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Sample records for activation analysis method

  1. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  2. Computer modeling for neutron activation analysis methods

    Full text: The INP AS RU develops databases for the neutron-activation analysis - ND INAA [1] and ELEMENT [2]. Based on these databases, the automated complex is under construction aimed at modeling of methods for natural and technogenic materials analysis. It is well known, that there is a variety of analysis objects with wide spectra, different composition and concentration of elements, which makes it impossible to develop universal methods applicable for every analytical research. The modelling is based on algorithm, that counts the period of time in which the sample was irradiated in nuclear reactor, providing the sample's total absorption and activity analytical peaks areas with given errors. The analytical complex was tested for low-elemental analysis (determination of Fe and Zn in vegetation samples, and Cu, Ag and Au - in technological objects). At present, the complex is applied for multielemental analysis of sediment samples. In this work, modern achievements in the analytical chemistry (measurement facilities, high-resolution detectors, IAEA and IUPAC databases) and information technology applications (Java software, database management systems (DBMS), internet technologies) are applied. Reference: 1. Tillaev T., Umaraliev A., Gurvich L.G., Yuldasheva K., Kadirova J. Specialized database for instrumental neutron activation analysis - ND INAA 1.0, The 3-rd Eurasian Conference Nuclear Science and its applications, 2004, pp.270-271.; 2. Gurvich L.G., Tillaev T., Umaraliev A. The Information-analytical database on the element contents of natural objects. The 4-th International Conference Modern problems of Nuclear Physics, Samarkand, 2003, p.337. (authors)

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  4. The monostandard method in thermal neutron activation analysis

    A simple method is described for instrumental multielement thermal neutron activation analysis using a monostandard. For geological and air dust samples, iron is used as a comparator, while sodium has advantages for biological materials. To test the capabilities of this method, the values of the effective cross sections of the 23 elements determined were evaluated in a reactor site with an almost pure thermal neutron flux of about 9 x 1012 n x cm-2 x sec-1 and an epithermal neutron contribution of less than 0,03%. The obtained values were found to agree mostly well with the literature best values of thermal neutron cross sections. The results of an analysis by activation in the same site agree well with the relative method using multielement standard and for several standard reference materials with certified element contents. A comparison of the element contents obtained by the monostandard and relative methods together with corresponding precisions and accuracies is given. A brief survey of the monostandard method is presented. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  6. High precision methods of neutron activation analysis applied to geochemistry

    Neutron activation analysis is a technique for measuring abundances of chemical elements, which differs from other methods in that it is based upon nuclear reactions instead of chemistry. This characteristic has special relevance for geochemistry because of its inherent sensitivity for trace elements which cannot be reached by other methods. 99% of the earth's crust is made up of just 8 elements, whereas the remaining 1% must accommodate 70-odd rock building trace elements of which about half can be measured by neutron activation analysis. In recent years, there has been much interest in these trace elements because they encompass diverse chemical properties. The present discussion of the technique is based upon more than 15 years of experience at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This is not meant to intimate that the practices in other laboratories do not merit attention. Perhaps our approach differs from other published work in the emphasis given to sources of error and learning how to control them

  7. Tool for automated method design in activation analysis

    A computational approach to the optimization of the adjustable parameters of nuclear activation analysis has been developed for use in comprehensive method design calculations. An estimate of sample composition is used to predict the gamma-ray spectra to be expected for given sets of values of experimental parameters. These spectra are used to evaluate responses such as detection limits and measurement precision for application to optimization by the simplex method. This technique has been successfully implemented for the simultaneous determination of sample size and irradiation, decay and counting times by the optimization of either detection limit or precision. Both single-element and multielement determinations can be designed with the aid of these calculations. The combination of advance prediction and simplex optimization is both flexible and efficient and produces numerical results suitable for use in further computations

  8. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    Greenberg, Robert R.; Bode, Peter; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.

    2011-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière — Métrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance — Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  9. Structural Analysis Extended with Active Fault Isolation - Methods and Algorithms

    Gelso, Esteban R.; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Isolability of faults is a key issue in fault diagnosis whether the aim is maintenance or active fault-tolerant control. It is often encountered that while faults are detectable, they are only group-wise isolable from a usual diagnostic point of view. However, active injection of test signals on...... system inputs can considerably enhance fault isolability. This paper investigates this possibility of active fault isolation from a structural point of view. While such extension of the structural analysis approach was suggested earlier, algorithms and case studies were needed to explore this theory. The...

  10. Conventional radiometric methods of analysis including neutron activation

    The chapter aims primarily to provide a reference with which the various mass spectrometric methods may be compared. The fundamental problems created by low specific activity in the measurement of very long-lived radionuclides using radiometric techniques are noted and discussed in terms of the different types of decay, background count rates, source weight and spectral interferences. An attempt is made to identify typical detection limits for the radiometric determination of the various long-lived radionuclides. The use of neutron activation as a means of enhancing sensitivity or convenience of measurement for long-lived radionuclides is described with appropriate illustrations. Mass spectrometry and radiometry are seen as complementary, not competitive techniques for the measurement of radioactive materials, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Tensor analysis methods for activity characterization in spatiotemporal data

    Haass, Michael Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochoa, Edward M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Tensor (multiway array) factorization and decomposition offers unique advantages for activity characterization in spatio-temporal datasets because these methods are compatible with sparse matrices and maintain multiway structure that is otherwise lost in collapsing for regular matrix factorization. This report describes our research as part of the PANTHER LDRD Grand Challenge to develop a foundational basis of mathematical techniques and visualizations that enable unsophisticated users (e.g. users who are not steeped in the mathematical details of matrix algebra and mulitway computations) to discover hidden patterns in large spatiotemporal data sets.

  12. Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) - Active and passive methods

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Ivanov, J.

    2007-01-01

    The conventional seismic approaches for near-surface investigation have usually been either high-resolution reflection or refraction surveys that deal with a depth range of a few tens to hundreds meters. Seismic signals from these surveys consist of wavelets with frequencies higher than 50 Hz. The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method deals with surface waves in the lower frequencies (e.g., 1-30 Hz) and uses a much shallower depth range of investigation (e.g., a few to a few tens of meters). ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  13. Establishment and application of the cyclic neutron activation analysis method on mini-reactor

    Background: Instrument neutron activation analysis is a nondestructive analytic method. Some elements after irradiation produce short half-life radio-nuclides (<60 s), and others produce both long-lived and short-lived nuclides. For these short-lived nuclides, the single measurement has big error. Purpose: In order to reduce the error, cyclic neutron activation analysis can be used to improve the sensitivity. Methods: A device was designed to be connected to the sample transporter, detector and irradiation pipeline in the reactor, which can automatically control the irradiation time and counting time. According to the nuclear parameters of certain elements, irradiation time and counting time and cycle times were determined by experiment. Cyclic activation analysis method was established at the mini-reactor. Results: This paper studied cyclic activation analysis conditions of 17 kinds of element, and applied to the determination of actual samples. Cyclic epithermal neutron activation analysis (CENAA) method was discussed too. By the analysis of national standard reference materials, the reliability of this method was confirmed. Conclusion: Cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is an effective analytic method for only short life nuclide elements. For both short and long lived nuclides of elements, the cyclic activation analysis method can make the analytical cycle shorten, from a few days or several weeks to within a few minutes. Cyclic activation analysis has the advantages of high sensitivity, and its precision and accuracy are better than single short irradiation activation analysis. (authors)

  14. Study on the methods for analysis of the chemical poison in canister by neutron activity

    The method that is used to analyse the poison gases in canister by neutron activity is proposed. Through theory analysis and experimental measurement, the feasibility for analysis of the poison gases in a canister by neutron activity has been demonstrated, and it is proved that the method itself do not result in radioactive problem to use again the canister. (authors)

  15. A simple and fast method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics by neutron activation analysis

    Antiperspirant cosmetics are tested for their active ingredient (aluminium chlorohydroxide) by conventional analytical techniques. Aluminium has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in all antiperspirant products and package forms available in the Greek market in order to develop a simple and fast method for quantization. The results show that neutron activation analysis could be established as an official method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics. The proposed method is compared with the existing official methods and an alternative sampling method for aerosol package is presented. (author)

  16. Possibilities of Controlling Nutritious Wheat Flour by the Method of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Possibilities of controlling nutritious wheat flour by the method of neutron activation analysis are studied. It is established, that detection of contents of As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn in wheat flour is possible using this method and a neutron multiplier. The results of measurements were worked out by polycomparative method. (author)

  17. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis method of environmental samples analysis

    Evaluation of precision and accuracy of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used by P2TRR performed by analyzed the standard reference samples from the National Institute of Environmental Study of Japan (NIES-CRM No.10 (rice flour) and the National Bureau of USA (NBS-SRM 1573a (tomato leave) by NAA method. In analyze the environmental SRM No.10 by NAA method in qualitatively could identified multi elements of contents, namely: Br, Ca, Co, CI, Cs, Gd, I, K< La, Mg, Mn, Na, Pa, Sb, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Zn (19 elements) for SRM 1573a; As, Br, Cr, CI, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mn, Mg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Se, Sc, Sb, Ti, and Zn, (25 elements) for CRM No.10a; Ag, As, Br, Cr, CI, Ce, Cd, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, TI, and Zn, (26 elements) for CRM No. 10b; As, Br, Co, CI, Ce, Cd, Ga, Hg, K, Mn, Mg, Mo, Na, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, TI, and Zn (20 elementary) for CRM No.10c. In the quantitatively analysis could determined only some element of sample contents, namely: As, Co, Cd, Mo, Mn, and Zn. From the result compared with NIES or NBS values attained with deviation of 3% ∼ 15%. Overall, the result shown that the method and facilities have a good capability, but the irradiation facility and the software of spectrometry gamma ray necessary to developing or seriously research perform

  18. Analysis of sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis using Ko method

    The study on the determination of elemental concentration in sediments from lakes and other water bodies is of prime importance for geological as well as environmental studies. The profile of different elements with prior knowledge of sedimentation rates might provide clues to knowledge of their possible origin. The results on the determination of elemental concentration in sediments from Nanital lake at different depths are presented using single comparator neutron activation analysis (KoNAA) method. Irradiations of samples along with gold as comparator were carried out in Apsara reactor at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The concentrations of Na, K, Mn, Cu, Ba, As, Sr, Sc, La, Sm, Eu and Dy were determined. Variations in concentration of different elements in the sediment samples as a function of depth and the derived correlations are presented in this paper. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis of geological samples for rare earths using internal standard method

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis os one of a few modern analytical techniques, being applied to solve difficult analytical tasks, such as mineral resources analysis for rare earth element content. No other analytical technique can be used with the latter end in view, since Instrumental neutron-activation analysis is possessed of the highest precision among them. In order to check experimentally the stated approach to REE content calculation by the internal standard method, relative bias values of this approach should be estimated. This approach will be verified further with a number of different rock samples simultaneously analyzed by an instrumental neutron-activation analysis certified analytical technique

  20. Automatization of the neutron activation analysis method in the nuclear analysis laboratory

    In the present paper the work done to automatice the Neutron Activation Analysis technic with a neutron generator is described. An interface between an IBM compatible microcomputer and the equipment in use to make this kind of measurement was developed. including the specialized software for this system

  1. Comparative study of destructive and non-destructive methods in the activation analysis of rocks

    A comparative study between non-destructive thermal neutron activation analysis and activation analysis with radiochemical group separation is made Both methods are applied to the determination of trace elements minor and major elements in rocks. The treatment of the rocks, with special reference to the problems related to grinding and contamination by foreign elements is described. The choice of standards for multielement trace activation analysis is discussed. Two types of computer programs for the evalution of data obtained through Ge-li detector counting are used. All the phases of the destructive and non destructive analysis are described. In the destructive analysis, an adaptation of the group separation scheme developed by Morrison et al for the activation analysis of geological samples is made. The changes introduced make the radiochemical separation simpler and more rapid. Both destructive and non destructive methods are tested by means of the analysis of the United States Geological Survey standard rock AGV-1, which has been analysed by many authors. The same procedure is then applied to some alcaline rocks taken from the apatite mine of Jacupiranga, in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The knowledge of the trace element concentration in these rocks is important for geochemical studies. A detailed study of the possible interferences encountered in the neutron activation analysis of these rocks is made, considering the interferences due to major activities, and to the proximity of the several gamma ray energies of the radioisotopes produced. Finally, the comparative study between the two methods is presented, using statistical tests for the quantitative evalution of results. (Author)

  2. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in carbonate rocks by using a ko standardization method

    The quantitative analysis of the trace element was conducted by the ko method using carbonate rock standard sample JLs-1 (limestone) and JDo-1 (Dolomite), and the effectiveness of the activation analysis with the ko method to the carbonate rock sample was confirmed. The accuracy of the quantitative measurement for the analysis results of long-lived nuclides of Al and Ba, middle-lived nuclides of Sm and Ho, and short-lived nuclides of Ce and Yb was evaluated compared with recommended values of Geological Survey of Japan. (H. Katsuta)

  3. Principles and methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in improved water resources development

    The methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as it applies to water resources exploration, exploitation and management has been reviewed and its capabilities demonstrated. NAA has been found to be superior and offer higher sensitivity to many other analytical techniques in analysis of water. The implications of chemical and element concentrations (water pollution and quality) determined in water on environmental impact assessment to aquatic life and human health are briefly highlighted

  4. Application of active neutronic interrogation method to the line analysis in reprocessing plant

    In a reprocessing plant of irradiated spent fuels, the knowledge in real time (line analysis) of uranium and plutonium quantities present in solutions is an extremely important parameter to control the proceeding and for the apparatus safety. The active neutronic analysis give a nondestructive non intrusive and quick measure to know the concentrations. This method consists in inducing fissions in nuclides with a neutron source and then to detect the particles which come from

  5. Multi elementary analysis in medicinal plants through the neutron activation method

    A instrumental method by neutron activation in multielementary analysis was applied. Samples of Centelha asiatica (Cairucu) and Paulinia cupana (Guarana) were used. The elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, and Zn were determined. The results like precision and exactitude were analysed. (L.M.J.)

  6. Activation analysis

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  7. Large sample activation analysis. Monitoring of photovoltaic module recycling using radioanalytical methods

    Photovoltaic modules are the most promising sources of renewable energy. According to respective EU Directives both the glass carrier material and the photo-active layer (CdTe in this study) shall be re-used. Analyses for process surveillance and control have to be carried out, primarily for monitoring of the separation efficiency and the enrichment level of CdTe. For on-site measurement and process control energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was used. Instrumental photon activation analysis using an electron linear accelerator as activating bremsstrahlung source is intended to be used later for iterative intermediate analysis of random samples for quality control. In this work, the feasibility of both methods for this task was studied. (author)

  8. Performance Analysis of Transfer function Based Active Noise Cancellation Method Using Evolutionary Algorithm

    Prof. Vikas Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the exponential increase of noise pollution, the demand for noise controlling system is also increases. Basically two types of techniques are used for noise cancellation active and passive. But passive techniques are inactive for low frequency noise, hence there is an increasing demand of research and developmental work on active noise cancellation techniques. In this paper we introduce a new method in the active noise cancellation system. This new method is the transfer function based method which used Genetic and Particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for noise cancellation. This method is very simple and efficient for low frequency noise cancellation. Here we analysis the performance of this method in the presence of white Gaussian noise and compare the results of Particle swarm optimization (PSO and Genetic algorithm. Both algorithms are suitable for different environment, so we observe their performance in different fields. In this paper a comparative study of Genetic and Particle swarm optimization (PSO is described with proper results. It will go in depth what exactly transfer function method, how it work and advantages over neural network based method

  9. A method of neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of alloy elements in steels

    The determination of the concentration of V, Mn and W in several types of steels was carried out through neutron activation analysis with an isotopic neutron source. Induced activities were detected with a NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometer coupled to a single channel pulse height analyser. Highly significant correlations have been found between specific count rates for each radionuclide and the concentration of the corresponding element (r > = .999 for each element); concentration ranges comprised a number of steel types. The comparison between the results of the application of the method and the ones obtained through conventional chemical analyses showed discrepancies no higher than 10%. (Author)

  10. Analysis of ancient coins by activation with rapid neutrons and by PIXE method

    The quantitative analysis of valuable objects in archaelogical research calls for the use of strictly non-destructive methods, even on very small surfaces of the object to investigate. The analytical method used by L.A.R.N. for the determination of principal elements Cu, Sn and Pb and of trace elements As and Ag in coins have been: 1. the rapid neutron activation (14 Mev) for the analysis of Sn; 2. the PIXE (Proton-Induced X-ray Emission) technique for the surface and core measures in samples which have been sawn as Sn, Pb, Ag and As. These methods have been used to analyse the blanks of Argos supplied by the Institut d'Archeologie of the University of Louvain. (A.F.)

  11. [Activity and cost analysis in surgical pathology. Experience of a French university laboratory using the activity-based costing method].

    Bellocq, J P; Biron, N; Kessler, S; Penaud, M; Faujour, V; Ospel, J; Supper, E; Barthel, A; Roussel, J F; Méchine-Neuville, A; Marcellin, L; Lang-Avérous, G; Chenard, M P

    2001-06-01

    Good self-knowledge enables us to have a well- reasoned adaptation to our environment. Starting from this precept based on simple common sense, activity and cost analysis, when applied to medical departments in a university hospital setting, represents a necessary phase in their scientific progression and in the continuation of their university vocation. This is all the more true given the present climate of economic and organizational restructuring of medical facilities. This paper relates the experience of a French surgical pathology department which was assessed for cost effectiveness using the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method in 1999. This method, which originated in the business world and of which the general concepts are presented here, has given us a keener understanding of the diverse processes involved, their costs and how these costs are arrived at. Moreover, this method has identified the proportion of costs imputable to diagnostic work and of those linked to work specific to a university hospital, in particular teaching and research and development. The results can then be used for a clearer analysis of the figures required by prescribers and health care funding agencies, and, within the department, to enhance perception of work carried out by the entire staff in order to initiate a new type of management centered on activity (Activity-Based Management). Adaptable to any medical department, whatever its organizational structure, independent of the significance of any given code letter and regardless of the rating method used to grade activities, the ABC method also allows for comparisons between structures of a similar nature. The thoughts it inspires on economic performance must take into account the rules of good medical practice, the imperatives of quality assurance, the need for "breathing space" which are indispensable to research and a humanist conception of working relations. PMID:11468559

  12. The advanced 3D method for activation analysis of fusion reactor materials

    The method allows analyzing the complex objects activated by neutrons (e.g. fusion reactors) combining advantages of the 3D radiation transport by MCNP program with calculations of multiple activation and radioactive decay chains by FISPACT program. The problem of preparing the gamma-ray sources in cells of 3D geometry was solved by creation of an interface between the MCNP and FISPACT programs. The interface allows optimizing the process of activation analysis by revealing dominant sources of radiation. The developed interface essentially reduces the time needed for calculations. The main advantage of the method is realization of so-called 'multibox' procedure for decay gamma source sampling during decay gamma transport in very large and complex fusion reactor models. Shutdown dose rate calculations are faster (up to 600 times in ITER cryostat) in comparison with applied MCNP standard source definition by using an external user-supplied source subroutine of the 'multibox' procedure. The offered method is intended for solution of the activation tasks with deep penetration of radiation. The method was used in the engineering design of ITER-FEAT and RF DEMO-S

  13. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  14. Charged Particle Activation Analysis as a Novel Method for Nuclear Metrology

    Accelerator based nuclear method of charged particle activation analysis has been used in order to analyse Australian environmental samples. Atmospheric particulates collected, around East Coast Australian cities and Port Moresby, just before and after the French Atomic Test Series of 1974 in the Pacific have been analyzed by proton activation analysis. A number of elements, namely S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Hg, ranging in concentrations from .001 g/m3 to up to 3.27 g/m3 have been detected. The changes observed in the concentrations of these elements in the two sets of samples, taken just before and just after the Atomic Tests, are attributed to synoptic rather than nuclear Fall-Outeffects.

  15. Argon activation analysis, application to dating by the potassium-argon method

    Activation analysis using radiogenic argon-40 has been applied to rock-dating by the K-Ar method. The argon is extracted from the sample, purified, activated to saturation in a flux of 2 X 1013 neutrons/cm2 sec-1 and measured by gamma spectroscopy. The sensitivity obtained is such that it is possible to measure amounts of argon corresponding to age of a few thousand years only. However since it has not been possible to measure the amount of pollution of radiogenic argon by atmospheric argon with any accuracy, the measurable age limit is in fact of the order of MY. The method has been applied to basalts from the Mont-Dore region. The results obtained are in fairly good agreement with geological, stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data. (author)

  16. Instrumental photon activation analysis of coal fly ashes using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    Multielement determinations of coal fly ashes (NIST SRM-1633a and BCR CRM-38) have been carried out by instrumental photon activation analysis using 30 MeV bremsstrahlung and the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method. In these determinations, some major and minor constituent elements in the samples were properly used as effective internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of 18 elements were determined accurately and precisely. Furthermore, a similar multielement determination has also been examined using 20 MeV bremsstrahlung. In this case, it was proved that better results can be achieved, because all interfering reactions were eliminated completely. (author) 14 refs.; 5 tabs

  17. Evaluation of radiochemical neutron activation analysis methods for determination of arsenic in biological materials.

    Paul, Rick L

    2011-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) with retention on hydrated manganese dioxide (HMD) has played a key role in the certification of As in biological materials at NIST. Although this method provides very high and reproducible yields and detection limits at low microgram/kilogram levels, counting geometry uncertainties may arise from unequal distribution of As in the HMD, and arsenic detection limits may not be optimal due to significant retention of other elements. An alternate RNAA procedure with separation of arsenic by solvent extraction has been investigated. After digestion of samples in nitric and perchloric acids, As(III) is extracted from 2 M sulfuric acid solution into a solution of zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform. Counting of (76)As allows quantitation of arsenic. Addition of an (77)As tracer solution prior to dissolution allows correction for chemical yield and counting geometries, further improving reproducibility. The HMD and solvent extraction procedures for arsenic were compared through analysis of SRMs 1577c (bovine liver), 1547 (peach leaves), and 1575a (pine needles). Both methods gave As results in agreement with certified values with comparable reproducibility. However, the solvent extraction method yields a factor of 3 improvement in detection limits and is less time-consuming than the HMD method. The new method shows great promise for use in As certification in reference materials. PMID:21133431

  18. The method of Sample Management in Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory-Serpong

    In the testing laboratory used by neutron activation analysis method, sample preparation is the main factor and it can't be neglect. The error in the sample preparation can give result with lower accuracy. In this article is explained the scheme of sample preparation i.e sample receive administration, the separate of sample, fluid and solid sample preparation, sample grouping, irradiation, sample counting and holding the sample post irradiation. If the management of samples were good application based on Standard Operation Procedure, therefore each samples has good traceability. To optimize the management of samples is needed the trained and skilled personal and good facility. (author)

  19. Determination Of Heavy Metal Elements In The Environmental Samples Using Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    The environmental samples (water, soil and spinach) were analyzed using analysis activation neutron method. The aim of this research is to determine the heavy metal's pollution level in comparation with environmental standard. Samples were taken from 3 different locations, Kelurahan Papanggo, Kelurahan Sunter Agung, and Kelurahan Sunter Jaya. The samples were irradiated in the RSG-GAS's rabbit system. Samples irradiated were then measured by a gamma spectrometer. The result showed that environmental samples contained toxical heavy metal elements: Cr and As; moderate: Mn, V, and Co; and less toxical: Fe and Zn. The concentration of Cr, Co, and Zn in the soil, water and spinach samples were less than environmental standards applied

  20. An evaluation of thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis compton suppression methods for biological reference materials.

    Landsberger, S; Wu, D

    1999-01-01

    For neutron activation analysis (NAA), the usual matrix problems of sodium, chlorine, and bromine are well known to give rise to high backgrounds that inhibit the determination of several trace elements for short-lived or medium-lived NAA. For long counting times in long-lived NAA, very low backgrounds are required to achieve good sensitivities. We have investigated the use of thermal and epithermal NAA in conjunction with Compton suppression to determine several elements such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium, and mercury, at the level of a few nanograms. The values of these techniques are discussed in contrast to the standard radiochemical methods. PMID:10676521

  1. Present and future prospects for neutron activation analysis compared to other methods available

    The evolution of analysis by Neutron Activation during the last fifty years is briefly described. The reasons for its persistent success, in spite of more recent methods are examined. These reasons are based on the specific advantages of neutron irradiation: neutron penetration into the material, sensitive detection of 60 elements, selectivity and reliability. Furthermore the sensitivity is inversely proportional to the natural abundance of the element (for A>80). However to benefit fully from the advantages of N.A.A., it is essential to study the potential sources of error inherent in each step of the analysis (sampling, preparation, calibration, irradiation, chemical separation, radioactive measurement, calculation and interpretation of the results). These risks are discussed and examples given. The principal areas in which the N.A.A. is being used more and more are ultra-traces analysis, studies on the multivariant correlation between elements and the validation of other methods. Based on present applications and the likely progress of this technique, its future prospects are discussed. (author). 30 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  2. Study of covariances involved in the k0 method of neutron activation analysis

    This work aimed the development of a methodology for the treatment of uncertainty in the k0 Method for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), comprehensively and accurately, by applying the covariance analysis methodology. All parameters involved in determining the concentration of a given element were analyzed with criteria in order to establish the correlations among them. Also established were the possible correlations between the concentrations of different elements for the same sample and for different samples. This procedure generated a large number of correlations that have been rigorously addressed. Data for analysis were obtained experimentally by means of irradiations performed at 24A irradiation position, near the core of the IEA-R1 research reactor, located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The parameters α and f, characterizing the neutron field were determined by applying several methods from the literature. A detailed statistical treatment was applied to each measurement, verifying the various uncertainties and partial correlations. In order to deepen the study, targets of 64Zn and 68Zn were chosen, for which the nuclear parameters k0 and Q0 showed discrepancies in the literature in order to determine them experimentally. For 64Zn, the values for these parameters resulted 5.63(8) x 10-3 and 1.69(6), respectively. For 68Zn they resulted 4.00(6) x 10-4 and 2.34(4), respectively. These values were compared with data from the literature. The Monte Carlo method was applied at various stages of study, to allow accurate determination of some parameters needed for the complete data analysis. (author)

  3. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method.

    Abugassa, I; Sarmani, S B; Samat, S B

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for. PMID:10355102

  4. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+α epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the γ-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for

  5. The use of the TRIGA Mark II reactor, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia in the k0 method of neutron activation analysis

    The k0 standardisation method is suitable for routine multi-element determinations in various materials by reactor neutron activation. A 21 - element synthetic standard for biological material was analysed in this work by neutron activation analysis and the results obtained, as well as our experience with the method itself, are discussed. (author)

  6. Prioritizing conservation activities using reserve site selection methods and population viability analysis.

    Newbold, Stephen C; Siikamäki, Juha

    2009-10-01

    In recent years a large literature on reserve site selection (RSS) has developed at the interface between ecology, operations research, and environmental economics. Reserve site selection models use numerical optimization techniques to select sites for a network of nature reserves for protecting biodiversity. In this paper, we develop a population viability analysis (PVA) model for salmon and incorporate it into an RSS framework for prioritizing conservation activities in upstream watersheds. We use spawner return data for three closely related salmon stocks in the upper Columbia River basin and estimates of the economic costs of watershed protection from NOAA to illustrate the framework. We compare the relative cost-effectiveness of five alternative watershed prioritization methods, based on various combinations of biological and economic information. Prioritization based on biological benefit-economic cost comparisons and accounting for spatial interdependencies among watersheds substantially outperforms other more heuristic methods. When using this best-performing prioritization method, spending 10% of the cost of protecting all upstream watersheds yields 79% of the biological benefits (increase in stock persistence) from protecting all watersheds, compared to between 20% and 64% for the alternative methods. We also find that prioritization based on either costs or benefits alone can lead to severe reductions in cost-effectiveness. PMID:19831069

  7. Application of the neutron activation analysis method to the multielemental determination of food samples

    The application of thermal neutron activation analysis method for determining elements presented at low concentration and level of traces in bread and dried milk samples, using non-destructive and chemical analyses, was studied. The non-destructive analyses were based on measurements of gamma spectrometry of samples and standards irradiated by thermal neutron flux on the order of 1012n cm-2s-1. The irradiation time varied from some minutes to 8 hours. The Na, Cl, Mn, Br, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sb, Cr and Sc elements in bread samples were determined. The Na, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, Br, Al, Zn, Rb, Sb and Cr elements in dried milk samples were determined. In destructive analysis, the 24Na radioisotope was separeted by retention on hydrated antimony pentoxide column from 8N HCL after digestion of organic matter. The bread was dissolved in HNO3 concentrated and 70% of HCLO4 and the dried milk was dissolved in HNO3 concentrated and H2O2. The 64Cu, 69mZn and 140La radioisotopes determined. The concentrations obtained for dried milk were compared with data obtained by other authors from different contries. Basic considerations on detection limit related to its application on the technique used in this work, were done. The detection limits and trace elements using the Currie and Girardi methods were determined. The accuracy of results obtained for trace element detection limits is discussed. (Author)

  8. Application of the neutron activation analysis method to the multielemental determination of food samples

    The thermal neutron activation analysis method was applied to the determination of elements present at low concentrations and trace levels in samples of bread and milk powder using non-destructive analyses were based on gamma ray spectrometric measurements of samples and standards irradiated for periods which varied from some minutes to eight hours in a thermal neutron flux of about 1012n cm-2s-1. The concentrations obtained for milk powder were compared with the data obtained by other autors from different contries. For the bread, that comparison was not possible, because data about trace analysis in bread samples were not found. Besides, the results obtained for the various brands of bread and milk by means of non destructive and destructive analyses were compared using Student's t criterion. Some basic considerations about 'Detection Limit' were done, mainly in relation to its application in the technique used in the present work. The detection and determination limits of the trace elements analysed by destructive and non destructive techniques in bread and milk powder samples were determined using the Currie and Girardi methods. The precision of the analyses and the results obtained for the detection limits of the analysed trace elements are discussed. (Author)

  9. Rapid estimation of compost enzymatic activity by spectral analysis method combined with machine learning.

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Das, Bhabani S; Ali, Md Nasim; Li, Bin; Sarathjith, M C; Majumdar, K; Ray, D P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using visible near-infrared (VisNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) as an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method to predict compost enzymatic activity, which traditionally measured by fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA-HR) assay. Compost samples representative of five different compost facilities were scanned by DRS, and the raw reflectance spectra were preprocessed using seven spectral transformations for predicting compost FDA-HR with six multivariate algorithms. Although principal component analysis for all spectral pretreatments satisfactorily identified the clusters by compost types, it could not separate different FDA contents. Furthermore, the artificial neural network multilayer perceptron (residual prediction deviation=3.2, validation r(2)=0.91 and RMSE=13.38 μg g(-1) h(-1)) outperformed other multivariate models to capture the highly non-linear relationships between compost enzymatic activity and VisNIR reflectance spectra after Savitzky-Golay first derivative pretreatment. This work demonstrates the efficiency of VisNIR DRS for predicting compost enzymatic as well as microbial activity. PMID:24398221

  10. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the 52V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  11. Determination of multielements by neutron activation analysis using a coincidence counting method

    When γ-rays are counted using γ-ray spectrometry for neutron activation analysis (NAA), the Compton continuum from high-energy γ-rays often interferes with the detection of nuclides with lower energy γ-rays. A coincidence counting of γ-rays in the cascade series with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector can reduce this problem. The coincidence counting method was applied to the determination of Se, Hf, Ba, Cs, Co, Sb and Sc in 3 kinds of certified reference materials (NIES CRM No.16 river sediment, NIES/NIRS typical Japanese diet CRM and NIES/WAMRL fish otolith CRM) and 10 kind of iron remains excavated at the ruins of Kaman-Kalehoyuk in Turkey. These samples and comparative standards were irradiated for 6 h at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 1012 n cm-2s-1 in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were counted by multiparameter MCA (LN-9000, Laboratory Equipment Corporation). A coaxial Ge detector (relative efficiency of 21% and FWHM of 1.8 keV at 1332 keV) was used for the conventional counting method. For the coincidence counting method, the coaxial Ge detector along with a well-type NaI(Tl) detector (6 in.φ x 6 in., well 3 in.φ x 4 in.) was used. Using this method to determine Se, Hf, Ba, Cs, Co, Sb and Sc, the lower limit of the determination was improved by 2-4 times compared with the conventional counting method using the coaxial Ge detector. The determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  12. The use of instrumental neutron activation analysis method in bio-sorption determination

    Full text: Recently, much attention is paid to the research and development of effective metal remediation methods. In industry, for the removal of metals from the industrial solutions and wastes, the expensive ion-exchange resin method of metal sorption is used today. The microbiological methods are much less expensive, are available and provide its application in natural conditions. The search for molybdenum bio sorbent was performed amongst Actinomyces strains. The 18 of Streptomyces strains were used. The data showed that all investigated strains uptake the molybdenum from the solution in various degrees. The molybdenum determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique. In a nuclear reactor, the samples were treated with a steady flow of neutrons (5.1·1013) n·cm-2 sec-1 in 20 hours. The samples were stored for 6-7 days before analysis. The Actinomyces biomass uptake capacity was up to 94.5 %. The 8 cultures have the most high uptake capacity that varied from 87.4 to 94.5 %. Streptomyces sp. 39 and Streptomyces sp.32 have the lowest bio-sorption capacity amongst studied strains, which was 46.6% and 40 % respectively, whereas the bio sorption capacity of other cultures varied from 55.8 to 64.1%. The influence of some physical and chemical parameters (culture age, pH, temperature) on molybdenum bio-sorption was studied. Data showed that the change in pH, temperature and cultivation period lead to the increase of bio-sorption capacity

  13. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis.

    Ivanescu, Bianca; Miron, Anca; Corciova, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation. PMID:26495156

  14. Study on the determination of palladium in biological samples by the method of neutron activation analysis

    Palladium is one of platinum group elements present in the nature at very low concentrations. However with the use of this element in the automobile catalyzers Pd became a new pollutant. Besides, Pd has been studied in the preparation of new antitumour drugs. Consequently, there is a need to determine Pd concentrations in biological and environmental samples. This study presents palladium results obtained in the analysis of biological samples and reference materials using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis (INAA and ENAA). The solvent extraction and solid phase extraction separation methods were also applied before ENAA. The samples analyzed in this study were, reference material BCR 723 - Palladium, Platinum and Rhodium in road dust, CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst material of the Proficiency Test and bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory. Samples and palladium synthetic standard were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under thermal neutron flux of about 4 x 10 12 n cm-2 s-1, during a period of 4 and 16 h for INAA and ENAA, respectively. The induced gamma activity of 109Pd to the sample and standard was measured using a hyper pure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The palladium concentration was calculated by comparative method. The gamma ray energy of 109Pd radioisotope measured was of 88.0 keV, located in a spectrum region of low energy where occurs the interference of X rays, 'Bremsstrahlung' radiations, as well as Compton effect of 24Na. The pre-separation of palladium from interfering elements by solvent extraction was performed using dimethylglyoxime complexant and chloroform as diluent. In the case of the pre separation procedure using solid reversed phase column, the palladium was retained using N,N-diethyl-N'-benzoyl thiourea complexant and eluted using ethanol. Aliquots of the resulting solutions from the pre-separations, free of interfering elements, were transferred

  15. Method Development of Cadmium Investigation in Rice by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

    Full text: A radiochemical neutron activation analysis for the determination of cadmium was investigated. A chemical separation of cadmium utilized ion exchange chromatography of a strong basic anion-exchange resin BIO-RAD 1X 8 (Chloride form). The adsorbing medium of 2M HCl was found to be the most suitable among the concentration attempted (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10M HCl) and the eluent for desorption of the cadmium from column was 8M NH3 solution. A chemical yield of 95% was found. The method has been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials with 0.5.g/g (SRM 1577b, Bovine Liver) and 2.48.g/g (SRM 1566b, Oyster Tissue) cadmium. The agreement of the result with certified values is within 92% for Bovine Liver and 96% for Oyster Tissue. The method developed was applied to determine the cadmium concentrations in contaminated Thai rice. It was found that the cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 578.9 ppb

  16. Study on the manganese distribution in the soil of an agricultural field using neutron activation analysis method

    Manganese distribution in the soil of an agricultural field was evaluated by neutron activation analysis. The accuracy and precision of the method were verified by the analysis of two Standard Reference Materials with different manganese concentration in the experimental field, through one schematic diagram. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Study on Kο-standardization method of neutron activation analysis in HANARO research reactor

    The neutron activation analysis based on kο-standardization method (kο-NAA) has been known as one of the remarkable developments of NAA in recent with advantages of experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions, and suitability for computerization. This work has carried out to consider the application of kο-NAA on NAA 1 of HANARO research reactor such as the calibration of gamma-ray spectrometry and irradiation facility. α and f-values related to the reactor neutron spectrum parameters as main factor of irradiation quality are measured and some SRMs are analyzed to compare the accuracy of the measured results. The analytical results with the deviation mostly less than ±15% and all Z-score lower 1.5 in comparison between the experiment value and that value certified of some SRMs has shown a promising capability in application of kο-NAA on the HANARO research reactor

  18. Trace elements determination in silicon and ferrosilicon reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis method

    The use of certified reference materials, CRM, is of uppermost importance in the rastreability realization of the measurement process. At times, CRM use is restricted by the non existence of a suitable CRM with similarity to the sample in respect to matrix composition or with element levels in different orders of magnitude. IPT Chemical Division launched a project to prepare a metallic silicon CRM, due to the requirements of the industries in this field. To characterize this new CRM, IPEN Nuclear Reactor Center is able to perform instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, a very suitable method for silicon matrix samples because they produce basically the short lived radionuclide 31 Si under thermal neutrons flux, which after radioactive decay, does not interfere in the determination of other elements. In this paper, it is presented the determination of As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Na Nb, Sb, Sm, Sc, Th, Tb, U, V, W and Yb in silicon CRM NBS SRM 57; ferrosilicon CRM IPT 56; IPT 70; NBS SRM 58a; NBS SRM 59a and silicon RM under preparation IPT 132. From the results, the accuracy and the precision of the process were assessed. (author)

  19. A hybrid method for the analysis of learner behaviour in active learning environments

    Pahl, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Software-mediated learning requires adjustments in the teaching and learning process. In particular active learning facilitated through interactive learning software differs from traditional instructor-oriented, classroom-based teaching. We present behaviour analysis techniques for Web-mediated learning. Motivation, acceptance of the learning approach and technology, learning organisation and actual tool usage are aspects of behaviour that require different analysis techniques to be used. A h...

  20. Role of neutron activation analysis in metrology of modern inorganic trace analysis. Pt.1: Qualification of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a primary ratio method of measurement

    The role of NAA in the metrology of modern inorganic trace analysis is to be discussed in a series of three papers, beginning from this one. They are: 1) the qualification of relative NAA as a primary method of measurement: 2) the unique function of parametric NAA as a 'back-up' method of relative NAA; and 3) the role of NAA in the characterization of a new generation CRMs suitable for quality control of microanalysis. The first of the series, the principle, the uncertainties and the traceability of NAA are analyzed. The qualification of NAA at the state of the art level as a primary ratio method is thus justified. An example is given to further verify the position of NAA as a primary ratio method. Advantages and drawbacks, as well as current status and future perspectives, of NAA as a primary method are discussed. Definitions of relevant terms and international norms are attached as appendices for the convenience of the reader

  1. METHODS AND MODELS FOR ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL ECONOMICS ACTIVITY USED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATICS SYSTEMS

    TEODORA VĂTUIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of organizational activity and highlighting problem situations that require specific solutions, require a detailed analysis of the models defined for the real system of the economic companies, regarded not as a sum of assets, but as organizations in which there are activities related into processes. In addition to the usual approach of using modeling languages in the development of information systems, in this paper we intend to present some examples that demonstrate the usefulness of a standard modeling language (UML to analyze organizational activities and to report problem situations that may occur in data management registered on primary documents or in processes that bring together activities. Examples that have been focused on a travel agency can be extrapolated to any other organization, and the diagrams can be used in different contexts, depending on the complexity of the activities identified.

  2. New method in the criminalistics: neutron-activation analysis of the human hair

    The application of the neutron activation analysis for the examination of human hair for criminological purposes is discussed. Earlier Nal scintillation detector and 256-channels analyzer were used and only form trace elements could be detected in the hair. Recently using Ge/Li detector and a 1024-channels analyzer 11 trace elements were detected in the human hair. (H.E.)

  3. An improved method for measuring soil microbial activity by gas phase flow injection analysis

    Gregory Doran; Alek Zander

    2012-01-01

    The rate of carbon dioxide production is commonly used as a measure of microbial activity in the soil. The traditional method of CO2 determination involves trapping CO2 in an alkali solution and then determining CO2 concentration indirectly by titration of the remaining alkali in the solution. This method is still commonly employed in laboratories throughout the world due to its relative simplicity and the fact that it does not require expensive, specific equipment. However, there are several...

  4. Cash Flow Analysis Using Methods of Measuring Financial Flows by Type of Activity

    Spineanu-Georgescu Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of financial balance through cash flows used to estimate future cash needs based on past situation, their knowledge would be useful to both shareholders interested in the existence of sufficient cash to pay dividends and creditors who are interested in recovering loans. Equally, knowledge of future cash flows of interest to potential investors updated cash flow method is a method of evaluation of the company.

  5. Methods and considerations for the analysis and standardization of assessing muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.

    White, Daniel W; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Raven, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    The technique of microneurography and the assessment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are used in laboratories throughout the world. The variables used to describe MSNA, and the criteria by which these variables are quantified from the integrated neurogram, vary among studies and laboratories and, therefore, can become confusing to those starting to learn the technique. Therefore, the purpose of this educational review is to discuss guidelines and standards for the assessment of sympathetic nervous activity through the collection and analysis of MSNA. This review will reiterate common practices in the collection of MSNA, but will also introduce considerations for the evaluation and physiological inference using MSNA. PMID:26299824

  6. Studies on the method for determination of fluoride concentration in rat hard tissues by neutron activation analysis using 20F

    Neutron activation analysis method (non disruptive analysis, short time period measurement) has been recognized as a high precision analysis of fluoride concentration in hard tissue. Heat neutron irradiation analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to investigate 20F concentration. Results were as follows. F concentration in a dried material of hard tissue using INAA method can be fixed by measuring the 20F's energy peak for 10 seconds after neutron irradiation under 1 x 10 n/cm2·s for 10 seconds. Non responding time that is caused by short half reduction time of 20F can be recovered enough by a revise calculation. Reproducibility of measured fluoride concentration using INAA method was well stabilized. Rat hard tissue which takes no fluoride can be determined fluoride concentration without sodium restriction. Femur fluoride concentrations using INAA method had significant correlation with conventional microdiffusion analysis method (r=0.997, regression line: Y=1.13X + 2.98). Increase of fluoride density in dentine of rat molars under growing period according to fluoride intake was 1/3 of femurs and mandibles. (author)

  7. Trace element determination in human bones using the neutron activation analysis method

    This work presents the results obtained in the analysis of rib bone samples from normal human individuals by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. In these analyses, the elements Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sr and Zn were found at the ppm level and the elements Ca and P at the level of percentage. The precision and the of the results were evaluated by using biological reference materials NIST SRM 1577a Bovine Liver, IAEA A-11 Milk powder, NIES CRM 9 Sargasso e NIES CRM 10A Rice Flour Unpolished. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  8. An open source cryostage and software analysis method for detection of antifreeze activity.

    Buch, J L; Ramløv, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to provide the reader with a simple setup that can detect antifreeze proteins (AFP) by inhibition of ice recrystallisation in very small sample sizes. This includes an open source cryostage, a method for preparing and loading samples as well as a software analysis method. The entire setup was tested using hyperactive AFP from the cerambycid beetle, Rhagium mordax. Samples containing AFP were compared to buffer samples, and the results are visualised as crystal radius evolution over time and in absolute change over 30 min. Statistical analysis showed that samples containing AFP could reliably be told apart from controls after only two minutes of recrystallisation. The goal of providing a fast, cheap and easy method for detecting antifreeze proteins in solution was met, and further development of the system can be followed at https://github.com/pechano/cryostage. PMID:27041219

  9. Evaluation and standardization of neutron activation analysis according to the K0 method in the RP-10 reactor

    It has been characterized and standardized an irradiation of the RP-10 Research Nuclear Reactor for use of the K0 method of neutron activation analysis using the Hoegdahl convention; also it has been evaluate the behaviour of such method in regard to the accuracy and precision of the results obtained in the quantitative multi elemental analysis of several certified materials of reference. In order to prove that the analytical method is totally under statistical control, it has been used the Heydorn method. It has been verified that the method is exact, precise and reliable to determine the aluminium, antimuonium, arsenic, bromine, calcium, chloride, copper, magnesium, manganese, sodium, titanium, vanadium, zinc and other elements. Also, they are discussed, in regard to the use of K0 constants, the different formalisms employed to calculate the integral of the reaction rate by nucleus in the activation. (author). 58 refs., 18 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

    Herrick Jason R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  11. Analysis and classification of physical and chemical methods of fuel activation

    Fedorchak Viktoriya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The offered article explores various research studies, developed patents in terms of physical and chemical approaches to the activation of fuel. In this regard, national and foreign researches in the field of fuels activators with different principles of action were analysed, evaluating their pros and cons. The article also intends to classify these methods and compare them regarding diverse desired results and types of fuels used. In terms of physical and chemical influences on fuels and the necessity of making constructive changes in the fuel system of internal combustion engines, an optimal approach was outlined.

  12. Application of different methods of neutron activation analysis to the determination of trace elements in rock samples

    In this report three different methods of neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of up to 20 trace elements in Egyptian rock samples and the results obtained are discussed. In Part I a physical approach is described for instrumental multielement activation analysis with whole neutron spectrum (without Cd-cover) using the monostandard (single comparator) method. 15 Samples representing different Egyptian granite rocks were analyzed. As many as 21 trace elements beside Fe, K and Na were determined. The accuracy of the method for nondestructive multielement analysis agrees within 3% with the relative method using multielement standards. In Part II a method is described for epithermal neutron activation analysis of 20 elements in granite rock samples using only one standard. Gold has been used as a single comparator due to its relatively high resonance integral value (Io = 400) and in addition, it is preferable on Co in order to obtain a large epithermal activation in a short irradiation. The method of calculation is simple and rapid and can be done using small calculator. In Part III experiments are described in which a neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy facility assembled at the Institute of Radiochemistry, KfK (for analytical purposes) using Cf252 neutron source of strength ∝ 6x107 n/sec, has been used to check its applicability and sensitivity for quantitative analyses of ores. The analysis of Sm, Gd and Mn in phosphate and monazite rock samples has been carried out. The results from this study show a variation of about 25% from the values determined by RNAA method. The reasons for this discrepancy are discussed and suggestions are made to optimize the conditions of measurement and irradiation. (orig./RB)

  13. Application of neutron activation analysis method in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant

    The pharmacological properties of medicinal plants have been related to the presence of organic compounds, however elements are also known to have an important participation in the active compounds constitution process. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine elements in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant collected at two different locations in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, SP. Soil samples collected from where this plant was grown were also analyzed in order to verify if there is a correlation between the elements present in soils and plant leaves. Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined in C. obliqua leaves and the elements As, Ca, Ce, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, U and Zn in soils. Soil samples collected from two different locations presented similar concentrations for most elements. Likewise, C. obliqua leaves collected from the two locations presented similar elemental contents. These results suggest that analysis of extracts from these leaf samples and the evaluation of their pharmacological activities should be carried out. Certified reference materials IAEA-Soil-7, USGS W-1, NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves and NIST 1515 Apple Leaves were analyzed and the quality of the obtained results was assured. (author)

  14. Forward-looking activities: incorporating citizens' visions: A critical analysis of the CIVISTI method.

    Gudowsky, Niklas; Peissl, Walter; Sotoudeh, Mahshid; Bechtold, Ulrike

    2012-11-01

    Looking back on the many prophets who tried to predict the future as if it were predetermined, at first sight any forward-looking activity is reminiscent of making predictions with a crystal ball. In contrast to fortune tellers, today's exercises do not predict, but try to show different paths that an open future could take. A key motivation to undertake forward-looking activities is broadening the information basis for decision-makers to help them actively shape the future in a desired way. Experts, laypeople, or stakeholders may have different sets of values and priorities with regard to pending decisions on any issue related to the future. Therefore, considering and incorporating their views can, in the best case scenario, lead to more robust decisions and strategies. However, transferring this plurality into a form that decision-makers can consider is a challenge in terms of both design and facilitation of participatory processes. In this paper, we will introduce and critically assess a new qualitative method for forward-looking activities, namely CIVISTI (Citizen Visions on Science, Technology and Innovation; www.civisti.org), which was developed during an EU project of the same name. Focussing strongly on participation, with clear roles for citizens and experts, the method combines expert, stakeholder and lay knowledge to elaborate recommendations for decision-making in issues related to today's and tomorrow's science, technology and innovation. Consisting of three steps, the process starts with citizens' visions of a future 30-40 years from now. Experts then translate these visions into practical recommendations which the same citizens then validate and prioritise to produce a final product. The following paper will highlight the added value as well as limits of the CIVISTI method and will illustrate potential for the improvement of future processes. PMID:23204998

  15. An analysis method of the press information related with the nuclear activity in Argentina

    The articles published by the newspapers during the year 1987 were analyzed and classified according to their contents. An attribute was assigned to each article (positive, negative or neutral) in agreement with its connotation regarding the nuclear activity in Argentina. An ISIS base system was developed using these data. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the influence of the press in the public opinion. The relation between the different variables show the importance and approach (environmental, technico-scientifical or political) given by the press to the different subjects. The results show a general lack of knowledge about nuclear activities and a concern among the readers associated with the environmental risks, which calls for the need to develop an information program for the community. The fundamentals of this program should improve the organization in order to make the information reach the external demands, to promote educational programs and to continuously provide information to the press. (S.M.)

  16. Evaluation of accuracy, precision and determination limit in the human hair analysis using neutron activation method

    The accuracy, precision and determination limit were evaluated for determination of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, V and Zn in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The precision was examined by analyzing human hair sample, and the results of relative standard deviations obtained ranged from 3.9 to 16.2%. The results accuracy was evaluated by using reference materials GBW 09101 Human Hair and NIES 5 Human Hair. Currie criterion was used for calculation of the determination limit. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Study on 99Mo production by Mo-solution irradiation method (3). Activation analysis of irradiation target

    The impurity concentrations in both (NH4)6Mo7O24 and K2MoO4 solutions, which were selected as the advanced targets of the Mo-solution irradiation method for 99Mo production, were determined by the instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) using the k0-standardization method. As a result, Na, Mn and W were identified as impurities in the received molybdates. After the compatibility test with structural material (SUS304) under gamma-ray irradiation, activation analysis of the molybdate solutions by the NAA method was also carried out. It was found that the identified impurity concentrations stayed stably in the solutions and that no elements came from the structural material. However, a small corrosion of the structural material was observed from the ICP measurement. (author)

  18. The Cost of Company Occupational Accidents: An Activity Based Analysis using the SACA Method

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, Martin

    - for evaluating the visible and hidden costs of corporate occupational accidents. It also focused on whether the registration, processing and reporting of these costs could be integrated in the corporate accounting information system. The project was based on case studies in 9 Danish companies within 3 different......The Systematic Accident Cost Analysis (SACA) project is a research project carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. It empirically tested a method - the SACA method...... industry sectors. The main conclusions are that only 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in corporate accounting systems while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents for a company with 3.600 employees was estimated to approximately $682...

  19. The studies for application of Ko-standardization method of neutron activation analysis on Dalat reactor

    The studies for application of the Ko-NAA method have been carried out in order to aim at creating a concrete procedure of the method, which is able to apply for practical samples. The results of the calibration of neutron spectrum parameters at cell 7-1, 13-2 and rotary rack on Dalat reactor, the calibration of detection efficiency of gamma spectrometers, the application and development of computer software for processing of gamma-ray spectra and for calculating of related problems (i.e. detector efficiency, neutron spectrum parameters, elemental concentration, etc.) and the quality control/assessment (QC/QA) with the analysis of the reference material IAEA-Soil7 have been presented as well as the application of the ko-NAA for practical samples in geological, archaeological, bio-medical and environmental objects has also been shown. (author)

  20. A development and integration of the concentration database for relative method, k0 method and absolute method in instrumental neutron activation analysis using Microsoft Access

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is offen used to determine and calculate the concentration of an element in the sample by the National University of Malaysia, especially students of Nuclear Science Program. The lack of a database service leads consumers to take longer time to calculate the concentration of an element in the sample. This is because we are more dependent on software that is developed by foreign researchers which are costly. To overcome this problem, a study has been carried out to build an INAA database software. The objective of this study is to build a database software that help the users of INAA in Relative Method and Absolute Method for calculating the element concentration in the sample using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Microsoft Access 2010. The study also integrates k0 data, k0 Concent and k0-Westcott to execute and complete the system. After the integration, a study was conducted to test the effectiveness of the database software by comparing the concentrations between the experiments and in the database. Triple Bare Monitor Zr-Au and Cr-Mo-Au were used in Abs-INAA as monitor to determine the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f). Calculations involved in determining the concentration are the net peak area (Np), the measurement time (tm), the irradiation time (tirr), k-factor (k), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), the parameters of the neutron flux distribution epithermal (α) and detection efficiency (εp). For Com-INAA databases, reference material IAEA-375 Soil was used to calculate the concentration of elements in the sample. CRM, SRM are also used in this database. After the INAA database integration, a verification process was to examine the effectiveness of the Abs-INAA was carried out by comparing the sample concentration between the in database and the experiment. The result of the experimental concentration value of INAA database software performed with high accuracy and precision. ICC

  1. Thick activation detectors for neutron spectrometry using different unfolding methods: sensitivity analysis and dose calculation

    This paper discusses the use of threshold detectors of extended sizes for low intensity neutron fields' characterization. The detectors were tested by the measurement of the neutron spectrum of an 241Am–Be source. Integral quantities characterizing the neutron field, required for radiological protection, have been derived by unfolding the measured data. A good agreement is achieved between the obtained results and those deduced using Bonner spheres. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the results to the deconvolution procedure is given. - Highlights: ► Low intensity neutron fields' characterization using thick threshold detectors. ► Low activity 241Am–Be neutron source spectrum measurement. ► Integral quantities required for radiological protection have been derived. ► The results are in good agreement with those deduced using Bonner spheres. ► The results are not very sensitive to the chosen deconvolution procedure.

  2. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA)

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  3. Activation analysis in Greece

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  4. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable. - Highlights: • Dose rates from natural U, Th and K in bricks were determined for the purpose of TL dating. • Results from neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis were compared. • Good match was observed for K determination. • Systematically lower dose rates from U and Th

  5. The comparison of the methods of activation analysis of nitrogen in diamond on cyclotron and microtron

    The successes in the scientific studies of natural diamond led to the fact that in several industrially - developed countries the crystals of syntetic diamond are produced in necessary quantities for precise - mechanical industry, abrasive machinery, scientific and space equipment, etc. Nevertheless, the world diamond for natural diamond (according to information sources) is still large. The study of origin, structure and properties of natural diamond is carried out by scientists for more than 300 years. Diamonds differ in share, structure and properties. The results of determination of admixture element composition of natural diamonds and development of different methods for obtaining of syntetic diamonds showed the 'main' admixture in diamonds is the nitrogen. The total quantitative concentration of nitrogen gives information on the origin, habitus, color, weight, quality and even on the geography of place of origin of natural diamond's crystals. In order to save the structure and properties of diamond's crystals, any developed method for nitrogen determination must be non-destructive. Such method was developed on the cyclotron of Institute of Nuclear Physics. The total concentrations of nitrogen's admixture in 70 crystals of natural diamond of weight from 15.5 to 716 mg were determined. The total concentration of nitrogen (0.1-2.68 %) in diamond was determined by the irradiation of crystal by fast neutrons, which were generated in thick beryllium target (h=4 mm) by the beam of protons or deuterons. In Samarkand State University, the calculation method for determination of nitrogen in diamonds was done using electron Bremsstrahlung from microtron MT - 22C (tungsten target h = 2 mm). The structure of diamond -crystal lattice in the knots of which are the atoms of carbon 12,13C. The admixture elements are in bound and free status. The determination of nitrogen in samples is done by positron - radiating radioisotope of nitrogen 13N(e+→γ: Eγ= 0.511 MeV) created

  6. Thick activation detectors for neutron spectrometry using different unfolding methods: sensitivity analysis and dose calculation

    Medkour Ishak-Boushaki, Ghania, E-mail: gmedkour@yahoo.com [Laboratoire SNIRM-Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia BabEzzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Boukeffoussa, Khelifa [Laboratoire SNIRM-Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia BabEzzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Idiri, Zahir [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 02 Boulevard Frantz-Fanon, BP 399, Algiers (Algeria); Allab, Malika [Laboratoire SNIRM-Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia BabEzzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-03-15

    This paper discusses the use of threshold detectors of extended sizes for low intensity neutron fields' characterization. The detectors were tested by the measurement of the neutron spectrum of an {sup 241}Am-Be source. Integral quantities characterizing the neutron field, required for radiological protection, have been derived by unfolding the measured data. A good agreement is achieved between the obtained results and those deduced using Bonner spheres. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the results to the deconvolution procedure is given. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low intensity neutron fields' characterization using thick threshold detectors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low activity {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source spectrum measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integral quantities required for radiological protection have been derived. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results are in good agreement with those deduced using Bonner spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results are not very sensitive to the chosen deconvolution procedure.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of archaeological artefacts using the conventional relative method: A realistic approach for analysis of large samples

    A new approach for analysis of entire potsherds of archaeological interest by INAA, using the conventional relative method, is described. The analytical method proposed involves, primarily, the preparation of replicates of the original archaeological pottery, with well known chemical composition (standard), destined to be irradiated simultaneously, in a well thermalized external neutron beam of the RP-10 reactor, with the original object (sample). The concentrations determined by irradiation of the entire replicates, in comparison with those obtained from the analysis of the aliquots, show a reasonable agreement; in particular, the percentage recoveries for lanthanum and scandium, with differences ≥ 10 % with respect to the reference. The basic advantage of this proposal is to avoid the need of performing complicated effect corrections when dealing with large samples, due to neutron self shielding, neutron self-thermalization and gamma ray attenuation. In addition, and in contrast with the other methods, the main advantages are the possibility of evaluating the uncertainty of the results and, fundamentally, validating the overall methodology. (orig.)

  8. Associations between diet and disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients using a novel method of data analysis

    Curno Richard

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relapsing nature and varying geographical prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC implicates environmental factors such as diet in its aetiology. Methods In order to determine which foods might be related to disease activity in UC a new method of dietary analysis was developed and applied. Eighty-one UC patients were recruited at all stages of the disease process. Following completion of a 7 d diet diary, clinical assessment including a sigmoidoscopic examination (scale 0 (normal mucosa to 6 (very active disease was conducted. Food weights for each person were adjusted (divided by the person's calorific intake for the week. Each food consumed was given a food sigmoidoscopy score (FSS calculated by summing the products of the (adjusted weight of food consumed and sigmoidoscopy score for each patient and occurrence of food and dividing by the total (adjusted weight of the food consumed by all 81 patients. Thus, foods eaten in large quantities by patients with very active disease have high FSSs and vice versa. Foods consumed by Results High FSS foods were characterized by high levels of the anti-thiamin additive sulfite (Mann-Whitney, p Conclusions The dietary analysis method described provides a new tool for establishing relationships between diet and disease and indicates a potentially therapeutic diet for UC.

  9. SLOWPOKE: neutron activation analysis

    Neutron activation analysis permits the non-destructive determination of trace elements in crude oil and its derivatives at high sensitivity (up to 10-9 g/g) and good precision. This article consists of a quick survey of the method followed by an illustration based on the results of recent work at the SLOWPOKE reactor laboratory at the Ecole Polytechnique

  10. A field method for assessing body composition by portable XRF bromine analysis: Validation against instrumental neutron activation

    Full text: Extracellular water space (ECW) is expanded in acute illness or in catabolic states. The assessment of change in ECW provides a simple method for monitoring nutritional status. ECW can be measured by Br dilution. A small amount of natural Br (10-17mg per Kg of body weight) is given orally. The concentration of Br in plasma is measured prior and 3 hours following the administration. Plasma is analysed for Br either by ion-exchange chromatography, or by non-destructive methods, such as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF). We developed a method for the rapid analysis of Br in plasma with a small hand-held, XRF instrument consisting of a 30mCi Cd-109 source and an electronically-cooled solid-state Xray detector. 128 plasma samples were analysed from 64 volunteers aged 19 to 84y. The samples were measured first with the XRF instrument and then by INAA using the nuclear reactor of the research center 'Democritos' by the 79Br(n,γ)80Br neutron capture reaction. The samples were exposed to 2x1013n/cm2/s for 3 min. Detection of the 80Br (t1/2= 17.8 min) gamma-ray (616.2 KeV) followed 3 min after the irradiation using a liquid nitrogen-cooled purified Ge photon detector. We found the XRF instrument to be highly correlated with the neutron activation measurements (R= 1.000 for 7 standards, R = 0.997 for human plasma samples). We also observed that, in our group of volunteers, ECW was able to assess nutritional status as determined by in vivo neutron activation analysis. This simple method makes body composition measurements widely available as the main outcome of nutritional and pharmaceutical anabolic interventions. (author)

  11. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, J.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-11-01

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable.

  12. Forensic Activation Analysis

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  13. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    Bianca Ivanescu; Anca Miron; Andreia Corciova

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analges...

  14. Optimization of crude enzyme preparation methods for analysis of glutamine synthetase activity in phytoplankton and field samples

    WANG Yujue; WANG Dazhi; HONG Huasheng

    2009-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an important enzyme involved in nitrogen assimilation and metabolism in marine phytoplankton. However, little work has been done in situ due to the limitation of crude enzyme preparation methods. In this study, three enzyme preparation methods, high-speed centrifugation (HC, <10 000 g), ultracentrifugation (UC, 70 000 g), and ultrafiltration (UF) with 100 kμ, molecular weight cutoff, were compared using two diatom species (Asterionellopsis glacialis and Thalassiosira weissflogii), and two dinoflagellate species (Alexandrium catenella and Prorocentrum donghaiense) as experimental materials together with field samples collected from Xiamen Harbor, China. The results showed that HC is the best method to prepare crude enzymes for glutamine synthetase activity (GSA) in diatom species and diatom-dominant samples, while UF is the best method to extract GS from dinoflagellate species and dinoflagellate-dominant samples. For the HC method, the optimal centrifugal speed and time were 10 000 g and 35 min, respectively, and under these conditions, the highest GSA was obtained in all samples. This study indicates that both methods (HC and UF) overcome the limitation of centrifugal speed and could be applied to in situ GSA analysis, especially at sea.

  15. Forensic activation analysis

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  16. Determination of antioxidant activity in herbal ingredients for foods using new methods of chemical analysis

    Katalina Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure has been used to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds 18 samples of Thymus vulgaris and 12 samples of Rosmarinus officinalis (both used as natural food preservatives, based on the combination of HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and postchromatographic DPPH● radical derivatization. The compounds thymol and rosmarinic acid in T. vulgaris and R. officinalis, respectively, were identified by comparisons of their Rf values and UV spectra to standards analyzed under identical analytical conditions, while the quantitative data were calculated from their calibration curves. We found that not only that the biomass yield but also the metabolite content in herbs, depend on the ecotype (genetics and on the agro ecological conditions. The effect of the ambient on the metabolite content is extremely significant and also on their antioxidant activity (One-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison post test was performed using GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows, GraphPad Software. This work pretends to demonstrate the great importance of using new technologies for the selection of the best materials used as natural food preservatives.

  17. Application of the activation analysis using the method of retarded fission neutrons counting for the determination of some fissionable nuclides

    A system for the detection and counting of delayed neutrons which allows the analysis of some fissile and fertile nuclides, in samples of milligram size, was developed. This was applied for the analysis of natural uranium and thorium and also for determining the 235U/238U ratio in non-irradiated samples which contain uranium with different degrees of enrichment in 235U. The spectrum of activated neutrons was varied in order to discriminate the nuclides, by covering or not the sample with a material (cadmium or boron) able to absorb low energy neutrons. Determination of 235U/238U ratios, through the number of delayed neutrons, was made by drawing a calibration curve using standards ranging from 0.5% to 93% on 235U; the accuracy of the method was also examined. In a first step, conditions for a simultaneous and non-destructive analysis of uranium and thorium were developed. The interference between these two nuclides was studied, using simulated samples. Real samples were provided by Nuclemon and IAEA. For samples with uranium concentration in the range of percentages and thorium concentration of some ppm, uranium interferes in the determination of thorium through the non-destructive analytical method. For this case, a fast and quantitative chemical method was studied which allows for the separation of thorium from uranium before the determination of throrium concentration by counting the delayed fission neutrons. It was found that the results obtained by both destructive and non-destructive methods are very consistent and can be considered statistically equivalent within a confidence level of 95%. (Author)

  18. Comparison of two semi-absolute methods. k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and fundamental parameter method X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for Ni-based alloys

    Nickel based alloys play important role in nuclear, mechanical and chemical industry. Two semi-absolute standardless methods, k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) and fundamental parameter X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FP-XRF) were used for the characterization of certified nickel based alloys. The optimized experimental conditions for NAA provided results for 18 and XRF for 15 elements. Both techniques were unable to quantify some important alloy making elements. However, both reported results of other elements as information values. The techniques were analyzed for their sensitivity and accuracy. Sensitivity was evaluated by the number of elements determined by each technique. Accuracy was ascertained by using the linear regression analysis and the average root mean squared error.

  19. Analysis for trace mercury concentration. I. Critical evaluation of current procedures. II. A proposed method for determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Current methods of sample pretreatments, digestion, lyophilization and extraction, have been found to lead to considerable loss of mercury, at an initial mercury concentration of 1 μg/g, and less. Storage of solutions of mercury at concentrations of less than 1 μg/ml, in glass, Teflon and polyethylene containers, leads to losses by adsorption. Electrochemical reduction of mercury to the metal, and subsequent volatilization, is postulated as the mechanism of loss from the samples studied during lyophilization. A method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, which obviates the above pretreatments, has been developed for mercury concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml

  20. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  1. Application of neutron activation analysis

    The physical basis and analytical possibilities of neutron activation analysis have been performed. The number of applications in material engineering, geology, cosmology, oncology, criminology, biology, agriculture, environment protection, archaeology, history of art and especially in chemical analysis have been presented. The place of the method among other methods of inorganic quantitative chemical analysis for trace elements determination has been discussed

  2. Internal standard method in α spectrometric determination of uranium and thorium radioisotopes using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    A new approach to α spectrometric determination of the radioisotopes of uranium and thorium was developed for environmental samples based on 238U and 232Th as internal standards. 238U and 232Th were accurately determined in the sample by simultaneous instrumental neutron activation analysis. Other aliquots of the sample were totally dissolved, uranium and thorium separated by anion exchange, and thin sources electroplated for α spectrometry. From the known mass concentrations of 238U and 232Th, their activity concentrations were obtained, and thus from the relative ratios of uranium (234U, 235U, 238U) and thorium (228Th, 230Th, 232Th) radioisotopes in the α spectra, the absolute isotopic activity concentrations were derived. The advantages of the procedure are that neither the chemical recovery of the radiochemical separation nor the counting efficiency of the α spectrometer is required; the use of internal standards eliminates the need for addition of expensive, calibrated, external radioisotopic tracers such as 232U and 229Th. The new approach was tested on some certified environmental reference materials and compared with the classical method using external radioisotopic tracers. It may advantageously be combined with the standard approach to obtain an independent set of data for quality control. 25 refs

  3. The neutron activation analysis in the study of Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers composition - relation to other methods of investigation

    The features of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) used in the study of Langmuir-Blodget (LB) multilayers composition are compared with the following analytical techniques: radiometry, spectrophotometry, IR-spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. A very important advantage of NAA is possibility for the simultaneous determination of all the inorganic ions in the sample, especially when LB multilayers serve as models of biological systems. Thus competitive reactions of bivalent and monovalent cations (Ca2+/Na+, K+) or specific reactions of counterions of equal charge (Zn2+/Cd2+. HPO42-/HAsO42-, SO42-/CrO42-) can be investigated with great accuracy. The parallel application of onother analytical technique is necessary when the structure of the multilayers, their stability, the molecular interactions or the binding energies of the elements are to be studied. An attempt to classify roughly the applicability of each method to some particular counterions is given. Such characteristics as the lower limit of detection, simplicity of the analysis accessibility, rapidity, etc. have been taken into consideration

  4. Validation of the instrumental neutron activation analysis method for mercury analysis in hair samples used for biomonitoring of mercury environmental contamination

    Environmental mercury contamination has lately become of widespread concern in Brazil owing to gold extraction activities in the Amazon region and also to industrial activities. It is estimated that tonnes of mercury are thrown in the rivers of the Amazon region annually or are evaporated into the open air owing to the amalgamation procedure employed in gold extraction. In the present work, as pail of an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP), three main population groups were studied: a control group of individuals with no suspicion of contamination by mercury; a group of people living near the Billings Dam, located in one of the most heavily industrialized parts of the country, and several Indian tribes living in Xingu Park, an Indian reservation located in the Amazon region. An important part of the CRP was the validation of the analytical methodology for die analysis of total mercury in the hair samples of the population groups studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was chosen for the analysis of mercury in these samples. It has the advantage of being non-destructive, which can be quite convenient when dealing with a large number of samples, which is the case in epidemiological studies. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiation of the hair samples in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and measurement of the gamma radioactivity of 197Hg. For the validation of the analytical methodology, the following reference materials (RMs) were analysed: IAEA MA-A-2/TM Fish Flesh Homogenate; SHINR GBW-9101 Chinese Human Hair and the candidate RMs IAEA-085 and IAEA-086 Human Hair. The recently acquired RM BCR CRM-397 was also analysed. The accuracy and precision of the INAA method for the analysis of these RMs is discussed, as well as the applicability of the method to the analysis of mercury in the hair of the population groups studied. (author)

  5. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub 0}-standardization method

    Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B. [Department of Nuclear Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Samat, S.B. [Department of Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k{sub 0} method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E{sup 1+{alpha}} epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the {gamma}-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for.

  6. Study on activation analysis

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  7. Contribution of Italy to the activities on intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures: Finite element analysis of lead rubber bearings

    This paper presents a summary of the results of nonlinear Finite Element (FE) analyses carried out by ENEL-Ricerca, Hydraulic and Structural Centre and ENEA-ERG-SIEC-SISM, on Lead Rubber Bearings (LRBs). Activities were carried out in the framework of the four years' Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on Intercomparison of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures. The bearing Finite Element Models (FEMs) are validated through comparisons of the numerical results with experimental test data. The reliability of FEMs for simulating the behaviour of rubber bearings is presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, Jan; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, NOV (2014), s. 393-397. ISSN 0969-806X. [1st International Conference on Dosimetry and its Applications (ICDA). Prague, 23.6.2013-28.6.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Alpha coutning * neutron activation analysis * X-ray fluorescence * thermoluminescence dating * dose rate Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2014

  9. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  10. An Analysis of the Romanian General Accounting Plan. Opportunities for Adaptation to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Method

    Irina-Alina Preda; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the causes that have led to the improvement of the Romanian general accounting plan according to the Activity- Based Costing (ABC) method. We explain the advantages presented by the dissociated organization of management accounting, in contrast with the tabular- statistical form. The article also describes the methodological steps to be taken in the process of recording book entries, according to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method in Romania.

  11. An Analysis of the Romanian General Accounting Plan. Opportunities for Adaptation to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC Method

    Irina-Alina Preda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the causes that have led to the improvement of the Romanian general accounting plan according to the Activity- Based Costing (ABC method. We explain the advantages presented by the dissociated organization of management accounting, in contrast with the tabular- statistical form. The article also describes the methodological steps to be taken in the process of recording book entries, according to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC method in Romania.

  12. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  13. Active Learning Methods

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  14. Development of a data base system and concentration calculation for neutron activation analysis as per the k0 method

    One of the most important nuclear analytical techniques is the neutron activation analysis used to determine which elements and their proportion are included within an analysis sample. A sample is undergone to the procedures of the technique, and the information, which is dispersed, is generated in each phase of this process. Therefore, it is necessary this information should be organized properly for its better use

  15. A simple and rapid method for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the determination of iodine in rice samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Irradiated rice powder was decomposed together with an iodide carrier solution containing I-131 on heating in a sodium hypochlorite solution. After decomposition, the solution was acidified with hydrochloric acid, and the insoluble residue was filtered off. To the filtrate sodium sulfite solution and palladium chloride solution were added, and the precipitate of palladium iodide was separated with a glass fiber filter paper. Iodine contents of rice were calculated from the peak areas under the 443 keV γ-ray of I-128 in the precipitate and comparative stand ard. Corrections for the chemical recovery were applied to them by means of the areas under the 365 keV γ-ray of I-131. This method was applied to the certified refe rece materials, IAEA wheat flour RM-V-5 and NBS orchard leaves SRM 1571. The results were in good agreement with the recommended values. Iodine contents of rice samples of two different origins in Japan were found to be of the order of 100ng g-1 (dry weight base). The recovery of iodine in this procedure was about 80%. Decontamination factors for Mn, Cl, Na, and Br in the final fraction were 7 x 103, 2 x 104, 3 x 104, and 2 x 102, respectively. The time required for the chemical procedure was about 15 min, and the limit of determination was 0.7 ng of iodine in a sample of 1 g. (author)

  16. Analysis of numerical methods

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  17. Assessment of Thorium Analysis Methods

    The Assessment of thorium analytical methods for mixture power fuel consisting of titrimetry, X-ray flouresence spectrometry, UV-VIS spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, emission spectrography, polarography, chromatography (HPLC) and neutron activation were carried out. It can be concluded that analytical methods which have high accuracy (deviation standard < 3%) were; titrimetry neutron activation analysis and UV-VIS spectrometry; whereas with low accuracy method (deviation standard 3-10%) were; alpha spectrometry and emission spectrography. Ore samples can be analyzed by X-ray flourescnce spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, UV-VIS spectrometry, emission spectrography, chromatography and alpha spectometry. Concentrated samples can be analyzed by X-ray flourescence spectrometry; simulation samples can be analyzed by titrimetry, polarography and UV-VIS spectrometry, and samples of thorium as minor constituent can be analyzed by neutron activation analysis and alpha spectrometry. Thorium purity (impurities element in thorium samples) can be analyzed by emission spectography. Considering interference aspects, in general analytical methods without molecule reaction are better than those involving molecule reactions (author). 19 refs., 1 tabs

  18. Improvements in an in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) method for the measurement of fluorine in human bone

    We previously published a method for the in vivo measurement of bone fluoride using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and demonstrated the utility of the technique in a pilot study of environmentally exposed people. The method involved activation of the hand in an irradiation cavity at the McMaster University Accelerator Laboratory and acquisition of the resultant γ-ray signals in a ‘4π’ NaI(Tl) detector array of nine detectors. In this paper we describe a series of improvements to the method. This was investigated via measurement of hand simulating phantoms doped with varying levels of fluorine and fixed amounts of sodium, chlorine and calcium. Four improvements to the technique were tested since our first publication. The previously published detection limit for phantom measurements using this system was 0.66 mg F/g Ca. The accelerator irradiation and detection facilities were relocated to a new section of the laboratory and one more detector was added to the detection system. This was found to reduce the detection limit (possibly because of better detection shielding and additional detector) to 0.59 mg F/g Ca, a factor of 1.12. A new set of phantoms was developed and in this work we show that they improved the minimum detectable limit for fluoride in phantoms irradiated using neutrons produced by 2.15 MeV protons on lithium by a factor of 1.55. We compared the detection limits previously obtained using a summed signal from the nine detectors with the detection limit obtained by acquiring the spectra in anticoincidence mode for reduction of the disturbing signal from chlorine in bone. This was found to improve the ratio of the detection of fluorine to chlorine (an interfering signal) by a factor of 2.8 and the resultant minimum detection limit was found to be reduced by a factor of 1.2. We studied the effects of changing the timing of γ-ray acquisition. Our previously published data used a series of three 10 s acquisitions followed by a 300 s count

  19. Studies on the method for determination of fluoride concentration in rat hard tissues by neutron activation analysis using sup 20 F

    Nakakura, Tadao (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis method (non disruptive analysis, short time period measurement) has been recognized as a high precision analysis of fluoride concentration in hard tissue. Heat neutron irradiation analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to investigate {sup 20}F concentration. Results were as follows. F concentration in a dried material of hard tissue using INAA method can be fixed by measuring the {sup 20}F's energy peak for 10 seconds after neutron irradiation under 1 x 10 n/cm{sup 2}center dots for 10 seconds. Non responding time that is caused by short half reduction time of {sup 20}F can be recovered enough by a revise calculation. Reproducibility of measured fluoride concentration using INAA method was well stabilized. Rat hard tissue which takes no fluoride can be determined fluoride concentration without sodium restriction. Femur fluoride concentrations using INAA method had significant correlation with conventional microdiffusion analysis method (r=0.997, regression line: Y=1.13X + 2.98). Increase of fluoride density in dentine of rat molars under growing period according to fluoride intake was 1/3 of femurs and mandibles. (author).

  20. Validation of k0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis-The use of Kayzero for Windows programme at the nuclear physics institute, Rez

    The goal of this work was to validate the method of the k0 standardization in neutron activation analysis at the laboratory of neutron activation analysis in Rez using the Kayzero for Windows software package. For verification of the precision and accuracy of the method two types of reference materials were used. One was a set of synthetic materials aimed at checking the implementation of k0 standardization. The others were matrix standard reference materials of the US National Institute of Standards and Technology comprising several types of matrices. In general, good agreement was obtained between results of this work and values in certificates of the individual reference materials, thus proving the accuracy of our results and successful implementation of the method for analysis of real samples. In addition, detection limits for more than 50 elements were evaluated.

  1. Methods for Risk Analysis

    Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects

  2. Simultaneous determination of Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ga and Zr in aluminium alloys by charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method

    In order to study the application of the newly developed internal standard method for charged-particle activation analysis, simultaneous determination of Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ga and Zr in several commercial aluminium alloys was tried using the respective proton-induced reactions. As a result, it could be proved that the best precision and accuracy are also obtained in these determinations. (author)

  3. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  4. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  5. Methods for RNA Analysis

    Olivarius, Signe

    While increasing evidence appoints diverse types of RNA as key players in the regulatory networks underlying cellular differentiation and metabolism, the potential functions of thousands of conserved RNA structures encoded in mammalian genomes remain to be determined. Since the functions of most...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA......-protein pulldown combined with mass spectrometry analysis is applied for in vivo as well as in vitro identification of RNA-binding proteins, the latter succeeding in verifying known RNA-protein interactions. Secondly, acknowledging the significance of flexible promoter usage for the diversification of the...

  6. A simple method of designing irradiation-, cooling-, and counting time in multi-element neutron activation analysis

    A method was investigated to seek the optimum irradiation-, cooling-, and counting time for economy of time, labor, and cost. For the first step, the terms of the basic equation of induction and decay of radioactivity were grouped into three parts: the terms of time, of proper values to each nuclide, and of variables due to experimental conditions. Then the equation was simplified by taking logarithm, and the values calculated from the equation for the terms of time and the characteristic values of each nuclide were tabulated. The counting time was decided in such a way that the counts of radioactivity of each nuclide fall in a range between minimal and maximal counts which were decided by counting statistics and by the dead time level of the measuring instruments. The calculation was made by simple treatment of the variables of the experimental conditions and of the values found in the prepared tables. An experimental scheme designed by the above method was applied to analysis of an atmospheric ''standard'' reference sample, and the analytical results were compared with those by the experimental scheme by R. Dams and with those obtained by three nuclear laboratories. The comparison showed that the present method made experiments economical in time, labor, and cost of the analysis by shortening the time of measurement to one half of those of R. Dams, leaving the accuracy almost in the same level. (auth.)

  7. Study on the use of neutron activation analysis within a new separation method in order to determine element traces in sea water

    Starting from the problematic situation of neutron activation analysis of sea salt it is outlined, that an early separation of disturbing nuclides of chief components will considerably increase the number of elements which can be determined by NAA of sea salt. Referring to this, a new separation method is presented which allows the selective separation of chief activities with the high decontamination factors required. For 21 elements limits of detection achieved by this method are compared with the average content of sea water. (orig.)

  8. Development of methods for the application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of trace elements in food

    For the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs with the aid of neutron activation analysis the separation of volatile radionuclides after digestion of the sample is of special interest for radiochemical processing. A distallation procedure was developed to give reproducable results, however optimal conditions were not found for all volatile radionuclides studied. The required selective separation of Br82 from the distillate was best achieved by the application of an ion-exchange column-chromatography technique. The computer programs for the evaluation of complex gamma spectra have been developed further. The automatic peak search and peak area determination is based on a computer program using the correlation technique and carried out with a mini-computer coupled with a multi-channel gamma spectrometer. The results, which are presented in 3 earlier reports relating to this research program, reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the individual steps of the radiochemical separation scheme. Before neutron activation analysis can be introduced on a routine basis, some aspects of the radiochemical process remain to be tested; these studies will be published in a fourth and final report. (orig.)

  9. An enzymatic deconjugation method for the analysis of small molecule active drugs on antibody-drug conjugates.

    Li, Yi; Gu, Christine; Gruenhagen, Jason; Yehl, Peter; Chetwyn, Nik P; Medley, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex therapeutic agents that use the specific targeting properties of antibodies and the highly potent cytotoxicity of small molecule drugs to selectively eliminate tumor cells while limiting the toxicity to normal healthy tissues. Two critical quality attributes of ADCs are the purity and stability of the active small molecule drug linked to the ADC, but these are difficult to assess once the drug is conjugated to the antibody. In this study, we report a enzyme deconjugation approach to cleave small molecule drugs from ADCs, which allows the drugs to be subsequently characterized by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The model ADC we used in this study utilizes a valine-citrulline linker that is designed to be sensitive to endoproteases after internalization by tumor cells. We screened several proteases to determine the most effective enzyme. Among the 3 cysteine proteases evaluated, papain had the best efficiency in cleaving the small molecule drug from the model ADC. The deconjugation conditions were further optimized to achieve complete cleavage of the small molecule drug. This papain deconjugation approach demonstrated excellent specificity and precision. The purity and stability of the active drug on an ADC drug product was evaluated and the major degradation products of the active drug were identified. The papain deconjugation method was also applied to several other ADCs, with the results suggesting it could be applied generally to ADCs containing a valine-citrulline linker. Our results indicate that the papain deconjugation method is a powerful tool for characterizing the active small molecule drug conjugated to an ADC, and may be useful in ensuring the product quality, efficacy and the safety of ADCs. PMID:26891281

  10. An Analysis on the Radioactivity Uncertainty Caused by Monte Carlo Stochastic Errors Using Sampling Based Method for the Accelerator Activation Problem

    In this study, to estimate the uncertainty caused by the MC stochastic error, the sampling based sensitivity and uncertainty method is introduced. After the estimation procedure was constructed, the activation analyses were performed for the βNMR (beta-radiation-detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) facility. In this study, procedure and program to analyze the activity uncertainty caused by stochastic error of MC method were developed. Using the flux and standard deviation information in MC transport output, 300 randomly sampled flux sets were produced to calculate the uncertainty. It is widely used to couple Monte Carlo (MC) transport code and activation code for the activation analysis of the accelerators. MC method is a stochastic approach for the particle transport; hence, the stochastic errors are always included in the MC transport results. Using the developed procedure, the air activation calculation in βNMR facility was performed. From the results, the major nuclide affected by the flux uncertainty was analyzed. Also, the guideline on the number of particle history is proposed to have a reliable result of the activation. The developed method and procedure will contribute to increasing the accuracy and reliability on the activation calculation

  11. Use of reference materials for validating analytical methods. Applied to the determination of As, Co, Na, Hg, Se and Fe using neutron activation analysis

    The main purpose of an analytical laboratory is to provide reliable information on the nature and composition of the materials submitted for analysis. This purpose can only be attained if analytical methodologies that have the attributes of accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity, among others, are used. The process by which these attributes are evaluated is called validation of the analytical method. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory is applying a quality guarantee program to ensure the quality of its analytical results, which aims, as well, to attain accreditation for some of its measurements. Validation of the analytical methodologies used is an essential part of applying this program. There are many forms of validation, from comparison with reference techniques to participation in inter-comparison rounds. Certified reference materials were used in this work in order to validate the application of neutron activation analysis in determining As, Co, Na, Hg, Se and Fe in shellfish samples. The use of reference materials was chosen because it is a simple option that easily detects sources of systematic errors. Neutron activation analysis is an instrumental analytical method that does not need chemical treatment and that is based on processes which take place in the nuclei of atoms, making the matrix effects unimportant and different biological reference materials can be used. The following certified reference materials were used for validating the method used: BCR human hair 397, NRCC dogfish muscle DORM-2, NRCC -dogfish liver DOLT-2, NIST - oyster tissue 1566, NIES - mussel 6 and BCR - tuna fish 464. The reference materials were analyzed using the procedure developed for the shellfish samples and the above-mentioned elements were determined. With the results obtained, the parameters of accuracy, precision, detection limit, quantification limit and uncertainty associated with the method were determined for each

  12. Quantitative structure–activity relationship study of P2X7 receptor inhibitors using combination of principal component analysis and artificial intelligence methods

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    P2X7 antagonist activity for a set of 49 molecules of the P2X7 receptor antagonists, derivatives of purine, was modeled with the aid of chemometric and artificial intelligence techniques. The activity of these compounds was estimated by means of combination of principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known data reduction method, genetic algorithm (GA), as a variable selection technique, and artificial neural network (ANN), as a non-linear modeling method. First, a linear regression, combined with PCA, (principal component regression) was operated to model the structure–activity relationships, and afterwards a combination of PCA and ANN algorithm was employed to accurately predict the biological activity of the P2X7 antagonist. PCA preserves as much of the information as possible contained in the original data set. Seven most important PC's to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of ANN box by an efficient variable selection method, GA. The best computational neural network model was a fully-connected, feed-forward model with 7−7−1 architecture. The developed ANN model was fully evaluated by different validation techniques, including internal and external validation, and chemical applicability domain. All validations showed that the constructed quantitative structure–activity relationship model suggested is robust and satisfactory. PMID:26600858

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of P2X7 receptor inhibitors using combination of principal component analysis and artificial intelligence methods.

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    P2X7 antagonist activity for a set of 49 molecules of the P2X7 receptor antagonists, derivatives of purine, was modeled with the aid of chemometric and artificial intelligence techniques. The activity of these compounds was estimated by means of combination of principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known data reduction method, genetic algorithm (GA), as a variable selection technique, and artificial neural network (ANN), as a non-linear modeling method. First, a linear regression, combined with PCA, (principal component regression) was operated to model the structure-activity relationships, and afterwards a combination of PCA and ANN algorithm was employed to accurately predict the biological activity of the P2X7 antagonist. PCA preserves as much of the information as possible contained in the original data set. Seven most important PC's to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of ANN box by an efficient variable selection method, GA. The best computational neural network model was a fully-connected, feed-forward model with 7-7-1 architecture. The developed ANN model was fully evaluated by different validation techniques, including internal and external validation, and chemical applicability domain. All validations showed that the constructed quantitative structure-activity relationship model suggested is robust and satisfactory. PMID:26600858

  14. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  15. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2k experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2k experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  16. The Active Method of Teaching Foreign Languages

    Regina Juškienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the active method of teaching foreign languages. It is considered to be the most effective means to teach foreign languages by increasing the efficiency of teaching foreign languages. The application of this method requires a good guide to the general concept of the human activity and deep analysis of its constituents. The preparation of the methodology for the active method of teaching foreign languages may benefit from the results of the analysis greatly. Since the number of hours for language teaching at non – philological higher school is limited, a selection of rational teaching subject must be carried out before the teaching process. Improved work is both theoretically and practically significant.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Analysis on the Distribution of Active Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID Tracking Accuracy with the Kriging Method

    Xin Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy.

  18. A new method based on fractal variance function for analysis and quantification of sympathetic and vagal activity in variability of R-R time series in ECG signals

    Conte, Elio [Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology and Tires, Center for Innovative Technologies for Signal Detection and Processing, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); School of Advanced International Studies on Nuclear, Theoretical and Nonlinear Methodologies-Bari (Italy)], E-mail: fisio2@fisiol.uniba.it; Federici, Antonio [Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology and Tires, Center for Innovative Technologies for Signal Detection and Processing, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Zbilut, Joseph P. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653W Congress, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    It is known that R-R time series calculated from a recorded ECG, are strongly correlated to sympathetic and vagal regulation of the sinus pacemaker activity. In human physiology it is a crucial question to estimate such components with accuracy. Fourier analysis dominates still to day the data analysis efforts of such data ignoring that FFT is valid under some crucial restrictions that results largely violated in R-R time series data as linearity and stationarity. In order to go over such approach, we introduce a new method, called CZF. It is based on variogram analysis. It is aimed from a profound link with Recurrence Quantification Analysis that is a basic tool for investigation of non linear and non stationary time series. Therefore, a relevant feature of the method is that it finally may be applied also in cases of non linear and non stationary time series analysis. In addition, the method enables also to analyze the fractal variance function, the Generalized Fractal Dimension and, finally, the relative probability density function of the data. The CZF gives very satisfactory results. In the present paper it has been applied to direct experimental cases of normal subjects, patients with hypertension before and after therapy and in children under some different conditions of experimentation.

  19. A new method based on fractal variance function for analysis and quantification of sympathetic and vagal activity in variability of R-R time series in ECG signals

    It is known that R-R time series calculated from a recorded ECG, are strongly correlated to sympathetic and vagal regulation of the sinus pacemaker activity. In human physiology it is a crucial question to estimate such components with accuracy. Fourier analysis dominates still to day the data analysis efforts of such data ignoring that FFT is valid under some crucial restrictions that results largely violated in R-R time series data as linearity and stationarity. In order to go over such approach, we introduce a new method, called CZF. It is based on variogram analysis. It is aimed from a profound link with Recurrence Quantification Analysis that is a basic tool for investigation of non linear and non stationary time series. Therefore, a relevant feature of the method is that it finally may be applied also in cases of non linear and non stationary time series analysis. In addition, the method enables also to analyze the fractal variance function, the Generalized Fractal Dimension and, finally, the relative probability density function of the data. The CZF gives very satisfactory results. In the present paper it has been applied to direct experimental cases of normal subjects, patients with hypertension before and after therapy and in children under some different conditions of experimentation.

  20. Sacred activity by the Method of Excavation

    Eliana Anjos Furtado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Excavation is a clinical and teaching methodology created by the first author of this article. It constitutes a way of helping subjects think, make and speak. This process occurs through the xcavation of making, unblinding and/or unveiling elements in search for the understanding of sacred activity. Through xcavation, subjects understand their thoughts, values and the society in which they live in as they excavate their life stories and their relations with making, including their daily, social and work activities. We applied a thoughtful analysis to approach the role of excavation and the concept of sacred activity. Sacred activity is the core activity of every human being, which is not necessarily the activity we perform in our everyday or work life. Sacred activity is that in which subjects are inserted and experience integrally, genuinely and with no masking. Through sacred activities, subjects surrender, not only to the activity itself, but also to the other, to himself and into himself, by quest. Seeking sacred activity is, therefore, a process of questioning, excavating the routine of subjects, watching and understanding the content of this excavation, replacing and adjusting what is being unveiled, and thus making this activity sacred. In this analysis, we concluded that, by the method of excavation, the sacralization of this action should allow subjects to have tender relationships, and thus be cured.

  1. Implementation of the k0-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k0-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established ko-NAA procedure.The ko-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(ko-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The ko-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used

  2. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method; Analise de extratos de plantas medicinais pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed 70 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs

  3. Studies on application of neutron activation analysis -Applied research on air pollution monitoring and development of analytical method of environmental samples

    This research report is written for results of applied research on air pollution monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For identification and standardization of analytical method, 24 environmental samples are analyzed quantitatively, and accuracy and precision of this method are measured. Using airborne particulate matter and biomonitor chosen as environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site monthly are determined ant then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. Facilities for NAA are installed in a new HANARO reactor, functional test is performed for routine operation. In addition, unified software code for NAA is developed to improve accuracy, precision and abilities of analytical processes. (author). 103 refs., 61 tabs., 19 figs

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples by k{sub 0} standardization method using short lived nuclides

    Oura, Yasuji; Kanzaki, Chinatsu; Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, and Mn contents in geochemical and cosmochemical samples were analyzed by both k{sub 0} standardization INAA and conventional INAA by a comparison method. The contents of Mg, Al, and Mn by k{sub 0} method were consistent with recommended values and ones by comparison methods. For Ti and V their values are slightly higher than recommended ones. The values by k{sub 0} method were reliable within {+-}10%. (author)

  5. Determination of 60 Co by means of Neutron Activation Analysis in the sorption of Co in synthesized porous oxides by the combustion method

    Recently inorganic materials are investigating as sorbent of radioactive pollutants present in water. The inorganic oxides belong to this group of materials. A quick method exists for the obtaining of inorganic oxides, denominated combustion method that could be used to produce porous oxides successfully with good properties for the sorption of radioactive ions. In this investigation, iron oxides, magnesium and zinc were synthesized obtained by the combustion method, comparing them with those synthesized by the calcination method, using two different synthesis temperatures. The obtained solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (Sem), by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS). After the characterization, the crystalline oxides synthesized by both methods, to temperature of 800 C, were evaluated as sorbents in the removal of Co2+ ions, through experiments in batch, and using neutron activation analysis, determining the sorption percentage, with this it was concluded that the magnesium oxide produced by combustion it is more effective in the removal of Co2+ ions than that synthesized by calcination. It was determined the surface area of the magnesium oxides, obtaining a surface area greater for the synthesized oxide by combustion method. (Author)

  6. USE OF STATISTICAL METHODS IN DETECTING ACCOUNTING ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES (AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN POLAND – SECOND PART: EMPIRICAL ASPECTS OF ANALYSIS

    Leszek Michalczyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is one in a series of two publications concerning detection of accounting engineering operations in use. Its conclusions and methods may be applied to external auditing procedures. The aim of the present duo-article is to define a method of statistical analysis that could identify procedures falling within the scope of a framework herein defined as accounting engineering. This model for analysis is meant to be employed in these aspects of initial financial and accounting audit in a business enterprise that have to do with isolating the influence of variant accounting solutions, which are a consequence of the settlement method chosen by the enterprise. Materials for statistical analysis were divided into groups according to the field in which a given company operated. In this article, we accept and elaborate on the premise that significant differences in financial results may be solely a result of either expansive policy on new markets or the acquisition of cheaper sources for operating activities. In the remaining cases, the choice of valuation and settlement methods becomes crucial; the greater the deviations, the more essential this choice becomes. Even though the research materials we analyze are regionally-conditioned, the model may find its application in other accounting systems, provided that it has been appropriately implemented. Furthermore, the article defines an innovative concept of variant accounting.

  7. Conference on instrumental activation analysis - IAA 89

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especialy on neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods. (J.P.)

  8. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  9. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  10. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  11. Comparative analysis of selected methods for the assessment of antimicrobial and membrane-permeabilizing activity: a case study for lactoferricin derived peptides

    Lohner Karl

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing concerns about bacterial resistance to antibiotics have prompted the development of alternative therapies like those based on cationic antimicrobial peptides (APs. These compounds not only are bactericidal by themselves but also enhance the activity of antibiotics. Studies focused on the systematic characterization of APs are hampered by the lack of standard guidelines for testing these compounds. We investigated whether the information provided by methods commonly used for the biological characterization of APs is comparable, as it is often assumed. For this purpose, we determined the bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and permeability-increasing activity of synthetic peptides (n = 57; 9–13 amino acid residues in length analogous to the lipopolysaccharide-binding region of human lactoferricin by a number of the most frequently used methods and carried out a comparative analysis. Results While the minimum inhibitory concentration determined by an automated turbidimetry-based system (Bioscreen or by conventional broth microdilution methods did not differ significantly, bactericidal activity measured under static conditions in a low-ionic strength solvent resulted in a vast overestimation of antimicrobial activity. Under these conditions the degree of antagonism between the peptides and the divalent cations differed greatly depending on the bacterial strain tested. In contrast, the bioactivity of peptides was not affected by the type of plasticware (polypropylene vs. polystyrene. Susceptibility testing of APs using cation adjusted Mueller-Hinton was the most stringent screening method, although it may overlook potentially interesting peptides. Permeability assays based on sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics provided overall information analogous – though not quantitatively comparable- to that of tests based on the uptake of hydrophobic fluorescent probes. Conclusion We demonstrate that subtle changes in methods for

  12. Charged-particle activation analysis

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  13. Development of the Method of Bacterial Leaching of Metals out of Low-Grade Ores, Rocks, and Industrial Wastes Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Tsertsvadze, L A; Petriashvili, Sh G; Chutkerashvili, D G; Kirkesali, E I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The results of preliminary investigations aimed at the development of an economical and easy to apply technique of bacterial leaching of rare and valuable metals out of low-grade ores, complex composition ores, rocks, and industrial wastes in Georgia are discussed. The main groups of microbiological community of the peat suspension used in the experiments of bacterial leaching are investigated and the activity of particular microorganisms in the leaching of probes with different mineral compositions is assessed. The element composition of the primary and processed samples was investigated by the epithermal neutron activation analysis method and the enrichment/subtraction level is estimated for various elements. The efficiency of the developed technique to purify wastes, extract some scrace metals, and enrich ores or rocks in some elements, e.g. Au, U, Th, Cs, Sr, Rb, Sc, Zr, Hf, Ta, Gd, Er, Lu, Ce, etc., is demonstrated.

  14. Method of rare earths determination, with separation pre-irradiation followed by neutron activation analysis. Using of brazilian standards BB-1 and GB-1

    In order to determine the rare earth elements (REE) in rocks, by neutron activation analysis, a group separation, before irradiation, was developed. The brazilian geological standards BB-1 and GB-1, provided by Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade da Bahia, were analyzed. The method was based an acid digestion of the samples, cation exchange separation with a Dowex 50WX8 column and coprecipitation of the REE with calcium oxalate. Interferers like U, Th, Ta and Fe were eliminated. The concentration values of ten REE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Yb and Lu) were determined. The analysis of Pr brought a contribution to the knowledge of the REE contents in these geological standards, since there are not yet results in the literature. The other REE data obtained were compared with literature values and some discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  15. Contribution of Italy to the activities on intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures: Shake table tests on a steel frame structure mock-up

    This report describes a series of tests performed during a wide ranging experimental campaign on a steel frame structure mock-up subjected to shake table excitations, in both fixed and base isolated configurations. Preliminary numerical simulations of experimental results, carried out by the ENEA and ENEL, are also reported. The main features of a simplified model of rubber bearings, developed and proposed by ENEA and ENEL, used in the above mentioned numerical analysis, are presented together with example of validations. Activities are being carried out in the framework of the four years' Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on Intercomparison of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures. (author)

  16. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  17. In vivo radioactive metabolite analysis for individualized medicine: A basic study of a new method of CYP activity assay using 123I-IMP

    Introduction: 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) is metabolized and converted to 123I-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-PIA) by CYP2C19 in humans. Since variations in 123I-PIA levels reflect variations in CYP2C19 activity, CYP2C19 activity can be estimated by quantitative analysis of 123I-PIA levels. Thus, 123I-IMP administration can provide diagnostic information not only regarding cerebral blood flow (rCBF) but also regarding metabolic function. The aim of the present study was to detect variations in CYP activity in mice using metabolite analysis. Methods: Metabolism of 125I-IMP in pooled homogenates of mouse liver (MLH) was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of NADPH. The amount of 125I-PIA generated was calculated as the normalized peak area of the chromatogram. Inhibition of 125I-IMP metabolism was evaluated using the inhibitor SKF-525A. A biodistribution study of 125I-IMP was performed to determine the organ distribution of 125I-IMP/125I-IMP metabolites and the effect of SKF-525A. Variations in CYP activity in vivo were detected by administration of 123I-IMP and/or SKF-525A to mice. The liver and the kidney were then excised, homogenized and analyzed using HPLC. Results: 125I-IMP was metabolized by MLH in the presence of NADPH, and the production of 125I-PIA was inhibited by SKF-525A. SKF-525A did not greatly affect the biodistribution of 125I-IMP/125I-IMP metabolites in vivo. Both 123I-IMP and 123I-PIA were detected in organs of control mice. However, 123I-PIA was not detected in the livers or kidneys of mice treated with SKF-525A. Conclusions: CYP activity in vivo was inhibited by SKF-525A treatment. Variations in CYP activity could be detected in the blood, liver and kidney as changes in the peak area of 123I-PIA. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: 123I-IMP metabolite analysis has the potential to provide beneficial information for prediction of the effect of medicines, in addition

  18. The application and development of k0-standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Dalat research reactor

    In recent years the k0-NAA method has been applied and developed at the 500 kW Dalat research reactor, which includes the establishment of a PC database of k0-NAA-related nuclear parameters, e.g., radionuclide produced, half-lives, k0-factors, Q0, E-barr Eγ, etc; the access to the database is able by a k0-NAA software or by manual; the detection efficiency calibration of gamma spectrometers used in k0-NAA, the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f factors and neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels, and the validation of the developed k0-NAA procedure by analysing some SRMs, namely Coal Fly Ash (NIST-1633b), Bovine Liver (NIST-1577b) and IAEA-Soil7. The analytical results showed the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 15% with most Z-scores lower than 2. The k0-NAA procedure established at the Dalat research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications, in particularly for airborne particulate and crude oil samples. (author)

  19. Development of RP-HPLC method for Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredient (Gallic acid from Stem Bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

    Hafsa Deshmukh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and sensitive, RP-HPLC method with UV detection at 271nm was developed and validated for qualitative determination of active ingredient Gallic acid from stem bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn. Separation was performed on a ThermoMOS 2 HYPERSIL C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 5µm ODS 3 using mobile phase comprising of 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid : Acetonitrile (400 cm3 : 600 cm3 with a flow rate of 1 ml/minute with a short run time of 13 minute. The method was validated according to the regulatory guidelines with respect to linearity, system suitability, precision, solution stability, accuracy, robustness, assay and recovery. Detector response was linear for HPLC in the range of 0.04 to 0.16 mg/cm3. The system suitability, precision, solution stability, accuracy, robustness, assay and recovery was assessed by calculating % COV for all these parameters which is less than two as expected. The recovery of the method for Gallic acid was found 98.94% which shows that method is accurate. The described method has the advantage of being rapid and easy hence it can be applied for routine quality control analysis of Gallic acid from Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

  20. Method Dynamics: An Analysis of the Effect of Activity-Based Instruction on the Persistent Misconceptions of Physics Students

    Markes, Mark; Reiser, Emily

    2004-05-01

    Studies have indicated that student misconceptions negatively impact the effectiveness of physics education. Research has also shown that activity based instruction (ABI) has greater effectiveness than lecture based instruction (LBI) in many applications. This paper examines the effect of ABI on the persistent misconceptions of physics students. A persistent misconception is defined for an LBI student as identical wrong answers on pre and posttests, using the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation. To evaluate the effect of ABI on persistent misconceptions, pretest and posttest responses were divided into wrong to same wrong (ww), wrong to different wrong (ww'), and wrong to right (wr). The effect of ABI was modeled as a transfer of probability among these three response groups. Results indicate that ABI obtains about equal gains from the ww' and ww groups with the transfer from ww to ww' small in comparison. This indicates that ABI is about equally effective with students who have persistent misconceptions and students who do not have persistent misconceptions.

  1. Firm Analysis by Different Methods

    Píbilová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This Diploma Thesis deals with an analysis of the company made by selected methods. External environment of the company is analysed using PESTLE analysis and Porter’s five-factor model. The internal environment is analysed by means of Kralicek Quick test and Fundamental analysis. SWOT analysis represents opportunities and threats of the external environment with the strengths and weaknesses of the company. The proposal of betterment of the company’s economic management is designed on the basi...

  2. Determination of toxic and trace elements in human hair and sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis technique based-on the k-zero method

    The analysis of human hair can evaluate the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to human body, intakes of food and metabolism. Also, the analysis of sediment can aid in reconstructing the history of changes, understanding human impact on the ecosystem, and suggesting possible remedial strategies. The ko-standardization method of neutron activation analysis (ko-NAA) on research reactor is capable to play an important role as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multielement and routine for the sample object. Therefore, the project's aim is to build the ko-NAA procedures on the Dalat research reactor for the analysis of human hair and sediment samples. The Ko-NAA procedure on the Dalat research reactor is able to determine of multielement: Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in The human hair; and of multielement: As, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na Rb, Sb, Sc, Yb and Zn in the sediment. (author)

  3. Study on photon activation analysis of carbon in glasses for fiber amplifiers by using the flow method for the rapid separation of 11C

    We have studied nuclear interference from a matrix produced by (γ, n), (γ, 2n), (γ, p) and (n, γ) reactions and a flow method for 11C separation in order to develop an approach for the photon activation analysis of carbon in InF3-based fluoride, chalcogenide and tellurite glasses for fiber amplifiers. We found that seventeen radionuclides are produced from these glasses and chemical separation is necessary to determine carbon. For the flow method, which involves the fusion of an irradiated sample with an oxidizer, the conversion of 11C into 11CO2 and the absorption of 11C in ethanolamine solution, we used a mixture of Pb3O4 and B2O3 as the oxidizer. We also found that the reaction between 19F(γ, n) and 23Na(γ, αn) in the ethanolamine solution produced 18F contamination with fluoride and chalcogenide glasses and that this flow method can only be applied to tellurite glasses. We confirmed that the chemical yield of the flow method was close to 100% when determining carbon in standard steel samples by using lithium carbonate as a standard sample. We determined that the carbon concentrations in two kinds of tellurite glass were 8 to 13 and 21 to 28 ppm, respectively. (author)

  4. Activation analysis in forensic studies

    Application of neutron activation analysis in forensics are grouped into 3 categories: firearms-discharge applications, elemental analysis of other nonbiological evidence materials (paint, other), and elemental analysis of biological evidence materials (multielemental analysis of hair, analysis of hair for As and Hg). 18 refs

  5. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  6. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores.

    Baccolo, Giovanni; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Delmonte, Barbara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea; Maggi, Valter

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10(-13)-10(-6) g, improving previous results of 1-3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%. PMID:27154827

  7. Determining the amount of Br, Na and K in six wheat samples with neutron activation analysis (NAA) method in Arak, I.R. Iran

    Accurate knowledge of the trace elemental concentrations in wheat and its products is of great importance from a nutritional point of view. In this study, six wheat samples were prepared from the agriculture research center of Arak named Sardari, Amir, MV-17, Batava, Karaj-2 and Alvand; they were analyzed by neutron activation method (NAA). In this method, Isfahan miniature reactor as a neutron source and relative NAA method has been used as the analysis type. In this design in order to record gamma spectrum the MCA system and high purity germanium detector were used. Finally, the concentration of the trace elements such as Br, K and Na value was determined for the Sardari, Amir, Alvand, MV-17, Batava, Karaj-2 wheat samples. The average concentration of trace elements in all wheat samples in the studied area are 2.41(0.8597-6.1175) mg kg-1 for Br, 13.42(8.7063-24.696) mg kg-1 for Na and 463.30(434.22-505.45) mg kg-1 for K, respectively. These were compared with other reports results. This study has been conducted as the first time for this region. (author)

  8. Optimization of instrumental activation analysis

    Activation analysis is one of the most well-understood methods available to the analyst. It should, therefore, be possible to infer, from prior information about the sample, what procedure should be followed in its analysis. The accuracy of this process is naturally limited by the extent and accuracy of the prior information available. Better results should be obtained in this way, however, than by ignoring prior information. It is the task of optimization to discover the analytical procedure that best suits the sample being analyzed. Optimization can be conveniently conceptualized if each experimental parameter is considered as a dimension of a geometric space. In activation analysis, if only irradiation and decay times are to be adjusted, the parameter space will be two dimensional. Each point in the parameter space corresponds to a possible procedure for carrying out a determination and each such procedure will perform more or less satisfactorily than others. Optimization, then, consists of a search for a point or a region in parameter space where performance meets the analyst's requirements. Practicality is an important consideration in designing a procedure for activation analysis. There are limits to the amount of radioactive material that can be handled safely and to the count rate that be accurately measured. Circumstances often impose further limits. It is, therefore, necessary to constrain the search of parameter space to those regions that correspond to practical procedures. In attempting an optimization, one must consider a number of aspects. A set of experimental parameters must be chosen for adjustment and others set at fixed values, often due to practical constraints. The way in which quality of analytical performance (the response function) is to be evaluated must be decided. A means of locating the optimum must be chosen and, finally, this optimization scheme must be implemented in a practical, convenient manner. These aspects are discussed

  9. Activation analysis in science and technics

    Physical bases of the method of neutron activation analysis are described. Reactions of element nuclei with neutrons, gamma quanta and charged particles, ways of radioactivity measurement, gamma spectrometry in particular, have been described. The method errors, as well as element determination sensitivity in samples of different composition are considered, perspectives of activation analysis development being reflected. The practical use of the method in the studies on solid-state physics, during the analysis of semiconductors and pure materials, in criminalistics, agriculture, the environmnental control in geology and biology, is shown

  10. Comparison of 14 MeV neutron activation analysis and competitive methods for determination of oxygen, nitrogen, silicon, fluorine and other elements

    14 MeV neutron activation analysis (14 MeV NAA) makes use of small particle accelerators to produce 14 MeV neutrons from the D-T reaction. The neutrons produce radioactive isotopes in samples by the reactions (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,α). Gamma rays emitted are counted to determine the amount of the target element present. Major applications have been determination of total O, N or Si in solid and liquid matrices, but the technique can also be applied to determine concentrations of about 30 other elements including F, Cl, Al, P and Mg. Detection limits are a few micrograms in the best cases and milligrams for most others. The method has advantages of being nondestructive, fast and insensitive to sample inhomogeneities. It lends itself especially well to sequential analysis of the same sample by several techniques and to samples that are difficult to dissolve. Portable generators have been applied to industrial situations and to well logging. Major disadvantages are the necessity to house a radiation producing instrument, the cost of the equipment and the lack of useful neutron reactions for some important elements. Accuracy (typically +-1 to 10% relative) and precision (+-1 to 5% relative) are comparable to competing techniques. For determination of low levels of O and N in most metals inert gas fusion is more rapid and sensitive; elemental analyzer is more sensitive for O and N in organics. Wet chemical methods rarely have any advantage over 14 MeV NAA for solid samples when concentrations are in the detection limit range of the 14 MeV NAA methods. Future developments in the field will come in the areas of simpler, more portable and higher neutron output generator designs. (author). 66 refs

  11. Neutron activation analysis of biological substances

    A Bowen cabbage sample was used as a reference material for the neutron activation studies, and the method was checked by the analysis of other biological substances (blood or serum etc.). For nondestructive measurements also some non-trace elements were determined in order to decide whether the activation analysis is a useful means for such measurements. The new activation analysis procedure was used for biomedical studies as, e.g., for trace element determination in body fluids, and for the analysis of inorganic components in air samples. (R.P.)

  12. Comparison of two semi-absolute methods. k{sub 0}-instrumental neutron activation analysis and fundamental parameter method X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for Ni-based alloys

    Wasim, Mohammad [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.; Ahmad, Sajjad [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Nickel based alloys play important role in nuclear, mechanical and chemical industry. Two semi-absolute standardless methods, k{sub 0}-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) and fundamental parameter X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FP-XRF) were used for the characterization of certified nickel based alloys. The optimized experimental conditions for NAA provided results for 18 and XRF for 15 elements. Both techniques were unable to quantify some important alloy making elements. However, both reported results of other elements as information values. The techniques were analyzed for their sensitivity and accuracy. Sensitivity was evaluated by the number of elements determined by each technique. Accuracy was ascertained by using the linear regression analysis and the average root mean squared error.

  13. New method to measure oxygen isotopic concentration ratios 18O/16O by gamma-activation analysis, especially in biological media

    Two photonuclear reactions were used for this isotopic analysis: 16O(γ,n)15O (threshold energy 15.7 MeV) and 18O(γ,p)17N (threshold energy 16.3 MeV). 15O is a pure β+ emitter of half-life 2.03 minutes, whereas 17N presents a 4.2 second neutron emission. A scintillation probe equipped with a sodium iodide crystal detects the 15O positron annihilation γ-rays. The 17N neutron activity is recorded with BF3 type counters. The potentialities of this new oxygen isotope analysis method using an electron accelerator, are described. Detection limit of 0.1 μg 18O is easily attainable. The equipment designed and built to industrialize this technique is described. The measurement system is connected by a fast pneumatic circuit to the irradiation device set up at the outlet of the accelerator. The flow-sheet of the apparatus is shown. A central electronic control unit commands, according to a pre-set time table, the linear accelerator, the sample loader, the pneumatic circuits and the counting instruments. It allows a hundred samples to be analysed automatically, the accelerator, detection instruments and pneumatic transfer circuits being controlled by a logic system linked to an electronic chronometer. (T.G.)

  14. Determination of concentrations of minor and micro elements in ancient bronze drums artifacts samples by KO-standardization method of neutron activation analysis

    The study aims to get a lot information about manufacturers of ancient bronze artifacts and ancient civilization. By KO-standardization method of neutron activation analysis developed in the Nuclear Research Institute, the concentrations of Au, Ag, As, Zn, Sb, Sn elements in ancient bronze alloy samples of 99 bronze artifacts from many excavated archaeological sites at the provinces in Vietnam were determined with uncertainties about ±10%. These elemental concentrations have been utilized in a statistical analysis procedure in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Th abnormal high of concentrations of noble metals as Au, Ag in ancient bronze indicates that the ancient metallurgists had been interested in role of these metals on sound quality of bronze artifacts. Especially, the concentrations of As in many samples are very high even at about 10%. This gives an evidence that in ancient time the humankind could use bronze As alloy in order to improve quality when they had produced bronze artifacts. (author)

  15. Fish sampling with active methods

    Kubečka, Jan; Godo, O. R.; Hickley, P.; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Rudstam, L.; Welcomme, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 123, July (2012), s. 1-3. ISSN 0165-7836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish stock assessment * active and passive gear * intercalibration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2012

  16. Devising of the method for the determination of small and very small amounts of cadmium in biological materials by radiochemical version of neutron activation analysis

    The newly modified version of the method for the determination of cadmium in biological materials by radiochemical NAA based on selective post irradiation separation of Cd using ion exchange rasin Retardion 11A8 is presented. The conditions necessary for the selective retaining of Cd on the column exploiting both anionic and cationic ion exchange function of the resin have been discussed. Depending on the composition of the external solution, cadmium existing in the form of either anionic chloride complexes or cationic amine species is taken up by quaternary ammonium or carboxylate functional groups, respectively while accompanying elements are eluted. The elaborated method was further verified by determine Cd content in several certified biological reference materials using neutron activation analysis. The ion exchange separation procedure assures very high radiochemical purity of the cadmium fraction. Decontamination factors obtained for Mo, Sb, Na, Zn, Co, Sc amounted to 103 - 106. Detection limit for Cd was 0.5 μg kg-1. Analytical results show good agreement with the certified values. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  17. Determination of trace elements in scallop and fish otolith by instrumental neutron activation analysis using anti-coincidence and coincidence counting methods

    Trace element concentrations in scallop reference material and fish otolith certified reference materials prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Nine aliquots of scallop sample (ca. 252∼507 mg) and five aliquots of fish otolith sample (ca. 502 ∼ 988 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 1012 n cm-2s-1 (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 1012n cm-2s-1 (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence γ-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector to determine as many trace elements as possible with high sensitivity. The concentrations of 34 elements of the NIES No.15 scallop reference material and 16 elements of the NIES No.22 fish otolith CRM were determined. Using the coincidence counting method to determine Se, Ba and Hf, the lower limit of the determination was improved by 2 times compared with the conventional counting method. (author)

  18. Study on the dynamics of halogen elements in the agro-environment and these element`s deficiency, toxicity and environmental hazards by the application of the neutron activation analysis method

    Yuita, Kouichi [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    A neutron activation analysis method is an accurate and highly sensitive method for analyzing halogen elements (iodine, bromine and chlorine) except fluorine. It is unsubstitutable and valuable method especially for iodine (including radioactive {sup 129}I) and bromine which are present at lower levels. Halogen elements have high chemical and physiological activities and move widely in the environment. As a result, deficiency and an excess of halogen elements in plants and animals have occurred and artificial halogen compounds have caused environmental pollution in wide areas. We efficiently utilized the neutron activation analysis method and an activable tracer method to obtain valuable findings which contribute to the clarification of and measures against these actual problems and which are also concerned with the occurrence, distribution and migration of halogen elements in the environment, especially agricultural and forestry ecosystems in space and in time. (author)

  19. Study of reactor characteristics for the adaptation of the monoelement standard method in activation analysis. Application to impurity determination in silicon

    Nuclear reactions by irradiation in a nuclear reactor are reviewed. Quantitative analysis by comparison with multielement standard is treated. Comparison methods using a monoelement standard, easier to use they require a previous study of neutronic characteristics of irradiation channels of reactors (thermal and epithermal flux ratio and eventual deviations fo epithermal neutron energy spectra from the 1/E relationship). Then analysis fo silicon polycrystals by both methods is studied and interfering reactions during irradiation are examined

  20. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  1. Materials characterization of radioactive waste forms using a multi-element detection method based on the instrumental neutron activation analysis. MEDINA

    Radioactive waste has to meet the specifications and acceptance criteria defined by national regulatory and management authorities for its intermediate and final storage. In Germany the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) has established waste acceptance requirements for the Konrad repository. Konrad is the disposal for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and is located near the city of Salzgitter and is currently under construction. It will start operation not before the year 2021. The waste-acceptance-requirements are derived from a site-specific safety assessment. They include specific requirements on waste forms, packaging as well as limitations to activities of individual radionuclides and limitations to masses of non-radioactive harmful substances. The amount of chemically toxic elements in the waste is limited in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To comply with these requirements every waste package has to be characterised in its radiological and chemical composition. This characterisation can be performed on the basis of existing documentation or, if the documentation is insufficient, on further analytical analysis. Segmented or integral gamma-scanning as well as active or passive neutron counting are used worldwide as the standard measurement methods for the radiological characterisation and quality checking of radioactive waste. These techniques determine the isotope specific activity of waste packages, but they do not allow the detection of non-radioactive hazardous substances inside the waste packages. Against this background the Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology Transfer (NET) at RWTH Aachen University and the Institute of Safety Research and Reactor Technology at Forschungszentrum Juelich jointly develop an innovative non-destructive analytical technique called MEDINA - ''Multi-Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation'' for

  2. Reliability and risk analysis methods research plan

    This document presents a plan for reliability and risk analysis methods research to be performed mainly by the Reactor Risk Branch (RRB), Division of Risk Analysis and Operations (DRAO), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It includes those activities of other DRAO branches which are very closely related to those of the RRB. Related or interfacing programs of other divisions, offices and organizations are merely indicated. The primary use of this document is envisioned as an NRC working document, covering about a 3-year period, to foster better coordination in reliability and risk analysis methods development between the offices of Nuclear Regulatory Research and Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It will also serve as an information source for contractors and others to more clearly understand the objectives, needs, programmatic activities and interfaces together with the overall logical structure of the program

  3. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  4. Evaluation of neutron flux parameters in irradiation sites of research reactor using the Westcott-formalism for the k0 neutron activation analysis method

    Kasban, H.; Hamid, Ashraf

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using k0 (k0-INAA) method has been used to determine a number of elements in sediment samples collected from El-Manzala Lake in Egypt. k0-INAA according to Westcott's formalism has been implemented using the complete irradiation kit of the fast pneumatic rabbit and some selected manually loaded irradiation sites for short and long irradiation at Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). Zr-Au and Co sets as neutron flux monitors are used to determine the neutron flux parameters (f and α) in each irradiation sites. Two reference materials IAEA Soil-7 samples have been inserted and implemented for data validation and an internal monostandard multi monitor used (k0 based IM-NAA). It was given a good agreement between the experimental analyzed values and that obtained of the certified values. The major and trace elements in the sediment samples have been evaluated with the use of Co as an internal and Au as an external monostandard comparators. The concentrations of the elements (Cr, Mn and Zn) in the sediment samples of the present work are discussed regarding to those obtained from other sites.

  5. The use of hogdahl convention k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) standardization method and atomic absortion spectroscopy (ASS) for determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs

    Copper, cadmium, tin, chromium, arsenic, antimony, vanadium and mercury contents were determined in various foodstuffs (Mussa paradisiaca (plantains), Manihot esculentus (cassavas), Vantosoma sagittifolium (cocoyam). Vantosoma sagittifolium leaves (kontomire), Lycopersicum esculentus (tomatoes), Capsicum species (peppers), Solanum melongena (garden eggs), Nbelmoschus esculentus (okro), and Colocasia esculenta (kooko or taro)) produced in the Wassa West District, Ghana. These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. These elements were determined using Hogdahl convention k0 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Standardization Method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements in the various foodstuffs and their concentration ranges were Cu (16.87-180.06) mg/kg, As (2.68-9.84) µg/g, Cd (0.63-5.64) µg/g, Hg (0.01-67) ng/g, Cr (0.03-3.66) µg/g, Sb (1.1- 18.6) ng/g, Sn (3.4-58.4) ng/g, and V (12-99) ng/g. The study showed that there are high levels of toxic elements in the foodstuffs grown in the mining areas as compared to that of the non-mining area (i.e., control area). This could be attributed to gold mines pollution. Compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible levels of toxic elements in foods, Cu, Cr and Hg were above the permissible levels whereas the concentrations of As, Cd. Sb, Sn and V fall within the permissible levels. (au)

  6. Statistical methods for bioimpedance analysis

    Christian Tronstad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a basic overview of relevant statistical methods for the analysis of bioimpedance measurements, with an aim to answer questions such as: How do I begin with planning an experiment? How many measurements do I need to take? How do I deal with large amounts of frequency sweep data? Which statistical test should I use, and how do I validate my results? Beginning with the hypothesis and the research design, the methodological framework for making inferences based on measurements and statistical analysis is explained. This is followed by a brief discussion on correlated measurements and data reduction before an overview is given of statistical methods for comparison of groups, factor analysis, association, regression and prediction, explained in the context of bioimpedance research. The last chapter is dedicated to the validation of a new method by different measures of performance. A flowchart is presented for selection of statistical method, and a table is given for an overview of the most important terms of performance when evaluating new measurement technology.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials

    The importance is pointed out of neutron activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials, and studies are reported conducted recently by UJV. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used in testing homogeneity and in determining 28 elements in newly prepared reference standards of coal fly ash designated ENO, EOP and ECH. For accuracy testing, the same method was used in the analysis of NBS SRM-1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash and IAEA CRM Soil-5 and RM Soil-7. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used in determining Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn in biological materials NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and in IAEA RM Milk Powder A-11 and Animal Muscle H-4. In all instances very good precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis results were shown. (author)

  8. TIBER activation analysis

    TIBER-II is an engineering test reactor designed to establish the technical feasibility for fusion, and is a U.S. option for the prospective International Thermonuclear Test Reactor (ITER). The TIBER-II baseline design has a 3 m major radius, 3.6 aspect ratio, and 1.1 MW/m2 average neutron wall loading. The inboard shield is about .5 m thick and structurally consists of tungsten alloy and PCA alloy. The outboard is 1.52 m thick and utilizes PCA as structure and beryllium as a neutron multiplier. An aqueous solution of 160 g LiNO3/liter is used throughout as a coolant and breeder. A one-dimensional cylindrical model for TIBER is used to calculate the neutron flux and the radioactivities. Activities are calculated during and after 2.5 full power years (FPY) of operation

  9. Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis

    Kučerová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Trade and Accounting Abstract of Diploma Thesis Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis Martina Kučerová © 2012 CULS in Prague Summary: The aim of this thesis is to apply methods of financial analysis on chosen business for its first three accounting periods 2009, 2010 and 2011. The thesis is further analysis of my bachelor thesis on to...

  10. Statistical methods for bioimpedance analysis

    Christian Tronstad; Are Hugo Pripp

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a basic overview of relevant statistical methods for the analysis of bioimpedance measurements, with an aim to answer questions such as: How do I begin with planning an experiment? How many measurements do I need to take? How do I deal with large amounts of frequency sweep data? Which statistical test should I use, and how do I validate my results? Beginning with the hypothesis and the research design, the methodological framework for making inferences based on measurements a...

  11. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    Avriel, Mordecai

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive and complete, this overview provides a single-volume treatment of key algorithms and theories. The author provides clear explanations of all theoretical aspects, with rigorous proof of most results. The two-part treatment begins with the derivation of optimality conditions and discussions of convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, and analysis of selected nonlinear programs. The second part concerns techniques for numerical solutions and unconstrained optimization methods, and it presents commonly used algorithms for constrained nonlinear optimization problems. This g

  12. Activation of Students with Various Teaching Methods

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    2011-01-01

    A group of teaching methodes to active engineer students have been tried out. The methodes are developed based on the Pedagogical Cyclic Workflow (PCW). Comparing with earlier evaluation, positive feedback is achieved among the students.......A group of teaching methodes to active engineer students have been tried out. The methodes are developed based on the Pedagogical Cyclic Workflow (PCW). Comparing with earlier evaluation, positive feedback is achieved among the students....

  13. Validation of k(0) standardization method in neutron activation analysis-The use of Kayzero for Windows programme at the nuclear physics institute, Rez

    Kubešová, Marie; Kučera, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 622, č. 2 (2010), s. 403-406. ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * k(0) standardization * Validation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2010

  14. Anti–inflammatory activity and qualitative analysis of different extracts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    Alajmi, Mohamed F.; Perwez Alam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform aqueous ethanol soluble fraction (AESF) and dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and to test anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. Methods: HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested by injecting diffe...

  15. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  16. The psycho-activated linguistic method.

    Zivny, P

    1993-01-01

    A method for teaching foreign languages through the use of ten hypnotic sessions was developed. The method included the preparation of taped material for home application. The use of this method was analyzed in 153 subjects in Czechoslovakia, Russia and Italy. Preliminary analysis indicates that the method facilitates the learning of a foreign language. PMID:8070996

  17. Quick methods for radiochemical analysis

    Quick methods for radiochemical analysis, of adequate precision for the assay of a limited number of biologically important radionuclides, are important in the development of effective monitoring programs, particularly those that would be applied in emergency situations following an accidental release of radioactive substances. Methods of this type have been developed in a number of laboratories and are being altered and improved from time to time. The Agency invited several Member States to provide detailed information on any such procedures that might have been developed in their laboratories. From the information thus obtained a number of methods have been selected that appear to meet the criteria of speed and economy in the use of materials and equipment, and seem to be eminently suitable for those radionuclides that might be of major interest from the point of view of assessing the potential dose to persons following a serious dispersal of contamination. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Gait analysis methods in rehabilitation

    Baker Richard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Brand's four reasons for clinical tests and his analysis of the characteristics of valid biomechanical tests for use in orthopaedics are taken as a basis for determining what methodologies are required for gait analysis in a clinical rehabilitation context. Measurement methods in clinical gait analysis The state of the art of optical systems capable of measuring the positions of retro-reflective markers placed on the skin is sufficiently advanced that they are probably no longer a significant source of error in clinical gait analysis. Determining the anthropometry of the subject and compensating for soft tissue movement in relation to the under-lying bones are now the principal problems. Techniques for using functional tests to determine joint centres and axes of rotation are starting to be used successfully. Probably the last great challenge for optical systems is in using computational techniques to compensate for soft tissue measurements. In the long term future it is possible that direct imaging of bones and joints in three dimensions (using MRI or fluoroscopy may replace marker based systems. Methods for interpreting gait analysis data There is still not an accepted general theory of why we walk the way we do. In the absence of this, many explanations of walking address the mechanisms by which specific movements are achieved by particular muscles. A whole new methodology is developing to determine the functions of individual muscles. This needs further development and validation. A particular requirement is for subject specific models incorporating 3-dimensional imaging data of the musculo-skeletal anatomy with kinematic and kinetic data. Methods for understanding the effects of intervention Clinical gait analysis is extremely limited if it does not allow clinicians to choose between alternative possible interventions or to predict outcomes. This can be achieved either by rigorously planned clinical trials or using

  19. Experimental analysis of the mass eficiency curve for gross alphya activity and morphological study of the residue obtained by the co-precipitation method

    Montaña Gurrera, Montserrat; Camacho García, Antonia; Valles Murciano, M. Isabel; Serrano Carreño, M. Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Gross alpha activity determination in drinking water is one of the radiological parameters that must be determined in order to decide whether further specific analyses of radionuclides in samples is required. This parameter can be determined by the co-precipitation method using a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector or a proportional counter. The method consists of collecting all alpha emitters of interest using barium and iron as carriers as they provide more uniform and homogeneous residues than ...

  20. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  1. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain;

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching....

  2. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain;

    2010-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....

  3. Prospects for absolute neutron activation analysis

    The desirability for absolute neutron activation analysis(ANAA) is two-fold. Results by the comparitor method are only as good as the standards used, and also the method offers a chance of having the final results available within minutes of completing the analysis. In the past ANAA was not seriously considered because of the scarcity and poor qaulity of the nuclear data that were available. This situation is however steadily improving and the possible applications are being investigated. This report reviews the present status by considering the basic activation equation, calculation of parameters, the factors of importance and the size error one might expect

  4. Combination Clustering Analysis Method and its Application

    Bang-Chun Wen; Li-Yuan Dong; Qin-Liang Li; Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    The traditional clustering analysis method can not automatically determine the optimal clustering number. In this study, we provided a new clustering analysis method which is combination clustering analysis method to solve this problem. Through analyzed 25 kinds of automobile data samples by combination clustering analysis method, the correctness of the analysis result was verified. It showed that combination clustering analysis method could objectively determine the number of clustering firs...

  5. Activation analysis with reactor neutrons

    The potentialities of neutron as an analytical probe are indicated, pointing out the need for development of other approaches, besides the conventional activation method. Development of instrumental approach to activation and applications, carried out at Analytical Chemistry Division are outlined. The role of, and the need for, the development and application of mathematical methods in enhancing the information content, and in turn the interpretation of the analytical results, is demonstrated. (author)

  6. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  7. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  8. Neutron activation analysis in Bulgaria

    The development of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a routine method started in 1960 with bringing into use of the experimental nuclear reactor 2 MW -IRT-2000. For the purposes of INAA the vertical channels were used. The neutron flux vary from 1 to 6x1012n/cm2s, with Cd ratio for gold of about 4,4. In one of the channels the neutron flux is additionally thermalised with grafite, in others - a pneumatic double-tube rabbit system is installed. One of the irradiation positions is equiped with 1 mm Cd shield constantly. With the pressure of the working gas (air) of 2 bar the transport time in one direction is 2,5 sec. Because of lack of special system for uniform irradiation an accuracy of 3% can be reached by use of iron monitors for long irradiations and copper monitors for use in the rabbit system. Two neutron generators are also working but the application of 14 MeV neutrons for INAA is still quite limited. The most developed are the applications of INAA in the fields of geology and paedology, medicine and biology, environment and pollution, archaeology, metallurgy, metrology and hydrology, criminology

  9. Probabilistic Models of Analysis of Loan Activity of Internet Banking

    Kondrateva Irina G.; Ostapenko Irina N.

    2012-01-01

    In article the main advantages of electronic banking in comparison with traditional, methods of the analysis of credit activity are considered. The special role is taken to the probabilistic method of analysis of credit activity in the Internet-bank. Modeling of activity of bank on the basis of probabilistic models of credit operations.

  10. Stability analysis of fractional-order generalized chaotic susceptible–infected–recovered epidemic model and its synchronization using active control method

    Sana P Ansari; Saurabh K Agrawal; Subir Das

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the synchronization between a pair of identical susceptible–infected–recovered (SIR) epidemic chaotic systems and fractional-order time derivative using active control method. The fractional derivative is described in Caputo sense. Numerical simulation results show that the method is effective and reliable for synchronizing the fractional-order chaotic systems while it allows the system to remain in chaotic state. The striking features of this paper are: the successful presentation of the stability of the equilibrium state and the revelation that time for synchronization varies with the variation in fractional-order derivatives close to the standard one for different specified values of the parameters of the system.

  11. Development of RP-HPLC method for Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredient (Gallic acid) from Stem Bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

    Hafsa Deshmukh; Pradnya J. Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive, RP-HPLC method with UV detection at 271nm was developed and validated for qualitative determination of active ingredient Gallic acid from stem bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn. Separation was performed on a ThermoMOS 2 HYPERSIL C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 5µm ODS 3) using mobile phase comprising of 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid : Acetonitrile (400 cm3 : 600 cm3) with a flow rate of 1 ml/minute with a short run time of 13 minute. The method was validated accordi...

  12. INTER-COUNTRY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION IN INNOVATION ACTIVITY ON THE BASIS OF METHOD FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMY, INCLUDING THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on efficiency evaluation of innovation activity in 63 countries with developed and developing economies while using a method for data envelopment analysis. The following results of innovation activity have been used for calculation of an efficiency factor: export of high-technology products as percentage of industrial product export, export of ICT services as percentage of services export and payments obtained due to realization of intellectual property rights (in US dollars. A model of the data envelopment analysis with a changeable scale-dependent effect and which is directed on maximization of the obtained results (output-oriented VRS model has been used for the analysis. The evaluation has shown that such countries as the USA, Israel, Sweden and some others have maximum efficiency of resource transformation into innovative activity output. The executed analysis has revealed that the Republic of Belarus has a potential for improvement of indices on innovation results.

  13. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 Standardization

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k0-standardisation aims to: (1) develop and implement k0-standardisation method for NAA; (2) to exploit the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element capability; (3) to acquire technical spin-off for nuclear measurements services. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  14. Neutron activation analysis helps in picture attribution

    The neutron activation analysis application for obtaining the data useful for proper attribution of paintings has been presented on the base of several examples. The identification on this way of dye elements, pigments and other painting materials is an important element among the physico-chemical methods helping the attribution procedure of old painting objects

  15. The influence of friends and psychosocial factors on physical activity and screen time behavior in adolescents: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Deutsch, Nancy L; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    (1) Determine the association between adolescent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with their nominated friends' behaviors and (2) explore potential mechanisms of friends' social influences on MVPA and screen time. Participants consisted of 152 adolescents (mean age: 14.5 years, 53 % female, 50 % high school, 80 % Caucasian). MVPA was measured with an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Demographic and psychosocial variables were assessed via questionnaires. Participants nominated up to 5 friends who completed MVPA and screen time questionnaires. A subset of adolescents (n = 108) participated in focus groups that examined potential mechanism of friends' influence on MVPA and screen time. Multiple regression analysis examined the association of demographic, psychological, and nominated friend variables with participants' MVPA and screen time. NVivo 10.0 was used to analyze qualitative data. Greater levels of friends' MVPA was associated with greater levels of MVPA in both males (p friends' screen time was associated with greater levels of screen time in males (p = .04) while psychosocial variables, such as increased screen time enjoyment, were associated with increased screen time in females (p = .01). School level was not associated with either MVPA or screen time. Focus group data indicated that friends positively influenced participants' MVPA through engaging in activity with participants, verbal encouragement, and modeling of MVPA. All participants preferred to be active with friends rather than alone, however, females preferred activity with a close friend while males preferred to be active with a group. Enjoyment of MVPA was the most cited reason for engaging in MVPA with friends. The majority of participants reported friends not having an influence on screen time. Adolescents with active friends are more likely to be physically active and spend less time engaging in screen-based behaviors. Interventions to increase MVPA in

  16. Data Analysis Methods for Paleogenomics

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    , thanks to the introduction of NGS and the implementation of data analysis methods specific for each project. Chapters 1 to 3 have been published in peer-reviewed journals and Chapter 4 is currently in review. Chapter 5 consists of a manuscript describing initial results of an ongoing research project...... of sequence data, generated using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, from either forensic (Chapter 1) or ancient (Chapters 2-5) materials. These chapters present projects very different in nature, reflecting the diversity of questions that have become possible to address in the ancient DNA field......, for which more data is currently being generated; therefore it should be interpreted as a preliminary report. In addition to the five chapters, an introduction and five appendices are included. Appended articles are included for the reader's interest, these represent the collaborations I have been part...

  17. Automated activation-analysis system

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  18. Neutron activation analysis of coins

    Activation analysis was applied to the study of coins using 14MeV neutrons produced by an accelerator for the determination of oxygen and neutrons emitted from a 252Cf source for the determination of the other elements (Au, Ag, Cu, As etc...). The advantages of this technique are presented

  19. Computational methods for global/local analysis

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Computational methods for global/local analysis of structures which include both uncoupled and coupled methods are described. In addition, global/local analysis methodology for automatic refinement of incompatible global and local finite element models is developed. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local analysis methods.

  20. Activities in the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method

    Jô Benetton; Taís Quevedo Marcolino

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the concept and use of the instrument named ‘activities’ in occupational therapy, sustained by the propositions of the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method (DOTM). Initially, we present general aspects related to the activities in the DOTM such as the option for the name ‘activities’, its conceptual definition, use as a tool, and active participation in the dynamic of triadic relationship. Further, it approaches the character of activities: therapeutic, educational and soc...

  1. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH)

  2. Sensitivity analysis for activation problems

    A study has been made about how to develop further the techniques for sensitivity analysis used by FISPACT-II. FISPACT-II is a software suite for the analysis of nuclear activation and transmutation problems, developed for all nuclear applications. The software already permits sensitivity analysis to be performed by Monte Carlo sampling, and a faster uncertainty analysis is made possible by a powerful graph-based approach which generates a reduced set of nuclides on pathways leading to significant contributions to radiological quantities. The peculiar aspects of the sensitivity analysis problem for activation are the large number, typically thousands, of rate equation parameters (decay rates and reaction cross-sections) which all have some degree of associated error, and the fact that activity as a function of time varies as a sum of exponentials, so appears discontinuous as rate parameters are varied unless the sampling frequency is impracticably fast. Nevertheless, Monte Carlo sampling is a generic approach and it is therefore conceivable that techniques more targeted to the activation problem might be beneficial. Moreover, recent theoretical developments have highlighted the importance of a two-stage approach to mathematically similar problems, where in the first stage, information is collected about the global behaviour of the problem, such as the identification of the rate parameters which cause the greatest variation in dose or nuclear activity, before a second stage examines a problem with its scope restricted by the information from the first. In the second stage, for example, Quasi-Monte Carlo sampling may be used in a restricted parameter space. The current work concentrates on the first stage and consists of a review of possible techniques with a detailed examination of the most promising pathways reduction approach, examined directly using FISPACT-II. All the evidence obtained demonstrates the strong potential of this approach. (authors)

  3. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  4. Activation analysis as applied to environmental substances

    The historical background of activation analysis as applied to environmental problems is first briefly described. Then, the present state of its utilization for environmental samples, mainly atmospheric floating particles and human hairs, is reviewed. The problem with irradiation reactors is also mentioned. In the activation analysis of environmental substances, the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with the thermal neutrons in reactors is the main; besides, there are the methods with bremsstrahlung, etc. The INAA is most effectively used for atmospheric airborne particles and the micro-elements in human hairs. In Japan, the INAA is currently employed by the Environmental Agency in its national air pollution surveillance network for metallic pollutants. The problem with reactors is the limited capacity for thermal neutron irradiation. (Mori, K.)

  5. Activation analysis using γ photons

    This report summarizes all the data required for using photonuclear reactions in the field of analysis. After a brief review of the elementary properties of nuclear reactions induced by photon irradiation, the main characteristics are given of high energy (E > 20 MeV) Bremsstrahlung sources. The principle of activation analysis based on the use of photons is given. Actual examples of the analytic possibilities are described in detail, in particular in the case of the determination of very small quantities (-6) of C, N, O and F. The influence of interfering nuclear reactions is discussed. (author)

  6. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  7. A solid-phase microextraction GC/MS/MS method for rapid quantitative analysis of food and beverages for the presence of legally restricted biologically active flavorings.

    Bousova, Katerina; Mittendorf, Klaus; Senyuva, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed using automated headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC/MS/MS to simultaneously determine the presence of seven biologically active flavoring substances whose levels of use in processed foods is controlled by statutory limits. The method can be applied to identify and quantify the presence of 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin), beta-asarone, 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene (estragole), menthofuran, 4-allyl-1 ,2-dimethoxybenzene (methyl eugenol), pulegone, and thujone at levels ranging from 0.5 to 3000 mg/kg. The method has been optimized and validated for three different generic food types categorized on the basis of composition and anticipated use levels of flavorings and food ingredients. The food categories are alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages; semisolid processed foods (e.g., soups, sauces, confectionary, etc.); and solid foods (muesli, bakery products, etc.). The method is simple, inexpensive, and rapid, and eliminates the use of flammable and toxic solvents. There is no sample preparation, and using MSIMS, unequivocal confirmation of identification is achieved even in highly complex matrixes containing many potential interfering volatiles. The method precision for spiked samples ranged from 2 to 21%, with the greatest variability associated with solid matrixes. The LOD and LOQ values were well below 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively, in all cases for individual substances, fulfilling requirements for enforcement purposes. The robustness of the method was demonstrated in a small survey of retail samples of four spirits, five flavored milks, three energy drinks, five liqueurs, five soups, 10 sauces, five herbal teas, and three breakfast cereals. PMID:21919351

  8. Analysis and estimation of risk management methods

    Kankhva Vadim Sergeevich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the present time risk management is an integral part of state policy in all the countries with developed market economy. Companies dealing with consulting services and implementation of the risk management systems carve out a niche. Unfortunately, conscious preventive risk management in Russia is still far from the level of standardized process of a construction company activity, which often leads to scandals and disapproval in case of unprofessional implementation of projects. The authors present the results of the investigation of the modern understanding of the existing methodology classification and offer the authorial concept of classification matrix of risk management methods. Creation of the developed matrix is based on the analysis of the method in the context of incoming and outgoing transformed information, which may include different elements of risk control stages. So the offered approach allows analyzing the possibilities of each method.

  9. Fourier methods for biosequence analysis.

    Benson, D C

    1990-01-01

    Novel methods are discussed for using fast Fourier transforms for DNA or protein sequence comparison. These methods are also intended as a contribution to the more general computer science problem of text search. These methods extend the capabilities of previous FFT methods and show that these methods are capable of considerable refinement. In particular, novel methods are given which (1) enable the detection of clusters of matching letters, (2) facilitate the insertion of gaps to enhance seq...

  10. Neutron activation analysis of geological materials

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an extremely sensitive, selective and precise method, which yields a wealth of elemental information from even a small-sized sample. With the recent advances in nuclear reactors and high-efficiency and high-resolution semiconductor detectors, NAA has become a powerful method for multielemental analysis. The concentration of major, minor, and trace elements vary from 1 to 4 orders of magnitude in geological materials. By varying neutron fluxes, irradiation times, decay and counting intervals and using both instrumental and radiochemical techniques in NAA, it is possible to accurately determine about 50 elements in a sample aliquant. The practical aspects of the NAA method as applied to geological materials are discussed in detail, and are demonstrated by the analysis of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard reference geological materials. General aspects of the elemental interpretations in terrestrial samples are also discussed. (author)

  11. Probabilistic methods for structural response analysis

    Wu, Y.-T.; Burnside, O. H.; Cruse, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses current work to develop probabilistic structural analysis methods for integration with a specially developed probabilistic finite element code. The goal is to establish distribution functions for the structural responses of stochastic structures under uncertain loadings. Several probabilistic analysis methods are proposed covering efficient structural probabilistic analysis methods, correlated random variables, and response of linear system under stationary random loading.

  12. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses

  13. Overview of activities related to the WGCS/AG2 in the study of structural analysis methods and damage models for the development of design rules

    , two other areas, one related to Research and Development programmes the other to and industrial projects conducted by EU organizations, have been an important source of input to the WGCS work. Therefore, it could be mentioned that the work produced by the WGCS moves amongst the three boundary areas described above. Paper describes the outstanding studies and ongoing activities of the WGCS including simplified calculation methods and established computational techniques as well as constitutive equations needed for complicated material descriptions and benchmarks

  14. 7th international conference ''Modern trends in activation analysis''

    The conference was held on 23-27 June, 1986 in Copenhagen (DK) with the participation of specialists from 42 countries. 175 papers were submitted covering the wide field of applications of neutron activation analysis, from novel techniques to sample preparation, information processes and control, activation techniques, light element and rare earth element determination, ultratracer analysis, quality assurance, comparator methods, and reference materials. The poster session was mainly oriented to industrial applications of activation analysis, biological applications, in vivo use of neutron activation analysis, the applications of neutron activation analysis in environmental control, criminology, etc. (E.S.)

  15. Methods for using polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity

    Morant, Marc D; Harris, Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. A catalog of automated analysis methods for enterprise models.

    Florez, Hector; Sánchez, Mario; Villalobos, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Enterprise models are created for documenting and communicating the structure and state of Business and Information Technologies elements of an enterprise. After models are completed, they are mainly used to support analysis. Model analysis is an activity typically based on human skills and due to the size and complexity of the models, this process can be complicated and omissions or miscalculations are very likely. This situation has fostered the research of automated analysis methods, for supporting analysts in enterprise analysis processes. By reviewing the literature, we found several analysis methods; nevertheless, they are based on specific situations and different metamodels; then, some analysis methods might not be applicable to all enterprise models. This paper presents the work of compilation (literature review), classification, structuring, and characterization of automated analysis methods for enterprise models, expressing them in a standardized modeling language. In addition, we have implemented the analysis methods in our modeling tool. PMID:27047732

  17. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Wu, Chao-Chan; Yao, Ching-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks...

  18. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  19. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity and qualitative analysis of different extracts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    Mohamed F. Alajmi; Perwez Alam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform aqueous ethanol soluble fraction (AESF) and dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and to test anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts.Methods:HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with formalin in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1 h later formalin injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg 1 h before formalin administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard.Results:The results of preliminary phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, phenol, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid, alkaloid and anthraquinone in both extracts. Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents toluene: ethyacetate: glacial acetic acid (5:3:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. HPTLC finger printing of AESF revealed major eight peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.28 to 0.80 and the dichloromethane revealed major 11 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.12 to 0.76. The purity of sample was confirmed by comparing the absorption spectra at start, middle and end position of the band. Treatment of rats (i.p.) with AESF and dichloromethane in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg inhibited singnificantly (P<0.05, n=6) formalin-induced inflammation by 50%, 55.9%, 45.5%, and 51.4%, respectively.Conclusions:HPTLC finger printing of AESF and dichloromethane of Maytenus obscura revealed eight major spots for alcoholic extracts and nine major spots for dichloromethane extracts. These HPTLC profiles may be of great usefulness in the quality control of herbal products containing these extracts. The

  1. Probabilistic structural analysis methods of hot engine structures

    Chamis, C. C.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Development of probabilistic structural analysis methods for hot engine structures is a major activity at Lewis Research Center. Recent activities have focused on extending the methods to include the combined uncertainties in several factors on structural response. This paper briefly describes recent progress on composite load spectra models, probabilistic finite element structural analysis, and probabilistic strength degradation modeling. Progress is described in terms of fundamental concepts, computer code development, and representative numerical results.

  2. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  3. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  4. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  5. Evaluation methods of SWOT analysis

    VANĚK, Michal; Mikoláš, Milan; Žváková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Strategic management is an integral part of top management. By formulating the right strategy and its subsequent implementation, a managed organization can attract and retain a comparative advantage. In order to fulfil this expectation, the strategy also has to be supported with relevant findings of performed strategic analyses. The best known and probably the most common of these is a SWOT analysis. In practice, however, the analysis is reduced to mere presentation of influence factors, whic...

  6. Space-Borne and Ground-Based Sar Interferometry for Landslide Activity Analysis and Monitoring in the Appennines of Emilia Romagna (Italy): Review of Methods and Preliminary Results

    Barbieri, M.; Corsini, A.; Casagli, N.; Farina, P.; Coren, F.; Sterzai, P.; Leva, D.; Tarchi, D.

    2004-06-01

    This work concerns the application of SAR interferometry for the assessment of the long-term analysis of the state of activity of deep seated mass movements affecting some urban areas in the northern Appennines of Emilia Romagna region (from 1994-2001 space-borne ERS data) and for the real-time monitoring of active flow-like landslides in year 2002 (from ground-based system). These activities are part of an ongoing research project supported by civil protection authorities of the Emilia-Romagna region that involves several research institutes with diverse expertises. A set of test sites characterized by a high landslide risk have been selected mainly taking into account phenomena characteristics such as deformation rates and vegetation coverage, with respect to the employed techniques. After a preliminary detailed geomorphologic characterization of the sites, the interferometric analyses, still in progress, have been implemented. In particular space-borne DInSAR has been applied for 10 unstable areas using a set of ERS1/ERS2 data acquired in the last 7 years. From 9 interferograms, the line-of-sight displacement maps have been calculated and, later on, post processed in GIS environment in order to have on-slope-direction displacement maps that could fully be integrated with geomorphologic and ancillary data and that could semi-quantitatively be compared with other traditional monitoring data. The results obtained have been rather satisfactory, especially in some test sites where entire villages are settled on the mass movement, as in the case of Berceto (Parma) presented in the paper, and post-processed products have proved a significant amelioration of basic interferometric ones. Moreover, in order to measure terrain displacements induced by landslide characterized by high deformation rates and little urbanisation, ground-based SAR interferometry (GBInSAR) has been used for the monitoring of a test site located in the province of Bologna. This application proved

  7. Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods

    Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.

  8. Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis

    Sachkov, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist

  9. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    N R B Krishnam Raju; J Nagabhushanam

    2000-08-01

    Though the use of the integrated force method for linear investigations is well-recognised, no efforts were made to extend this method to nonlinear structural analysis. This paper presents the attempts to use this method for analysing nonlinear structures. General formulation of nonlinear structural analysis is given. Typically highly nonlinear bench-mark problems are considered. The characteristic matrices of the elements used in these problems are developed and later these structures are analysed. The results of the analysis are compared with the results of the displacement method. It has been demonstrated that the integrated force method is equally viable and efficient as compared to the displacement method.

  10. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a ceramic vase

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Tzika, F.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) was applied to perform non-destructive elemental analysis of a ceramic vase. Appropriate neutron self-shielding and gamma ray detection efficiency calibration factors were derived using Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results of LSNAA were compared against Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) results and a satisfactory agreement between the two methods was observed. The ratio of derived concentrations between the two methods was within 0...

  11. Analysis methods for photovoltaic applications

    None

    1980-01-01

    Because photovoltaic power systems are being considered for an ever-widening range of applications, it is appropriate for system designers to have knowledge of and access to photovoltaic power systems simulation models and design tools. This brochure gives brief descriptions of a variety of such aids and was compiled after surveying both manufacturers and researchers. Services available through photovoltaic module manufacturers are outlined, and computer codes for systems analysis are briefly described. (WHK)

  12. Determination of the Macro Element on Sandy Soil in the Field of Samas Beach Bantul Using Neutron Activation Analysis Method (NAA)

    Analysis of macro element in which N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca in sandy soil of Samas beach using AAN method has been done. The aim of analysis is to determine the element contents in N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca. The samples were taken from several field location in Samas beach Yogyakarta and then the sample are cleaned from stone, grass, then samples ware dried under sun light then grinded until homogeneous and lied at polyethylene ampoule. The experiment result show that the samples in field A before the cultivation are N = 2.6 %, P 100.8 ppm, K = 0.6 %, Mg = 1.2 %, Ca = 2.7%, while during the cultivation are N = 2.3 %, P = 118.8 ppm, K = 0.1 %, Mg = 0.1 %, Ca = 2.8 %, and after the cultivation are N = 0.4 %, P = 253.8 ppm, K =1.3 %, Mg = 3.4 %, Ca = 5.1 %. The result of the samples in field B before the cultivation are N = 1.9 %, P 28.9 ppm, K = 0.2 %, Mg = 0.6 %, Ca = 3.3 %, while during the cultivation are N = 1.3 %, P =79.3 ppm, K = 1.1 %, Mg = 0.2 %, Ca = 1.9 %, and after the cultivation are N = 0.2 %, P = 62.5 ppm, K =0.2 %, Mg = 0.2 %, Ca = 4.3 %. The result of the samples in field C before the cultivation are N = 1.3 %, P = 33.6 ppm, K = 0.1 %, Mg = 0.2 %, Ca = 1.8 %, while during the cultivation are N = 0.8 %, P = 347.4 ppm, K = 0.7%, Mg = 0.8 %, Ca = 2.3 %, and after the cultivation are N = 0.6 %, P = 252.9 ppm, K = 1.1 %, Mg = 3.3 %, Ca = 1.1 %. This data can improve the condition of sandy soil in Samas Bantul, so that it can give the manuring doses exactly to improve the quality of the plant. (author)

  13. The Functional Methods of Discourse Analysis

    覃卓敏

    2008-01-01

    From the macroscopic angle of function, methods of discourse analysis are clarified to find out two important methods in pragmatics and through which will better used in the understanding of discourse.

  14. [An electrochemical method for measuring metabolic activity and counting cells].

    Kuznetsov, B a; Khlupova, M e; Shleev, S V; Kaprel'iants, A S; Iaropolov, A I

    2006-01-01

    An express electrochemical method for determining the metabolic activity of live cells based on the possibility of an electron exchange between an electrode and elements of the biological electron transfer chain in the presence of a mediator is proposed. This method is useful for studying any live cells (animal, plant, and microbial), including anaerobic, dormant, and spore cells. The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min. The detection limit in a volume of 15 ml amounts to 10-5 cells/ml. The applicability of the assessment method of the metabolic activity level during the transition of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis into an uncultivable dormant state was demonstrated. This method is of special value for medicine and environmental control, detecting latent forms of pathogens. An optimal combination of the methods for the express analysis of latent pathogens is proposed. PMID:17066962

  15. Statistical analysis and optimization methods

    Halámek, Josef; Holík, M.; Jurák, Pavel; Kasal, Miroslav

    Liptovský Mikuláš : Vojenská Akadémia FZV, 2002 - (Puttera, J.), s. 286 - 289 ISBN 80-8040-180-2. [KTERP. Tatranské Zruby (SK), 24.04.2002-26.04.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/1339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : scatter plot * confidence ellipses * graphical method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    West, Phillip B.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Wright, Jerry P.

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  17. Infinitesimal methods of mathematical analysis

    Pinto, J S

    2004-01-01

    This modern introduction to infinitesimal methods is a translation of the book Métodos Infinitesimais de Análise Matemática by José Sousa Pinto of the University of Aveiro, Portugal and is aimed at final year or graduate level students with a background in calculus. Surveying modern reformulations of the infinitesimal concept with a thoroughly comprehensive exposition of important and influential hyperreal numbers, the book includes previously unpublished material on the development of hyperfinite theory of Schwartz distributions and its application to generalised Fourier transforms and harmon

  18. Development of methods for the neutron activation analysis to the determination of essential and toxic trace elements of biological and environmental samples: application of enzyme activity of raw hides

    Investigations on the post mortem enzymatic processes pointed out the fact, that significant deviations can be observed in the extent and in the results of the autolytic transformations occurring during the storage of raw hide. A neutron activation analysis procedure, based on a semiautomated radiochemical separation procedure and scintillation gamma spectrometry, was selected for the determination of some trace elements. Six trace elements, Cu, Mn, Zn, Au, As, and Cr, and one minor component,Br, were detected and/or determined in the concentration region of 0,1-103 ppM. According to preliminary investigations evaluated at the time being, concentration differences of some orders of magnitude were obtained for some trace elements: copper, zinc and manganese, whereas the concentration of bromine remained practically constant. These findings seem to correlate with large differences in appearance due to different enzyme activities in the raw hides

  19. Activities in the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method

    Jô Benetton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the concept and use of the instrument named ‘activities’ in occupational therapy, sustained by the propositions of the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method (DOTM. Initially, we present general aspects related to the activities in the DOTM such as the option for the name ‘activities’, its conceptual definition, use as a tool, and active participation in the dynamic of triadic relationship. Further, it approaches the character of activities: therapeutic, educational and social qualities, which distinguish this peculiar occupational therapy. Moreover, the paper highlights the use of activities as a tool, both as a central element of the processes that should underpin clinical reasoning (observation, information, association, setting up space of historicity, and construction of narrative, and as an element belonging to diagnostic procedures, to the course of clinical process, and to evaluation. Finally, we present our understanding of what we call resources in DOTM, and its intrinsic connection with the possibility of performing ‘activities’. For the creation of DOTM, occupational therapy, as a practice focused on the uniqueness of the case, was made the object of study in order to promote knowledge construction. The conceptual and instrumental framework presented in this work held this effort. We hope that this study could be useful for initial and continuing training in Occupational Therapy as well as for enriching the debate on the use of ‘activities’ in our profession.

  20. Optical Design and Active Optics Methods in Astronomy

    Lemaitre, Gerard R

    2013-01-01

    Optical designs for astronomy involve implementation of active optics and adaptive optics from X-ray to the infrared. Developments and results of active optics methods for telescopes, spectrographs and coronagraph planet finders are presented. The high accuracy and remarkable smoothness of surfaces generated by active optics methods also allow elaborating new optical design types with high aspheric and/or non-axisymmetric surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance requested for a deformable optical surface analytical investigations are carried out with one of the various facets of elasticity theory: small deformation thin plate theory, large deformation thin plate theory, shallow spherical shell theory, weakly conical shell theory. The resulting thickness distribution and associated bending force boundaries can be refined further with finite element analysis. Keywords: active optics, optical design, elasticity theory, astronomical optics, diffractive optics, X-ray optics

  1. Reconfigurability Analysis Method for Spacecraft Autonomous Control

    Dayi Wang; Chengrui Liu

    2014-01-01

    As a critical requirement for spacecraft autonomous control, reconfigurability should be considered in design stage of spacecrafts by involving effective reconfigurability analysis method in guiding system designs. In this paper, a novel reconfigurability analysis method is proposed for spacecraft design. First, some basic definitions regarding spacecraft reconfigurability are given. Then, based on function tree theory, a reconfigurability modeling approach is established to properly describe...

  2. The Qualitative Method of Impact Analysis.

    Mohr, Lawrence B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative methods of impact analysis and provides an introductory treatment of one such approach. Combines an awareness of an alternative causal epistemology with current knowledge of qualitative methods of data collection and measurement to produce an approach to the analysis of impacts. (SLD)

  3. Reinforcement Learning Based on Active Learning Method

    Sagha, Hesam; Khasteh, Hosein; Kiaei, Ali Akbar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new reinforcement learning approach is proposed which is based on a powerful concept named Active Learning Method (ALM) in modeling. ALM expresses any multi-input-single-output system as a fuzzy combination of some single-input-singleoutput systems. The proposed method is an actor-critic system similar to Generalized Approximate Reasoning based Intelligent Control (GARIC) structure to adapt the ALM by delayed reinforcement signals. Our system uses Temporal Difference (TD) learning to model the behavior of useful actions of a control system. The goodness of an action is modeled on Reward- Penalty-Plane. IDS planes will be updated according to this plane. It is shown that the system can learn with a predefined fuzzy system or without it (through random actions).

  4. Probabilistic structural analysis by extremum methods

    Nafday, Avinash M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to demonstrate discrete extremum methods of structural analysis as a tool for structural system reliability evaluation. Specifically, linear and multiobjective linear programming models for analysis of rigid plastic frames under proportional and multiparametric loadings, respectively, are considered. Kinematic and static approaches for analysis form a primal-dual pair in each of these models and have a polyhedral format. Duality relations link extreme points and hyperplanes of these polyhedra and lead naturally to dual methods for system reliability evaluation.

  5. Nonlinear time series analysis methods and applications

    Diks, Cees

    1999-01-01

    Methods of nonlinear time series analysis are discussed from a dynamical systems perspective on the one hand, and from a statistical perspective on the other. After giving an informal overview of the theory of dynamical systems relevant to the analysis of deterministic time series, time series generated by nonlinear stochastic systems and spatio-temporal dynamical systems are considered. Several statistical methods for the analysis of nonlinear time series are presented and illustrated with applications to physical and physiological time series.

  6. Anti–inflammatory activity and qualitative analysis of different extracts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich. Cuf. by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    Mohamed F. Alajmi

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: HPTLC finger printing of AESF and dichloromethane of Maytenus obscura revealed eight major spots for alcoholic extracts and nine major spots for dichloromethane extracts. These HPTLC profiles may be of great usefulness in the quality control of herbal products containing these extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity of both extracts also revealed the medicinal importance of these extracts. The plant can be further explored for the isolation of phytoconstituents having anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. The status of activation analysis in archaeology and geochemistry

    Many of the initial applications for activation analysis occurred in the fields of archaeology, geochemistry and cosmochemistry. In addition to the desire to investigate noteworthy problems of interest to these disciplines, the reasons for employing activation analysis were based on the advantages of sample preparation, sensitivity, multi-element capability, and non-destructiveness. Nearly fifty years later and despite the development of several new analytical methods, many of these same advantages continue to attract interest in activation analysis from these same disciplines. Past, present and future role of activation analysis with regard to research questions in archaeology, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry are overviewed. (author)

  8. Computational methods in power system analysis

    Idema, Reijer

    2014-01-01

    This book treats state-of-the-art computational methods for power flow studies and contingency analysis. In the first part the authors present the relevant computational methods and mathematical concepts. In the second part, power flow and contingency analysis are treated. Furthermore, traditional methods to solve such problems are compared to modern solvers, developed using the knowledge of the first part of the book. Finally, these solvers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, clearly showing the benefits of the modern approach.

  9. Multi-criteria methods for ranking project activities

    Hadad Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents multi-criteria methods for ranking project activities according to several ranking indexes. The methods are based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP, on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, and on the use of common ranking indexes. This paper reviews ranking indexes of project activities for project management tasks. The ranking of project activities in one project is applicable for focusing the attention of the project manager on important activities. The selection of the appropriate ranking indexes should be done in accordance with managerial purposes: 1 Paying attention to activities throughout the execution phase and in the resources allocation process, in order meet pre-determined qualities, and to deliver the project on time and within budget, i.e., to accomplish the project within the "iron triangle" 2 Setting priorities in order to share the managerial care and control among the activities. The paper proposes to use multi-criteria ranking methods in order to rank the activities in a case where several ranking indexes are selected.

  10. Customized cooking method improves total antioxidant activity in selected vegetables.

    Ng, Zhi-Xiang; Chai, Jen-Wai; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2011-03-01

    The present study compares water-soluble phenolic content (WPC) and antioxidant activities in Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea) prior to and after subjecting to boiling, microwaving and pressure cooking. The total antioxidant activity was increased in cooked water convolvulus, broccoli and bitter gourd, estimated based on the ferric reducing antioxidant power, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Pressure cooking did not cause any significant decline in the antioxidant property. Boiling generally improved the overall antioxidant activity in all the vegetables. Correlation analysis suggests that WPC contributed to significant antioxidant activities in these vegetables. Thus, prudence in selecting an appropriate cooking method for different vegetables may improve or preserve their nutritional value. PMID:21250903

  11. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  12. Analysis of Maths Learning Activities Developed By Pre-service Teachers in Terms of the Components of Content, Purpose, Application Methods

    Çağla Toprak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today- when the influence of the alteration movement done in order to keep up with the age of the educational system is still continuing- the importance of teachers in students’ learning and achieving what is expected from the education system has been stated by the studies conducted (Hazır & Bıkmaz, 2006. Teachers own a critical role in the stage of both preparing teaching materials and using them (Stein & Smith, 1998b; Swan, 2007. When the existing curriculums –in particular, maths and geometry cirriculums- are analyzed, it can be observed that activities are the most significant teaching materials (Bozkurt, 2012. In fact, it is possible to characterize the existing curriculums as activity-based ones (Report of Workshop Examining Content of Primary School Curriculums According to Branches, 2010; Epö, 2005. Therefore, what sort of learning activities there are, what qualities they need to have, how to design and apply them are topics that must be elaborated (Uğurel et al., 2010.  At this point, our study to increase the skills of pre-service teachers during the process of developing activities was conducted with 27 pre-service teachers -19 girls 8 boys- studying in the 4th year in Mathematics Education Department at a state university in the Aegean Region. The activity designs the pre-service teachers developed considering the patterns given after a series of practice were analyzed in documents in terms of the aim of design and the form of practice. As a result of the studies, it is observed that pre-service teachers deal with the topics from the maths curriculum and these topics are of different grade levels. The result of the examination named as target component suggests that activities developed aim firstly at providing learning and this is followed by reinforcing the concepts already learned. It is stated that pre-service teachers prefer mostly small group (cooperative studies in the activities they develop.Key Words:

  13. Human resources methods analysis in engineering company

    Akšteinová, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this bachelor thesis is to make analysis of human resources activities in company SPG Czech,s.r.o. which produces machines. Thesis is divided in theoretical and practical part. In theoretical part human resources activities are described: work analysis, obtaining and choosing of employees, accepting and adjustment of employees, managing the job performance and evaluating the employees, education and formation of the employees, rewarding of the employees and care of the employees. Based...

  14. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven;

    2003-01-01

    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel...... Active Shape Model is proposed targeting growth modelling by applying Partial Least Squares regression in decomposing the Procrustes tangent space. Shape centroid size is applied as dependent variable but the method generalizes to handle other, both uni- and multivariate, effects probing for high...

  15. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country

  16. Support system for Neutron Activation Analysis

    In the research reactor of JAERI, the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been utilized as a major part of an irradiation usage. To utilize NAA, research participants are always required to learn necessary technique. Therefore, we started to examine a support system that will enable to carry out INAA easily even by beginners. The system is composed of irradiation device, gamma-ray spectrometer and data analyzing instruments. The element concentration is calculated by using KAYZERO/SOLCOI software with the K0 standardization method. In this paper, we review on a construction of this INAA support system in JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  17. Activation analysis for food chemistry Pt. 3

    The nondestructive determination of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and P content of animal tissues was reported. The IBR-30 (Dubna) reactor was used as the thermal neutron source for all the (n,ν) reactions needed for the analyses (tabulated), and as the source of fast neutrons for the (n,α) reaction of the P determination, too. Results and errors of the analyses (5-15%) were discussed comparing the reproducibility of the methods in case of different animal tissues, liver, bones, blood, etc. The nondestructive neutron activation multielemental analysis for food chemistry can be recommended in the case of a large scale monitoring program of food samples. (Sz.J.)

  18. Nuclear data for proton activation analysis

    The activation analysis with charged particles (ChPAA), as well as proton activation analysis (PAA), mainly requires separately irradiation of thick (thicker than the range of particles) samples and standard. Therefore for simplicity of determination of traces of chemical elements by instrumental PAA the absolute activity of the radionuclides must be known. Consequently we compilated data for nuclear decays (half life, radiation energy and intensity, type of decay, saturation factor), for nuclear reactions (excitation function, threshold energy, Q-value, yields of radionuclides), for the element under study (natural isotopic abundance of the nuclide, which yields the nuclear reaction considered, molar mass), stopping power of the irradiated material and the range of the particle that are used in the calculation of the absolute activity of the radionuclides and for the resolution of a nuclear interference problems of PAA. These data are tabulated. The tables of the radionuclides are presented in dependence on increasing atomic number and radiation energy as well as on methods of the radionuclide formation. The thick target yields of analytical radionuclides are presented versus particle energy

  19. Analysis of Sunspot Activity Cycles

    Greenkorn, Robert A.

    2009-04-01

    A nonlinear analysis of the daily sunspot number for each of cycles 10 to 23 is used to indicate whether the convective turbulence is stochastic or chaotic. There is a short review of recent papers considering sunspot statistics and solar activity cycles. The differences in the three possible regimes - deterministic laminar flow, chaotic flow, and stochastic flow - are discussed. The length of data sets necessary to analyze the regimes is investigated. Chaos is described and a chronology of recent results that utilize chaos and fractals to analyze sunspot numbers follows. The parameters necessary to describe chaos - time lag, phase space, embedding dimension, local dimension, correlation dimension, and the Lyapunov exponents - are determined for the attractor for each cycle. Assuming the laminar regime is unlikely if chaos is not indicated in a cycle by the calculations, the regime must be stochastic. The sunspot numbers in each of cycles 10 to 19 indicate stochastic behavior. There is a transition from stochastic to chaotic behavior of the sunspot numbers in cycles 20, 21, 22, and 23. These changes in cycles 20 - 23 may indicate a change in the scale of turbulence in the convection zone that could result in a change in the convective heat transfer and a change in the size of the convection region for these four cycles.

  20. Computational structural analysis and finite element methods

    Kaveh, A

    2014-01-01

    Graph theory gained initial prominence in science and engineering through its strong links with matrix algebra and computer science. Moreover, the structure of the mathematics is well suited to that of engineering problems in analysis and design. The methods of analysis in this book employ matrix algebra, graph theory and meta-heuristic algorithms, which are ideally suited for modern computational mechanics. Efficient methods are presented that lead to highly sparse and banded structural matrices. The main features of the book include: application of graph theory for efficient analysis; extension of the force method to finite element analysis; application of meta-heuristic algorithms to ordering and decomposition (sparse matrix technology); efficient use of symmetry and regularity in the force method; and simultaneous analysis and design of structures.

  1. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  2. Kinetic analysis of anionic surfactant adsorption from aqueous solution onto activated carbon and layered double hydroxide with the zero length column method

    Schouten, Natasja; Ham, Louis G.J. van der; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Haan, André B. de

    2009-01-01

    Low cost adsorption technology offers high potential to clean-up laundry rinsing water. From an earlier selection of adsorbents, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and granular activated carbon (GAC) proved to be interesting materials for the removal of anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate

  3. Monostandard activation analysis of prehistoric copper objects

    In order to compare the detection limits of neutron activation analysis and spectral analisys, a number of eneolitic and other copper cultural objects have been investigated. A number of 12 elements could be determined by NAA in a long irradiation run, the same number as in spectral analysis. Six elements have a detection limit an order of magnitude higher than that in spectral analysis and only three have a lower detection limit (Fe, Ni, Sn). If the irradiation time is increased 4 times, only tin remains with a lower detection limit. Other three elements (Hg, Cs, Se), which were not reported in spectral analysis, can be seen with high sensitivity. An average counting time of 1 hour seems to be enough for a satisfactory statistics. No chemical processing of the sample is needed, except a slight etching and washing before or after irradiation. It is concluded that monostandard NAA is a rather simple and reliable method with a higher sensitivity compared to the spectral method

  4. CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of ''clean'' energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed

  5. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  6. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author)

  7. Optical design and active optics methods in astronomy

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.

    2013-03-01

    Optical designs for astronomy involve implementation of active optics and adaptive optics from X-ray to the infrared. Developments and results of active optics methods for telescopes, spectrographs and coronagraph planet finders are presented. The high accuracy and remarkable smoothness of surfaces generated by active optics methods also allow elaborating new optical design types with high aspheric and/or non-axisymmetric surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance requested for a deformable optical surface analytical investigations are carried out with one of the various facets of elasticity theory: small deformation thin plate theory, large deformation thin plate theory, shallow spherical shell theory, weakly conical shell theory. The resulting thickness distribution and associated bending force boundaries can be refined further with finite element analysis.

  8. Kinetic analysis of anionic surfactant adsorption from aqueous solution onto activated carbon and layered double hydroxide with the zero length column method

    Schouten, Natasja; Ham, Louis G.J. van der; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Haan, André B. de

    2009-01-01

    Low cost adsorption technology offers high potential to clean-up laundry rinsing water. From an earlier selection of adsorbents, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and granular activated carbon (GAC) proved to be interesting materials for the removal of anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS), which is the main contaminant in rinsing water. The main research question is to identify adsorption kinetics of LAS onto GAC-1240 and LDH. The influence of pre-treatment of the adsorbent, ...

  9. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  10. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  11. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  12. Study on seismic equipment fragility analysis method

    Vulnerable points of nuclear power plants can be found through seismic PSA which is an effective method to evaluate the seismic effect on nuclear power plants, and fragility analysis is one important step for seismic PSA. In this paper, the concept of seismic equipment fragility is introduced, the mathematic model of seismic fragility is given, the determination of equipment failure modes is discussed, fragility analysis variables and methods (i. e. method based-on analysis and method based-on dynamic testing) are mainly studied, and finally median fragility, the distribution of randomness and uncertainty and HCLPF capacity can be calculated by formulations. On the other hand, when developing seismic fragility, there are three types of information that can be relied on: data from real earthquake experience, test data and analysis data, and this data used in specific nuclear plant need to be collected and completed. (authors)

  13. LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS METHOD OF RIVERINE TERRITORIES

    Fedoseeva O. S.

    2013-01-01

    The article proposes a method for landscape area analysis, which consists of four stages. Technique is proposed as a tool for the practical application of pre-project research materials in the design solutions for landscape areas planning and organization

  14. 14 MeV proton activation analysis

    A fast nuclear nondestructive method for protein analysis using the 14 MeV proton activation has been developed. The total nitrogen content was measured through the reaction: 14N (p,n) 14O, (Tsub(1/2)=71 s). The 14O activity was detected by means of its characteristic 2.312 MeV gamma-ray line with a NaI(Tl) detector. For a fast determination of a large number of samples a mechanized sistem reacting a rate of one sample per minute has been developed. The laboratory electronics comprises a multichannel analyser, a PDP computer and an electronic module comtroller. Comparison of the results obtained by the method described and the classical Kjeldal technique for samples of various cereal grains (soya bean seads, wheat, barley and corn) showed good correlation. A problem of the analysis of the whole protein region on corn and soya-bean seads, where this region is thicker (0,2 - 2 mm), is mentioned. In this case flour was proposed to be used to obtain a protein homogeneous sample and the irradiaton dose for a sample was about 33,000 Gy, mainly (99%) from protons (27 s x 100 nA x 14 MeV)

  15. Carbon and nitrogen determination in Zr by photon or proton activation analysis. Comparison between the results obtained by this method and other analytical techniques

    Carbon and nitrogen are determined by the following nuclear reactions: 12C(γ,n)11C and 14N(p,α)11C. The performances of the method and the main interferences are considered. The process developed for the separation of carbon-11 from zirconium is described and its efficiency evaluated. The results obtained are compared with those given by different laboratories using various analytical techniques

  16. An introduction to numerical methods and analysis

    Epperson, James F

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . outstandingly appealing with regard to its style, contents, considerations of requirements of practice, choice of examples, and exercises.""-Zentralblatt MATH "". . . carefully structured with many detailed worked examples.""-The Mathematical Gazette The Second Edition of the highly regarded An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis provides a fully revised guide to numerical approximation. The book continues to be accessible and expertly guides readers through the many available techniques of numerical methods and analysis. An Introduction to

  17. Neutron activation analysis of zirconium niobium alloys

    Full text: One of the important problems in nuclear reactor projecting is the choice of constructional materials, which meet to the requirements concerned with function, technical characteristics and expected performance of the reactor construction. Also it is necessary to take into account change of their properties under the influence of intensive neutron radiation. Zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys are used in nuclear engineering as a fuel cladding and both matrix and impurity composition have an influence on their performance capabilities.Under intensive neutron radiation high content of undesirable trace elements in constructional materials can cause forming long-lived radionuclides with high induced activity and hence severe problems may occur at service, control of the equipment and carrying out experiments. Therefore analytical control of component and impurity composition of these materials is an important problem.Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of multielemental and high sensitivity methods, which widely applied for the analysis of high purity materials. Prior experiments have shown that instrumental NAA is not suitable for analysis of Zr-Nb alloys due to strong induced matrix activity. Therefore we have developed radiochemical procedure for separation of impurities from matrix elements. Study of the literature data has shown that zirconium and niobium are good extracted from hydrochloric medium by 0 75 M solution of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (DEHPA) in ortho-xylene. Also this system good extracts hafnium which being accompanying element has high content and interferes with determining impurity elements. To improve separation efficiency we have used 'DEHPA - ZM HCl' chromatography system. On the basis of the carried out researches the radiochemical NAA technique for analysis of high purity zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys has been developed. The technique is based on extraction-chromatographic separation of matrix radionuclides

  18. Nondestructive neutron activation analysis of mineral materials. III

    A description is presented of sampling, calibration standards, the method of activation and measurement, activation product identification, the respective nuclear reactions, interfering admixtures, and pre-activation operations. The analysis is described of sulphides, halogenides, oxides, sulphates, carbonates, phosphates, silicates, aluminosilicates, composite minerals containing lanthanides, rocks, tektites, meteors, and plant materials. The method allows determining mainly F, Mg, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Rh, and I which cannot be determined by long-term activation (LTA). It is more sensitive than LTA in determining Ca, Cu, In, and Dy. The analysis takes less time, irradiation and measurement are less costly. The main mineral components are quickly found. (M.K.)

  19. An Analysis Method of Business Application Framework

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of object-oriented software developmentpr o cess based on software pattern. For developing mature software fra mework and component, we advocate to elicit and incorporate software patterns fo r ensuing quality and reusability of software frameworks. On the analysis base o f requirement specification for business application domain, we present analysis method and basic role model of software framework. We also elicit analysis patt ern of framework architecture, and design basic role classes and their structure .

  20. 沟通分析理论的活用——大学生的职场沟通能力分析法%The Active Use of Transactional Analysis Theory: Analysis Method of the Students' Workplace Communication Skills

    芦文利

    2012-01-01

    Transactional Analysis theory (TA) is founded by Eric Berne in the 1960s, it is a kind of psychological theory to study people's thinking, feelings and behavior. This paper focuses on the students who will go to work to provide an analysis method for the professional communication skills of students.%沟通分析理论(简称TA)是由Eric Berne于60年代创立.是一种研究人们思想、感情及行为的心理学理论.本文着眼于将要就职的大学生,对大学生的职业沟通能力提供分析方法.

  1. Elemental analysis of ancient potteries using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    The provenance studies of archaeological artifacts like potteries, bricks, and coins demands elemental analysis. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) with high resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used due to its high sensitivity and simultaneous multielement capability. The ancient pottery samples belong to Melchittamur, collected from Department of Ancient History, Tamilnadu, were irradiated in KAMINI reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam and counted using PC based Aptec MCA card. The peak areas were obtained using peak-fit PHAST software. The elemental concentrations were calculated using relative method with IAEA RM SL-1 as comparator. The concentrations of elements K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, In, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Hf and Th were determined. The % uncertainties are within 1-12% except for Cr, In, Cs and Th

  2. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  3. Probabilistic Analysis Methods for Hybrid Ventilation

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper discusses a general approach for the application of probabilistic analysis methods in the design of ventilation systems. The aims and scope of probabilistic versus deterministic methods are addressed with special emphasis on hybrid ventilation systems. A preliminary application of...

  4. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy anal

  5. Empirical likelihood method in survival analysis

    Zhou, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Add the Empirical Likelihood to Your Nonparametric ToolboxEmpirical Likelihood Method in Survival Analysis explains how to use the empirical likelihood method for right censored survival data. The author uses R for calculating empirical likelihood and includes many worked out examples with the associated R code. The datasets and code are available for download on his website and CRAN.The book focuses on all the standard survival analysis topics treated with empirical likelihood, including hazard functions, cumulative distribution functions, analysis of the Cox model, and computation of empiric

  6. Quality assurance in neutron activation analysis

    As a potential reference method, neutron activation analysis does not have to rely on other reference materials to ascertain the quality of analytical results. The fundamental characteristics of the method with the clear separation between irradiation, processing, and counting makes possible the estimation of uncertainties of individual results from a priori assumptions. Such estimates of the standard deviation from a series of independent sources of variation are compared with the a posteriori variability of replicate determinations in order to ascertain that the analytical method is in a state of statistical control. This Analysis of Precision tests the absence of unknown errors by means of a statistic T, which is closely approximated by a chi-square distribution. In this manner an evaluation is made of a commercially available computer program for peak evaluation in γ-spectrometry, as well as of other factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the counting process. An attempt is also made to determine sampling constants of one gram or less in a candidate biological reference material

  7. Radio Active Waste Management: Underground Repository Method

    Finding a solution for nuclear waste is a key issue, not only for the protection of the environment but also for the future of the nuclear industry. Ten years from now, when the first decisions for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants will have to be made, The general public will require to know the solution for nuclear waste before accepting new nuclear plants. In other words, an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Most existing wastes are being stored in safe conditions waiting for permanent solution, with some exceptions in the former Eastern Bloc. Temporary surface or shallow storage is a well known technique widely used all over the world. A significant research effort has been made by the author of this paper in the direction of underground repository. The underground repository appears to be a good solution. Trying to transform dangerous long lived radionuclides into less harmful short lived or stable elements is a logical idea. It is indeed possible to incinerate or transmute heavy atoms of long lived elements in fast breeder reactors or even in pressurised or boiling water reactors. There are also new types of reactors which could be used, namely accelerator driven systems. High level and long lived wastes (spent fuel and vitrified waste) contain a mixture of high activity (heat producing) short lived nuclides and low activity long lived alpha emitting nuclides. To avoid any alteration due to temperature of the engineered or geological barrier surrounding the waste underground, it is necessary to store the packages on the surface for several decades (50 years or more) to allow a sufficient temperature decrease before disposing of them underground. In all cases, surface (or shallow) storage is needed as a temporary solution. This paper gives a detailed and comprehensive view of the Deep Geological Repository, providing a pragmatic picture of the means to make this method, a

  8. Method validation for phthalate analysis from water

    Irina Dumitraşc

    2013-01-01

    The goal of method validation is to provide objective evidence that the evaluated method will show acceptable reproducibility and accuracy so as to be applicable. The objective of this paper is to present a validation method for quantitative phthalates analysis from water by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS) in electronic ionization mode (EI) with selected -ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition...

  9. Possibilities and limits of surface analysis methods

    The possibilities and limits of the surface analysis methods are presented and stated by means of a choice. It is tried to show how to built up a systematology of all methods. Some capable methods are described in detail. The examples of analyses are chosen under the point of view to give a contribution to the questions existing in the Institute for Reactor Development at the moment. (orig.)

  10. Reconfigurability Analysis Method for Spacecraft Autonomous Control

    Dayi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a critical requirement for spacecraft autonomous control, reconfigurability should be considered in design stage of spacecrafts by involving effective reconfigurability analysis method in guiding system designs. In this paper, a novel reconfigurability analysis method is proposed for spacecraft design. First, some basic definitions regarding spacecraft reconfigurability are given. Then, based on function tree theory, a reconfigurability modeling approach is established to properly describe system’s reconfigurability characteristics, and corresponding analysis procedure based on minimal cut set and minimal path set is further presented. In addition, indexes of fault reconfigurable degree and system reconfigurable rate for evaluating reconfigurability are defined, and the methodology for analyzing system’s week links is also constructed. Finally, the method is verified by a spacecraft attitude measuring system, and the results show that the presented method cannot only implement the quantitative reconfigurability evaluations but also find the weak links, and therefore provides significant improvements for spacecraft reconfigurability design.

  11. Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis

    The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed

  12. Scope-Based Method Cache Analysis

    Huber, Benedikt; Hepp, Stefan; Schoeberl, Martin

    requests memory transfers at well-defined instructions only. In this article, we present a new cache analysis framework that generalizes and improves work on cache persistence analysis. The analysis demonstrates that a global view on the cache behavior permits the precise analyses of caches which are hard......The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution, as it...

  13. Optimization of time characteristics in activation analysis

    Full text: The activation analysis temporal characteristics optimization methods developed at present are aimed at determination of optimal values of the three important parameters - irradiation time, cooling time and measurement time. In the performed works, especially in [1-5] the activation analysis processes are described, the optimal values of optimization parameters are obtained from equations solved, and the computational results are given for these parameters for a number of elements. However, the equations presented in [2] were inaccurate, did not allow one to have optimization parameters results for one element content calculations, and it did not take into account background dependence of time. Therefore, we proposed modified equations to determine the optimal temporal parameters and iteration processes for the solution of these equations. It is well-known that the activity of studied sample during measurements does not change significantly, i.e. measurement time is much shorter than the half-life, thus the processes taking place can be described by the Poisson probability distribution, and in general case one can apply binomial distribution. The equation and iteration processes use in this research describe both probability distributions. Expectedly, the cooling time iteration expressions obtained for one element analysis case are similar for the both distribution types, as the optimised time values occurred to be of the same order as half-life values, whereas the cooling time, as we observed, depends on the ratio of the studied sample's peak value to the background peak, and can be significantly larger than the half-life value. This pattern is general, and can be derived from the optimized time expressions, which is supported by the experimental data on short-living isotopes [3,4]. For the isotopes with large half-lives, up to years, like cobalt-60, the cooling time values given in the above mentioned works are equal to months which, apparently

  14. Synthesis of aircraft structures using integrated design and analysis methods

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Goetz, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    A systematic research is reported to develop and validate methods for structural sizing of an airframe designed with the use of composite materials and active controls. This research program includes procedures for computing aeroelastic loads, static and dynamic aeroelasticity, analysis and synthesis of active controls, and optimization techniques. Development of the methods is concerned with the most effective ways of integrating and sequencing the procedures in order to generate structural sizing and the associated active control system, which is optimal with respect to a given merit function constrained by strength and aeroelasticity requirements.

  15. Simultaneous speciation analysis using neutron activation

    Full text: Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well-established analytical technique for the simultaneous determination of multielement concentrations. Although various forms of NAA have been traditionally applied to measuring the total concentrations of elements, the scope of NAA can be further extended in conjunction with pre-irradiation chemical separations to determine the species of an element. The technique can then be called speciation NAA (SNAA). Since much of the toxicity of an element depends on its physico-chemical forms, there is an increasing interest in studying its speciation. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SNAA. For example, SNAA has simultaneous multielement specificity unlike AAS and AFS. The SNAA technique can be applied to the simultaneous speciation of elements which are not chemically similar such as Cd, Se and I, as well as to the elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques. Qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of small samples can be done by SNAA with excellent precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and rapidity. Unlike many other techniques, SNAA has some enhanced quality assurance capabilities. We have developed SNAA methods for separating various inorganic and organic arsenic species in water and in sea foods. We are presently extending these methods to include simultaneous speciation of As, Sb and Se. We have also developed SNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of Se along with Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo and Zn in bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop SNAA methods in conjunction with HPLC, RPC, SEC, NMR and MS for the simultaneous separation and characterization of extractable organo chlorine, organo bromine and organo iodine species in fisheries samples. An overview of the

  16. Transportation activity analysis using smartphones

    Xiao, Yu; Low, David; Bandara, Thusitha; Pathak, Parth; Lim, Hock Beng; Goyal, Devendra; Santos, Jorge Oliveira; Cottrill, Caitlin; Pereira, Francisco C.; Zegras, P. Christopher; Ben-Akiva, Moshe E.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation activity surveys investigate when, where and how people travel in urban areas to provide information necessary for urban transportation planning. In Singapore, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) carries out such a survey amongst households every four years. The survey is conducted through conventional questionnaires and travel diaries. However, the conventional surveys are problematic and error-prone. We are developing a smartphone-based transportation activity survey system to...

  17. The verification of neutron activation analysis support system (cooperative research)

    Neutron activation analysis support system is the system in which even the user who has not much experience in the neutron activation analysis can conveniently and accurately carry out the multi-element analysis of the sample. In this verification test, subjects such functions, usability, precision and accuracy of the analysis and etc. of the neutron activation analysis support system were confirmed. As a method of the verification test, it was carried out using irradiation device, measuring device, automatic sample changer and analyzer equipped in the JRR-3M PN-3 facility, and analysis software KAYZERO/SOLCOI based on the k0 method. With these equipments, calibration of the germanium detector, measurement of the parameter of the irradiation field and analysis of three kinds of environmental standard sample were carried out. The k0 method adopted in this system is primarily utilized in Europe recently, and it is the analysis method, which can conveniently and accurately carried out the multi-element analysis of the sample without requiring individual comparison standard sample. By this system, total 28 elements were determined quantitatively, and 16 elements with the value guaranteed as analytical data of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) environment standard sample were analyzed in the accuracy within 15%. This report describes content and verification result of neutron activation support system. (author)

  18. Nuclear analysis methods in monitoring occupational health

    With the increasing industrialisation of the world has come an increase in exposure to hazardous chemicals. Their effect on the body depends upon the concentration of the element in the work environment; its chemical form; the possible different routes of intake; and the individual's biological response to the chemical. Nuclear techniques of analysis such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), have played an important role in understanding the effects hazardous chemicals can have on occupationally exposed workers. In this review, examples of their application, mainly in monitoring exposure to heavy metals is discussed

  19. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  20. Analysis of neutron flux distribution using the Monte Carlo method for the feasibility study of the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis technique at the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor

    Guerra, Bruno T.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: brunoteixeiraguerra@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departmento de Energia Nuclear; Soares, Alexandre L.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IPR-R1 is a reactor type TRIGA, Mark-I model, manufactured by the General Atomic Company and installed at Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN), Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is a light water moderated and cooled, graphite-reflected, open-pool type research reactor and operates at 100 kW. It presents low power, low pressure, for application in research, training and radioisotopes production. The fuel is an alloy of zirconium hydride and uranium enriched at 20% in {sup 235}U. The implementation of the PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) using this research reactor will significantly increase in number of chemical elements analysed and the kind of matrices. A project is underway in order to implement this technique at CDTN. The objective of this study was to contribute in feasibility analysis of implementing this technique. For this purpose, MCNP is being used. Some variance reduction tools in the methodology, that has been already developed, was introduced for calculating of the neutron flux in the neutron extractor inclined. The objective was to reduce the code error and thereby increasing the reliability of the results. With the implementation of the variance reduction tools, the results of the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes presented a significant improvement in both calculations. (author)

  1. The absolute determination of activity by the efficiency extrapolation method

    As agent for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for the maintenance of the Australian standard of activity. The standard comprises activity measurement procedures involving the operation of 4 π β-γ coincidence counting equipment. The coincidence method requires the application of correction factors which depend on detection efficiency, such as arise for complex decay schemes and internal conversion. These corrections approach unity as the detection efficiency in the β-channel approaches 100 per cent. By performing activity determinations for a range of β detection efficiencies, an 'efficiency extrapolation' analysis can be applied which eliminates the need to determine the absolute detection efficiency for each channel

  2. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    As a part of IAEA research project, ''Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants'', a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentration in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and amoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. (author)

  3. Communication Error Analysis Method based on CREAM

    Communication error has been considered as a primary reason of many incidents and accidents in nuclear industry. In order to prevent these accidents, an analysis method of communication errors is proposed. This study presents a qualitative method to analyze communication errors. The qualitative method focuses on finding a root cause of the communication error and predicting the type of communication error which could happen in nuclear power plants. We develop context conditions and antecedent-consequent links of influential factors related to communication error. A case study has been conducted to validate the applicability of the proposed methods

  4. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included

  5. Analysis of HR activities in selected company

    Jandová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on theoretical knowledge and analysis of the basic HR activities in the selected company to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the policies implemented personnel work. Then propose an effective ways of improving HR activities and employee satisfaction. Basic personal activities analyzed in this thesis are the adaptation, acquisition and selection of employees, performance management and staff appraisal, remuneration and training of staff. Analysis of pers...

  6. Fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA)

    This paper mainly describes basic principle for FNAA, experimental equipment, analytical techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the method, and some applications of FNAA to material science. Besides, some new developments and future trends in FNAA are briefly reviewed

  7. Combination of the prompt neutron capture method with other neutron methods for substance elemental content analysis

    Neutron analysis method of determining element composition have found wide range of applications in industry thanks to different types of interaction of neutron with substances /1/. With the aim of widening the range of problems to be solved, on the basis of the device /2/ for determining the element content of substance, possibilities of combining the method based on the use of neutron capture gamma-ray spectrometry with other neutron methods, in particular neutron activation analysis and neutron absorption analysis were studied. In this radionuclide source (252Cf) with the yield of 1,5 x 107 neutron/sec is used. By means of using neutron capture gamma radiation spectrometry the possibilities of determining some elements (H, B, N, S etc. ), which are not determined by very widely used method, activation analysis. These elements can be determined by both the semiconductor and scintillation detectors with parameters fitting the manufacturing requirements. And for a number of elements ( B, Cl, Cd, Sm, Gd) very high limits of determination ( up to 10- 5 %) are possible using semiconductor Ge (Li) -detectors with high resolution. Possibility of determination of some 'well' activated elements ( K, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc etc.) in samples of ore and products of their processing using the neutron-activation analysis. For 1 hour of irradiation on the experimental device quite accurate analytical peak, of these elements are obtained, allowing to determine them qualitatively. However, with decreasing neutron yield of radionuclide source it becomes more difficult to achieve the necessary parameters both in neutron capture and activation analysis. Experimental works on determination of some elements with large cross-sections of capture ( B, Cd, Sm ) by absorption of neutrons in the investigated substance, i.e. using the neutron absorption analysis method with absence of other large capture cross section elements in the samples being studied. (author)

  8. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  9. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  10. Nuclear power company activity based costing management analysis

    With Nuclear Energy Industry development, Nuclear Power Company has the continual promoting stress of inner management to the sustainable marketing operation development. In view of this, it is very imminence that Nuclear Power Company should promote the cost management levels and built the nuclear safety based lower cost competitive advantage. Activity based costing management (ABCM) transfer the cost management emphases from the 'product' to the 'activity' using the value chain analysis methods, cost driver analysis methods and so on. According to the analysis of the detail activities and the value chains, cancel the unnecessary activity, low down the resource consuming of the necessary activity, and manage the cost from the source, achieve the purpose of reducing cost, boosting efficiency and realizing the management value. It gets the conclusion from the detail analysis with the nuclear power company procedure and activity, and also with the selection to 'pieces analysis' of the important cost related project in the nuclear power company. The conclusion is that the activities of the nuclear power company has the obviously performance. It can use the management of ABC method. And with the management of the procedure and activity, it is helpful to realize the nuclear safety based low cost competitive advantage in the nuclear power company. (author)

  11. Image Analysis by Methods of Dimension Reduction

    Moravec, P.; Snášel, V.; Frolov, A.; Húsek, Dušan; Řezanková, H.; Polyakov, P.Y.

    Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2007, s. 272-277. ISBN 0-7695-2894-5. [CISIM'07. International Conference on Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications /6./. Elk (PL), 28.06.2007-30.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : image analysis * methods of dimension reduction * cluster analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  12. Scaling Internet Search Engines - Methods and Analysis

    Risvik, Knut Magne

    2004-01-01

    This thesis focuses on methods and analysis for building scalable Internet Search Engines. In this work, we have developed a search kernel, an architecture framework and applications that are being used in industrial and commercial products. Furthermore, we present both analysis and design of key elements. Essential to building a large-scale search engine is to understand the dynamics of the content in which we are searching. For the challenging case of searching the web, there are multiple d...

  13. Analysis of mixed data methods & applications

    de Leon, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive source on mixed data analysis, Analysis of Mixed Data: Methods & Applications summarizes the fundamental developments in the field. Case studies are used extensively throughout the book to illustrate interesting applications from economics, medicine and health, marketing, and genetics. Carefully edited for smooth readability and seamless transitions between chaptersAll chapters follow a common structure, with an introduction and a concluding summary, and include illustrative examples from real-life case studies in developmental toxicolog

  14. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  15. Performance analysis of active schedules in identical parallel machine

    Changjun WANG; Yugeng XI

    2007-01-01

    Active schedule is one of the most basic and popular concepts in production scheduling research. For identical parallel machine scheduling with jobs' dynamic arrivals, the tight performance bounds of active schedules under the measurement of four popular objectives are respectively given in this paper. Similar analysis method and conclusions can be generalized to static identical parallel machine and single machine scheduling problem.

  16. Method for chromium analysis and speciation

    Aiken, Abigail M.; Peyton, Brent M.; Apel, William A.; Petersen, James N.

    2004-11-02

    A method of detecting a metal in a sample comprising a plurality of metal is disclosed. The method comprises providing the sample comprising a metal to be detected. The sample is added to a reagent solution comprising an enzyme and a substrate, where the enzyme is inhibited by the metal to be detected. An array of chelating agents is used to eliminate the inhibitory effects of additional metals in the sample. An enzymatic activity in the sample is determined and compared to an enzymatic activity in a control solution to detect the metal to be detected. A method of determining a concentration of the metal in the sample is also disclosed. A method of detecting a valence state of a metal is also disclosed.

  17. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method; Estabelecimento de procedimento para determinacao de vanadio em mexilhoes pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Seo, Daniele, E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S., E-mail: edvinett@usp.b, E-mail: camilo.pereira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha

    2009-07-01

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the {sup 52}V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  18. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Chromatographic methods for analysis of triazine herbicides.

    Abbas, Hana Hassan; Elbashir, Abdalla A; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors, and in combination with different sample extraction methods, are most widely used for analysis of triazine herbicides in different environmental samples. Nowadays, many variations and modifications of extraction and sample preparation methods such as solid-phase microextraction (SPME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), stir bar sportive extraction (SBSE), headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO), ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME), and others have been introduced and developed to obtain sensitive and accurate methods for the analysis of these hazardous compounds. In this review, several analytical properties such as linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, and accuracy for each developed method are discussed, and excellent results were obtained for the most of developed methods combined with GC and HPLC techniques for the analysis of triazine herbicides. This review gives an overview of recent publications of the application of GC and HPLC for analysis of triazine herbicides residues in various samples. PMID:25849823

  20. Review of strain buckling: analysis methods

    This report represents an attempt to review the mechanical analysis methods reported in the literature to account for the specific behaviour that we call buckling under strain. In this report, this expression covers all buckling mechanisms in which the strains imposed play a role, whether they act alone (as in simple buckling under controlled strain), or whether they act with other loadings (primary loading, such as pressure, for example). Attention is focused on the practical problems relevant to LMFBR reactors. The components concerned are distinguished by their high slenderness ratios and by rather high thermal levels, both constant and variable with time. Conventional static buckling analysis methods are not always appropriate for the consideration of buckling under strain. New methods must therefore be developed in certain cases. It is also hoped that this review will facilitate the coding of these analytical methods to aid the constructor in his design task and to identify the areas which merit further investigation

  1. Student Active Learning Methods in Physical Chemistry

    Hinde, Robert J.; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    We describe two strategies for implementing active learning in physical chemistry. One involves supplementing a traditional lecture course with heavily computer-based active-learning exercises carried out by cooperative groups in a department computer lab. The other uses cooperative learning almost exclusively, supplemented by occasional mini-lectures. Both approaches seemed to result in better student learning and a more positive attitude toward the subject. On the basis of our respective experiences using active learning techniques, we discuss some of the strengths of these techniques and some of the challenges we encountered using the active-learning approach in teaching physical chemistry.

  2. Probabilistic structural analysis methods development for SSME

    Chamis, C. C.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of probabilistic structural analysis methods is a major part of the SSME Structural Durability Program and consists of three program elements: composite load spectra, probabilistic finite element structural analysis, and probabilistic structural analysis applications. Recent progress includes: (1) the effects of the uncertainties of several factors on the HPFP blade temperature pressure and torque, (2) the evaluation of the cumulative distribution function of structural response variables based on assumed uncertainties on primitive structural variables, and (3) evaluation of the failure probability. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrate that the structural durability of critical SSME components can be probabilistically evaluated.

  3. Implicitly Weighted Methods in Robust Image Analysis

    Kalina, J. (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to highly robust statistical methods with applications to image analysis. The methods of the paper exploit the idea of implicit weighting, which is inspired by the highly robust least weighted squares regression estimator. We use a correlation coefficient based on implicit weighting of individual pixels as a highly robust similarity measure between two images. The reweighted least weighted squares estimator is considered as an alternative regression estimator with a clea...

  4. An introduction to numerical methods and analysis

    Epperson, J F

    2007-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . outstandingly appealing with regard to its style, contents, considerations of requirements of practice, choice of examples, and exercises.""-Zentrablatt Math "". . . carefully structured with many detailed worked examples . . .""-The Mathematical Gazette "". . . an up-to-date and user-friendly account . . .""-Mathematika An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis addresses the mathematics underlying approximation and scientific computing and successfully explains where approximation methods come from, why they sometimes work (or d

  5. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Feingold, E. [Emory Univ. School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population, but more common in individuals with specific trisomies. Examples of this include leukemia and duodenal atresia in trisomy 21. This paper presents a linkage analysis method for using trisomic individuals to map genes for such traits. It is based on a very general gene-specific dosage model that posits that the trait is caused by specific effects of different alleles at one or a few loci and that duplicate copies of {open_quotes}susceptibility{close_quotes} alleles inherited from the nondisjoining parent give increased likelihood of having the trait. Our mapping method is similar to identity-by-descent-based mapping methods using affected relative pairs and also to methods for mapping recessive traits using inbred individuals by looking for markers with greater than expected homozygosity by descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited from the nondisjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the trait gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers and how to test candidate genes. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. I. Developing Methods for the Analysis of Chemistry Students' Inscriptions, II. Exploring the Regioselectivity of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Munchnones, III. Stereochemical Investigations of C-H Activation Reactions Involving Germylene and Stannylene/Aryl Iodide Reagents

    Kiste, Alan L.

    2009-01-01

    I. Analyzing and comparing student-generated inscriptions in chemistry is crucial to gaining insight into students' understanding about chemistry concepts. Thus, we developed two methods of analyzing student-generated inscriptions: features analysis and thematic analysis. We have also demonstrated how these methods are able to discern differences…

  7. Neutron-activation analysis of plant materials

    The possibilities offered by non-destructive neutron activation analysis (NAA) for simultaneously determining a large number of micro- and macro-components in plant samples of Bulgarian origin have been studied. Three groups of elements are determined: short half-life isotopes: Al, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Cl, Cu; medium half-life isotopes: Br, Na, K; and long half-life isotopes: Fe, Cr, Co, Sc, Pb, Zn. The samples are kept for 1 minute in a fluxes of 6x1012 n.cm2.sec-1 (first group), and of 3x1011 n.cm2.sec-1 for 18 hours (second and third groups). Use is made of a Ge/Li detector and 4000-channel analyser. To test the accuracy of the method, the results of NAA for some standard specimens have been compared with the indicators of other conventional methods tested in 18 laboratories in various countries. The data from NAA for the content of K, Mo, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu demonstrate a high degree of coincidence with those from the other methods. Chemical composition of 23 samples of experimental and field crops is determined

  8. Numerical methods in software and analysis

    Rice, John R

    1992-01-01

    Numerical Methods, Software, and Analysis, Second Edition introduces science and engineering students to the methods, tools, and ideas of numerical computation. Introductory courses in numerical methods face a fundamental problem-there is too little time to learn too much. This text solves that problem by using high-quality mathematical software. In fact, the objective of the text is to present scientific problem solving using standard mathematical software. This book discusses numerous programs and software packages focusing on the IMSL library (including the PROTRAN system) and ACM Algorithm

  9. Model correction factor method for system analysis

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Johannesen, Johannes M.

    2000-01-01

    The Model Correction Factor Method is an intelligent response surface method based on simplifiedmodeling. MCFM is aimed for reliability analysis in case of a limit state defined by an elaborate model. Herein it isdemonstrated that the method is applicable for elaborate limit state surfaces on which...... clearly defined failure modes, the MCFM can bestarted from each idealized single mode limit state in turn to identify a locally most central point on the elaborate limitstate surface. Typically this procedure leads to a fewer number of locally most central failure points on the elaboratelimit state...

  10. LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS METHOD OF RIVERINE TERRITORIES

    Fedoseeva O. S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a method for landscape area analysis, which consists of four stages. Technique is proposed as a tool for the practical application of pre-project research materials in the design solutions for landscape areas planning and organization

  11. Novel NMR Method for Organic Aerosol Analysis

    Horník, Štěpán

    Prague: Institute of Chemical Process Fundamental of the CAS, v. v. i, 2015 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 20-21 ISBN 978-80-86186-70-2. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2015. Prague (CZ)] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : nmr method * organic aerosol composition * analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  12. Novel NMR Method for Organic Aerosol Analysis

    Horník, Štěpán

    Prague : Institute of Chemical Process Fundamental of the CAS, v. v. i, 2015 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 20-21 ISBN 978-80-86186-70-2. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2015. Prague (CZ)] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : nmr method * organic aerosol composition * analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Activation analysis in virus research

    Nucleic acids contain various amounts of trace elements. With divalent cations tobacco mosaic virus ribonucleic acid (TMV-RNA) undergoes changes in optical density at 258 mμ in both optical rotation and in sedimentation behaviour. These changes suggested the transformation from a random coil to a more orderly configuration. The connection between trace elements and the biological activity of TMV-RNA has been investigated. However, the relationship between metal ions and the virus infection process has not received much attention. This subject is discussed briefly in this paper. 8 refs

  14. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  15. Methods of quantitative fire hazard analysis

    Simplified fire hazard analysis methods have been developed as part of the FIVE risk-based fire induced vulnerability evaluation methodology for nuclear power plants. These fire hazard analyses are intended to permit plant fire protection personnel to conservatively evaluate the potential for credible exposure fires to cause critical damage to essential safe-shutdown equipment and thereby screen from further analysis spaces where a significant fire hazard clearly does not exist. This document addresses the technical bases for the fire hazard analysis methods. A separate user's guide addresses the implementation of the fire screening methodology, which has been implemented with three worksheets and a number of look-up tables. The worksheets address different locations of targets relative to exposure fire sources. The look-up tables address fire-induced conditions in enclosures in terms of three stages: a fire plume/ceiling jet period, an unventilated enclosure smoke filling period and a ventilated quasi-steady period

  16. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  17. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  18. Digital Forensics Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods

    Mataracioglu, Tolga

    2011-01-01

    Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. In today's world, it is widely used in order to secure the information. In this paper, the traditional spectral estimation methods are introduced. The performance analysis of each method is examined by comparing all of the spectral estimation methods. Finally, from utilizing those performance analyses, a brief pros and cons of the spectral estimation methods are given. Also we give a steganography demo by hiding information into a sound signal and manage to pull out the information (i.e, the true frequency of the information signal) from the sound by means of the spectral estimation methods.

  19. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  20. Computational methods for nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Nuclear criticality safety analyses require the utilization of methods which have been tested and verified against benchmarks results. In this work, criticality calculations based on the KENO-IV and MCNP codes are studied aiming the qualification of these methods at the IPEN-CNEN/SP and COPESP. The utilization of variance reduction techniques is important to reduce the computer execution time, and several of them are analysed. As practical example of the above methods, a criticality safety analysis for the storage tubes for irradiated fuel elements from the IEA-R1 research has been carried out. This analysis showed that the MCNP code is more adequate for problems with complex geometries, and the KENO-IV code shows conservative results when it is not used the generalized geometry option. (author)

  1. Heteroscedastic regression analysis method for mixed data

    FU Hui-min; YUE Xiao-rui

    2011-01-01

    The heteroscedastic regression model was established and the heteroscedastic regression analysis method was presented for mixed data composed of complete data, type- I censored data and type- Ⅱ censored data from the location-scale distribution. The best unbiased estimations of regression coefficients, as well as the confidence limits of the location parameter and scale parameter were given. Furthermore, the point estimations and confidence limits of percentiles were obtained. Thus, the traditional multiple regression analysis method which is only suitable to the complete data from normal distribution can be extended to the cases of heteroscedastic mixed data and the location-scale distribution. So the presented method has a broad range of promising applications.

  2. Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.

    Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F

    2009-04-01

    A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSDHMF; GC-TOF-MS: 0.3, 1.2 and 0.9 ngmL(-1) for 2-F, 5-MF and 5-HMF, respectively). It was applied to different commercial food matrices: honey, white, demerara, brown and yellow table sugars, and white and red balsamic vinegars. This one-step, sensitive and direct method for the analysis of furfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet. PMID:18976770

  3. Methods of Analysis of Electronic Money in Banks

    Melnychenko Oleksandr V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies methods of analysis of electronic money, formalises its instruments and offers an integral indicator, which should be calculated by issuing banks and those banks, which carry out operations with electronic money, issued by other banks. Calculation of the integral indicator would allow complex assessment of activity of the studied bank with electronic money and would allow comparison of parameters of different banks by the aggregate of indicators for the study of the electronic money market, its level of development, etc. The article presents methods which envisage economic analysis of electronic money in banks by the following directions: solvency and liquidity, efficiency of electronic money issue, business activity of the bank and social responsibility. Moreover, the proposed indicators by each of the directions are offered to be taken into account when building integral indicators, with the help of which banks are studied: business activity, profitability, solvency, liquidity and so on.

  4. Empowering Engineering College Staff to Adopt Active Learning Methods

    Pundak, David; Rozner, Shmaryahu

    2008-04-01

    There is a growing consensus that traditional instruction in basic science courses, in institutions of higher learning, do not lead to the desired results. Most of the students who complete these courses do not gain deep knowledge about the basic concepts and develop a negative approach to the sciences. In order to deal with this problem, a variety of methods have been proposed and implemented, during the last decade, which focus on the "active learning" of the participating students. We found that the methods developed in MIT and NCSU were fruitful and we adopted their approach. Despite research-based evidence of the success of these methods, they are often met by the resistance of the academic staff. This article describes how one institution of higher learning organized itself to introduce significant changes into its introductory science courses, as well as the stages teachers undergo, as they adopt innovative teaching methods. In the article, we adopt the Rogers model of the innovative-decision process, which we used to evaluate the degree of innovation adoption by seven members of the academic staff. An analysis of interview and observation data showed that four factors were identified which influence the degree innovation adoption: (1) teacher readiness to seriously learn the theoretical background of "active learning"; (2) the development of an appropriate local model, customized to the beliefs of the academic staff; (3) teacher expertise in information technologies, and (4) the teachers' design of creative solutions to problems that arose during their teaching.

  5. Power System Transient Stability Analysis through a Homotopy Analysis Method

    Wang, Shaobu; Du, Pengwei; Zhou, Ning

    2014-04-01

    As an important function of energy management systems (EMSs), online contingency analysis plays an important role in providing power system security warnings of instability. At present, N-1 contingency analysis still relies on time-consuming numerical integration. To save computational cost, the paper proposes a quasi-analytical method to evaluate transient stability through time domain periodic solutions’ frequency sensitivities against initial values. First, dynamic systems described in classical models are modified into damping free systems whose solutions are either periodic or expanded (non-convergent). Second, because the sensitivities experience sharp changes when periodic solutions vanish and turn into expanded solutions, transient stability is assessed using the sensitivity. Third, homotopy analysis is introduced to extract frequency information and evaluate the sensitivities only from initial values so that time consuming numerical integration is avoided. Finally, a simple case is presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method, and simulation results show that the proposed method is promising.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece

    Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption

  7. I. Developing methods for the analysis of chemistry students' inscriptions, II. Exploring the regioselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of munchnones, III. Stereochemical investigations of C-H activation reactions involving germylene and stannylene/aryl iodide reagents

    Kiste, Alan L.

    I. Analyzing and comparing student-generated inscriptions in chemistry is crucial to gaining insight into students' understanding about chemistry concepts. Thus, we developed two methods of analyzing student-generated inscriptions: features analysis and thematic analysis. We have also demonstrated how these methods are able to discern differences between both how students inscribe their understandings and the content of those inscriptions, regardless of (1) how those inscriptions were created (i.e. computer vs. pencil-and-paper), (2) the nature of the inscriptions (verbal vs. pictorial), and (3) the expertise of the students. The ability to analyze inscriptions regardless of the medium allows the examination of multiple inscriptions in educational research applications as well as in the design and development of educational materials. Also, inscriptions can be compared across contexts, allowing the comparison of student-generated inscriptions derived from various educational interventions. Finally, the ability to compare inscriptions regardless of the level of expertise allows novice/expert comparisons as well as longitudinal comparison over time. II. Predicting the regiochemistry of 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of munchnones and acetylenic dipolarophiles is difficult based on frontier molecular orbital theory (FMO) alone. We have proposed that, in addition to FMO considerations, steric factors influencing the non-covalent interactions between reactive centers in the transition state also influence the regioselectivity of these reactions. We have developed a scheme to use a tether-based regiocontrol strategy to synthesize 2,4-disubstituted pyrroles using N-(2-thiazolinyl) secondary amino acid derivatives. Attempts to synthesize these amino acid derivatives have been, so far, unsuccessful. III. To provide additional information about the mechanism of C-H activation reactions of stannylenes and germylenes, and to demonstrate the utility of these reactions, we explored

  8. Generalized analysis method for neutron resonance transmission analysis

    Neutron resonance densitometry (NRD) is a non-destructive analysis method, which can be applied to quantify special nuclear materials (SNM) in small particle-like debris of melted fuel that are formed in severe accidents of nuclear reactors such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. NRD uses neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) to quantify SNM and neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) to identify matrix materials and impurities. To apply NRD for the characterization of arbitrary-shaped thick materials, a generalized method for the analysis of NRTA data has been developed. The method has been applied on data resulting from transmission through thick samples with an irregular shape and an areal density of SNM up to 0.253 at/b (≈100 g/cm2). The investigation shows that NRD can be used to quantify SNM with a high accuracy not only in inhomogeneous samples made of particle-like debris but also in samples made of large rocks with an irregular shape by applying the generalized analysis method for NRTA. (author)

  9. Reactor neutron activation for multielemental analysis

    Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator (K0 NAA method) has been used for obtaining multielemental profiles in a variety of matrices related to environment. Gold was used as the comparator. Neutron flux was characterised by determining f, the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio and cc, the deviation from ideal shape of the neutron spectrum. The f and a were determined in different irradiation positions in APSARA reactor, PCF position in CIRUS reactor and tray rod position in Dhruva reactor using both cadmium cut off and multi isotope detector methods. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for radioactive assay of the activation products. This technique is being used for multielement analysis in a variety of matrices like lake sediments, sea nodules and crusts, minerals, leaves, cereals, pulses, leaves, water and soil. Elemental profiles of the sediments corresponding to different depths from Nainital lake were determined and used to understand the history of natural absorption/desorption pattern of the previous 160 years. Ferromanganese crusts from different locations of Indian Ocean were analysed with a view to studying the distribution of some trace elements along with Fe and Mn. Variation of Mn/Fe ratio was used to identify the nature of the crusts as hydrogenous or hydrothermal. Fe-rich and Fe-depleted nodules from Indian Ocean were analysed to understand the REE patterns and it is proposed that REE-Th associated minerals could be the potential Th contributors to the sea water and thus reached ferromanganese nodules. Dolomites (unaltered and altered), two types of serpentines and intrusive rock dolerite from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin were analysed for major, minor and trace elements. The elemental concentrations are used for distinguishing and characterising these minerals. From our investigations, it was concluded that both dolomite and dolerite contribute elements in the serpentinisation process. Chemical neutron

  10. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Feingold, E.; Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Certain genetic disorders (e.g. congenital cataracts, duodenal atresia) are rare in the general population, but more common in people with Down`s syndrome. We present a method for using individuals with trisomy 21 to map genes for such traits. Our methods are analogous to methods for mapping autosomal dominant traits using affected relative pairs by looking for markers with greater than expected identity-by-descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected reduction to homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited form the non-disjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. The methods are described in the context of gene-dosage model for the etiology of the disorder, but can be extended to other models. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers, how to test candidate genes, and how to handle the effect of reduced recombination associated with maternal meiosis I non-disjunction.

  11. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry as the primary method of measurement for the amount of matter. Application to cadmium determination in biological materials and comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis

    A primary method of measurement as defined by the Consultative Committee on the Quantity of Matter (Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere, CCQM) of the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, BIPM), is one whose measurement process is perfectly known, has valid theoretical foundations and is fully described and answers to an equation that relates what is measured with what is intended to be measured without any significant empirical correction factors. It is also a method that has insignificant systematic errors, where only magnitudes from the International System of Units (SI) are used and where, preferably, the uncertainties are small ones. They are, therefore, procedures that do not need instrumental calibration. The absolute methods of measurement allow a chain of traceability to be formed between the result obtained and the magnitude of the SI assigned to what is measured. So the results are said to be traceable to the SI. One of the methods that meets these requirements and is recognized as the primary method by the CCQM is Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS). Through a project of Technical Cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the area of Chemical Metrology, the CCHEN obtained training in CIEMAT, Spain, in IDMS and its applications to the analysis of biological samples. This work describes the first experience carried out entirely in Chilean laboratories, applying IDMS to the determination of cadmium in the biological reference materials Oyster Tissue 15566-A from the NIST, United States, Dogfish Liver, DOLT-2 from the NRC-CNRC, Canada and Poplar Leaves GBW07604 from the NRCC, China. The samples were traced with an isotope enriched spike 111Cd and then shaken to obtain the isotopic exchange. Once dissolved, the isotopic relationship 111Cd/114Cd was determined in the samples using mass spectrometry with plasma source. These results were compared with those obtained using

  12. Activation analysis in the Americas: recent and future perspectives

    A total of 243 publications in the field of nuclear activation analysis and its applications during the period of 1977 through mid-1983, from laboratories in North, Central, and South America were reviewed. Various aspects of these populations are treated statistically, for indication of trends, and 146 of these are cited as publications that illustrate the extent of usage of various special forms of the nuclear activation analysis method (e.g., cyclic INAA, prompt-gamma INAA, epithermal NAA, the delayed-neutron method, the use of pre-irradiation chemical separations, etc.) - or that illustrate applications in such fields as archaeology, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, medicine, industry, and forensic chemistry. The overall conclusion is that the method of nuclear activation analysis continues to flourish in this region

  13. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA

    M. Cholewa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work a concept of thermal analysis was shown, using for crystallization kinetics description the temperature derivatives after time and direction. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA is assigned for alloys and metals investigation as well as cast composites in range of solidification. The construction and operation characteristics were presented for the test stand including processing modules and probes together with thermocouples location. Authors presented examples of results interpretation for AlSi11 alloy castings with diversified wall thickness and at different pouring temperature.

  14. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  15. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    Three recently completed studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are reported: a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author) 12 refs

  16. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    Earlier studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are being extended in This Laboratory. Three of these new studies are reported here: 1) a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, 2) a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and 3) a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author)

  17. A program for activation analysis data processing

    An ALGOL program for activation analysis data handling is presented. The program may be used either for single channel spectrometry data or for multichannel spectrometry. The calculation of instrumental error and of analysis standard deviation is carried out. The outliers are tested, and the regression line diagram with the related observations are plotted by the program. (author)

  18. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  19. Comparative study of analysis methods in biospeckle phenomenon

    da Silva, Emerson Rodrigo; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    2008-04-01

    In this work we present a review of main statistical properties of speckle patterns and accomplish a comparative study of the more used methods for analysis and extraction of information from optical grainy. The first and second order space-time statistics are dicussed in an overview perspective. The biospeckle phenomenon has detailed attention, specially in its application on monitoring of activity in tissues. The main techniques used to obtain information from speckle patterns are presented, with special prominence to autocorrelation function, co-occurrence matrices, Fujii's method, Briers' contrast and spatial and temporal contrast analisys (LASCA and LASTCA). An incipient method for analysis, based on the study of sucessive correlations contrast, is introduced. Numerical simulations, using diferent probability density functions for velocities of scatterers, were made with two objectives: to test the analysis methods and to give subsidies for interpretation of in vivo results. Vegetable and animal tissues are investigated, achieving the monitoring of senescence process and vascularization maps on leaves, the accompaniment of fungi contamined fruits, the mapping of activity in flowers and the analisys of healing in rats subjected to abdominal surgery. Experiments using the biospeckle phenomenon in microscopy are carried out. At last, it is evaluated the potentiality of biospeckle as diagnosis tool in chronic vein ulcer cared with low intensity laser therapy and the better analysis methods for each kind of tissue are pointed.

  20. ANALYSIS METHOD OF AUTOMATIC PLANETARY TRANSMISSION KINEMATICS

    Józef DREWNIAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, planetary automatic transmission is modeled by means of contour graphs. The goals of modeling could be versatile: ratio calculating via algorithmic equation generation, analysis of velocity and accelerations. The exemplary gears running are analyzed, several drives/gears are consecutively taken into account discussing functional schemes, assigned contour graphs and generated system of equations and their solutions. The advantages of the method are: algorithmic approach, general approach where particular drives are cases of the generally created model. Moreover, the method allows for further analyzes and synthesis tasks e.g. checking isomorphism of design solutions.

  1. Advances in the homotopy analysis method

    Liao, Shijun

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other analytic techniques, the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) is independent of small/large physical parameters. Besides, it provides great freedom to choose equation type and solution expression of related linear high-order approximation equations. The HAM provides a simple way to guarantee the convergence of solution series. Such uniqueness differentiates the HAM from all other analytic approximation methods. In addition, the HAM can be applied to solve some challenging problems with high nonlinearity. This book, edited by the pioneer and founder of the HAM, describes the current ad

  2. Computational stress analysis using finite volume methods

    Fallah, Nosrat Allah

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in applying finite volume methods to model solid mechanics problems and multi-physics phenomena. During the last ten years an increasing amount of activity has taken place in this area. Unlike the finite element formulation, which generally involves volume integrals, the finite volume formulation transfers volume integrals to surface integrals using the divergence theorem. This transformation for convection and diffusion terms in the governing equations, ensures...

  3. Cloud Based Development Issues: A Methodical Analysis

    Sukhpal Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud based development is a challenging task for various software engineering projects, especifically for those which demand extraordinary quality, reusability and security along with general architecture. In this paper we present a report on a methodical analysis of cloud based development problems published in major computer science and software engineering journals and conferences organized by various researchers. Research papers were collected from different scholarly databases using search engines within a particular period of time. A total of 89 research papers were analyzed in this methodical study and we categorized into four classes according to the problems addressed by them. The majority of the research papers focused on quality (24 papers associated with cloud based development and 16 papers focused on analysis and design. By considering the areas focused by existing authors and their gaps, untouched areas of cloud based development can be discovered for future research works.

  4. Method for measuring low activity extensive samples

    This paper discusses a method of measuring low intensity gamma radiation from extensive sources using solid state detectors. In the first part the variation of the detector efficiency for a point source as a function of source position is measured. It is seen that the angular dependence is particularly important. With this response function known, a semi empirical model is developed for the computation of the efficiency in cases of extensive radiation fields. Measurements are carried out which show the adequacy of the model. The method is suitable for liquid samples such as drinkable water, industrial waste liquids and sewage liquids. It is therefore useful for water quality monitoring and pollution control. ((orig.))

  5. A method to measure hydrolytic activity of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases.

    Gianluca Bartolommei

    Full Text Available The detection of small amounts (nanomoles of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases, that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening.

  6. ANALYSIS METHOD OF AUTOMATIC PLANETARY TRANSMISSION KINEMATICS

    Józef DREWNIAK; Stanisław ZAWIŚLAK; Wieczorek, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, planetary automatic transmission is modeled by means of contour graphs. The goals of modeling could be versatile: ratio calculating via algorithmic equation generation, analysis of velocity and accelerations. The exemplary gears running are analyzed, several drives/gears are consecutively taken into account discussing functional schemes, assigned contour graphs and generated system of equations and their solutions. The advantages of the method are: algorithmic approach, ...

  7. Probabilistic structural analysis methods and applications

    Cruse, T. A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Dias, B.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced algorithm for simulating the probabilistic distribution of structural responses due to statistical uncertainties in loads, geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions is reported. The method effectively combines an advanced algorithm for calculating probability levels for multivariate problems (fast probability integration) together with a general-purpose finite-element code for stress, vibration, and buckling analysis. Application is made to a space propulsion system turbine blade for which the geometry and material properties are treated as random variables.

  8. Analysis of information risk management methods

    Zudin, Rodion

    2014-01-01

    Zudin, Rodion Analysis of information risk management methods Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2014, 33 p. Information Systems, Bachelor’s Thesis Supervisor: Siponen, Mikko A brief overview in the information risk management field is done in this study by introducing the shared terminology and methodology of the field using literature overview in the first chapter. Second chapter consists of examining and comparing two information risk management methodologies propo...

  9. Safety relief valve alternate analysis method

    An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)

  10. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  11. Simulation for sodium-24 production using cyclic neutron activation analysis

    The cyclic neutron activation analysis is a method for elemental analysis which is preferred to use short-lived radio-nuclides. In recent years this method became a new application for radioisotope production especially in low power research reactors. In this study instrumental cyclic neutron activation analysis was used for 24Na production using 23Na (n, γ) 24Na reaction. The simplified westcott convention method is used neutron activation analysis in a research reactor. The method takes into account all corrections that can affect that yield created. In this work a model was devolving for calculations through this simplified Westcott convention method by using C++ program and selecting good parameters that can produce the expected activity. The simulation is used for the theoretical yield calculated has been validated by data from the 177Lu production used for theoretical yield which it gives the approached result had been obtained by FORTRAN 90 from literature (8). The results were achieved for expected activity at full power (1 x 10 12n cm-2 s-1) and half power (5 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) for research reactor MNSR. The activity at full power was equal to about twice the activity at half power ( 49±7, 24.9 ± MBq/g), respectively. The irradiation parameters selected were irradiation time 4 min and decay time 12 min. Sample weight was 50 mg at 12 numbers of cycles, when the K-factor was equal to 1.74. This work is considered as first step for production of 24Na which can use such parameters experimentally. It is then possible to compare the expected activity with measured activity. (Author)

  12. Finite Volume Methods: Foundation and Analysis

    Barth, Timothy; Ohlberger, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Finite volume methods are a class of discretization schemes that have proven highly successful in approximating the solution of a wide variety of conservation law systems. They are extensively used in fluid mechanics, porous media flow, meteorology, electromagnetics, models of biological processes, semi-conductor device simulation and many other engineering areas governed by conservative systems that can be written in integral control volume form. This article reviews elements of the foundation and analysis of modern finite volume methods. The primary advantages of these methods are numerical robustness through the obtention of discrete maximum (minimum) principles, applicability on very general unstructured meshes, and the intrinsic local conservation properties of the resulting schemes. Throughout this article, specific attention is given to scalar nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and the development of high order accurate schemes for discretizing them. A key tool in the design and analysis of finite volume schemes suitable for non-oscillatory discontinuity capturing is discrete maximum principle analysis. A number of building blocks used in the development of numerical schemes possessing local discrete maximum principles are reviewed in one and several space dimensions, e.g. monotone fluxes, E-fluxes, TVD discretization, non-oscillatory reconstruction, slope limiters, positive coefficient schemes, etc. When available, theoretical results concerning a priori and a posteriori error estimates are given. Further advanced topics are then considered such as high order time integration, discretization of diffusion terms and the extension to systems of nonlinear conservation laws.

  13. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  14. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x1012 n cm-2 s-1 were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the μg g-1 levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  15. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods

  16. MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN: SEARCH ANALYSIS

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov; Aidar Sultangalievich Puryaev

    2014-01-01

    Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  17. Methods for multielement analysis of high purity noble metals

    The current state of four main methods for analysis of high purity noble metals: atomic-absorption, atomic-emission, neutron-activation and spark source mass spectrometry methods. Most of impurities, 65 elements including Cs, Be, B, Sc, In, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Tl, Te, Re, I, Ru, Th, U, RE and others, are determined by the method of spark source mass spectrometry. The detection limits for most of impurities are at the 10-6-10-8% level. The neutron-activation analysis possess the lowest detection limits. In the given case the detection limits can be reduced on account of sample irradiation in the 1-5x1014 n/cm2 x s neutron fluxes 10-15 times; on account of increasing the mass of samples analyzed up to 1g - 10 times; on account of using Ge(Li)-detectors with sensitive volume of 100-150 cm3 - 3-7 times. Thus under simultaneous realization of these conditions the detection limits are reduced approximately 5x103 times. The methods of extraction - atomic-absorption and echemical-spectral analysis - are inferior to spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analyses with regard to the attained detection limits but they are more simple and available

  18. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  19. Space Debris Reentry Analysis Methods and Tools

    WU Ziniu; HU Ruifeng; QU Xi; WANG Xiang; WU Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The reentry of uncontrolled spacecraft may be broken into many pieces of debris at an altitude in the range of 75-85 km.The surviving fragments could pose great hazard and risk to ground and people.In recent years,methods and tools for predicting and analyzing debris reentry and ground risk assessment have been studied and developed in National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA),European Space Agency(ESA) and other organizations,including the group of the present authors.This paper reviews the current progress on this topic of debris reentry briefly.We outline the Monte Carlo method for uncertainty analysis,breakup prediction,and parameters affecting survivability of debris.The existing analysis tools can be classified into two categories,i.e.the object-oriented and the spacecraft-oriented methods,the latter being more accurate than the first one.The past object-oriented tools include objects of only simple shapes.For more realistic simulation,here we present an object-oriented tool debris reentry and ablation prediction system(DRAPS) developed by the present authors,which introduces new object shapes to 15 types,as well as 51 predefined motions and relevant aerodynamic and aerothermal models.The aerodynamic and aerothermal models in DRAPS are validated using direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC) method.

  20. Reduction Method for Active Distribution Networks

    Raboni, Pietro; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    On-line security assessment is traditionally performed by Transmission System Operators at the transmission level, ignoring the effective response of distributed generators and small loads. On the other hand the required computation time and amount of real time data for including Distribution Net...... comparing the results obtained in PSCAD® with the detailed network model and with the reduced one. Moreover the control schemes of a wind turbine and a photovoltaic plant included in the detailed network model are described....... Networks also would be too large. In this paper an adaptive aggregation method for subsystems with power electronic interfaced generators and voltage dependant loads is proposed. With this tool may be relatively easier including distribution networks into security assessment. The method is validated by...

  1. Review of Computational Stirling Analysis Methods

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear thermal to electric power conversion carries the promise of longer duration missions and higher scientific data transmission rates back to Earth for both Mars rovers and deep space missions. A free-piston Stirling convertor is a candidate technology that is considered an efficient and reliable power conversion device for such purposes. While already very efficient, it is believed that better Stirling engines can be developed if the losses inherent its current designs could be better understood. However, they are difficult to instrument and so efforts are underway to simulate a complete Stirling engine numerically. This has only recently been attempted and a review of the methods leading up to and including such computational analysis is presented. And finally it is proposed that the quality and depth of Stirling loss understanding may be improved by utilizing the higher fidelity and efficiency of recently developed numerical methods. One such method, the Ultra HI-Fl technique is presented in detail.

  2. Optical methods for the analysis of dermatopharmacokinetics

    Lademann, Juergen; Weigmann, Hans-Juergen; von Pelchrzim, R.; Sterry, Wolfram

    2002-07-01

    The method of tape stripping in combination with spectroscopic measurements is a simple and noninvasive method for the analysis of dermatopharmacokinetics of cosmetic products and topically applied drugs. The absorbance at 430 nm was used for the characterization of the amount of corneocytes on the tape strips. It was compared to the increase of weight of the tapes after removing them from the skin surface. The penetration profiles of two UV filter substances used in sunscreens were determined. The combined method of tape stripping and spectroscopic measurements can be also used for the investigation of the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied drugs passing through the skin. Differences in the penetration profiles of the steroid compound clobetasol, applied in the same concentration in different formulations on the skin are presented.

  3. Data Analysis Methods for Library Marketing

    Minami, Toshiro; Kim, Eunja

    Our society is rapidly changing to information society, where the needs and requests of the people on information access are different widely from person to person. Library's mission is to provide its users, or patrons, with the most appropriate information. Libraries have to know the profiles of their patrons, in order to achieve such a role. The aim of library marketing is to develop methods based on the library data, such as circulation records, book catalogs, book-usage data, and others. In this paper we discuss the methodology and imporatnce of library marketing at the beginning. Then we demonstrate its usefulness through some examples of analysis methods applied to the circulation records in Kyushu University and Guacheon Library, and some implication that obtained as the results of these methods. Our research is a big beginning towards the future when library marketing is an unavoidable tool.

  4. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  5. Materials characterization of radioactive waste forms using a multi-element detection method based on the instrumental neutron activation analysis. MEDINA; Stoffliche Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfallprodukte durch ein Multi-Element-Analyseverfahren basierend auf der instrumentellen Neutronen-Aktivierungs-Analyse. MEDINA

    Havenith, Andreas Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste has to meet the specifications and acceptance criteria defined by national regulatory and management authorities for its intermediate and final storage. In Germany the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) has established waste acceptance requirements for the Konrad repository. Konrad is the disposal for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and is located near the city of Salzgitter and is currently under construction. It will start operation not before the year 2021. The waste-acceptance-requirements are derived from a site-specific safety assessment. They include specific requirements on waste forms, packaging as well as limitations to activities of individual radionuclides and limitations to masses of non-radioactive harmful substances. The amount of chemically toxic elements in the waste is limited in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To comply with these requirements every waste package has to be characterised in its radiological and chemical composition. This characterisation can be performed on the basis of existing documentation or, if the documentation is insufficient, on further analytical analysis. Segmented or integral gamma-scanning as well as active or passive neutron counting are used worldwide as the standard measurement methods for the radiological characterisation and quality checking of radioactive waste. These techniques determine the isotope specific activity of waste packages, but they do not allow the detection of non-radioactive hazardous substances inside the waste packages. Against this background the Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology Transfer (NET) at RWTH Aachen University and the Institute of Safety Research and Reactor Technology at Forschungszentrum Juelich jointly develop an innovative non-destructive analytical technique called MEDINA - ''Multi-Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation'' for

  6. Mercury determination in natural waters using neutron activation analysis

    Available as short communication only. An analytical method for quantitative determination of Mercury traces in river and sea water is proposed. The neutron activation method and radiochemical separation of Mercury by developing of C L4 Hg-2 complex, and their chromatographic separation using anionic exchange resin Dowex 1 X 8 of 400 mesh is used. The quantitative determination is done by gamma spectrometric analysis. The selection limits reached with this method showed that this is an amenable procedure in routine mercury determination in the ppb level, specially useful in the environmental contamination analysis. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Computational Methods for Failure Analysis and Life Prediction

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Harris, Charles E. (Compiler); Housner, Jerrold M. (Compiler); Hopkins, Dale A. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication contains the presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Methods for Failure Analysis and Life Prediction held at NASA Langley Research Center 14-15 Oct. 1992. The presentations focused on damage failure and life predictions of polymer-matrix composite structures. They covered some of the research activities at NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, Southwest Research Institute, industry, and universities. Both airframes and propulsion systems were considered.

  8. Neutron-activation method of monitoring of the environment

    Full text: Estimation of technogenic influences of the industrial enterprises on an environment, in particular, on ground and underground waters, was carried out by the fragmentary analysis of their element structure. In the report application of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) for monitoring an environment is considered. The total contents of elements was determined by NAA method with use of a reactor such as WWR-SM. Values of factors of correlation (K) are calculated with use of the computer, by special algorithm and reception of numerical values between 30 elements in the samples selected by a traditional technique from more than 600 points in area of activity GMZ-2. The developed technique has allowed to reveal elements indicators of technogenic (As, Ag, Sb, W, Au), mixed (Mo, Ba, Hg) and natural (Sc, Fe, Co, Ni, Rb, Cs, REE, Hf, Th, U) origins. Change of the total contents of elements in underground waters which were selected from observant chinks quarterly within three years is investigated. The technique of definition of forms of a presence of elements in underground and the sewage, based on electrodialysis division of ions with use nuclear (on a basis polyethyleneterephtalate film) filters with a diameter of pores of 0,16x0,2 micrometres is developed

  9. Sensitivity analysis via reduced order adjoint method

    Notwithstanding the voluminous literature on adjoint sensitivity analysis, it has been generally dismissed by practitioners as cumbersome with limited value in realistic engineering models. This perception reflects two limitations about adjoint sensitivity analysis: a) its most effective application is limited to calculation of first-order variations; when higher order derivatives are required, it quickly becomes computationally inefficient; and b) the number of adjoint model evaluations depends on the number of responses, which renders it ineffective for multi-physics model where entire distributions, such as flux and power distribution, are often transferred between the various physics models. To overcome these challenges, this manuscript employs recent advances in reduced order modeling to re-cast the adjoint model equations into a form that renders its application to real reactor models practical. Past work applied reduced order modeling techniques to render reduction for general nonlinear high dimensional models by identifying mathematical subspaces, called active subspaces, that capture all dominant features of the model, including both linear and nonlinear variations. We demonstrate the application of these techniques to the calculation of first-order derivatives, or as commonly known sensitivity coefficients, for a fuel assembly model with many responses. We show that the computational cost becomes dependent on the physics model itself, via the so-called rank of the active subspace, rather than the number of responses or parameters. (author)

  10. Chemical Component and Activity Analysis of Litsea cubeba Extracts Obtained by Different Extraction Methods%不同提取方法山苍子油的化学成分与抗氧化活性分析

    李芳; Yaru Song; Howard Holness; Kevin O’Shea

    2015-01-01

    山苍子油富含萜烯化合物却显示较低的抗氧化活性(64.95 mg·mL -1 ),色谱级的柠檬醛抗氧化活性最低(74.33 mg·mL -1),因此推测脂肪酸成分(特别是不饱和脂肪酸)是山苍子油抗氧化活性的主要物质基础。%Objective]The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of three common methods on the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the rate of extraction of Litsea cubeba from the dry fruit. GC-MS analysis was carried out to perform the correlation between chemical composition and antioxidant activity of extracts. [Method]The antioxidant extracts of Litsea cubeba were obtained using liquid-liquid extraction ( with ultrasonic assisted or magnetic assisted) ,SFE ( CO2 super-critical fluid extraction) and steam distillation extraction. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were measured by a free radical scavenging method using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The GC-MS analysis of Litsea cubeba extracts were carried out with added 1,4-dibromobenzene which served as an internal standard. Peak area normalization was used to get the relative amount of main compounds in the respective extracts.[Result]Results demonstrate that the oil has significant antioxidant activity. The natural antioxidants are most effectively extracted by employing liquid – liquid extraction. The ultrasonic assisted liquid-liquid extraction exhibiting the highest oil yields of 26. 34%,while magnetic agitation extraction showed highest antioxidant activity of 31. 22 mg·mL -1(IC50). The antioxidant activity of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is 56. 95 mg·mL -1 . Steam distillation showed lowest antioxidant activity of 64. 95 mg·mL -1 . More than 122 compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis,including 12 kinds of fatty acids,16 kinds of terpenes,18 kinds of oxygenated terpenes,and other trace compounds including alkenes,alcohols,ketones,and alkanes from these extracts. GC-MS results show that the main components of the oil of Litsea cubeba

  11. The neutron and gamma-ray dose characterization using the Monte Carlo method to study the feasibility of the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis technique at IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor in Brazil

    Guerra, Bruno T.; Soares, Alexandre L.; Grynberg, Suely E.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: brunoteixeiraguerra@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br, E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The IPR-R1 is a reactor type TRIGA, Mark-I model, manufactured by the General Atomic Company and installed at Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is a light water moderated and cooled, graphite-reflected, open-pool type research reactor. IPR-R1 works at 100 kW but it will be briefly licensed to operate at 250 kW. It presents low power, low pressure, for application in research, training and radioisotopes production. The fuel is an alloy of zirconium hydride and uranium enriched at 20% in {sup 235}U. The Implementation of the PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) Technical at the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor of the CDTN will significantly increase in the types of matrices analyzable. A project is underway in order to implement this technique in CDTN. In order of verified the feasibility of the PGNAA at the TRIGA reactor, the MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) method is used to theoretical calculations. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the neutron and gamma-ray dose in the room where the reactor is located, in case of implementation of this technique in the IPR-R1. (author)

  12. The neutron and gamma-ray dose characterization using the Monte Carlo method to study the feasibility of the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis technique at IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor in Brazil

    The IPR-R1 is a reactor type TRIGA, Mark-I model, manufactured by the General Atomic Company and installed at Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is a light water moderated and cooled, graphite-reflected, open-pool type research reactor. IPR-R1 works at 100 kW but it will be briefly licensed to operate at 250 kW. It presents low power, low pressure, for application in research, training and radioisotopes production. The fuel is an alloy of zirconium hydride and uranium enriched at 20% in 235U. The Implementation of the PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) Technical at the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor of the CDTN will significantly increase in the types of matrices analyzable. A project is underway in order to implement this technique in CDTN. In order of verified the feasibility of the PGNAA at the TRIGA reactor, the MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) method is used to theoretical calculations. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the neutron and gamma-ray dose in the room where the reactor is located, in case of implementation of this technique in the IPR-R1. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological problems

    Among the various techniques, the main analytical methods used to characterize ceramics are undoubtedly XRF and INAA. The principles of NAA differ from those of XRF in that samples are irradiated by thermal neutrons from a nuclear reactor. During irradiation, a few neutrons are captured by the nuclei of atoms in the specimen. This process, called activation, causes some of the nuclei to become unstable. During and after neutron irradiation, these unstable nuclei emit γ rays with unique energies at rates defined by the characteristic half-lives of the radioactive nuclei. Identification of the radioactive nucleus is possible by measuring the γ ray energies. Determination of their intensities permits quantitative analysis of the elements in the sample. The use of NAA in ceramics by a combination of two or three irradiation, decay and measurement strategies allows the determination of the elements Ba, Ce, Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr, if necessary by changing the irradiation, decay and measurement schemes. In general, XRF is more available, more rapid and less expensive than NAA. However, NAA offers a far greater number of elements, more sensitivity, superior precision and greater accuracy than XRF. On the other hand, NAA can be performed on extremely small samples (5-10 mg), meaning that only minor damage to valuable artefacts may be required

  14. Methods and Software Architecture for Activity Recognition from Position Data

    Godsk, Torben

    This thesis describes my studies on the subject of recognizing cow activities from satellite based position data. The studies comprise methods and software architecture for activity recognition from position data, applied to cow activity recognition. The development of methods and software...... results of these calculations are applied to a given standard machine learning algorithm, and the activity, performed by the cow as the measurements were recorded, is recognized. The software architecture integrates these methods and ensures flexible activity recognition. For instance, it is flexible in...... relation to the use of different sensors modalities and/or within different domains. In addition, the methods and their integration with the software architecture ensures both robust and accurate activity recognition. Utilized, it enables me to classify the five activities robustly and with high success...

  15. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  16. [Analysis of porphyrin photosensitizers using HPLC method].

    Jia, Min-ge; Wu, Hai-yan; Sun, Li-li; Yao, Chun-suo; Zhang, Shao-liang; Li, Ya-wei; Fang, Qi-cheng

    2015-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), because of its good targeting, minimal invasion, and safety, is becoming a very active area in cancer prevention and treatment, in which the photosensitizers have proved to be the core element for PDT. We developed a new HPLC method for analyzing porphyrin photosensitizers using Shiseido Capcell PAK C18 (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) as the column at 30 °C, methanol-1% aqueous solution of acetic acid as the mobile phase in a flow rate of 1.0 mL · min(-1) in a gradient elution mode, and the detection wavelength at 380 nm. This method, showing good specificity, precision, accuracy and robusty via methodology validations, can be applied to the purity test and assay of porphyrin photosensitizers, and has played a key guide role in the R&D of the new porphyrin photosensitizer--sinoporphyrin sodium. PMID:26669003

  17. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  18. A new microcomputer-controlled neutron activation and analysis system

    A microcomputer-controlled irradiation and measurement system and a microprocessor-controlled sample changer have been installed at the SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). These systems can provide the gamut of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques for the analyst. Custom software has been created for system control, data acquisition, and off-line spectral analysis using programs that incorporate Gaussian peak-fitting methods of analysis. The design and use of the equipment is discussed, and the performance is illustrated with results obtained from the analysis of marine sediment and biological reference materials

  19. Semiquantitative fluorescence method for bioconjugation analysis.

    Brasil, Aluízio G; Carvalho, Kilmara H G; Leite, Elisa S; Fontes, Adriana; Santos, Beate Saegesser

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been used as fluorescent probes in biological and medical fields such as bioimaging, bioanalytical, and immunofluorescence assays. For these applications, it is important to characterize the QD-protein bioconjugates. This chapter provides details on a versatile method to confirm quantum dot-protein conjugation including the required materials and instrumentation in order to perform the step-by-step semiquantitative analysis of the bioconjugation efficiency by using fluorescence plate readings. Although the protocols to confirm the QD-protein attachment shown here were developed for CdTe QDs coated with specific ligands and proteins, the principles are the same for other QDs-protein bioconjugates. PMID:25103803

  20. Method and apparatus for simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Bryan, Samuel A; Schroll, Cynthia A; Heineman, William R

    2013-11-19

    An apparatus and method of simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis is disclosed. A transparent surface is provided. An analyte solution on the transparent surface is contacted with a working electrode and at least one other electrode. Light from a light source is focused on either a surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution. The light reflected from either the surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution is detected. The potential of the working electrode is adjusted, and spectroscopic changes of the analyte solution that occur with changes in thermodynamic potentials are monitored.

  1. Methods development for criticality safety analysis

    A status review on the work at Oak Ridge to develop improved methods for performing multigroup, discrete-ordinates, and Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses is presented. In the area of multigroup cross section preparation this work entails the testing of ENDE/B-IV based and other cross-section libraries in the SCALE system, the development of improved cross-section processing methods for the AMPX system, and the generation of an ENDF/B-V based library. In the area of systems analysis this work entails improvements to the one-dimensional discrete-ordinates code XSDRNPM-S, the testing of the combinatorial geometry version of KENO, KENO-IV/CG, and development of an advanced version of KENO, KENO-V. Also presented is a brief review of the existing criticality safety analytical sequences in the SCALE system, CSAS1 and CSAS2, and the development of the advanced analytical sequences CSAS3 and CSAS4

  2. Selective spectroscopic methods for water analysis

    Vaidya, B.

    1997-06-24

    This dissertation explores in large part the development of a few types of spectroscopic methods in the analysis of water. Methods for the determination of some of the most important properties of water like pH, metal ion content, and chemical oxygen demand are investigated in detail. This report contains a general introduction to the subject and the conclusions. Four chapters and an appendix have been processed separately. They are: chromogenic and fluorogenic crown ether compounds for the selective extraction and determination of Hg(II); selective determination of cadmium in water using a chromogenic crown ether in a mixed micellar solution; reduction of chloride interference in chemical oxygen demand determination without using mercury salts; structural orientation patterns for a series of anthraquinone sulfonates adsorbed at an aminophenol thiolate monolayer chemisorbed at gold; and the role of chemically modified surfaces in the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation.

  3. Protein determination in soya bean by fast neutron activation analysis

    For a non-destructive determination of the protein content in soya bean samples, 14-MeV neutron activation analysis was applied. To check the method, the results obtained by X-ray fluorescence analysis and the Kjeldahl procedure were compared. For pressed pellet samples of about 1 g with 15 min irradiation and 10 min measuring times the accuracy of the protein determination was found to be 15%. (author) 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 2, Analysis Methods

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets (CP-nets). The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the analysis methods for CP-nets. They allow the modeller to investigate dynamic properties of CP-nets. The main...... ideas behind the analysis methods are described as well as the mathematics on which they are based and also how the methods are supported by computer tools. Some parts of the volume are theoretical while others are application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to use...... the formal analysis methods, which does not require a deep understanding of the underlying mathematical theory....

  5. Isotope identification of Langkawi black sand using neutron activation analysis

    The Langkawi black sand has been analyzed using the method of neutron activation analysis (INAA). A total of 22 elements have been detected. Elements such as Mn, Cu, Cr, U and Th occur in high concentration. Prospect for future mineralization of these elements may be of economic interest. (author) 9 refs.; 1 tab

  6. Multielement Analysis of Libyan Soils by ko Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    This paper concentrates on the assessment of theko-method of instrumental neutron activation in soil analysis without relying on the standard reference materials. This method has been applied in multielement analysis of soil samples. Using reactor neutron activation analysis based on ko method, numerous elements were determined in the samples in single irradiation. The samples were irradiated for 8 hours under thermal neutron flux ∼ 8.9x1012 n cm-2 s-1 in channel VCR11 of Tajura Research reactor. The accuracy of the method was ascertained by the analysis of the reference materials SL-1 and SoilL-7. The results are weighted mean with the expected/observed uncertainties (%) based on the standard deviation in the peak area. (Authors)

  7. Research on the Dividing Method for Present-Day Regional Active Block

    Zhang Xiaoliang; Jiang Zaisen; Chen Bing; Wang Qi; Zhang Xi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new idea that combines Quasi-Accurate Detection of gross errors (QUAD) with discontinuous deformation positive analysis, is brought forward to divide the regional active blocks. The method can improve the demarcation of active blocks for areas lacking with observation data and offer a new train of through for the complete study of the regional deformation of active blocks. In addition, using the Sichuan-Yunnan area as example, the practice process of the method is introduced briefly.

  8. Sensitivity enhancement of short time activation analysis by pulse activation

    TRIGA-reactors have the unique possibility of increasing the power by a factor of up to 1200, to produce a corresponding up to 1200 fold increase in flux by pulsing the reactor. This feature is, however, seldom applied for activation analysis owing to the fact that the sensitivity enhancement is optimal only for short lived nuclides or isometric states in the sub-second range of half lives. As the maximal information density is confined to a short time interval, a fast transfer system and a measuring system allowing to handle the extremely high countrates are imperative. Both systems now being commercially available, it is possible to overcome the major draw back of conventional activation analysis, namely the long time delay between arrival of the sample and obtaining the results, for those elements having short lived nuclides or isomeric states

  9. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  10. Advances in quantitative electroencephalogram analysis methods.

    Thakor, Nitish V; Tong, Shanbao

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) plays a significant role in EEG-based clinical diagnosis and studies of brain function. In past decades, various qEEG methods have been extensively studied. This article provides a detailed review of the advances in this field. qEEG methods are generally classified into linear and nonlinear approaches. The traditional qEEG approach is based on spectrum analysis, which hypothesizes that the EEG is a stationary process. EEG signals are nonstationary and nonlinear, especially in some pathological conditions. Various time-frequency representations and time-dependent measures have been proposed to address those transient and irregular events in EEG. With regard to the nonlinearity of EEG, higher order statistics and chaotic measures have been put forward. In characterizing the interactions across the cerebral cortex, an information theory-based measure such as mutual information is applied. To improve the spatial resolution, qEEG analysis has also been combined with medical imaging technology (e.g., CT, MR, and PET). With these advances, qEEG plays a very important role in basic research and clinical studies of brain injury, neurological disorders, epilepsy, sleep studies and consciousness, and brain function. PMID:15255777

  11. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  12. Methods of Modelling Marketing Activity on Software Sales

    Bashirov Islam H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies a topical issue of development of methods of modelling marketing activity on software sales for achievement of efficient functioning of an enterprise. On the basis of analysis of the market type for the studied CloudLinux OS product, the article identifies the market structure type: monopolistic competition. To ensure the information basis of the marketing activity in the target market segment, the article offers the survey method. The article provides a questionnaire, which contains specific questions regarding the studied market segment of hosting services, for an online survey with the help of the Survio service. In accordance with the system approach the CloudLinux OS has properties of systems, namely, diversity. Economic differences are non-price indicators that have no numeric expression and are quality descriptions. Analysis of the market and the conducted survey allow obtaining them. Combination of price and non-price indicators provides a complete description of the product properties. To calculate an integral indicator of competitiveness the article offers to apply a model, which is based on the direct algebraic addition of weight measures of individual indicators, regulation of formalised indicators and use of the mechanism of fuzzy sets for identification of non-formalised indicators. The calculated indicator allows not only assessment of the current level of competitiveness, but also identification of influence of changes of various indicators, which allows increase of efficiency of marketing decisions. Also, having identified the target customers of hosting OS and formalised non-price parameters, it is possible to conduct the search for a set of optimal characteristics of the product. In the result an optimal strategy of the product advancement to the market is formed.

  13. Recent Developments in Helioseismic Analysis Methods and Solar Data Assimilation

    Schad, Ariane; Duvall, Tom L; Roth, Markus; Vorontsov, Sergei V

    2016-01-01

    We review recent advances and results in enhancing and developing helioseismic analysis methods and in solar data assimilation. In the first part of this paper we will focus on selected developments in time-distance and global helioseismology. In the second part, we review the application of data assimilation methods on solar data. Relating solar surface observations as well as helioseismic proxies with solar dynamo models by means of the techniques from data assimilation is a promising new approach to explore and to predict the magnetic activity cycle of the Sun.

  14. Comparison study of microarray meta-analysis methods

    Yang Yee; Campain Anna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Meta-analysis methods exist for combining multiple microarray datasets. However, there are a wide range of issues associated with microarray meta-analysis and a limited ability to compare the performance of different meta-analysis methods. Results We compare eight meta-analysis methods, five existing methods, two naive methods and a novel approach (mDEDS). Comparisons are performed using simulated data and two biological case studies with varying degrees of meta-analysis c...

  15. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  16. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    Lalit Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation maps appear more (diffusively distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness, complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix, and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity. To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70% and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  17. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  18. The Atomic Fingerprint: Neutron Activation Analysis

    Keisch, Bernard [Carnegie-Mellon University

    1972-01-01

    The nuclei of atoms are stable only when they contain certain numbers of neutrons and protons. Since nuclei can absorb additional neutrons, which in many cases results in the conversion of a stable nucleus to a radioactive one, neutron activation analysis is possible.

  19. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  20. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  1. Generalized Analysis of a Distribution Separation Method

    Peng Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Separating two probability distributions from a mixture model that is made up of the combinations of the two is essential to a wide range of applications. For example, in information retrieval (IR, there often exists a mixture distribution consisting of a relevance distribution that we need to estimate and an irrelevance distribution that we hope to get rid of. Recently, a distribution separation method (DSM was proposed to approximate the relevance distribution, by separating a seed irrelevance distribution from the mixture distribution. It was successfully applied to an IR task, namely pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF, where the query expansion model is often a mixture term distribution. Although initially developed in the context of IR, DSM is indeed a general mathematical formulation for probability distribution separation. Thus, it is important to further generalize its basic analysis and to explore its connections to other related methods. In this article, we first extend DSM’s theoretical analysis, which was originally based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, to entropy-related measures, including the KL-divergence (Kullback–Leibler divergence, the symmetrized KL-divergence and the JS-divergence (Jensen–Shannon divergence. Second, we investigate the distribution separation idea in a well-known method, namely the mixture model feedback (MMF approach. We prove that MMF also complies with the linear combination assumption, and then, DSM’s linear separation algorithm can largely simplify the EM algorithm in MMF. These theoretical analyses, as well as further empirical evaluation results demonstrate the advantages of our DSM approach.

  2. Active Flutter Suppression Combining the Receptance Method and Flutter Margin

    Wu, Zhigang; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Active flutter suppression is used to prevent flutter throughout the flight envelope by supplying active control forces in response to vehicle motions. In recent years, studies have been conducted on active flutter suppression using the receptance method. The advantage of the receptance method is that the feedback control gains are purely based upon measured receptances, without any need to evaluate or know the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the system. However, determination of the...

  3. Optical Design and Active Optics Methods in Astronomy

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.

    2013-01-01

    Optical designs for astronomy involve implementation of active optics and adaptive optics from X-ray to the infrared. Developments and results of active optics methods for telescopes, spectrographs and coronagraph planet finders are presented. The high accuracy and remarkable smoothness of surfaces generated by active optics methods also allow elaborating new optical design types with high aspheric and/or non-axisymmetric surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance requested for a deforma...

  4. An analysis of the practical DPG method

    Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2011-01-01

    In this work we give a complete error analysis of the Discontinuous Petrov Galerkin (DPG) method, accounting for all the approximations made in its practical implementation. Specifically, we consider the DPG method that uses a trial space consisting of polynomials of degree $p$ on each mesh element. Earlier works showed that there is a "trial-to-test" operator $T$, which when applied to the trial space, defines a test space that guarantees stability. In DPG formulations, this operator $T$ is local: it can be applied element-by-element. However, an infinite dimensional problem on each mesh element needed to be solved to apply $T$. In practical computations, $T$ is approximated using polynomials of some degree $r > p$ on each mesh element. We show that this approximation maintains optimal convergence rates, provided that $r\\ge p+N$, where $N$ is the space dimension (two or more), for the Laplace equation. We also prove a similar result for the DPG method for linear elasticity. Remarks on the conditioning of the...

  5. Nondestructive multielemental analysis of ancient roman pottery using photon activation analysis techniques

    Several analytical methods were tested for the multiparameter-analysis of ancient roman pottery in order to elaborate a procedure for their identification. Main constituents, minor and trace-elements have been analyzed by high-energy photon activation analysis, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The environmental influence on the concentrations of the minor constituents and trace elements during deposition of the sherds in the soil has been examined. A comparison has been made between analysis data of ancient pottery obtained by photon activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis. Tables are given on the time dependence of the trace elements. The numerical data are summarized in several diagrams. (T.G.)

  6. Neutron Activation Analysis for investigation of elemental composition of Amarantus

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied for the characterization of the elemental composition of Amaranthus seeds, known in the prehistorical period, a tropical plant with promising nutritional and economic value. The characterization is enriched by the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis for cobalt, molybdenum and uranium content. The comparison of the results, for three sorts of edible flour, commercially available: Soya Flour, Corn Bean Flour and Amaranthus Flour, is presented. The validation of the analytical methods used was carried out on the basis of participation in the interlaboratory comparison organized by the INCT (INCT-TL-1, INCT-MPH-2) and by NIST (SRM 1575a). (author)

  7. Mathematical method for pig iron specific activity determination

    An original method for pig iron specific activity determination is presented. The mathematical method described is based on the Monte Carlo procedure and is referred to two practical stiuations determined by whether the nature of radionuclide contaminating the pig iron is known or not. Two methods for pig iron specific activity determination, a global and a spectrometric one, are presented, each of them being used in one of the practical situations mentioned above. (author)

  8. Analysis on electric energy measuring method based on multi-resolution analysis

    ZHANG Xiao-bing; CUI Jia-rui; LIANG Yuan-hua; WANG Mu-kun

    2006-01-01

    Along with the massive applications of the non-linear loads and the impact loads, many non-stationary stochastic signals such as harmonics, inter-harmonics, impulse signals and so on are introduced into the electric network, and these non-stationary stochastic signals have had effects on the accuracy of the measurement of electric energy. The traditional method like Fourier Analysis can be applied efficiently on the stationary stochastic signals, but it has little effect on non-stationary stochastic signals. In light of this, the form of the signals of the electric network in wavelet domain will be discussed in this paper. A measurement method of active power based on multi-resolution analysis in the stochastic process is presented. This method has a wider application scope compared with the traditional method Fourier analysis, and it is of good referential value and practical value in terms of raising the level of the existing electric energy measurement.

  9. Radioisotope method of compound flow analysis

    Petryka Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents gamma radiation application to analysis of a multicomponent or multiphase flow. Such information as a selected component content in the mixture transported through pipe is crucial in many industrial or laboratory installations. Properly selected sealed radioactive source and collimators, deliver the photon beam, penetrating cross section of the flow. Detectors mounted at opposite to the source side of the pipe, allow recording of digital signals representing composition of the stream. In the present development of electronics, detectors and computer software, a significant progress in know-how of this field may be observed. The paper describes application of this method to optimization and control of hydrotransport of solid particles and propose monitoring facilitating prevent of a pipe clogging or dangerous oscillations.

  10. Digital methods for mediated discourse analysis

    Kjær, Malene; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    practice of health care professionals (Author 1, 2014) and 2) young people’s identity construction on social media platforms (Author 2, 2010, 2015, in press). The paper’s contribution is a methodological discussion on digital data collection using methods such as online interviewing (via e-mail or chat......In this paper we discuss methodological strategies for collecting multimodal data using digital resources. The aim is to show how digital resources can provide ethnographic insights into mediated actions (Scollon, 2002) that can otherwise be difficult to observe or engage in, due to, for instance......, restrictions or privately mediated settings. Having used mediated discourse analysis (Scollon 2002, Scollon & Scollon, 2004) as a framework in two different research projects, we show how the framework, in correlation with digital resources for data gathering, provides new understandings of 1) the daily...

  11. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis....... These models include a model for analyzing evolution of terrorist networks; a text classification model for detecting suspicious text and identification of suspected authors of anonymous emails; and a semantic analysis model for news reports, which may help analyze the illicit activities in certain area...... with location and temporal information. For the network evolution, the hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach has been applied to terrorist networks as case studies. The networks' evolutions show that how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small groups, which...

  12. Quantitative Risk Analysis: Method And Process

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent and past studies (King III report, 2009: 73-75; Stoney 2007;Committee of Sponsoring Organisation-COSO, 2004, Bartell, 2003; Liebenberg and Hoyt, 2003; Reason, 2000; Markowitz 1957 lament that although, the introduction of quantifying risk to enhance degree of objectivity in finance for instance was quite parallel to its development in the manufacturing industry, it is not the same in Higher Education Institution (HEI. In this regard, the objective of the paper was to demonstrate the methods and process of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA through likelihood of occurrence of risk (phase I. This paper serves as first of a two-phased study, which sampled hundred (100 risk analysts in a University in the greater Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The analysis of likelihood of occurrence of risk by logistic regression and percentages were conducted to investigate whether there were a significant difference or not between groups (analyst in respect of QRA.The Hosmer and Lemeshow test was non-significant with a chi-square(X2 =8.181; p = 0.300, which indicated that there was a good model fit, since the data did not significantly deviate from the model. The study concluded that to derive an overall likelihood rating that indicated the probability that a potential risk may be exercised within the construct of an associated threat environment, the following governing factors must be considered: (1 threat source motivation and capability (2 nature of the vulnerability (3 existence and effectiveness of current controls (methods and process.

  13. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis as an active interrogation technique for nuclear materials

    Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGAA) is proposed as an instant, non-destructive method for the analysis of fissile materials and fission products. Measurements by PGAA were made on technetium and uranium compounds, the latter with various enrichments. Measurements were carried out in thermal and cold neutron beams at the Budapest Research Reactor. A beam chopper was used to collect the delayed decay gamma radiation from short lived nuclides separately. Accurate partial gamma ray production cross-sections were determined with internal standardization for a set of prompt and decay gamma rays following neutron capture in 235U, 238U and 99Tc and compared to those from the literature. In the case of 235U fission, prompt gamma lines were also applied.These cross-sections can be used for non-destructive analyses of uranium and technetium and also for the determination of the enrichment of uranium by prompt gamma activation analysis and neutron activation analysis. (author)

  14. Analysis by neutron activation analysis a some ancient Dacian ceramics

    Olariu, A

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Dacian ceramics, from three different establishments from Romanian territory have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. A series of elements has been determined: Ba, Eu, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm. Ba is the element that could be considered to differentiate relatively the three groups of ceramics.

  15. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  16. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  17. Gap analysis: Concepts, methods, and recent results

    Jennings, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid progress is being made in the conceptual, technical, and organizational requirements for generating synoptic multi-scale views of the earth's surface and its biological content. Using the spatially comprehensive data that are now available, researchers, land managers, and land-use planners can, for the first time, quantitatively place landscape units - from general categories such as 'Forests' or 'Cold-Deciduous Shrubland Formation' to more categories such as 'Picea glauca-Abies balsamea-Populus spp. Forest Alliance' - in their large-area contexts. The National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) has developed the technical and organizational capabilities necessary for the regular production and analysis of such information. This paper provides a brief overview of concepts and methods as well as some recent results from the GAP projects. Clearly, new frameworks for biogeographic information and organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The GAP experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  18. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  19. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  20. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  1. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  2. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 86

    Thirty five papers were presented at the conference held in Klucenice, Czechoslovakia from May 4 to 8, 1986. The abstracts of all papers are printed in the proceedings. The conference discussed the following problem areas: the application of activation analysis in determining elements in ores, tectites, fungi, the thyroid, the primary circuit coolant, semiconductor materials; the application of nuclear reaction analysis in determining elements in rubber and coal; the application of tracer techniques in metallurgy; the description of alpha and gamma spectrometric systems and their testing; the use of microcomputers for data processing, and the description of programs. (J.P.)

  3. Combined-cycle power plant. 500 MW on a single shaft. Active stability improvement of the compressor - methods of analysis. Final report; GuD-Kraftwerk, 500 MW auf einer Welle. Aktive Stabilitaetsverbesserung am Verdichter - Analyseverfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Stoff, H.; Methling, F.O.

    2002-07-01

    Various analysis techniques are tested as possible stall and surge avoidance monitoring systems on high-speed axial compressors. Measurements were taken in a 4-stage transonic compressor with igv in the region of stable operation as well as approaching and crossing the surge line with fully developed rotating stall. The measurements contain the static wall pressure in front of each blade row. Artificial neural networks, Fourier techniques and cepstral analysis are investigated. The different methods are checked on a single sensor signal to reduce the instrumentational effort. Using the cepstral analysis a characteristic parameter is calculated which is valid in all investigated regions of operation of the compressor. This characteristic parameter is based on the blade passing frequency, i.e. in the terms of cepstral analysis it is the intensity of the fundamental component as well as the intensities of all its higher harmonics which are covered by the sensor signal. (orig.)

  4. Nondestructive gamma activation analysis of mineral materials

    The basic problems are described related to the use of gamma activation analysis. The applicability was studied of instrumental gamma activation analysis (IGAA) in geology. A number of minerals, rocks, marine sediments and reference materials were studied. For irradiation a betatron and a microtron were used. The results show that IGAA allows the simultaneous determination of a number of trace elements at concentrations of tenths of ppm. The results are given of comparisons made of the analytical possibilities of microtron IGAA and reactor INAA in geology. Tables show the results of the application of IGAA, the main products and parameters of photoexcitation reactions and graphically represented are the gamma spectra of measured materials. (J.B.)

  5. KFUPM fast neutron activation analysis facility

    A newly established Fast Neutron Activation Analysis facility at the Energy Research Laboratory is described. The facility mainly consists of a fast neutron irradiation station and a gamma ray counting station. Both stations are connected by a fast pneumatic sample transfer system which transports the sample from the irradiation station to the counting station in a short time of 3 s. The fast neutron activation analysis facility has been tested by measuring the 27A(n, α)24Na and 115In(n, n')115mIn cross sections at 14.8 and 2.5 MeV neutron energies, respectively. Within the experimental uncertainties, the measured cross sections for these elements agree with the published values. (orig.)

  6. Control of metallic trace elements in the concentrated copper by neutron activation method

    In order to value the activation analysis technique in the copper concentrates analysis, six copper concentrates were quantitatively analysed, whereas others were impossible to determine in consequence of the great radioactivities of the copper or their presence below the detection limit of the method. Among the detected elements Co, U and In are at concentrations which allow their economical recovery. (AF)

  7. Development of prompt gamma activation analysis

    Application of prompt gamma-activation analysis to some environmental samples and NBS's standard reference materials were examined, using NBS reactor and the technique developed by the nuclear chemistry group of the University of Maryland. Concentration of several elements, Cd, B, S, Se, Sb, Zn, Ba, Cr, Cs, Co, Si, Hf, Ce, Yb, Lu, Th, Sc, Eu, Fe, Ta and Rb, were determined by both PGAA and INAA. (author)

  8. Elaboration of procedure for analysis of industrial and economic activities: the experience of LUKoil petroleum company

    The research and engineering centre within LUKoil company for economic studies has elaborated a method permitting analysis of production and economic activities of the LUKOIL petroleum production complex. The method envisages the following trends of analysis: general assessment of production and economic activities, analysis of basic production assets, manpower and wages use, net cost of marketable products, the state of finances, as well as specific features in analyzing the activities undertaken by joint ventures

  9. Missing data treatment method on cluster analysis

    Elsiddig Elsadig Mohamed Koko; Amin Ibrahim Adam Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The missing data in household health survey was challenged for the researcher because of incomplete analysis. The statistical tool cluster analysis methodology implemented in the collected data of Sudan's household health survey in 2006. Current research specifically focuses on the data analysis as the objective is to deal with the missing values in cluster analysis. Two-Step Cluster Analysis is applied in which each participant is classified into one of the identified pattern and the opt...

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  11. Comprehensive cosmographic analysis by Markov chain method

    We study the possibility of extracting model independent information about the dynamics of the Universe by using cosmography. We intend to explore it systematically, to learn about its limitations and its real possibilities. Here we are sticking to the series expansion approach on which cosmography is based. We apply it to different data sets: Supernovae type Ia (SNeIa), Hubble parameter extracted from differential galaxy ages, gamma ray bursts, and the baryon acoustic oscillations data. We go beyond past results in the literature extending the series expansion up to the fourth order in the scale factor, which implies the analysis of the deceleration q0, the jerk j0, and the snap s0. We use the Markov chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC) to analyze the data statistically. We also try to relate direct results from cosmography to dark energy (DE) dynamical models parametrized by the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder model, extracting clues about the matter content and the dark energy parameters. The main results are: (a) even if relying on a mathematical approximate assumption such as the scale factor series expansion in terms of time, cosmography can be extremely useful in assessing dynamical properties of the Universe; (b) the deceleration parameter clearly confirms the present acceleration phase; (c) the MCMC method can help giving narrower constraints in parameter estimation, in particular for higher order cosmographic parameters (the jerk and the snap), with respect to the literature; and (d) both the estimation of the jerk and the DE parameters reflect the possibility of a deviation from the ΛCDM cosmological model.

  12. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  13. Multielemental analysis of soils by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    The results of an instrumental neutron activation analysis of some elemental concentrations in different soil samples near the industrial areas at Tirupati, India, are reported. Altogether 14 elements, Sm, La, Cr, Co, Zn, Cs, Ce, Th, Rb, Na, K, Sr, Fe and Eu were determined. The samples were irradiated with neutrons at the 100 kW Triga - Mainz research reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in connection with a multichannel analyzer. The results are discussed. (author)

  14. Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases

    Watson, J.C.

    1978-07-01

    The sampling procedures for geothermal fluids and gases include: sampling hot springs, fumaroles, etc.; sampling condensed brine and entrained gases; sampling steam-lines; low pressure separator systems; high pressure separator systems; two-phase sampling; downhole samplers; and miscellaneous methods. The recommended analytical methods compiled here cover physical properties, dissolved solids, and dissolved and entrained gases. The sequences of methods listed for each parameter are: wet chemical, gravimetric, colorimetric, electrode, atomic absorption, flame emission, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, spark source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and emission spectrometry. Material on correction of brine component concentrations for steam loss during flashing is presented. (MHR)

  15. Methods of computational topology for Solar Activity forecasting (Extended abstract)

    Knyazeva, Irina; Makarenko, Nikolay; Malkova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Solar activity is a space-time complex of events which produced by the Sun magnetic fields. One of the results of this activity is a huge plasma ejection which called solar flares. The solar flares occurs mainly in the areas with an especially strong magnetic fields called Active Regions (AR). Observation phenomenology indicates that significant change in the magnetic field topology precede the strong flares. We investigated changes in topology by the methods of computational topology. For th...

  16. Interaction patterns of brain activity across space, time and frequency. Part I: methods

    Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D

    2011-01-01

    We consider exploratory methods for the discovery of cortical functional connectivity. Typically, data for the i-th subject (i=1...NS) is represented as an NVxNT matrix Xi, corresponding to brain activity sampled at NT moments in time from NV cortical voxels. A widely used method of analysis first concatenates all subjects along the temporal dimension, and then performs an independent component analysis (ICA) for estimating the common cortical patterns of functional connectivity. There exist many other interesting variations of this technique, as reviewed in [Calhoun et al. 2009 Neuroimage 45: S163-172]. We present methods for the more general problem of discovering functional connectivity occurring at all possible time lags. For this purpose, brain activity is viewed as a function of space and time, which allows the use of the relatively new techniques of functional data analysis [Ramsay & Silverman 2005: Functional data analysis. New York: Springer]. In essence, our method first vectorizes the data from...

  17. Rapid radiochemical separations in neutron activation analysis

    Rapid radiochemical separation procedures based on the removal of metal ions by columns of C18-bonded silica gel after selective complexation are examined and the simplicity of the method demonstrated by its application to the determination of Mn, Cu and Zn in neutron-activated biological material. The method is rapid and reliable and readily adaptable in all radiochemical laboratories. An alternative separation procedure for selenium in blood plasma involving desalination and concentration of the selenium protein complex by gel filtration or ultrafiltration is briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k(o) neutron activation analysis

    Acharya; Mondal; Burte; Nair; Reddy; Reddy; Reddy; Manohar

    2000-12-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k0 method (k0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method. PMID:11077961

  19. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  20. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises the tempora...

  1. Nonlinear Factor Analysis as a Statistical Method

    Yalcin, Ilker; Amemiya, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    Factor analysis and its extensions are widely used in the social and behavioral sciences, and can be considered useful tools for exploration and model fitting in multivariate analysis. Despite its popularity in applications, factor analysis has attracted rather limited attention from statisticians. Three issues, identification ambiguity, heavy reliance on normality, and limitation to linearity, may have contributed to statisticians' lack of interest in factor analysis. In th...

  2. Critical Security Methods : New Frameworks for Analysis

    Voelkner, Nadine; Huysmans, Jef; Claudia, Aradau; Neal, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Critical Security Methods offers a new approach to research methods in critical security studies. It argues that methods are not simply tools to bridge the gap between security theory and security practice. Rather, to practise methods critically means engaging in a more free and experimental interpl

  3. Active optics experiments. II - Measurement of mirror deformation by holographic method

    Itoh, Noboru; Mikami, Izumi; Miyawaki, Keizou; Sasaki, Aki; Tabata, Masao

    An active optics experiment was performed to study the feasibility of using an active correction system for the Japanese National Large Telescope (Wilson, 1986). A thin mirror was deformed with an active support mechanism and the mirror surface was measured by a holographic method. The experiment is performed for several cases of excess force distributions assigned at the supporting points. The results show good agreement with predictions from FEM analysis.

  4. Determination of the sanguine iodine content by activation analysis (1962)

    Two methods of measuring the iodine content of the blood by activation analysis after 30 min irradiation in a flux of 6.1012 n/cm2.s are described. One method includes a chemical separation of iodine before irradiation. The radioactivity of this specimen is determined on the basis of the amplitude of the iodine 128 photoelectric peak measured by γ-spectrometry. The sensitivity of this method is about 10-8 g. The other includes chemical separation after irradiation, and radioactivity is subsequently measured with a Geiger-Muller counter. The sensitivity of this second method is about 10-10 g, sufficient for determination of the plasmatic mineral content. The advantages of activation analysis over the conventional method based on colorimetric measurement of the catalytic action of iodine in the oxidation of arsenious anhydride with ceric sulphate are discussed. Initial results obtained with this new form of analysis are detailed as are also the possibilities of measuring plasmatic proteic iodine by scintillation spectrometry without prior chemical separation. (authors)

  5. Limits of detection in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Lower limits of detection (LLODs), frequently referred to simply as limits of detection and abbreviated as LODs, often appear in the literature of analytical chemistry - for numerous different methods of elemental and/or molecular analysis. In this chapter, one particular method of quantitative elemental analysis, that of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), is the subject discussed, with reference to LODs. Particularly in the literature of neutron activation analysis (NAA), many tables of 'interference-free' NAA LODs are available. Not all of these are of much use, because (1) for many the definition used for LOD is not clear, or reasonable, (2) for many, the analysis conditions used are not clearly specified, and (3) for many, the analysis conditions used are specified, but not very practicable for most laboratories. For NAA work, such tables of interference-free LODs are, in any case, only applicable to samples in which, at the time of counting, only one radionuclide is present to any significant extent in the activated sample. It is important to note that tables of INAA LODs, per se, do not exist - since the LOD for a given element, under stated analysis conditions, can vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. For any given element, its INAA LOD will always be as large as, and usually much larger than, its tabulated 'interference-free' NAA LOD - how much larger depending upon the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. As discussed in this chapter, however, an INAA computer program exists that can calculate realistic INAA LODs for any elements of interest, in any kind of specified sample matrix, under any given set of analysis conditions

  6. K-method of cognitive mapping analysis

    Snarskii, A. A.; Zorinets, D. I.; Lande, D. V.; Levchenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a new calculation method (K-method) for cognitive maps. K - method consists of two consecutive steps. In the first stage, allocated subgraph composed of all paths from one selected node (concept) to another node (concept) from the cognitive map (directed weighted graph) . In the second stage, after the transition to an undirected graph (symmetrization adjacency matrix) the influence of one node to another calculated with Kirchhoff method. In the proposed method, there is no problem...

  7. Advanced Software Methods for Physics Analysis

    Unprecedented data analysis complexity is experienced in modern High Energy Physics experiments. The complexity arises from the growing size of recorded data samples, the large number of data analyses performed by different users in each single experiment, and the level of complexity of each single analysis. For this reason, the requirements on software for data analysis impose a very high level of reliability. We present two concrete examples: the former from BaBar experience with the migration to a new Analysis Model with the definition of a new model for the Event Data Store, the latter about a toolkit for multivariate statistical and parametric Monte Carlo analysis developed using generic programming

  8. Development and validation of I-activation analysis code

    I-Activation Analysis Code (IAAC) is a nuclear depletion code which solves coupled Bateman equations for radioactive-transmutation and growth-decay system for large numbers of isotopes to get time evolution of decay products and nuclear activity. It is currently being developed primarily for neutron activation and radiation waste analysis, as a part of the code development activities. The code functions by separating long and short-lived isotopes and then uses the well-known matrix exponential method to quickly solve a large system of coupled, linear, first-order ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients for long-lived isotopes. This method allows a faster treatment of complex decay and transmutation schemes. The short-lived isotopes are solved using approximated decay-chain method. FENDL 3.0 neutron activation files are used for data library. Separate set of code modules are designed to read, decode, convert and condense the continuous-energy ACE formatted data into 175 VITAMIN-J energy groups. The new compiled library that includes half-lives and neutron absorption cross sections is then used as input source for nuclear data. The code is readily suitable for calculations pertaining to nuclear transmutation, activation and decay studies in mainly fusion applications and activation analyses. Details of the code and its primary validation performed for various test cases and material compositions, largely related to current ITER project specific neutronic and radiation analyses will be presented. The nuclear activity calculations are validated against FISPACT, available under EASY code system. (author)

  9. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  10. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  11. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  12. Neutron activation analysis of copper, zinc and manganese in plants

    A fast method for simultaneous quantitative determination of microscopic quantities of copper, zinc and manganese in plant tissue through neutron activation analysis is suggested. The measurements are carried out after removal of the 24Na and 42K interference. Optimum conditions for detention of the microscopic quantities of Cu, Zn and Mn by the chelating resin Chelex-100 using the batch procedure are determined. (author)

  13. Current status of uncertainty analysis methods for computer models

    This report surveys several existing uncertainty analysis methods for estimating computer output uncertainty caused by input uncertainties, illustrating application examples of those methods to three computer models, MARCH/CORRAL II, TERFOC and SPARC. Merits and limitations of the methods are assessed in the application, and recommendation for selecting uncertainty analysis methods is provided. (author)

  14. Microfluidic systems and methods for transport and lysis of cells and analysis of cell lysate

    Culbertson, Christopher T [Oak Ridge, TN; Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN; McClain, Maxine A [Knoxville, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-02

    Microfluidic systems and methods are disclosed which are adapted to transport and lyse cellular components of a test sample for analysis. The disclosed microfluidic systems and methods, which employ an electric field to rupture the cell membrane, cause unusually rapid lysis, thereby minimizing continued cellular activity and resulting in greater accuracy of analysis of cell processes.

  15. Development of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures

    KAERI's contributions to the project entitled Development of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures under IAEA CRP of the intercomparison of analysis methods for predicting the behaviour of seismically isolated nuclear structures during 1996-1999 in effort to develop the numerical analysis methods and to compare the analysis results with the benchmark test results of seismic isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures provided by participating countries are briefly described. Certain progress in the analysis procedures for isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures has been made throughout the IAEA CRPs and the analysis methods developed can be improved for future nuclear facility applications. (author)

  16. System and method for collisional activation of charged particles

    Ibrahim, Yehia M; Belov, Mikhail E; Prior, David C

    2013-09-24

    A collision cell is disclosed that provides ion activation in various selective modes. Ion activation is performed inside selected segments of a segmented quadrupole that provides maximum optimum capture and collection of fragmentation products. The invention provides collisional cooling of precursor ions as well as product fragments and further allows effective transmission of ions through a high pressure interface into a coupled mass analysis instrument.

  17. Toxicological applications of neutron-activation analysis

    Thermal neutron-activation analysis is recognised as a useful tool for trace element studies in toxicology. This paper describes some recent applications of the technique to three elements when ingested by people in excess of normal intake Two of the elements (copper and chromium) are essential to life and one (bromine) is as yet unclassified. Three deaths were investiagted and trace element levels compared with normal levels from healthy subjects in the same geographical area who had died as a result of violence. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Methods for analysis of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids

    Methods for analysis of 10 selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics in biological fluids are reviewed. Approaches for sample preparation, detection methods, limits of detection and quantitation and recovery information are provided for both single analyte and multi-analyte fluoroquinolone methods....

  20. Applied analysis mathematical methods in natural science

    Senba, Takasi

    2004-01-01

    This book provides a general introduction to applied analysis; vectoranalysis with physical motivation, calculus of variation, Fourieranalysis, eigenfunction expansion, distribution, and so forth,including a catalogue of mathematical theories, such as basicanalysis, topological spaces, complex function theory, real analysis,and abstract analysis. This book also gives fundamental ideas ofapplied mathematics to discuss recent developments in nonlinearscience, such as mathematical modeling of reinforced random motion ofparticles, semi-conductor device equation in applied physics, andchemotaxis in