacity determinations are discussed. The overall results from this study demonstrate the utility of a multi-channel heat conduction microcalorimeter in obtaining good reproducibility and good accuracy for molar heat capacities as well as apparent molar heat capacities from simultaneous samples

  9. Structure–activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding

    Structural data for the S74D variant of the pentameric B subunit of type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli reveal a smaller pore opening that may explain its reduced Toll-like receptor binding affinity compared to that of the wild type enterotoxin. The explanation for the enhanced Toll-like receptor binding affinity of the S74A variant is more complex than simply being attributed to the pore opening. The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B5) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B5, but not the LT-IIb-B5 Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B5(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent with this, the LT-IIb-B5(S74D) variant failed to bind TLR2, in contrast to LT-IIb-B5 and the LT-IIb-B5 Thr13Ile [LT-IIb-B5(T13I)] and LT-IIb-B5 Ser74Ala [LT-IIb-B5(S74A)] variants, which displayed the highest binding activity to TLR2. Crystal structures of the Ser74Asp, Ser74Ala and Thr13Ile variants of LT-IIb-B5 have been determined to 1.90, 1.40 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. The structural data for the Ser74Asp variant reveal that the carboxylate side chain points into the pore, thereby reducing the pore size compared with that of the wild-type or the Ser74Ala variant B pentamer. On the basis of these crystallographic data, the reduced TLR2-binding affinity of the LT-IIb-B5(S74D) variant may be the result of the pore of the pentamer being closed. On the other hand, the explanation for the enhanced TLR2-binding activity of the LT-IIb-B5(S74A) variant is more complex as its activity is greater than that of the wild-type B pentamer, which also has an open pore as the Ser74 side chain points away from the pore opening. Data for the LT-IIb-B5(T13I) variant show that four of the five variant side chains point to the outside surface of the pentamer and one residue points inside. These data are consistent with

  10. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets

    Xue, Gang-ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C. Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis s...

  11. Application of Abaqus to analysis of the temperature field in elements heated by moving heat sources

    W. Piekarska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal phenomena occurring during laser beam heating is presented in this paper. Numerical models of surface andvolumetric heat sources were presented and the influence of different laser beam heat source power distribution on temperature field wasanalyzed. Temperature field was obtained by a numerical solution the transient heat transfer equation with activity of inner heat sources using finite element method. Temperature distribution analysis in welded joint was performed in the ABAQUS/Standard solver. The DFLUXsubroutine was used for implementation of the movable welding heat source model. Temperature-depended thermophysical properties for steelwere assumed in computer simulations. Temperature distribution in laser beam surface heated and butt welded plates was numericallyestimated.

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... 911 What To Do In A Medical Emergency Childhood Emergencies Careers in Emergency Medicine Seconds Save Lives ... or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or ...

  13. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your Wishes Visiting the ER Who Takes ... 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat- ...

  14. Heat Wave Safety Checklist

    ... itself. ❏ Signs of heat stroke include hot, red skin which may be dry or moist; changes in consciousness; vomiting; and high body temperature. ❏ Heat stroke is life-threatening. Call 9-1-1 or ...

  15. Salix to heat glasshouses

    Tremeer, R.

    1993-12-31

    A wood chip heating plant supplied by short rotation coppice and existing woodland and hedges is used to heat glass houses. The reasons for changing to wood-fuel are developed in the paper. (TEC). 1 fig.

  16. Convective heat transfer

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  17. Radial heat flux transformer

    Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.

  18. Regenerative heat sources for heating networks

    The ambitious goal, the German Federal Government has set itself, to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 80% to 95% by the year 2050. As there are currently more than half of German energy consumption for the production of heat is required, big contributions to climate protection can be expected from this area if more renewable heat sources are used. Renewable heat sources such as bioenergy, solar thermal and geothermal energy in particular can be provided as compared to fossil fuels with significantly lower specific CO2 emissions. Objectives in the heating market and scenarios for the transformation of the heat sector have been elaborated in the BMU Lead Study 2011. The main pillar of this scenario is the reduction of final energy consumption for heat by the energy-efficient renovation of existing buildings and further increasing demands on the energetic quality of new buildings. To cover the remaining energy demand, a focus is on the expansion of heating networks based on renewable energies.

  19. Heat exchanger design

    Loukota, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis solves design of a heat exchanger for hot water boiler with gasification chamber for preheating the combustion air with the heat of the combustion products. Calculation values were experimentally measured. Thesis contains brief description of the shell and tube heat exchanger, stoichiometric combustion calculation, geometrical dimensions design of the heat exchanger, pressure loss and thermal performance calculation. It also includes drawings of the designed exchanger.

  20. Estimation of Heating Device‘s Convective Heat Transfer of Heat Supply Systems with Rotational Heat Generator

    A. Nesenchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, on the base of heat exchange analysis in heat supply systems with rotational heat generator, a calculated formula for estimation of heat transfer from the surface of heating device is obtained, taking into account its probability (random orientation in space. It is shown the most probable position of heating devices in heating system of mobile object.

  1. Estimation of Heating Device‘s Convective Heat Transfer of Heat Supply Systems with Rotational Heat Generator

    A. Nesenchuk; I. Iokova; T. Rizova; P. Lasij; D. Shklovchik; Z. Aidarova

    2014-01-01

    In this article, on the base of heat exchange analysis in heat supply systems with rotational heat generator, a calculated formula for estimation of heat transfer from the surface of heating device is obtained, taking into account its probability (random) orientation in space. It is shown the most probable position of heating devices in heating system of mobile object.

  2. Heat roadmap China

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad;

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore, it ...

  3. High morphogenic activity in the permafrost-affected rock walls of the Mont Blanc massif during the 2015 summer heat wave

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Magnin, Florence; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    In order to test the geomorphological hypothesis on the link between permafrost degradation and rock wall destabilisation, we survey all the rockfalls that occur in the central part of the Mont-Blanc massif using a network of observers since 2007. 511 rockfalls (100 face against 2.9 m in average during the previous years). Before 2015, 90 % of the inventoried rockfalls occurred in areas where MARST is in the range -5 to 1°C, whereas only 50 % of the whole rock wall area above 2000 m a.s.l. covers this temperature range. With an air 0°C isotherm which sometimes exceeded the summit of Mont Blanc (4809 m a.s.l.) during the 2015 Summer, conditions were particularly unfavorable for mountaineering. Numerous rescues were carried out to climbers technically blocked by uncommon conditions or injured by rockfalls. On the normal route to the summit of Mont Blanc, two administrative closures of the Goûter hut (3835 m a.s.l.) were necessary to prevent climbers from the huge risk of rockfalls in the access couloir, known for its rockfall activity since its snow/ice cover thaws earlier and earlier in the hot season. This raises the question of the future of mountaineering in certain high altitude areas in the context of global warming.

  4. A heat and dye tracer test for characterizing and modelling heat transfer in an alluvial aquifer

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Hermans, Thomas; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Using heat as an active tracer is a topic of increasing interest with regards to characterizing shallow aquifers for ATES (Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage) systems. In this study, we investigate the potential interest of coupling simultaneous heat and dye tracer injection tests for characterization of an alluvial aquifer. The study site is located near Liege in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye ...

  5. Resources and geothermal heat in the Netherlands. Annual report 2011. An overview of exploration and exploitation activities and of underground gas storage; Delfstoffen en Aardwarmte in Nederland. Jaarverslag 2011. Een overzicht van opsporings- en winningsactiviteiten en van ondergrondse gasopslag

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Traditionally, this annual report publishes the activities and results of the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons in the Netherlands. Starting this year the report will be expanded with the exploration and extraction activities of rock salt and geothermal heat and the underground storage of resources (natural gas, nitrogen, CO2 and water). The first part of the annual report addresses the developments in the year 2011. This part also includes a prognosis for the extraction of natural gas for the next 25 years. Next, a number of tables illustrate developments in the field of licenses and exploration activities (seismic research and drilling) in 2011. The chapter on hydrocarbons is concluded with an overview of the extracted volumes of natural gas, condensate and petroleum and the gas flows in storage facilities. There are new chapters on exploration and extraction of rock salt and geothermal heat. Another new chapter addresses storage of resources. The second part of the annual report illustrates the situation per 1 January 2012 and the developments over the last decades in a number of overviews. The annexes, finally, include general maps of the situation as of 1 January 2012 [Dutch] Het Jaarverslag rapporteert over de activiteiten en resultaten van de opsporing en winning van koolwaterstoffen, steenzout en aardwarmte in Nederland. Daarnaast komt de ondergrondse opslag van stoffen (aardgas, stikstof, CO2 en water) aan de orde. Daarmee worden alle opsporings-, winnings- en opslagactiviteiten in Nederland en het Nederlandse deel van het Continentaal plat, vallend onder het regime van de Mijnbouwwet, gezamenlijk gerapporteerd. Het eerste deel van het jaarverslag gaat in op de ontwikkelingen in het jaar 2011. Zoals in voorgaande jaren richt dit deel zich op de opsporing, winning en de ondergrondse opslag van koolwaterstoffen. Dit betreft een overzicht van de veranderingen in de aardgas- en aardolievoorraden gedurende 2011 en de daaruit volgende situatie per 1

  6. Experimental analysis of an adsorption refrigerator with mass and heat-pipe heat recovery process

    Highlights: ► We develop one heat pipe type adsorption refrigerator. ► New compound adsorbent of CaCl2/activated carbon–ammonia can work more effectively. ► Combined mass recovery-heat pipe heat recovery can improve adsorption performance. ► Combined mass recovery-heat pipe heat recovery can reduce cycle time. - Abstract: A heat pipe type adsorption refrigerator system is proposed and investigated, which can be powered by solar energy or waste heat of engine. The study assesses the performance of compound adsorbent (CaCl2 and activated carbon)–ammonia adsorption refrigeration cycle with different orifice sets and different mass and heat recovery processes by experimental prototype machine. Specific cooling power (SCP) and coefficient of performance (COP) were calculated with experimental data to analyze the influences of operating condition. The results show that the jaw opening of the hand needle nozzle can influence the adsorption performance obviously and the thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) is effective in the intermediate cycle time in the adsorption refrigeration system. The SCP of the cycle with the mass-heat recovery together (combined recovery process) is superior to that of the conventional cycles with mass recovery or heat recovery independently.

  7. Profile: Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology

    Sluis, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    The activities in the fields of refrigeration and heatpumps are concentrated within TNO Environment, Energy and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn, and specifically within the Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology. The aim of this department is to develop, implement and test: — systems for generating, distributing and using reftigeration; — heat pumps for heating purposes and industrial processes.

  8. Urban heat island

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  9. Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Lale Valizade

    2013-01-01

    A heat pump is a device that is able to transfer heat from one fluid at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature. Ground source heat pumps are generally classified by the type of ground loop. The coefficient of performance (COP) is used to define the heating performance of heat pumps. Both the COP and EER values are valid only at the specific test conditions used in the rating. A ground source pump could reach 450%, compared with an efficient gas boiler of 90% obviously this is ...

  10. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is...

  11. Intermittent heat exposure and thirst in rats.

    Barney, Christopher C; Kuhrt, David M

    2016-04-01

    Adequate water intake, supporting both cardiovascular function and evaporative cooling, is a critical factor in mitigating the effects of heat waves, which are expected to increase with global warming. However, the regulation of water intake during periods of intermittent heat exposure is not well understood. In this study, the effects of access to water or no access during intermittent heat exposure were assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 37.5°C for 4 h/day. After 7 days of intermittent heat exposure, reductions in evaporative water loss were observed in all animals and reductions in water intake following heat exposure occurred as the days of heat exposure increased. Rats that were not allowed water during the 7 days of exposure had decreased rehydration levels, however, rats allowed access to water increased water intake during exposure and exhibited higher overall rehydration levels over the same time period. Peripheral administration of angiotensinII, mimicking activation of volemic thirst, or hypertonic saline solution, activating intracellular thirst, did not result in alteration of water intake in rats exposed to heat with access to water compared to control rats. In contrast, rats exposed to heat without access to water had reduced water intake after administration of hypertonic saline and increased water intake after administration of angiotensinIIcompared to control rats. These experiments demonstrate that thirst responses to intermittent heat exposure are altered by providing water during heat exposure and that intermittent heat exposure without access to water alters drinking responses to both intracellular and extracellular thirst challenges. PMID:27095836

  12. Low-temperature nuclear heat applications: Nuclear power plants for district heating

    The IAEA reflected the needs of its Member States for the exchange of information in the field of nuclear heat application already in the late 1970s. In the early 1980s, some Member States showed their interest in the use of heat from electricity producing nuclear power plants and in the development of nuclear heating plants. Accordingly, a technical committee meeting with a workshop was organized in 1983 to review the status of nuclear heat application which confirmed both the progress made in this field and the renewed interest of Member States in an active exchange of information about this subject. In 1985 an Advisory Group summarized the Potential of Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Application; the relevant Technical Document reviewing the situation in the IAEA's Member States was issued in 1986 (IAEA-TECDOC-397). Programme plans were made for 1986-88 and the IAEA was asked to promote the exchange of information, with specific emphasis on the design criteria, operating experience, safety requirements and specifications for heat-only reactors, co-generation plants and power plants adapted for heat application. Because of a growing interest of the IAEA's Member States about nuclear heat employment in the district heating domaine, an Advisory Group meeting was organized by the IAEA on ''Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Application: Nuclear Power Plants for District Heating'' in Prague, Czechoslovakia in June 1986. The information gained up to 1986 and discussed during this meeting is embodied in the present Technical Document. 22 figs, 11 tabs

  13. Heating and cooling system. [for fatigue test specimens

    Imig, L. A.; Gardner, M. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A heating and cooling apparatus capable of cyclic heating and cooling of a test specimen undergoing fatigue testing is discussed. Cryogenic fluid is passed through a block clamped to the speciment to cool the block and the specimen. Heating cartridges penetrate the block to heat the block and the specimen to very hot temperaures. Control apparatus is provided to alternatively activate the cooling and heating modes to effect cyclic heating and cooling between very hot and very cold temperatures. The block is constructed of minimal mass to facilitate the rapid temperature changes.

  14. Comparison of heat transfer efficiency between heat pipe and tube bundles heat exchanger

    Wu Zhao-Chun; Zhu Xiang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of heat transfer efficiency between the heat pipe and tube bundles heat exchanger is made based on heat transfer principle and the analysis of thermal characteristics. This paper argues that although heat pipe has the feature of high axial thermal conductivity, to those cases where this special function of heat transfer is unnecessary, heat pipe exchanger is not a high efficient heat exchanger when it is just used as a conventional heat exchang...

  15. Space Heating Equipment

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  16. District heating versus local heating - Social supportability

    District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How

  17. Absorption heat pumps

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  18. Experimental research on heat transfer in a coupled heat exchanger

    Liu Yin; Ma Jing; Zhou Guang-Hui; Guan Ren-Bo

    2013-01-01

    The heat exchanger is a devise used for transferring thermal energy between two or more different temperatures. The widespreadly used heat exchanger can only achieve heat exchange between two substances. In this paper, a coupled heat exchanger is proposed, which includes a finned heat exchanger and a double pipe heat exchanger, for multiple heat exchange simultaneously. An experiment is conducted, showing that the average heating capacity increases more tha...

  19. Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

  20. Heat stress modifies human baroreflex function independently of heat-induced hypovolemia.

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Hayano, Junichiro; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2003-06-01

    Since human thermoregulatory heat loss responses, cutaneous vasodilation and sweating, cause hypovolemia, they should resultantly stimulate human baroreflexes. However, it is possible that the thermoregulatory system directly interacts with the baroreflex system through central neural connections independently of the heat-induced hypovolemia. We hypothesized that heat stress modifies the baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity independently of heat-induced hypovolemia in humans. We made whole-body heating with tube-lined suits perfused with warm water (46-47 degrees C) on 10 healthy male subjects. The heating increased skin and tympanic temperatures by 10.0 and 0.4 degrees C, respectively. It increased resting total muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography) by 94 +/- 9% and decreased central venous pressure (CVP, dependent arm technique) by 2.6 +/- 0.9 mmHg. The heating increased arterial baroreflex gain by 193%, assessed as a response of MSNA to a decrease in diastolic arterial pressure during Valsalva's maneuver, but it did not change threshold arterial pressure for MSNA activation. Although the heating did not change the cardiopulmonary baroreflex gain assessed as a response of MSNA to a change in estimated central venous pressure (CVP) during a 10 degrees head-down and -up tilt test, it upwardly shifted the stimulus-response baroreflex relationship. These changes in baroreflex functions during heating were not restored by an intravenous infusion of warmed isotonic saline (37 degrees C, 15 ml/kg) that restored the heat-induced reduction of CVP. Our results support our hypothesis that heat stress modifies the baroreflex control of MSNA independently of heat-induced hypovolemia in humans. Our results also suggest that the hyperthermal modification of baroreflex results from central neural interaction between thermoregulatory and baroreflex systems. PMID:14529582