WorldWideScience

Sample records for activation heat

  1. Thyroid activity in heat adaptation

    The effect of acute and chronic (22 day round-the-clock) exposure to microenvironmental heat stress (37 deg C DBT) on thyroid activity was studied in Hariana x Holstein Frisian, Hariana x Brown Swiss and Hariana x Jersey non-cycling F1 crossbred heifers. Vis-a-vis their no-heat norms, the percentage uptake of tri-iodothyronine-125I by resin registered a steep fall (about 45 to 60 percent) on acute heat exposures reaching a minimum value in about 2 hrs. The levels started recouping by the 2nd day, plateuing out on the 5th day onwards at slightly subnormal level with up and down fluctuations throughout the three week duration of exposure to heat. There were no significant differences in the pattern or magnitude of response amongst breeds, though in case of Holstein Frisian and Brown Swiss cross-breds the levels of T3 tended, at times, to overshoot the no-stress norm. (author)

  2. Heating entrepreneur activity in 2003

    According to TTS Institute information, at the end of 2003 there were heating entrepreneurs responsible for fuel management and heat production in at least 212 heating plants in Finland. The number of operative plants increased by 36 from the previous year. At the end of 2003, the total boiler capacity for solid fuel in the plants managed by the heating entrepreneurs exceeded 100 megawatts. The average boiler capacity of the plants was 0.5 megawatts. Heating entrepreneur-ship was most common in west Finland, where 40 percent of the plants are located. There were some 94 heating plants managed by cooperatives or limited companies. Single entrepre neurs or entrepreneur networks consisting of several entrepreneurs were responsible for heat production in 117 plants. Heating entrepreneurs used approximately 290,000 loose cubic metres of forest chips, which is about seven percent of the volume used for heating and power plant energy production in 2003. In addition, the heating entrepreneurs used a total of 40,000 loose cubic metres of other wood fuel and an estimated 20,000 loose cubic metres of sod and milled peat. Municipalities are still the most important customer group for heating entrepreneurs. However, thenumber of private customers is growing. Industrial company, other private company or properly was the main customer already for every fourth plant established during 2003. (orig.)

  3. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  4. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  5. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  6. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  7. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins.

    Weber, Jeffrey K; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S

    2015-08-18

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  8. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Lefrois, R.T.; Knowles, G.R.; Mathur, A.K.; Budimir, J.

    1979-02-01

    The report describes active heat exchange concepts for use with thermal energy storage systems in the temperature range of 250/sup 0/C to 350/sup 0/C, using the heat of fusion of molten salts for storing thermal energy. It identifies over 25 novel techniques for active heat exchange thermal energy storage systems. Salt mixtures that freeze and melt in appropriate ranges are identified and are evaluated for physico-chemical, economic, corrosive and safety characteristics. Eight active heat exchange concepts for heat transfer during solidification are conceived and conceptually designed for use with selected storage media. The concepts are analyzed for their scalability, maintenance, safety, technological development and costs. A model for estimating and scaling storage system costs is developed and is used for economic evaluation of salt mixtures and heat exchange concepts for a large scale application. The importance of comparing salts and heat exchange concepts on a total system cost basis, rather than the component cost basis alone, is pointed out. Comparison of these costs with current state-of-the-art systems should be avoided due to significant differences in developmental status. The heat exchange concepts were sized and compared for 6.5 MPa/281/sup 0/C steam conditions and a 1000 MW(t) heat rate for six hours. A cost sensitivity analysis for other design conditions is also carried out. The study resulted in the selection of a shell and coated-tube heat exchanger concept and a direct contact-reflux boiler heat exchange concept. For the storage medium, a dilute eutectic mixture of 99 wt % NaNO/sub 3/ and 1 wt % NaOH is selected for use in experimenting with the selected heat exchanger concepts in subsequent tasks.

  9. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    As with their macroscopic counterparts, the moving parts of nanoscale protein machines grow hot while in operation. A portion of the energy biomolecules harness to perform meaningful work is always dissipated as heat into the surroundings. Here, we feature a methodology by which dominant dissipative trajectories can be extracted from detailed models of protein dynamics. In two important classes of signaling proteins [kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs)], we find that the regions o...

  10. Activation experiments on vanadium alloy NIFS-HEAT-2

    In the present study, activation analysis of impurities and evaluation of activation properties were performed on NIFS-HEAT-2 by DT neutron irradiation at FNS facility. Similar analysis and evaluation were performed on US and Chinese V-4Cr-Ti samples for comparison. For impurity analysis and direct evaluation of activation properties of vanadium alloys, activation experiments with DT neutron irradiations were performed on NIFS-HEAT-2 and Round-Robin samples from the US and China. Eight nuclides of 24Na, 28Al, 54Mn, 56Mn, 57Co, 58Co, 89Zr and 92mNb were identified form analysis of the gamma peaks and concentrations of Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zr, Nb and Mo were evaluated. It was confirmed that the concentration of Al in NIFS-HEAT-2, which is harmful for low activation property, was lower than the criteria required for recycling of used material after reactor shutdown. The results were almost consistent with those by chemical analysis. Until ∼8 months after irradiation, significant influence of impurities was not observed in the decay heat measurement. Results of decay heat measurement with the Whole Energy Absorption Spectrometer and those of calculation with MNCP-4C, ACT-4 and JENDL Activation File were consistent within ∼ 15%. Activation calculation considering impurity concentrations from the present analysis indicated that decay heat of 60Co transmuted from Ni impurity will be dominant ∼6 years after irradiation. (author)

  11. Oxidative Activity of Heated Coal Affected by Antypirogens

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Borovikov, I. F.; Yakutova, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of antypirogens on chemical activity of heated coal is studied. It is proved that ammonium sulfate, calcium phosphate, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and acid fluoride are the most effective antypirogens.

  12. Balloons and Bottles: Activities on Air-Sea Heat Exchange.

    Murphree, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to demonstrate how heating and cooling an air mass affects its temperature, volume, density, and pressure. Illustrates how thermal energy can cause atmospheric motion such as expansion, contraction, and winds. (Author/WRM)

  13. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    Nasol, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  14. Active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger - experimental results for heat transfer and concept for high pressure steam

    Zipf, Verena; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    An innovative active latent heat storage concept was invented and developed at Fraunhofer ISE. It uses a screw heat exchanger (SHE) for the phase change during the transport of a phase change material (PCM) from a cold to a hot tank or vice versa. This separates heat transfer and storage tank in comparison to existing concepts. A test rig has been built in order to investigate the heat transfer coefficients of the SHE during melting and crystallization of the PCM. The knowledge of these characteristics is crucial in order to assess the performance of the latent heat storage in a thermal system. The test rig contains a double shafted SHE, which is heated or cooled with thermal oil. The overall heat transfer coefficient U and the convective heat transfer coefficient on the PCM side hPCM both for charging and discharging have been calculated based on the measured data. For charging, the overall heat transfer coefficient in the tested SHE was Uch = 308 W/m2K and for discharging Udis = 210 W/m2K. Based on the values for hPCM the overall heat transfer coefficients for a larger SHE with steam as heat transfer fluid and an optimized geometry were calculated with Uch = 320 W/m2K for charging and Udis = 243 W/m2K for discharging. For pressures as high as p = 100 bar, an SHE concept has been developed, which uses an organic fluid inside the flight of the SHE as working media. With this concept, the SHE can also be deployed for very high pressure, e.g. as storage in solar thermal power plants.

  15. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Lefrois, R. T.; Knowles, G. R.; Mathur, A. K.; Budimir, J.

    1979-01-01

    Active heat exchange concepts for use with thermal energy storage systems in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C, using the heat of fusion of molten salts for storing thermal energy are described. Salt mixtures that freeze and melt in appropriate ranges are identified and are evaluated for physico-chemical, economic, corrosive and safety characteristics. Eight active heat exchange concepts for heat transfer during solidification are conceived and conceptually designed for use with selected storage media. The concepts are analyzed for their scalability, maintenance, safety, technological development and costs. A model for estimating and scaling storage system costs is developed and is used for economic evaluation of salt mixtures and heat exchange concepts for a large scale application. The importance of comparing salts and heat exchange concepts on a total system cost basis, rather than the component cost basis alone, is pointed out. The heat exchange concepts were sized and compared for 6.5 MPa/281 C steam conditions and a 1000 MW(t) heat rate for six hours. A cost sensitivity analysis for other design conditions is also carried out.

  16. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  17. Heating of active region cores: Impulsive or steady?

    Tripathi, Durgesh

    The question of active region heating has proven to be highly challenging since its discovery in 1940s. The recent observational facilities have shed new lights towards the understanding of this problem. In this paper we review some of the new measurements to study the heating mechanisms in the hot core loops of active regions using the observations recorded by Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) onboard SoHO and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard Hinode. These new measurements show that the properties of hot core loops are consistent with by impulsive heating -- low frequency nanoflare - scenario. However, the evidences are not strong enough to rule-out steady heating completely. Further measurement using better spectral resolution and temperature coverage is required, which will be provided by Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) and Solar-C in near future.

  18. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...

  19. Experimental research on a CFCs free thermally activated heat pump

    This paper deals with test results of a new type of Thermally Activated Heat Pump (TAHP) based on the highly efficient Vuilleumier cycle using helium gas as its refrigerant and natural gas as fuel of its external system. These test results show that, in addition to being CFCs free, this heat pump brings about lower CO2 and NOx emissions. (TEC). 7 figs., 6 refs

  20. Heat and mass flux estimation of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity

    ZHAI Shikui; WANG Xingtao; YU Zenghui

    2006-01-01

    Research on heat and mass flux yielded by modern seafloor hydrothermal activity is very important, because it is involved not only in the base of ocean environment research, but also in the historical evolution of seawater properties. Currently, estimating heat flux is based on the observation data of hydrothermal smokers, low-temperature diffusive flow and mid-ocean ridge mainly. But there are some faults, for example, there is lack of a concurrent conductive item in estimating the heat flux by smokers and the error between the half-space cooling model and the observation data is too large. So, three kinds of methods are applied to re-estimating the heat flux of hydrothermal activity resepectively, corresponding estimation is 97.359 GW by hydrothermal smoker and diffusive flow, 84.895 GW by hydrothermal plume, and 4.11 TW by exponential attenuation method put forward by this paper. Research on mass flux estimation is relatively rare, the main reason for this is insufficient field observation data. Mass fluxes of different elements are calculated using hydrothermal vent fluid data from the TAG hydrothermal area on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge for the first time. Difference of estimations by different methods reflects the researching extent of hydrothermal activity, and systematically in-situ observation will help to estimate the contribution of hydrothermal activity to ocean chemical environment, ocean circulation and global climate precisely.

  1. Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support

    Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-08

    We report that even under the heated condition, the conformation and activity of a protein can be hoarded in a functionalized nanoporous support via non-covalent interaction, although the hoarded protein was not exhibiting the full protein activity, the protein released subsequently still maintained its native conformation and activity. Glucose oxidase (GOX) was spontaneously and largely entrapped in aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-FMS) at 20 oC via a dominant electrostatic interaction. Although FMS-GOX displayed 45% activity of the free enzyme in solution, the GOX released from FMS exhibited its 100% activity prior to the entrapment. Surprisingly, the released GOX from FMS still maintained 89% of its initial activity prior to the entrapment after FMS-GOX was incubated at 60 oC for 1 h prior to release, while the free GOX in solution lost nearly all activity under the same incubation. Intrinsic fluorescence emission of GOX and native electrophoresis demonstrated that the heating resulted in significant conformational changes and oligomeric structures of the free GOX, but FMS efficiently maintained the thermal stability of GOX therein and resisted the thermal denaturation and oligomeric aggregation.

  2. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications.

    Yang, Fugui; Li, Ming; Gao, Lidan; Sheng, Weifan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-06-15

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as the subnanometer scale and that the variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a one-dimensional surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach toward effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques. PMID:27304296

  3. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications

    Yang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities, because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as sub-nanometer scale, and that variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach towards effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.

  4. Effects of heat-activated persulfate oxidation on soil microorganisms

    Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Smets, Barth F.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2008-01-01

    The effects of heat-activated persulfate on indigenous microorganisms and microcosms augmented with Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were studied in laboratory batch reactors with aquifer material. Microscopic enumeration was used to measure the changes in cell density, and acetate consumption was used to....../L). The results emphasize the necessity of using multiple toxicity assays and indigenous cultures in order to realistically assess the potential effects of in situ chemical oxidation on soil microorganisms. A comparison to other studies suggests that the effects of activated persulfate on soil...

  5. [Physical activity in the heat: physiology of hydration recommendations].

    Koulmann, N; Banzet, S; Bigard, A X

    2003-01-01

    Physical exercise in the heat causes severe disturbances in homeostasis. The need for evaporative thermolysis is increased due to the combination of endogenous and exogenous heat production. Despite a marked increase in cardiac output, muscles and skin must compete for sufficient blood flow. In addition progressive dehydration can impair the ability of the cardiocirculatory to adjust adequately. The most serious risk associated with exercise in a hot environment is heat stroke. Although deleterious effects of dehydration occur only if large amounts of water and electrolytes are lost without being replaced, even moderate fluid depletion can reduce both physical and cognitive performance. Another mechanism by which heat exposure directly affects performance involves core temperature elevation which can induce profound changes in muscular activity and energy consumption, thereby accelerating exhaustion. Prevention of deleterious effects on health and performance requires an effective rehydration strategy to maintain body fluid balance. This strategy must optimize all three potentially limiting factors for fluid replacement, i.e., fluid intake, gastric emptying, and intestinal absorption. Practical guidelines are given to answer the questions of when, what and how much to drink. PMID:15077428

  6. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods:Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC). The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata). Results:Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00) mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67) mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67) mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67) mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P Conclusions:To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  7. DNA polymerase activity in heat killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization of mammalian cells as observed after fractionated heat treatments.

    Jorritsma, J B; Burgman, P; Kampinga, H H; Konings, A W

    1986-03-01

    Possible relations between hyperthermic inactivation of alpha and beta DNA polymerase activity and hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization were investigated. Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) cells and HeLa S3 cells were treated with fractionated doses of hyperthermia. The heating schedules were chosen such that the initial heat treatment resulted in either thermotolerance or thermosensitization (step-down heating) for the second heat treatment. The results show that for DNA polymerase activity and heat radiosensitization (cell survival) no thermotolerance or thermosensitization is observed. Thus hyperthermic cell killing and DNA polymerase activity are not correlated. The correlation of hyperthermic radiosensitization and DNA polymerase activity was substantially less than observed in previous experiments with normotolerant and thermotolerant HeLa S3 cells. We conclude that alpha and beta DNA polymerase inactivation is not always the critical cellular process responsible for hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization. Other possible cellular systems that might determine these processes are discussed. PMID:3754338

  8. DNA polymerase activity in heat killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization of mammalian cells as observed after fractionated heat treatments

    Jorritsma, J.B.; Burgman, P.; Kampinga, H.H.; Konings, A.W.

    1986-03-01

    Possible relations between hyperthermic inactivation of alpha and beta DNA polymerase activity and hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization were investigated. Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) cells and HeLa S3 cells were treated with fractionated doses of hyperthermia. The heating schedules were chosen such that the initial heat treatment resulted in either thermotolerance or thermosensitization (step-down heating) for the second heat treatment. The results show that for DNA polymerase activity and heat radiosensitization (cell survival) no thermotolerance or thermosensitization is observed. Thus hyperthermic cell killing and DNA polymerase activity are not correlated. The correlation of hyperthermic radiosensitization and DNA polymerase activity was substantially less than observed in previous experiments with normotolerant and thermotolerant HeLa S3 cells. We conclude that alpha and beta DNA polymerase inactivation is not always the critical cellular process responsible for hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization. Other possible cellular systems that might determine these processes are discussed.

  9. Active thermal insulation for induction heating of specific metal parts

    Ulrych, B.; Kotlan, V.; Doležel, Ivo

    Plzeň : University of West Bohemia, 2011, s. 3-4. ISBN 978-80-7043-993-7. [AMTEE’11- Advanced Methods of the Theory of Electrical Engineering. Klatovy (CZ), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0498; GA ČR GA102/09/1305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : active thermal insulation * induction heating * temperature field Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://amtee.zcu.cz/AMTEE/Default.aspx

  10. Changes of spontaneous oscillatory activity to tonic heat pain.

    Weiwei Peng

    Full Text Available Transient painful stimuli could induce suppression of alpha oscillatory activities and enhancement of gamma oscillatory activities that also could be greatly modulated by attention. Here, we attempted to characterize changes in cortical activities during tonic heat pain perception and investigated the influence of directed/distracted attention on these responses. We collected 5-minute long continuous Electroencephalography (EEG data from 38 healthy volunteers during four conditions presented in a counterbalanced order: (A resting condition; (B innoxious-distracted condition; (C noxious-distracted condition; (D noxious-attended condition. The effects of tonic heat pain stimulation and selective attention on oscillatory activities were investigated by comparing the EEG power spectra among the four experimental conditions and assessing the relationship between spectral power difference and subjective pain intensity. The change of oscillatory activities in condition D was characterized by stable and persistent decrease of alpha oscillation power over contralateral-central electrodes and widespread increase of gamma oscillation power, which were even significantly correlated with subjective pain intensity. Since EEG responses in the alpha and gamma frequency band were affected by attention in different manners, they are likely related to different aspects of the multidimensional sensory experience of pain. The observed contralateral-central alpha suppression (conditions D vs. B and D vs. C may reflect primarily a top-down cognitive process such as attention, while the widespread gamma enhancement (conditions D vs. A may partly reflect tonic pain processing, representing the summary effects of bottom-up stimulus-related and top-down subject-driven cognitive processes.

  11. Heat Exchanger Anchors for Thermo-active Tunnels

    Mimouni, Thomas; Dupray, Fabrice; Minon, Sophie; LALOUI, Lyesse

    2013-01-01

    Shallow geothermal power represents an important energy resource for the heating and cooling of the buildings. Due to relatively low temperature levels encountered at shallow depths in the soil, between 10°C and 20°C, heat pumps are required to process the extracted heat, forming the so called ground source heat pump system. Different types of heat exchangers with the ground were developed in order to optimize the heat exchanges, from simple geothermal loops grouted in boreholes reaching dept...

  12. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Moussa Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods: Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC. The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata. Results: Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00 mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67 mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67 mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67 mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P<0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that the TPC and colour is not correlated with the antimycotic capacity. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  13. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including 60Co, 95Zr, 124Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  14. Protein kinase A binds and activates heat shock factor 1.

    Ayesha Murshid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many inducible transcription factors are regulated through batteries of posttranslational modifications that couple their activity to inducing stimuli. We have studied such regulation of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1, a key protein in control of the heat shock response, and a participant in carcinogenisis, neurological health and aging. As the mechanisms involved in the intracellular regulation of HSF1 in good health and its dysregulation in disease are still incomplete we are investigating the role of posttranslational modifications in such regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a proteomic study of HSF1 binding partners, we have discovered its association with the pleiotropic protein kinase A (PKA. HSF1 binds avidly to the catalytic subunit of PKA, (PKAcα and becomes phosphorylated on a novel serine phosphorylation site within its central regulatory domain (serine 320 or S320, both in vitro and in vivo. Intracellular PKAcα levels and phosphorylation of HSF1 at S320 were both required for HSF1 to be localized to the nucleus, bind to response elements in the promoter of an HSF1 target gene (hsp70.1 and activate hsp70.1 after stress. Reduction in PKAcα levels by small hairpin RNA led to HSF1 exclusion from the nucleus, its exodus from the hsp70.1 promoter and decreased hsp70.1 transcription. Likewise, null mutation of HSF1 at S320 by alanine substitution for serine led to an HSF1 species excluded from the nucleus and deficient in hsp70.1 activation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings of PKA regulation of HSF1 through S320 phosphorylation add to our knowledge of the signaling networks converging on this factor and may contribute to elucidating its complex roles in the stress response and understanding HSF1 dysregulation in disease.

  15. Infrared micro-thermography of an actively heated preconcentrator device

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, C. A.; Stepnowski, Stanley V.; Mott, David R.; McGill, R. Andrew

    2008-03-01

    We report infrared micro-thermography measurements and analysis of static and transient temperature maps of an actively heated micro-fabricated preconcentrator device that incorporates a dual serpentine platinum heater trace deposited on a perforated polyimide membrane and suspended over a silicon frame. The sorbent coated perforated membrane is used to collect vapors and gases that flow through the preconcentrator. After heating, a concentrated pulse of analyte is released into the detector. Due to its small thermal mass, precise thermal management of the preconcentrator is critical to its performance. The sizes of features, the semi-transparent membrane, the need to flow air through the device, and changes in surface emissivity on a micron scale present many challenges for traditional infrared micro-thermography. We report an improved experimental test-bed. The hardware incorporates a custom-designed miniature calibration oven which, in conjunction with spatial filtering and a simple calibration algorithm, allows accurate temperature maps to be obtained. The test-bed incorporates a micro-bolometer array as the infrared imager. Instrumentation design, calibration and image processing algorithms are discussed and analyzed. The procedure does not require prior knowledge of the emissivity. We show that relatively inexpensive uncooled bolometers arrays can be used in certain radiometric applications. Heating profiles were examined with both uniform and non-uniform air flow through the device. The conclusions from this study provide critical information for optimal integration of the preconcentrator within a detection system, and in the design of the heater trace layout to achieve a more even temperature distribution across the device.

  16. Active solar heating and cooling information user study

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  17. Sawtooth Activity in Ohmically Heated Plasma on HT-7 Tokamak

    2001-01-01

    Sawtooth activity on HT-7 tokamak has been investigated experimentally mainly by using soft x-ray diode array and magnetic probes. Their behaviors and occurrences are correlatedclosely to the discharge conditions: the electron density Ne, the electron temperature Te, the safetyfactor qa on plasma boundary and wall condition etc. When central line-averaged electron densityNe(0) is over 2.0×1013cm-3, major sawtooth activity emerges with a period of up to 6.5 ms and afluctuation amplitude of up to 2~30 % of SXR radiation signal. In some cases such as the safetyfactor between 4.2~4.7 and Zeff=3.0~6.0, a monster sawtooth activity often emerges withoutapparent deterioration of plasma confinement and without major disruption. During these events,abundant MHD phenomena are observed including partial sawtooth oscillations. In this paper, theobserved sawtooth behaviors and their dependence on the and their dependence density Ne andwall condition in ohmically heated plasma are introduced, the results are discussed and presented.

  18. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  19. Stress-Specific Activation and Repression of Heat Shock Factors 1 and 2

    Mathew, Anu; Mathur, Sameer K.; Jolly, Caroline; Fox, Susan G.; Kim, Soojin; Richard I Morimoto

    2001-01-01

    Vertebrate cells express a family of heat shock transcription factors (HSF1 to HSF4) that coordinate the inducible regulation of heat shock genes in response to diverse signals. HSF1 is potent and activated rapidly though transiently by heat shock, whereas HSF2 is a less active transcriptional regulator but can retain its DNA binding properties for extended periods. Consequently, the differential activation of HSF1 and HSF2 by various stresses may be critical for cells to survive repeated and...

  20. Degradation of Biochemical Activity in Soil Sterilized by Dry Heat and Gamma Radiation

    Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

  1. The Chemistry of Self-Heating Food Products: An Activity for Classroom Engagement

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel; Llorens-Molina, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Two commercial self-heating food products have been used to apply chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, enthalpies of reactions and solutions, and heat transfer in a classroom activity. These products are the self-heating beverages sold in Europe and the Meals, Ready to Eat or MREs used primarily by the military in the United States. The main…

  2. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    Tang, Wei [ORNL; Chen, Gaoqiang [ORNL; Chen, Jian [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zone mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.

  3. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Pengkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggested that heat treatment does not adversely affect SOD or DNase activity, polysaccharide content, or cordycepin dissolution. Thus, heat treatment might be a safe processing method to extend the storage time of wild C. sinensis without compromising biological activity.

  4. Numerical model of heat conduction in active volcanoes induced by magmatic activity

    Atmojo, Antono Arif; Rosandi, Yudi

    2015-09-01

    We study the heat transfer mechanism of active volcanoes using the numerical thermal conduction model. A 2D model of volcano with its conduit filled by magma is considered, and acts as a constant thermal source. The temperature of the magma activity diffuses through the rock layers of the mountain to the surface. The conduction equation is solved using finite-difference method, with some adaptations to allow temperature to flow through different materials. Our model allows to simulate volcanoes having dikes, branch-pipes, and sills by constructing the domain appropriately, as well as layers with different thermal properties. Our research will show the possibility to monitor magma activity underneath a volcano by probing its surface temperature. The result of our work will be very useful for further study of volcanoes, eruption prediction, and volcanic disaster mitigation.

  5. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  6. Heat-activated Plasmonic Chemical Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Carpenter, Michael [SUNY Polytechnic Inst., Albany, NY (United States); Oh, Sang-Hyun [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A passive plasmonics based chemical sensing system to be used in harsh operating environments was investigated and developed within this program. The initial proposed technology was based on combining technologies developed at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) and at the University of Minnesota (UM). Specifically, a passive wireless technique developed at UM was to utilize a heat-activated plasmonic design to passively harvest the thermal energy from within a combustion emission stream and convert this into a narrowly focused light source. This plasmonic device was based on a bullseye design patterned into a gold film using focused ion beam methods (FIB). Critical to the design was the use of thermal stabilizing under and overlayers surrounding the gold film. These stabilizing layers were based on both atomic layer deposited films as well as metal laminate layers developed by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS). While the bullseye design was never able to be thermally stabilized for operating temperatures of 500oC or higher, an alternative energy harvesting design was developed by CNSE within this program. With this new development, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The method was further improved by patterning rods which harvested energy in the near infrared, which led to a factor of 10 decrease in data acquisition times as well as demonstrated selectivity with a reduced wavelength data set. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting

  7. Visible light active photocatalyst from recycled disposable heating pads

    Lee, Meng-Chien; Wang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Che-Chin; Wang, Chih-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-Fe2O3 (α-Fe2O3) is cheap and abundant and has potential to be a highly efficient photocatalyst for water splitting. According to the report, there are a huge amount of disposable heating pads being created every year, and the pads are used one time then thrown away. We found that the main product of used heating pads is α-Fe2O3. Here, we collect and purify the α-Fe2O3 powder in the used heating pads using low power consumption processes. It is shown that the recycled heating pads can be used as a cost-effective photocatalyst for H2 energy and for decomposition of organic pollutants as well. Additionally, the plasmonic enhanced photocatalysis reaction of α-Fe2O3 is also investigated. It is found that H2 evolution rate can be enhanced 15% using α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with a thin Au layer. The degradation of methylene blue can also enhance 12% compared to photocatalyst α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated without Au layer.

  8. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  9. Active solar heating system performance and data review

    Bates, J.; Bertarelli, L.; Schmidt, G.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the performance and costs of solar heating systems in Europe, and their relevance to systems in the UK. Details are given of the identification and review of the available data, the collection of information on UK and overseas systems, and the assessment and analysis of the data. Appendices give a lists of the monitored parameters, European contacts, data sources, the questionnaire for gathering information, and a printout of the data files. (uk)

  10. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    When organisms are exposed to an increase in temperature, they undergo a heat shock response (HSR) regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1). The heat shock response includes the rapid changes in gene expression initiated by binding of HSF-1 to response elements in the promoters of heat shock genes. Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect proteins during periods of elevated temperature and other stress. During infection, hookworm infective third stage larvae (L3) undergo a temperature shift from ambient to host temperature. This increased temperature is required for the resumption of feeding and activation of L3, but whether this increase initiates a heat shock response is unknown. To investigate the role of the heat shock in hookworm L3 activation and parasitic development, we identified and characterized the expression profile of several components of the heat shock response in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. We cloned DNAs encoding an hsp70 family member (Aca-hsp-1) and an hsp90 family member (Aca-daf-21). Exposure to a heat shock of 42°C for one hour caused significant up-regulation of both genes, which slowly returned to near baseline levels following one hour attenuation at 22°C. Neither gene was up-regulated in response to host temperature (37°C). Conversely, levels of hsf-1 remained unchanged during heat shock, but increased in response to incubation at 37°C. During activation, both hsp-1 and daf-21 are down regulated early, although daf-21 levels increase significantly in non-activated control larvae after 12h, and slightly in activated larvae by 24h incubation. The heat shock response modulators celastrol and KNK437 were tested for their effects on gene expression during heat shock and activation. Pre-incubation with celastrol, an HSP90 inhibitor that promotes heat shock gene expression, slightly up-regulated expression of both hsp-1 and daf-21 during heat shock. KNK437, an inhibitor of heat shock

  11. Status report on preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    1978-05-01

    Information presented provides status and progress on the development of solar heating and cooling systems. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities as part of the contract requirements.

  12. Heating and active control of profiles and transport by IBW in the HT-7 tokamak

    Significant progress on Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating and control of profiles has been obtained in HT-7. Both on-axis and off-axis electron heating with global peaked and local steep electron pressure profiles were realized if the position of the resonant layer was selected to be plasma far from the plasma edge region. Reduction of electron heat transport has been observed from sawtooth heat pulse propagation. Improvement of both particle and energy confinement was slight in the on-axis and considerable in the off-axis heating cases. The improved confinement in off-axis heating mode may be due to the extension of the high performance plasma volume caused by IBW. These studies demonstrate that IBWs are potentially a tool for active control of plasma profiles and transport. (author)

  13. Role of heat shock factor-1 activation in the doxorubicin-induced heart failure in mice

    Vedam, Kaushik; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Khan, Mahmood; Moldovan, Nicanor I.; Zweier, Jay L.; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2010-01-01

    Treating cancer patients with chemotherapeutics, such as doxorubicin (Dox), cause dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure because of oxidative stress. On the other hand, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a transcription factor for heat shock proteins (Hsps), is also known to be activated in response to oxidative stress. However, the possible role of HSF-1 activation and the resultant Hsp25 in chemotherapeutic-induced heart failure has not been investigated. Using HSF-1 wild-type (HSF-1...

  14. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m2 and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust

  15. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Wang, L., E-mail: lwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Guo, H.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Li, J.; Wan, B.N.; Gong, X.Z.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Xu, G.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luo, G.N.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.Q.; Gan, K.F.; Liu, S.C.; Wang, H.Q.; Chen, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m{sup 2} and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust.

  16. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Pengkai Wu; Zhi Tao; Huafeng Liu; Guixiang Jiang; Changhua Ma; Chunmei Wang; Di Geng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current methods of extending the storage time of wild Cordyceps sinensis adversely affect the nutritive and medicinal value of the product. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of heat treatment, a relatively safe storage extension method, on the biological activity of wild C. sinensis. Methods: Samples were heated to 60, 80, or 100°C for 15, 30, or 60 minutes. SOD activity in wild C. sinensis before and after heating was assayed using a standard colorimetri...

  17. Innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system for simultaneous heating and cooling of office buildings

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the energy savings potential of an innovative two-pipe system in an active chilled beam application for heating and cooling of office buildings. The characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling by transferring...... heating, cooling and ventilation loads were calculated by the program and an annual energy consumption evaluation of the system was made. Simulation results showed that the innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system used approximately 5% less energy than a conventional four-pipe system....

  18. Monster Sawtooth Activity in Ohmically Heated HT-7 Plasma

    胡立群; 石跃江; 刘胜侠

    2001-01-01

    Experimental properties of monster sawtooth activities in ohmic HT-7 plasma are presented in this paper. The monster sawtooth activities belong to global fluctuations and are characterized with a series of large core collapses on SXR intensity traces with a long period, a large amplitude fluctuation and a large inversion radius. However, they emerge without apparent deterioration of plasma confinement and without major plasma disruption. During the events,long partial sawtooth collapses and abundant MHD phenomena are also observed.

  19. Ethnic differences in thermoregulatory responses during resting, passive and active heating: application of Werner's adaptation model.

    Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    For the coherent understanding of heat acclimatization in tropical natives, we compared ethnic differences between tropical and temperate natives during resting, passive and active heating conditions. Experimental protocols included: (1) a resting condition (an air temperature of 28°C with 50% RH), (2) a passive heating condition (28°C with 50% RH; leg immersion in a hot tub at a water temperature of 42°C), and (3) an active heating condition (32°C with 70% RH; a bicycle exercise). Morphologically and physically matched tropical natives (ten Malaysian males, MY) and temperate natives (ten Japanese males, JP) participated in all three trials. The results saw that: tropical natives had a higher resting rectal temperature and lower hand and foot temperatures at rest, smaller rise of rectal temperature and greater temperature rise in bodily extremities, and a lower sensation of thirst during passive and active heating than the matched temperate natives. It is suggested that tropical natives' homeostasis during heating is effectively controlled with the improved stability in internal body temperature and the increased capability of vascular circulation in extremities, with a lower thirst sensation. The enhanced stability of internal body temperature and the extended thermoregulatory capability of vascular circulation in the extremities of tropical natives can be interpreted as an interactive change to accomplish a thermal dynamic equilibrium in hot environments. These heat adaptive traits were explained by Wilder's law of initial value and Werner's process and controller adaptation model. PMID:21437607

  20. Effects of Different Catalytic Activation Techniques on the Thermal Performance of Flip Chip Heat Spreader

    This paper presents the effects of two different catalytic activation techniques on the thermal performance of flip chip heat spreaders. Electroless nickel plating is used as a plating technique as it can form a uniform thickness of nickel layer onto the copper substrate. Catalytic activation process needs to be done first to deposit some nickel atom onto copper substrate, so that the deposited nickel is able to catalyze the following reduction process. The two activation techniques investigated are galvanic initiation and thin nickel-copper strike. High temperature storage tests were ran to investigate the extent of intermetallic diffusion between the nickel and copper layers. Thermal diffusivity of these heat spreaders was studied using the Nano-flash apparatus. The results obtained showed that heat spreaders processed with thin nickel copper strike have lower thermal diffusivities (35-65 mm2 s-1) compared to those heat spreaders processed with galvanic-initiation (60-85 mm2 s-1). It is also discovered that the nickel-copper intermetallic layers of these heat spreaders grew thicker from 0.2 μm at initial time until 0.55 μm after high temperature storage of 168 hours. Nickel-copper intermetallic layers have lower thermal conductivity compared to pure copper, this further degrading the thermal diffusivity of these heat spreaders. As a conclusion, the galvanic initiation technique provides better thermal performance for heat spreaders used in semiconductor package. (author)

  1. Thermo Active Building Systems – Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany...... multistory buildings. By activating the building mass, there is a direct heating-cooling effect. Also, because of the thermal mass, the peak load will be reduced and some of the cooling load will be transferred beyond the time of occupancy. Because these systems for cooling operate at water temperatures...... close to room temperature, they increase the efficiency of heat pumps, ground heat exchangers and other systems using renewable energy sources....

  2. A novel heat flux study of a geothermally active lake - Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand

    Tivey, Maurice A.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Walker, Sharon L.; Fornari, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    A new technique for measuring conductive heat flux in a lake was adapted from the marine environment to allow for multiple measurements to be made in areas where bottom sediment cover is sparse, or even absent. This thermal blanket technique, pioneered in the deep ocean for use in volcanic mid-ocean rift environments, was recently used in the geothermally active Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand. Heat flow from the lake floor propagates into the 0.5 m diameter blanket and establishes a thermal gradient across the known blanket thickness and thereby provides an estimate of the conductive heat flux of the underlying terrain. This approach allows conductive heat flux to be measured over a spatially dense set of stations in a relatively short period of time. We used 10 blankets and deployed them for 1 day each to complete 110 stations over an 11-day program in the 6 × 3 km lake. Results show that Lake Rotomahana has a total conductive heat flux of about 47 MW averaging 6 W/m2 over the geothermally active lake. The western half of the lake has two main areas of high heat flux; 1) a high heat flux area averaging 21.3 W/m2 along the western shoreline, which is likely the location of the pre-existing geothermal system that fed the famous Pink Terraces, mostly destroyed during the 1886 eruption 2) a region southwest of Patiti Island with a heat flux averaging 13.1 W/m2 that appears to be related to the explosive rift that formed the lake in the 1886 Tarawera eruption. A small rise in bottom water temperature over the survey period of 0.01 °C/day suggests the total thermal output of the lake is ~ 112-132 MW and when compared to the conductive heat output suggests that 18-42% of the total thermal energy is by conductive heat transfer.

  3. Effects of calmodulin on DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor in vitro

    2003-01-01

    The DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor (HSF) was induced by heat shock (HS) of a whole cell extract. Addition of antiserum, specific to CaM, to a whole cell extract reduced bind of the HSF to the heat shock element (HSE) with maize, and the re-addition of CaM to the sample restored the activity of the HSF for binding to HSE. In addition, DNA-binding activity of the HSF was also induced by directly adding CaM to a whole cell extract at non-HS temperature with maize. Similar results were obtained with wheat and tomato. Our observations provide the first example of the involvement of CaM in regulation of the DNA-binding activity of the HSF.

  4. Determination of antigenicity by radioimmunoassay and of trypsin inhibitory activities in heat or enzyme denatured ovomucoid

    The effects of heat treatment and enzymic digestion on the antigenic reactivity of ovomucoid were studied. This reactivity was mainly examined by a solid phase competitive radioimmunoassay. The trypsin inhibitory activity was also measured to elucidate its relationship to the antigenic reactivity. The antigenic reactivity and trypsin inhibitory activity diminished in parallel with increase of heating time. However, enzymic digestion caused a more rapid decrease in antigenic reactivity than in trypsin inhibitory activity. From these results, it is suggested that the structure of the antigenic determinants is destroyed in a similar manner to that of the trypsin inhibitory active site when ovomucoid is heated, while the former structure is destroyed more easily than the latter by enzymic digestion

  5. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  6. A Joule-Heated Melter Technology For The Treatment And Immobilization Of Low-Activity Waste

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  7. Procedure of Active Residual Heat Removal after Emergency Shutdown of High-Temperature-Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Xingtuan Yang; Yanfei Sun; Huaiming Ju; Shengyao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    After emergency shutdown of high-temperature-gas-cooled reactor, the residual heat of the reactor core should be removed. As the natural circulation process spends too long period of time to be utilized, an active residual heat removal procedure is needed, which makes use of steam generator and start-up loop. During this procedure, the structure of steam generator may suffer cold/heat shock because of the sudden load of coolant or hot helium at the first few minutes. Transient analysis was ca...

  8. How a retrotransposon exploits the plant's heat stress response for its activation.

    Vladimir V Cavrak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons are major components of plant and animal genomes. They amplify by reverse transcription and reintegration into the host genome but their activity is usually epigenetically silenced. In plants, genomic copies of retrotransposons are typically associated with repressive chromatin modifications installed and maintained by RNA-directed DNA methylation. To escape this tight control, retrotransposons employ various strategies to avoid epigenetic silencing. Here we describe the mechanism developed by ONSEN, an LTR-copia type retrotransposon in Arabidopsis thaliana. ONSEN has acquired a heat-responsive element recognized by plant-derived heat stress defense factors, resulting in transcription and production of full length extrachromosomal DNA under elevated temperatures. Further, the ONSEN promoter is free of CG and CHG sites, and the reduction of DNA methylation at the CHH sites is not sufficient to activate the element. Since dividing cells have a more pronounced heat response, the extrachromosomal ONSEN DNA, capable of reintegrating into the genome, accumulates preferentially in the meristematic tissue of the shoot. The recruitment of a major plant heat shock transcription factor in periods of heat stress exploits the plant's heat stress response to achieve the transposon's activation, making it impossible for the host to respond appropriately to stress without losing control over the invader.

  9. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT. PMID:24645431

  10. A correction factor to f-chart predictions of active solar fraction in active-passive heating systems

    Evans, B. L.; Beckman, W. A.; Duffie, J. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Klein, S. A.

    1983-11-01

    The extent to which a passive system degrades the performance of an active solar space heating system was investigated, and a correction factor to account for these interactions was developed. The transient system simulation program TRNSYS is used to simulate the hour-by-hour performance of combined active-passive (hybrid) space heating systems in order to compare the active system performance with simplified design method predictions. The TRNSYS simulations were compared to results obtained using the simplified design calculations of the f-Chart method. Comparisons of TRNSYS and f-Chart were used to establish the accuracy of the f-Charts for active systems. A correlation was then developed to correct the monthly loads input into the f-Chart method to account for controller deadbands in both hybrid and active only buildings. A general correction factor was generated to be applied to the f-Chart method to produce more accurate and useful results for hybrid systems.

  11. Evaluation of the heat-storage capability of shallow aquifers using active heat tracer tests and Fiber-Optics Distributed-Temperature-Sensing

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Chirila, Marian Andrei; Bumberger, Jan; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In the course of the energy transition, geothermal energy storage and heat generation and cooling have proven to be environmental friendly alternatives to conventional energy. However, to ensure sustain usage, the heat transport behavior of aquifers and its distribution has to be studied. A tool to achieve this is the active heat tracer test, eg. Leaf et al. (2012). If active heat tracer tests are combined with in aquifer heat testing via electric heating-cables, eg. Liu et al. (2013), it is possible to observe heat transport and temperature signal decay without disturbing the original pressure field within the aquifer. In this field study a two channel High-Resolution-Fiber-Optic-Distributed-Temperature-Sensing and Pt100 were used to measure temperature signals within in two wells of 1.4 m distance, where the temperature difference was generated using a self regulating heating cable in the upstream well. High resolution Distributed-Temperature-Sensing measurements were achieved by coiling the fiber around screened plastic tubes. The upstream well was also used to observe heating (Δ Tmax approx. 24K) and temperature signal decay, while the downstream well was used to observe heat transport between both wells. The data was analyzed and compared to thermal conductivity of soil samples and Direct-Push (DP) Electrical-Conductivity-Logging and DP Hydraulic-Profiling results. The results show good agreement between DP data and temperature measurements proving the active heat tracer test is a suitable tool for providing reliable information on aquifer heat-storage capability. References Leaf, A.T., Hart, D.J., Bahr, J.M.: Active Thermal Tracer Tests for Improved Hydrostratigraphic Characterization. Ground Water, vol. 50, 2012 Liu, G., Knobbe, S., Butler, J.J.Jr.: Resolving centimeter-scale flows in aquifers and their hydrostratigraphic controls. Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 40, 2013

  12. Heat and Dust in Active Layers of Protostellar Disks

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for magnetic coupling and accretion in the active layer of a protostellar disk are re-examined, and some implications for thermal emission from the layer are discussed. The ionization and electrical conductivity are calculated following the general scheme of Ilgner and Nelson but with an updated UMIST database of chemical reactions and some improvements in the grain physics, and for the minimum-mass solar nebula rather than an alpha disk. The new limits on grain abundance are slightly more severe than theirs. Even for optimally sized grains, the layer should be at least marginally optically thin to its own thermal radiation, so that narrow, highly saturated emission lines of water and other molecular species would be expected if accretion is driven by turbulence and standard rates of ionization prevail. If the grain size distribution extends broadly from well below a micron to a millimeter or more, as suggested by observations, then the layer may be so optically thin that its cooling is dominated...

  13. On the relationship between photospheric footpoint motions and coronal heating in solar active regions

    Coronal heating theories can be classified as either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) mechanisms, depending on whether the coronal magnetic field responds quasi-statically or dynamically to the photospheric footpoint motions. In this paper we investigate whether photospheric footpoint motions with velocities of 1-2 km s–1 can heat the corona in active regions, and whether the corona responds quasi-statically or dynamically to such motions (DC versus AC heating). We construct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models for the Alfvén waves and quasi-static perturbations generated within a coronal loop. We find that in models where the effects of the lower atmosphere are neglected, the corona responds quasi-statically to the footpoint motions (DC heating), but the energy flux into the corona is too low compared to observational requirements. In more realistic models that include the lower atmosphere, the corona responds more dynamically to the footpoint motions (AC heating) and the predicted heating rates due to Alfvén wave turbulence are sufficient to explain the observed hot loops. The higher heating rates are due to the amplification of Alfvén waves in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that magnetic braiding is a highly dynamic process.

  14. Effect of heat treatment on anodic activation of aluminium by trace element indium

    Graver, Brit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Nisancioglu, Kemal, E-mail: kemal.nisancioglu@material.ntnu.n [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Indium segregation activates AlIn alloy surface anodically in chloride solution. {yields} Enrichment of In on Al surface can occur thermally by heat treatment at 300 {sup o}C. {yields} Increasing temperature homogenises indium in aluminium reducing anodic activation. {yields} Indium can activate AlIn surface by segregating through dealloying of aluminium. {yields} Anodic activation is caused by AlIn amalgam formation at aluminium surface. - Abstract: The presence of trace elements in Group IIIA-VA is known to activate aluminium anodically in chloride environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface segregation of trace element In by heat treatment and resulting surface activation. Model binary AlIn alloys, containing 20 and 1000 ppm by weight of In, were characterized after heat treatment at various temperatures by use of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electrochemical polarization. Heat treatment for 1 h at 300 {sup o}C gave significant segregation of discrete In particles (thermal segregation), which activated the surface. Indium in solid solution with aluminium, obtained by 1 h heat treatment at 600 {sup o}C, also activated by surface segregation of In on alloy containing 1000 ppm In, resulting from the selective dissolution of the aluminium component during anodic oxidation (anodic segregation). The effect of anodic segregation was reduced by decreasing indium concentration in solid solution; it had negligible effect at the 20 ppm level. The segregated particles were thought to form a liquid phase alloy with aluminium during anodic polarization, which in turn, together with the chloride in the solution destabilized the oxide.

  15. Leishmania amazonensis: effects of heat shock on ecto-ATPase activity.

    Peres-Sampaio, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Giarola, Naira Ligia Lima; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-05-01

    In this work we demonstrated that promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis exhibit an Mg-dependent ecto-ATPase activity, which is stimulated by heat shock. The Mg-dependent ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 and 28 degrees C was 41.0+/-5.2 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells and 184.2+/-21.0 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells, respectively. When both promastigotes were pre-incubated at 37 degrees C for 2h, the ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 degrees C was increased to 136.4+/-10.6 nmol Pi/h x 10(7) whereas that the ATPase activity of cells grown at 28 degrees C was not modified by the heat shock (189.8+/-10.3 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells). It was observed that Km of the enzyme from cells grown at 22 degrees C (Km=980.2+/-88.6 microM) was the same to the enzyme from cells grown at 28 degrees C (Km=901.4+/-91.9 microM). In addition, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid) and suramin, two inhibitors of ecto-ATPases, also inhibited similarly the ATPase activities from promastigotes grown at 22 and 28 degrees C. We also observed that cells grown at 22 degrees C exhibit the same ecto-phosphatase and ecto 3'- and 5'-nucleotidase activities than cells grown at 28 degrees C. Interestingly, cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suppressed the heat-shock effect on ecto-ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 degrees C were exposed at 37 degrees C for 2h. A comparison between the stimulation of the Mg-dependent ecto-ATPase activity of virulent and avirulent promastigotes by the heat shock showed that avirulent promastigotes had a higher stimulation than virulent promastigotes after heat stress. PMID:18295760

  16. "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores Heated by Single Nanoflares

    Barnes, Will Thomas; Cargill, Peter; Bradshaw, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    We use hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the EBTEL code, to investigate the properties expected of "hot" (i.e. between 106.7 and 107.2 K) non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions. Here we focus on single nanoflares and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK that is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium and, for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the "smoking gun" of nanoflare heating, lies between 1 MK and 10 MK. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  17. Active Power Flow Optimization of Industrial Power Supply with Regard to the Transmission Line Conductor Heating

    Leyzgold D.Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the problem of the transmission line conductor heating effect on the active power flows optimization in the local segment of industrial power supply. The purpose is to determine the optimal generation rating of the distributed power sources, in which the power flow values will correspond to the minimum active power losses in the power supply. The timeliness is the need to define the most appropriate rated power values of distributed sources which will be connected to current industrial power supply. Basing on the model of active power flow optimization, authors formulate the description of the nonlinear transportation problem considering the active power losses depending on the transmission line conductor heating. Authors proposed a new approach to the heating model parameters definition based on allowable current loads and nominal parameters of conductors as part of the optimization problem. Analysis of study results showed that, despite the relatively small active power losses reduction to the tune 0,45% due to accounting of the conductors heating effect for the present configuration of power supply, there are significant fluctuations in the required generation rating in nodes of the network to 9,32% within seasonal changes in the outer air temperature. This fact should be taken into account when selecting the optimum power of distributed generation systems, as exemplified by an arbitrary network configuration.

  18. DIAGNOSING THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. II. NANOFLARE TRAINS

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Klimchuk, J. A., E-mail: jeffrey.reep@rice.edu, E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: james.a.klimchuk@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Lab., Code 671, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    The time dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution coolward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a 'nanoflare train' and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration {Delta} {sub H} to the post-train cooling and draining timescale {Delta} {sub C}, where {Delta} {sub H} depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time interval between successive events ({tau} {sub C}); (3) {tau} {sub C} may be diagnosed from the width of the hot component of the emission measure provided that the temperature bins are much smaller than 0.1 dex; (4) the slope of the emission measure alone is not sufficient to provide information about any timescale associated with heating-the length and density of the heated structure must be measured for {Delta} {sub H} to be uniquely extracted from the ratio {Delta} {sub H}/{Delta} {sub C}.

  19. Dipeptidase activity and growth of heat-treated commercial dairy starter culture.

    Garbowska, Monika; Pluta, Antoni; Berthold-Pluta, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Growing expectations of consumers of fermented dairy products urge the search for novel solutions that would improve their organoleptic properties and in the case of rennet cheeses-that would also accelerate their ripening process. The aim of this study was to determine the peptidolytic activities and growth of heat-treated commercial culture of lactic acid bacteria. The analyzed culture was characterized by a relatively high peptidolytic activity. The growth of bacterial culture subjected to heat treatment at 50-80 °C for 15 s, 10 and 3 min was delayed by a few or 10-20 h compared to the control culture. Based on the results achieved, it may be concluded that in the production of rennet cheeses, the application of additional, fermentation-impaired starter cultures (via heating for ten or so minutes) may serve to accelerate their ripening and to improve their sensory attributes. PMID:25542242

  20. Compound A, a selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, enhances heat shock protein Hsp70 gene promoter activation.

    Ilse M Beck

    Full Text Available Compound A possesses glucocorticoid receptor (GR-dependent anti-inflammatory properties. Just like classical GR ligands, Compound A can repress NF-κB-mediated gene expression. However, the monomeric Compound A-activated GR is unable to trigger glucocorticoid response element-regulated gene expression. The heat shock response potently activates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, upregulates Hsp70, a known GR chaperone, and also modulates various aspects of inflammation. We found that the selective GR modulator Compound A and heat shock trigger similar cellular effects in A549 lung epithelial cells. With regard to their anti-inflammatory mechanism, heat shock and Compound A are both able to reduce TNF-stimulated IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. We established an interaction between Compound A-activated GR and Hsp70, but remarkably, although the presence of the Hsp70 chaperone as such appears pivotal for the Compound A-mediated inflammatory gene repression, subsequent novel Hsp70 protein synthesis is uncoupled from an observed CpdA-induced Hsp70 mRNA upregulation and hence obsolete in mediating CpdA's anti-inflammatory effect. The lack of a Compound A-induced increase in Hsp70 protein levels in A549 cells is not mediated by a rapid proteasomal degradation of Hsp70 or by a Compound A-induced general block on translation. Similar to heat shock, Compound A can upregulate transcription of Hsp70 genes in various cell lines and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, whereas Compound A-dependent Hsp70 promoter activation is GR-dependent but HSF1-independent, heat shock-induced Hsp70 expression alternatively occurs in a GR-independent and HSF1-dependent manner in A549 lung epithelial cells.

  1. Dehydration, Heat Stroke, or Hyponatremia? The Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention of Hyponatremia Caused by High Exercise Outdoor Activities.

    Cochran, Brent

    Hyponatremia (severe sodium depletion) has symptoms similar to heat exhaustion and heat stroke and can easily be misdiagnosed. The number of wilderness users and extreme adventure activities has increased in recent years, and more cases are being diagnosed. Given that a 1993 study found that 1 in 10 cases of heat-related illnesses were…

  2. Electric space heating scheduling for real-time explicit power control in active distribution networks

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bernstein, Andrey; Chamorro, Lorenzo Reyes;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for abstracting the flexibility of a building space heating system and using it within a composable framework for real-time explicit power control of microgrids and, more in general, active distribution networks. In particular, the proposed approach is de...

  3. Thermal activation of OSL as a geothermometer for quartz grain heating during fault movements

    Rink, W J; Rees-Jones, J; Schwarcz, H P

    1999-01-01

    In discussions of ESR dating of fault movements, there has been much debate whether zeroing of ESR signals is a mechanical shearing effect or caused by frictional heating. The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) sensitivity of quartz is known to increase after heating. This thermal activation of dose response of the OSL in quartz should be useful as a geothermometer to test whether quartz particles in fault gouge had been heated. We tested the OSL sensitivities of quartz from fault gouge, and from a control (quartz grains from sandstone) and were able to show heat-induced enhancement of OSL sensitivity to a test dose. We observed that relative enhancement of OSL dose response (ratio of heated to unheated single aliquots) is significantly less for the finest grains (45-75 and 100-150 mu m) compared with coarser grains (150-250 mu m). These data are consistent with a model of zeroing of the quartz grains during faulting, by frictional heating localized to the grain boundaries, which would be expected to aff...

  4. Buildings as solar heat stores. Heating system control and room activation; Das Gebaeude als Solarspeicher. Heizungsregelung mit Raumaktivierung

    Heckmeier, J. [Orange Energy, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); SHK-Betrieb Josef Heckmeier Haustechnik (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    When solar heating systems are used as auxiliary heating systems, there is often a gap between heat production and heat demand, especially with large collector surfaces. An intelligent control concept (innovative room bus system) is presented which narrows this gap and makes a significant contribution to energy conservation and CO2 reduction. The newly developed system also offers high comfort and user-friendliness. (orig.)

  5. Dipeptidase Activity and Growth of Heat-Treated Commercial Dairy Starter Culture

    Garbowska, Monika; Pluta, Antoni; Berthold-Pluta, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Growing expectations of consumers of fermented dairy products urge the search for novel solutions that would improve their organoleptic properties and in the case of rennet cheeses-that would also accelerate their ripening process. The aim of this study was to determine the peptidolytic activities and growth of heat-treated commercial culture of lactic acid bacteria. The analyzed culture was characterized by a relatively high peptidolytic activity. The growth of bacterial culture subjected to...

  6. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pbiomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future. PMID:26055916

  7. PARP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by sumoylation upon heat shock.

    Martin, Nadine; Schwamborn, Klaus; Schreiber, Valérie; Werner, Andreas; Guillier, Christelle; Zhang, Xiang-Dong; Bischof, Oliver; Seeler, Jacob-S; Dejean, Anne

    2009-11-18

    Heat shock and other environmental stresses rapidly induce transcriptional responses subject to regulation by a variety of post-translational modifications. Among these, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and sumoylation have received growing attention. Here we show that the SUMO E3 ligase PIASy interacts with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1, and that PIASy mediates heat shock-induced poly-sumoylation of PARP-1. Furthermore, PIASy, and hence sumoylation, appears indispensable for full activation of the inducible HSP70.1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that PIASy, SUMO and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 are rapidly recruited to the HSP70.1 promoter upon heat shock, and that they are subsequently released with kinetics similar to PARP-1. Finally, we provide evidence that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 mediates heat-shock-inducible ubiquitination of PARP-1, regulates the stability of PARP-1, and, like PIASy, is a positive regulator of HSP70.1 gene activity. These results, thus, point to a novel mechanism for regulating PARP-1 transcription function, and suggest crosstalk between sumoylation and RNF4-mediated ubiquitination in regulating gene expression in response to heat shock. PMID:19779455

  8. Thermal activation of OSL as a geothermometer for quartz grain heating during fault movements

    In discussions of ESR dating of fault movements, there has been much debate whether zeroing of ESR signals is a mechanical shearing effect or caused by frictional heating. The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) sensitivity of quartz is known to increase after heating. This thermal activation of dose response of the OSL in quartz should be useful as a geothermometer to test whether quartz particles in fault gouge had been heated. We tested the OSL sensitivities of quartz from fault gouge, and from a control (quartz grains from sandstone) and were able to show heat-induced enhancement of OSL sensitivity to a test dose. We observed that relative enhancement of OSL dose response (ratio of heated to unheated single aliquots) is significantly less for the finest grains (45-75 and 100-150 μm) compared with coarser grains (150-250 μm). These data are consistent with a model of zeroing of the quartz grains during faulting, by frictional heating localized to the grain boundaries, which would be expected to affect smaller grains more than large ones. This argues against a zeroing model in which the entire fault gouge is heated by friction. Higher laboratory preheating of sandstone quartz reduces between-aliquot variability of OSL dose response in the unheated grains to nearly zero. Unheated coarsest fault gouge grains displayed virtually no among-aliquot variability, whereas fine grains showed much larger between-aliquot variability; as with the quartz sand, variability dropped to near zero after laboratory heating, suggesting that fine grains in fault gouge have experienced a wide range of natural thermal histories during faulting. This may present a problem for ESR dating of fault gouge using the plateau method

  9. Effects of heat processing on soya bean fatty acids content and the lipoxygenase activity

    Žilić Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased temperatures on the lipoxygenase activity and changes of soya bean fatty acids were observed in the present study. The kernels of soya bean cultivars Bosa and ZPS 015 were subjected to the treatments of extrusion, autoclaving, micronisation and microwave roasting. Depending on the technological processing procedure, the kernels were exposed to temperatures ranging from 60 to 150°C for 25 to 30 seconds during extrusion and for 30 minutes during autoclaving. The temperature that developed in the course of the microwave radiation and autoclaving did not cause statistically significant differences between oil content in heat treated and fresh kernels of soya bean. However, the oil content was higher in soya bean flakes (micronized kernels and lower in grits than in fresh kernels. The heat treatments resulted in the significant decrease of the linolenic fatty acid content. Depending on the temperature and applied heat treatments, the content of linoleic and oleic fatty acid oscillated. High temperatures caused changes in unsaturated fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms resulting in relative increase of the stearic acid content. The lipoxygenase activity decreased in correlation with increased temperatures and the time of heating. The maximum drop of the activity was observed after kernel exposure to the extrusion and micronisation processes at the temperature of 100oC. However, a significant lipoxygenase activity increase was recorded in both studied cultivars after one-minute microwave heating, i.e. at the temperature about 60°C. A further temperature increase led to a gradual denaturation of the enzyme and therefore to its decreased activity.

  10. DIAGNOSING THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. II. NANOFLARE TRAINS

    The time dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution coolward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a 'nanoflare train' and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration Δ H to the post-train cooling and draining timescale Δ C, where Δ H depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time interval between successive events (τ C); (3) τ C may be diagnosed from the width of the hot component of the emission measure provided that the temperature bins are much smaller than 0.1 dex; (4) the slope of the emission measure alone is not sufficient to provide information about any timescale associated with heating—the length and density of the heated structure must be measured for Δ H to be uniquely extracted from the ratio Δ H/Δ C.

  11. Effect of Activation Temperature and Heating Duration on Physical Characteristics of Activated Carbon Prepared from Agriculture Waste

    Tham Yee Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of activated carbon prepared from durian shell in varied heating durations from 10 min to 30 min and activation temperatures of 400C and 500C. Durian shells have been characterized in term of ultimate and proximate analysis, chemical composition and thermal behaviour with a view to be used as activated carbon precursor. Durian shell activated carbon was prepared by impregnating 10g of sample in 10% (v/v concentration of phosphoric acid for 24 h, followed by carbonization at 400C and 500C with different heating durations under nitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that various treatment conditions affect the percentage of yield, BET surface area, micropore volume, and average pore diameter. The highest surface area (SBET 1024 m2/g was obtained at 500C and 20 min of heating duration with 63% of yield and 0.21 cm3/g micropore volume.

  12. Novel ac Heating-dc Detection Method for Active Thermoelectric Scanning Thermal Microscopy

    Miao, Tingting; Ma, Weigang; Zhang, Xing

    2015-11-01

    A novel and reliable ac heating-dc detection method is developed for active thermoelectric scanning thermal microscopy, which can map out local thermal property imaging by point-heating and point-sensing with nanoscale spatial resolution. The thermoelectric probe is electrically heated by an ac current, and the corresponding dc thermoelectric voltage is detected. Using the measured dc voltage, the temperature information can be extracted with the known Seebeck coefficient of the thermoelectric probe. The validity and accuracy of this method have been verified by a 25.4 \\upmu m thick K-type thermocouple by both experiment and numerical simulation in high vacuum and in air. The experimental results show that the proposed method is reliable and convenient to monitor the temperature of the junction.

  13. Active charge/passive discharge solar heating systems: Thermal analysis and performance comparisons and performance comparisons

    Swisher, J.

    1981-06-01

    This type of system combines liquid-cooled solar collector panels with a massive integral storage component that passively heats the building interior by radiation and free convection. The TRNSYS simulation program is used to evaluate system performance and to provide input for the development of a simplified analysis method. This method, which provides monthly calculations of delivered solar energy, is based on Klein's Phi-bar procedure and data from hourly TRNSYS simulations. The method can be applied to systems using a floor slab, a structural wall, or a water tank as the storage component. Important design parameters include collector area and orientation, building heat loss, collector and heat exchanger efficiencies, storage capacity, and storage to room coupling. Performance simulation results are used for comparisons with active and passive solar designs.

  14. Evaluation of a large capacity heat pump concept for active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure

    Pagel, L. L.; Herring, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Results of engineering analyses assessing the conceptual feasibility of a large capacity heat pump for enhancing active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure are presented. A unique heat pump arrangement which permits cooling the structure of a Mach 6 transport to aluminum temperatures without the aid of thermal shielding is described. The selected concept is compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants, with Freon R-11 selected as the preferred refrigerant. Condenser temperatures were limited to levels compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants by incorporating a unique multipass condenser design, which extracts mechanical energy from the hydrogen fuel, prior to each subsequent pass through the condenser. Results show that it is technically feasible to use a large capacity heat pump in lieu of external shielding. Additional analyses are required to optimally apply this concept.

  15. Degradation of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene using heat and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation

    Mondal, P.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    Toluene, ethylbenze, and xylene (TEX) are common contaminants in the subsurface. Activated persulfate has shown promise for degrading a wide variety of organic compounds. However, studies of persulfate application for in situ degradation of TEX and effects on the subsequent bioremediation are limited. In this work, degradation studies of TEX in aqueous media and soil are being conducted using heat activated and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation in batch and flow-through column experiments. In the batch experiments, sodium persulfate is being used at different concentrations to provide an initial persulfate to TEX molar ratios between 10:1 and 100:1. Sodium persulfate solutions are being activated at 20, 37, 60, and 80 oC temperatures for the heat activated oxidation. For the chelated-ferrous iron activated oxidation, ferrous iron and citric acid, both are being used at concentration of 5 mM. In the experiments with soil slurry, a soil to water ratio of 1 to 5 is being used. Flow through water saturated column experiments are being conducted with glass columns (45 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter) uniformly packed with soils, and equilibrated with water containing TEX at the target concentrations. Both the heat activation and chelated-ferrous iron activation of persulfate are being employed in the column experiments. Future experiments are planned to determine the suitability of persulfate oxidation of TEX on the subsequent biodegradation using batch microcosms containing TEX degrading microbial cultures. In these experiments, the microbial biomass will be monitored using total phospholipids, and the microbial community will be determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on the extracted DNA. This study is expected to provide suitable operating conditions for in situ chemical oxidation of TEX with activated persulfate followed by bioremediation.

  16. Evaluating the accuracy of the Distributed Activation Energy Model for biomass devolatilization curves obtained at high heating rates

    Highlights: • DAEM was applied to biomass pyrolysis using a wide range of heating rates. • The validity of the method was evaluated for high heating rates. • Activation energy of low heating rates differs from that of higher rates. - Abstract: The characteristic parameters of devolatilization, the activation energy and the frequency factor, can be obtained following different experimental approaches. In the Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM), these parameters are derived from several TGA curves that are typically obtained for constant, low heating rate experiments. Then, the results are used to model high heating rate processes typical of industrial combustors. In this work, a wide range of heating rates were employed to obtain different TGA curves of the biomass pyrolysis, in order to analyse the validity of DAEM when extrapolating the kinetic parameters obtained for low heating rate curves used in the laboratory to higher heating rates present in industrial applications. The TGA curves of the biomass pyrolysis employed in DAEM were varied from low heating rates (around 10 K/min, values typically found in the literature on DAEM), to high heating rates (up to 200 K/min). The differences in the activation energy and the frequency factor obtained for different heating rates, were evaluated and the validity of the model was discussed. The results show differences between the activation energy and the frequency factor obtained using low and high heating rates during the TGA tests. Therefore, if an accurate approximation is required when extrapolating the data to high heating rates, the tests should be carried out at high heating rates

  17. The production of activated carbon using the equipment of thermal power plants and heating plants

    Osintsev, K. V.; Osintsev, V. V.; Dzhundubaev, A. K.; Kim, S. P.; Al'musin, G. T.; Akbaev, T. A.; Bogatkin, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    The production technology of activated carbon using the conventional equipment of the thermal power stations and boiler houses is proposed. The obtained product is directed into the systems of chemical water preparation and water drain of enterprises. The production cycle is invariable when producing the activated carbon by the proposed technology. The fuel consumption and heat losses are considerably reduced when implementing this technology compared with the known analogs of the carbon sorbent. The production efficiency increases if small dust particles are preliminary separated and coal is activated in narrow ranges of fraction sizes.

  18. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  19. Heat Shock Factor 1 Is a Substrate for p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases.

    Dayalan Naidu, Sharadha; Sutherland, Calum; Zhang, Ying; Risco, Ana; de la Vega, Laureano; Caunt, Christopher J; Hastie, C James; Lamont, Douglas J; Torrente, Laura; Chowdhry, Sudhir; Benjamin, Ivor J; Keyse, Stephen M; Cuenda, Ana; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2016-09-15

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) monitors the structural integrity of the proteome. Phosphorylation at S326 is a hallmark for HSF1 activation, but the identity of the kinase(s) phosphorylating this site has remained elusive. We show here that the dietary agent phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) inhibits heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), the main negative regulator of HSF1; activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); and increases S326 phosphorylation, trimerization, and nuclear translocation of HSF1, and the transcription of a luciferase reporter, as well as the endogenous prototypic HSF1 target Hsp70. In vitro, all members of the p38 MAPK family rapidly and stoichiometrically catalyze the S326 phosphorylation. The use of stable knockdown cell lines and inhibitors indicated that among the p38 MAPKs, p38γ is the principal isoform responsible for the phosphorylation of HSF1 at S326 in cells. A protease-mass spectrometry approach confirmed S326 phosphorylation and unexpectedly revealed that p38 MAPK also catalyzes the phosphorylation of HSF1 at S303/307, previously known repressive posttranslational modifications. Thus, we have identified p38 MAPKs as highly efficient catalysts for the phosphorylation of HSF1. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the magnitude and persistence of activation of p38 MAPK are important determinants of the extent and duration of the heat shock response. PMID:27354066

  20. Heating Treated Carbon Nanotubes As Highly Active Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Graphical abstract: Heating treatment for multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the air introduces abundant structure defects which improve catalytic performances for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). There is a positive correlation between the defect levels and ORR activities. The product shows better methanol tolerance and long-term durability than commercial Pt/C which makes it applicable in fuel cells. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely developed for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices for replacement of high-cost Pt-based catalysts. In this paper, a simple and convenient method is developed for improving the catalytic activity of CNTs in a controlled way. By simple heating treatment in the air, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) change with special morphologies, compositions and abundant defects (denoted as h-CNT). Those defects significantly improve the electrocatalytic performances for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which proceeds in a nearly four-electron pathway. The heating conditions have important effects on the structures and defect properties of h-CNTs which show a positive correlation between the defect levels and ORR performances. The small amounts of iron residues originated from nanotube growth and nitrogen doping during heating treatment also contribute to some catalytic activity. The inner walls of h-CNT remain intact during heating treatment and provide sufficient conductivity which facilitates charge transport during ORR. The h-CNT electrocatalyst shows better methanol tolerance and long-term durability than commercial Pt/C in alkaline media which makes it an alternative cathode catalyst in fuel cells

  1. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) has been an essential stage towards long powerful tokamak operations for Tore-Supra, it lasted about 10 years. This paper deals with the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) that is able to sustain up to 10 MW/m2 of nominal heat flux. This device is based on hardened copper alloy heat sink structures covered by a carbon fiber composite armour, it resulted in the manufacturing of 600 elementary components, called finger elements, to achieve the 7.6 m2 TPL. This assembly has been operating in Tore-Supra since spring 2002. Some difficulties occurred during the manufacturing phase, the valuable industrial experience is summarized in the section 2. The permanent monitoring of PFC surface temperature all along the discharge is performed by a set of 6 actively cooled infrared endoscopes. The heat flux monitoring and control issue but also the progress made in our understanding of the deuterium retention in long discharges are described in the section 3. (A.C.)

  2. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    Grosman, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) has been an essential stage towards long powerful tokamak operations for Tore-Supra, it lasted about 10 years. This paper deals with the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) that is able to sustain up to 10 MW/m{sup 2} of nominal heat flux. This device is based on hardened copper alloy heat sink structures covered by a carbon fiber composite armour, it resulted in the manufacturing of 600 elementary components, called finger elements, to achieve the 7.6 m{sup 2} TPL. This assembly has been operating in Tore-Supra since spring 2002. Some difficulties occurred during the manufacturing phase, the valuable industrial experience is summarized in the section 2. The permanent monitoring of PFC surface temperature all along the discharge is performed by a set of 6 actively cooled infrared endoscopes. The heat flux monitoring and control issue but also the progress made in our understanding of the deuterium retention in long discharges are described in the section 3. (A.C.)

  3. The SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 regulate HSF1 activity and the heat shock response.

    Rachel Raynes

    Full Text Available The heat shock response, the cellular response to protein damaging stress, is critical in maintaining proteostasis. The heat shock response is regulated by the transcription factor HSF1, which is activated upon heat shock and other stresses to induce the expression of molecular chaperones. SIRT1 has previously been shown to activate HSF1 by deacetylating it, leading to increased DNA binding ability. We have investigated how the heat shock response may be controlled by factors influencing SIRT1 activity. We found that heat shock results in an increase in the cellular NAD(+/NADH ratio and an increase in recruitment of SIRT1 to the hsp70 promoter. Furthermore, we found that the SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 have an impact on hsp70 transcription, HSF1 acetylation status, and HSF1 recruitment to the hsp70 promoter. Therefore, AROS and DBC1 are now two new targets available for therapeutic regulation of the heat shock response.

  4. Heat production and quantitative oxidation of nutrients by physical activity in humans

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K;

    1994-01-01

    The effect of physical activity on heat production and oxidation of nutrients was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. The experiment included 6 male and 4 female healthy subjects who, during a 24-hour stay in the respiration chambers, performed, in the morning and afternoon, 15 min cycling...... with the total work of 6,750 kg m. Experiments were repeated twice (3- to 4-week interval) showing no differences between the gas exchange in the morning and afternoon and between first and second experiment. The gas exchange during cycling was about 4 times higher than during basal periods. The identical work...... of 66.2 kJ by cycling caused on average a heat increment of 309 kJ, yielding the mean energetic efficiency for the performed work of 0.22. The activity caused an increment of 11.5 g oxidized carbohydrate and 2.6 g oxidized fat....

  5. Evaluation of induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distribution after shutdown in ITER

    Maki, Koichi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Satoh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Koubun; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1997-03-01

    Induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distributions after shutdown were estimated for 1MWa/m{sup 2} operation in ITER. The activity in the inboard blanket one day after shutdown is 1.5x10{sup 11}Bq/cm{sup 3}, and the average decay heating rate 0.01w/cm{sup 3}. The dose rate outside the 120cm thick concrete biological shield is two order higher than the design criterion of 5{mu}Sv/h. This indicates that the biological shield thickness should be enhanced by 50cm in concrete, that is, total thickness 170cm for workers to enter the reactor room and to perform maintenance. (author)

  6. Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin

    Leclere, Lionel; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Despite enormous efforts that have been made in the search for novel drugs and treatments, cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Moreover, the emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy often prevents complete remission. Researchers have thus turned to natural products mainly from plant origin to circumvent resistance. Pectin and pH- or heat-modified pectin have demonstrated chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers. The focus...

  7. Heat-Activated Effect of Exchange Coupling Between Two Ferromagnets Separated by an Amorphous Semiconducting Barrier

    肖明文; 李正中; 许望

    2002-01-01

    We try to extend our previous zero-temperature tunnelling theory for the exchange coupling between two ferromagnets separated by an amorphous semiconducting barrier to the case of finite temperature. The result exhibits that the tunnelling electrons can absorb or emit phonons when they tunnel through the amorphous barrier at finite temperatures so that the interlayer exchange coupling is heat activated. This agrees with the experiments.

  8. Heat stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes during in vitro maturation

    Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Raies-ul-Haq, Mohammad; Dhanda, Suman; Kumar, Anil; Goud, T. Sridhar; Chauhan, M. S.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro environments like heat stress usually increase the production of reactive oxygen species in bubaline oocytes which have been implicated as one of the major causes for reduced developmental competence. Oocytes during meiotic maturation are sensitive to oxidative stress, and heat stress accelerates cellular metabolism, resulting in the higher production of free radicals. Therefore, the aim of present work was to assess the impact of heat stress during meiotic maturation on bubaline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), denuded oocytes (DO), and cumulus cell mass in terms of their oxidative status. Accordingly, for control group, COC were matured at 38.5 °C for complete 24 h of meiotic maturation and heat stress of 40.5 and 41.5 °C was applied to COC during the first 12 h of maturation and then moved to 38.5 °C for rest of the 12 h. In another group, COC after maturation were denuded from the surrounding cumulus cells by manual pipetting. Results indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide (NO) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the oocytes subjected to heat stress (40.5 and 41.5 °C) during meiotic maturation compared to the oocytes matured under standard in vitro culture conditions (38.5 °C). Also, the antioxidant enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in all the treatment groups compared to the control group. Therefore, the present study clearly establishes that heat stress ensues oxidative stress in bubaline oocytes which triggers the induction of antioxidant enzymatic defense system for scavenging the ROS.

  9. Hybrid ground-source heat pump system with active air source regeneration

    Highlights: • A hybrid ground source heat pump system with two separate borefields is modelled. • The maximum underground storage temperature depends on the size of the drycooler. • Drycooler selection curves are given as function of underground storage temperature. • The size of the cold storage is reduced with 47% in the cost optimal configuration. • The cooling seasonal performance factor decreases with reduced storage capacity. - Abstract: Ground-source heat pump systems (GSHP) offer great advantages over traditional heating and cooling installations. However, their applications are limited due to the high initial costs of borehole drilling. One way to avoid these costs is by reducing the size of the borefield, e.g. by combining the system with other renewable energy sources or by using active regeneration to increase the system efficiency. In this paper a hybrid ground-source heat pump system (HGSHP) is analyzed. The borefield is split into a warm part and a cold part, which allows for seasonal thermal-energy storage. Additionally, supplementary drycoolers capture heat during summer and cold during winter. The relationship between the underground storage size and temperature and the drycooler capacity is described, using an office building in Flanders (Belgium) as reference case. Results show that with a HGSHP system a significant borefield size reduction can be achieved without compromising system performance; i.e. for the reference case a reduction of 47% was achieved in the cost-optimal configuration. It is also shown that the cooling seasonal performance factor decreases significantly with underground storage capacity. In addition, the HGSHP can be used to maintain or restore thermal balance in the geothermal source when heating and cooling loads do not match

  10. Thermoregulation and heat exchange in a nonuniform thermal environment during simulated extended EVA. Extravehicular activities

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Hubel, A.; Nelson, E. D.; Tranchida, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonuniform heating and cooling of the body, a possibility during extended duration extravehicular activities (EVA), was studied by means of a specially designed water circulating garment that independently heated or cooled the right and left sides of the body. The purpose was to assess whether there was a generalized reaction on the finger in extreme contradictory temperatures on the body surface, as a potential heat status controller. METHOD: Eight subjects, six men and two women, were studied while wearing a sagittally divided experimental garment with hands exposed in the following conditions: Stage 1 baseline--total body garment inlet water temperature at 33 degrees C; Stage 2--left side inlet water temperature heated to 45 degrees C; right side cooled to 8 degrees C; Stage 3--left side inlet water temperature cooled to 8 degrees C, right side heated to 45 degrees C. RESULTS: Temperatures on each side of the body surface as well as ear canal temperature (Tec) showed statistically significant Stage x Side interactions, demonstrating responsiveness to the thermal manipulations. Right and left finger temperatures (Tfing) were not significantly different across stages; their dynamic across time was similar. Rectal temperature (Tre) was not reactive to prevailing cold on the body surface, and therefore not informative. Subjective perception of heat and cold on the left and right sides of the body was consistent with actual temperature manipulations. CONCLUSIONS: Tec and Tre estimates of internal temperature do not provide accurate data for evaluating overall thermal status in nonuniform thermal conditions on the body surface. The use of Tfing has significant potential in providing more accurate information on thermal status and as a feedback method for more precise thermal regulation of the astronaut within the EVA space suit.

  11. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. PMID:25681947

  12. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  13. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  14. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  15. Procedure of Active Residual Heat Removal after Emergency Shutdown of High-Temperature-Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After emergency shutdown of high-temperature-gas-cooled reactor, the residual heat of the reactor core should be removed. As the natural circulation process spends too long period of time to be utilized, an active residual heat removal procedure is needed, which makes use of steam generator and start-up loop. During this procedure, the structure of steam generator may suffer cold/heat shock because of the sudden load of coolant or hot helium at the first few minutes. Transient analysis was carried out based on a one-dimensional mathematical model for steam generator and steam pipe of start-up loop to achieve safety and reliability. The results show that steam generator should be discharged and precooled; otherwise, boiling will arise and introduce a cold shock to the boiling tubes and tube sheet when coolant began to circulate prior to the helium. Additionally, in avoiding heat shock caused by the sudden load of helium, the helium circulation should be restricted to start with an extreme low flow rate; meanwhile, the coolant of steam generator (water should have flow rate as large as possible. Finally, a four-step procedure with precooling process of steam generator was recommended; sensitive study for the main parameters was conducted.

  16. Enhanced detection of hydraulically active fractures by temperature profiling in lined heated bedrock boreholes

    Pehme, P. E.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Molson, J. W.; Greenhouse, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of borehole profiling using a temperature probe for identifying hydraulically active fractures in rock has improved due to the combination of two advances: improved temperature sensors, with resolution on the order of 0.001 °C, and temperature profiling within water inflated flexible impermeable liners used to temporarily seal boreholes from hydraulic cross-connection. The open-hole cross-connection effects dissipate after inflation, so that both the groundwater flow regime and the temperature distribution return to the ambient (background) condition. This paper introduces a third advancement: the use of an electrical heating cable that quickly increases the temperature of the entire static water column within the lined hole and thus places the entire borehole and its immediate vicinity into thermal disequilibrium with the broader rock mass. After heating for 4-6 h, profiling is conducted several times over a 24 h period as the temperature returns to background conditions. This procedure, referred to as the Active Line Source (ALS) method, offers two key improvements over prior methods. First, there is no depth limit for detection of fractures with flow. Second, both identification and qualitative comparison of evidence for ambient groundwater flow in fractures is improved throughout the entire test interval. The benefits of the ALS method are demonstrated by comparing results from two boreholes tested to depths of 90 and 120 m in a dolostone aquifer used for municipal water supply and in which most groundwater flow occurs in fractures. Temperature logging in the lined holes shows many fractures in the heterothermic zone both with and without heating, but only the ALS method shows many hydraulically active fractures in the deeper homothermic portion of the hole. The identification of discrete groundwater flow at many depths is supported by additional evidence concerning fracture occurrence, including continuous core visual inspection

  17. Heat conduction through geological mattresses from cells storing mean activity and long life nuclear wastes

    Document available in extended abstract form only. ANDRA ordered in 2008 a campaign of numerical simulations to assess the efficiency of the ventilation system designed for cells storing mean activity and long life nuclear wastes. Numerical models were performed by ACRIIN as research engineering office. The main objectives were to assess the risks of atmospheric explosions due to high rate of hydrogen and to determine the efficiency of the system to evacuate released heat from storage packages. Further calculations have been carried out to evaluate temperature gradients in the surrounding geological medium. Three-dimensional numerical models of a reference cell were built to simulate the air flow injected at the cell entrance and retrieved and the other extremity. The reference case is based on a cell full of storage packages, with rows and columns of packages methodically ordered. Analytic and numerical calculations have been performed introducing progressively each complex physical phenomenon in order to dissociate origins of transport of released mass or heat. Three kinds of flows have been physically distinguished: 1) Ventilation in a cell with storage package that are thermally inert, i.e. no heat release, but with hydrogen release. 2) Flow in a cell with storage packages that emit heat and warm the injected air, supposing that no heat were lost towards the surrounding concrete walls of the cell. 3) Air Flow warmed by the storage packages with heat losses towards concrete walls and geological medium. Simulations with absence of thermal effects allowed the knowledge of main topics of the ventilation air flows that may be synthesized as follows: - Flows infiltrate clearances between piles and rows of storage packages. Such apertures are a few centimetres wide. The flow is disorganised between the first rows, with distribution in both transversal and longitudinal directions. After a few tens of rows, the flow reaches its hydraulic equilibrium, with a nearly pure

  18. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realisation and first results in Tore Supra

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing components (PFCs) has been an essential part of the Tore Supra programme towards long powerful tokamak operation. The Tore Supra PFC programme has culminated in the installation and operation of a toroidal pump limiter, since 2002, which already allowed to reach new world records in steady state operation (1 GJ injected in a 6 min discharge). The HHF PFCs development and manufacturing was achieved through a long lead development and industrialisation programme (about 10 years) marked out with a number of challenges. The major technical topics cope with bonding technology analysis involving an adequate material selection and procurement, repair processes development and implementation, development of destructive and non-destructive testing methods, and more generally industrialisation assessment. All these lessons are relevant to the ITER divertor PFCs manufacturing, although the technical solution adopted for Tore Supra (flat tiles concept) is different from the one proposed for the ITER divertor (monoblock concept). The routine operation of the actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL), capable to sustain up to 10 MW m-2 of nominal convected heat flux, is described. Up to now, the limiter fulfills its objectives in terms of heat exhaust. However, the thermographic monitoring exhibits unexpected behavior of the surface temperature. Particle exhaust control displays a complex pattern, due to the high fraction of the injected deuterium, which remains in the wall. The first experimental results with a full actively cooled wall gives access to ITER relevant information on wall conditioning, hydrogen plasma density and vacuum vessel inventory control, carbon erosion and redeposition and capability of in situ monitoring in a completely actively cooled environment

  19. 主动蓄放热-热泵联合加温系统在日光温室的应用%Application of heating system with active heat storage-release and heat pump in solar greenhouse

    孙维拓; 杨其长; 方慧; 张义; 管道平; 卢威

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese solar greenhouse has a unique greenhouse structure that regards solar energy as the main energy source, and has characteristics such as high efficiency, energy saving, and low cost. During a cold winter night, air temperature inside a solar greenhouse is low for crop growth, which would affect crop yield and quality, due to the heat-transfer characteristics and heat capacity limit of the north wall. In recent years, in trying to promote the heat storage capacity of the solar greenhouse, the thought of active heat storage-release came forward. Solar energy is a kind of clean renewable energy, but has intermittent and unstable performance when used for greenhouse heating. Meanwhile, the heat collecting efficiency of the solar thermal collector decreases with an increase in operating temperature. Thus, an active heat storage-release system (AHSRS) is difficult to use to ensure an appropriate temperature for a solar greenhouse in a frigid region or when it encounters weather conditions with weak solar radiation. As an efficient means of raising low-grade energy, the heat pump has been more and more applied to greenhouse heating which can reduce the operating temperature of the AHSRS when used in combination. In order to promote heating performance and stability of the AHSRS and improve air temperature inside a solar greenhouse at night, based on the concept of active heat storage-release, an active heat storage-release associated with heat pump heating system (AHSRHPS) applicable to solar greenhouse heating was designed in the present study. During the day, the solar energy reaching the north wall surface was absorbed by the circulating water and stored in reservoirs when the AHSRS was running. Running the heat pump unit was intended to promote low-grade heat energy and reduce the circulating water temperature which contributes to increasing the heat collecting efficiency of the AHSRS and maximum water temperature of the reservoir. When air temperature

  20. Neutral-Line Magnetic Shear and Enhanced Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Gary, G. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1997-01-01

    By examining the magnetic structure at sites in the bright coronal interiors of active regions that are not flaring but exhibit persistent strong coronal heating, we establish some new characteristics of the magnetic origins of this heating. We have examined the magnetic structure of these sites in five active regions, each of which was well observed by both the Yohkoh SXT and the Marshall Space Flight Center Vector Magnetograph and showed strong shear in its magnetic field along part of at least one neutral line (polarity inversion). Thus, we can assess whether this form of nonpotential field structure in active regions is a characteristic of the enhanced coronal heating and vice versa. From 27 orbits' worth of Yohkoh SXT images of the five active regions, we have obtained a sample of 94 persistently bright coronal features (bright in all images from a given orbit), 40 long (greater than or approximately equals 20,000 km) neutral-line segments having strong magnetic shear throughout (shear angle greater than 45 deg), and 39 long neutral-line segments having weak magnetic shear throughout (shear angle less than 45 deg). From this sample, we find that: (1) all of our persistently bright coronal features are rooted in magnetic fields that are stronger than 150 G; (2) nearly all (95%) of these enhanced coronal features are rooted near neutral lines (closer than 10,000 km); (3) a great majority (80%) of the bright features are rooted near strong-shear portions of neutral lines; (4) a great majority (85%) of long strong-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; (5) a large minority (40%) of long weak-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; and (6) the brightness of a persistently bright Coronal feature often changes greatly over a few hours. From these results, we conclude that most persistent enhanced heating of coronal loops in active regions: (1) requires the

  1. Comparison of swimming pools alternative passive and active heating systems based on renewable energy sources in Southern Europe

    This article examines different passive and active heating systems for swimming pools. The passive systems introduced in this article are: * The swimming pools' enclosure. * The placement of floating insulating covers on the pools' surfaces whenever they are not used. The examined active systems in this article are: * A biomass heater. * A biomass heater and solar collectors combi-system. * Vertical geothermal heat exchangers (GHE) co-operating with geothermal heat pumps (GHP). The methodology employed for the introduced systems' evaluation is the arithmetic computational simulation of the swimming pools' annual heating, using annual time series of averaged hourly values for the available solar radiation and the calculated pools' thermal power demand (heating loads). The dimensioning of the active systems aims at the maximisation of the heating production from R.E.S. (renewable energy sources). and the optimisation of the corresponding investments' economic indexes. The examined systems are evaluated technically and economically versus fundamental criteria. It is proved that significant reduction of the heating loads is achieved with the introduced passive systems. The reduced swimming pools' heating loads can be successfully covered by the proposed R.E.S. active systems. The fossil fuels consumption is eliminated. The corresponding investments' payback periods can be lower than 5 years. - Highlights: • The passive solar systems reduce the swimming pools heating loads more than 90%. • The examined active heating system exhibit payback periods lower than 3.5 years. • The energy saving is maximised with a biomass heater – solar collectors system. • Single biomass heaters exhibits the shortest payback period. • GHE–GHP can be used in cases of low solar radiation and lack of biomass fuels

  2. Dual-reporter in vivo imaging of transient and inducible heat-shock promoter activation.

    Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Genevois, Coralie; Chapolard, Mathilde; Santalucía, Tomàs; Planas, Anna M; Couillaud, Franck

    2014-02-01

    Gene promoter activity can be studied in vivo by molecular imaging methods using reporter gene technology. Transcription of the reporter and the reported genes occurs simultaneously. However, imaging depends on reporter protein translation, stability, and cellular fate that may differ among the various proteins. A double transgenic mouse strain expressing the firefly luciferase (lucF) and fluorescent mPlum protein under the transcriptional control of the thermo-inducible heat-shock protein (Hspa1b) promoter was generated allowing to follow up the reporter proteins by different and complementary in vivo imaging technologies. These mice were used for in vivo imaging by bioluminescence and epi fluorescence reflectance imaging (BLI & FRI) and as a source of embryonic fibroblast (MEF) for in vitro approaches. LucF, mPlum and endogenous Hsp70 mRNAs were transcribed simultaneously. The increase in mRNA was transient, peaking at 3 h and then returning to the basal level about 6 h after the thermal stimulations. The bioluminescent signal was transient and initiated with a 3 h delay versus mRNA expression. The onset of mPlum fluorescence was more delayed, increasing slowly up to 30 h after heat-shock and remaining for several days. This mouse allows for both bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) of Hsp70 promoter activation showing an early and transient lucF activity and a retrospective and persistent mPlum fluorescence. This transgenic mouse will allow following the transient local induction of Hsp-70 promoter beyond its induction time-frame and relate into subsequent dynamic biological effects of the heat-shock response. PMID:24575340

  3. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events

  4. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.

  5. Adsorption of SO2 onto oxidized and heat-treated activated carbon fibers (ACFS)

    Daley, M.A.; Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Riha, S.; Lizzio, A.A.; Donnals, G.L.; Economy, J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and heat-treated oxidized ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume for the adsorption of SO2 and its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. For untreated ACFs, the initial rate of SO2 adsorption from flue gas was shown to be inversely related to pore size. At longer times, the amount of SO2 adsorbed from flue gas was dependent on both the pore size and pore volume. Oxidation of the ACFs, using an aqueous oxidant, decreased their adsorption capacity for SO2 from flue gas due to a decrease in pore volume and repulsion of the SO2 from acidic surface groups. If these samples were heat-treated to desorb the oxygen containing function groups, the amount of SO2 adsorption increased. This increase in adsorption capacity was directly correlated to the amount of CO2 evolved during heat-treatment of the oxidized ACFs. The amount of SO2 adsorbed for these samples was related to the pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume. This analysis is explained in more detail in this paper. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. The effects of excessive heat on heat-activated membrane currents in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons from neonatal rat

    Lyfenko, Alla; Vlachová, Viktorie; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Dittert, Ivan; Kress, M.; Reeh, P. W.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2002), s. 207-214. ISSN 0304-3959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA MŠk LN00B122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : nociception * noxious heat * capsacin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2002

  8. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on stimulated radiation during ionospheric second electron gyroharmonic heating

    Bordikar, M. R.; Scales, W. A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Kim, H.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Redmon, R.; Samimi, A. R.; Brizcinski, S.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, narrowband emissions ordered near the H+ (proton) gyrofrequency (fcH) were reported in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum during active geomagnetic conditions. This work presents new observations and theoretical analysis of these recently discovered emissions. These emission lines are observed in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum when the transmitter is tuned near the second electron gyroharmonic frequency (2fce) during recent ionospheric modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research (HAARP) facility near Gakona, Alaska. The spectral lines are typically shifted below and above the pump wave frequency by harmonics of a frequency roughly 10% less than fcH (≈ 800 Hz) with a narrow emission bandwidth less than the O+ gyrofrequency (≈ 50 Hz). However, new observations and analysis of emission lines ordered by a frequency approximately 10% greater than fcH are presented here for the first time as well. The interaction altitude for the heating for all the observations is in the range of 160 km up to 200 km. As described previously, proton precipitation due to active geomagnetic conditions is considered as the reason for the presence of H+ ions known to be a minor background constituent in this altitude region. DMSP satellite observations over HAARP during the heating experiments and ground-based magnetometer and riometer data validate active geomagnetic conditions. The theory of parametric decay instability in multi-ion component plasma including H+ ions as a minority species described in previous work is expanded in light of simultaneously observed preexisting SEE features to interpret the newly reported observations. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on the SEE spectrum as a diagnostic tool for proton precipitation event characterization is discussed.

  9. Effects of different heat treatments on lysozyme quantity and antimicrobial activity of jenny milk.

    Cosentino, C; Labella, C; Elshafie, H S; Camele, I; Musto, M; Paolino, R; D'Adamo, C; Freschi, P

    2016-07-01

    Thermal treatments are used to improve milk microbial safety, shelf life, and biological activity of some of its components. However, thermal treatments can reduce the nutritional quality of milk, affecting the molecular structure of milk proteins, such as lysozyme, which is a very important milk component due to its antimicrobial effect against gram-positive bacteria. Jenny milk is characterized by high lysozyme content. For this reason, in the last few years, it has been used as an antimicrobial additive in dairy products as an alternative to hen egg white lysozyme, which can cause allergic reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pasteurization and condensation on the concentration and antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk. Furthermore, lysozyme quantity and activity were tested in raw and pasteurized milk after condensation at 40 and 20% of the initial volume. Reversed-phase HPLC was performed under fluorescence detection to monitor lysozyme in milk samples. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the tested milk against Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis, Clavibacter michiganensis, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Xanthomonas campestris, and Escherichia coli. Condensation and pasteurization did not affect the concentration or antimicrobial activity of lysozyme in jenny milk, except for B. mojaventis, which showed resistance to lysozyme in milk samples subjected to heat treatments. Moreover, lysozyme in jenny milk showed antimicrobial activity similar to synthetic antibiotics versus some gram-positive strains and also versus the gram-negative strain X. campestris. PMID:27157571

  10. Low effective activation energies for oxygen release from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates.

    Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Oxygen release from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-energy values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate. PMID:24619858

  11. Recurrent Heat Stroke in a Runner: Race Simulation Testing for Return to Activity.

    Roberts, William O; Dorman, Jason C; Bergeron, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Exertional heat stroke (EHS) occurs in distance runners and is a life-threatening condition. A 30-yr-old healthy recreational male distance runner (CR) collapsed at the 12-mile mark in two half marathon races 6 wk apart in fall 2009. In both episodes, CR was found on the ground confused, incoherent, sweaty, and warm to touch. The emergency medical team responded, and he was treated empirically for suspected EHS by cooling en route to the emergency department. In the emergency department, rectal temperatures were 40°C and 40.5°C for each episode, respectively. The first race start temperature was 16°C with 94% relative humidity (RH), and the second was 3°C, 75% RH. Heat tolerance test was within the normal range indicating low EHS risk. A race simulation test (environmental chamber, 25°C, 60% RH) at a treadmill pace of 10.5-12.9 km·h was stopped at 70 min coincident with a rectal temperature of 39.5°C. CR's body weight dropped 3.49 kg with an estimated sweat loss of 4.09 L and an estimated total sweat Na loss of 7610 mg. We recommended that he limit his runs to <1 h and replace salt and fluid during and (mostly) after activity, run with a partner, acclimate to heat before racing, and reduce his pace or stop at the first sign of symptoms. Race simulation testing should be considered in athletes with recurrent EHS to assist with the return-to-activity recommendation. PMID:26694842

  12. AGN activity and IGM heating in fossil cluster RX J1416.4+2315

    Miraghaei, H; Sengupta, C; Raychaudhury, S; Jetha, N N; Abbassi, S

    2015-01-01

    We study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in the fossil galaxy cluster, RX J1416.4+2315. Radio observations were carried out using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at two frequencies, 1420 MHz and 610 MHz. A weak radio lobe that extends from the central nucleus is detected in 610 MHz map. Assuming the radio lobe originated from the central AGN, we show the energy injection into the Inter Galactic Medium (IGM) is only sufficient to heat up the central 50 kpc within the cluster core, while the cooling radius is larger ( $\\sim$ 130 kpc). In the hardness ratio map, three low energy cavities have been identified. No radio emission is detected for these regions. We evaluated the power required to inflate the cavities and showed that the total energy budget is sufficient to offset the radiative cooling. We showed that the initial conditions would change the results remarkably. Furthermore, efficiency of Bondi accretion to power the AGN has been estimated.

  13. Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin

    Lionel eLeclere

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite enormous efforts that have been made in the search for novel drugs and treatments, cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Moreover, the emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy often prevents complete remission. Researchers have thus turned to natural products mainly from plant origin to circumvent resistance. Pectin and pH- or heat-modified pectin have demonstrated chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers. The focus of this review is to describe how pectin and modified pectin display these activities and what are the possible underlying mechanisms. The failure of conventional chemotherapy to reduce mortality as well as serious side effects makes natural products, such as pectin-derived products, ideal candidates for exerting synergism in combination with conventional anticancer drugs.

  14. Management of the endoplasmic reticulum stress by activation of the heat shock response in yeast

    Hou, Jin; Tang, Hongting; Liu, Zihe;

    2014-01-01

    In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by Hac1p. The heat shock response (HSR) mediated by Hsf1p, mainly regulates cytosolic processes and protects......-wide transcriptional response in order to propose regulatory mechanisms that govern the interplay between UPR and HSR and followed up for the hypotheses by experiments in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the regulation of ER stress response via HSR is (1) only partially dependent on over-expression of...... Kar2p (ER resident chaperone induced by ER stress); (2) does not involve the increase in protein turnover via the proteasome activity; (3) is related to the oxidative stress response. From the transcription data, we also propose that HSR enhances ER stress resistance mainly through facilitation of...

  15. Self-folding origami: shape memory composites activated by uniform heating

    Self-folding is an approach used frequently in nature for the efficient fabrication of structures, but is seldom used in engineered systems. Here, self-folding origami are presented, which consist of shape memory composites that are activated with uniform heating in an oven. These composites are rapidly fabricated using inexpensive materials and tools. The folding mechanism based on the in-plane contraction of a sheet of shape memory polymer is modeled, and parameters for the design of composites that self-fold into target shapes are characterized. Four self-folding shapes are demonstrated: a cube, an icosahedron, a flower, and a Miura pattern; each of which is activated in an oven in less than 4 min. Self-sealing is also investigated using hot melt adhesive, and the resulting structures are found to bear up to twice the load of unsealed structures. (paper)

  16. Catharanthus roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 confers UV and heat tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Raina, Susheel Kumar; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash Pandhari; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important source of pharmaceutically important Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs). Accumulation of many of the MIAs is induced in response to abiotic stresses such as wound, ultra violet (UV) irradiations, etc. Recently, we have demonstrated a possible role of CrMPK3, a C. roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase in stress-induced accumulation of a few MIAs. Here, we extend our findings using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the role of CrMPK3 in giving tolerance to abiotic stresses. Yeast cells transformed with CrMPK3 was found to show enhanced tolerance to UV and heat stress. Comparison of CrMPK3 and SLT2, a MAPK from yeast shows high-sequence identity particularly at conserved domains. Additionally, heat stress is also shown to activate a 43 kDa MAP kinase, possibly CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaves. These findings indicate the role of CrMPK3 in stress-induced MIA accumulation as well as in stress tolerance. PMID:23221751

  17. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in activated carbon tank for hydrogen storage

    Xiao, Jinsheng [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Progressing, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Hydrogen Research Institute, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC G9A 5H7 (Canada); Tong, Liang [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Huaxia College, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Deng, Caihua [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Benard, Pierre; Chahine, Richard [Hydrogen Research Institute, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    The charging process of hydrogen storage tank based on bed of activated carbon in a steel container at room temperature (295 K) and medium storage pressure (10 MPa) is simulated with an axisymmetric geometry model using the finite volume commercial solver Fluent. The mass flux profile at the entrance is established using user-defined functions (UDFs). The heat and mass transfer processes in the cylindrical steel tank packed with activated carbon are discussed considering the influence of viscous resistance and inertial resistance of the porous media. The velocity distribution and its effect on the temperature distribution are analyzed. The effects of the flow rate at the inlet and of the adsorption factor on the charging process are studied. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on finite volume simulations is used. Results show that the temperature near the bottom of the tank is higher than that at the entrance, temperature in the center of the tank is higher than that near the wall and rises somewhat faster along the axial compared to the radial direction. The highest hydrogen absolute adsorption occurs at the entrance of the tank. A good agreement is found between the simulation results and the available experimental data. The maximum magnitude of the axial velocity is much higher than that of the radial component, resulting in more heat energy transfer along the axial direction than radial direction. In addition, the pressure reaches equilibrium earlier when the mass flow is higher, and the temperature reaches a maximum value faster. (author)

  18. THIDA-2: an advanced code system for calculation of transmutation, activation, decay heat and dose rate

    In a D-T burning fusion reactor, the radioactivity induced by the 14 MeV neutrons causes many problems. It limits personnel access to the reactor during shutdown, generates decay heat and produces radwastes. A code system THIDA had been developed in 1978 to calculate the radioactivity and dose rate around a fusion device. The THIDA system consisted of the followings: one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport codes; induced activity calculation code; three libraries for transmutation and decay chain data, transmutation cross sections and delayed gamma-ray emission data. The present report gives a complete description of THIDA-2, a new advanced version of the THIDA system which has the following major improvements: 1. Capability to treat three-dimensional calculation models by the use of a Monte Carlo transport code. 2. Accurate decay heat calculation following the transport of delayed gamma rays. 3. Simplification of the data input process by the use of free format scheme and closer coupling between the radiation transport codes and the induced activity calculation code. 4. Self-descriptive output format and additional plotter output. 5. Capability to calculate problems requiring larger core memory by the use of variable dimension. (author)

  19. Plasma hyperosmolality elevates the internal temperature threshold for active thermoregulatory vasodilation during heat stress in humans.

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Aoki, Ken; Morimoto, Keiko; Johnson, John M; Takamata, Akira

    2009-12-01

    Plasma hyperosmolality delays the response in skin blood flow to heat stress by elevating the internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation. This elevation could be because of a delayed onset of cutaneous active vasodilation and/or to persistent cutaneous active vasoconstriction. Seven healthy men were infused with either hypertonic (3% NaCl) or isotonic (0.9% NaCl) saline and passively heated by immersing their lower legs in 42 degrees C water for 60 min (room temperature, 28 degrees C; relative humidity, 40%). Skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry at sites pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block sympathetic vasoconstriction selectively and at adjacent control sites. Plasma osmolality was increased by approximately 13 mosmol/kgH(2)O following hypertonic saline infusion and was unchanged following isotonic saline infusion. The esophageal temperature (T(es)) threshold for cutaneous vasodilation at untreated sites was significantly elevated in the hyperosmotic state (37.73 +/- 0.11 degrees C) relative to the isosmotic state (36.63 +/- 0.12 degrees C, P < 0.001). A similar elevation of the T(es) threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was observed between osmotic conditions at the BT-treated sites (37.74 +/- 0.18 vs. 36.67 +/- 0.07 degrees C, P < 0.001) as well as sweating. These results suggest that the hyperosmotically induced elevation of the internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation is due primarily to an elevation in the internal temperature threshold for the onset of active vasodilation, and not to an enhancement of vasoconstrictor activity. PMID:19812357

  20. Activated corrosion products in ITER first wall and shielding blanket heat transfer system

    Corrosion and erosion phenomena play an important role in mobilizing activated materials in fusion machines. This paper deals with the assessment of the activated corrosion products (ACPs) related to the primary heat transfer system (PHTS) of the first wall/shielding blanket (FW/SB) of the ITER plant. ACPs could be a cause for concern in terms of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) in maintenance scenarios. They could also be relevant in the case of severe accidents, such as ex-vessel LOCAs. The assessment mainly refers to the TAC-4 design developed for ITER. The mobilization of the activated material has been estimated with the qualified CEA code PACTOLE. It considers all the chemical and physical phenomena responsible for corrosion, activation and transport of corrosion products in cooling loops. The XSDNRPM-S code is used for neutronic calculations; the ANITA-2 code for activation calculations. The results obtained show the improvement gained, in terms of corrosion and radioactive inventory reduction, by avoiding the use of the boron as additive. Results obtained point out the impact of the main water chemistry parameters (e.g., water temperature and pH) on ACP production, transport and deposition. A parametric comparison has been carried out considering the coolant flowing during dwell periods, two different in-vessel FW/SB AISI 316L compositions and two fluences: 0.3 and 3 MW·y/m2

  1. Heat Shock Protein-70 Expression in Vitiligo and its Relation to the Disease Activity

    Doss, Reham William; El-Rifaie, Abdel-Aziz A; Abdel-Wahab, Amr M; Gohary, Yasser M; Rashed, Laila A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is a progressive depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. The etiopathogenesis of vitiligo is still unclear. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are prime candidates to connect stress to the skin. HSPs were found to be implicated in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and other skin disorders as psoriasis. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to map the level of HSP-70 in vitiligo lesions to declare its role in the pathogenesis and activity of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: The study included thirty patients with vitiligo and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Vitiligo patients were divided as regards to the disease activity into highly active, moderately active, and inactive vitiligo groups. Skin biopsies were taken from the lesional and nonlesional skin of patients and from the normal skin of the controls. HSP-70 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Our analysis revealed a significantly higher expression of HSP-70 mRNA in lesional skin biopsies from vitiligo patients compared to nonlesional skin biopsies from vitiligo patients (P vitiligo showed higher mean HSP-70 level compared to those with inactive disease. Conclusions: HSP-70 plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and may enhance the immune response in active disease.

  2. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003; Programme 'Solaire actif - Chaleur et Stockage de chaleur'. Activites et projets en 2003

    Hadorn, J.-C. [Base Consultants, Geneva (Switzerland); Renaud, P. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD

  3. Coatings of active and heat-resistant cobalt-aluminium xerogel catalysts.

    Schubert, Miriam; Schubert, Lennart; Thomé, Andreas; Kiewidt, Lars; Rosebrock, Christopher; Thöming, Jorg; Roessner, Frank; Bäumer, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    The application of catalytically coated metallic foams in catalytic processes has a high potential for exothermic catalytic reactions such as CO2 methanation or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis due to good heat conductivity, improved turbulent flow properties and high catalyst efficiencies. But the preparation of homogenous catalyst coats without pore blocking is challenging with conventional wash coating techniques. Here, we report on a stable and additive free colloidal CoAlOOH suspension (sol) for the preparation of catalytically active Co/Al2O3 xerogel catalysts and coatings. Powders with 18wt% Co3O4 prepared from this additive free synthesis route show a catalytic activity in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and CO2 methanation which is similar to a catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) after activating the material under flowing hydrogen at 430°C. Yet, the xerogel catalyst exhibits a much higher thermal stability as compared to the IWI catalyst, as demonstrated in catalytic tests after different heat agings between 430°C and 580°C. It was also found that the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the sol influences the catalytic properties of the formed xerogels negatively. Only non-reducible cobalt spinels were formed from a CoAlOOH sol with 20wt% PEG. Metallic foams with pores sizes between 450 and 1200μm were coated with the additive free CoAlOOH sol, which resulted in homogenous xerogel layers. First catalytic tests of the coated metal foams (1200μm) showed good performance in CO2 methanation. PMID:27240245

  4. A sexual dimorphism influences bicyclol-induced hepatic heat shock factor 1 activation and hepatoprotection.

    Chen, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jianjian; Han, Conghui; Dai, Huijuan; Kong, Xianming; Xu, Longmei; Xia, Qiang; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Bicyclol [4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-bis(methylenedioxy)-2-hydroxy-methyl-2'-methoxycarbonyl biphenyl] is a synthetic hepatoprotectant widely used in clinical practice, but resistance to this treatment is often observed. We found that the hepatoprotective effect of bicyclol was greatly compromised in female and castrated male mice. This study was to dissect the molecular basis behind the sex difference, which might underlie the clinical uncertainty. We compared bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection between male and female mice using acute liver damage models. Inducible knockout by the Cre/loxp system was used to decipher the role of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Functional experiments, western blot, and histopathological analysis were used to determine the key causative factors which might antagonize bicyclol in female livers. HSF1 activation and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression, which were responsible for bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection, were compromised in female and castrated male livers. Compromised HSF1 activation was a result of HSF1 phosphorylation at serine 303, which was catalyzed by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Testosterone was necessary for bicyclol to inhibit hepatic GSK3β activity. Administration of testosterone or GSK3β inhibitors restored bicyclol-induced protection in females. Bicyclol induces sex-specific hepatoprotection based on a sex-specific HSF1/Hsp70 response, in which testosterone and GSK3β play key roles. Because a lot of patients suffering from liver diseases have very low testosterone levels, our results give a possible explanation for the clinical variation in bicyclol-induced hepatoprotection, as well as practicable solutions to improve the effect of bicyclol. PMID:25901028

  5. ISOTROPIC HEATING OF GALAXY CLUSTER CORES VIA RAPIDLY REORIENTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with Pjet = 1044–45 erg s–1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  6. CO2 emission baseline construction for Activities Implemented Jointly reporting in heat production sector

    The present work is dedicated to the calculation method for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions developed within the Joint Implementation projects of the Climate Change Framework Convention based on the case study of Estonian heat supply in 1990ies. Data of the Estonian Statistical Office and data of the Estonian Energy Research Institute on the use of fuels and heat production in recent decade have been used in the paper. CO2 emissions by the types of fuels have been calculated and emission reduction trend for the whole country is given based on the detailed statistics of the consumption of various fuels. This has been taken for a basis for calculating the decrease of CO2 emissions as a result of Joint Implementation pilot phase implementation between Sweden and Estonia. Baseline of CO2 emission has been constructed, considering the changes in the structure of fuel consumption as well as the forecasts of energy sector as whole. Constructed by authors of present paper baseline has been used by donor country for reporting to U N FCCC Secretariat in Bonn. Decision on credit sharing and emission trading between parties to Climate Convention has not been made yet, but Estonia and Sweden are ready for that looking forward to decisions to be made during the next conference of parties, COP 6. Authors do hope sincerely that the present contribution will elaborate to the solutions for future activities between two neighbours. (author)

  7. Adsorption characteristics and heat of adsorption measurements of R-134a on activated carbon

    Saha, Bidyut B. [Mechanical Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Habib, Khairul; Koyama, Shigeru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); El-Sharkawy, Ibrahim I. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents adsorption isotherms of R-134a (HFC-134a) on highly porous pitch based activated carbon (Maxsorb III) in the temperature range of 5-70 C and pressures up to 12 bar, using desorption method. The experimental data have been fitted with the Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) isotherm equation. The adsorption isotherms of R-134a on Maxsorb III obtained from the present study are compared with the adsorption isotherm results of R-134a on similar type of adsorbents obtained by other researchers and they are found to be fairly consistent. The isosteric heat of adsorption of the assorted adsorbent-refrigerant pair has also been extracted from the present experimental data. (author)

  8. PEPIN, Methodology for Computing Concentrations, Activities, Gamma-Ray Spectra, and Residual Heat from Fission Products

    1 - Description of program or function: The concentrations, activities, gamma-ray spectra and residual heat from fission products can be calculated as a function of time for instantaneous fission or for one or more irradiation steps. 2 - Methods: Using the basic data in the libraries, the PEPIN code solves the differential equations satisfied by the fission product concentrations. Data Libraries: Independent Yields Library: 8 independent yields for 235U, 238U, 239U, 232U, 233U. Chain library: Precursor chain file for 635 nuclides. Gamma-Ray Energies Library: Average beta and gamma-ray energies in increasing order. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The number of nuclides must not exceed 650. The number of Gamma-Rays must not exceed 8500. The number of decay times must not exceed 59. The number of irradiation steps must not exceed 40

  9. Thermodynamic assessment of active cooling/heating methods for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles in extreme conditions

    The battery cooling/heating with active methods is required for EVs (electric vehicles) in the extreme temperature conditions. This work presents a new active battery cooling/heating method based on PCS (phase change slurry) cycle. Two typical often used active cooling/heating methods so-called the direct cabin air blow and refrigerant circulation are also illustrated in detail. The thermodynamic assessment is conducted on these battery active cooling/heating methods with both of 1st Law and 2nd Law analysis. The variations of extra thermal load to the vehicle air-conditioning system are investigated as changes of ambient temperature, humidity and thermal load for the direct cabin air blow method. The simulation results show that the direct cabin air blow method causes more extra thermal load to the air-conditioning system without considering the cabin ventilation effect. The PCS cycle method performs higher exergy efficiency than that of using refrigerant circulation method. - Highlights: • An active EV battery cooling/heating method based on PCS cycle is proposed. • Thermodynamic assessments are performed for the proposed methods. • The sensitivities of operation conditions to the methods are investigated

  10. Regional Heat Sources and the Active and Break Phases of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Variability

    Annamalai, H; Sperber, K R

    2003-12-15

    The boreal summer intraseasonal variability (BSISV) associated with the 30-50 day mode is represented by the co-existence of three components, poleward propagation of convection over the Indian and tropical west Pacific longitudes and eastward propagation along the equator. The hypothesis that the three components influence each other has been investigated using observed OLR, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, and solutions from an idealized linear model. The null hypothesis is that the three components are mutually independent. Cyclostationary EOF (CsEOF) analysis is applied on filtered OLR to extract the life-cycle of the BSISV. The dominant mode of CsEOF is significantly tied to observed rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. The components of the heating patterns from CsEOF analysis serve as prescribed forcings for the linear model. This allows us to ascertain which heat sources and sinks are instrumental in driving the large-scale monsoon circulation during the BSISV life-cycle. We identify three new findings: (1) the circulation anomalies that develop as a Rossby wave response to suppressed convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the previous break phase of the BSISV precondition the ocean-atmosphere system in the western Indian Ocean and trigger the next active phase of the BSISV, (2) the development of convection over the tropical west Pacific forces descent anomalies to the west. This, in conjunction with the weakened cross-equatorial flow due to suppressed convective anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean reduce the tropospheric moisture over the Arabian Sea, and promote westerly wind anomalies that do not recurve over India. As a result the low-level cyclonic vorticity shifts from India to southeast Asia and break conditions are initiated over India, and (3) the circulation anomalies forced by equatorial Indian Ocean convective anomalies significantly influence the active/break phases over the tropical west Pacific. Our model solutions support

  11. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  12. Enzyme activity and effect of heat treatment on some fungal diseases of postharvest tomato fruits.

    Amer, M A; El-Abd, S M; Mansour, F G F

    2013-01-01

    The activity of heat treatments for controlling tomato black mould caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Pers. wWas tested. Spore suspension of the grey mold pathogen which was exposed to hot water treatment at 58 degrees C for 6 min., failed to germinate, whereas A. alternata failed to germinate when exposed to hot water at 58 degrees C, for 8 min. Exposing discs bearing growth of any both tested fungi to hot air at 48 degrees C for 72 h caused growth suppression for the both tested pathogens. Dipping tomato fruits in hot water at 58 degrees C for 8 min or keeping in hot air for 72 h at 40 degrees C prevented decay development in non inoculated or artificially inoculated fruits with A. alternata and B. cinerea up to 12 days when stored at 24 degrees C. The high amount of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylestrase (BME) enzymes were investigated in infected fruits by the two tested pathogens as compared by healthy ones. The culture filtrate of A. alternata had the highest protease activity, white B. cinerea was the lowest. Protease activity was higher when CD liquid medium contain casein was used. PMID:25151835

  13. A practical cooling strategy for reducing the physiological strain associated with firefighting activity in the heat.

    Barr, D; Gregson, W; Sutton, L; Reilly, T

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether a practical cooling strategy reduces the physiological strain during simulated firefighting activity in the heat. On two separate occasions under high ambient temperatures (49.6 +/- 1.8 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) 13 +/- 2%), nine male firefighters wearing protective clothing completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km/h, 7.5% gradient) separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which firefighters were either cooled (cool) via application of an ice vest and hand and forearm water immersion ( approximately 19 degrees C) or remained seated without cooling (control). There was no significant difference between trials in any of the dependent variables during the first bout of exercise. Core body temperature (37.72 +/- 0.34 vs. 38.21 +/- 0.17 degrees C), heart rate (HR) (81 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 17 beats/min) and mean skin temperature (31.22 +/- 1.04 degrees C vs. 33.31 +/- 1 degrees C) were significantly lower following the recovery period in cool compared with control (p second bout of activity in cool compared to control. Mean skin temperature, HR and thermal sensation were significantly lower during bout 2 in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this practical cooling strategy is effective at reducing the physiological strain associated with demanding firefighting activity under high ambient temperatures. PMID:19401892

  14. The heat shock protein 90 of Plasmodium falciparum and antimalarial activity of its inhibitor, geldanamycin

    Barik Sailen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The naturally occurring benzoquinone ansamycin compound, geldanamycin (GA, is a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 and is a potential anticancer agent. Since Plasmodium falciparum has been reported to have an Hsp90 ortholog, we tested the possibility that GA might inhibit it and thereby display antiparasitic activity. Results We provide direct recombinant DNA evidence for the Hsp90 protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of fatal malaria. While the mRNA of Hsp90 was mainly expressed in ring and trophozoite stages, the protein was found in all stages, although schizonts contained relatively lower amounts. In vitro the parasitic Hsp90 exhibited an ATP-binding activity that could be specifically inhibited by GA. Plasmodium growth in human erythrocyte culture was strongly inhibited by GA with an IC50 of 20 nM, compared to the IC50 of 15 nM for chloroquine (CQ under identical conditions. When used in combination, the two drugs acted synergistically. GA was equally effective against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains (3D7 and W2, respectively and on all erythrocytic stages of the parasite. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that an active and essential Hsp90 chaperone cycle exists in Plasmodium and that the ansamycin antibiotics will be an important tool to dissect its role in the parasite. Additionally, the favorable pharmacology of GA, reported in human trials, makes it a promising antimalarial drug.

  15. Heating of dust in the broad-line regions of active galaxies and quasars

    In this paper we discuss the relevant energy sources which heat (and, in many cases, destroy) the dust grains in the emission-line clouds (ELCs) which give rise to the broad-line emission seen in active extragalactic objects. We compare the heating rates from the external radiation field, trapped line radiation, and the diffuse bound-free continua. We find that in hot clouds (T/sub e/ = 1.5 x 104 K) Lyα dominates the dust heating rate, while in cooler clouds (T/sub e/ = 1.0 x 104 K) the external radiation field dominates. In all cases, the dust residing in the broad-line clouds is quite hot (T>500 K). These results are discussed in light of the observed infrared properties of active galaxies and quasars, and the following conclusions are reached: (1) If the infrared emission of Seyfert 1 galaxies is primarily thermal in origin, then the redder near-IR colors distinguishing the Seyfert 1 galaxies from the Seyfert 2 galaxies may be understood in terms of the broad-line regions (BLR) concentrating hot dust within the inner parsec of the of the nucleus. (2) Substantial near-infrared dust emission may originate in the neutral regions of the ELCs with only minor accompanying reddening of the hydrogen Balmer lines, since dust confined to the neutral zone reddens only lines emitted from the back side of the cloud. (3) If the broad-line regions of the quasars are characterized by hotter temperatures than Seyfert 1 galaxies, dust may not be able to exist in this region, thereby explaining the apparent lack of thermal dust emission in quasars. (4) Because of the cooling times of the ELCs, near-IR variability due to changes in the dust temperature is dominated by light travel considerations. (5) The present calculations suggest that the dust-to-gas mass ratio in the BLRs of Seyfert 1 galaxies is substantially smaller than the value of 0.01 typically found in our Galaxy

  16. Surface Cleaning or Activation?Control of Surface Condition Prior to Thermo-Chemical Heat Treatment

    Brigitte Haase; Juan Dong; Jens Heinlein

    2004-01-01

    Actual heat treatment processes must face increasing specifications with reference to process quality, safety and results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. They can be met only if the parts' surface condition is controlled during manufacturing and, especially, prior to the treatment. An electrochemical method for the detection of a steel part's surface condition is presented, together with results, consequences, and mechanisms concerning surface pre-treatment before the thermochemical process. A steel surface's activity or passivity can be detected electrochemically, independently from the chemical background. The selected method was the recording of potential vs. time curves at small constant currents, using a miniaturized electrochemical cell, a (nearly) non-destructive electrolyte and a potentio-galvanostatic setup. The method enables to distinguish types of surface contamination which do not interfere with the thermochemical process, from passive layers which do and must be removed. Whereas some types of passive layers can be removed using conventional cleaning processes and agents, others are so stable that their effects can only be overcome by applying an additional activation pre-treatment, e.g. oxynitriding.

  17. Impact of individual acid flue gas components on mercury capture by heat-treated activated carbon

    Jian-ming ZHENG; Jin-song ZHOU; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN

    2012-01-01

    Elemental mercury capture on heat-treated activated carbon (TAC) was studied using a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor.The capability of TAC to perform Hg0 capture under both N2 and baseline gas atmospheres was studied and the effects of common acid gas constituents were evaluated individually to avoid complications resulting from the coexistence of multiple components.The results suggest that surface functional groups (SFGs) on activated carbon (AC) are vital to Hg0 capture in the absence of acid gases.Meanwhile,the presence of acid gas components coupled with defective graphitic lattices on TAC plays an important role in effective Hg0 capture.The presence of HCl,NO2,and NO individually in basic gases markedly enhances Hg0 capture on TAC due to the heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 on acidic sites created on the carbon surface and catalysis by the defective graphitic lattices on TAC.Similarly,the presence of SO2 improves Hg0 capture by about 20%.This improvement likely results from the deposition of sulfur groups on the AC surface and oxidation of the elemental mercury by SO2 due to catalysis on the carbon surface.Furthermore,O2 exhibits a synergistic effect on Hg0 oxidation and capture when acid gases are present in the flue gases.

  18. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal

    Nath, Sankar; Kotal, S. D.; Kundu, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    The upper ocean heat content up to 700 m depth (OHC700) is an important climatic parameter required for atmospheric and oceanographic studies like a cyclone. In this study, therefore, an attempt has been made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the Bay of Bengal (BOB) for the post-monsoon season (October-December) during 1955-2013 periods. The sea-surface temperature (SST), geopotential height at 500 hPa, low-level vorticity at 850 hPa, vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, middle tropospheric humidity at 500 hPa and outgoing long-wave radiation are also being studied using seasonal mean data. The results show a significant inter-decadal variation during 1955-2013, with two distinct decadal periods: active decadal period (ADP) (1955-1988) and inactive decadal period (IDP) (1989-2013). The anomalies of these parameters are opposite in phase for two periods. It is found that the large scale atmospheric features and oceanic parameters have significant inter-decadal variability, but frequency of the tropical cyclone is attributed to the variation in the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic conditions rather than the variation of oceanic parameters OHC700 and SSTs during the post-monsoon season.

  19. Decadal variation of ocean heat content and tropical cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal

    Sankar Nath; S D Kotal; P K Kundu

    2016-02-01

    The upper ocean heat content up to 700 m depth (OHC700) is an important climatic parameter required for atmospheric and oceanographic studies like a cyclone. In this study, therefore, an attempt has been made to examine the inter-decadal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activity and OHC700 over the Bay of Bengal (BOB) for the post-monsoon season (October–December) during 1955–2013 periods. The sea-surface temperature (SST), geopotential height at 500 hPa, low-level vorticity at 850 hPa, vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa, middle tropospheric humidity at 500 hPa and outgoing long-wave radiation are also being studied using seasonal mean data. The results show a significant inter-decadal variation during 1955–2013, with two distinct decadal periods: active decadal period (ADP) (1955–1988) and inactive decadal period (IDP) (1989–2013). The anomalies of these parameters are opposite in phase for two periods. It is found that the large scale atmospheric features and oceanic parameters have significant inter-decadal variability, but frequency of the tropical cyclone is attributed to the variation in the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic conditions rather than the variation of oceanic parameters OHC700 and SSTs during the post-monsoon season.

  20. Inference of Heating Properties from "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores I. Single Nanoflares

    Barnes, W T; Bradshaw, S J

    2016-01-01

    The properties expected of "hot" non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions are investigated using hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the EBTEL code. Here we study a single nanoflare and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK that is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium and, for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the "smoking gun" of nanoflare heating, lies between $10^{6.6}$ and $10^7$ K. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  1. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element...... the performance of the new deck with PCM concrete is the thermal properties of such a new material, as the PCM concrete is yet to be well defined. The results presented in the paper include models in which the PCM concrete material properties, such as thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity were first...... with and without microencapsulated PCM are presented. The new concrete deck with microencapsulated PCM is the standard deck on which an additional layer of the PCM concrete was added and, at the same time, the latent heat storage was introduced to the construction. The challenge of numerically simulating...

  2. Apparent activation energy for densification of -Al2O3 powder at constant heating-rate sintering

    W Q Shao; S O Chen; D Li; H S Cao; Y C Zhang; S S Zhang

    2008-11-01

    The apparent activation energy for densification is a characteristic quantity that elucidates the fundamental diffusion mechanisms during the sintering process. Based on the Arrhenius theory, the activation energy for densification of -Al2O3 at constant heating-rates sintering has been estimated. Sintering of -Al2O3 powder has been executed by the way of a push rod type dilatometer. It is shown that the apparent activation energy does not have a single value but depends directly on the relative density. The apparent activation energy corresponding to lower relative density was higher than that corresponding to higher relative density. In addition, the value of the evaluated activation energy is different at the same density level when the Arrhenius plot involves different heating rates.

  3. Heat Treatment of Small Heat Shock Proteins α-Crystallin and Hsp16.3: Structural Changes vs. Chaperone-like Activity

    毛启龙; 柯丹霞; 昌增益

    2001-01-01

    Both α-crystallin from bovine eye lens and Hsp16.3 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are members of the small heat shock protein family, They were preincubated at 100 C for 15 min and then cooled on ice immediately. The chaperone-like activities of preheated proteins were measured at 37 C using DTT-treated insulin B chains as substrates. Both preheated proteins exhibited greatly enhanced chaperone-like activities, accompanied with almost unchanged secondary structures and surface hydrophobicity but with a minor change in tertiary structures. The dramatically enhanced chaperone-like activities of preheated α-crystallln and Hsp16.3 may have resulted from the irreversible change in the tertiary structure as detected by near-UV CD spectra.

  4. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K

  5. Diagnosing the time-dependence of active region core heating from the emission measure: II. Nanoflare trains

    Reep, Jeffrey W; Klimchuk, James A; 10.1088/0004-637X/764/2/193

    2013-01-01

    The time-dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution cool-ward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a "nanoflare train" and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are: (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration $\\Delta_H$ to the post-train cooling and draining timescale $\\Delta_C$, where $\\Delta_H$ depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time ...

  6. Oral vaccination with heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis activates the complement system to protect against tuberculosis.

    Beatriz Beltrán-Beck

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV. Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar.

  7. Intersession reliability of fMRI activation for heat pain and motor tasks

    Raimi L. Quiton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the practice of conducting longitudinal fMRI studies to assess mechanisms of pain-reducing interventions becomes more common, there is a great need to assess the test–retest reliability of the pain-related BOLD fMRI signal across repeated sessions. This study quantitatively evaluated the reliability of heat pain-related BOLD fMRI brain responses in healthy volunteers across 3 sessions conducted on separate days using two measures: (1 intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC calculated based on signal amplitude and (2 spatial overlap. The ICC analysis of pain-related BOLD fMRI responses showed fair-to-moderate intersession reliability in brain areas regarded as part of the cortical pain network. Areas with the highest intersession reliability based on the ICC analysis included the anterior midcingulate cortex, anterior insula, and second somatosensory cortex. Areas with the lowest intersession reliability based on the ICC analysis also showed low spatial reliability; these regions included pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and posterior insula. Thus, this study found regional differences in pain-related BOLD fMRI response reliability, which may provide useful information to guide longitudinal pain studies. A simple motor task (finger-thumb opposition was performed by the same subjects in the same sessions as the painful heat stimuli were delivered. Intersession reliability of fMRI activation in cortical motor areas was comparable to previously published findings for both spatial overlap and ICC measures, providing support for the validity of the analytical approach used to assess intersession reliability of pain-related fMRI activation. A secondary finding of this study is that the use of standard ICC alone as a measure of reliability may not be sufficient, as the underlying variance structure of an fMRI dataset can result in inappropriately high ICC values; a method to eliminate these false positive results

  8. The influence of electric ARC activation on the speed of heating and the structure of metal in welds

    Savytsky Oleksandr M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research related to the impact of electric arc activation onto drive welding energy and metal weld heating speed. It is confirmed that ATIG and AMIG methods, depending on metal thickness, single pass weldability and chemical composition of activating flux, enable the reduction of welding energy by 2-6 times when compared to conventional welding methods. Additionally, these procedures create conditions to increase metal weld heating speed up to 1,500-5,500°C/s-1. Steel which can be rapidly heated, allows for a hardened structure to form (with carbon content up to 0.4%, together with a released martensitic structure or a mixture of bainitic-martensitic structures. Results of the research of effectiveness of ATIG and AMIG welding showed that increase in the penetration capability of electric arc, which increases welding productivity, is the visible side of ATIG and AMIG welding capabilities.

  9. Preparation and analysis of active rat model of rheumatoid arthritis with features of TCM toxic heat-stasis painful obstruction

    Yanan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The CIA model established in this study presents both active RA pathologic features and characteristics of the symptoms of toxic heat-stasis painful obstruction 12 weeks after successful establishment of an animal model. In addition, this study may be a valuable reference for development of animal studies with combined Eastern and Western medicines in dialectics and identification of diseases.

  10. RhoA Activation Sensitizes Cells to Proteotoxic Stimuli by Abrogating the HSF1-Dependent Heat Shock Response

    Meijering, Roelien A. M.; Wiersma, Marit; van Marion, Denise M. S.; Zhang, Deli; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Schmidt, Martina; Wieland, Thomas; Kampinga, Harm H.; Henning, Robert H.; Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The heat shock response (HSR) is an ancient and highly conserved program of stress-induced gene expression, aimed at reestablishing protein homeostasis to preserve cellular fitness. Cells that fail to activate or maintain this protective response are hypersensitive to proteotoxic stress.

  11. Ion-heated thermal Comptonization models and x-ray spectral correlations in active galactic nuclei

    Recent Ginga observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies NGC 4051 and MCG 6-30-15 show a positive correlation between the 2-10 keV luminosity and photon spectral index α. Similar behavior has also been reported in Exosat and Einstein observations of other active galactic nuclei, and is suggested in hard x-ray low-state data of the galactic black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1. A two-temperature thermal Comptonization model with internal soft-photon production provides a simple explanation for this correlation. The electron temperature, determined by a balance between ion heating and radiative cooling, decreases in response to an enhancement of the soft photon flux, resulting in a softening of the spectrum and an increase in the soft x-ray luminosity. The bulk of the soft photons are produced through pion production in collisions between the hot ions. Pivoting of the spectrum at photon energies var-epsilon > 50 keV is a consequence of variations in the ion temperature. An important test of the model would be time correlations between soft and hard x-ray bands. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  13. Effects of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) on evolution of astrocyte activation following stroke in the mouse

    Barreto, George E.; White, Robin E.; Xu, Lijun; Palm, Curtis J.; Giffard, Rona G.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocyte activation is a hallmark of the response to brain ischemia consisting of changes in gene expression and morphology. Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) protects from cerebral ischemia, and although several protective mechanisms have been investigated, effects on astrocyte activation have not been studied. To identify potential mechanisms of protection, microarray analysis was used to assess gene expression in the ischemic hemispheres of wild-type (WT) and Hsp72-overexpressing (Hsp72Tg) mi...

  14. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans

    Petrie, Michael A.; Kimball, Amy L.; McHenry, Colleen L.; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Methods: Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. Results: We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05); while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05). Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05), but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05) while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold) and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative

  15. Enzyme Activity Dynamics in Response to Climate Change: 2011 Drought-Heat Wave

    Extreme weather events such as severe droughts and heat waves may have permanent consequences on soil quality and functioning in agroecosystems. The Southern High Plains (SHP) region of Texas, U.S., a large cotton producing area, experienced a historically extreme drought and heat wave during 2011,...

  16. Thermo Active Building Systems Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany...

  17. RhoA Activation Sensitizes Cells to Proteotoxic Stimuli by Abrogating the HSF1-Dependent Heat Shock Response.

    Roelien A M Meijering

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is an ancient and highly conserved program of stress-induced gene expression, aimed at reestablishing protein homeostasis to preserve cellular fitness. Cells that fail to activate or maintain this protective response are hypersensitive to proteotoxic stress. The HSR is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, which binds to conserved heat shock elements (HSE in the promoter region of heat shock genes, resulting in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP. Recently, we observed that hyperactivation of RhoA conditions cardiomyocytes for the cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation. Also, the HSR is annihilated in atrial fibrillation, and induction of HSR mitigates sensitization of cells to this disease. Therefore, we hypothesized active RhoA to suppress the HSR resulting in sensitization of cells for proteotoxic stimuli.Stimulation of RhoA activity significantly suppressed the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR in HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes as determined with a luciferase reporter construct driven by the HSF1 regulated human HSP70 (HSPA1A promoter and HSP protein expression by Western Blot analysis. Inversely, RhoA inhibition boosted the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR. While active RhoA did not preclude HSF1 nuclear accumulation, phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation, it did impair binding of HSF1 to the hsp genes promoter element HSE. Impaired binding results in suppression of HSP expression and sensitized cells to proteotoxic stress.These results reveal that active RhoA negatively regulates the HSR via attenuation of the HSF1-HSE binding and thus may play a role in sensitizing cells to proteotoxic stimuli.

  18. Fluoridation and oxidation behavior of JLF-1 and NIFS-HEAT-2 low activation structural materials

    Full text of publication follows: Corrosion of structural materials, such as JLF-1 (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.1C-V-Ta) and NIFSHEAT- 2 (V-4Cr-4Ti), is paid attention most in Flibe (LiF-BeF2) blanket development. In a previous corrosion study on steels, only oxides were identified as corrosion products after a conventional Flibe exposure test, while fluorides were indicated in another report with high purity Flibe after dehydration treatment. In order to clarify the corrosion mechanism in Flibe, it is essential to understand the competitive process by fluoridation and oxidation. Purpose of the present study is to characterize corrosion products of the low activation materials after fluoridation, oxidation and Flibe exposure tests, and to evaluate corrosion resistance of the materials in various conditions. JLF-1 JOYO-II heat and NIFS-HEAT-2 were machined and polished into specimens with 1 x 10 x 20 mm or 1 x 10 x 15 mm in size. The same size specimens of pure Fe, Cr, W, V and Ti were also prepared. The specimens were exposed to HF-H2O solution at room temperature, and to flowing He-HF-O2 gas mixture and static molten salt Flibe at 673-873 K. High purity HF gas was made by a reaction between NiF2 and dehydrated He-H2 gas mixture. Flibe was dehydrated by HF gas bubbling treatment. After the exposure tests, weight change was measured. Corrosion products and microstructural change at the surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). In a XRD spectrum of JLF-1 after Flibe exposure at 823 K for 2003 hr, some peaks considered as FeF2 and CrF2 were observed, however their intensity was not enough to identify the compounds. The morphology and composition of the corrosion products were analyzed by SEM and compared with the one made in accelerated fluoridation tests with various composition of He-HF-O2 gas mixture. (authors)

  19. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages......, occupancy scenarios and ventilation rates. The gained results indicate that the heat capacity coefficient of the ceiling surface is reduced by around 30% when the suspended ceiling covering is 70% of the total ceiling area, and 45% when the covering area is up to 87%. The results also demonstrate...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout....

  20. Study of plate-fin heat exchanger and cold plate for the active thermal control system of Space Station

    Chyu, MING-C.

    1992-01-01

    Plate-fin heat exchangers will be employed in the Active Thermal Control System of Space Station Freedom. During ground testing of prototypic heat exchangers, certain anomalous behaviors have been observed. Diagnosis has been conducted to determine the cause of the observed behaviors, including a scrutiny of temperature, pressure, and flow rate test data, and verification calculations based on such data and more data collected during the ambient and thermal/vacuum tests participated by the author. The test data of a plate-fin cold plate have been also analyzed. Recommendation was made with regard to further tests providing more useful information of the cold plate performance.

  1. Scientific feedback from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) are one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m-2 of nominal convected heat flux. A technical feedback is given from the whole development up to the industrialization and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about the injected gas during long discharges. (authors)

  2. Antimicrobial activity of plant compounds against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and the influence of heat and storage on the antimicrobial activity.

    Chen, Cynthia H; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Marchello, John; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica is a predominant foodborne pathogen that causes diarrheal illness worldwide. A potential method of inhibiting pathogenic bacterial growth in meat is through the introduction of plant-derived antimicrobials. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of heat (70°C for 5 min) and subsequent cold storage (4°C up to 7 days) on the effectiveness of oregano and cinnamon essential oils and powdered olive and apple extracts against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and to evaluate the activity of the most effective antimicrobials (cinnamon oil and olive extract) at higher concentrations in heated ground pork. The surviving Salmonella populations in two groups (heated and unheated) of antimicrobial-treated pork were compared. Higher concentrations of the most effective compounds were then tested (cinnamon oil at 0.5 to 1.0% and olive extract at 3, 4, and 5%) against Salmonella Typhimurium in heated ground pork. Samples were stored at 4°C and taken on days 0, 3, 5, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. The heating process did not affect the activity of antimicrobials. Significant 1.3- and 3-log reductions were observed with 1.0% cinnamon oil and 5% olive extract, respectively, on day 7. The minimum concentration required to achieve . 1-log reduction in Salmonella population was 0.8% cinnamon oil or 4% olive extract. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of these antimicrobials against multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in ground pork and their stability during heating and cold storage. The most active formulations have the potential to enhance the microbial safety of ground pork. PMID:23834804

  3. Modeling active galactic nucleus feedback in cool-core clusters: The balance between heating and cooling

    We study the long-term evolution of an idealized cool-core galaxy cluster under the influence of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback using three-dimensional high-resolution (60 pc) adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The feedback is modeled with a pair of precessing jets whose power is calculated based on the accretion rate of the cold gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The intracluster medium first cools into clumps along the propagation direction of the jets. As the jet power increases, gas condensation occurs isotropically, forming spatially extended structures that resemble the observed Hα filaments in Perseus and many other cool-core clusters. Jet heating elevates the gas entropy, halting clump formation. The cold gas that is not accreted onto the SMBH settles into a rotating disk of ∼1011 M ☉. The hot gas cools directly onto the disk while the SMBH accretes from its innermost region, powering the AGN that maintains a thermally balanced state for a few Gyr. The mass cooling rate averaged over 7 Gyr is ∼30 M ☉ yr–1, an order of magnitude lower than the classic cooling flow value. Medium resolution simulations produce similar results, while in low resolution runs, the cluster experiences cycles of gas condensation and AGN outbursts. Owing to its self-regulating mechanism, AGN feedback can successfully balance cooling with a wide range of model parameters. Our model also produces cold structures in early stages that are in good agreement with the observations. However, the long-lived massive cold disk is unrealistic, suggesting that additional physical processes are still needed.

  4. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of extracts prepared from fermented heat-stabilized defatted rice bran.

    Webber, Daniel M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Li, Ruiqi; Horax, Ronny; Theivendran, Sivarooban

    2014-11-01

    Heat-stabilized, defatted rice bran (HDRB) serves as a potential source of phenolic compounds which have numerous purported health benefits. An estimated 70% of phenolics present in rice bran are esterified to the arabinoxylan residues of the cell walls. Release of such compounds could provide a value-added application for HDRB. The objective of this study was to extract and quantify phenolics from HDRB using fermentation technology. Out of 8 organisms selected for rice bran fermentation, Bacillus subtilis subspecies subtilis had the maximum phenolic release of 26.8 mg ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram HDRB. Response surface methodology was used to further optimize the release of rice bran phenolics. An optimum of 28.6 mg FAE/g rice bran was predicted at 168 h, 0.01% inoculation level, and 100 mg HDRB/mL. Fermentation of HDRB for 96 h with B. subtilis subspecies subtilis resulted in a significant increase in phenolic yield, phenolic concentration, and radical scavenging capacity. Fermented rice bran had 4.86 mg gentistic acid, 1.38 mg caffeic acid, 6.03 mg syringic acid, 19.02 mg (-)-epicatechin, 4.08 mg p-courmaric acid, 4.64 mg ferulic acid, 10.04 mg sinapic acid, and 17.59 mg benzoic acid per 100 g fermented extract compared to 0.65 mg p-courmaric acid and 0.36 mg ferulic acid per 100 g nonfermented extract. The high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented HDRB extract indicates that rice bran fermentation under optimized condition is a potential means of meeting the demand for an effective and affordable antioxidant. PMID:25307751

  5. Heat Capacity Changes and Disorder-to-Order Transitions in Allosteric Activation.

    Cressman, William J; Beckett, Dorothy

    2016-01-19

    Allosteric coupling in proteins is ubiquitous but incompletely understood, particularly in systems characterized by coupling over large distances. Binding of the allosteric effector, bio-5'-AMP, to the Escherichia coli biotin protein ligase, BirA, enhances the protein's dimerization free energy by -4 kcal/mol. Previous studies revealed that disorder-to-order transitions at the effector binding and dimerization sites, which are separated by 33 Å, are integral to functional coupling. Perturbations to the transition at the ligand binding site alter both ligand binding and coupled dimerization. Alanine substitutions in four loops on the dimerization surface yield a range of energetic effects on dimerization. A glycine to alanine substitution at position 142 in one of these loops results in a complete loss of allosteric coupling, disruption of the disorder-to-order transitions at both functional sites, and a decreased affinity for the effector. In this work, allosteric communication between the effector binding and dimerization surfaces in BirA was further investigated by performing isothermal titration calorimetry measurements on nine proteins with alanine substitutions in three dimerization surface loops. In contrast to BirAG142A, at 20 °C all variants bind to bio-5'-AMP with free energies indistinguishable from that measured for wild-type BirA. However, the majority of the variants exhibit altered heat capacity changes for effector binding. Moreover, the ΔCp values correlate with the dimerization free energies of the effector-bound proteins. These thermodynamic results, combined with structural information, indicate that allosteric activation of the BirA monomer involves formation of a network of intramolecular interactions on the dimerization surface in response to bio-5'-AMP binding at the distant effector binding site. PMID:26678378

  6. Blockage of protease-activated receptor 1 ameliorates heat-stress induced intestinal high permeability and bacterial translocation.

    Xu, Qiu-lin; Guo, Xiao-hua; Liu, Jing-xian; Chen, Bin; Liu, Zhi-feng; Su, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidences indicate intestinal lesions play an important role in the pathogenesis of heatstroke. However, the underlying mechanisms by which heat stress causes intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in heat stress-induced intestinal hyper-permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal permeability in heat stressed mouse was evaluated by determining plasma endotoxin concentration and urinal lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio with gastric administration of L/M solution. Venous blood, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node tissues were collected for bacterial load test. Real time PCR was used to determine ileum PAR1 mRNA expression. In vitro study, permeability was assessed by determining trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. RWJ-58259, a selective antagonist of PAR1, was used both in vivo and in vitro studies. The results showed that heat stress could increase ileum PAR1 mRNA level, urinal L/M ratio, plasma endotoxin concentration and bacterial load in the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Blocking PAR1 with RWJ-58259 (10 mg/kg) pretreatment could significantly reduce heat stress-induced above changes, but have no role to PAR1 mRNA level. In Caco-2 cells, heat stress-induced high permeability could also be reduced by RWJ-58259 (5-20 µmol/L). In summary, our results demonstrated that PAR1 signaling pathway may play an important role in the heat stress-induced elevation of intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and the occurrence of endotoxemia. PMID:25492552

  7. Heat stress activates phospholipase D and triggers PIP2 accumulation at the plasma membrane and nucleus

    M. Mishkind; J.E.M. Vermeer; E. Darwish; T. Munnik

    2009-01-01

    Heat stress induces an array of physiological adjustments that facilitate continued homeostasis and survival during periods of elevated temperatures. Here, we report that within minutes of a sudden temperature increase, plants deploy specific phospholipids to specific intracellular locations: phosph

  8. Mesothelioma Cells Escape Heat Stress by Upregulating Hsp40/Hsp70 Expression via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

    Michael Roth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy with hyperthermal chemotherapy in pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma had limited benefits for patients. Here we investigated the effect of heat stress on heat shock proteins (HSP, which rescue tumour cells from apoptosis. In human mesothelioma and mesothelial cells heat stress (39–42°C induced the phosphorylation of two mitogen activated kinases (MAPK Erk1/2 and p38, and increased Hsp40, and Hsp70 expression. Mesothelioma cells expressed more Hsp40 and were less sensitive to heat stress compared to mesothelial cells. Inhibition of Erk1/2 MAPK by PD98059 or by Erk1 siRNA down-regulated heat stress-induced Hsp40 and Hsp70 expression and reduced mesothelioma cell survival. Inhibition of p38MAPK by SB203580 or siRNA reduced Hsp40, but not Hsp70, expression and also increased mesothelioma cell death. Thus hyperthermia combined with suppression of p38 MAPK or Hsp40 may represent a novel approach to improve mesothelioma therapy.

  9. Heat generates oxidized linoleic acid metabolites that activate TRPV1 and produce pain in rodents

    Patwardhan, Amol M.; Akopian, Armen N.; Ruparel, Nikita B.; Diogenes, Anibal; Weintraub, Susan T; Uhlson, Charis; Murphy, Robert C.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is the principal detector of noxious heat in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 is expressed in many nociceptors and is involved in heat-induced hyperalgesia and thermoregulation. The precise mechanism or mechanisms mediating the thermal sensitivity of TRPV1 are unknown. Here, we have shown that the oxidized linoleic acid metabolites 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE) are formed in mouse and rat skin biopsies b...

  10. Convex optimization of MRI exposure for mitigation of RF-heating from active medical implants

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient’s anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant’s RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI. The study emphasizes the complementary performances of the different formulations. The analysis demonstrates that RF-induced heating of elongated metallic medical implants can be carefully controlled and balanced against MRI quality. A reduction of heating of up to 25 dB can be achieved at the cost of reduced uniformity in the magnitude of the B1+ field of less than 5%. The current formulations incorporate a priori knowledge of clinically-specific parameters, which is assumed to be available. Before these techniques can be applied practically in the broader clinical context, further investigations are needed to determine whether reduced access to a priori knowledge regarding, e.g. the patient’s anatomy, implant routing, RF-transmitter, and RF-implant coupling, can be accepted within reasonable levels of uncertainty.

  11. Effects of Heat, pH, and Gamma Irradiation Treatments on Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Sargassum thunbergii Ethanol Extract

    Inhibitory activity of Sagassum thunbergii (ST) against porcine pancreatic lipase was assessed after heat treatment, pH changes, and gamma irradiation. This analysis revealed that the ST ethanol extract exhibited high lipase inhibitory activity (37.37%) at 5 mg/mL. The ST ethanol extract was treated with heat at 60°C for 10, 30, and 60 min; 80 and 100°C for 10 and 20 min; and 121°C for 15 min, pH (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) and γ -irradiation (3, 7 and 20 kGy). The lipase inhibitory activity of the ST ethanol extract increased in all heat treatments, especially at 121°C for 15 min (51.55%) compared with the control. With regard to pH stability, the ST ethanol extract showed no significant changes at pH 4 ~ 8, but somewhat decreased inhibitory activity was revealed at pH 2 (26.25%) and 10 (29.93%). On the other hand, the ST ethanol extract was not affected by γ -irradiation treatment conditions used in this study. These results suggest that ST has a potential role as a functional food agent. (author)

  12. The response of electron transport mediated by active NADPH dehydrogenase complexes to heat stress in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803

    2008-01-01

    The electron-transport machinery in photosynthetic membranes is known to be very sensitive to heat. In this study, the rate of electron transport (ETR) driven by photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) during heat stress in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (WT) and its ndh gene inactiva-tion mutants △ndhB (M55) and △ndhD1/ndhD2 (D1/D2) was simultaneously assessed by using the novel Dual-PAM-100 measuring system. The rate of electron transport driven by the photosystems (ETRPSs) in the WT, M55, and D1/D2 cells incubated at 30℃ and at 55℃ for 10 min was compared. Incubation at 55 ℃ for 10 min significantly inhibited PSII-driven ETR (ETRPSII) in the WT, M55 and D1/D2 cells, and the ex-tent of inhibition in both the M55 and D1/D2 cells was greater than that in the WT cells. Further, PSI-driven ETR (ETRPSI) was stimulated in both the WT and D1/D2 cells, and this rate was increased to a greater extent in the D1/D2 than in the WT cells. However, ETRPSI was considerably inhibited in the M55 cells. Analysis of the effect of heat stress on ETRPSs with regard to the alterations in the 2 active NDH-1 complexes in the WT, M55, and D1/D2 cells indicated that the active NDH-1 supercomplex and medi-umcomplex are essential for alleviating the heat-induced inhibition of ETRPSII and for accelerating the heat-induced stimulation of ETRPSI, respectively. Further, it is believed that these effects are most likely brought about by the electron transport mediated by each of these 2 active NDH-1 complexes.

  13. Comparison of the effects of millimeter wave irradiation, general bath heating, and localized heating on neuronal activity in the leech ganglion

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.

  14. Cloning of ubiquitin-activating enzyme and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme genes from Gracilaria lemaneiformis and their activity under heat shock.

    Li, Guang-Qi; Zang, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Lu, Ning; Ding, Yan; Gong, Le; Chen, Wen-Chao

    2014-03-15

    To study the response of Gracilaria lemaneiformis to heat stress, two key enzymes - ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) - of the Ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway (UPP) were studied in three strains of G. lemaneiformis-wild type, heat-tolerant cultivar 981 and heat-tolerant cultivar 07-2. The full length DNA sequence of E1 contained only one exon. The open reading frame (ORF) sequence was 981 nucleotides encoding 326 amino acids, which contained conserved ATP binding sites (LYDRQIRLWGLE, ELAKNVLLAGV, LKEMN, VVCAI) and the ubiquitin-activating domains (VVCAI…LMTEAC, VFLDLGDEYSYQ, AIVGGMWGRE). The gene sequence of E2 contained four exons and three introns. The sum of the four exons gave an open reading frame sequence of 444 nucleotides encoding 147 amino acids, which contained a conserved ubiquitin-activating domain (GSICLDIL), ubiquitin-conjugating domains (RIYHPNIN, KVLLSICSLL, DDPLV) and ubiquitin-ligase (E3) recognition sites (KRI, YPF, WSP). Real-time-PCR analysis of transcription levels of E1 and E2 under heat shock conditions (28°C and 32°C) showed that in wild type, transcriptions of E1 and E2 were up-regulated at 28°C, while at 32°C, transcriptions of the two enzymes were below the normal level. In cultivar 981 and cultivar 07-2 of G. lemaneiformis, the transcription levels of the two enzymes were up-regulated at 32°C, and transcription level of cultivar 07-2 was even higher than that of cultivar 981. These results suggest that the UPP plays an important role in high temperature resistance of G. lemaneiformis and the bioactivity of UPP is directly related to the heat-resistant ability of G. lemaneiformis. PMID:24365593

  15. Decay Heat Code Validation Activities at ORNL: Supporting Expansion of NRC Regulatory Guide 3.54

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long history of involvement in the development and validation of the ORIGEN series of isotope summation codes and nuclear data libraries, widely recognized and used to predict the decay heat for spent nuclear fuel. In particular, the ORIGEN-S code, the depletion/decay module of the SCALE code system, has been extensively validated using experimental isotopic assay data and decay heat measurements for commercial spent fuel. This work was used in the development of the technical basis for NRC Regulatory Guide 3.54 on spent fuel decay heat. The bulk of the experimental data used to validate spent fuel decay heat predictions are from programs of the 1970s and 1980s and consequently involve older-design fuel assemblies with a relatively low enrichment and burnup. This has led to a situation where the spent fuel now being discharged from operating reactors extends well beyond the regime of the experimental data and area of code applicability based on the data. The absence of validation data for modern fuel designs has potentially serious consequences for decay heat predictions in terms of added safety factors to account for larger uncertainties and lower volumetric transport and storage capacities

  16. A contribution to the investigation of the heat load of shock absorbers of semi-active suspensions in motor vehicles

    Miroslav D. Demić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modeling, has a significant role during the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant vehicle parameters are to be defined. Shock absorbers as executive parts of vehicle semi-active suspension systems suffer thermal loads, which may result in damage and degradation of ther characteristics. Therefore,this paper shows an attempt to analyze converting of mechanical work into heat by using the dynamic simulation method. Introduction Shock absorbers are integral elements of semi-active suspension systems for vehicles (hereinafter SASS. They directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of shock absorbers is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the road and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. The kinetic energy of vehicle vibrations transforms into mechanical work or heat in shock absorbers. In practice, in the first stage of vehicle development, the shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping vibrations of vehicles, but their thermal shock loads should be also taken into account. Motor vehicles have complex dynamic characteristics manifested by spatial movement, parameters change during operation, a number of disturbing influences, backlash, friction, hysteresis, etc. The above-mentioned dynamic phenomena, especially vibration, lead to fatigue of driver and users, reduce the life of the vehicle and its systems, etc. The main objective of the system is to reduce the reliance of the above-mentioned negative effects, improving the vehicle behavior on the road and allow the exploitation of vehicles in a wide range of service conditions. Classical systems cannot satisfiy these conditions, so there was a need to introduce new suspension systems with controlled characteristics (briefly called "semi-active", or "active" systems. Oscillatory model of vehicle The differential equations of vibratory motion of

  17. Heat shock protein 70 prevents secretagogue-induced cell injury in the pancreas by preventing intracellular trypsinogen activation

    Bhagat, Lakshmi; Singh, Vijay P.; Hietaranta, Antti J.; Agrawal, Sudhir; Steer, Michael L; Saluja, Ashok K

    2000-01-01

    Rodents given a supramaximally stimulating dose of cholecystokinin or its analogue cerulein develop acute pancreatitis with acinar cell injury, pancreatic inflammation, and intrapancreatic digestive enzyme (i.e., trypsinogen) activation. Prior thermal stress is associated with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and protection against cerulein-induced pancreatitis. However, thermal stress can also induce expression of other HSPs. The current studies were performed using an in vitro syste...

  18. Heating of vegetable oils influences the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid formation in Wistar rats.

    Stawarska, Agnieszka; Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    Dietary intake of lipids and their fatty acids profile influence many aspects of health. Thermal processing changes the properties of edible oils and can also modify their metabolism, for example, eicosanoids formation. The aim of our study was to verify whether the activity of desaturases can be modified by lipids intake, especially by the fatty acids content. The experimental diets contained rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and olive oil, both unheated and heated (for 10 minutes at 200 °C each time before administration), and influenced the fatty acids composition in serum and the activity of enzymes participating in arachidonic acid (AA) formation. The activity of desaturases was determined by measuring the amounts of AA formed in vitro derived from linoleic acid as determined in liver microsomes of Wistar rats. In addition, the indices of ∆(6)-desaturase (D6D) and ∆(5)-desaturase (D5D) have been determined. To realize this aim, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography has been used with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection. Diet supplementation with the oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the fatty acids profile in blood serum and the activity of D6D and ∆(5)-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the above activities being dependent on the kind of oil applied. Diet supplementation with heated oils has been found to increase the amount of AA produced in hepatic microsomes; and in the case of rapeseed oil and sunflower oil, it has also increased D6D activity. PMID:26094213

  19. Modification of Activated Carbon by Means of Microwave Heating and Its Effects on the Pore Texture and Surface Chemistry

    Bing Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of typical Activated Carbons (coal based AC and coconut shell based AC were modified in a flow of N0 gas has been carried out using a microwave device operating at 2450 MHz and different input power, instead of a conventional furnace. The samples were analyzed by means of low temperatureN0 adsorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration. The results show that microwave heating is an effective means of activated carbon modification. The temperature of activated carbon increases rapidly under microwave heating and then gradual increase to a quasi-stationary temperature. The pore texture of activated carbon changes slightly after microwave treatment and the two activated carbons still keep rich pore structure. The oxygen functional groups decompose and evolve with the form of CO and CO2. This in turn gives rise to a significant decrease in oxygen content. These changes of oxygen contents increase as the microwave input power increases. During microwave treatment, a gradual decrease in the surface acidic functional groups is observed. More important, with the removal of the surface acidic groups, the number of the basic group increased gradually, the activated carbon with oxygen functional groups become basic properties material.

  20. Electrospun magnetic nanofibre mats - A new bondable biomaterial using remotely activated magnetic heating

    Zhong, Yi; Leung, Victor; Yuqin Wan, Lynn; Dutz, Silvio; Ko, Frank K.; Häfeli, Urs O.

    2015-04-01

    A solvothermal process was adopted to produce hydrophilic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles which were subsequently emulsified with a chloroform/methanol (70/30 v/v) solution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and then electrospun into a 0.2 mm thick PCL mat. The magnetic heating of the mats at a field amplitude of 25 kA/m and frequency of 400 kHz exhibited promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of about 40 W/g for the magnetic mat. The produced heat was used to melt the magnetic mat onto the surrounding non-magnetic polymer mat from within, without destroying the nanostructure of the non-magnetic polymer more than 0.5 mm away. Magnetic nanofibre mats might thus be useful for internal heat sealing applications, and potentially also for thermotherapy.

  1. Electrospun magnetic nanofibre mats – A new bondable biomaterial using remotely activated magnetic heating

    A solvothermal process was adopted to produce hydrophilic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles which were subsequently emulsified with a chloroform/methanol (70/30 v/v) solution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and then electrospun into a 0.2 mm thick PCL mat. The magnetic heating of the mats at a field amplitude of 25 kA/m and frequency of 400 kHz exhibited promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of about 40 W/g for the magnetic mat. The produced heat was used to melt the magnetic mat onto the surrounding non-magnetic polymer mat from within, without destroying the nanostructure of the non-magnetic polymer more than 0.5 mm away. Magnetic nanofibre mats might thus be useful for internal heat sealing applications, and potentially also for thermotherapy

  2. Electrospun magnetic nanofibre mats – A new bondable biomaterial using remotely activated magnetic heating

    Zhong, Yi [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Leung, Victor; Yuqin Wan, Lynn [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Dutz, Silvio [Institut für Biomedizinische Technik und Informatik, Technische Universität Ilmenau (Germany); Department of Nano Biophotonics, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Ko, Frank K., E-mail: frank.ko@ubc.ca [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Häfeli, Urs O., E-mail: urs.hafeli@ubc.ca [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    A solvothermal process was adopted to produce hydrophilic magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles which were subsequently emulsified with a chloroform/methanol (70/30 v/v) solution of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and then electrospun into a 0.2 mm thick PCL mat. The magnetic heating of the mats at a field amplitude of 25 kA/m and frequency of 400 kHz exhibited promising efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia, with a specific absorption rate of about 40 W/g for the magnetic mat. The produced heat was used to melt the magnetic mat onto the surrounding non-magnetic polymer mat from within, without destroying the nanostructure of the non-magnetic polymer more than 0.5 mm away. Magnetic nanofibre mats might thus be useful for internal heat sealing applications, and potentially also for thermotherapy.

  3. Heat-stimulated exoelectron emission of uranium activated crystals of lithium and sodium fluorides

    Heat-stimulated exoelectron emission of LiF-U, Cu; LiF, Sr; NaF-U, Sr monocrystals after irradiation by 1 keV electrons for 1 s at current density of 1 μA/cm2 and heating at a rate of 20 K/s was studied. New high-temperature peaks were detected and parameters of heat-stimulated exoelectron emission were determined. It was pointed out that dose dependence of the emission peak intensity has a linear section up to ∼ 103 Gy. It suggests potentiality of (Li, Na) F-U, Me crystals application as high-temperature thermo-emission dosemeters for radiation situation monitoring, for instance, in radioactive waste storage

  4. Heat shock factor activation in human muscles following a demanding intermittent exercise protocol is attenuated with hyperthermia

    Palomero, J; Broome, C S; Rasmussen, P;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The present study investigated whether increased activation of heat shock factors (HSF) following exercise relates primarily to the increased muscle temperature or to exercise in general. METHODS: Six subjects completed 40 min of intermittent cycling (15s:15s exercise:recovery at 300 +/- 22 W...... exercise at 40 degrees C (reduced by 21 +/- 22%) whereas it increased by 29 +/- 51% following exercise at 20 degrees C. CONCLUSION: It appears that increased temperature is not the major factor responsible for activation of HSF DNA binding....

  5. High heat flux test of a HIP-bonded first wall panel of reduced activation ferritic steel F-82H

    Reduced activation ferritic steel F-82H is a primary candidate structural material of DEMO fusion reactors. In fabrication technology, development of the DEMO blanket in JAERI, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding method, especially for the first wall structure with built-in cooling tubes has been proposed. A HIP-bonded F-82H first wall panel was successfully fabricated with selected manufacturing parameters. A high heat flux test of the HIP-bonded F-82H first wall panel has been performed to examine the thermo-mechanical performance of the panel including the integrity of the HIP-bonded interfaces and the fatigue behavior. A maximum heat flux of 2.7 MW/m2 was applied to accelerate the fatigue test up to 5000 cycles in test blanket inserted ITER. The maximum temperature of the panel was ∼450 deg. C under this heat flux. Through this test campaign, no damage such as cracks was observed on the surface of the panel, and no degradation in heat removal performance was observed either from the temperature responses. The thermal fatigue lifetime of the panel was found to be longer than the fatigue data obtained by mechanical testing

  6. Photocatalytic activity and reusability of ZnO layer synthesised by electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment.

    Akhmal Saadon, Syaiful; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Mohd Yusoff, Abdull Rahim; Hakim Wirzal, Mohd Dzul; Rahmalan, Muhammad Taufiq; Nur, Hadi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer was synthesised on the surface of Zn plates by three different techniques, i.e. electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment. The synthesised ZnO layers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO layer was further assessed against methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was achieved up to 84%, 79% and 65% within 1 h for ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis, heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively. The reusability results show that electrolysis and heat-treated ZnO layers have considerable photocatalytic stability. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO was directly associated with the thickness and enlarged surface area of the layer. Finally, this study proved that the ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis and heat treatment had shown better operational stability and reusability. PMID:26732538

  7. Prostaglandins with antiproliferative activity induce the synthesis of a heat shock protein in human cells

    Prostaglandins (PGs)A1 and J2 were found to potently suppress the proliferation of human K562 erythroleukemia cells and to induce the synthesis of a 74-kDa protein (p74) that was identified as a heat shock protein related to the major 70-kDa heat shock protein group. p74 synthesis was stimulated at doses of PGA1 and PGJ2 that inhibited cell replication, and its accumulation ceased upon removal of the PG-induced proliferation block. PGs that did not affect K562 cell replication did not induce p74 synthesis. p74 was found to be localized mainly in the cytoplasm of PG-treated cells, but moderate amounts were found also in dense areas of the nucleus after PGJ2 treatment. p74 was not necessarily associated with cytotoxicity or with inhibition of cell protein synthesis. The results described support the hypothesis that synthesis of the 70-kDa heat shock proteins is associated with changes in cell proliferation. The observation that PGs can induce the synthesis of heat shock proteins expands our understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds whose regulatory role is well known in many physiological phenomena, including the control of fever production

  8. Laboratory Activity: Specific Heat by Change in Internal Energy of Silly Putty

    Koser, John

    2011-01-01

    Students in introductory physics courses often don't study thermodynamics or thermodynamic events. If any thermal physics is taught in introductory courses (e.g., Physics 101 for Liberal Arts Majors), it usually involves the concepts of specific heat and various temperature scales. Seldom are the first and second laws of thermodynamics taught in…

  9. Activation, Heating and Exposure Rates for Mo-99 Experiments with 25-Disk Targets

    An MCNPX model of the 25-disk target assembly inside the vacuum cube inside the shielded box was prepared. This was used to calculate heating and photon and neutron fluxes throughout the model. Production rates for photonuclear reaction products were calculated using the photon fluxes and ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Measured isomer to ground state yield ratios were used where available. Where not available the new correlation between spin deficit and isomer to ground state yield ratios presented at AccApp'11 was used. The photonuclear production rates and neutron fluxes were input to CINDER2008 for transmutation calculations. A cross section update file was used to supply (n,n') reactions missing from CINDER2008 libraries. Decay photon spectra produced by CINDER2008 were then used to calculate exposure rates using the MCNPX model. Two electron beam irradiations were evaluated. The first was for a thermal test at 15 MeV with 1300 (micro)A incident on one target end and the second was for a production test at 35 MeV with 350 (micro)A incident on both target ends (700 (micro)A total current on target). For the thermal test 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h irradiation times were simulated, each followed by decay time steps out to 42 days. For the production test 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h irradiation times were simulated followed by the same decay periods. For all simulations beam FWHMs in x and y were both assumed to be 6 mm. Simulations were run for Mo-100 enriched and natural Mo targets for both tests. It is planned that thermal test will be run for 4 h with natural target disks and production test will be run for 24 h with enriched target disks. Results for these two simulations only are presented in this report. Other results can be made available upon request. Post irradiation exposure rates were calculated at 30 cm distances from left, right, front and back of the following configurations: (1) Shielded box with everything in it (beam pipes, cooling pipes, vacuum cube

  10. Reduction in Activity/Gene Expression of Anthocyanin Degradation Enzymes in Lychee Pericarp is Responsible for the Color Protection of the Fruit by Heat and Acid Treatment

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Zhao-qi; ZHANG Xue-lian; WU Zhen-xian; YIN Hui-fang; PANG Xue-qun

    2013-01-01

    Heat and acid treatments were reported to be a promising substitute for SO2 fumigation in color protection of postharvest lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruits, but the mechanism was not clear. In the present study, hot water (70°C) dipping followed by immersion in 2%HCl (heat-acid) substantially protected the red color of the fruit during storage at 25°C and inhibited anthocyanin degradation while hot water dipping alone (heat) led to rapidly browning and about 90%loss in anthocyanin content. The pH values in the pericarp of the heat-acid treated fruit dropped to 3.2, while the values maintained around 5.0 in the heat-treated and control fruit. No significantly different pH values were detected among the arils of heat-acid, heat treated and control fruit. Heat-acid treatment dramatically reduced the activities of anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase in the pericarp. A marked reduction in LcPOD gene expression was also detected in heat-acid treated fruit, in contrast, induction was found in heat treated fruit. The pericarp of heat-acid treated fruit exhibited significantly lower respiration rate but faster water loss than that of the untreated or heat treated fruit. Taken together, heat treatment triggered quick browning and anthocyanin loss in lychee fruit, while heat-acid treatment protected the fruit color by a great reduction in the activities/gene expression of anthocyanin degradation enzymes and acidification of lychee pericarp.

  11. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    Brosius, Jeffrey W. [Catholic University of America at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Daw, Adrian N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rabin, D. M., E-mail: Jeffrey.W.Brosius@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Code 670, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  12. Vibro-fluidized bed heat pump drying of mint leaves with respect to phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and color indices

    Ataei Ardestani Seyed Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of high porosity and stickiness of mint leaves, they could not be fluidized well during fluidization. In this study, a vibro-fluidized bed dryer assisted heat pump system was designed and fabricated to overcome this problem. The drying experiments were carried out at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The quality of the dehydrated samples was assessed based on color indices, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content. Drying process primarily occurred in falling rate period. The effective coefficient of moisture transfer of the samples was increased with air temperature and varied from 4.26656×10-11 to 2.95872×10-10 m2 s-1 for heat pump drying (HPD method, and 3.71918×10-11 to 1.29196×10-10 m2 s-1 for none-heat pump drying (NHPD method. The color indices for temperatures of 40 and 50 °C were very close to each other, whereas by increasing temperature to 60 °C, a remarkable loss of green color was observed. The highest phenolic content was found in methanolic extract for HPD at 60 °C, and NHPD at 50 °C contained the lowest amount of phenolic compounds. NHPD treatments showed lower antioxidant activity compared to HPD treatments at the same temperature due to the longer drying times.

  13. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec2 (2.58 × 109 km2, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  14. Proteasome activity or expression is not altered by activation of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 in cultured fibroblasts or myoblasts.

    Taylor, David M; Kabashi, Edor; Agar, Jeffrey N; Minotti, Sandra; Durham, Heather D

    2005-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) with chaperoning function work together with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to prevent the accumulation of misfolded, potentially toxic proteins, as well as to control catabolism of the bulk of cytoplasmic, cellular protein. There is evidence for the involvement of both systems in neurodegenerative disease, and a therapeutic target is the heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, which mediates upregulation of Hsps in response to cellular stress. The mechanisms regulating expression of proteasomal proteins in mammalian cells are less well defined. To assess any direct effect of Hsf1 on expression of proteasomal subunits and activity in mammalian cells, a plasmid encoding a constitutively active form of Hsf1 (Hsf1act) was expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Hsf1 and in cultured human myoblasts. Plasmid encoding an inactivatible form of Hsf1 (Hsf1inact) served as control. In cultures transfected with plasmid hsf1act, robust expression of the major stress-inducible Hsp, Hsp70, occurred but not in cultures transfected with hsf1inact. No significant changes in the level of expression of representative proteasomal proteins (structural [20Salpha], a nonpeptidase beta subunit [20Sbeta3], or 2 regulatory subunits [19S subunit 6b, 11 Salpha]) or in chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and caspaselike activities of the proteasome were measured. Thus, stress-induced or pharmacological activation of Hsf1 in mammalian cells would upregulate Hsps but not directly affect expression or activity of proteasomes. PMID:16184768

  15. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-12-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (T(th)) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0-38.5 °C) in a broad range of T(a) (3-30 °C). At warmer conditions (T(a)=30-39 °C) T(th) increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of T(body)-T(a) of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a T(a) of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase T(th) by about 1-3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher T(a) they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high T(th) also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees' suction pump even at low T(a). This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing T(a) bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. PMID:20705071

  16. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I–Q–T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I–Q–T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I–Q–T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance

  17. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Heated Sterilized Pepsin Hydrolysate Derived from Half-Fin Anchovy (Setipinna taty

    Dongfeng Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the heated pepsin hydrolysate from a marine fish half-fin anchovy (HAHp-H. Furthermore, we compared the chemical profiles including the amino acid composition, the browning intensity, the IR and UV-visible spectra, and the molecular weight distribution between the half-fin anchovy pepsin hydrolysate (HAHp and HAHp-H. Results showed that heat sterilization on HAHp improved the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, the antiproliferative activities were all increased for HAHp-H on DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line, 1299 human lung cancer cell line and 109 human esophagus cancer cell line. The contents of free amino acid and reducing sugar of HAHp-H were decreased (P < 0.05. However, hydrophobic amino acid residues and the browning intensity of HAHp-H were increased. FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that amide I and amide III bands of HAHp-H were slightly modified, whereas band intensity of amide II was reduced dramatically. Thermal sterilization resulted in the increased fractions of HAHp-H with molecular weight of 3000–5000 Da and below 500 Da. The enhanced antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of HAHp-H might be attributed to the Maillard reaction.

  18. Heat treatment of curdlan enhances the enzymatic production of biologically active β-(1,3)-glucan oligosaccharides.

    Kumagai, Yuya; Okuyama, Masayuki; Kimura, Atsuo

    2016-08-01

    Biologically active β-(1,3)-glucan oligosaccharides were prepared from curdlan using GH64 enzyme (KfGH64). KfGH64 showed low activity toward native curdlan; thereby pretreatment conditions of curdlan were evaluated. KfGH64 showed the highest activity toward curdlan with heat treatment. The most efficient pretreatment (90°C for 0.5h) converted approximately 60% of curdlan into soluble saccharides under the optimized enzyme reaction conditions (pH 5.5, 37°C, 100rpm mixing speed, 24h, and 10μg of KfGH64/1g of curdlan). The resulting products were predominantly laminaripentaose and a small amount of β-(1,3)-glucans with an average degree of polymerization (DP) of 13 and 130. The products did not contain small oligosaccharides (DPhydrolysis of heat-treated curdlan by KfGH64 is a suitable method for the production of biologically active β-(1,3)-glucan oligosaccharides. PMID:27112889

  19. Aerosol palladium activation for electroless copper deposition and heat treatment with NO injection to fabricate Cu oxide/carbon fibre

    This paper introduces a novel method for fabricating copper (Cu) oxide/activated carbon fibre (ACF) through the aerosol palladium (Pd) activation for use in electroless Cu deposition and heat treatment of Cu deposited ACF with nitric monoxide (NO) gas injection. Electroless Cu deposition was initiated by catalytically activating the ACF surface with spark generated Pd aerosol nanoparticles. The catalytically activated ACF was placed into a solution used for the electroless Cu deposition. Subjecting the Cu deposited ACF to a heat treatment in a NO/nitrogen (N2) gas injection (1000 ppm NO) resulted in changes to the morphology of the Cu particles. As the temperature increased from 100 to 500 deg. C, the relative mass fraction of oxygen in the Cu particles increased from 3.6% to 14.2% and the fraction of Cu decreased from 41.2% to 34.1%, which was caused by the formation of Cu oxides (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding surface area and pore volume of the ACF decreased from 1019 m2 g-1 to 401 m2 g-1 and from 0.40 cm3 g-1 to 0.18 cm3 g-1, respectively. The morphological evolution and decrease in porosity were attributed to volume expansion of Cu particles during oxidation.

  20. Aerosol palladium activation for electroless copper deposition and heat treatment with NO injection to fabricate Cu oxide/carbon fibre

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Hwang, Jungho

    2009-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for fabricating copper (Cu) oxide/activated carbon fibre (ACF) through the aerosol palladium (Pd) activation for use in electroless Cu deposition and heat treatment of Cu deposited ACF with nitric monoxide (NO) gas injection. Electroless Cu deposition was initiated by catalytically activating the ACF surface with spark generated Pd aerosol nanoparticles. The catalytically activated ACF was placed into a solution used for the electroless Cu deposition. Subjecting the Cu deposited ACF to a heat treatment in a NO/nitrogen (N2) gas injection (1000 ppm NO) resulted in changes to the morphology of the Cu particles. As the temperature increased from 100 to 500 °C, the relative mass fraction of oxygen in the Cu particles increased from 3.6% to 14.2% and the fraction of Cu decreased from 41.2% to 34.1%, which was caused by the formation of Cu oxides (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding surface area and pore volume of the ACF decreased from 1019 m2 g-1 to 401 m2 g-1 and from 0.40 cm3 g-1 to 0.18 cm3 g-1, respectively. The morphological evolution and decrease in porosity were attributed to volume expansion of Cu particles during oxidation.

  1. Shape-memory surface with dynamically tunable nano-geometry activated by body heat.

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Idota, Naokazu; Hoffman, John M; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-01-10

    Shape-memory surfaces with on-demand, tunable nanopatterns are developed to observe time dependent changes in cell alignment using temperature-responsive poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) films. Temporary grooved nanopatterns are easily programmed on the films and triggered to transition quickly to permanent surface patterns by the application of body heat. A time-dependent cytoskeleton remodeling is also observed under biologically relevant conditions. PMID:21954058

  2. Heat production and quantitative oxidation of nutrients by physical activity in pigs

    Jakobsen, K; Chwalibog, André; Henckel, S; Thorbek, G

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of pigs weighing 90 (Expt A) or 80 (Expt B) kg walked on a horizontal moving rubber belt for a distance of 315 m at a speed of 25.6 +/- 0.38 and 28.8 +/- 0.35 m/min respectively for 10 min in an open-air-circuit respiration unit. From measurements of VO2 and VCO2, heat production and o...

  3. A review of health, planning, insurance and property value issues related to active solar heating systems

    The research reported here considers the potential health risks, local authority planning implications, insurance and property value aspects of solar water heating systems. The United Kingdom market for this technology is also discussed. Methodologies employed, including literature reviews, telephone and postal survey and re-analysis of a 1995 survey, are explained. No major problems are identified in any of the target areas although recommendations for water temperature management and coordinated local authority policies on renewable energy are given. (UK)

  4. Regional and total body active heating and cooling of a resting diver in water of varied temperatures

    Bardy, Erik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Grove City College, 100 Campus Drive, Grove City, PA 16127 (United States); Mollendorf, Joseph [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, 318 Jarvis Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States); Pendergast, David [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, 318 Jarvis Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-4400 (United States)

    2008-02-07

    Passive insulations alone are not sufficient for maintaining underwater divers in thermal balance or comfort. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the active heating and cooling requirements to keep a diver at rest in thermal balance and comfort in water temperatures between 10 and 40 deg. C. A diver wearing a prototype tubesuit and a wetsuit (3 or 6.5 mm foam neoprene) was fully submersed (0.6 m) in water at a specified temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 deg. C). During immersion, the tubesuit was perfused with 30 deg. C water at a flow rate of 0.5 L min{sup -1} to six individual body regions. An attempt was made to keep skin temperatures below 42 deg. C in hot water (>30 deg. C) and elevated but below 32 deg. C in cold water (<20 deg. C). A skin temperature of 32 deg. C is the threshold for maximal body thermal resistance due to vasoconstriction. Skin temperatures and core temperature were monitored during immersion to ensure they remained within set thermal limits. In addition skin heat flux, oxygen consumption and the thermal exchange of the tubesuit were measured. In both wetsuit thicknesses there was a linear correlation between the thermal exchange of the tubesuit and ambient water temperature. In the 6.5 mm wetsuit -214 W to 242 W of heating (-) and cooling (+) was necessary in 10 deg. C to 40 deg. C water, respectively. In the 3 mm wetsuit -462 to 342 W was necessary in 10 deg. C to 40 deg. C water, respectively. It was therefore concluded that a diver at rest can be kept in thermal balance in 10-40 deg. C water with active heating and cooling.

  5. mTOR is essential for the proteotoxic stress response, HSF1 activation and heat shock protein synthesis.

    Shiuh-Dih Chou

    Full Text Available The target of rapamycin (TOR is a high molecular weight protein kinase that regulates many processes in cells in response to mitogens and variations in nutrient availability. Here we have shown that mTOR in human tissue culture cells plays a key role in responses to proteotoxic stress and that reduction in mTOR levels by RNA interference leads to increase sensitivity to heat shock. This effect was accompanied by a drastic reduction in ability to synthesize heat shock proteins (HSP, including Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110. As HSP transcription is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, we examined whether mTOR could directly phosphorylate this factor. Indeed, we determined that mTOR could directly phosphorylate HSF1 on serine 326, a key residue in transcriptional activation. HSF1 was phosphorylated on S326 immediately after heat shock and was triggered by other cell stressors including proteasome inhibitors and sodium arsenite. Null mutation of S326 to alanine led to loss of ability to activate an HSF1-regulated promoter-reporter construct, indicating a direct role for mTOR and S326 in transcriptional regulation of HSP genes during stress. As mTOR is known to exist in at least two intracellular complexes, mTORC1 and mTOR2 we examined which complex might interact with HSF1. Indeed mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented HSF1-S326 phosphorylation, suggesting that this complex is involved in HSF1 regulation in stress. Our experiments therefore suggest a key role for mTORC1 in transcriptional responses to proteotoxic stress.

  6. Photothermally Activated Pyroelectric Polymer Films for Harvesting of Solar Heat with a Hybrid Energy Cell Structure.

    Park, Teahoon; Na, Jongbeom; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-12-22

    Photothermal effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s (PEDOTs) were explored for pyroelectric conversion. A poled ferroelectric film was coated on both sides with PEDOT via solution casting polymerization of EDOT, to give highly conductive and effective photothermal thin films of PEDOT. The PEDOT films not only provided heat source upon light exposure but worked as electrodes for the output energy from the pyroelectric layer in an energy harvester hybridized with a thermoelectric layer. Compared to a bare thermoelectric system under NIR irradiation, the photothermal-pyro-thermoelectric device showed more than 6 times higher thermoelectric output with the additional pyroelectric output. The photothermally driven pyroelectric harvesting film provided a very fast electric output with a high voltage output (Vout) of 15 V. The pyroelectric effect was significant due to the transparent and high photothermal PEDOT film, which could also work as an electrode. A hybrid energy harvester was assembled to enhance photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of a solar cell with a thermoelectric device operated by the photothermally generated heat. The PCE was increased more than 20% under sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G) utilizing the transmitted light through the photovoltaic cell as a heat source that was converted into pyroelectric and thermoelectric output simultaneously from the high photothermal PEDOT electrodes. Overall, this work provides a dynamic and static hybrid energy cell to harvest solar energy in full spectral range and thermal energy, to allow solar powered switching of an electrochromic display. PMID:26308669

  7. Manufacturing and thermomechanical testing of actively cooled all beryllium high heat flux test pieces

    Vasiliev, N.N.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shatalov, G.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    One of the problems affiliated to ITER high heat flux elements development is a problem of interface of beryllium protection with heat sink routinely made of copper alloys. To get rid of this problem all beryllium elements could be used as heat receivers in places of enhanced thermal loads. In accordance with this objectives four beryllium test pieces of two types have been manufactured in {open_quotes}Institute of Beryllium{close_quotes} for succeeding thermomechanical testing. Two of them were manufactured in accordance with JET team design; they are round {open_quotes}hypervapotron type{close_quotes} test pieces. Another two ones are rectangular test sections with a twisted tape installed inside of the circular channel. Preliminary stress-strain analysis have been performed for both type of the test pieces. Hypervapotrons have been shipped to JET where they were tested on JET test bed. Thermomechanical testing of pieces of the type of {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} have been performed on Kurchatov Institute test bed. Chosen beryllium grade properties, some details of manufacturing, results of preliminary stress-strain analysis and thermomechanical testing of the test pieces {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} type are given in this report.

  8. The influence of milk composition on pH and calcium activity measured in situ during heat treatment of reconstituted skim milk.

    Chandrapala, Jayani; McKinnon, Ian; Augustin, Mary Ann; Udabage, Punsandani

    2010-08-01

    The pH and calcium activity of reconstituted skim milk solutions (9-21% w/w milk solids non-fat) on heating and after cooling were studied as a function of milk pH prior to heating (pH 6.2-7.2 at 25 degrees C) and added calcium complexing agents (phosphate or EDTA). The pH decreased as the temperature was raised from 25 to 90 degrees C and the magnitude of the pH decrease was greater with increase in initial pH at 25 degrees C before heating or milk concentration. The pH decrease on heating from 25 to 90 degrees C in skim milk solutions with added calcium complexing agents was lower than that of milk without the addition of these salts. The calcium activity decreased on heating from 25 to 60 degrees C. The magnitude of the change decreased with increase in initial pH at 25 degrees C before heating and milk concentration. The decrease in calcium activity on heating from 25 to 60 degrees C for skim milk solutions with added calcium complexing agents was lower than that of milk solutions without the addition of calcium complexing agents. The changes in pH and calcium activity on heating milk were largely reversible after cooling the milk. The results suggested that the pH and calcium activity at high temperatures are a function of the milk composition. Knowledge of the initial pH prior to heating alone is not sufficient for predicting the changes that occur during heating. PMID:20196897

  9. Material composition and nuclear data libraries' influence on nickel-chromium alloys activation evaluation: a comparison with decay heat experiments

    The paper presents the activation analyses on Inconel-600 nickel-chromium alloy. Three activation data libraries, namely the EAF-4.1, the EAF-97 and the FENDL/A-2, and the FENDL/D-2 decay data library, have been used to perform the calculation with the European activation code ANITA-4/M. The neutron flux distribution into the material samples was provided by JAERI as results of 3D Monte-Carlo MCNP transport code experiment simulation. A comparison with integral decay heat measurement performed at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS), JAERI, Tokai, Japan, is used to validate the computational approach. The calculation results are given and discussed. The impact of the material composition, including impurities, on the decay heat of samples irradiated in fusion-like neutron spectra is assessed and discussed. The discrepancies calculations-experiments are within the experimental errors, that is between 6% and 10%, except for the short cooling times (less than 40 min after the end of irradiation). To improve calculation consistency with the experimental results, the knowledge of the material impurities content is mandatory

  10. Material composition and nuclear data libraries' influence on nickel-chromium alloys activation evaluation: a comparison with decay heat experiments

    Cepraga, D G

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the activation analyses on Inconel-600 nickel-chromium alloy. Three activation data libraries, namely the EAF-4.1, the EAF-97 and the FENDL/A-2, and the FENDL/D-2 decay data library, have been used to perform the calculation with the European activation code ANITA-4/M. The neutron flux distribution into the material samples was provided by JAERI as results of 3D Monte-Carlo MCNP transport code experiment simulation. A comparison with integral decay heat measurement performed at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS), JAERI, Tokai, Japan, is used to validate the computational approach. The calculation results are given and discussed. The impact of the material composition, including impurities, on the decay heat of samples irradiated in fusion-like neutron spectra is assessed and discussed. The discrepancies calculations-experiments are within the experimental errors, that is between 6% and 10%, except for the short cooling times (less than 40 min after the end of irradiation). To improve calcul...

  11. Compilation of Data on Radionuclide Data for Specific Activity, Specific Heat and Fission Product Yields

    Gibbs, A.; Thomason, R.S.

    2000-09-05

    This compilation was undertaken to update the data used in calculation of curie and heat loadings of waste containers in the Solid Waste Management Facility. The data has broad general use and has been cross-checked extensively in order to be of use in the Materials Accountability arena. The fission product cross-sections have been included because they are of use in the Environmental Remediation and Waste Management areas where radionuclides which are not readily detectable need to be calculated from the relative fission yields and material dispersion data.

  12. Compilation of Data on Radionuclide Data for Specific Activity, Specific Heat and Fission Product Yields

    This compilation was undertaken to update the data used in calculation of curie and heat loadings of waste containers in the Solid Waste Management Facility. The data has broad general use and has been cross-checked extensively in order to be of use in the Materials Accountability arena. The fission product cross-sections have been included because they are of use in the Environmental Remediation and Waste Management areas where radionuclides which are not readily detectable need to be calculated from the relative fission yields and material dispersion data

  13. CORONAL HEATING BY THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS AND THE QUIET SUN OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important puzzles in solar physics and astrophysics. Here we report Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of coronal heating by the interaction between emerging active regions (EARs) and the surrounding quiet Sun (QS). The EARs continuously interact with the surrounding QS, resulting in dark ribbons which appear at the boundary of the EARs and the QS. The dark ribbons visible in extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths propagate away from the EARs with speeds of a few km s−1. The regions swept by the dark ribbons are brightening afterward, with the mean temperature increasing by one quarter. The observational findings demonstrate that uninterrupted magnetic reconnection between EARs and the QS occurs. When the EARs develop, the reconnection continues. The dark ribbons may be the track of the interface between the reconnected magnetic fields and the undisturbed QS’s fields. The propagating speed of the dark ribbons reflects the reconnection rate and is consistent with our numerical simulation. A long-term coronal heating which occurs in turn from nearby the EARs to far away from the EARs is proposed

  14. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Neelam Ara; Korakot Nakkanong; Wenhui Lv; Jinghua Yang; Zhongyuan Hu; Mingfang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant inte...

  15. Development and Evaluation of Active Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries using Solid-State Thermoelectric Heat Pump and Heat Pipes with Electric Vehicular Applications

    Parekh, Bhaumik Kamlesh

    Lithium-Ion batteries have become a popular choice for use in energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) because of high power and high energy density. But the use of EV and HEV in all climates demands for a battery thermal management system (BTMS) since temperature effects their performance, cycle life and, safety. Hence the BTMS plays a crucial role in the performance of EV and HEV. In this paper, three thermal management systems are studied: (a) simple aluminum as heat spreader material, (b) heat pipes as heat spreader, and (c) advanced combined solid state thermoelectric heat pump (TE) and heat pipe system; these will be subsequently referred to as Design A, B and C, respectively. A detailed description of the designs and the experimental setup is presented. The experimental procedure is divided into two broad categories: Cooling mode and Warming-up mode. Cooling mode covers the conditions when a BTMS is responsible to cool the battery pack through heat dissipation and Warming-up mode covers the conditions when the BTMS is responsible to warm the battery pack in a low temperature ambient condition, maintaining a safe operating temperature of the battery pack in both modes. The experimental procedure analyzes the thermal management system by evaluating the effect of each variable like heat sink area, battery heat generation rate, cooling air temperature, air flow rate and TE power on parameters like maximum temperature of the battery pack (T max), maximum temperature difference (DeltaT) and, heat transfer through heat sink/cooling power of TE (Q c). The results show that Design C outperforms Design A and Design B in spite of design issues which reduce its efficiency, but can still be improved to achieve better performance.

  16. Absence of arterial baroreflex modulation of skin sympathetic activity and sweat rate during whole-body heating in humans

    Wilson, T. E.; Cui, J.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    1. Prior findings suggest that baroreflexes are capable of modulating skin blood flow, but the effects of baroreceptor loading/unloading on sweating are less clear. Therefore, this project tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically induced alterations in arterial blood pressure in heated humans would lead to baroreflex-mediated changes in both skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and sweat rate. 2. In seven subjects mean arterial blood pressure was lowered (approximately 8 mmHg) and then raised (approximately 13 mmHg) by bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Moreover, in a separate protocol, arterial blood pressure was reduced via steady-state administration of sodium nitroprusside. In both normothermia and heat-stress conditions the following responses were monitored: sublingual and mean skin temperatures, heart rate, beat-by-beat blood pressure, skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry), local sweat rate and SSNA (microneurography from peroneal nerve). 3. Whole-body heating increased skin and sublingual temperatures, heart rate, cutaneous blood flow, sweat rate and SSNA, but did not change arterial blood pressure. Heart rate was significantly elevated (from 74 +/- 3 to 92 +/- 4 beats x min(-1); P < 0.001) during bolus sodium nitroprusside-induced reductions in blood pressure, and significantly reduced (from 92 +/- 4 to 68 +/- 4 beats x min(-1); P < 0.001) during bolus phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure, thereby demonstrating normal baroreflex function in these subjects. 4. Neither SSNA nor sweat rate was altered by rapid (bolus infusion) or sustained (steady-state infusion) changes in blood pressure regardless of the thermal condition. 5. These data suggest that SSNA and sweat rate are not modulated by arterial baroreflexes in normothermic or moderately heated individuals.

  17. Modeling the heat and mass transfers in temperature-swing adsorption of volatile organic compounds onto activated carbons

    Sylvain Giraudet; Pascaline Pre; Pierre Le Cloirec [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2009-02-15

    A theoretical model was built to simulate the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto activated carbons in a fixed bed. This model was validated on a set of experimental data obtained for the adsorption of acetone, ethyl formate, and dichloromethane onto five commercial activated carbons. The influence of operating conditions was modeled with various VOC contents at the inlet of the adsorber and superficial velocities of the gas-phase from 0.14 to 0.28 m.s{sup -1}. Breakthrough times and maximum temperature rises were computed with a coefficient of determination of 0.988 and 0.901, respectively. The simulation was then extended to the adsorption of mixtures of VOCs. From the comparison of simulation and experimental results, the advantage of accounting for dispersions of heat and mass is shown and the importance in taking into account the temperature effect on the equilibrium data is demonstrated. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Characterization and damaging law of CFC for high heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components

    Chevet, G.; Martin, E.; Boscary, J.; Camus, G.; Herb, V.; Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Missirlian, M.

    2011-10-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite (CFC) Sepcarb N11 has been used in the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak (Cadarache, France) as armour material for the plasma facing components. For the fabrication of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) divertor (Greifswald, Germany), the NB31 material was chosen. For the fabrication of the ITER divertor, two potential CFC candidates are the NB31 and NB41 materials. In the case of Tore Supra, defects such as microcracks or debonding were found at the interface between CFC tile and copper heat sink. A mechanical characterization of the behaviour of N11 and NB31 was undertaken, allowing the identification of a damage model and finite element calculations both for flat tiles (TS and W7-X) and monoblock (ITER) armours. The mechanical responses of these CFC materials were found almost linear under on-axis tensile tests but highly nonlinear under shear tests or off-axis tensile tests. As a consequence, damage develops within the high shear-stress zones.

  19. State opportunities for action: Update of states' combined heat and power activities

    Brown, Elizabeth [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Elliott, R. Neal [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2003-10-01

    This report updates the review of state policies with regard to CHP that the American Council for and Energy Efficient Economy completed in 2002. It describes the current activities of states with programs during the initial survey and also reviews new programs offered by the states.

  20. On the estimation of heating effects in the atmosphere because of seismic activities

    Meister, Claudia-Veronika; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric model for waves in the Earth's ionosphere is further developed and applied to possible electro-magnetic phenomena in seismic regions. In doing so, in comparison to the well-known dielectric wave model by R.O. Dendy [Plasma dynamics, Oxford University Press, 1990] for homogeneous systems, the stratification of the atmosphere is taken into account. Moreover, within the frame of many-fluid magnetohydrodynamics also the momentum transfer between the charged and neutral particles is considered. Discussed are the excitation of Alfvén and magnetoacoustic waves, but also their variations by the neutral gas winds. Further, also other current driven waves like Farley-Buneman ones are studied. In the work, models of the altitudinal scales of the plasma parameters and the electromagnetic wave field are derived. In case of the electric wave field, a method is given to calculate the altitudinal scale based on the Poisson equation for the electric field and the magnetohydrodynamic description of the particles. Further, expressions are derived to estimate density, pressure, and temperatur changes in the E-layer because of the generation of the electromagnetic waves. Last not least, formulas are obtained to determine the dispersion and polarisation of the excited electromagnetic waves. These are applied to find quantitative results for the turbulent heating of the ionospheric E-layer. Concerning the calculation of the dispersion relation, in comparison to a former work by Meister et al. [Contr. Plasma Phys. 53 (4-5), 406-413, 2013], where a numerical double-iteration method was suggested to obtain results for the wave dispersion relations, now further analytical calculations are performed. In doing so, different polynomial dependencies of the wave frequencies from the wave vectors are treated. This helped to restrict the numerical calculations to only one iteration process.

  1. Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on impact behavior of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Charpy tests were conducted on eight normalized-and-tempered reduced-activation ferritic steels irradiated in two different normalized conditions. Irradiation was conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 393 C to {approx}14 dpa on steels with 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% Cr (0.1% C) with varying amounts of W, V, and Ta. The different normalization treatments involved changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The faster cooling rate produced 100% bainite in the 2.25 Cr steels, compared to duplex structures of bainite and polygonal ferrite for the slower cooling rate. For both cooling rates, martensite formed in the 5 and 9% Cr steels, and martensite with {approx}25% {delta}-ferrite formed in the 12% Cr steel. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The difference in microstructure in the low-chromium steels due to the different heat treatments had little effect on properties. For the high-chromium martensitic steels, only the 5 Cr steel was affected by heat treatment. When the results at 393 C were compared with previous results at 365 C, all but a 5 Cr and a 9 Cr steel showed the expected decrease in the shift in DBTT with increasing temperature.

  2. Steady-state heat and particle removal with the actively cooled Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter in Tore Supra

    Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL) is a modular actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation. During its initial operation in 1993, the OPL successfully removed about 1 MW of power during ohmically heated shots of up to 10 seconds duration and reached (steady state) thermal equilibrium. The particle pumping of the Phase III OPL was found to be about 50% greater than the Phase II OPL which had a radial distance between the last closed flux surface and the entrance of the pumping throat of 3.5 cm compared with only 2.5 cm for the Phase III OPL. This paper gives examples of power distribution over the limiter from IR measurements of surface temperature and from extensive calorimetry (34 thermocouples and 10 flow meters) and compares the distributions with values predicted by a 3-D model (HF3D) with a detailed magnetic configuration (e.g., includes field ripple)

  3. Effect of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) heat treatment of bovine milk on the activities of some enzymes, the milk fat globule and pH

    Dickow, Jonathan Ahrens; Thorup Nielsen, Martin; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) treatment at temperatures 70–150 C on the enzymatic activities of the indigenous milk enzymes alkaline phosphatase, lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasmin in comparison with two...... reference heat treatments of 63 C for 30 s and of 72 C for 15 s by indirect heating. Milk fat globule (MFG) size distributions and pH were also monitored. Alkaline phosphatase, LPO, XO and LPL activities decreased with increasing LSI temperature. Plasmin activity was increased at temperatures <80 C and...

  4. Heat Shock Protein 90 Indirectly Regulates ERK Activity by Affecting Raf Protein Metabolism

    Fei DOU; Liu-Di YUAN; Jing-Jing ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nerve system diseases. As more and more kinases have been discovered to be the client proteins of the molecular chaperone Hsp90, the use of Hsp90 inhibitors to reduce abnormal kinase activity is a new treatment strategy for nerve system diseases. This study investigated the regulation of the ERK pathway by Hsp90. We showed that Hsp90 inhibitors reduce ERK phosphorylation without affecting the total ERK protein level. Further investigation showed that Raf, the upstream kinase in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway,forms a complex with Hsp90 and Hsp70. Treating cells with Hsp90 inhibitors facilitates Raf degradation,thereby down-regulating the activity of ERK.

  5. Catharanthus roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 confers UV and heat tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Raina, Susheel Kumar; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash Pandhari; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important source of pharmaceutically important Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs). Accumulation of many of the MIAs is induced in response to abiotic stresses such as wound, ultra violet (UV) irradiations, etc. Recently, we have demonstrated a possible role of CrMPK3, a C. roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase in stress-induced accumulation of a few MIAs. Here, we extend our findings using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the role of CrMPK3 in giving tole...

  6. Modelling the activity of 99Tc the primary heat transport system of a CANDU reactor

    A physical model has been developed to describe the coolant activity behaviour of 99Tc, during constant and reactor shutdown operations. This analysis accounts for the fission production of technetium and molybdenum, in which their chemical form and volatility is determined by a thermodynamic treatment using a Gibbs-energy minimization. The release kinetics are calculated according to the rate-controlling step of diffusional transport in the fuel matrix and vaporization from the fuel-grain surface. Based on several in-reactor tests with defective fuel elements, and as supported by the thermodynamic analysis, the model accounts for the washout of molybdenum from the defective fuel on reactor shutdown. The model also considers the recoil release of both 99Mo and 99Tc from uranium contamination, as well as a corrosion source due to activation of 98Mo. The model has provided an estimate of the activity ratio 99Tc/137Cs in the ion-exchange columns of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, i.e., 6 x 10-6 (following ∼200 d of steady reactor operation) and 4 x 10-6 (with reactor shutdown). These results are consistent with that measured by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories with a mixed-bed resin-sampling device installed in a number of Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor plants. (author)

  7. Influence of mass recovery on the performance of a heat pipe type ammonia sorption refrigeration system using CaCl2/activated carbon as compound adsorbent

    The performance analyses of a sorption refrigeration system with different mass recovery processes are presented, in which compound adsorbent of CaCl2 and activated carbon is used to improve the mass and heat transfer performances of sorption bed. The heating, cooling and heat recovery processes between two sorption beds were performed by multifunction heat pipes without additional power consumption. The experimental Clapeyron diagrams showed that the cycles with mass recovery (MR), with heat and mass recoveries (HMR), and with mass and heat recoveries (MHR), have better thermodynamic performances when compared with the sorption cycle without mass recovery (MR0). The implementary order of mass recovery and heat recovery has strong influence on the efficacy of mass recovery while it has little influence on the efficacy of heat recovery. In sorption cycles with HMR and with MHR, the hot beds can be pre-cooled and cold beds can be pre-heated effectively during the switching process, and heat consumption from external heat source during desorption phase is thereby reduced. Mass recovery can enlarge cycled refrigerant mass due to the transfer of refrigerant gas between two sorption beds during mass recovery process. In comparison with sorption cycle with MR0, sorption cycles with MR, with HMR, and with MHR can generally improve the coefficient of performance (COP) and specific cooling power (SCP) by more than 20% and 16%, respectively. Especially, sorption cycle with MHR has the highest performance among different mass recovery processes due to the fact that MHR has the advantages of MR and HMR, and it can improve the COP by 46.7% when compared with the cycle with MR0

  8. Pre-exposure to heat shock inhibits peroxynitrite-induced activation of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase and protects against peroxynitrite cytotoxicity in J774 macrophages.

    Szabó, C; Wong, H R; Salzman, A L

    1996-11-14

    The reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with superoxide yields the cytotoxic oxidant peroxynitrite, produced during inflammation and shock. A novel pathway of peroxynitrite cytotoxicity involves activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase, and concomitant ADP-ribosylation. NAD+ consumption and exhaustion of intracellular energy stores. In the present report we provide evidence that pre-exposure of J774 macrophages to heat shock reduces peroxynitrite-induced activation of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase and protects against the peroxynitrite-induced suppression of mitochondrial respiration. The protection was significant at 8 h after heat shock, but was absent at 24 h after heat shock. Thus, the protection showed a temporal correlation with the expression of heat shock protein 70, the expression of which was maximal at 8 h. Exposure to heat shock did not alter the expression of poly(ADP) ribosyltransferase over 24 h. In summary, the heat shock phenotype or heat shock proteins may protect against peroxynitrite induced cytotoxicity. PMID:8960887

  9. Role of trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192 in the enzymatic and cytotonic activities of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    C.C. Grant; Messer, R J; Cieplak, W

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin have suggested that proteolytic cleavage plays an important role in the expression of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and toxicity. Specifically, several studies have implicated a trypsin-like cleavage at arginine 192, which lies within an exposed region subtended by a disulfide bond in the intact A subunit, in toxicity. To investigate the role of this modification in the enzymatic and cytotonic properties of heat-...

  10. Red American Ginseng: Ginsenoside Constituents and Antiproliferative Activities of Heat-Processed Panax quinquefolius Roots

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Ni, Ming; Wu, Ji-An; Tong, Robin; Wicks, Sheila; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Red Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is used in many Oriental countries. In this study, the saponin constituents and anticancer activities of steamed American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots were evaluated. The contents of 12 ginsenosides in the roots were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the steaming treatment (100 – 120 °C for 1 h and 120 °C for 0.5 – 4 h), the quantity of 7 ginsenosides decreased and that of 5 others increase...